Science.gov

Sample records for cane sugar processing

  1. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian...

  2. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the...

  3. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the...

  4. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the...

  5. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the...

  6. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the...

  7. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the...

  8. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the...

  9. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the...

  10. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian...

  11. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the...

  12. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian...

  13. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian...

  14. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the...

  15. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian...

  16. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  17. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the...

  18. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the...

  19. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the...

  20. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the...

  1. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  2. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A.; Donate, P.M.

    1999-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

  3. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 9: Catalytic liquefaction in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Rezemini, A.L.; Donate, P.M.

    1999-05-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, using ethanol as solvent. A systematic study with 12 different types of commercially available catalysts was accomplished. For each catalyst, the conversion yield of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products, which are useful as liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, was determined. The highest conversion yield was observed when a nickel catalyst on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used. The liquefied products were fractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and asphaltols. The oil samples were separated and then fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography. The highest proportion of light-oils (F1 to F5) was obtained with the potassium fluoride catalyst on silica gel. High proportions of resins (F6) were obtained with three types of catalysts: nickel on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ruthenium, or platinum on activated carbon powder. The highest proportion of asphaltenes (F7) and of asphaltols (F8) were obtained with the niobium oxide catalyst.

  4. Polyphenolic reductants in cane sugar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited information is available to understand the chemical structure of cane sugar extracts responsible for the redox reactivity. This study employed Fremy’s salt to test the hypothesis that hydroquinone/catechol-semiquinone-quinone redox cycle is responsible for the antioxidant activity of sugarc...

  5. Decomposition of lignin from sugar cane bagasse during ozonation process monitored by optical and mass spectrometries.

    PubMed

    Souza-Corrêa, J A; Ridenti, M A; Oliveira, C; Araújo, S R; Amorim, J

    2013-03-21

    Mass spectrometry was used to monitor neutral chemical species from sugar cane bagasse that could volatilize during the bagasse ozonation process. Lignin fragments and some radicals liberated by direct ozone reaction with the biomass structure were detected. Ozone density was monitored during the ozonation by optical absorption spectroscopy. The optical results indicated that the ozone interaction with the bagasse material was better for bagasse particle sizes less than or equal to 0.5 mm. Both techniques have shown that the best condition for the ozone diffusion in the bagasse was at 50% of its moisture content. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to analyze the lignin bond disruptions and morphology changes of the bagasse surface that occurred due to the ozonolysis reactions as well. Appropriate chemical characterization of the lignin content in bagasse before and after its ozonation was also carried out.

  6. HDP for the Neutralized pH Value Control in the Clarifying Process of Sugar Cane Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jiaran

    2009-05-01

    Neutralizing pH value of sugar cane juice is the important craft in the control process in the clarifying process of sugar cane juice, which is the important factor to influence output and the quality of white sugar. On the one hand, it is an important content to control the neutralized pH value within a required range, which has the vital significance for acquiring high quality purified juice, reducing energy consumption and raising sucrose recovery. On the other hand, it is a complicated physical-chemistry process, which has the characteristics of strong non-linearity, time-varying, large time-delay, and multi-input. Therefore, there has not been a very good solution to control the neutralized pH value. Firstly, in this chapter, a neural network model for the clarifying process of sugar juice is established based on gathering 1200 groups of real-time sample data in a sugar factory. Then, the HDP (Heuristic Dynamic Programming) method is used to optimize and control the neutralized pH value in the clarifying process of sugar juice. Simulation results indicate that this method has good control effect. This will build a good foundation for stabilizing the clarifying process and enhancing the quality of the purified juice and lastly enhancing the quality of white sugar.

  7. Sugar Cane Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  8. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  9. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar...

  10. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining...

  11. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar...

  12. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining...

  13. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining...

  14. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar...

  15. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  16. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  17. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  18. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    PubMed

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing.

  19. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  20. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process.

    PubMed

    Macrelli, Stefano; Mogensen, Johan; Zacchi, Guido

    2012-04-13

    Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the sale of excess electricity and

  1. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  2. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  3. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  4. Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1981-11-01

    The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

  5. A PHILIPPINE SUGAR CANE DISTRICT: SPATIAL PHENOMENA AFFECTING SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION ON THE HACIENDAS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The study primarily involves the analysis of physical and cultural factors affecting sugar cane yield although it will also further an understanding...of the spatial organization of sugar cane production. The study is based on the Victorias Milling District, which covers approximately 37,000...hectares in northern Negros Occidental Province in the central Philippines. A simple model was used to describe the area’s spatial organization of sugar

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  16. New process for fungal delignification of sugar-cane bagasse and simultaneous production of laccase in a vapor phase bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Meza, Juan Carlos; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Lomascolo, Anne; Navarro, David; Auria, Richard

    2006-05-31

    We propose a new process using a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) to simultaneously (i) delignify sugar-cane bagasse, a residue of sugar production that can be recycled in paper industry, and (ii) produce laccase, an enzyme usable to bleach paper pulp. Ethanol vapor, used as laccase inducer, was blown up through a VPB packed with bagasse and inoculated with Pycnoporus cinnabarinusss3, a laccase-hyperproducing fungal strain. After 28 days, the laccase activity in the ethanol-treated bagasse was 80-fold higher (80 U g(ds)(-)(1)) and the bagasse delignification percentage was 12-fold (12%) higher than in the reference samples produced in the absence of ethanol, corresponding to a high overall pulp yield of 96.1%. In the presence of ethanol, the total soluble phenols amount was 2.5-fold (3 mg FA g(ds)(-)(1)) higher than that without ethanol. Six monomeric phenols were detected: p-coumaric (4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic), ferulic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-2-propenoic), syringic (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic), vanillic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, and 2-methoxyhydroquinone. Higher concentrations of phenolic compounds were observed when ethanol vapor was added, confirming a more efficient bagasse delignification. After 28 days, the fungal-treated bagasse (with ethanol addition) was pulped and refined. For a freeness of 81 mL CSF, this processing required 50% less energy than with untreated bagasse (without inoculation and ethanol addition), which indicated a significant potential economy for the pulp and paper industry. Handsheets were made from pulp obtained after fungal-treated and untreated bagasse. Comparison of bagasse-pulp characteristics for freeness of 35 and 181 mL CSF showed an average increment by 35% for tensile index and breaking strength and length. VPB allowed a simultaneous production of laccase (90 U g(ds)(-)(1), after pressing of the bagasse) that improved the overall profitability of the process.

  17. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  18. By-products of the cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paturav, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

  19. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  20. Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

  1. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  2. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    PubMed

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage.

  3. Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water.

  4. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S...

  5. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  6. Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

  7. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes.

  8. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They are...

  9. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane...

  10. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane...

  11. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane...

  12. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane...

  13. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane...

  14. Plant for getting more sugar out of a cane crop

    SciTech Connect

    Perdomo, R.E.; Despradel, J.O.; Arceneaux, G.

    1982-04-01

    A crop of sugar cane consists of several important varieties, each with different qualities affecting vegetative growth and maturity. A study recently conducted at Central Romana in the Dominican Republic has revealed differences between yield curves of sugar cane varieties in local culture and a method has been developed for a practical application of results. This paper briefly summarizes the essential findings and outlines its practical applications.

  15. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...' Marketing: Amalgamated Sugar Co 1,074,683 -17,362 14,327 1,071,647 American Crystal Sugar Co 1,850,519 -51... Cane Sugar 4,215,892 -200,000 -500,000 3,515,892 Cane Processors' Marketing Florida: Florida Crystals...' Marketing Allocations: Amalgamated Sugar Co 1,074,683 American Crystal Sugar Co 1,845,383 ] Michigan Sugar...

  16. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas…

  17. Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

  18. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar under...

  19. Cane-sugar feeding in Culex pipiens fatigans.

    PubMed

    de Meillon, B; Sebastian, A; Khan, Z H

    1967-01-01

    The relatively poor results that have been obtained in controlling or eradicating Culex pipiens fatigans, the urban vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, have made it necessary to obtain as much information as possible about its biology. In this paper the unexpected finding of the influence of cane sugar in delaying oviposition in the gravid female is reported. This is an important finding for those who are investigating the biology of this mosquito in the laboratory and who make use of the age-old practice of keeping adult mosquitos alive by feeding them cane sugar. It is also reported that under certain conditions extensive cane-sugar feeding takes place in nature and it seems possible that this habit may have unsuspected repercussions on behaviour and physiology beyond the confines of the laboratory. One possible development would be the isolation of the attractant present in unrefined sugars and its use in traps in order to assess mosquito populations in the field.

  20. Sugar-cane newsprint comes to market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-09

    Process Evaluation and Development Corp. (Peadco of Mexico City) are making commercially available a process that will for the first time produce fine-grade newsprint from bagasse with the required tear-strength and opaqueness. Various countries are showing an interest in the process, which produces newsprint 20% more cheaply than wood-pulp newsprint. In addition, sugar producers receive as much as $1.50 per ton more than the fuel-oil value of bagasse.

  1. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  2. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  3. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  4. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  5. Aspects of occupational health in the sugar cane industry.

    PubMed

    Phoolchund, H N

    1991-01-01

    Workers in developing countries face as many, if not more, work-related health problems as their counterparts in industrialized nations. This paper concentrates on occupational health problems in the sugar industry, which exists in 40 countries, mostly in the Third World. Sugar cane workers have a high level of occupational accidents and are exposed to the high toxicity of pesticides. They may also have an increased risk of lung cancer, possibly mesothelioma. This may be related to the practice of burning foliage at the time of cane-cutting. Bagassosis is also a problem specific to the industry as it may follow exposure to bagasse (a by-product of sugar cane). The workers may also be affected by chronic infections which reduce their productivity. The legal framework for their protection is often inadequate. In conclusion, areas of future research are suggested.

  6. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER...

  7. Cane production for sugar and electric power in Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The principal conclusion of the report is that the Jamaican sugar industry can be made profitable. Although sugar has been grown in Jamaica for centuries, a combination of circumstances, including declining world sugar prices and a severe shortage of foreign exchange, have undermined the economic viability of the government-owned sugar estates. As a result, they have become a burden to the economy. With proper management, cane can become a highly attractive source of fuel for the generation of electricity while at the same time producing sugar and molasses.

  8. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  9. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS, the United States maintains a...

  10. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M.

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  12. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  13. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  14. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  15. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  16. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  17. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  19. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  20. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  1. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

    2014-10-13

    The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 μm), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties.

  2. The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters

    PubMed Central

    Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; de Moraes, Maria Silvia; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. METHODS We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stress for Adults). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The Fisher Test was used to compare the variable of stress between pre- and post-harvest within the sugar cane cutter and urban worker groups. P values below 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Stress in sugar cane cutters increased after harvesting (34.2% pre-harvest and 46.1% post-harvest); in urban workers, stress decreased from 44.0% pre-harvest to 42.0% post-harvest. There was prevalence of the phase of resistance to stress for both groups with signs more apparent from the near-exhaustion and exhaustion phases for sugar cane cutters. After harvest, there was a tendency for the number of sugar cane cutters with symptoms of near-exhaustion (6.4%) and exhaustion (10.6%) to increase. After harvest there was a trend for the number of sugar cane cutters with physical symptoms (pre-harvest = 20.5%, post-harvest = 25.5%) and psychological symptoms (pre-harvest = 64.1%; post-harvest = 70.2%) to increase. For both groups, predominantly psychological symptoms occurred in both phases (70.2% versus 64.7%). CONCLUSIONS The work process of cutting cane can cause stress. Individual factors such as cognitive perception of the experience, self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of the employee regarding their performance can influence the understanding of the reactions in their body in face of the work. PMID:24897043

  3. The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters.

    PubMed

    Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; Moraes, Maria Silvia de; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

    2014-04-01

    Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stress for Adults). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The Fisher Test was used to compare the variable of stress between pre- and post-harvest within the sugar cane cutter and urban worker groups. P values below 0.05 were considered significant. Stress in sugar cane cutters increased after harvesting (34.2% pre-harvest and 46.1% post-harvest); in urban workers, stress decreased from 44.0% pre-harvest to 42.0% post-harvest. There was prevalence of the phase of resistance to stress for both groups with signs more apparent from the near-exhaustion and exhaustion phases for sugar cane cutters. After harvest, there was a tendency for the number of sugar cane cutters with symptoms of near-exhaustion (6.4%) and exhaustion (10.6%) to increase. After harvest there was a trend for the number of sugar cane cutters with physical symptoms (pre-harvest = 20.5%, post-harvest = 25.5%) and psychological symptoms (pre-harvest = 64.1%; post-harvest = 70.2%) to increase. For both groups, predominantly psychological symptoms occurred in both phases (70.2% versus 64.7%). The work process of cutting cane can cause stress. Individual factors such as cognitive perception of the experience, self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of the employee regarding their performance can influence the understanding of the reactions in their body in face of the work.

  4. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of β-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of β-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse.

  5. Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

    2004-03-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

  6. Economical impact of the BIG/CC technology use on the sugar cane industry

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, L.C. de; Nascimento, M.J.M. do

    1993-12-31

    The use of biomass as primary fuel for power and steam production using modern conversion technology such as the Biomass Integrated Gas Turbine/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) has both technical and commercial potential. Brazil is implementing a BIG/CC Demonstration Plant to burn wood from eucalyptus short rotation forest and to test sugar cane bagasse as feedstock. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of using biomass as a feedstock for power generation, its suitability for applications in developing countries, and the possibilities it offers for commercial activities in regions which currently have a low level of economic activities. The purpose of this paper is to show the potential applicability of this technology in the sugar cane industries of Developing Countries such as Brazil. The same quantity of sugar cane already processed in each sugar mill can produce sizable quantities of electric power at competitive costs, in addition to the traditional products -- sugar and/or ethanol, which will cause an economical impact, duplicating the revenue of these industries. The application of the BIG/CC technology in the Sugar Cane Industry may lead to the following scenario in developing countries: (1) power shall be produced at very competitive prices by specialized private firms associated with sugar mills; (2) plant sizes will be smaller -- 15 to 100 MW -- when based on biomass, a compared to large fossil fuel plants now prevailing; (3) ethanol and sugar production costs will be reduced due to more efficient and economical processes and due to the additional revenue from power production; (4) becoming more competitive with gasoline, ethanol production tends to increase, which will influence the automobile industry and improve the quality of life in big cities.

  7. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  8. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  9. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the beverage mix made with beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P < 0.001); however, no difference in the liking was identified for the beverage mix or beverage. Average hedonic scores were higher under informed condition compared to blind condition for all products, possibly because labels tend to reduce uncertainty about a product. Results from this study are representative of the responses from the general population and suggest that they are not affected by sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  11. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, H. B.; Sculaccio, S. A.; Thiemann, O. H.; Oliva, G.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 2.7.6.1) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed.

  12. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to Additional...

  13. Manufacture of fermentable sugar solutions from sugar cane bagasse hydrolyzed with phosphoric acid at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Sara; Ramírez, José A; Garrote, Gil; Vázquez, Manuel

    2004-06-30

    Sugar cane bagasse, a renewable and cheap bioresource, was hydrolyzed at 100 degrees C using phosphoric acid at different concentrations (2, 4, or 6%) and reaction times (0-300 min) to obtain fermentable sugar solutions, which have a high concentration of sugars (carbon source for microorganism growth) and a low concentration of growth inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural). Xylose, glucose, arabinose, acetic acid, and furfural were determined following the hydrolysis. Kinetic parameters of mathematical models for predicting these compounds in the hydrolysates were obtained. Derived parameters such as efficiency of hydrolysis or purity of hydrolysates were considered to select as optimal conditions 6% phosphoric acid at 100 degrees C for 300 min. Using these conditions, 21.4 g of sugars L(-)(1) and <4 g of inhibitors L(-)(1) were obtained from the hydrolysis with a water/solid ratio of 8 g of water g(-)(1) of sugar cane bagasse on a dry basis.

  14. Combustion of thermochemically torrefied sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the upgrading of sugar bagasse by thermochemical and dry torrefaction methods and their corresponding combustion behavior relative to raw bagasse. The combustion reactivities were examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochemical torrefaction was carried out by chemical pre-treatment of bagasse with acid followed by heating at 160-300°C in nitrogen environment, while dry torrefaction followed the same heating treatment without the chemical pretreatment. The results showed thermochemical torrefaction generated chars with combustion properties that are closer to various ranks of coal, thus making it more suitable for co-firing applications. Thermochemical torrefaction also induced greater densification of bagasse with a 335% rise in bulk density to 340kg/m(3), increased HHVmass and HHVvolume, greater charring and aromatization and storage stability. These features demonstrate the potential of thermochemical torrefaction in addressing the practical challenges in using biomass such as bagasse as fuel.

  15. Contamination of commercial cane sugars by some organic acids and some inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Maciej; Antczak, Aneta; Lisik, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper was the identification and the quantitative evaluation of the following inorganic anions: chloride, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate and the following organic acids: lactic, acetic, formic, malic and citric in commercial "unrefined" brown cane sugars and in cane raw sugars. The determination was carried out by high performance anion exchange chromatography with conductivity detector HPAEC-CD. The conducted analyses have shown that the content of some inorganic anions and organic acids in cane sugars may be an important criterion of the quality of commercial "unrefined" brown cane sugars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  17. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  18. Natural occurrence of Aspergillus fumigatus in cane sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R S; Khan, Z U; Randhawa, H S

    1977-11-01

    The environmental distribution of Aspergillus fumigatus in 2 cane-sugar mills and one paper factory in northern India is compared with 2 localities in Delhi. The preponderance of the species at the U.D. Sugar Mills, Shamli, was contrary to its low prevalence in the University of Delhi campus and at Subzimandi, the vegetable and fruit market of Delhi. Aspergillus fumigatus accounted for 42.5% of the total aerial fungal colony counts recorded in the Shamli Mills as against 2% in Delhi. The predominant aerial fungus at Subzimandi was A. niger whereas aspergilli were overshelmingly outnumbered by other fungi in the University of Delhi campus. Within the Shamli Mills, the bagasse-containing sites had a significantly higher aerial prevalence (50.3%) of A. fumigatus than the bagasse-free sites (13.5%). Furthermore, A. fumigatus was more prevalent in the operational (57.2%) than in the non-operational period (23.8%) of the mills. The high frequency of isolations of A. fumigatus from and its dense population in sugar-cane bagasse seemed to suggest a special association of the fungus with this substrate.

  19. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  20. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on fresh weight and sugar yield of sugar cane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed-piece shoots of four cultivars of sugar cane were transplanted on March 21, 1977 to containers 1.2 m long X 0.6 m wide X 0.6 m deep) in four temperature zones of two temperature-gradient greenhouses at Gainesville, Florida. Each temperature zone had 8 containers. Four containers of each zone ...

  1. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  2. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  3. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P.; Deschamps, F.C.

    1995-12-31

    Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

  4. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  5. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  6. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Vitolo, M.

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  7. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  8. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  9. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... the United States (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar...

  10. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle.

  11. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates. PMID:23227051

  12. Chemometric characterization of alembic and industrial sugar cane spirits from cape verde and ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Regina F R; Vidal, Carla B; de Lima, Ari C A; Melo, Diego Q; Dantas, Allan N S; Lopes, Gisele S; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Gomes, Clerton L; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

  13. Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

  14. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ≈ 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How combine harvesting of green cane billets with different levels of trash affects production and processing. Part II: Pilot plant processing to sugar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New refineries in Louisiana, USA are requesting Louisiana sugarcane factories to deliver very high pol/very low color (VHP/VLC) raw sugar with low ash concentrations. This higher quality raw sugar will allow both growers and factory processors to share economic premiums from the new refineries. A ...

  16. Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

    2010-09-01

    The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials.

  17. Direct determination of sugar cane quality parameters by X-ray spectrometry and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Melquiades, F L; Bortoleto, G G; Marchiori, L F S; Bueno, M I M S

    2012-10-31

    Current methods for quality control of sugar cane are performed in extracted juice using several methodologies, often requiring appreciable time and chemicals (eventually toxic), making the methods not green and expensive. The present study proposes the use of X-ray spectrometry together with chemometric methods as an innovative and alternative technique for determining sugar cane quality parameters, specifically sucrose concentration, POL, and fiber content. Measurements in stem, leaf, and juice were performed, and those applied directly in stem provided the best results. Prediction models for sugar cane stem determinations with a single 60 s irradiation using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment allows estimating the % sucrose, % fiber, and POL simultaneously. Average relative deviations in the prediction step of around 8% are acceptable if considering that field measurements were done. These results may indicate the best period to cut a particular crop as well as for evaluating the quality of sugar cane for the sugar and alcohol industries.

  18. Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

    2000-05-01

    Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

  19. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  20. Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.

    PubMed

    Doherty, William O S

    2011-03-09

    It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content.

  1. Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Sánchez-Raya, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna

    2008-08-01

    A bacterial strain designated GR21T was isolated from apoplastic fluid of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate forms a separate branch within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', with Paenibacillus as the closest related genus. Within this genus, the closest related species is Paenibacillus xylanilyticus, with 93.4 % similarity to the sequence of the type strain. The isolate has Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped cells, motile by polar and subpolar flagella. Round, non-ornamented, central or subterminal spores are formed in unswollen sporangia. The strain is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative on nutrient agar medium. Cellulose and aesculin were hydrolysed, whereas xylan, starch and gelatin were not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates as carbon sources. Strain GR21T displayed a lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phosphoglycolipid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15: 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, including assimilation of carbon sources and exoenzyme production commonly used for classification within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', showed that strain GR21T belongs to a new genus within this family, for which the name Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Saccharibacillus sacchari is GR21T (=LMG 24085T =DSM 19268T).

  2. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  3. Calcium phosphate flocs and the clarification of sugar cane juice from whole of crop harvesting.

    PubMed

    Thai, Caroline C D; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    Sugar cane biomass is one of the most viable feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Therefore, processing the whole of crop (WC) (i.e., stalk and trash, instead of stalk only) will increase the amount of available biomass for this purpose. However, effective clarification of juice expressed from WC for raw sugar manufacture is a major challenge because of the amounts and types of non-sucrose impurities (e.g., polysaccharides, inorganics, proteins, etc.) present. Calcium phosphate flocs are important during sugar cane juice clarification because they are responsible for the removal of impurities. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the role of calcium phosphate flocs during the juice clarification process, the effects of impurities on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate flocs were examined using small-angle laser light scattering technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Results on synthetic sugar juice solutions showed that the presence of SiO2 and Na(+) ions affected floc size and floc structure. Starch and phosphate ions did not affect the floc structure; however, the former reduced the floc size, whereas the latter increased the floc size. The study revealed that high levels of Na(+) ions would negatively affect the clarification process the most, as they would reduce the amount of suspended particles trapped by the flocs. A complementary study on prepared WC juice using cold and cold/intermediate liming techniques was conducted. The study demonstrated that, in comparison to the one-stage (i.e., conventional) clarification process, a two-stage clarification process using cold liming removed more polysaccharides (≤19%), proteins (≤82%), phosphorus (≤53%), and SiO2 (≤23%) in WC juice but increased Ca(2+) (≤136%) and sulfur (≤200%).

  4. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of... imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3...

  5. Hydrolysis of ammonia-pretreated sugar cane bagasse with cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and hemicellulase preparations.

    PubMed

    Prior, Bernard A; Day, Donal F

    2008-03-01

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH(3): 1 biomass, 100 degrees C, 30 min) or with NH(4)OH (0.5 g NH(4)OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 degrees C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and beta-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  6. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, β-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, β-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and β-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  7. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    SciTech Connect

    Martirena, Fernando . E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

  8. Physicochemical and sensory (aroma and colour) characterisation of a non-centrifugal cane sugar ("panela") beverage.

    PubMed

    García, Juliana María; Narváez, Paulo César; Heredia, Francisco José; Orjuela, Álvaro; Osorio, Coralia

    2017-08-01

    Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS), also called "panela", is a high carbohydrate-content food obtained by boil evaporation of the sugar cane juice. This study was undertaken to assess physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of panela beverage at two different concentrations. Evaluation of pH, °Brix, and colour (tristimulus colorimetry) was carried out in all panela drink samples. In order to characterise the odour-active volatiles of the beverage, a simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction method was applied using a mixture of diethyl ether-pentane (1:1,w/w) as solvent. The Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis revealed the presence of six odour-active compounds, being 2-methyl pyrazine the key aroma compound of this beverage. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that there were no differences in the aroma and physicochemical properties (pH and °Brix) with respect to the geographical origin of analysed samples; however colour depends on heating during processing of NCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation.

  10. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Melanie T M; Jordan, Kevin J

    2009-04-01

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degrees C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  13. Experimental variables effects on the direct liquefaction of lignin sugar cane bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, R.M.S.; Lancas, F.M.

    1998-08-01

    Sugar cane bagasse lignin was submitted to a liquefaction process with the aim of obtaining light oils. In order to increase the yields of light oils a study of the influence of experimental variables in the liquefaction process was performed. A 2{sup 4} factorial design was used, involving two levels and four variables: temperature, pressure, solute/solvent ratio, and time. It was observed that the variables time, temperature, and solute/solvent ratio influenced an increase in yield, and the variable solute/solvent ratio was independent, while the second-order effect among t {times} T, t {times} P was observed, and third-order among T {times} t {times} P occurs.

  14. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m3, and 12 m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  15. The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse.

  16. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

    2010-01-01

    In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation. PMID:24031568

  17. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials

    PubMed Central

    Castaldelli, Vinícius N.; Akasaki, Jorge L.; Melges, José L.P.; Tashima, Mauro M.; Soriano, Lourdes; Borrachero, María V.; Monzó, José; Payá, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part of the BFS by SCBA from 0 to 40% by weight. The mechanical strength of mortar was measured, obtaining values about 60 MPa of compressive strength for BFS/SCBA systems after 270 days of curing at 20 °C. Also, microstructural properties were assessed by means of SEM, TGA, XRD, pH, electrical conductivity, FTIR spectroscopy and MIP. Results showed a good stability of matrices developed by means of alkali-activation. It was demonstrated that sugar cane bagasse ash is an interesting source for preparing alkali-activated binders. PMID:28811425

  18. Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

  19. Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

    2011-06-01

    Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst shedding and mortality in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to control. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gains and antibody responses were detected in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to chickens of control group. Moreover, ethanolic extract showed higher anti-coccidia index (227.61) as compared to aqueous extract (192.32). The organ body weight ratio of the lymphoid organs of experimental and control groups were statistically non-significant (P>0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loarie, Scott R.; Lobell, David B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Mu, Qiaozhen; Field, Christopher B.

    2011-05-01

    The increasing global demand for biofuels will require conversion of conventional agricultural or natural ecosystems. Expanding biofuel production into areas now used for agriculture reduces the need to clear natural ecosystems, leading to indirect climate benefits through reduced greenhouse-gas emissions and faster payback of carbon debts. Biofuel expansion may also cause direct, local climate changes by altering surface albedo and evapotranspiration, but these effects have been poorly documented. Here we quantify the direct climate effects of sugar-cane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, on the basis of maps of recent sugar-cane expansion and natural-vegetation clearance combined with remotely sensed temperature, albedo and evapotranspiration over a 1.9millionkm2 area. On a regional basis for clear-sky daytime conditions, conversion of natural vegetation to a crop/pasture mosaic warms the cerrado by an average of 1.55 (1.45-1.65)°C, but subsequent conversion of that mosaic to sugar cane cools the region by an average of 0.93 (0.78-1.07)°C, resulting in a mean net increase of 0.6°C. Our results indicate that expanding sugar cane into existing crop and pasture land has a direct local cooling effect that reinforces the indirect climate benefits of this land-use option.

  1. Sugarcane cells as origin of acid beverage floc in cane sugar.

    PubMed

    Bergamin Lima, Roberta; Andreia Tessmer, Magda; Appezzato da Gloria, Beatriz; Neves Dos Santos, Fabio; Nogueira Eberlin, Marcos; Lima de Aguiar, Claudio

    2017-12-15

    Brazil stands out as the largest producer of crystal sugar in the world, exporting much of its production to the soft drinks industry. However, the chemical composition of sugar may contain numerous compounds that promote the formation of acid beverage flocs (ABF), reducing product acceptance. This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of ABF using different analytical techniques. We could observe the ABF are formed by several chemical classes. Regarding the histochemical analysis, we observed the presence of cellular sugarcane tissues, which are not fully removed in sugarcane processing. Mineral compounds, such as silicon, were found in great amounts by the Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive system (SEM/EDS) analysis. The mass spectrometry, high resolution mass by Q-ToF analysis and MALDI-MS allowed identification of compounds, such as p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, triacontanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and n-octacosanoic acid, in the ABF composition. These compounds are widely found in vegetable tissues, confirming that the ABF are formed by tiny particles of plant cells of sugar cane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  3. The combination of plant-expressed cellobiohydrolase and low dosages of cellulases for the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark D; Zhang, Zhanying; Shand, Kylie; Chong, Barrie Fong; Nichols, Jason; Oeller, Paul; O'Hara, Ian M; Doherty, William Os; Dale, James L

    2014-01-01

    The expression of biomass-degrading enzymes (such as cellobiohydrolases) in transgenic plants has the potential to reduce the costs of biomass saccharification by providing a source of enzymes to supplement commercial cellulase mixtures. Cellobiohydrolases are the main enzymes in commercial cellulase mixtures. In the present study, a cellobiohydrolase was expressed in transgenic corn stover leaf and assessed as an additive for two commercial cellulase mixtures for the saccharification of pretreated sugar cane bagasse obtained by different processes. Recombinant cellobiohydrolase in the senescent leaves of transgenic corn was extracted using a simple buffer with no concentration step. The extract significantly enhanced the performance of Celluclast 1.5 L (a commercial cellulase mixture) by up to fourfold on sugar cane bagasse pretreated at the pilot scale using a dilute sulfuric acid steam explosion process compared to the commercial cellulase mixture on its own. Also, the extracts were able to enhance the performance of Cellic CTec2 (a commercial cellulase mixture) up to fourfold on a range of residues from sugar cane bagasse pretreated at the laboratory (using acidified ethylene carbonate/ethylene glycol, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and ball-milling) and pilot (dilute sodium hydroxide and glycerol/hydrochloric acid steam explosion) scales. We have demonstrated using tap water as a solvent (under conditions that mimic an industrial process) extraction of about 90% recombinant cellobiohydrolase from senescent, transgenic corn stover leaf that had minimal tissue disruption. The accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase in senescent, transgenic corn stover leaf is a viable strategy to reduce the saccharification cost associated with the production of fermentable sugars from pretreated biomass. We envisage an industrial-scale process in which transgenic plants provide both fibre and biomass-degrading enzymes for pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  4. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  5. Semiquantitative determination of short-chain fatty acids in cane and beet sugars.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rebecca B; Grimm, Casey C; Godshall, Mary An

    2002-03-01

    Some sugars, specifically white beet sugar and raw cane sugars, possess off-flavors and off-odors. Although not necessarily the source, the presence of short-chain fatty acids serves as an indicator of an off-odor problem in sugar. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is used to collect the volatile compounds from the headspace of sugar. The temperature, moisture, and type of SPME fiber are varied to optimize recovery. Sugars analyzed in the absence of water using an incubation temperature of 70 degrees C with a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber yield the most reproducible results. Data from depletion analyses report a recovery level of 38% for the first injection. The semiquantitative analysis of butyric acid is accomplished using injected standards to develop a calibration curve.

  6. Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

    2010-05-01

    Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg.

  7. An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Jahren, A Hope; Saudek, Christopher; Yeung, Edwina H; Kao, W H Linda; Kraft, Rebecca A; Caballero, Benjamin

    2006-12-01

    Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the consumption of these sweeteners is available. The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Samples from approximately 100 plant-derived food products purchased from local grocery stores were analyzed for 13C content by using stable-isotope mass spectroscopy. Measurement of natural abundance ratios of 13C to 12C in approximately 100 off-the-shelf foods found a distinct range of values for corn- and sugar cane-derived foods, particularly those rich in high-fructose corn syrup. A new technique, in which consumption of these foods may be estimated in humans by measuring the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope profile of corn- and sugar cane-sweetened or sugar-containing foods as tracked in tissue or blood, could potentially provide an objective assessment of dietary intake and offer new opportunities for the study of diet-disease relations.

  8. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP.

  10. Major new insights into the cause of floc formation in alcohol beverages sweetened with refined cane sugars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sporadic appearance of floc from refined, white sugar in alcoholic beverages is a large concern to both beverage manufacturers and sugar refiners. With the declining use of high fructose corn syrup as a beverage sweetener in recent years, floc from cane sugars remains a technical problem that i...

  11. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, Moises

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed.

  13. Protein-energy supplements to preserve nutritional status of sugar cane cutters.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, Paula; Sobrinho, Paulo Scatena; Marçal Vieira, Marta Neves Campanelli; Garcia, Rosa Wanda Diez

    2006-12-01

    Sugar cane cutters in south-eastern Brazil are temporarily hired for the harvest period of 8 months. They often have minimal benefits and may not receive adequate nutrition. To evaluate alterations in weight and body composition of sugar cane cutters during harvest with the use of protein-energy and electrolyte supplements. Three products were used daily: a milk drink, a seasoned manioc meal mixture and an electrolyte replacement fluid, adding approximately 398 kcal and 28.5 g of protein/day. There were small, but significant, reductions in body mass index and percentage body fat with maintenance of lean mass. There was a significant improvement in hydration status, serum albumin and cholesterol. There were no medical absences related to dehydration. Even though alterations in body mass and biochemistry were small, the significance of the findings suggests these supplements may have a useful role to play in reducing lean mass losses and maintaining nutritional and hydration status of these workers.

  14. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits.

  15. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: calcining temperature and kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Frías, Moisés; Villar-Cociña, E; Valencia-Morales, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 degrees C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 degrees C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed.

  16. Lactic acid production from sugar-cane juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l(-1), 8 g glucose l(-1) and 6 g fructose l(-1)) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l(-1) with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l(-1 )h(-1)) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w/v (25 g sucrose l(-1), 2 g glucose l(-1) and 1 g fructose l(-1)) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as silk worm larvae, beer yeast autolysate and shrimp wastes were also used as a substitute to yeast extract.

  17. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  18. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  19. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  20. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  1. Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

  2. An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

    2014-03-01

    Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology.

  3. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... molasses (also referred to as refined sugar) at 122,000 MTRV. DATES: Effective Date: September 13, 2013... of Agriculture establish the TRQs for raw cane sugar and refined sugars at the minimum levels...

  4. Microbial interactions during sugar cane must fermentation for bioethanol production: does quorum sensing play a role?

    PubMed

    Brexó, Ramon Peres; Sant'Ana, Anderson de Souza

    2017-06-02

    Microbial interactions represent important modulatory role in the dynamics of biological processes. During bioethanol production from sugar cane must, the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and wild yeasts is inevitable as they originate from the raw material and industrial environment. Increasing the concentration of ethanol, organic acids, and other extracellular metabolites in the fermentation must are revealed as wise strategies for survival by certain microorganisms. Despite this, the co-existence of LAB and yeasts in the fermentation vat and production of compounds such as organic acids and other extracellular metabolites result in reduction in the final yield of the bioethanol production process. In addition to the competition for nutrients, reduction of cellular viability of yeast strain responsible for fermentation, flocculation, biofilm formation, and changes in cell morphology are listed as important factors for reductions in productivity. Although these consequences are scientifically well established, there is still a gap about the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing these interactions. This review aims to discuss the potential occurrence of quorum sensing mechanisms between bacteria (mainly LAB) and yeasts and to highlight how the understanding of such mechanisms can result in very relevant and useful tools to benefit the biofuels industry and other sectors of biotechnology in which bacteria and yeast may co-exist in fermentation processes.

  5. Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matos, Verena Sampaio Barbosa; Gomes, Felipe da Silva; Oliveira, Tarcio Macena; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Ribeiro, Lídia Cristina Villela; Gonzales, Astria Dias Ferrão; Lima, Januário Mourão; Guerreiro, Marcos Lázaro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG) underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1), 7 (EG7), and 21 (EG21). After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). In comparison with the CG and EG1, angiogenesis in the lung parenchyma and collagen deposition in tracheal tissues were significantly greater only in EG21 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). In this sample, emissions from sugar cane burning induced acute focal and diffuse inflammation in the lamina propria of tracheal tissues, with no loss of ciliated epithelial tissue. In the lung parenchyma of the animals in the experimental groups, there was interstitial and alveolar edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates. Avaliar os efeitos da exposição à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre mecanismos inflamatórios em tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar de ratos Wistar após diferentes períodos de exposição. Estudo experimental, randomizado, não cego. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle (GC), sob condições padrão de laboratório e os demais expostos à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos: em 1 (GE1), 7 (GE7) e 21 (GE21) dias

  6. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination.

  7. Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguro, Jean Vittorio

    The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and

  8. How do users design? The case of sugar cane harvester machines.

    PubMed

    Narimoto, Lidiane Regina; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Design in use and inventiveness are key concepts in ergonomics. It is well-known that users design but is not explored in the literature how they manage to do that. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion of how users actually design, by showing a research conducted in sugar cane harvesting in Brazil and in Australia. Through the methodology of the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA), the design modifications made by the harvesting teams were identified as well as their elaboration process. Three categories of modifications in machines' design were identified: structural, functional and operational and they were more numerous in Brazilian situations. It is proposed that two theories underlying the theme are intertwined: the instrument-mediated activity approach and the design as bricolage. It is argued that users design through the articulation of: a) the operators' activity, b) the mechanical technicians' inventory to practice bricolage as a way of designing and c) the work organisation and the existence of social spaces of interaction between these two subjects.

  9. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  10. CO2 co-gasification of lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse via TG-FTIR analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edreis, Elbager M A; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Chao, Chen; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Sen; Gui, Ben; Xiao, Li; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pingan; Yao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the non-isothermal mechanism and kinetic behaviour of gasification of a lower sulphur petroleum coke, sugar cane bagasse and blends under carbon dioxide atmosphere conditions using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The gas products were measured online with coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The achieved results explored that the sugar cane bagasse and blend gasification happened in two steps: at (<500 °C) the volatiles are released, and at (>700 °C) char gasification occurred, whereas the lower sulphur petroleum coke presented only one char gasification stage at (>800 °C). Significant interactions were observed in the whole process. Some solid-state mechanisms were studied by the Coats-Redfern method in order to observe the mechanisms responsible for the gasification of samples. The results show that the chemical first order reaction is the best responsible mechanism for whole process. The main released gases are CO2, CO, CH4, HCOOH, C6H5OH and CH3COOH.

  11. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended, the sugar beet sector was allotted 5,278,064 STRV (54.35... will distribute the sector allotments among domestic sugar beet and sugarcane processors according to... the OAQ be assigned to the beet sector and cane sector. The OAQ for FY 2013 is being established...

  12. Comparison of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Copper in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sarah Adriana R; Costa, Silvânio Silvério L; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny O; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Dantas, Alailson Falcão

    2017-09-15

    Three spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of copper (Cu) in sugar cane spirit using the chromogenic reagents neocuproine, cuprizone, and bathocuproine. Experimental conditions, such as reagent concentration, reducer concentration, pH, buffer concentration, the order of addition of reagents, and the stability of the complexes, were optimized. The work range was established from 1.0 to 10.0 µg/mL, with correlation coefficients of >0.999 for all three optimized methods. The methods were evaluated regarding accuracy by addition and recovery tests at five concentration levels, and the obtained recoveries ranged from 91 to 105% (n = 3). Precision was expressed as RSD (relative standard deviation), with values ranging from 0.01 to 0.17% (n = 10). The method using the chromogenic reagent cuprizone presented the greatest molar absorptivity, followed by bathocuproine and neocuproine. The methods were applied for the determination of Cu in sugar cane spirit, and the results were compared with a reference method by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Calibration curve solutions for FAAS analysis were prepared in a 40% (v/v) alcohol medium in a range of concentrations from 0.5 up to 5 µg/mL. Measurements for Cu determination were carried out at a wavelength of 324.7 nm. The concentrations obtained for Cu in sugar cane spirit samples from Brazil were between 1.99 and 12.63 µg/mL, and about 75% of the samples presented Cu concentrations above the limit established by Brazilian legislation (5.0 µg/mL or 5.0 mg/L).

  13. Radium-226 in sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, products in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, C M; Amaral, R S; Santos Júnior, J A; Breckenfeld, M R O; Menezes, R S C

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the 226Ra concentrations in samples of sugar cane juice, which is sold for human consumption in the city of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The sample collections were carried out in seventeen commercial establishments where high quantities of the juice are usually sold. The methodology used to determine the concentrations of 226Ra in the juice was based on 222Rn emanation classical technique. Concentrations of 226Ra in the samples varied from 18 to 89 mBqL(-1).

  14. Roles of Reversible and Irreversible Aggregation in Sugar Processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colloids (1-1000 nm particles) in sugar cane/beet juice originate from non-sucrose impurities (polyphenolic colorants, residual soil, polysaccharides) of the plant materials; additional colloids form during the high temperature processing. Colloids are reactive towards aggregation, sorption, desorp...

  15. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash.

    PubMed

    Keown, Daniel M; Favas, George; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2005-09-01

    Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (approximately 10 K min(-1)) led to minimal (often <20%) volatilisation of AAEM species from these biomass samples. Fast heating rates (>1000 K s(-1)), encouraging volatile-char interactions with the current reactor configuration, resulted in the volatilisation of around 80% of Na, K, Mg and Ca from bagasse during pyrolysis at 900 degrees C. Similar behaviour was observed for monovalent Na and K with cane trash, but the volatilisation of Mg and Ca from cane trash was always restricted. The difference in Cl content between bagasse and cane trash was not sufficient to fully explain the difference in the volatilisation of Mg and Ca.

  16. Lignin from sugar cane bagasse: extraction, fabrication of nanostructured films, and application.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A A; Martins, G F; Antunes, P A; Conrrado, R; Pasquini, D; Job, A E; Curvelo, A A S; Ferreira, M; Riul, A; Constantino, C J L

    2007-06-05

    Four lignin samples were extracted from sugar cane bagasse using four different alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and 1-butanol) via the organosolv-CO2 supercritical pulping process. Langmuir films were characterized by surface pressure vs mean molecular area (Pi-A) isotherms to exploit information at the molecular level carrying out stability tests, cycles of compression/expansion (hysteresis), subphase temperature variations, and metallic ions dissolved into the water subphase at different concentrations. Briefly, it was observed that these lignins are relatively stable on the water surface when compared to those obtained via different extraction processes. Besides, the Pi-A isotherms are shifted to smaller molecular areas at higher subphase temperatures and to larger molecular areas when the metallic ions are dissolved into the subphase. The results are related to the formation of stable aggregates (domains) onto the water subphase by these lignins, as shown in the Pi-A isotherms. It was found as well that the most stable lignin monolayer onto the water subphase is that extracted with 1-butanol. Homogeneous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of this lignin could be produced as confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and the cumulative transfer parameter. In addition, FTIR analysis showed that this lignin LB film is structured in a way that the phenyl groups are organized preferentially parallel to the substrate surface. Further, these LB films were deposited onto gold interdigitated electrodes and ITO and applied in studies involving the detection of Cd+2 ions in aqueous solutions at low concentration levels through impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out before and after soaking the thin films into Cd+2 aqueous solutions, revealing a possible physical interaction between the lignin phenyl groups and the heavy metal ions. The importance of using nanostructured systems is demonstrated as well by comparing

  17. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by naturally fermented sugar cane vinegar (kibizu) of Amami Ohshima Island.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Akio; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Toshima, Youhei; Yazaki, Shin-ichi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Ui, Sadaharu; Hyodoh, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    Naturally fermented vinegar such as Kibizu (sugar cane vinegar in Amami Ohshima, Japan), Kurozu (black rice vinegar in Kagoshima, Japan), Kouzu (black rice vinegar in China) and red wine vinegar in Italy had potent radical-scavenging activity analyzed by DPPH method. For the elucidation of food factor for cancer prevention contained in naturally fermented vinegar, the induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cell HL-60 was investigated with sugar cane vinegar Kibizu. Fraction eluted by 40% methanol from Amberlite XAD 2 chromatography of sugar cane vinegar showed potent radical scavenging activity. The fraction also showed the activity repressing growth of typical human leukemia cells such as HL-60, THP-1, Molt-4, U-937, Jurkat, Raji and K-562. On the other hand, the fraction did not have any growth inhibition activity against human fetal lung cell TIG-1. The most potent radical-scavenging activity and the growth repression activity of the leukemia cell were observed in the same chromatographic fraction of methanol 40%. From cell sorting FACS analyses, electron microscopic observations and cytochemical staining of chromatin and nuclear segments in human leukemia cell HL-60 treated with the active fraction, it was concluded that apoptosis was induced in the leukemia cell by the fraction of sugar cane vinegar and resulted in the repression of growth of the human leukemia cells. Chromatographic fraction of sugar cane juice eluted by 20% methanol showed potent activities of radical-scavenging and growth repression of HL-60. These results led us the consideration that active components in sugar cane juice could be converted to more lipophilic compounds with activity to induce apoptosis in HL-60 by microbial fermentation with yeast and acetic acid bacteria.

  18. Cellulase production by Penicillium funiculosum and its application in the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for second generation ethanol production by fed batch operation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Roberto Nobuyuki; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; Santa Anna, Lídia Maria Melo; Pereira, Nei

    2013-01-10

    This study aimed to produce a cellulase blend and to evaluate its application in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for second generation ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse. The sugar cane bagasse was subjected to pretreatments (diluted acid and alkaline), as for disorganizing the ligocellulosic complex, and making the cellulose component more amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. The residual solid fraction was named sugar cane bagasse partially delignified cellulignin (PDC), and was used for enzyme production and ethanol fermentation. The enzyme production was performed in a bioreactor with two inoculum concentrations (5 and 10% v/v). The fermentation inoculated with higher inoculum size reduced the time for maximum enzyme production (from 72 to 48). The enzyme extract was concentrated using tangential ultrafiltration in hollow fiber membranes, and the produced cellulase blend was evaluated for its stability at 37 °C, operation temperature of the simultaneous SSF process, and at 50 °C, optimum temperature of cellulase blend activity. The cellulolytic preparation was stable for at least 300 h at both 37 °C and 50 °C. The ethanol production was carried out by PDC fed-batch SSF process, using the onsite cellulase blend. The feeding strategy circumvented the classic problems of diffusion limitations by diminishing the presence of a high solid:liquid ratio at any time, resulting in high ethanol concentration at the end of the process (100 g/L), which corresponded to a fermentation efficiency of 78% of the maximum obtainable theoretically. The experimental results led to the ratio of 380 L of ethanol per ton of sugar cane bagasse PDC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Washoff of Residual Photosystem II Herbicides from Sugar Cane Trash under a Rainfall Simulator.

    PubMed

    Dang, Aaditi; Silburn, Mark; Craig, Ian; Shaw, Melanie; Foley, Jenny

    2016-05-25

    Herbicides are often applied to crop residues, but their fate has not been well studied. We measured herbicide washoff from sugar cane trash during simulated rainfall, at 1, 8, and 40 days after spraying (DAS), to provide insight into herbicide fate and for use in modeling. Herbicides included are commonly used in the sugar industry, either in Australia or in Brazil. Concentrations of all herbicides and applied Br tracer in washoff declined exponentially over time. The rate of washoff during rainfall declined with increasing DAS. Cumulative washoff as a function of rainfall was similar for most herbicides, although the most soluble herbicides did have more rapid washoff. Some but not all herbicides became more resistant to washoff with increasing DAS. Of the total mass washed off, 80% washed off in the first 30 mm (∼40 min) of rainfall for most herbicides. Little herbicide remained on the trash after rainfall, implying nearly complete washoff.

  20. Studies on the fortification of cane sugar with iron and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Disler, P B; Lynch, S R; Charlton, R W; Bothwell, T H; Walker, R B; Mayet, F

    1975-07-01

    1. The feasibility of improving iron nutrition by fortifying cane sugar with Fe and ascorbic acid was studied. 2. It was found to be possible to add a number of Fe salts together with ascorbic acid to sugar without affecting its appearance or storage properties. 3. The absorption of Fe from fortified sugar eaten with maize-meal porridge or made into jam or biscuits was measured in ninety-four volunteer multiparous Indian women using the 59-Fe erythrocyte utlization method. 4. The absorption of Fe from sugar fortified with ascorbic acid and ferrous sulphate and eaten with maize-meal porridge was increased about twofold in the ratio, ascorbic acid:Fe was 10:1 by weight. If the ratio was increased to 20:2, Fe absorption was increased a further threefold. 5. Sugar fortified with soluble Fe salts, including FeSO4.7H2O, discoloured both tea and coffee; sugar fortified with ferric orthophosphate did not have this effect. 6. Fe from FePO4.H2O was poorly absorbed when added with sugar to maize-meal porridge, and also when added with adequate quantities of ascorbic acid. This form of Fe was absorbed much less well than was the intrinsic Fe present in the maize. 7. When sugar fortified with FePO4.H2O and ascorbic acid was added to maize-meal porridge before cooling or was made into jam there was a several-fold increase in the amount of Fe absorbed.

  1. Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.

    PubMed

    Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2010-03-01

    A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  3. Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

    The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1∶10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

  4. Long-term prospects for the environmental profile of advanced sugar cane ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia R U; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Junqueira, Tassia Lopes; van Oers, Lauran; van der Voet, Ester; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-10-21

    This work assessed the environmental impacts of the production and use of 1 MJ of hydrous ethanol (E100) in Brazil in prospective scenarios (2020-2030), considering the deployment of technologies currently under development and better agricultural practices. The life cycle assessment technique was employed using the CML method for the life cycle impact assessment and the Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty analysis. Abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, and eutrophication were the environmental impacts categories analyzed. Results indicate that the proposed improvements (especially no-til farming-scenarios s2 and s4) would lead to environmental benefits in prospective scenarios compared to the current ethanol production (scenario s0). Combined first and second generation ethanol production (scenarios s3 and s4) would require less agricultural land but would not perform better than the projected first generation ethanol, although the uncertainties are relatively high. The best use of 1 ha of sugar cane was also assessed, considering the displacement of the conventional products by ethanol and electricity. No-til practices combined with the production of first generation ethanol and electricity (scenario s2) would lead to the largest mitigation effects for global warming and abiotic depletion. For the remaining categories, emissions would not be mitigated with the utilization of the sugar cane products. However, this conclusion is sensitive to the displaced electricity sources.

  5. Sugar cane vinasse in water bodies: impact assessed by liver histopathology in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Júlia Fernanda Urbano; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marcato, Ana Claudia de Castro; Pedro-Escher, Janaína; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are the main receptors of toxic substances from human activities. With the increase in sugar cane production, vinasse - the main residue of ethanol production - is a potential contaminant of water resources, due to its high organic matter content. This study was aimed at evaluating the toxicity of vinasse by examining the liver of the fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to different dilutions of sugar cane vinasse (1%, 2%, 5%, 5% and 10%) in laboratory bioassays. Portions of liver were collected and fixed for histological and histochemical techniques to detect total proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. In the histological analysis, the groups treated with vinasse exhibited significant alterations, such as loss of cytoplasmic integrity, loss of cell limit and tissue disorganization. Protein and lipid profiles were not altered. Higher accumulation of polysaccharides was detected in fish exposed to lower concentrations of vinasse, with a gradual decrease in animals treated with vinasse in higher concentrations. We concluded that vinasse has a dose-dependent toxic and cytotoxic potential in water bodies and that the liver is strongly affected when acutely exposed to this contaminant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative respiratory toxicity of particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Malm, Olaf; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Zin, Walter Araujo; Faffe, Débora Souza

    2008-09-01

    The impact of particle emissions by biomass burning is increasing throughout the world. We explored the toxicity of particulate matter produced by sugar cane burning and compared these effects with equivalent mass of traffic-derived particles. For this purpose, BALB/c mice received a single intranasal instillation of either distilled water (C) or total suspended particles (15 microg) from an urban area (SP group) or biomass burning-derived particles (Bio group). Lung mechanical parameters (total, resistive and viscoelastic pressures, static elastance, and elastic component of viscoelasticity) and histology were analyzed 24h after instillation. Trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites of the two sources of particles were determined. All mechanical parameters increased similarly in both pollution groups compared with control, except airway resistive pressure, which increased only in Bio. Both exposed groups showed significantly higher fraction area of alveolar collapse, and influx of polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma than C. The composition analysis of total suspended particles showed higher concentrations of PAHs and lower concentration of metals in traffic than in biomass burning-derived particles. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a single low dose of ambient particles, produced by traffic and sugar cane burning, induced significant alterations in pulmonary mechanics and lung histology in mice. Parenchymal changes were similar after exposure to both particle sources, whereas airway mechanics was more affected by biomass-derived particles. Our results indicate that biomass particles were at least as toxic as those produced by traffic.

  7. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions.

  8. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas

  9. Chemical torrefaction as an alternative to established thermal technology for stabilisation of sugar cane bagasse as fuel.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2016-10-11

    Dry and chemical torrefaction of sugar cane bagasse was examined in this study with the aim of stabilising and upgrading the fuel properties of bagasse. Dry torrefaction was conducted at temperatures from 160°C to 300°C under inert conditions, whilst chemical torrefaction incorporated a H2SO4 pre-treatment of bagasse. Chemical torrefaction imparted superior chemical and physical properties inducing morphological transformation and textural development with the potential to address issues in handling, feeding and processing bagasse. It increased the energy density of the chars with maximum HHVmass 21.5 MJ/kg and maximum HHVvolume of 7.4 GJ/m(3). Chemically torrefied bagasse demonstrated resistance against microbiological attack for 18 months. These features demonstrate the practical value of chemical torrefaction in advancing the utilisation of bagasse as fuel.

  10. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  11. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  12. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young.

  13. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Andréa P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Márcia M. C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaça) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaça were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaça of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachaças, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.

  14. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  16. Use of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate aluminum toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Zilli, Mario; de Araújo Viana Marques, Daniela; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Converti, Attilio

    2009-10-01

    Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action. For this purpose, Fleischmann's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used in growth tests performed in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL of YED medium (5.0 g/L yeast extract plus 20 g/L glucose) supplemented with the selected amounts of either vinasse or Al in the form of AlCl(3) . H(2)O. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Al up to 54 mg/L reduced the specific growth rate by 18%, whereas no significant reduction was observed in its presence. The toxic effect of Al on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating effect of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by the exponential model of Ciftci et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 25:2007-2023, 1983). The cell viability decreased from 97.7% at the start to 84.0% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 92.3% with vinasse. On the other hand, the cell budding increased from 7.62% at the start to 8.84% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 17.8% with vinasse. These results demonstrate the ability of this raw material to stimulate cell growth and mitigate the toxic effect of Al.

  17. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process u...

  18. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  19. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016.

  20. The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the productivity of cane cutters on a sugar estate in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, A.; Figenschou, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    In an attempt to justify future snail control on an irrigated sugar estate in Tanzania, the effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the productivity of apparently healthy cane cutters were investigated. The bonus earnings of cane cutters who were found to be infected with S. mansoni were compared, retrospectively, with earnings of uninfected cane cutters during the years 1968-69. For one 6-month period a more detailed study was made to correlate bonus earnings with actual output in tons of cane cut. It was found that in the four 6-month periods the mean bonus earnings of the uninfected cane cutters exceeded the mean bonus earnings of the infected men by 11.0%, 11.4%, 6.0%, and 13.7%, respectively. In all except the third period these differences were statistically significant. After treatment for S. mansoni infection, the workers were able to improve their earnings relative to both infected and uninfected workers. In a more detailed study of some of the workers during the third 6-month period, it was discovered that a 4% difference in bonus earnings represented a 1% difference in output. Taking into account the variations of bonus earnings it was estimated that the overall difference in productivity between infected and uninfected workers was 3-5%. PMID:4540675

  1. Fractional study of alkali-soluble hemicelluloses obtained by graded ethanol precipitation from sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Peng, Feng; Ren, Jun-Li; Xu, Feng; Bian, Jing; Peng, Pai; Sun, Run-Cang

    2010-02-10

    The two hemicellulosic fractions were subsequentially extracted with 5% and 8% NaOH aqueous solution at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g mL(-1)) at 50 degrees C for 3 h from the water, 1 and 3% NaOH-treated sugar cane bagasse, and subfractionated into six preparations by a graded ethanol precipitation method at concentrations of 15%, 30% and 60% (v/v). Sugar composition and molecular weight analysis showed that, with an increasing concentration of ethanol, hemicellulosic subfractions with both higher Ara/Xyl ratios and higher molecular weights were obtained. In other words, with an increasing ethanol concentration from 15% to 60%, the Ara/Xyl ratios increased from 0.043 in H(1) to 0.088 in H(3) and from 0.040 in H(4) to 0.088 in H(6), and the weight-average molecular weights of hemicellulosic subfractions increased from 42 430 (H(1)) to 85 510 (H(3)) g mol(-1) and from 46 130 (H(4)) to 64 070 (H(6)) g mol(-1), respectively. The results obtained by the analysis of Fourier transform infrared, sugar composition, and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy showed that the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses had a backbone of xylose residues with a beta-(1-->4)-linkage and were branched mainly through arabinofuranosyl units at C-2 and/or C-3 of the main chain, whereas the differences may occur in the distribution of branches along the xylan backbone.

  2. Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-12-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root

  3. Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

    1985-08-01

    During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

  4. Enzyme activities and substrate degradation during white rot fungi growth on sugar-cane straw in a solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ortega, G M; Martinez, E O; González, P C; Betancourt, D; Otero, M A

    1993-03-01

    Two strains of Pleurotus spp., grown in solid state fermentation on sugar-cane straw, degraded the dry matter by 50% after 60 days. The rate of substrate consumption and the dry weight of fruiting bodies decreased in consecutive flushings. Both strains vigorously attacked hemicellulose (80% of total degradation) and lignin (70%). Fruiting bodies were rich in protein and lipids, and had a low content of carbohydrates and ash.

  5. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium and nickel stress: the use of the sugar cane vinasse as a potential mitigator.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Junior, Adalberto Pessoa; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Del Borghi, Marco; Converti, Attilio

    2012-01-01

    Most of the metals released from industrial activity, among them are cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), inhibit the productivity of cultures and affect microbial metabolism. In this context, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Cd and Ni on cell growth, viability, budding rate and trehalose content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, likely because of adsorption and chelating action. For this purpose, the yeast was grown batch-wise in YED medium supplemented with selected amounts of vinasse and Cd or Ni. The negative effects of Cd and Ni on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating one of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by an exponential model. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Cd and Ni reduced the specific growth rate, whereas in its presence no reduction was observed. Consistently with the well-proved toxicity of both metals, cell viability and budding rate progressively decreased with increasing their concentration, but in the presence of vinasse the situation was remarkably improved. The trehalose content of S. cerevisiae cells followed the same qualitative behavior as cell viability, even though the negative effect of both metals on this parameter was stronger. These results demonstrate the ability of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the toxic effects of Cd and Ni.

  6. Production of the Functional Trisaccharide 1-Kestose from Cane Sugar Molasses Using Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Katsuki; Kondo, Nobuhiro; Toyota, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Sachio

    2017-01-01

    We report the production of the functional trisaccharide 1-kestose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, by β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus japonicus using sugar cane molasses as substrate. Sucrose in cane sugar molasses acted as a fructosyl donor and acceptor for the enzyme. The tetrasaccharide nystose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, was produced from 1-kestose. Cane sugar molasses mixed with water provided a better substrate solution for β-fructofuranosidase compared to undiluted molasses due to the high concentration of product inhibitors such as glucose and fructose in molasses. The maximum concentration of 1-kestose obtained was 84.9 mg/ml and the maximum production efficiency was 32.3% after 24 h reaction at 40 °C. The maximum efficiency of combined fructo-oligosaccharide (1-kestose and nystose) production was 40.6%. 1-Kestose was therefore produced via a fructosyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by β-fructofuranosidase from A. japonicus.

  7. Features of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a culture starter for the production of the distilled sugar cane beverage, cachaça in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, C R; Silva, C F; Dias, D R; Basso, L C; Amorim, H V; Schwan, R F

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the dominance and persistence of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the process of sugar cane fermentation for the production of cachaça and to analyse the microbial compounds produced in each fermentative process. Three S. cerevisiae strains were evaluated during seven consecutive 24-h fermentation batches using recycled inocula. The UFLA CA 116 strain had the largest population of viable organisms, and the maximum population was achieved in the fourth batch after 96 h of fermentation. The UFLA CA 1162 and UFLA CA 1183 strains grew more slowly, and the maximum population was reached in the seventh batch. Molecular characterization of isolated yeast cells using PFGE (pulse field gel electrophoresis) revealed that more than 86% of the isolates corresponded to the initially inoculated yeast strain. The concentration of aldehydes, esters, methanol, alcohol and volatile acids in the final-aged beverages were within the legal limits. Cachaça produced by select yeast strains exhibits analytical differences. UFLA CA 1162 and UFLA CA 116 S. cerevisiae isolates can be considered the ideal strains for the artisanal production of cachaça in Brazil. The use of select yeast strains can improve the quality and productivity of cachaça production. Our findings are important for the appropriate monitoring of yeast during sugar cane fermentation. In addition, we demonstrate that UFLA CA 116 and UFLA CA 1162, the ideal yeast strains for cachaça production, are maintained at a high population density. The persistence of these yeast strains in the fermentation of sugar cane juice promotes environmental conditions that prevent or decrease bacterial contamination. Thus, the use of select yeast strains for the production of cachaça is a viable economic alternative to standardize the production of this beverage.

  8. Mathematical models for prediction of rheological parameters in vinasses derived from sugar cane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacua, Leidy M.; Ayala, Germán; Rojas, Hernán; Agudelo, Ana C.

    2016-04-01

    The rheological behaviour of vinasses derived from sugar cane was studied as a function of time (0 and 600 s), soluble solids content (44 and 60 °Brix), temperature (10 and 50°C), and shear rate (0.33 and 1.0 s-1). The results indicated that vinasses were time-independent at 25°C, where shear stress values ranged between 0.01 and 0.08 Pa. Flow curves showed a shear-thinning rheological behaviour in vinasses with a flow behaviour index between 0.69 and 0.89, for temperature between 10 and 20°C. With increasing temperature, the flow behaviour index was modified, reaching values close to 1.0. The Arrhenius model described well the thermal activation of shear stress and the consistency coefficient as a function of temperature. Activation energy from the Arrhenius model ranged between 31 and 45 kJ mol-1. Finally, the consistency coefficient as a function of the soluble solids content and temperature was well fitted using an exponential model (R2 = 0.951), showing that the soluble solids content and temperature have an opposite effect on consistency coefficient values.

  9. The Development of Snail Control Methods on an Irrigated Sugar-Cane Estate in Northern Tanzania*

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, A.

    1970-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni on an irrigated sugar-cane estate, molluscicide experiments were carried out to find the optimum methods for controlling the intermediate-host snails, Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The ease of application of N-tritylmorpholine led to its adoption as the molluscicide of choice for the two separate irrigation systems on the estate. Experiments on the frequency and duration of molluscicide treatments were carried out, and from these it was concluded that 5-day applications of N-tritylmorpholine at 0.025 ppm every 7 weeks might lead to a break in transmission by control of the snails. In another set of trials, drainage ditches were treated alternately with N-tritylmorpholine and niclosamide ethanolamine salt, and although the chemicals differed only slightly in their effect, the latter—being ovicidal—was chosen to be applied at approximately 4 ppm by knapsack sprayer every 8 weeks. Extra treatment of small pools with the same compound was carried out during the long rains when irrigation was unnecessary and most of the canals were dry. It is pointed out that the effect of the control methods on S. mansoni transmission will need to be evaluated by studying the incidence of the disease in the population. PMID:5310954

  10. Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Dhruv Sen; Singh, Abhay K

    2010-12-01

    Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India's most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial activities and surrounding agricultural practices. It is evidenced by increased heavy metal concentration in the soils as well as in the aquifers. Metals such as Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soil around the industrial sets are found significantly higher than their normal values in the soil. Metals like Fe and Mn in the groundwater are more than the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the naturally occurring and anthropogenically induced metals in the soil. Analysis of geochemical properties, disposal of industrial wastes, inadequate application of agrochemicals, and their impact on environment indicate the sustainable implementation of integrated wastewater management plan in these industrial sets and also in similar situations.

  11. [Effects of sugar cane molasses on the nutritive value of Canavalia ensiformis seeds for broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Vargas, R E; Castillo, M; Michelangeli, C

    1996-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sugar cane molasses to improve performance of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 30% raw or autoclaved Canavalia ensiformis seeds (Jack beans). For this latter purpose, canavalia seeds were ground and autoclaved at 120 degrees C and 15 psi during 60 min. Day-old male chicks (Cobb x Cobb) were used throughout the study. In Experiment 1, adding 10% molasses to a control diet devoided of jack beans seeds significantly (p < 0.05) increased chick feed intake. However, neither the addition of 10% molasses nor of 5% glucose, sucrose, fructose, xylose or corn starch to the 30% raw canavalia ration allowed feed intakes similar to that shown by the control diet (Experiment 2). Broiler performance was evaluated in Experiment 3 in response to diets containing 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal. Ten-percent molasses was also added to both diets which along with the control diet were fed to chiks had free access to diets. Growth was depressed when the Jack bean containing diets were pair-fed to chicks. The results indicated that the use of molasses does not overcome the deleterious effects on chick performance due to the presence of 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal in the diets.

  12. A digital image method of spot tests for determination of copper in sugar cane spirits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessoa, Kenia Dias; Suarez, Willian Toito; dos Reis, Marina Ferreira; de Oliveira Krambeck Franco, Mathews; Moreira, Renata Pereira Lopes; dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra

    2017-10-01

    In this work the development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of copper in sugarcane spirit samples is carried out. The digital image based (DIB) method was applied along with spot test from the colorimetric reaction employing the RGB color model. For the determination of copper concentration, it was used the cuprizone - a bidentate organic reagent - which forms with copper a blue chelate in an alkaline medium. A linear calibration curve over the concentration range from 0.75 to 5.00 mg L- 1 (r2 = 0.9988) was obtained and limits of detection and quantification of 0.078 mg L- 1 and 0.26 mg L- 1 were acquired, respectively. For the accuracy studies, recovery percentages ranged from 98 to 104% were obtained. The comparison of cooper concentration results in sugar cane spirits using the DIB method and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry as reference method showed no significant differences between both methods, which were performed using the paired t-test in 95% of confidence level. Thus, the spot test method associated with DIB allows the use of devices as digital cameras and smartphones to evaluate colorimetric reaction with low waste generation, practicality, quickness, accuracy, precision, high portability and low-cost.

  13. Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

    2014-01-15

    We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15μg) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures.

  14. Immunostimulation of sugar cane extract on neutrophils to Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hua; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Lee, Wei-Cheng

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of sugar cane extract (SCE) on the biological activities of neutrophils in mice. Six-week-old BALB/c mice were fed 1250 mg/kg of SCE once. The generation, migration and biological functions of neutrophils and the survival rates of the mice in response to Salmonella typhimurium infection were evaluated. The results show that the numbers of both bone marrow cells and neutrophils were significantly increased in response to SCE administration (p < 0.05) compared with controls. The migration, phagocytosis and H₂O₂ generation of neutrophils were all significantly enhanced in SCE-treated mice (p < 0.05). After challenge with S. typhimurium (lethal dose, 50% (LD₅₀), SCE-treated mice had a 19.2% higher survival rate and milder hepatic lesions than the controls. Additionally, fewer invasive bacteria were recovered from the spleens of SCE-treated mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that SCE has a positive regulatory effect on the biological function of mouse neutrophils that may increase host resistance against bacterial infections.

  15. Bioconversion of sugar cane crop residues with white-rot fungiPleurotus sp.

    PubMed

    Ortega, G M; Martínez, E O; Betancourt, D; González, A E; Otero, M A

    1992-07-01

    Four mushroom strains ofPleurotus spp. were cultivated on sugar cane crop residues for 30 days at 26°C. Biochemical changes affected the substrate as a result of fungal growth, in terms of nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents. All strains showed a strong ligninolytic activity together with variable cellulolytic and xylanolytic action.Pleurotus sajor-caju attacked lignin and cellulose at the same rate, showing a degradation of 47% and 55%, respectively. A better balance was shown by theP. ostreatus-P. pulmonarius hybrid, which exhibited the poorest cellulolytic action (39%) and the highest ligninolytic activity (67%). The average composition of mushroom fruit bodies, in terms of nitrogen, carbohydrates, fats and amino acid profiles, was determined. Crude protein and total carbohydrate varied from 23% to 33% and 36% to 68% of dry matter, respectively. Fat ranged from 3.3% to 4.7% and amino acid content from 12.2% to 22.2%. Slight evidence for a nitrogen fixing capability was encountered in the substrate to fruit body balance.

  16. A digital image method of spot tests for determination of copper in sugar cane spirits.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Kenia Dias; Suarez, Willian Toito; Dos Reis, Marina Ferreira; de Oliveira Krambeck Franco, Mathews; Moreira, Renata Pereira Lopes; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra

    2017-10-05

    In this work the development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of copper in sugarcane spirit samples is carried out. The digital image based (DIB) method was applied along with spot test from the colorimetric reaction employing the RGB color model. For the determination of copper concentration, it was used the cuprizone - a bidentate organic reagent - which forms with copper a blue chelate in an alkaline medium. A linear calibration curve over the concentration range from 0.75 to 5.00mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.9988) was obtained and limits of detection and quantification of 0.078mgL(-1) and 0.26mgL(-1) were acquired, respectively. For the accuracy studies, recovery percentages ranged from 98 to 104% were obtained. The comparison of cooper concentration results in sugar cane spirits using the DIB method and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry as reference method showed no significant differences between both methods, which were performed using the paired t-test in 95% of confidence level. Thus, the spot test method associated with DIB allows the use of devices as digital cameras and smartphones to evaluate colorimetric reaction with low waste generation, practicality, quickness, accuracy, precision, high portability and low-cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Determination of brix and POL in sugar cane juice by using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with BP-ANN].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Ye, Hua-jun; Li, Qing-tao; Xie, Jin-chun; Lu, Jia-jiong; Xia, A-lin; Wang, Jian

    2010-07-01

    The models of quantitative analysis of brix and pol in sugar cane juice were established by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) coupled with the back propagation-artificial neural network method (BP-ANN). The spectra of cane juice samples were obtained by the way of 2 mm optical length transmission and using the NIR spectrometer of 1,000-1,800 nm wavelength. Firstly, the data of original spectra were pretreated by Savitzky-Golay derivative and mean-centering. Secondly, the wavelength range of model was optimized by using correlation coefficient method coupled with the characteristic absorbance of the spectrum. Finally, the principal components, obtained by PLS dimension-reducing, were inputed into BP-ANN. The calibration models were established by calibration set and validated by prediction set. The results showed that the related coefficients (R2) of prediction for brix and pol were 0.982 and 0.979, respectively; and the standard errors of prediction (SEP) for brix and pol were 0.159 and 0.137, respectively. BP-ANN was more accurate in the prediction of brix and pol compared with the partial least square method (PLS). The method can be applied to fast and accurate determination of brix and pol in sugar cane juice.

  18. Adsorption of heavy metals on to sugar cane bagasse: improvement of adsorption capacities due to anaerobic degradation of the biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Osnick; Rouez, Maxime; Métivier-Pignon, Hélène; Bayard, Rémy; Emmanuel, Evens; Gourdon, Rémy

    2009-12-01

    In this work, anaerobic degradation of sugar cane bagasse was studied with a dual objective: the production of biogas and the improvement of the material's characteristics for its implementation in adsorption processes. The biogas production was determined by means of biomethane potential tests carried out over two months of incubation at 35 degrees C. Biogas and methane cumulative productions were assumed to follow a first-order rate of decay. Theoretical cumulative methane and biogas productions were calculated using Buswell's equation. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a 92% decrease in the leachable organic fraction and a 40% mass loss of bagasse. The average productions of biogas and methane from the whole set of experiments were 293 +/- 6 and 122 +/- 4 mL g(-1) of volatile solids, respectively. The anaerobic incubation of the raw material led to an increase in adsorption capacities towards metal ions, which were multiplied by around 2.0 for Zn2+ and 2.3 for Cd2+.

  19. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  20. Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Li; Hu, Chunjin; Shen, Ping; Yang, Litao; An, Qianli; Xie, Guanlin; Li, Yangrui

    2013-07-01

    Five nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains (SP1(T), NN143, NN144, NN208 and HX148) were isolated from stem, root or rhizosphere soil of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants. Cells were Gram-negative, motile, rods with peritrichous flagella. DNA G+C content was 55.0 ± 0.5 mol%. Sequence determinations and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and rpoB indicated that the strains were affiliated with the genus Enterobacter and most closely related to E. radicincitans DSM 16656(T) and E. oryzae LMG 24251(T). Fluorimetric determination of thermal denaturation temperatures after DNA-DNA hybridization, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry differentiated the whole-genome, genotype and protein profiles from those of E. radicincitans and E. oryzae. The strains' cell fatty acid composition differentiated them from E. radicincitans and E. oryzae by containing a higher level of summed feature 2 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and a lower level of C17 : 0 cyclo. Their physiological and biochemical profiles differentiated them from E. radicincitans by being positive for methyl red test, ornithine decarboxylase and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol, L-fucose and methyl α-D-glucoside and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, and differentiated them from E. oryzae by being positive for aesculin hydrolysis and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol and L-rhamnose and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase and utilization of mucate. The five strains therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SP1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)).

  1. Protective effect of sugar cane extract against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Yansen; Mizu, Masami; Furuta, Toma; Li, ChunMei

    2017-02-01

    Sugar cane extract (SCE) exhibits various biological effects and has been reported to enhance animal growth performance. However, the effect of SCE on inflammation in animals is still obscure. To study the effects and underlying mechanism of SCE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic inflammation, forty female ICR mice (26.63±0.19g, 6-week-old) were assigned into four groups: a control group (Cont), a DSS-challenged group (DSS), a SCE-supplemented group (SCE), and a DSS+SCE group (DSS+SCE). Mice in Cont group and DSS group were fed basic diet and other mice received 1% SCE supplemented in basic diet from 6-week to 8-week-old. Mice in DSS and DSS+SCE groups were also given a 4% DSS solution from 7-week to 8-week-old via drinking water to induce colonic inflammation. After 2 weeks, mice were sacrificed and samples were collected. The results showed that dietary SCE alleviated DSS induced growth suppression, splenic damage, colonic histological changes, colonic inflammation, oxidative stress, and colonic dysfunction of tight junctions. Meanwhile, the DSS exposure activated nuclear transcription factor kappa B p65 and inhibited nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), while SCE markedly attenuated the DSS-promoted effect on the p65 nuclear accumulation and the DSS-inhibited effect on the Nrf2 nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, SCE conferred a protective role in the DSS-induced inflammation and the mechanism might be associated with the activated signals of the nuclear factor kappa B p65 and Nrf2.

  2. Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from soil of a sugar cane field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2016-05-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain T3T, was isolated from a soil sample of a sugar cane field. The strain grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 37-50 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0) and with 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7 %). The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was colourless to pale yellow. The substrate mycelium fragmented into rod-shaped elements after 4-5 days at 50 °C. The aerial mycelium formed flexuous chains of 5-20 spores per chain; the oval-shaped spores had spiny surfaces and were non-motile. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose and ribose. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The quinone system was composed predominantly of MK-9(H4). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain T3T was 71.3 mol%. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. In the 16S rRNA gene tree of Saccharopolyspora it formed a distinct phyletic line and was related most closely to Saccharopolyspora thermophila 216T. However, the phenotypic characteristics of strain T3T were significantly different from those of S. thermophila 216T and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low level of relatedness (28.6-32.3 %) between them. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain T3T represents a novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = DSM 46801T = CGMCC 4.7206T).

  3. Occupational hazards, living conditions, and physical assault of sugar cane workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Robins, T G; Salie, F; Gwagwa, T

    1998-09-01

    To characterise the occupational hazards and living conditions of sugar cane workers in KwaZulu-Natal. Based on information provided by shop stewards, a survey instrument (questionnaire) was constructed for administration to union members. Seven sugar cane farms and estates owned by one large corporation in late 1993. Members of the South African Farm and Allied Workers Union (SAFAWU). Of the 632 participants, 50% were permanent workers, 22.3% were seasonal workers and 27.7% were casual workers. Mean daily pay ranged from R5 to R35 per worker. The majority of participants reported substandard housing both during the growing season and during the off-season. Percentages reporting health problems in the last 12 months believed by the respondent to be caused or made worse by work included 79% with eye problems, 78% with upper respiratory problems, 88% with lower respiratory problems, 93% with musculoskeletal problems, and 81% with an acute traumatic injury. More than half the participants reported fainting, collapsing or illness from working on hot or sunny days. Fourteen per cent reported being struck with the fist or hand, or being pushed, shoved or kicked by a farm owner, member of the owner's family, manager or supervisor; 9% reported being struck with an object, whipped, or attacked or threatened with a knife or gun by one of these same individuals. Sugar cane workers employed by a large corporation in KwaZulu-Natal appear to face severe threats to their physical and psychological well-being including: (i) inadequate pay to meet basic living needs; (ii) substandard living conditions; (iii) significant occupational hazards resulting in high reported levels of occupational illness and injury; and (iv) physical and psychological abuse and intimidation by farm owners and their agents.

  4. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

    2001-01-01

    Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za. PMID:11513743

  5. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time‐series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (μg/m3) was obtained using Handi‐vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long‐time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1 day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 5‐day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  6. Spectrofotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirit using biquinoline in the presence of ethanol and Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Rocha, Sarah Adriana; Dantas, Alaílson Falcão; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Costa, Antônio Celso Spínola; Leão, Elsimar dos Santos; Gonçalves, Mara Rúbia

    2008-12-15

    The present paper proposes a method for molecular spectrophotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirits. The copper(I) reacts with biquinoline forming a pink complex with maximum absorption at 545 nm. The reaction occurs in the presence of hydroxylamine, ethanol and Triton X-100 tensioative. Determination of copper is possible in a linear range 0.2-20.0 mgL(-1) with a detection limit 0.05 mgL(-1). The great advantages of the proposed methodology are the elimination of liquid-liquid extraction step and the use of toxic organics solvents, like dioxane, to dissolve the reagent.

  7. Spectrofotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirit using biquinoline in the presence of ethanol and Triton X-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Sarah Adriana; Dantas, Alaílson Falcão; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Costa, Antônio Celso Spínola; Leão, Elsimar dos Santos; Gonçalves, Mara Rúbia

    2008-12-01

    The present paper proposes a method for molecular spectrophotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirits. The copper(I) reacts with biquinoline forming a pink complex with maximum absorption at 545 nm. The reaction occurs in the presence of hydroxylamine, ethanol and Triton X-100 tensioative. Determination of copper is possible in a linear range 0.2-20.0 mg L -1 with a detection limit 0.05 mg L -1. The great advantages of the proposed methodology are the elimination of liquid-liquid extraction step and the use of toxic organics solvents, like dioxane, to dissolve the reagent.

  8. Selection of sugar cane families by using BLUP and multi-diverse analyses for planting in the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M H P; Ferreira, A; Peixoto, L A; Resende, M D V; Nascimento, M; Silva, F F

    2014-03-12

    This study evaluated different strategies to select sugar cane families and obtain clones adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah. Specifically, 7 experiments were conducted, with 10 full sib families, and 2 witnesses in common to all experiments, in each experiment. The plants were grown in random blocks, with witnesses in common (incomplete blocks), and 6 repetitions of each experiment. The data were analyzed through the methodology of mixed patterns, in which the matrices of kinship between the families were identified by the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The characteristics that were evaluated included soluble solids content (BRIX), BRIX ton/ha, average mass of a culm, number of culms/m, and tons of culms/ha. A multi-diverse alternative based on the analysis of groupings by using the UPGMA method was used to identify the most viable families for selection, when considering the genotypic effects on all characteristics. This method appeared suitable for the selection of families, with 5 family groups being formed. The families that formed Group 2 appeared superior to all other families for all the evaluated characteristics. It is recommended that the families in Group 2 are preferentially used in sugar cane improvement programs to obtain varieties optimally adapted to the conditions of the Brazilian savannah.

  9. Dehydration Processes of Sugar Glasses and Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The dehydration processes of sugar glasses and sugar crystals were studied by using Thermogravimetry — Differential Thermal Analysis method. We used three monosaccharide sugars (fructose, galactose, and glucose) and three disaccharide sugars (sucrose, maltose and trehalose). It was found that a trehalose showed different dehydration process compared to the other sugars. The amount of mass reductions in sugar glasses is larger than that in sugar crystals. However, in the case of trehalose, the amount of mass reduction in trehalose glasses is smaller than that in trehalose crystals. It seems to be possible that this unique dehydration property of trehalose glasses maybe relate to the cell protection ability during an anhydrobiosis process.

  10. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-05

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  11. Mutation breeding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lower methanol content and the effects of pectinase, cellulase and glycine in sugar cane spirits.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ming-Hua; Liang, Ying-Jie; Wu, Xiao-Na; Zhou, Shi-Shui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-07-01

    To decrease the methanol content of the sugar cane sprits, mutagenesis of ultraviolet (UV) coupled with diethyl sulfate (DES) was used to generate a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lower methanol content. Meanwhile, the effects of the additions of pectinase, cellulase and glycine on the production of methanol in sugar cane spirits were evaluated. After mutagenesis of UV coupled with DES, a mutant S. cerevisiae DU9 with low production of methanol (97.3 ± 1.7 mg/L) was selected, with a 12.3% decrease of that of S. cerevisiae D4 only with DES treatment, and with a 27.8% reduction of that of the strain without any treatment. Pectinase and cellulase significantly increased the methanol levels of the sugar cane spirits. The results showed that there was linear relationship between glycine (concentration within 0∼0.9 g/L) and methanol in sugar cane sprits and the linear equation was y = 104.7 × -4.79 with the conversion rate of glycine conversion to methanol as 24.56%. Mutagenesis of UV coupled with DES is an efficient way to generate a mutant of S. cerevisiae with lower methanol content. Also, it is necessary to control the additions of pectinase, cellulase and glycine in the fermentation medium, and other unknown ways to generate methanol metabolic pathway in yeasts may need further study. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Metal levels in sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) samples from an area under the influence of a municipal landfill and a medical waste treatment system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Segura-Muñoz, S I; da Silva Oliveira, A; Nikaido, M; Trevilato, T M B; Bocio, A; Takayanagui, A M M; Domingo, J L

    2006-01-01

    In July 2003, duplicated samples of roots, stems and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) were collected in 25 points of an area under direct influence of the municipal landfill site (MLS) and medical waste treatment system (MWTS) of Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The following concentrations (mg/kg) were found in roots: Cd, 0.22+/-0.12; Cr, 64.3+/-48.7; Cu, 140.6+/-27.7; Hg, 0.04+/-0.02; Mn, 561.6+/-283.3; Pb, 7.9+/-2.1 and Zn, 177.4+/-64.9. For some metals, these levels are higher than the concentrations previously reported for different plants, reaching, in some cases, values that might be considered toxic for vegetables. Metal levels in stems were 80-90% of those found in roots, while the concentrations detected in leaves were significantly lower than those in roots. The present results suggest that MLS and MWTS activities might have been increasing metal concentrations in edible tissues of sugar cane grown in the area under their influence. Moreover, the traditional agricultural practices in the production of sugar cane could be also another determinant factor to reach the current metal levels. The results of this study indicate that sugar cane is a crop that is able to grow in areas where metals in soils are accumulated.

  13. Effect of different pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse on cellulase and xylanases production by the mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 grown in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U · mL(-1)) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β -glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

  14. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate.

  15. [Fungic microbiota of normal conjunctiva, sugar-cane and anemophilous fungi of the region of Monte Belo - Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Dalfré, Joyce Treinta; Rodrigues, João Paulo Brandão; Donato, Bruno Guimarães; Giancoli Neto, Armando; de Carvalho, Juliano Lopes; de Andrade Oliveira, Daniel Iscold; Pereira, Maria Aparecida; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of fungi in the ocular conjunctiva of sugar-cane cutting workers as well in a sugar-cane plantation environment. Monte Belo - MG, Eye Clinic, Laboratory of Physiology and Biology of Microorganisms of Unifenas, Alfenas - MG. Swabs were made from the ocular conjunctiva of one hundred workers of both sexes and material was collected from leaves, stalk, and the environmental air from the sugar-cane plantation. These were inoculated in specific mold media. After incubation at 25 degrees C for a period of fifteen days, the plates were analyzed and colony forming units (ufc) were identified using conventional mycological techniques. Of one hundred workers involved in this research, 64 presented one or more genera of fungi, 54 (84.38%) being identified in males and 10 (15.62%) identified in females. The separation of the workers by age range showed that the prevalence of observed fungi by age was not uniform. The highest incidences were found in advanced age ranges, the increase of positivity by age being considered statistically significant (p<0.05). The lowest prevalence (50%) was found in the 11-20-year-old interval, which presents the lowest number of examined persons. The highest positivity was verified in the 61-79 year interval. In 60 workers (93.75%) only one genus was isolated; in 3 (4.69%) two genera, and in only one worker (1.56%) three genera were isolated. The most prevalent isolated fungi were Fusarium sp (43.76%) and Geotrichum sp (23.44%), followed by Cladosporium sp (9.38%), Penicillium sp (7.81%), Mucor sp (9.38%) and Oidium sp (7.81%). The most common genus founded in leaves, stalk and air were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. The environmental conditions, the socioeconomic status and the general and personal poor hygienic conditions, together with lack of information about prophylactic standards, surely led to the high incidence of ocular conjunctiva fungus isolation (67%). The incidence was much

  16. Energy balances in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation in the northeastern side of the São Paulo state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Ronquim, Carlos C.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de C. Victoria, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Under land and climate change scenarios, agriculture has experienced water competitions among other sectors in the São Paulo state, Brazil. On the one hand, in several occasions, in the northeastern side of this state, nowadays sugar-cane is expanding, while coffee plantations are losing space. On the other hand, both crops have replaced the natural vegetation composed by Savannah and Atlantic Coastal Forest species. Under this dynamic situation, geosciences are valuable tools for evaluating the large-scale energy and mass exchanges between these different agro-ecosystems and the lower atmosphere. For quantification of the energy balance components in these mixed agro-ecosystems, the bands 1 and 2 from the MODIS product MOD13Q1 were used throughout SAFER (Surface Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm, which was applied together with a net of 12 automatic weather stations, during the year 2015 in the main sugar cane and coffee growing regions, located at the northeastern side of the state. The fraction of the global solar radiation (RG) transformed into net radiation (Rn) was 52% for sugar cane and 53% for both, coffee and natural vegetation. The respective annual fractions of Rn used as λE were 0.68, 0.87 and 0.77, while for the sensible heat (H) fluxes they were 0.27, 0.07 and 0.16. From April to July, heat advection raised λE values above Rn promoting negative H, however these effects were much and less strong in coffee and sugar cane crops, respectively. The smallest daily Rn fraction for all agro-ecosystems was for the soil heat flux (G), with averages of 5%, 6% and 7% in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation. From the energy balance analyses, we could conclude that, sugar-cane crop presented lower annual water consumption than that for coffee crop, what can be seen as an advantage in situations of water scarcity. However, the replacement of natural vegetation by sugar cane can contribute for warming the environment, while when this

  17. Biodegradation of heavy crude oil Maya using spent compost and sugar cane bagasse wastes.

    PubMed

    Trejo-Hernández, M R; Ortiz, A; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Quintero, R

    2007-06-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of some agroindustrial wastes as supports in solid state cultures for the biodegradation of crude oil Maya in static column reactors over 15-20 days periods. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes showed superior qualities over peat moss waste as support candidates with the advantage that they contain appreciable densities of autochthonous microorganisms in the order of 10(2) cfu g(-1). Mercuric chloride (2%) was able to completely inhibit growth of these microfloras. Biodegradation was enhanced in the presence of the IMP consortium and highest when microflora from cane bagasse only was the bioaugmentation partner (180.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). Combination of these waste materials (3:1 ratio, respectively) was observed to significantly biodegrade the crude oil by approximately 40% in 15 days from an initial concentration of 10,000 mg kg(-1) with a four order of magnitude increase in microbial density during this period. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes are veritable solid support candidates for use in the biodegradation of crude oil polluted systems.

  18. The effect of sugar cane molasses on the immune and male reproductive systems using in vitro and in vivo methods

    PubMed Central

    Rahiman, Farzana; Pool, Edmund John

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Sugar cane molasses is a commonly used ingredient in several food products. Contrasting reports suggest that molasses may have potential adverse or beneficial effects on human health. However, little evidence exists that examines the effects of molasses on the different physiological systems. This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on various physiological systems using in vivo and in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: Molasses was administered orally to BALB/c, male mice and animals were randomly assigned into either a treatment or control group. General physiological changes, body weight and molasses intake of animals were monitored. At the end of the exposure period, collected blood samples were evaluated for potential toxicity using plasma biomarkers and liver enzyme activity. Immunised treated and untreated mice were evaluated for antibody titre to determine the effect of molasses on the immune response. To investigate the impact of molasses on testicular steroidogenesis, testes from both treated and control groups were harvested, cultured and assayed for testosterone synthesis. Results: Findings suggest that fluid intake by molasses-treated animals was significantly increased and these animals showed symptoms of loose faeces. Molasses had no significant effect on body weight, serum biomarkers or liver enzyme activity (P>0.05). Immunoglobulin-gamma anti-antigen levels were significantly suppressed in molasses-treated groups (P=0.004). Animals subjected to molasses exposure also exhibited elevated levels of testosterone synthesis (P=0.001). Conclusion: Findings suggests that molasses adversely affects the humoral immune response. The results also promote the use of molasses as a supplement to increase testosterone levels. PMID:27872709

  19. Migration, ethnicity and environment: HIV risk factors for women on the sugar cane plantations of the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Brewer, T H; Hasbun, J; Ryan, C A; Hawes, S E; Martinez, S; Sanchez, J; Butler de Lister, M; Constanzo, J; Lopez, J; Holmes, K K

    1998-10-01

    To determine risk factors for HIV infection among women living in the sugar cane plantation communities (bateyes) of a large private sugar cane company in the Dominican Republic. Cross-sectional study of sexually active female volunteers living in the bateyes. Of 98 bateyes, 23 were randomly selected and visited by a mobile medical unit, to interview, examine and test volunteers for seroreactivity to HIV and syphilis. The 490 subjects ranged in age from 16 to 72 years (median, 37 years); 53% were born in Haiti, 36% in Dominican Republic bateyes, and 12% elsewhere in the Dominican Republic; 58% had no formal education; and 87% had no income. HIV seropositivity was found in 28 women (5.7%), including 8.8% of those aged < 35 years. By logistic regression analysis, HIV infection was independently associated with age < 35 years [odds ratio (OR), 4.5; P < 0.01), being single with children (OR, 4.3; P < 0.01), more than one lifetime sex partners (OR, 3.4; P = 0.06), engaging in sex during menses (OR, 3.2; P = 0.02), and self-description as a prostitute (OR, 4.4; P = 0.05)1. For Haitian women, those coming to the Dominican Republic alone were more likely to have HIV infection than those coming with a male partner. Less than 4% of women reported condom use at last intercourse. Women in the bateyes have a much higher rate of HIV infection than that estimated for women in the general population of Dominican Republic and a rate comparable to that of female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. AIDS prevention in the bateyes should address condom education and distribution as well as employment opportunities and education for women.

  20. Structural evaluation of sugar cane bagasse steam pretreated in the presence of CO2 and SO2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the use of SO2 and CO2 as impregnating agent for sugar cane bagasse steam treatment showed comparative and promising results concerning the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis and the low formation of the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural for the use of CO2 at 205°C/15 min or SO2 at 190°C/5 min. In the present study sugar cane bagasse materials pretreated as aforementioned were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy) aiming a better understanding of the structural and chemical changes undergone by the pretreated materials. Results SEM and TEM data showed that the structural modifications undergone by the pretreatment with CO2 were less pronounced in comparison to that using SO2, which can be directly related to the combined severity of each pretreatment. According to XRD data, untreated bagasse showed, as expected, a lower crystallinity index (CI = 48.0%) when compared to pretreated samples with SO2 (CI = 65.5%) or CO2 (CI = 56.4%), due to the hemicellulose removal of 68.3% and 40.5%, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results, revealing a more extensive action of SO2. Conclusions The SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy techniques used in this work contributed to structural and chemical analysis of the untreated and pretreated bagasse. The images from SEM and TEM can be related to the severity of SO2 pretreatment, which is almost twice higher. The crystallinity index values obtained from XRD showed that pretreated materials have higher values when compared with untreated material, due to the partial removal of hemicellulose after pretreatment. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results. CO2 can actually be used as impregnating agent for steam pretreatment, although the present study confirmed a more extensive action of SO2. PMID:22616648

  1. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields.

  2. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  3. Further studies on a new pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in sugar-cane and its occurrence in other plant species

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.; Johnson, Hilary S.

    1967-01-01

    1. The pathway of photosynthesis in sugar-cane, which gives most of the radio-activity fixed during short periods in 14CO2 in C-4 of oxaloacetate, malate and aspartate, was examined under varied conditions. 2. The pattern of labelling was essentially the same with leaves of different ages and with leaves equilibrated at carbon dioxide concentrations in the range 0–3·8% (v/v) and light-intensities in the range 1400–9000ft.-candles before adding 14CO2. 3. Radioactive products were examined after exposing leaves of 33 different plant species to 14CO2 for 4sec. under standard conditions. 4. A labelling pattern typical of sugar-cane was found in several species of Gramineae but not in others. Of 16 species from other Families only a species of Cyperaceae contained a large proportion of the fixed radioactivity in oxaloacetate, malate and aspartate. PMID:6029601

  4. Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

    2014-08-20

    The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L.

  5. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  6. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  7. Kitasatospora sampliensis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from soil of a sugar-cane field in India.

    PubMed

    Mayilraj, S; Krishnamurthi, S; Saha, P; Saini, H S

    2006-03-01

    Polyphasic characterization of an actinomycete strain VT-36(T) isolated from a sugar-cane field soil sample collected in Punjab State, India, revealed that the strain belongs to the genus Kitasatospora. The strain's chemotaxonomic characters and G+C content of DNA (76.5 mol%) were typical of members of the genus. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supported the generic affiliation of the strain and showed that its closest phylogenetic relative was Kitasatospora putterlickiae F18-98T (= DSM 44665T) (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The similarities with type strains of all other Kitasatospora species were in the range 95.1-97.0 %. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization showed 54 % relatedness of the isolate and K. putterlickiae F18-98T. Based on the above data and the phenotypic differences from K. putterlickiae and other Kitasatospora species, it is proposed that the isolate should be classified as the type strain of a novel species, Kitasatospora sampliensis sp. nov., with strain VT-36T (= MTCC 6546T = DSM 44898T = JCM 13010T) as the type strain.

  8. Determination of the Impact to air quality by the sugar cane burning during harvesting in Costa Rica: regional and temporal analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, J. S.; Solórzano, D.; Rojas, J. F.; Beita, V. H.; Chinchilla, J. A.; Herrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    In Costa Rica, as in other countries, sugar-cane crops are burned to facilitate harvesting, and such process causes environmental pollution from the smoke that is released to the atmospheric boundary layer. In this study, during the harvest season, were determined PM10, PM2.5, ions, heavy metals and PAHs concentrations in the air of 8 different regions of Costa Rica. The sampling methodology included 47 events with 3 sampling sites per each; these sites covered different climate regions of the country. PM10 and PM2.5 were collected using Hi-vol samplers with quartz-fiber filters using a thermal pre-preprocess for organics. PM10 ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m3, PM2.5 from 25 to 354 μg/m3; the minimum results were obtained at the sixth region and the maximum ones at the second one, both located in the North Pacific. As a reference, in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica the PM10 usually have had annual means behind 30 μg/m3. The most abundant ions found in PM10 were chloride, nitrate and sulfate. Meanwhile, the ranges of Fe, Cr, Cu, and Pb were 0,03 - 6,80 µg/m3, 10,6 - 358,0 ng/m3, 11,8 - 361,4 ng/m3 and 0,67 - 479,50 ng/m3, respectively. The PAH most abundant were the naphthalene and the acenaphthylene. The mean total concentration of PAHs in PM10 was 7,9 ng/m3 with a standard deviation of 3,3 between regions. According to the PM10 medians, the regions with more pollution levels were the 3 and 4, while the regions 4 and 5 were the least contaminated. On the other hand, the atmospheric contaminants' concentration was significantly higher in the diurnal burnings than the nocturnal ones. The sampling sites were directly affected by the emission of the sugar-cane burning.

  9. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... sucrose, other names for sugar include high fructose corn syrup, molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey or fruit juice ... out any particular types such as high-fructose corn syrup. For more detailed information and guidance on ...

  10. The Influence of Sugar Cane Bagasse Type and Its Particle Size on Xylose Production and Xylose-to-Xylitol Bioconversion with the Yeast Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Aghcheh, Razieh Karimi; Bonakdarpour, Babak; Ashtiani, Farzin Zokaee

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of the type of sugar cane bagasse (non-depithed or depithed) and its particle size on the production of xylose and its subsequent fermentation to xylitol by Debaryomyces hansenii CBS767 was investigated using a full factorial experimental design. It was found that the particle size range and whether bagasse was depithed or not had a significant effect on the concentration and yield of xylose in the resulting hemicellulose hydrolysate. Depithed bagasse resulted in higher xylose concentrations compared to non-depithed bagasse. The corresponding detoxified hemicellulose hydrolysates were used as fermentation media for the production of xylitol. The hemicellulose hydrolysate prepared from depithed bagasse also yielded meaningfully higher xylitol fermentation rates compared to non-depithed bagasse. However, in the case of non-depithed bagasse, the hemicellulose hydrolysate prepared from larger particle size range resulted in higher xylitol fermentation rates, whereas the effect in the case of non-depithed bagasse was not pronounced. Therefore, depithing of bagasse is an advantageous pretreatment when it is to be employed in bioconversion processes.

  11. Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. . Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

    1994-06-20

    Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

  12. Cellulases and xylanases production by Penicillium echinulatum grown on sugar cane bagasse in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the production of cellulases and xylanases from Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1, solid-state fermentation (SSF) was performed by using different ratios of sugar cane bagasse (SCB) and wheat bran (WB). The greatest filter paper activity obtained was 45.82 ± 1.88 U gdm(-1) in a culture containing 6SCB/4WB on the third day. The greatest β-glucosidase activities were 40.13 ± 5.10 U gdm(-1) obtained on the third day for the 0SCB/10WB culture and 29.17 ± 1.06 U gdm(-1) for the 2SCB/8WB culture. For endoglucanase, the greatest activities were 290.47 ± 43.57 and 276.84 ± 15.47 U gdm(-1), for the culture 6SCB/4WB on the fourth and fifth days of cultivation, respectively. The greatest xylanase activities were found on the third day for the cultures 6SCB/4WB (36.38 ± 5.38 U gdm(-1)) and 4SCB/6WB (37.87 ± 2.26 U gdm(-1)). In conclusion, the results presented in this article showed that it was possible to obtain large amounts of cellulases and xylanases enzymes using low-cost substrates, such as SCB and WB.

  13. COMPARATIVE MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS PRODUCED IN FEMURS OF RABBITS REPAIRED WITH BIOPOLYMER GEL CANE SUGAR

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro; dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine; Filho, Nicodemus Pontes; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira; Costa, Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos; de Albuquerque Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro; de Souza Almeida, Tarciana Mendonça; da Silva Santos, Alessandro Henrique; da Silva, Joacil Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits and filled with sugar cane biopolymer gel (SCBG), after 90, 120 and 180 days, and in comparison with a control group. Method: Sixteen adult New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 to 7 months, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg and without locomotor system abnormalities were studied. In all the animals, a defect was made in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees, measuring 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, using a trephine. The animals were divided into two groups: study group formed by the right knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles received implants of SCBG; and control group formed by the left knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles were allowed to heal naturally. The knees were assessed 90, 120 and 180 days after the operation. After the animals had been sacrificed, the anatomical specimens were resected and placed in Bouin's solution. They were then photographed with a Nikon Coolpix 5400® coupled to a Nikon SM2800® stereoscopic loupe, to analyze the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing. Results: The results were evaluated using the chi-square test. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic assessments of healing between the study and control groups. Conclusion: With regard to the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of the defects, the macroscopic appearance of the tissue repaired with SCBG was similar to that of the control group. PMID:27027057

  14. COMPARATIVE MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS PRODUCED IN FEMURS OF RABBITS REPAIRED WITH BIOPOLYMER GEL CANE SUGAR.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro; Dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine; Filho, Nicodemus Pontes; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira; Costa, Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos; de Albuquerque Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro; de Souza Almeida, Tarciana Mendonça; da Silva Santos, Alessandro Henrique; da Silva, Joacil Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To study the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits and filled with sugar cane biopolymer gel (SCBG), after 90, 120 and 180 days, and in comparison with a control group. Sixteen adult New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 to 7 months, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg and without locomotor system abnormalities were studied. In all the animals, a defect was made in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees, measuring 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, using a trephine. The animals were divided into two groups: study group formed by the right knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles received implants of SCBG; and control group formed by the left knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles were allowed to heal naturally. The knees were assessed 90, 120 and 180 days after the operation. After the animals had been sacrificed, the anatomical specimens were resected and placed in Bouin's solution. They were then photographed with a Nikon Coolpix 5400(®) coupled to a Nikon SM2800(®) stereoscopic loupe, to analyze the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing. The results were evaluated using the chi-square test. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic assessments of healing between the study and control groups. With regard to the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of the defects, the macroscopic appearance of the tissue repaired with SCBG was similar to that of the control group.

  15. RESEARCH-ARTILE Agricultural performance and genetic parameters for yield-related traits of sugar- and energy cane families derived from planned crosses.

    PubMed

    Júnior, A R Fernandes; de Azeredo, A A C; de Oliveira, R A; Filho, J C Bespalhok; Ido, O T; Daros, E; Brasileiro, B P

    2017-09-27

    The forecast of a growing energy demand in the coming years has aroused particular interest in biomass for energy cogeneration, to diversify the energy matrix by using clean and renewable sources. To meet the new demands of the sugarcane industry, this study evaluated the agronomic performance and estimated genetic parameters for yield traits in sugar- and energy cane families derived from planned crosses. The cane families were assessed in the northwest of the State of Paraná, county of Paranavaí, in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. The evaluations were carried out 12 months after the first cut, in the ratoon cane cycle, in December 2014, under very unfavorable conditions for the crop, due to the low fertility and water-holding capacity of the soil. Besides, the crop was evaluated at the end of the harvest, when the agricultural and industrial quality of the crop is reduced. The following traits were evaluated at the plot level: soluble solids content, apparent sucrose content (PC), fiber content, tons of cane per hectare, tons of sucrose per hectare (TSH), and tons of fiber per hectare (TFH). High genetic variability was observed for all evaluated traits, with accuracy estimates from 0.69 (TSH) to 0.92 (PC), and high heritability ​​(up to 0.84), indicating the possibility of genetic progress. The sugarcane families derived from crosses of Saccharum spontaneum and Saccharum robustum species with sugarcane hybrids had the highest fiber contents. Highest sugar contents were found in sugarcane families resulting from crosses of sugarcane clones and conventional cultivars. The TSH means were highest in the families F160 x MEX68-200 and RB855156 x RB987935. The highest genotypic mean for TFH was observed in the special polycross involving cultivar RB036066 with S. spontaneum accessions as pollen donors.

  16. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production.

  17. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  18. Enzymatic digestion of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugar cane bagasse and its correlation with the chemical and structural changes occurring during the pretreatment step.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fernanda M; Laurito, Debora F; Bazzeggio, Mariana; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, which hinders the efficient conversion of its polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment was used to overcome the sugar cane bagasse recalcitrance. Chemical and structural changes that occurred during the pretreatment were correlated with the efficiency of the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides. The first 30 min of pretreatment, which removed approximately half of the initial lignin and 30% of hemicellulose seemed responsible for a significant enhancement of the cellulose conversion level, which reached 64%. After the first 30 min of pretreatment, delignification increased slightly, and hemicellulose removal was not enhanced; however, acid groups continued to be introduced into the residual lignin. Water retention values were 145% to the untreated bagasse and 210% to the bagasse pretreated for 120 min and fiber widths increased from 10.4 to 30 μm, respectively. These changes were responsible for an additional increase in the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose, which reached 92% with the 120 min pretreated sample.

  19. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

    2014-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day. A correlation matrix was used to explore the origins of the different compounds. The data suggested that during the daytime, direct emissions (mainly in vehicle exhaust) contributed to the presence of PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs in air. Photochemical production also appeared to be a source of the majority of nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, while photolysis could have contributed to removal of the nitro-PAHs during the daytime. At night, sugar cane burning emissions were the primary source of the PAHs and nitro-PAHs, with additional sources also contributing to the levels of oxy-PAHs in the atmosphere.

  20. Impact on the air quality in Córdoba México by sugar cane burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Figueroa, José; Mugica, Violeta; Millán, Fernando; Santiago, Naxieli; Torres, Miguel; Hernández, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Mexico is the sixth larger producer of sugarcane in the world, and the City of Córdoba located in Veracruz, Mexico is surrounded by 13 sugar mills and hundreds of hectares of sugarcane fields. Nevertheless, large plumes of smoke are observed due to the burning of sugarcane fields with the purpose to make easy the manual harvest, protecting the workers from leaves, insects and snakes. In addition, after harvest, straw and other wastes are burned to prepare the land. The air pollution has an important impact to the health of inhabitants due to the presence of toxics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but also has an impact to global warming since has been published that black carbon emitted due to incomplete combustion has a high warming potency and that is the second climatic forcer after CO2. In order to determine the impact of these agriculture practices, a monitoring campaign of PM2.5 was carried out every six days from April to August 2015 in the City of Córdoba and a rural place close to the fields. Particle concentrations were determined and organic and black carbon were analyzed with thermo-optic equipment (TOT-Niosh, Sunset Lab) and an ethalometer (Sootscaner). In addition the concentration levels of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured using GC-MS. PM2.5 average concentrations during harvesting in the urban and the rural zone were 138.3±43.6 μg/m3 and 147.4±27.3 μg/m3 respectively, whereas the concentrations during the no-harvesting period were 63.7±7.6 μg/m3 and 44.9±7.0 μg/m3 for the same places, showing that during harvesting the PM2.5 concentrations increase up to 3 times presenting most of the days bad air quality. The sum of PAHs in the urban and the rural locations were 3.36±0.72 ng/m3 and 1.58±0.49 ng/m3 during harvesting; these values are 43% and 54% greater than during the no-harvesting period. The most abundant PAHs were in all cases indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo

  1. Solid-phase extraction of sugar cane soot extract for analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionisation and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Zamperlini, G C; Santiago-Silva, M; Vilegas, W

    2000-08-11

    The incomplete combustion of biomass is one of the most important sources of emissions of organic compounds into the atmosphere, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which show genotoxic activity. Since environmental samples generally contain interferents and trace amounts of PAHs of interest, concentration and clean-up procedures are usually required prior to the final chromatographic analysis. This paper discusses the performance of Sep-Pak cartridges (silica gel and RP18) on clean-up of sugar cane soot extract. The best results were obtained with a silica Sep-Pak cartridge. The recoveries ranged from 79% (benzo[b]fluoranthene) to 113% (benzo[e]pyrene).

  2. Sugarcane bagasse and leaf residue biochars as soil amendment for increased sugar and cane yields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are two potential untapped resources associated with the harvesting and processing of sugarcane, the trash (leaves and tops) left in the field and the sugarcane bagasse as surplus from the mills. Burning of sugarcane trash in the field has been under scrutiny in recent years due to urban encr...

  3. [Influence of substrate concentration on PHA production using fermented sugar cane as substrate].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Yi; Huang, Long; Wen, Qin-Xue; Guo, Zi-Rui

    2013-06-01

    PHA was a kind of biodegradable polymer produced by mixed microorganisms. In recent years, 3-stage PHA synthesis process (including substrate hydrolysis, culture selection, and PHA synthesis) was commonly used for PHA production. In this kind of process, culture selection is the key stage, which directly affects the PHA production efficiency. In order to deal with sludge bulking occurred in the culture selection system, this paper analyzes the influence of substrate concentration on culture selection efficiency as well as operation stability. Under different influent substrate concentrations of 560 mg x L(-1), 1 120 mg x L(-1) and 1 680 mg x L(-1), we confirmed that influent substrate concentration (COD) of 1 120 mg x L(-1) is the most suitable parameter for the bacteria enriching process after a long period of time under short SRT. After 94 days of cultivation, we achieved 50% of PHA content, 0.7145 COD/COD of PHA conversion rate and 0.191 2 mg x (mg x h)(-1) of specific PHA storage rate at the end of batch tests with nutrient starvation. The study also confirmed that glycogen level in cells has a close relationship with its PHA synthesis ability, which shows its potential to predict the enrichment efficiency.

  4. Plant growth-promoting traits of epiphytic and endophytic yeasts isolated from rice and sugar cane leaves in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Arunrattiyakorn, Panarat; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-08-01

    A total of 1035 yeast isolates, obtained from rice and sugar cane leaves, were screened primarily for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Thirteen isolates were selected, due to their IAA production ranging from 1.2 to 29.3 mg g(-)(1) DCW. These isolates were investigated for their capabilities of calcium phosphate and ZnO(3) solubilisation, and also for production of NH(3), polyamine, and siderophore. Their 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, catalase and fungal cell wall-degrading enzyme activities were assessed. Their antagonism against rice fungal pathogens was also evaluated. Strain identification, based on molecular taxonomy, of the thirteen yeast isolates revealed that four yeast species - i.e. Hannaella sinensis (DMKU-RP45), Cryptococcus flavus (DMKU-RE12, DMKU-RE19, DMKU-RE67, and DMKU-RP128), Rhodosporidium paludigenum (DMKU-RP301) and Torulaspora globosa (DMKU-RP31) - were capable of high IAA production. Catalase activity was detected in all yeast strains tested. The yeast R. paludigenum DMKU-RP301 was the best IAA producer, yielding 29.3 mg g(-)(1) DCW, and showed the ability to produce NH3 and siderophore. Different levels of IAA production (7.2-9.7 mg g(-)(1) DCW) were found in four strains of C. flavus DMKU-RE12, DMKU-RE19, and DMKU-RE67, which are rice leaf endophytes, and strain DMKU-RP128, which is a rice leaf epiphyte. NH(3) production and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was also detected in these four strains. Antagonism to fungal plant pathogens and production of antifungal volatile compounds were exhibited in T. globosa DMKU-RP31, as well as a moderate level of IAA production (4.9 mg g(-)(1) DCW). The overall results indicated that T. globosa DMKU-RP31 might be used in two ways: enhancing plant growth and acting as a biocontrol agent. In addition, four C. flavus were also found to be strains of interest for optimal IAA production.

  5. Gene Editing in Polyploid Crops: Wheat, Camelina, Canola, Potato, Cotton, Peanut, Sugar Cane, and Citrus.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Donald P

    2017-01-01

    Polyploid crops make up a significant portion of the major food and fiber crops of the world and include wheat, potato, cotton, apple, peanut, citrus, and brassica oilseeds such as rape, canola, and Camelina. The presence of three sets of chromosomes in triploids, four sets in tetraploids, and six sets in hexaploids present significant challenges to conventional plant breeding and, potentially, to efficient use of rapidly emerging gene and genome-editing systems such as zinc finger nucleases, single-stranded oligonucleotides, TALE effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9). However, recent studies with each of these techniques in several polyploid crops have demonstrated facile editing of some or all of the genes targeted for modification on homeologous chromosomes. These modifications have allowed improvements in food nutrition, seed oil composition, disease resistance, weed protection, plant breeding procedures, and food safety. Plants and plant products exhibiting useful new traits created through gene editing but lacking foreign DNA may face reduced regulatory restrictions. Such plants can be obtained either by simply selecting for null segregants that have lost their editing transgenes during plant breeding or, even more attractively, by delivery of biodegradable Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (i.e., no DNA) into plant cells where they are expressed only transiently but allow for efficient gene editing-a system that has been recently demonstrated in at least two polyploid crops. Such systems that create precise mutations but leave no transgene footprint hold potential promise for assisting with the elimination or great diminution of regulatory processes that presently burden approvals of conventional transgenic crops. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  7. Thermoset phenolic matrices reinforced with unmodified and surface-grafted furfuryl alcohol sugar cane bagasse and curaua fibers: properties of fibers and composites.

    PubMed

    Trindade, W G; Hoareau, W; Megiatto, J D; Razera, I A T; Castellan, A; Frollini, E

    2005-01-01

    Composites based on phenolic matrices and unmodified and chemically modified sugar cane bagasse and curaua fibers were prepared. The fibers were oxidized by chlorine dioxide, mainly phenolic syringyl and guaiacyl units of the lignin polymer, followed by grafting furfuryl alcohol (FA), which is a chemical obtained from a renewable source. The fibers were widely characterized by chemical composition analysis, crystallinity, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, SEM, DSC, TG, tensile strength, and 13C CP-MAS NMR. The composites were analyzed by SEM, impact strength, and DMA. The SEM images and DMA results showed that the oxidation of sugar cane bagasse fibers followed by reaction with FA favored the fiber/matrix interaction at the interface. The same chemical modification was less effective for curaua fibers, probably due to its lower lignin content, since the reaction considered touches mainly the lignin moiety. The tensile strength results obtained showed that the fibers were partially degraded by the chemical treatment, decreasing then the impact strength of the composites reinforced with them. In the continuity of the present project, efforts has been addressed to the optimization of fiber surface modification, looking for reagents preferably obtained from renewable resources and for chemical modifications that intensify the fiber/matrix interaction without loss of mechanical properties.

  8. Production of cellulases and hemicellulases by Penicillium echinulatum grown on pretreated sugar cane bagasse and wheat bran in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Camassola, M; Dillon, A J P

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the solid-state fermentation (SSF) production of cellulase and hemicellulases (xylanases), by Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1, in experiments carried out with different concentrations of the pretreated sugar cane bagasse (PSCB) and wheat bran (WB). This study reports the production of xylanolytic and cellulolytic enzymes by P. echinulatum 9A02S1 using a cheap medium containing PSCB and WB under SSF. The highest amounts of filter paper activity (FPA) could be measured on mixtures of PSCB and WB (32.89 +/- 1.90 U gdm(-1)). The highest beta-glucosidase activity was 58.95 +/- 2.58 U gdm(-1) on the fourth day. The highest activity for endoglucanases was 282.36 +/- 1.23 U gdm(-1) on the fourth day, and for xylanases the activity was around 10 U gdm(-1) from the second to the fourth day. The present work has established the potential of P. echinulatum for FPA, endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase and xylanase productions in SSF, indicating that WB may be partially substituted by PSCB. The incorporation of cheap sources, such as sugar cane bagasse, into media for the production of lignocellulose enzymes should help decrease the production costs of enzymatic complexes that can hydrolyse lignocellulose residues for the formation of fermented syrups, thus contributing to the economic production of bioethanol.

  9. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vanessa N; Borges, Simone S O; Coelho, Nivia M M

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0 mL min(-1), 30.0 mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO(3) as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min(-1). The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9 μg L(-1), and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0 μg L(-1), n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50 μg L(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%.

  10. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vanessa N.; Borges, Simone S. O.; Coelho, Nivia M. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0 mL min−1, 30.0 mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0 mol L−1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min−1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9 μg L−1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0 μg L−1, n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50 μg L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%. PMID:21785595

  11. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World... quantity of the refined and specialty sugar TRQ is established at 99,111 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) that may be entered under subheadings 1701.12...

  12. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  14. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  15. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  16. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  17. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  18. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups... cane sirup are: (1) Salt. (2) Preservatives. (3) Defoaming agents. (c) The name of the food is “Cane sirup” or “Sugar cane sirup”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled “syrup”. (d) Label...

  19. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups... cane sirup are: (1) Salt. (2) Preservatives. (3) Defoaming agents. (c) The name of the food is “Cane sirup” or “Sugar cane sirup”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled “syrup”. (d) Label...

  20. Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpa; Arya, Namita; Tiwari, Priyanka; Suman, Archna; Rai, R K; Shrivastava, A K; Solomon, S

    2008-08-27

    Sugar cane is sensitive to enormous sucrose losses induced by physio-chemical and microbial changes, the severity being increased during the time lag between harvest and crushing in the mills. Minimization of the sucrose losses in the field is essential for better sugar recovery and prevention of sucrose losses. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for their effects on the microbial counts and physio-chemical changes responsible for sucrose losses. Glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride (1000 + 250 ppm) reduced the losses in sucrose content to 7.1% as compared to the 30.8% loss in the control, thus improving the performance by 76.9%. The application of chemicals reduced the acid invertase activity (by 60%), lowered weight loss, titrable acidity, reducing sugars content, dextran, ethanol, and ethylene production and respiration rates. The application led to the reduction in the total bacterial, fungal, Leuconostoc, and yeast counts by 67.92, 51.3%, 26.08, and 51.2%, respectively.

  1. Social epidemiology of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Colombian sugar cane producer region: a set theory-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio; Rodríguez-Hernández, Jorge Martín

    2011-07-01

    There are few social epidemiologic studies on chickenpox outbreaks, although previous findings suggested the important role of social determinants. This study describes the context of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Cauca Valley region, Colombia (2003 to 2007), with an emphasis on macro-determinants. We explored the temporal trends in chickenpox incidence in 42 municipalities to identify the places with higher occurrences. We analyzed municipal characteristics (education quality, vaccination coverage, performance of health care services, violence-related immigration, and area size of planted sugar cane) through analyses based on set theory. Edwards-Venn diagrams were used to present the main findings. The results indicated that three municipalities had higher incidences and that poor quality education was the attribute most prone to a higher incidence. Potential use of set theory for exploratory outbreak analyses is discussed. It is a tool potentially useful to contrast units when only small sample sizes are available.

  2. Screening for endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Brazilian sugar cane varieties used in organic farming and description of Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Patrícia L; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Thompson, Fabiano L; Rocha, Rafael C S; Barbosa, Heloiza R; De Vos, Paul; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A

    2011-04-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated ICB 89(T), was isolated from stems of a Brazilian sugar cane variety widely used in organic farming. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain ICB 89(T) belonged to the genus Stenotrophomonas and was most closely related to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia LMG 958(T), Stenotrophomonas rhizophila LMG 22075(T), Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens L2(T), [Pseudomonas] geniculata ATCC 19374(T), [Pseudomonas] hibiscicola ATCC 19867(T) and [Pseudomonas] beteli ATCC 19861(T). DNA-DNA hybridization together with chemotaxonomic data and biochemical characteristics allowed the differentiation of strain ICB 89(T) from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain ICB 89(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ICB 89(T) ( = CBMAI 564(T)  = LMG 25348(T)).

  3. A novel strategy for preparing calibration standards for the analysis of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: A case study with pellets of sugar cane leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Gomes, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Santos, Dário, Junior; Krug, Francisco José

    2013-08-01

    Calibration is still a challenging task when dealing with the direct analysis of solids. This is particularly true for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, when the calibrations are matrix-dependent and/or appropriate certified reference materials are generally not available. Looking at the analysis of plant materials in the form of pressed pellets by LIBS, a new method to overcome and/or minimize this difficulty is proposed by keeping the matrix constant in order to produce matrix-matched calibration pellets. To achieve this goal and to test this novel approach, ground sugar cane leaves were chosen and submitted to acid extractions for obtaining the corresponding blank or a material containing very low concentrations of the analytes. The resulting dried solid material was used either as a blank or a low concentration standard, and also homogeneously mixed with the original plant material at appropriate ratios as well. The corresponding pellets were used as calibration standards and ablated at 30 different sites by applying 25 laser pulses per site with a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm. The plasma emission collected by lenses was directed through an optical fiber towards a spectrometer equipped with Echelle optics and intensified charge-coupled device. Delay time and integration time gate were fixed at 2.0 and 5.0 μs, respectively. This calibration strategy was tested for the determination of Ca, Mg, K, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn by LIBS in pellets of leaves from 17 varieties of sugar cane and good correlations were obtained with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry results in the corresponding acid digests. The proposed approach was also useful to estimate the limits of detection based on measurements of blanks, as recommended by IUPAC, or with the aid of a low concentration standard.

  4. Regulation of cellulases and xylanases from a derepressed mutant of Cellulomonas flavigena growing on sugar-cane bagasse in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Noyola, T; de la Torre, M

    2001-07-01

    When the wild type Cellulomonas flavigena was grown on glycerol, xylose or cellobiose, it produced basal levels of carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase), filter-paperase (FPase) and xylanase activities. By comparison, a catabolic derepressed mutant strain of the same organism produced markedly higher levels of these enzymes when grown on the same carbon sources. Sugar-cane bagasse induced both the wild type and the mutant strain to produce three- to eight-time higher levels of FPase and xylanase than was observed with xylose or cellobiose. Continuous culture was used to determine the minimal cellobiose or glucose concentrations that repress the enzyme synthesis in both strains. 2.5 g l(-1) glucose repressed FPase and xylanases from wild type, while 1.6 times more glucose was needed to repress the same activities in the PN-120 strain. In the same way, twofold more cellobiose was needed to reduce by 75% the CMCase and xylanase activities in the mutant compared to the wild type. The FPase in the presence of 4 g l(-1) cellobiose did not change in the same strain. Therefore, its derepressed and feedback resistant characters of PN-120 mutant are evident. On the other hand, isoelectrofocused crude extracts of mutant and wild strains induced by sugar-cane bagasse, did not show differences in protein patterns, however, the Schiffs staining was more intense in the PN-120 than in the wild strain. These results point out that the mutational treatment did not apparently change the extracellular proteins from mutant PN-120 and this could affect their regulation sites, since derepressed and feed-back resistant enzymes may be produced.

  5. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  6. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic

  8. An industrial hygiene evaluation of beet sugar processing plants.

    PubMed

    Mann, J H

    1990-06-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at seven beet sugar processing plants to evaluate worker exposures to chemical contaminants used or generated in the process. Personal air sampling used to evaluate worker exposures showed overexposures to calcium oxide, carbon monoxide, respirable coal dust, sulfur dioxide, and sugar dust. The beet sugar industry is an old industry, lacking engineering controls found in many other industries.

  9. Topochemical distribution of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in sugar-cane cell walls and its correlation with the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major components limiting enzyme infiltration into cell walls. Determination of the topochemical distribution of lignin and aromatics in sugar cane might provide important data on the recalcitrance of specific cells. We used cellular ultraviolet (UV) microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to topochemically detect lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in individual fiber, vessel and parenchyma cell walls of untreated and chlorite-treated sugar cane. Internodes, presenting typical vascular bundles and sucrose-storing parenchyma cells, were divided into rind and pith fractions. Results Vascular bundles were more abundant in the rind, whereas parenchyma cells predominated in the pith region. UV measurements of untreated fiber cell walls gave absorbance spectra typical of grass lignin, with a band at 278 nm and a pronounced shoulder at 315 nm, assigned to the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids linked to lignin and/or to arabino-methylglucurono-xylans. The cell walls of vessels had the highest level of lignification, followed by those of fibers and parenchyma. Pith parenchyma cell walls were characterized by very low absorbance values at 278 nm; however, a distinct peak at 315 nm indicated that pith parenchyma cells are not extensively lignified, but contain significant amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids. Cellular UV image profiles scanned with an absorbance intensity maximum of 278 nm identified the pattern of lignin distribution in the individual cell walls, with the highest concentration occurring in the middle lamella and cell corners. Chlorite treatment caused a rapid removal of hydroxycinnamic acids from parenchyma cell walls, whereas the thicker fiber cell walls were delignified only after a long treatment duration (4 hours). Untreated pith samples were promptly hydrolyzed by cellulases, reaching 63% of cellulose conversion after 72 hours of hydrolysis, whereas untreated rind samples achieved only 20% hydrolyzation. Conclusion The low

  10. Relaxation processes in disaccharide sugar glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yoon-Hwae; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Seo, Jeong-Ah; Shin, Dong-Myeong; Ha, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyung-Kook

    2013-02-01

    We represented relaxation processes of disaccharide sugars (anhydrous trehalose and maltose) in supercooled and glassy states by using several spectroscopy techniques which include a broadband dielectric loss spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (Retvield analysis) methods which are powerful tools to measure the dynamics in glass forming materials. In a dielectric loss spectroscopy study, we found that anhydrous trehalose and maltose glasses have an extra relaxation process besides α-, JG β- and γ-relaxations which could be related to a unique property of glycoside bond in disaccharides. In photon correlation spectroscopy study, we found an interesting compressed exponential relaxation at temperatures above 140°C. The q-1 dependence of its relaxation time corresponds to an ultraslow ballistic motion due to the local structure rearrangements. In the same temperature range, we found the glycosidic bond structure changes in trehalose molecule from the Raman and the Retvield X-ray diffraction measurements indicating that the observed compressed exponential relaxation in supercooled liquid trehalose could be resulted in the glycosidic bond structure change. Therefore, the overall results from this study might support the fact that the superior bioprotection ability of disaccharide sugar glasses might originate from this unique relaxation process of glycosidic bond.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of crystalline cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate to lactate by a thermotolerant acidophilic Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Patel, Milind A; Ou, Mark S; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2005-01-01

    Polylactides produced from renewable feedstocks, such as corn starch, are being developed as alternatives to plastics derived from petroleum. In addition to corn, other less expensive biomass resources can be readily converted to component sugars (glucose, xylose, etc.) by enzyme and/or chemical treatment for fermentation to optically pure lactic acid to reduce the cost of lactic acid. Lactic acid bacteria used by the industry lack the ability to ferment pentoses (hemicellulose-derived xylose and arabinose), and their growth and fermentation optima also differ from the optimal conditions for the activity of fungal cellulases required for depolymerization of cellulose. To reduce the overall cost of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose, we have isolated bacterial biocatalysts that can grow and ferment all sugars in the biomass at conditions that are also optimal for fungal cellulases. SSF of Solka Floc cellulose by one such isolate, Bacillus sp. strain 36D1, yielded l(+)-lactic acid at an optical purity higher than 95% with cellulase (Spezyme CE; Genencor International) added at about 10 FPU/g cellulose, with a product yield of about 90% of the expected maximum. Volumetric productivity of SSF to lactic acid was optimal between culture pH values of 4.5 and 5.5 at 50 degrees C. At a constant pH of 5.0, volumetric productivity of lactic acid was maximal at 55 degrees C. Strain 36D1 also co-fermented cellulose-derived glucose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose-derived xylose simultaneously (SSCF). In a batch SSCF of 40% acid-treated hemicellulose hydrolysate (over-limed) and 20 g/L Solka Floc cellulose, strain 36D1 produced about 35 g/L lactic acid in about 144 h with 15 FPU of Spezyme CE/g cellulose. The maximum volumetric productivity of lactic acid in this SSCF was 6.7 mmol/L (h). Cellulose-derived lactic acid contributed to about 30% of this total lactic acid. These results show that Bacillus sp. strain 36D1 is well-suited for

  12. [Replacing of residue from production of palm Palm Royal Australian (Archontophoenix alexan- drae) in silage of sugar cane in diets of sheep].

    PubMed

    Bayão, Geraldo Fábio Viana; Queiroz, Augusto César de; Freitas, Samuel Galvão de; Batalha, Camila Delveaux Araujo; Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Pimentel, Róberson Machado; Cardoso, Lucas Ladeira; Cardoso, Alex Junio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of the diets containing residue from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae) to replace sugar cane on sheep. Twelve sheep were used with average live weight of 23.3 ± 2.8 Kg and they placed in metabolism cages and distributed in six latin square 2 x 2 in a factorial design 3 x 2 (three types of residue--sheet, bark and composed--and two levels of residue's replacement, 5% and 15%). It was observed higher intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) by substitution of composed residue. The average values of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre correct for ash and protein (NDFap) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were higher for sheet residue. There was interaction between type of residue and level of residue's replacement on the urinary excretion of total nitrogen (NUE), apparent nitrogen balance (BNA) and microbial nitrogen compost (NMIC). Residues from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm can be used as roughage in the ruminants'diet, and of these residues, the sheet and composed residue showed better response in the evaluated characteristics.

  13. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Obtained from Sugar-Cane Juice Fermentations and Their Impact in Cachaça Production▿

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Valdinéia Aparecida; Vicente, Maristela Araújo; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; de Miranda Castro, Ieso; Coutrim, Maurício Xavier; Schüller, Dorit; Alves, Henrique; Casal, Margarida; de Oliveira Santos, Juliana; Araújo, Leandro Dias; da Silva, Paulo Henrique Alves; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were isolated and characterized aiming at the selection of starter yeasts to be used in the production of cachaça, the Brazilian sugar cane spirit. The methodology established took into account the screening for biochemical traits desirable in a yeast cachaça producer, such as no H2S production, high tolerance to ethanol and high temperatures, high fermentative capacity, and the abilities to flocculate and to produce mycocins. Furthermore, the yeasts were exposed to drugs such as 5,5′,5"-trifluor-d,l-leucine and cerulenin to isolate those that potentially overproduce higher alcohols and esters. The utilization of a random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR method with primers based on intron splicing sites flanking regions of the COX1 gene, as well as microsatellite analysis, was not sufficient to achieve good differentiation among selected strains. In contrast, karyotype analysis allowed a clear distinction among all strains. Two selected strains were experimentally evaluated as cachaça producers. The results suggest that the selection of strains as fermentation starters requires the combined use of biochemical and molecular criteria to ensure the isolation and identification of strains with potential characteristics to produce cachaça with a higher quality standard. PMID:18065624

  14. A comparative study of the areas of osteochondral defects produced in femoral condyles of rabbits treated with sugar cane biopolymer gel.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro de; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade; Pontes Filho, Nicodemos Teles de; Mello, Roberto José Vieira de; Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro de Albuquerque; Albuquerque, Paula Eduarda Miranda Carneiro de; Paz, Silvânia Tavares; Santos, Alessandro Henrique da Silva; Maia, Carina Scanoni

    2015-11-01

    To assess the histological response of damaged osteochondral tissue in the femoral condyles of rabbits after repairing the wounds with sugar cane biopolymer gel - compared to the control group. The study investigated 16 New Zealand rabbits, at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. In all the animals, a lesion of 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm deep was induced in each right and left femoral condyle. Each animal has provided both knees, divided into medial and lateral condyle, resulting in 64 samples. 32 knees were divided into two groups: Right knee, medial and lateral condyles, filled with biopolymer; Left knee, medial and lateral condyles, unfilled. The anatomical specimens were removed, and subjected to histological techniques and morphometric and statistical analysis. In all the periods of the group under study an inflammatory reaction mediated by giant cells and mononuclear cells was found, while in the control group there was early healing produced by fibroblasts and few mononuclear cells with statistical significance between groups. The biopolymer gel caused an inflammatory reaction mediated by giant cells and mononuclear cells while the control group there was cicatrization mediated by fibroblasts.

  15. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Silvio R.; Souza, Agda E.; Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S.; Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma.

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  16. Sugar cane burning pollution and respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren in Monte Aprazível, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Riguera, Denise; André, Paulo Afonso; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan

    2011-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to analyze associated factors as well as peak expiratory flow measurements in schoolchildren. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with schoolchildren aged 10-14 from the city of Monte Aprazível (Southeastern Brazil). Questionnaires containing the asthma and rhinitis components of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were administered. The questionnaires also approached sociodemographic characteristics, predisposing factors, and family and personal medical history. Repeated measures of peak expiratory flow in the children, and of black carbon and particulate matter (PM2,5) concentration levels were carried out. The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was 11% and 33.2%, respectively. Among asthmatic children, 10.6% presented four or more wheezing attacks in the past 12 months. Past family history of bronchitis and rhinitis was associated with presence of asthma (p=0.002 and p <0.001) and rhinitis (p <0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Regarding rhinitis, there was association with presence of mold or cracks on the house (p=0.009). Rhinitis was most frequent from June to October, a period that matches the sugarcane harvest season. Daily prevalence of peak expiratory flow below 20% of the median of each child's measurements was higher in days with greater PM2,5 concentration. The prevalence of asthma symptoms is below and that of rhinitis is above the national average. Although within acceptable levels, pollution in the cane trash burn season may contribute to the exacerbation of asthma and rhinitis episodes.

  17. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Observations on White Grubs Affecting Sugar Cane at the Juba Sugar Project, South-Western Somalia, in the 1980s, and Implications for Their Management.

    PubMed

    Cock, Matthew J W; Allard, Gillian B

    2013-06-18

    The authors made two visits to the Juba Sugar Project in south-west Somalia, at the beginning of the minor rains in October 1986, and at the beginning of the main rains in March 1987. Observations were made on morphospecies of scarabaeid white grub larvae, the adults, and the two associated for the key economic species, Cochliotis melolonthoides and Brachylepis werneri. Sampling larvae and adults by digging soil quadrats and adults by light trapping gave useful information on their biology and phenology. Sampling methods were evaluated and economic thresholds were extrapolated based on earlier work. Natural enemies were surveyed, and entomopathogenic nematodes and a cordyceps fungus (Ophiocordyceps barnesii) were considered to have potential to be used as biological control interventions.

  19. Observations on White Grubs Affecting Sugar Cane at the Juba Sugar Project, South-Western Somalia, in the 1980s, and Implications for Their Management

    PubMed Central

    Cock, Matthew J. W.; Allard, Gillian B.

    2013-01-01

    The authors made two visits to the Juba Sugar Project in south-west Somalia, at the beginning of the minor rains in October 1986, and at the beginning of the main rains in March 1987. Observations were made on morphospecies of scarabaeid white grub larvae, the adults, and the two associated for the key economic species, Cochliotis melolonthoides and Brachylepis werneri. Sampling larvae and adults by digging soil quadrats and adults by light trapping gave useful information on their biology and phenology. Sampling methods were evaluated and economic thresholds were extrapolated based on earlier work. Natural enemies were surveyed, and entomopathogenic nematodes and a cordyceps fungus (Ophiocordyceps barnesii) were considered to have potential to be used as biological control interventions. PMID:26464389

  20. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  1. A fluorescence-based method for cyanate analysis in ethanol/water media: correlation between cyanate presence and ethyl carbamate formation in sugar cane spirit.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Thiago Hideyuki Kobe; da Silva, Alexandre Ataide; Rocha, Thaís da Silva; de Godoy, Flávio Schutzer; Franco, Douglas Wagner

    2014-10-01

    Based on the fluorescence properties of 2,4-(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione, a product of the reaction between cyanate and 2-aminobenzoic acid, a simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible method for the cyanate analysis in aqueous ethanolic media is proposed. In this method, λ(exc) and λ(em) are 310 and 410 nm, respectively, and the limits of detection and quantification are 2.2 × 10(-7) and 6.7 × 10(-7) mol/L, respectively. Under optimal conditions (pH = 4.5, 40% ethanol), a concentration of 5.0 × 10(-6) mol/L cyanate can be determined in a single measurement, at a 95% level of confidence, with an uncertainty of ± 0.13 × 10(-6) mol/L. Cyanide, thiocyanate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions, as well as urea and urethane in concentrations 1 × 10(3) higher than that of cyanate do not interfere with the measurement. The methodology was applied to cyanate analyses in the different fractions of the sugarcane distillate and the data strongly suggest a correlation between the presence of urea in wine, and the cyanate and ethyl carbamate concentrations in the spirit. Based on the fluorescence properties of the reaction product between cyanate and 2-aminobenzoic acid, a method for assaying cyanate was devised. This procedure applied to the sugarcane distillate showed for the first time a correlation between cyanate presence and ethyl carbamate (EC) formation in the different fractions of the product. Therefore, the proposed methodology can be used to predict in freshly distillate sugar cane spirits the potential total concentration of EC to be formed. Therefore, these data could be used to advise about the necessity of implementing a procedure to reduce spirit EC concentration before the product reaches the market. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  3. Lack of protective effect of D-003, a mixture of high-molecular-weight primary acids from sugar cane wax, on liver damage induced by galactosamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Noa, Miriam; Mendoza, Sarahí; Mas, Rosa; Mendoza, Nilda

    2005-01-01

    D-003 is a mixture of very-high-molecular-weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax, wherein octacosanoic acid is the most abundant. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that D-003 lowers cholesterol and prevents plasma lipoprotein peroxidation (LP). D-003 has protected against the histological changes characteristic of CCl4- and paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats, in which LP plays a pivotal role for explaining the resulting hepatotoxicity. Galactosamine induces hepatotoxicity associated with depressed RNA and protein synthesis, not with LP. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether D-003 could prevent hepatoxicity induced by mechanisms others than increased LP. We investigated the effects on galactosamine hepatotoxicity in rats distributed into five groups: a negative control group, a positive control group, and three groups treated with galactosamine and D-003 (5, 25, and 100 mg/kg). To induce liver damage, galactosamine (800 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes after dosing with vehicle or D-003. Twenty-four hours later, rats were sacrificed, and livers were immediately removed for histopathological studies. Livers from positive controls showed the characteristic pattern of galactosamine-induced damage. Galactosamine significantly reduced the percentage of normal hepatocytes, increasing both necrotic or lipid-rich hepatocytes compared with negative controls. D-003, however, did not increase the percentage of normal hepatocytes compared with positive controls, indicating that treatment was not effective for preventing the hepatic injury induced with galactosamine. Likewise, D-003 failed to change the content of necrotic and lipid-rich hepatocytes relative to positive controls. It is concluded that D-003 did not protect against the histological changes of galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  5. Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2010-10-15

    Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol.

  6. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  7. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  8. Nucleic acid and protein elimination during the sugar manufacturing process of conventional and transgenic sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Klein, J; Altenbuchner, J; Mattes, R

    1998-02-26

    The fate of cellular DNA during the standard purification steps of the sugar manufacturing process from conventional and transgenic sugar beets was determined. Indigenous nucleases of sugar beet cells were found to be active during the first extraction step (raw juice production) which was carried out at 70 degrees C. This and the consecutive steps of the manufacturing process were validated in terms of DNA degradation by competitive PCR of added external DNA. Each step of the process proved to be very efficient in the removal of nucleic acids. Taken together, the purification steps have the potential to reduce the amount of DNA by a factor of > 10(14), exceeding by far the total amount of DNA present in sugar beets. Furthermore, the gene products of the transgenes neomycin phosphotransferase and BNYVV (rhizomania virus) coat protein CP21 were shown to be removed during the purification steps, so that they could not be detected in the resulting white sugar. Thus, sugar obtained from conventional and transgenic beets is indistinguishable or substantially equivalent with respect to purity.

  9. Impacts of introducing a new tool for the manual harvesting of sugar cane: the ergonomic analysis contribution.

    PubMed

    Souza, C D R; Filho, A B G J; Silva, R A V

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of introduction a new work tool on health and productivity of manual harvesting sugarcane workers. In this study it was performed aErgonomic Work Analysis (EWA) to analyze the work tool changes.The study included sugarcane workers, drivers, fiscals, and technical's safety at work.During the analysis process, 134 questionnaires were applied,aimed to identify the constraints that such workers are submitted,to evaluate the tool introduced, in order to propose modifications to improve it.The results showed a decrease in perceived exertion and discomfort, without compromising the cut quality. The main contributions of Ergonomic Work Analysis were the possibility of bringing the logic of the worker, in order to understand the inherent real work characteristics, to the process of developing the new tool. Besides, it was also noted that this methodology, based on the analysis workers activity in a real usage, as an application tool in design projects, providing innovations from the workers perspective.

  10. A diagnosis of sub-surface water table dynamics in low hydraulic conductivity soils in the sugar cane fields of Pongola, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malota, Mphatso; Senzanje, Aidan

    2016-04-01

    Water and land are the two natural resources restraining crop production in South Africa. With the increasing demand for food, emphasis has shifted from the sole reliance on rain fed crop production, to irrigation. The deterioration in irrigation water quality from surface water sources is, however, posing a big challenge to the sustainability of irrigated crop production. This is because more water is required for leaching, resulting in shallow water tables in agricultural lands. The installation of well designed subsurface drainage systems alone is not enough; the provision of timely maintenance is also necessary. In this study, the extent and severity of problems as a consequence of shallow water tables and their possible causes were investigated at three sugarcane fields in Pongola, South Africa, having low hydraulic conductivity soils. Also investigated were soil salinity levels and the temporal variation in the salinity of the irrigation water. A water table map of a 32 ha sugarcane field was generated, using observed water table depth (WTD) data from 36 piezometers monitored from September 2011 to February 2012. Out of the total 32 ha under cultivation, 12% was found to be affected by shallow WTDs of less than the 1.0 m design WTD. The inability of natural drainage to cope with subsurface drainage needs and the poor maintenance of subsurface drainage systems contributed to the shallow water tables in the area. Furthermore, the currently adopted drainage design criteria also proved unsatisfactory with mean observed water table depth and drainage discharge (DD) of 20% and 50%, respectively, less than their respective design levels. The salinity of the irrigation water was, on average, 32% higher than threshold tolerance level of sugarcane. The root zone soil salinity levels at the three study sites were greater than the 1.7 dS m-1 threshold for sugar cane. The subsurface drainage design criteria adopted at the site needs to be revisited by ensuring that the

  11. Evaluation of Diuron Tolerance and Biotransformation by Fungi from a Sugar Cane Plantation Sandy-Loam Soil.

    PubMed

    Perissini-Lopes, Bruna; Egea, Tássia Chiachio; Monteiro, Diego Alves; Vici, Ana Cláudia; Da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Lisboa, Daniela Correa de Oliveira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Parsons, John Robert; Da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-12-14

    Microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides are essential to minimize the amount of chemical compounds that may leach into other environments. This work aimed to study the potential of sandy-loam soil fungi to tolerate the herbicide Herburon (50% diuron) and to degrade the active ingredient diuron. Verticillium sp. F04, Trichoderma virens F28, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 showed the highest growth in the presence of the herbicide. The evaluation of biotransformation showed that Aspergillus brasiliensis G08, Aspergillus sp. G25, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 had the greatest potential to degrade diuron. Statistical analysis demonstrated that glucose positively influences the potential of the microorganism to degrade diuron, indicating a cometabolic process. Due to metabolites founded by diuron biotransformation, it is indicated that the fungi are relevant in reducing the herbicide concentration in runoff, minimizing the environmental impact on surrounding ecosystems.

  12. Effects of a mixture of fatty acids from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax oil in two models of inflammation: zymosan-induced arthritis and mice tail test of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ledón, N; Casacó, A; Remirez, D; González, A; Cruz, J; González, R; Capote, A; Tolón, Z; Rojas, E; Rodríguez, V J; Merino, N; Rodríguez, S; Ancheta, O; Cano, M C

    2007-10-01

    A mixture of fatty acids obtained from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax oil (FAM), in which the main constituents are palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, was evaluated in two models of inflammation: zymosan-induced arthritis and in the tail test for psoriasis, both on mice. In the first model, FAM significantly reduced zymozan-induced increase of beta glucuronidase (DE(50) 90+/-7 mg/kg). Histopathological studies showed inhibition in cellular infiltration and reduction of synovial hyperplasia and synovitis, whereas in the second test, histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that topical application of FAM induced orthokeratosis with the presence of keratohyalin granules in the previously parakeratotic adult mouse tail, and without effects on epidermal thickness. The ED(50) of FAM in this model was 155+/-10 mg. The results of our studies showed that topical application of FAM exerts an important anti-inflammatory activity in both tests without evidence of irritant effects. The anti-inflamatory effects exerted by FAM may be due to its inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-inflammatory effect of sugar cane by-products in experimental models of arthritis and psoriasis.

  13. Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

  14. Effects of seasonal variations of sugarcane stalk and extraneous matter quantity and quality as they affect recoverable sugar, starch, and fiber: Part 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Raw sugar quality is dependent on the quality of the incoming cane supply across the processing season which, in turn, is greatly affected by the quantities and types of non-stalk tissues present. This study was undertaken to ascertain seasonal cane supply variations in juice quality parameters tha...

  15. Sugar holograms with artificial organic colorants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    The sugar cane crystals (sucrose) are used as matrix to obtain computer holograms. We made a sugar solution (sugar in water) and it is irradiated with ultraviolet light, since the maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region, to wavelength 200 nm. This step also corresponds to sugar photopolymer process. It is recorded applying conventional lithography technique and measures the parameter of diffraction efficiency. With the purpose to reduce the exposition time at UV radiation of this emulsion, we made studies with artificial organic colorant with azo components.

  16. Luxurious Nitrogen Fertilization of Two Sugar Cane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Composition Causes Changes in the Stem Proteome Related to Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxidant Metabolism but Does Not Alter Lignin Content.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Fernanda; Wilson, Rashaun; Portilla Llerena, Juan Pablo; Kiyota, Eduardo; Lima Reis, Karina; Boaretto, Luis Felipe; Balbuena, Tiago S; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Thelen, Jay J; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2017-10-06

    Sugar cane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production. Its lignocellulosic biomass represents a promising option as feedstock for second-generation ethanol production. Nitrogen fertilization can affect differently tissues and its biopolymers, including the cell-wall polysaccharides and lignin. Lignin content and composition are the most important factors associated with biomass recalcitrance to convert cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Thus it is important to understand the metabolic relationship between nitrogen fertilization and lignin in this feedstock. In this study, a large-scale proteomics approach based on GeLC-MS/MS was employed to identify and relatively quantify proteins differently accumulated in two contrasting genotypes for lignin composition after excessive nitrogen fertilization. From the ∼1000 nonredundant proteins identified, 28 and 177 were differentially accumulated in response to nitrogen from IACSP04-065 and IACSP04-627 lines, respectively. These proteins were associated with several functional categories, including carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism, protein turnover, and oxidative stress. Although nitrogen fertilization has not changed lignin content, phenolic acids and lignin composition were changed in both species but not in the same way. Sucrose and reducing sugars increased in plants of the genotype IACSP04-065 receiving nitrogen.

  17. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  18. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  20. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  1. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  2. How combine harvesting of green cane billets with different levels of trash affects production and processing. Part I. Field yields and delivered cane quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New refineries in Louisiana, USA are requesting Louisiana sugarcane factories to deliver very high pol/very low color (VHP/VLC) raw sugar with low ash concentrations. This higher quality raw sugar will allow both growers and factory processors to share economic premiums from the new refineries. A ...

  3. Energy reduction in beet sugar processing by cossette liming

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.M.; Camirand, W.M.; Neumann, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions of temperature and fresh Ca(OH)/sub 2/ application, demethylation occurs in the pectin in the cell walls of sugar beet cossettes, allowing Ca/sup 2 +/ to precipitate the pectin as calcium pectate. The calcium pectate will not degrade and pass into solution during subsequent hot extraction of sugar from the cossettes. This retention of pectin in the pulp was shown by 10 to 20% increases in solids weight in the pulp for a number of processing conditions. The toughened pulp produced by retention of calcium pectate allowed easier mechanical dewatering of the pulp which could save considerably on the heat normally required to dry the pulp for cattle feed. Beyond data reported in this paper, there are qualitative indications that the sugar juice extracted from limed cossettes is purer than standard juice, for pectin and colloidal materials remain in the pulp. Thus, much less purification of the juice with lime would be necessary than is required in standard beet-sugar processing, and the current 2% CaO used for purification may be cut almost in half. This represents another energy saving, for production of CaO at the factory is a major consumer of energy. These, along with other possible energy savings resulting from cossette liming (such as less water used for extraction, cold extraction, ion exchange of the purer juice), could produce an overall saving up to 20% of the energy currently used in beet-sugar processing. Some of these possibilities will be further investigated.

  4. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives.

  6. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete made... such juice. The concentration may be adjusted with or without added water. It may contain one or more... sirup” or “Sugar cane sirup”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled “syrup”. (d)...

  7. How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

  8. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  9. Effect of a controlled-release urea supplement on rumen fermentation in sheep fed a diet of sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), corn stubble (Zea mays) and King grass (Pennisetum purpureum).

    PubMed

    Puga, D C.; Galina, H M.; Pérez-Gil, R F.; Sanginés, G L.; Aguilera, B A.; Haenlein, G F.W.

    2001-03-01

    Four cannulated sheep were used to study ruminal fermentation of a diet consisting of 60% sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), 30% corn stubble (Zea mays), 10% King grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 0% (control), 10, 20 or 30% controlled-release urea supplement (CRUS) (diets 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Average ruminal pH did not differ among diets (P>0.05), but during the first 6h of sampling tended to be higher for CRUS diets. Ammonia concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in all treatments over controls, indicating microbial protein generation. Acetic acid production (mM/1) decreased (P<0.05), propionic acid increased (P<0.05), while butyric acid production did not differ among CRUS diets and controls (P>0.05). Total amounts of ruminal VFA were lowest (P<0.01) in controls, while CRUS diets produced more of these energy sources. Supplementation of the high fiber diets with 10, 20 or 30% CRUS increasingly improved rumen fermentation, ammonia supply and VFA production. The results show that low quality forages (up to 70% DMI) can be used efficiently by sheep when conditions for ruminal microorganism are improved with a controlled-release urea supplement.

  10. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  11. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse).

  12. Catalysts and process for hydrogenolysis of sugar alcohols to polyols

    DOEpatents

    Chopade, Shubham P [East Lansing, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Richland, WA

    2001-09-18

    The present invention provides a process for preparation of low molecular weight polyols from high molecular weight polyols in a hydrogenolysis reaction under elevated temperature and hydrogen pressure. The process comprises providing in a reaction mixture the polyols, a base, and a metal catalyst prepared by depositing a transition metal salt on an inert support, reducing the metal salt to the metal with hydrogen, and passivating the metal with oxygen, and wherein the catalyst is reduced with hydrogen prior to the reaction. In particular, the process provides for the preparation of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol from sugar alcohols such as sorbitol or xylitol. In a preferred process, the metal catalyst comprises ruthenium which is deposited on an alumina, titania, or carbon support, and the dispersion of the ruthenium on the support increases during the hydrogenolysis reaction.

  13. Investigation of copper sorption by sugar beet processing lime waste.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Strawn, D G; Scheckel, K G

    2013-01-01

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (∼250,000 Mg yr) that has little liming value in the region's calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairies using copper (Cu)-based hoof baths to prevent hoof diseases. A concern exists regarding soil Cu accumulation because spent hoof baths may be disposed of in waste ponds, with pond waters being used for irrigation. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the ability of lime waste to sorb Cu. Lime waste was mixed with increasing Cu-containing solutions (up to 100,000 mg Cu kg lime waste) at various buffered pH values (pH 6, 7, 8, and 9) and shaken over various time periods (up to 30 d). Copper sorption phenomenon was quantified using sorption maximum fitting, and the sorption mechanism was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Results showed that sorption onto lime waste increased with decreasing pH and that the maximum Cu sorption of ∼45,000 mg kg occurred at pH 6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that Cu(OH) was the probable species present, although the precipitate existed as small multinuclear precipitates on the surface of the lime waste. Such structures may be precursors for larger surface precipitates that develop over longer incubation times. Findings suggest that sugar beet processing lime waste can viably sorb Cu from liquid waste streams, and thus it may have the ability to remove Cu from spent hoof baths.

  14. Potential for thermochemical conversion of biomass residues from the integrated sugar-ethanol process - Fate of ash and ash-forming elements.

    PubMed

    Dirbeba, Meheretu Jaleta; Brink, Anders; DeMartini, Nikolai; Zevenhoven, Maria; Hupa, Mikko

    2017-06-01

    In this work, potential for thermochemical conversion of biomass residues from an integrated sugar-ethanol process and the fate of ash and ash-forming elements in the process are presented. Ash, ash-forming elements, and energy flows in the process were determined using mass balances and analyses of eight different biomass samples for ash contents, elemental compositions, and heating values. The results show that the ash content increases from the sugarcane to the final residue, vinasse. The cane straw, which is left in the field, contains one-third of the energy and 25% of the K and Cl while the vinasse contains 2% of the energy and 40% of the K and Cl in the cane. K and Cl in biomass fuels cause corrosion and fouling problems in boilers and gasifiers. Over 85% of these elements in the straw are water soluble indicating that water leaching would improve it for utilization in thermochemical conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Group 16SrXI phytoplasma strains, including subgroup 16SrXI-B and a new subgroup, 16SrXI-D, are associated with sugar cane white leaf.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Yue; Li, Wen-Feng; Huang, Ying-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Shan, Hong-Li; Luo, Zhi-Ming; Yin, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Sugar cane white leaf (SCWL) is a serious disease caused by phytoplasmas. In this study, we performed nested PCR with phytoplasma universal primer pairs (P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2) for the 16S rRNA gene to detect SCWL phytoplasmas in 31 SCWL samples collected from Baoshan and Lincang, Yunnan, China. We cloned and sequenced the nested PCR products, revealing that the 16S rRNA gene sequences from 31 SCWL samples were all 1247 bp in length and shared more than 99 % nucleotide sequence similarity with the 16S rRNA gene sequences of SCWL phytoplasmas from various countries. Based on the reported 16S rRNA gene sequence data from SCWL isolates of various countries, we conducted phylogenetic and virtual RFLP analysis. In the resulting phylogenetic tree, all SCWL isolates clustered into two branches, with the Lincang and Baoshan SCWL phytoplasma isolates belonging to different branches. The virtual RFLP patterns show that phytoplasmas of the Lincang branch belong to subgroup 16SrXI-B. However, the virtual RFLP patterns revealed by HaeIII digestion of phytoplasmas of the Baoshan branch differed from those of subgroup 16SrXI-B. According to the results of phylogenetic and virtual RFLP analysis, we propose that the phytoplasmas of the Baoshan branch represent a new subgroup, 16SrXI-D. These findings suggest that SCWL is caused by phytoplasmas from group 16SrXI, including subgroup 16SrXI-B and a new subgroup, 16SrXI-D.

  16. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  17. Predicting sugar consumption: Application of an integrated dual-process, dual-phase model.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Trost, Nadine; Keech, Jacob J; Chan, Derwin K C; Hamilton, Kyra

    2017-09-01

    Excess consumption of added dietary sugars is related to multiple metabolic problems and adverse health conditions. Identifying the modifiable social cognitive and motivational constructs that predict sugar consumption is important to inform behavioral interventions aimed at reducing sugar intake. We tested the efficacy of an integrated dual-process, dual-phase model derived from multiple theories to predict sugar consumption. Using a prospective design, university students (N = 90) completed initial measures of the reflective (autonomous and controlled motivation, intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control), impulsive (implicit attitudes), volitional (action and coping planning), and behavioral (past sugar consumption) components of the proposed model. Self-reported sugar consumption was measured two weeks later. A structural equation model revealed that intentions, implicit attitudes, and, indirectly, autonomous motivation to reduce sugar consumption had small, significant effects on sugar consumption. Attitudes, subjective norm, and, indirectly, autonomous motivation to reduce sugar consumption predicted intentions. There were no effects of the planning constructs. Model effects were independent of the effects of past sugar consumption. The model identified the relative contribution of reflective and impulsive components in predicting sugar consumption. Given the prominent role of the impulsive component, interventions that assist individuals in managing cues-to-action and behavioral monitoring are likely to be effective in regulating sugar consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  19. Sugar Cube Purity: Capacitive Sensing and Image Processing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhumitha, S.; Rajath, R.; Venkatanathan, N.; Raajan, N. R.; Sridharan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Several methods have been implemented to find out if impurity is present in sugar cubes or powders so far. Several high end imaging techniques with X-ray scanners have been used to check the quality of the sugar. In this present study, without disturbing the physical nature of sugar, we have simply used the dielectric property analysis to check the purity of the sugar. This method can detect even infinitesimal amounts of impurity present in sugar with good accuracy. The positional accuracy is derived using artificial neural networks, which is been trained with various capacitance values when the impurity is present and gives the details on the change in capacitance value as the impurity position changes.

  20. Free-Standing Canes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)

  1. Free-Standing Canes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)

  2. Roles of reversible and irreversible aggregation in sugar processing.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori

    2017-04-13

    Colloids (1-1000-nm particles) in sugarcane/beet juice originate from non-sucrose impurities (polyphenolic colorants, residual soil, polysaccharides) of the plant materials; additional colloids form during the high temperature processing. Colloids are reactive toward aggregation, sorption, desorption, and redox/hydrolysis/thermal transformation reactions. Both Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO; van der Waals and electrostatic forces) and non-DLVO (involving hydrophilic colloids) interactions control the stability of colloids in juice. Heteroaggregation causes a range of feedstock and end product problems, including turbidity, viscosity, color, gelling, crystallization, starch ghost, and heat transfer problems. Even after intensive clarification and refining, trace colloidal impurities on white (refined) sugar remain to cause a problem known as acid beverage floc. Acid beverage floc is an example of DLVO-type aggregation of oppositely charged particles at decreased pH. Examples of irreversible aggregates include starch ghost and recalcitrant organomineral composites formed at elevated temperature that resist heat transfer. Fundamental knowledge in aggregation kinetics is necessary to predict the occurrence of undesirable aggregates, as pH, ionic strength, temperature, and sucrose concentration change during the processing of sugarcane/beet juice.

  3. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  4. Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G.

    1996-04-01

    This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

  5. Improved anaerobic digestion of a thermally pretreated mixture of physicochemical sludge; broiler excreta and sugar cane wastes (SCW): Effect on organic matter solubilization, biodegradability and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Nava-Valente, Noemí; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Nativitas-Sandoval, Liliana S; Mendez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pretreatment effect of a mixture of organic wastes (physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and sugarcane wastes (SCW)) in the solubilization and biodegradability organic matter as well as bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion was evaluated. Two different mixtures of physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and SCW (70%, 15%, 15% and 60%, 20%, 20% of VS, respectively) were treated at different temperatures (80 °C, 85 °C and 90 °C) and contact time (30, 60 and 90 min). Results indicate that, organic matter solubilization degree increased from 1.14 to 6.56%; subsequently, in the anaerobic digestion process, an increase of 50% in the volatile solids removal and 10% in biogas production was observed, while, retention time decreased from 23 up to 9 days. The results obtained were similar to pilot-scale. In both experimental scales it showed that the synergy produced by the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of different substrates could increase bioenergy production up to 1.3 L bio g(-1) VS removed and 0.82 L CH4 g(-1) VS removed. The treatment conditions presented in this study allow for large residue quantities to be treated and large bioenergy quantities to be produced (10% higher than during conventional treatment) without increasing the anaerobic digester volume.

  6. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  7. "Cane" as Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

  8. "Cane" as Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

  9. SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of

  10. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  11. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  12. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate.

  13. [The effect of sugar on the process of cicatrization of infected surgical incisions].

    PubMed

    Haddad M do, C; Bruschi, L C; Martins, E A

    2000-01-01

    This is an experimental research based on microbiological analysis. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of sugar on the healing process of infected surgical wounds in 25 patients. On the dehiscences, there have been identified gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and fungi as well. Every patient was administered systemic antibiotics and had the wounds treated locally with crystal sugar three times a day. Statistics showed, by Person's correlation, that sugar did not influence on the healing process of infected surgical wounds in undernourished, overweight and elderly individuals.

  14. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  15. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels.

  17. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the Chilean diet (2010).

    PubMed

    Cediel, Gustavo; Reyes, Marcela; da Costa Louzada, Maria Laura; Martinez Steele, Euridice; Monteiro, Carlos A; Corvalán, Camila; Uauy, Ricardo

    2017-06-19

    To assess the consumption of ultra-processed foods and analyse its association with the content of added sugars in the Chilean diet. Cross-sectional study of national dietary data obtained through 24 h recalls and classified into food groups according to the extent and purpose of food processing (NOVA classification). Chile. A probabilistic sample of 4920 individuals (aged 2 years or above) studied in 2010 by a national dietary survey (Encuesta Nacional de Consumo Alimentario). Ultra-processed foods represented 28·6 (se 0·5) % of total energy intake and 58·6 (se 0·9) % of added sugars intake. The mean percentage of energy from added sugars increased from 7·7 (se 0·3) to 19·7 (se 0·5) % across quintiles of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods. After adjusting for several potential sociodemographic confounders, a 5 percentage point increase in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods determined a 1 percentage point increase in the dietary content of added sugars. Individuals in the highest quintile were three times more likely (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 2·4, 3·4) to exceed the 10 % upper limit for added sugars recommended by the WHO compared with those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. This association was strongest among individuals aged 2-19 years (OR=3·9; 95 % CI 2·7, 5·9). In Chile, ultra-processed foods are important contributors to total energy intake and to the consumption of added sugars. Actions aimed at limiting consumption of ultra-processed foods are being implemented as effective ways to achieve WHO dietary recommendations to limit added sugars and processed foods, especially for children and adolescents.

  18. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance.

  19. Efficient sugar release by acetic acid ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2014-12-03

    Acetic acid ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse was performed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect of different parameters (including temperature, reaction time, solvent concentration, and acid catalyst dose) on pretreatment prehydrolyzate and subsequent enzymatic digestibility was determined. During the pretreatment process, 11.83 g of xylose based on 100 g of raw material could be obtained. After the ethanol-based pretreatment, the enzymatic hydrolysis was enhanced and the highest glucose yield of 40.99 g based on 100 g of raw material could be obtained, representing 93.8% of glucose in sugar cane bagasse. The maximum total sugar yields occurred at 190 °C, 45 min, 60:40 ethanol/water, and 5% dosage of acetic acid, reaching 58.36 g (including 17.69 g of xylose and 40.67 g of glucose) based on 100 g of raw material, representing 85.4% of total sugars in raw material. Furthermore, characterization of the pretreated sugar cane bagasse using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses were also developed. The results suggested that ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment could enhance enzymatic digestibilities because of the delignification and removal of xylan.

  20. Process evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis with filtrate recycle for the production of high concentration sugars.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ying; Rusli, Jannov; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Jameel, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Process simulation and lab trials were carried out to demonstrate and confirm the efficiency of the concept that recycling hydrolysate at low total solid enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the options to increase the sugar concentration without mixing problems. Higher sugar concentration can reduce the capital cost for fermentation and distillation because of smaller retention volume. Meanwhile, operation cost will also decrease for less operating volume and less energy required for distillation. With the computer simulation, time and efforts can be saved to achieve the steady state of recycling process, which is the scenario for industrial production. This paper, to the best of our knowledge, is the first paper discussing steady-state saccharification with recycling of the filtrate form enzymatic hydrolysis to increase sugar concentration. Recycled enzymes in the filtrate (15-30% of the original enzyme loading) resulted in 5-10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to the case in which recycled enzymes were denatured. The recycled hydrolysate yielded 10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to pure sugar simulated hydrolysate at the same enzyme loading, which indicated hydrolysis by-products could boost enzymatic hydrolysis. The high sugar concentration (pure sugar simulated) showed inhibition effect, since about 15% decrease in carbohydrate conversion was observed compared with the case with no sugar added. The overall effect of hydrolysate recycling at WinGEMS simulated steady-state conditions with 5% total solids was increasing the sugar concentration from 35 to 141 g/l, while the carbohydrate conversion was 2% higher for recycling at steady state (87%) compared with no recycling strategy (85%). Ten percent and 15% total solid processes were also evaluated in this study.

  1. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Fermentable sugar production from paddy straw by two steps chemical pretreatment and hydrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Vivian J. Q.; Salimi, M. N.; Yusoff, Ahm

    2017-04-01

    Paddy straw is one of the most abundant lignocellulose wastes and has potential as a feedstock for sugar production. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are the process that selected for the production of sugar. The paddy straw was pretreated with 1% (v/v) of sulfuric acid at 95 °C for 60 minutes followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis is desirable to achieve high yield of sugar from solid residues with high cellulose content. The optimization has been carried out by using Central composite design (CCD) to analyze the effect of pH, temperature and enzyme dosing for the enzymatic hydrolysis. For both the process, the concentration of sugar was analyzed by using Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent with the aid of the standard glucose curve. The results showed the highest sugar yield from dilute acid pre-treatment was 1.14 g/L. For the optimum condition for enzymatic hydrolysis was at pH 5, 50 °C and 0.10 mL of enzyme and this produced 4.55 g/L of fermentable sugar.

  3. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  4. Effects of D-003, a mixture of high-molecular-weight sugar cane wax acids, on lipid peroxidation markers in older individuals: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Ferrer, José I.; Lopez, Ernesto; Castaño, Gladys; Fernández, Julio; Ferreiro, Rosa M.; Fernández, Lilia; Mendoza, Sarahí; González, Rosa; Mesa, Melbis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aging is associated with increased lipid peroxidation (LP). D-003, a mixture of long-chain aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax, has been found to inhibit LP in experimental models and in healthy subjects. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of D-003 on LP markers and the lipid profile of older individuals. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted at the Plaza Veterans' House, Havana City, Cuba. Male and female patients aged ≥60 years with total cholesterol values of <6.1 mmol/L were eligible for inclusion in the study. After a 3-week lead-in and baseline assessment period, patients were randomized to receive PO D-003 5 mg/d, D-003 10 mg/d, or placebo for 8 weeks. The effect on copper-induced LP of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles was the primary variable, and the effects on plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, plasma antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities, and the lipid profile were secondary variables. A clinical examination was performed at each visit (baseline, weeks 4 and 8). A clinical examination, LP, and blood tests (lipid profile, hematologic, and blood biochemistry safety indicators) were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. Compliance and adverse events (AEs) were assessed at weeks 4 and 8. A 2-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for comparisons of both continuous and categoric variables. Results: Fifty-four patients aged ≥60 years were assessed for inclusion in the study, and 51 patients (40 women, 11 men; mean [SD] age, 67 [6] years) were included in the study. The lag phase of conjugated diene formation increased significantly and in a dose-dependent manner in the group treated with D-003 5 mg (24.7%; P < 0.01) and in the group treated with D-003 10 mg (29.3%; P < 0.01) compared with placebo. The maximal rate of conjugated diene

  5. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Jue [Okemos, MI; Okeke, Benedict [Montgomery, AL

    2012-03-27

    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  6. Development of flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain GYK-10 for the selective fermentation of glucose/fructose in sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Kato, Taku; Ohara, Satoshi; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Akira; Masuda, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamagishi, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    Advances in glucose/fructose-selective ethanol production have successfully enhanced raw sugar extraction from sugarcane juice by converting inhibitory substances (i.e., glucose/fructose) into ethanol, which is removed by subsequent operations in cane sugar mills. However, the commercial implementation of this breakthrough process in existing cane sugar mills requires a yeast strain that (i) can be used in food production processes, (ii) exhibits stable saccharometabolic selectivity, and (iii) can be easily separated from the saccharide solution. In this study, we developed a suitable saccharometabolism-selective and flocculent strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GYK-10. We obtained a suitable yeast strain for selective fermentation in cane sugar mills using a yeast mating system. First, we crossed a haploid strain defective in sucrose utilization with a flocculent haploid strain. Next, we performed tetrad dissection of the resultant hybrid diploid strain and selected GYK-10 from various segregants by investigating the sucrose assimilation and flocculation capacity phenotypes. Ten consecutive fermentation tests of the GYK-10 strain using a bench-scale fermentor confirmed its suitability for the implementation of practical selective fermentation in a commercial sugar mill. The strain exhibited complete saccharometabolic selectivity and sustained flocculation, where it maintained a high ethanol yield and conversion rate throughout the test. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  8. Dark side of reducing sugars. Sugar isn’t always desirable, at least not in potato processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tools from basic research allow the application of precise breeding to tackle the problem of cold-induced sweetening (CIS). Reduction in reducing sugars has been achieved by inhibiting a number of the genes that have been found to be involved in sugar release. Indeed suppression of the vacuolar in...

  9. The local impact of globalization: worker health and safety in Mexico's sugar industry.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Ruiz, B E

    1999-01-01

    With the opening of its economy to international trade, the government of Mexico privatized many of its productive holdings, including the state-owned sugar industry. Sugar cane and mill workers had played an important role in the armed struggles of the revolutionary period (1910-1917). Organized into a militant labor union, they had become staunch supporters of the new government in the following decades. Furthermore, in the early years of industrialization, the sugar industry was very important for the Mexican economy, and the union played an active role in the political arena. Since the privatization of the sugar mills, the sugar workers have experienced a dramatic reorganization of the work process, and industry-union relationships are being reshaped. This paper offers an analysis of the impact of the privatization on workers' health and safety. Since the economic and social changes in the work process have a direct impact on the community as a whole, the study also explores these effects.

  10. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, a sugar cane endosymbiont, produces a bacteriocin against Xanthomonas albilineans, a sugar cane pathogen.

    PubMed

    Piñón, Dolores; Casas, Mario; Blanch, María; Fontaniella, Blanca; Blanco, Yolanda; Vicente, Carlos; Solas, María-Teresa; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2002-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in liquid culture secretes proteins into the medium. Both medium containing Gluconacetobacter protein and a solution of this protein after acetone precipitation appeared to inhibit the growth of Xanthomonas albilineans in solid culture. This apparent inhibition of bacterial growth has, in fact, been revealed to be lysis of bacterial cells, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Fractionation of the Gluconacetobacter protein mixture in size-exclusion chromatography reveals a main fraction with lysozyme-like activity which produces lysis of both living bacteria and isolated cell walls.

  11. Novel process for the coproduction of xylo-oligosaccharides, fermentable sugars, and lignosulfonates from hardwood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; Jeuck, Ben; Du, Jing; Yong, Qiang; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Many biorefineries have not been commercialized due to poor economic returns from final products. In this work, a novel process has been developed to coproduce valuable sugars, xylo-oligosaccharides, and lignosulfonates from hardwood. The modified process includes a mild autohydrolysis pretreatment, which enables for the recovery of the xylo-oligosaccharides in auto-hydrolysate. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the residue is sulfomethylated to produce lignosulfonates. Recycling the sulfomethylation residues increased both the glucan recovery and lignosulfonate production. The glucose recovery was increased from 81.7% to 87.9%. Steady state simulation using 100g of hardwood produced 46.7g sugars, 5.9g xylo-oligosaccharides, and 25.7g lignosulfonates, which were significantly higher than that produced from the no-recycling process with 39.1g sugars, 5.9g xylo-oligosaccharides, and 15.0g lignosulfonates. The results indicate that this novel biorefinery process can improve the production of fermentable sugars and lignosulfonate from hardwood as compared to a conventional biorefinery process.

  12. Glucose repression may involve processes with different sugar kinase requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, P; Nieto, A; Prieto, J A

    1996-01-01

    Adding glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing among nonfermentable carbon sources leads to glucose repression. This process may be resolved into several steps. An early repression response requires any one of the three glucose kinases present in S. cerevisiae (HXK1, HXK2, or GLK1). A late response is only achieved when Hxk2p is present. PMID:8755906

  13. The measurement of mannitol in sugar beet factories to monitor deterioration and processing problems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet deterioration can still be a major technological constraint in processing. The major (but not sole) contributor to deterioration in many countries, particularly when warm and humid conditions prevail, is infection by hetero-fermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides lactic acid bacteria. In...

  14. The measurement of mannitol in sugar beet factories to monitor deterioration and processing problems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet deterioration can still be a major technological constraint in processing. The major (but not sole) contributor to deterioration in many countries, particularly when warm and humid conditions prevail, is infection by hetero-fermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides lactic acid bacteria. In...

  15. In-situ wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation at a sugar beet processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.L.; Fuller-Pratt, P.R.; Mielke, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    Groundwater monitoring data collected at the Western Sugar Company sugar beet processing plant, in Billings, Montana identified groundwater mounding and groundwater nitrogen concentration increases associated with lime slurry discharge to an on-site storage pile. The nitrogen impacts (primarily ammonia) likely originated through decomposition of organic matter in the slurry. Initially, Western Sugar considered constructing an expensive anaerobic and nitrification-denitrification wastewater treatment system. However, further investigation of the lime pile revealed that it was already serving as an efficient filter and anaerobic reactor. Comparisons of slurry application with other land application systems suggested that groundwater nitrogen impacts could be minimized through groundwater capture, re-application, and improved slurry management. The resultant system required little capitol and maintenance cost. The immediate effect was to substantially decrease the groundwater mound. Subsequent monitoring has demonstrated a gradual decline in nitrogen concentrations under the lime pile and a considerable concentration decrease downgradient of the groundwater recovery system.

  16. Conversion of cellulose into reducing sugar by solution plasma process (SPP).

    PubMed

    Prasertsung, I; Chutinate, P; Watthanaphanit, A; Saito, N; Damrongsakkul, S

    2017-09-15

    In the present study, cellulose colloids are treated with the solution plasma process in order to prepare reducing sugar. The investigated parameters are treatment time, type of electrodes, and applied pulse frequency of the bipolar supply. The reducing sugar was characterized by DNS method and the%yield of total reducing sugar (TRS) was then calculated. The crystal structure and chemical structure of plasma-treated cellulose was measured by XRD and FT-IR, respectively. The%yield of TRS was greatly enhanced by solution plasma treatment using Fe electrode. SEM and TEM micrograph indicated that Fe electrode yield the incidental Fe nanoparticles, hypothesized to catalyze the cellulose degradation during SPP treatment. The crystal structure of cellulose was destroyed. Solution plasma treatment of cellulose using Fe electrode at the high applied frequency pulse provided the highest%TRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  18. Combining ecophysiological modelling and quantitative trait locus analysis to identify key elementary processes underlying tomato fruit sugar concentration

    PubMed Central

    Prudent, Marion; Lecomte, Alain; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Nadia; Causse, Mathilde; Génard, Michel

    2011-01-01

    A mechanistic model predicting the accumulation of tomato fruit sugars was developed in order (i) to dissect the relative influence of three underlying processes: assimilate supply (S), metabolic transformation of sugars into other compounds (M), and dilution by water uptake (D); and (ii) to estimate the genetic variability of S, M, and D. The latter was estimated in a population of 20 introgression lines derived from the introgression of a wild tomato species (Solanum chmielewskii) into S. lycopersicum, grown under two contrasted fruit load conditions. Low load systematically decreased D in the whole population, while S and M were targets of genotype×fruit load interactions. The sugar concentration positively correlated to S and D when the variation was due to genetic introgressions, while it positively correlated to S and M when the variation was due to changes in fruit load. Co-localizations between quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for sugar concentration and QTLs for S, M, and D allowed hypotheses to be proposed on the processes putatively involved at the QTLs. Among the five QTLs for sugar concentration, four co-localized with QTLs for S, M, and D with similar allele effects. Moreover, the processes underlying QTLs for sugar accumulation changed according to the fruit load condition. Finally, for some genotypes, the processes underlying sugar concentration compensated in such a way that they did not modify the sugar concentration. By uncoupling genetic from physiological relationships between processes, these results provide new insights into further understanding of tomato fruit sugar accumulation. PMID:21036926

  19. A mild thermomechanical process for the enzymatic conversion of radiata pine into fermentable sugars and lignin.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Ian D; Jack, Michael W; Lloyd, John A; Murton, Karl D; Newman, Roger H; Stuthridge, Trevor R; Torr, Kirk M; Vaidya, Alankar A

    2017-01-01

    Conversion of softwoods into sustainable fuels and chemicals is important for parts of the world where softwoods are the dominant forest species. While they have high theoretical sugar yields, softwoods are amongst the most recalcitrant feedstocks for enzymatic processes, typically requiring both more severe pretreatment conditions and higher enzyme doses than needed for other lignocellulosic feedstocks. Although a number of processes have been proposed for converting softwoods into sugars suitable for fuel and chemical production, there is still a need for a high-yielding, industrially scalable and cost-effective conversion route. We summarise work leading to the development of an efficient process for the enzymatic conversion of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) into wood sugars. The process involves initial pressurised steaming of wood chips under relatively mild conditions (173 °C for 3-72 min) without added acid catalyst. The steamed chips then pass through a compression screw to squeeze out a pressate rich in solubilised hemicelluloses. The pressed chips are disc-refined and wet ball-milled to produce a substrate which is rapidly saccharified using commercially available enzyme cocktails. Adding 0.1% polyethylene glycol during saccharification was found to be particularly effective with these substrates, reducing enzyme usage to acceptable levels, e.g. 5 FPU/g OD substrate. The pressate is separately hydrolysed using acid, providing additional hemicellulose-derived sugars, for an overall sugar yield of 535 kg/ODT chips (76% of theoretical). The total pretreatment energy input is comparable to other processes, with the additional energy for attrition being balanced by a lower thermal energy requirement. This pretreatment strategy produces substrates with low levels of fermentation inhibitors, so the glucose-rich mainline and pressate syrups can be fermented to ethanol without detoxification. The lignin from the process remains comparatively unmodified, as

  20. An improved CARV process for bioethanol production from a mixture of sugar beet mash and potato mash.

    PubMed

    Yun, Min-Soo; Park, Jeung-yil; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Shiroma, Riki; Ike, Masakazu; Tamiya, Seiji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A mixed mash of sugar beet roots and potato tubers with a sugar concentration of 23.7% w/v was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Enzymatic digestion successfully reduced the viscosity of the mixture, enabling subsequent heat pretreatment for liquefaction/sterilization. An energy-consuming thick juice preparation from sugar beet for concentration and sterilization was omitted in this new process.

  1. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-06-16

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  2. Tailoring wet explosion process parameters for the pretreatment of cocksfoot grass for high sugar yields.

    PubMed

    Njoku, S I; Ahring, B K; Uellendahl, H

    2013-08-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response surface methodology. The WEx process parameters studied were temperature (160-210 °C), retention time (5-20 min), and dilute sulfuric acid concentration (0.2-0.5 %). The pretreatment parameter set E, applying 210 °C for 5 min and 0.5 % dilute sulfuric acid, was found most suitable for achieving a high glucose release with low formation of by-products. Under these conditions, the cellulose and hemicellulose sugar recovery was 94 % and 70 %, respectively. The efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose under these conditions was 91 %. On the other hand, the release of pentose sugars was higher when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars.

  3. A smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback improves cane loading for people with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Routson, Rebecca L; Bailey, Marcus; Pumford, Isabelle; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Aubin, Patrick M

    2016-08-01

    Nine million adults have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the U.S. and almost half of those people have a walking aid such as a cane. Proper cane loading (e.g. 15% body weight [BW]) can reduce knee loading and may slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback that aims to facilitate increased cane loading. Ten subjects with knee OA performed a 50 m hallway walk test under four conditions: 1) naïve, 2) conventional cane with verbal instruction, 3) smart cane, and 4) conventional cane post smart cane. The cane load (% BW; mean ± 1 standard deviation) for the four conditions was 9.0 ± 1.9 (naïve), 12.7 ± 2.6 (conventional cane), 17.6 ± 2.4 (smart cane), and 15.6 ±3.1 (conventional cane post smart cane). These results indicate that the smart cane's vibrotactile biofeedback helped the users achieve the target cane loading of 15% BW or more as compared to naïve or verbal instruction alone. After using the smart cane, conventional cane loading was higher than the naïve and verbal instruction conditions demonstrating a potential smart cane training effect. Long term increased cane loading may reduce knee pain and improve joint function.

  4. Preliming of sugar beet cossettes to reduce energy in sugar beet processing. Final technical report, August 1, 1978-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.M.

    1981-06-30

    In the United States, the beet sugar industry is the most intensive user of energy, per unit value of product shipped. Approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu of energy are required per ton of beets processed. The increasing cost and scarcity of energy has made the industry very receptive to process changes which can reduce energy requirements for sugar production. A two-year project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of liming fresh sugar beet cossettes, prior to extraction, as a means of reducing energy consumption. Fresh Ca(OH)/sub 2/ was added to cossettes for 10 min prior to introduction into the diffuser (extractor). It was found that up to 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/ton of beets sliced could be saved in pulp drying and 0.45 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/ton could be saved in production of lime (13.5% and 1.7%, respectively, of current overall energy requirements of the beet-sugar process). Quality of raw juice from the diffuser was much better with limed cossettes than with control cossettes. Experimental thin juice was slightly higher in lime salts and lower in quality than controls. Liming of cossettes by dipping in a slurry of 2.6% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ gave better results than mixing of cossettes with dry Ca(OH)/sub 2/ and would be much easier to implement in an existing plant.

  5. A process for separating acid-sugar mixtures using ion exclusion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, R.D.; Hartfield, S.W.; Farina, G.E.

    1994-10-01

    Work using a low-temperature concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis process to convert the cellulosic fraction of corn stover to monomeric sugars demonstrated the high conversion efficiencies possible with that process. The TVA work also confirmed the need for a cost-effective acid-sugar separation process. A preparative-scale ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) system was designed, constructed, and tested with a variety of synthetic solutions and actual hydrolyzates. Although significant dispersion was observed initially, design changes were effective in minimizing this phenomenon. Data collected during the operation of the preparative-scale system were used in the design and construction of an IEC miniplant capable of processing larger volumes of synthetic solutions or hydrolyzates and in the design of an extraction-assisted IEC system. The data were also used to assess the viability of a continuous feed IEC system. This paper includes a discussion of the IEC process, provides overall material balances for various IEC process scenarios, and presents a discussion on process economics.

  6. An Ionic Liquid Reaction and Separation Process for Production of Hydroxymethylfurfural from Sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Feng; Li, Joanne; Cooper, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been world-wide interest to making plastics out of renewable biomass feedstock for recent years. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is viewed as an attractive alternate to terephthalic acid (TPA) for production of polyesters (PET) and polyamides. Conversion of sugars into HMF has been studied in numerous publications. In this work, a complete ionic liquid reaction and separation process is presented for nearly stoichiometric conversion of fructose into HMF. Different adsorbent materials are evaluated and silicalite material is demonstrated effective for isolation of 99% pure HMF from actual ionic liquid reaction mixtures and for recovery of the un-converted sugars and reaction intermediate along with the ionic liquid. Membrane-coated silicalite particles are prepared and studied for a practical adsorption process operated at low pressure drops but with separation performances comparable or better than the powder material. Complete conversion of fresh fructose feed into HMF in the recycled ionic liquid is shown under suitable reaction conditions. Stability of HMF product is characterized. A simplified process flow diagram is proposed based on these research results, and the key equipment such as reactor and adsorbent bed is sized for a plant of 200,000 ton/year of fructose processing capacity. The proposed HMF production process is much simpler than the current paraxylene (PX) manufacturing process from petroleum oil, which suggests substantial reduction to the capital cost and energy consumption be possible. At the equivalent value to PX on the molar basis, there can be a large gross margin for HMF production from fructose and/or sugars.

  7. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra-processed

  8. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-03-09

    To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Decreasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods could be an effective way of reducing the excessive intake of added sugars in the USA

  9. Trends in sugar supply and consumption in Australia: is there an Australian Paradox?

    PubMed

    Rikkers, Wavne; Lawrence, David; Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-07-18

    High consumption of refined carbohydrate, in particular sugar, has been identified as a possible contributory factor in greater risk of excess weight gain. In spite of data limitations, one recent paper suggests that Australian sugar consumption has decreased over the same time period that obesity has increased, a so called 'Australian Paradox'. Given the significant public health focus on nutrition, we aimed to estimate Australian sugar supply and consumption over recent decades, to determine whether these data could be used to make any conclusions about sugar's role in obesity. Foods high in sugar were identified. Data relating to sugar supply and consumption from 1988 to 2010 were obtained from multiple sources. Using these data we attempted to generate a time series estimate of sugar in Australia's food supply. Australia produces and exports sugar from sugar cane and the sugar in imported foods has received little attention. We were unable to produce a reliable and robust estimate of total sugars in the Australian diet due to data limitations and a lack of current data sources. However, available Import data showed large increases in the volume and value of imported sweetened products between 1988 and 2010 to over 30 grams of sugar per person per day. Value estimates of local production of sweetened products also show substantial increases in this period. The Australian Paradox assertion is based on incomplete data, as it excludes sugar contained in imported processed foods, which have increased markedly. A major Australian public health target is to improve the quality of the food supply, and actions have been set in terms of achieving broader environmental changes. However, evaluation of progress is hampered by lack of high quality data relating to supply and consumption. We recommend the regular collection of comprehensive food supply statistics, which include both local production and imports. This would provide an inexpensive addition to survey data and

  10. Factory trials to determine how sugarcane trash impacts downstream processing including affinated sugar production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many countries including the United States and South Africa, certain areas are changing to green from burnt cane harvesting, due to public and environmental pressures against burning and the current interest in using sugarcane trash as biomass. Since the 1940s there have been world-wide factory ...

  11. Changes of phosphatidylserine distribution in human red blood cells during the process of loading sugars.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo Bo; Liu, Min Xia; Ren, Su Ping; Zhang, Jin Gang; Han, Ying

    2006-08-01

    The plasma membrane of red blood cells permits sugars to be loaded into the cytoplasm simply by incubation in a suitable buffer solution containing the sugar. This may provide some hope for the freeze-drying of human red blood cells. However, the effect of the loading process on red blood cells has not been fully investigated. The exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of the cell can be recognized by macrophages and result in shortened circulation in vivo. This study evaluates the effects of the concentration, the incubation time, and the temperature of exposure of human red blood cells to extracellular trehalose or glucose. Exposure of PS was demonstrated by annexin V labeling. It was shown that the efficiency of loading of glucose was significantly greater than that of trehalose. The loading efficiency of both sugars increased with increase in extracellular sugar concentration, prolongation of incubation time, and increase of incubation temperature. The percentages of cells with exposed PS and of damaged cells were dependent on the extracellular sugar concentration, the incubation time, and the temperature. With an extracellular glucose concentration of 0.8M, the percentage of cells with exposed PS was more than 80% and significantly higher than that of red blood cells loaded with trehalose (approximate 20%, P<0.01). As the incubation time was prolonged, the percentage of PS exposure and of damaged cells also increased. After incubation for 5h, the percentage of red cells with exposed PS following loading with glucose was more than 80% and significantly higher than that of cells loaded with trehalose (40%, P<0.01). In addition, the incubation temperature had a major effect on PS exposure. The percentage of cells with PS exposure and the proportion of damaged cells increased with increase of incubation temperature. At 37 degrees C, the percentage of cells with exposed PS and of damaged cells after loading with glucose was more than 80% and

  12. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories.

  13. Physicothermochemical pretreatments of food processing waste for enchancing anaerobic digestion and biogas generation

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, A.M. Menoufia Univ., Sadat City ); Nasr, M.I. )

    1993-10-01

    This paper was conducted to evaluate the effect of milling and alkali lime cooking pretreatments on the rate and extent of methane generation from sugar Cane bagasse. The effect of pretreatment process variables (Particle size 8.0.003 mm, temperature between 100 and 250[degree]C and alkaline dosage between 0 and 8g CaO/kg VS) on the biogas generation from Sugar Cane bagasse has been investigated. Methane generation from the pretreated cane bagasse was studied using serum bottle technique and an upflow anaerobic filter bioreactor. The optimum condition involves alkali-cooking of cane bagasse (0.5 mm) with 4% CaO at 200[degree]C, dissolving most of the cellulose and converting it in a mixture of organic acids, including formic, acetic, lactic, and succinic acids. About 80% of the COD content of the cellulose was retained in the cooked liquor. A very rapid biogas were observed in the first three days of 70% methane content from the pretreated cane bagasse and the digestion was completed within 8 days. It has been concluded, that the lime-cooking of CB could produce methane as much as 70% of that from glucose. Inhibition did not seems to be serious problem in the biogas generation from the alkali-cooking cane bagasse. 29 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Selection of processing tomato genotypes with high acyl sugar content that are resistant to the tomato pinworm.

    PubMed

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Camargo, L K P; Chagas, R R; Lima, I P

    2013-02-08

    Acyl sugars are allelochemicals present at high concentrations in leaves of accessions of the wild tomato Solanum pennellii; they confer resistance to a large number of arthropod pests, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Accession 'LA716', with high contents of acyl sugars in the leaves, was used as a source of resistance to start a genetic breeding program of processing cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. We selected plants of the F₂ generation of an interspecific cross (S. lycopersicum cv. 'Redenção' x S. pennellii 'LA716') for extremes of concentrations (high and low) of acyl sugars in the leaves and evaluated the resistance of selected genotypes to the tomato pinworm, compared with plants of the parental and F₁ generations. The concentrations of acyl sugars present in the genotypes selected for high contents were close to those of S. pennellii 'LA 716', while the genotypes with low concentrations of acyl sugars were close to cultivar 'Redenção'. The F₁ hybrid ('Redenção' x 'LA716') had intermediate concentrations of acyl sugars, but was closer to Redenção, indicating that the inheritance of this type of character is due to a recessive major gene, along with minor genes with additive effects. There was a direct association between high contents of acyl sugars and non-preference for oviposition and suppression of larval development, indicating that the allelochemical acts through mechanisms of non-preference for oviposition and through antibiosis. Genotypes with high contents of acyl sugars were more effective in reducing the damage caused by the tomato pinworm. Genotypes RVTA-2010pl#94 and RVTA-2010pl#31, selected for high contents of acyl sugars, showed a good level of resistance to T. absoluta, similar to the wild genotype LA716. These genotypes are promising for use in a breeding program for developing commercial processing tomatoes.

  15. Identifying Physiological and Yield Related Traits in Sugarcane and Energy Cane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A growing interest of producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for both sugar and bioenergy and saturation of using organic soils provide an opportunity to expand production on mineral (sand) soils. However, sugarcane yields and profits on sand soils are generally low. Energy cane may be an alternative ...

  16. Effect of pelleting process variables on physical properties and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Amber N. Hoover; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Farzaneh Teymouri; Garold L. Gresham; Janette Moore

    2014-07-01

    Pelletization process variables including grind size (4, 6 mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70 degrees C) were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was >97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6 mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4 mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60 Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions.

  17. Effect of pelleting process variables on physical properties and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Amber N; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Moore, Janette; Gresham, Garold

    2014-07-01

    Pelletization process variables, including grind size (4, 6mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70°C), were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also, the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was>97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions.

  18. Evaluation of Liquid-Liquid Extraction Process for Separating Acrylic Acid Produced From Renewable Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, M. E. T.; Moraes, E. B.; Machado, A. B.; Maciel Filho, R.; Wolf-Maciel, M. R.

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method univeral quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  19. An infrared spectroscopic tool for process monitoring: sugar contents during the production of a depilatory formulation.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Julia; Cascant, Mercedes; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2012-09-15

    A fast, reliable and economical methodology has been developed to control the production process of sugar-based depilatories. The method is based on the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. A very simple sample preparation process involving the dissolution of samples in water was applied. Employing a multivariate calibration model established from data of 15 well characterized samples, prediction errors equal or below 3.04 mg mL(-1) for the quantitative determination of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and maltotriose were obtained. Results found in this preliminary study indicate a great potential for the development of at-line ATR-FTIR-PLS methods based on a careful selection of variables from IR spectra, delivering fast and reliable results. As a reference method, a liquid chromatography (LC)-IR method was adapted for sample characterization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of liquid-liquid extraction process for separating acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M E T; Moraes, E B; Machado, A B; Maciel Filho, R; Wolf-Maciel, M R

    2007-04-01

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method universal quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  1. 17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House, 1878. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House, 1878. View: Southwest corner of boiling house. The amimal-powered cane mill is located in the undergrowth in the right foreground, - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of Entry Period for the Fiscal Year 2012 Raw Sugar Tariff- Rate Quota AGENCY...

  3. Improving conversion yield of fermentable sugars into fuel ethanol in 1st generation yeast-based production processes.

    PubMed

    Gombert, Andreas K; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2015-06-01

    Current fuel ethanol production using yeasts and starch or sucrose-based feedstocks is referred to as 1st generation (1G) ethanol production. These processes are characterized by the high contribution of sugar prices to the final production costs, by high production volumes, and by low profit margins. In this context, small improvements in the ethanol yield on sugars have a large impact on process economy. Three types of strategies used to achieve this goal are discussed: engineering free-energy conservation, engineering redox-metabolism, and decreasing sugar losses in the process. Whereas the two former strategies lead to decreased biomass and/or glycerol formation, the latter requires increased process and/or yeast robustness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted dilute acid hydrolysis of tea processing waste for production of fermentable sugar.

    PubMed

    Germec, Mustafa; Tarhan, Kübra; Yatmaz, Ercan; Tetik, Nedim; Karhan, Mustafa; Demirci, Ali; Turhan, Irfan

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic materials that are the most abundant plant biomass in the world have the potential to become sustainable sources of the produced value added products. Tea processing waste (TPW) is a good lignocellulosic source to produce the value added products from fermentable sugars (FSs). Therefore, the present study is undertaken to produce FSs by using ultrasound-assisted dilute acid (UADA) and dilute acid (DA) hydrolysis of TPW followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. UADA hydrolysis of TPW was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) at maximum power (900 W) for 2 h. The optimum conditions were determined as 50°C, 1:6 (w/v) solid:liquid ratio, and 1% (w/v) DA concentration, which yielded 20.34 g/L FS concentration. Furthermore, its DA hydrolysis was also optimized by using RSM for comparison and the optimized conditions were found as 120°C, 1:8 solid:liquid ratio, and 1% acid concentration, which produced 25.3 g/L FS yield. Even though the produced sugars with UADA hydrolysis are slightly less, but it can provide significant cost saving due to the lower temperature requirement and less liquid consumption. Besides, enzymatic hydrolysis applied after pretreatments of TPW were very more economic than the conventional enzymatic hydrolysis in the literature due to shorter time requiring. In conclusion, ultrasound-assisted is a promising technology that can be successfully applied for hydrolysis of biomass and can be an alternative to the other hydrolysis procedures and also TPW can be considered as suitable carbon source for the production of value-added products like biofuels, organic acids, and polysaccharides. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:393-403, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    PubMed

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-12-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g.

  7. Acid mediated chemical treatment to remove sugar from waste acid stream from nano-crystalline cellulose manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sampa; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Pulicharla, Rama; Berry, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) is a nano-scale biomaterial derived from highly abundant natural polymer cellulose. It is industrially produced by concentrated acid hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. However, presences of as high as 5-10% of sugar monomers in spent sulphuric acid during the manufacturing process, makes it unsuitable for such recycling or reuse of sulphuric acid. Currently, the industry has been using membrane and ion exchange technology to remove such sugars, however, such technologies cannot achieve the target of 80-90% removal. In the current investigation, thermal treatment and acid mediated thermal treatment have been evaluated for sugar removal from the spent sulphuric acid. Almost complete removal of sugar has been achieved by this approach. Maximum sugar removal efficiency (99.9%) observed during this study was at 120±1°C for 60min using 0.8 ratio (sample: acid) or at 100±1°C for 40min using 1.5 ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard was measured in two planes; parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the surface of the manufactured sheet. The information was necessary to better understand the thermal response of a loaded shipping container. The tests demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard in the plane parallel to the surface of the sheet was nearly twice as great as the conductivity of the same material in a plane perpendicular to the sheet. There was no significant difference in the conductivity in different directions within the plane parallel to the surface, and the presence of glue between layers of fiberboard did not significantly change the conductivity of the assembly. The tests revealed that the thermal conductivity measured in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the surface of a stack of cane fiberboard sheets not bonded together, decreases with an increase in the mean temperature. This was determined to be the result of air gaps between the sheets of fiberboard, and not related to the properties of the material itself

  9. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  10. Sugar and other sweeteners

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar and starch are among the abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from sugarcane and sugar beet) in 2015/2016 was approximately 176 million metric tons, raw value, with...

  11. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    PubMed

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  12. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  13. Polygalactose containing nanocages: the RAFT process for the synthesis of hollow sugar balls.

    PubMed

    Ting, S R Simon; Gregory, Andrew M; Stenzel, Martina H

    2009-02-09

    Hollow poly(6-O-acryloyl-alpha-D-galactopyranose) (PAGP) nanospheres were prepared in a facile manner using the RAFT (reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer) process. Initially, an amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(lactide)-block-poly(6-O-acryloyl-alpha-D-galactopyranose) (PLA-b-PAGP), was synthesized using a poly(lactide) (PLA) macroRAFT agent. It was attained in high yields and displayed low PDI values. The block copolymers self-assembled in aqueous solution to form micelles with pendent galactose moieties covering the surface. By using hexandiol diacrylate the micelles were cross-linked at the nexus of the copolymer, creating stable aggregates. Aminolysis with hexylamine allowed the removal of the PLA core without any detrimental effect on the glycopolymer units to produce hollow nanocages. Characterization of these hollow "sugar balls" with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the cross-linked micelles with a central void due to the removal of the hydrophobic block. These micelles are advantageous in drug delivery applications, especially those involving the liver, thanks to the pendent galactose functionalities covering the surfaces of the nanocages.

  14. Commercial biopreservatives combined with salt and sugar to control Listeria monocytogenes during smoked salmon processing.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Raquel; Bravo, Daniel; Medina, Margarita

    2013-08-01

    Three commercial antimicrobials, applied during the salting stage in the preparation of cold-smoked salmon, were investigated for their effect on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes. Fresh salmon inoculated with L. monocytogenes INIA 2530 was treated with three bacteriocin-based commercial biopreservatives, which were applied in combination with a salt-sugar mix. The product was kept at 8°C for 7 days. L. monocytogenes grew by approximately 3 log CFU/g in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix or biopreservatives). Pathogen levels were reduced by the three biopreservatives investigated. After 7 days at 8°C, L. monocytogenes counts in salmon treated with biopreservatives combined with the salt-sugar mix were significantly lower than those observed in salmon treated with only salt and sugar. At the end of storage, salmon treated with biopreservative derived from Pediococcus acidilactici had pathogen levels 3.6 log CFU/g lower than in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix) and 1.5 log CFU/g lower than in the samples treated with only salt and sugar. The application of commercial biopreservatives to fresh salmon during the dry-salting stage might help control L. monocytogenes growth, thus enhancing the safety of cold-smoked salmon during refrigerated storage.

  15. Similarities and interactions between the ageing process and high chronic intake of added sugars.

    PubMed

    Gatineau, Eva; Polakof, Sergio; Dardevet, Dominique; Mosoni, Laurent

    2017-05-17

    In our societies, the proportions of elderly people and of obese individuals are increasing. Both factors are associated with high health-related costs. During obesity, many authors suggest that it is a high chronic intake of added sugars (HCIAS) that triggers the shift towards pathology. However, the majority of studies were performed in young subjects and only a few were interested in the interaction with the ageing process. Our purpose was to discuss the metabolic effects of HCIAS, compare with the effects of ageing, and evaluate how deleterious the combined action of HCIAS and ageing could be. This effect of HCIAS seems mediated by fructose, targeting the liver first, which may lead to all subsequent metabolic alterations. The first basic alterations induced by fructose are increased oxidative stress, protein glycation, inflammation, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. These alterations are also present during the ageing process, and are closely related to each other, one leading to the other. These basic alterations are also involved in more complex syndromes, which are also favoured by HCIAS, and present during ageing. These include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Cumulative effects of ageing and HCIAS have been seldom tested and may not always be strictly additive. Data also suggest that some of the metabolic alterations that are more prevalent during ageing could be related more with nutritional habits than to intrinsic ageing. In conclusion, it is clear that HCIAS interacts with the ageing process, accelerates the accumulation of metabolic alterations, and that it should be avoided.

  16. Process model and economic analysis of ethanol production from sugar beet raw juice as part of the cleaner production concept.

    PubMed

    Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Popov, Stevan D; Dodić, Jelena M; Grahovac, Jovana A

    2012-01-01

    The batch fermentation process of sugar beet processing intermediates by free yeast cells is the most widely used method in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for producing ethanol as fuel. In this study a process and cost model was developed for producing ethanol from raw juice. The model can be used to calculate capital investment costs, unit production costs and operating costs for a plant producing 44 million l of 99.6% pure ethanol annually. In the sensitivity analysis the influence of sugar beet and yeast price, as well as the influence of recycled biomass on process economics, ethanol production costs and project feasibility was examined. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the raw material costs have a significant influence on the expenses for producing ethanol. Also, the optimal percentage of recycled biomass turned out to be in the range from 50% to 70%.

  17. The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  18. Developing Sugar Cane as a Dedicated Energy Crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High yield with low inputs, resistance to diseases, insects, and drought, adaptation to a wide range of soils and climates, and biomass composition that is optimized for end use are identified as important traits for cellulosic biomass crops. Sugarcane is one of the most efficient grass species in c...

  19. Sugar Substrates for l-Lysine Fermentation by Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A.; Ledezma, M.; Carreño, R.

    1970-01-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; KLa in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O2 per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content. PMID:5485081

  20. Sugar substrates for L-lysine fermentation by Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Ledezma, M; Carreño, R

    1970-11-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; K(La) in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O(2) per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content.

  1. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  6. Electricity generation potential of Thai sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Therdyothin, A.; Bhattacharaya, S.C.; Chirarattananon, S. )

    1992-10-01

    At present, the total installed electricity generating capacity of Thailand is 7500 MW. Because this level of investment will take an unacceptable large part of total foreign borrowing, the government plans to encourage participation of the private sector in electricity generation. Among the various technology options for power production, cogeneration appears to be the most promising technology due to its very high effectiveness of fuel utilization. Therefore, in the first phase of private power generation, the Thai government is encouraging cogeneration systems. This paper discusses sugar mills, where expertise and equipment for electricity generation already exist, appear to be in a particularly advantageous position to participate in the private power generation program. At present, there are 46 sugar mills in Thailand with a total capacity of 338,000 tons of cane per day. The fiber part delivered from the milling of sugarcane, bagasse, is normally used to produce steam for the process heat and electricity generation. The investment and operating costs for each of these alternatives have been evaluated. The internal rate of return is used to indicate the benefit of each alternative.

  7. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  8. A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeehoon; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A; Maravelias, Christos T

    2015-04-01

    The work develops a strategy for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In this strategy, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are simultaneously converted to sugars using a γ-valerolactone (GVL) solvent containing a dilute acid catalyst. To effectively recover GVL for reuse as solvent and biomass-derived lignin for heat and power generation, separation subsystems, including a novel CO2-based extraction for the separation of sugars from GVL, lignin and humins have been designed. The sugars are co-fermented by yeast to produce ethanol. Furthermore, heat integration to reduce utility requirements is performed. It is shown that this strategy leads to high ethanol yields and the total energy requirements could be satisfied by burning the lignin. The integrated strategy using corn stover feedstock leads to a minimum selling price of $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent, which suggests that it is a promising alternative to current biofuels production approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine, reducing sugars, and lysine during the dairy thermal process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xian-Bing; Ma, Fei; Yu, Shu-Juan; Guan, Yong-Guang

    2013-09-01

    A new analytical method allowing the simultaneous quantification of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), lysine, and reducing sugars (glucose, lactose, and galactose) is described. It is based on high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric electrochemical detection. This method demonstrated a low limit of quantification (0.385 to 0.866 mg/L), excellent linear correlation (R(2)>0.997), and desired calibration range (3.125 to 25 mg/L). In addition, lactose-lysine solutions containing sulfite (4 to 400 mmol/L) were heated at 110°C for 2h. The results showed that sulfite inhibited the formation of CML and promoted the consumption of reducing sugars and lysine in the Maillard reaction model. The method proved to be useful for simultaneous analysis of CML, lysine, and reducing sugars (glucose, galactose, and lactose) in the Maillard reaction system. Moreover, sulfite was an effective inhibitor of CML formation.

  10. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen.

  11. Process for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.; Schiweck, H.

    1981-09-22

    A process is provided for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar in which thin juice is cooled, subjected to one or more stages of flash evaporation to concentrate and further cool the juice, after which it is heated with condensate and/or vapor produced elsewhere in the sugar manufacturing process and with incoming thin juice thereby heating the outgoing juice to substantially its original temperature and providing the cooling of the incoming thin juice. In another embodiment completely purified thin juice is concentrated in a multiple effect evaporating plant wherein the vapor produced in the final evaporator is compressed and is returned selectively to one of the preceding evaporators of the evaporating plant for use in heating the juice.

  12. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  13. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  14. Integration of biopolymer production with process water treatment at a sugar factory.

    PubMed

    Anterrieu, Simon; Quadri, Luca; Geurkink, Bert; Dinkla, Inez; Bengtsson, Simon; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica; Alexandersson, Tomas; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Karlsson, Anton; Hjort, Markus; Karabegovic, Lamija; Magnusson, Per; Johansson, Peter; Christensson, Magnus; Werker, Alan

    2014-06-25

    The present investigation has focused on generating a surplus denitrifying biomass with high polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing potential while maintaining water treatment performance in biological nitrogen removal. The motivation for the study was to examine integration of PHA production into the water treatment and residuals management needs at the Suiker Unie sugar beet factory in Groningen, the Netherlands. At the factory, process waters are treated in nitrifying-denitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to remove nitrogen found in condensate. Organic slippage (COD) in waters coming from beet washing is the substrate used for denitrification. The full-scale SBR was mimicked at laboratory scale. In two parallel laboratory scale SBRs, a mixed-culture biomass selection strategy of anoxic-feast and aerobic-famine was investigated using the condensate and wash water from Suiker Unie. One laboratory SBR was operated as conventional activated sludge with long solids retention time similar to the full-scale (SRT >16 days) while the other SBR was a hybrid biofilm-activated sludge (IFAS) process with short SRT (4-6 days) for the suspended solids. Both SBRs were found to produce biomass with augmented PHA production potential while sustaining process water treatment for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus for the factory process waters. PHA producing potential in excess of 60 percent g-PHA/g-VSS was achieved with the lab scale surplus biomass. Surplus biomass of low (4-6 days) and high (>16 days) solids retention time yielded similar results in PHA accumulation potential. However, nitrification performance was found to be more robust for the IFAS SBR. Assessment of the SBR microbial ecology based on 16sDNA and selected PHA synthase genes at full-scale in comparison to biomass from the laboratory scale SBRs suggested that the full-scale process was enriched with a PHA storing microbial community. However, structure-function relationships based on RNA levels for the

  15. [Advances in the process of fortification of sugar with vitamin A in Central America].

    PubMed

    Dary, O

    1994-12-01

    Fortifying sugar with vitamin A was adopted by various Central American countries as their main strategy for reducing vitamin A deficiency in the seventies, but after being in effect a few years, such fortification became lax. Nationwide studies from the late eighties and early nineties showed that vitamin A deficiency was still a widely prevalent public health problem in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The situation led to the reappearance and strengthening of national programs for the fortification of sugar. Experience gathered over the past three years confirms the fact that such fortification is technically feasible and that it is safer, more effective, and more practical than other types of interventions. Essential to the success of this program is the establishment of a reliable and permanent quality control system for guaranteeing that, through sugar, households receive vitamin A in sufficient amounts to complete an adequate dietary supply. At present a quality control system is being implemented at three levels: production, government supervision, and community monitoring. INCAP has developed analytical methodologies that are fit to support control measures in each of these three levels. It is surmised that a program aimed at fortifying sugar with vitamin A, if optimally executed, would render a preventive supplementation program unnecessary. However, constant monitoring and supplementation of natural sources of vitamin A are always recommended in children under 3 and lactating mothers.

  16. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose.

  17. Sucrose purification and repeated ethanol production from sugars remaining in sweet sorghum juice subjected to a membrane separation process.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Sasaki, Daisuke; Sazuka, Takashi; Kamio, Eiji; Ogino, Chiaki; Matsuyama, Hideto; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-08-01

    The juice from sweet sorghum cultivar SIL-05 (harvested at physiological maturity) was extracted, and the component sucrose and reducing sugars (such as glucose and fructose) were subjected to a membrane separation process to purify the sucrose for subsequent sugar refining and to obtain a feedstock for repeated bioethanol production. Nanofiltration (NF) of an ultrafiltration (UF) permeate using an NTR-7450 membrane (Nitto Denko Corporation, Osaka, Japan) concentrated the juice and produced a sucrose-rich fraction (143.2 g L(-1) sucrose, 8.5 g L(-1) glucose, and 4.5 g L(-1) fructose). In addition, the above NF permeate was concentrated using an ESNA3 NF membrane to provide concentrated permeated sugars (227.9 g L(-1)) and capture various amino acids in the juice, enabling subsequent ethanol fermentation without the addition of an exogenous nitrogen source. Sequential batch fermentation using the ESNA3 membrane concentrate provided an ethanol titer and theoretical ethanol yield of 102.5-109.5 g L(-1) and 84.4-89.6%, respectively, throughout the five-cycle batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741. Our results demonstrate that a membrane process using UF and two types of NF membranes has the potential to allow sucrose purification and repeated bioethanol production.

  18. Effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar concentration.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were performed at high sugar concentration (170 g l(-1)) using Agave tequilana Weber blue variety with and without added nitrogen from different sources (ammonium sulfate; glutamic acid; a mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids) during the exponential phase of growth. All the additions increased the fermentation rate and alcohol efficiency. The level of synthesis of volatile compounds depended on the source added. The concentration of amyl alcohols and isobutanol were decreased while propanol and acetaldehyde concentration increased. The most efficient nitrogen sources for fermentation rate were ammonium sulfate and the mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids. The level of volatile compounds produced depended upon types of nitrogen. The synthesis of some volatile compounds increased while others decreased with nitrogen addition. The addition of nitrogen could be a strategy for improving the fermentation rate and efficiency in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar Agave tequilana concentration. Furthermore, the sensory quality of the final product may change because the synthesis of the volatile compounds is modified.

  19. Comparative effect of cane syrup and natural honey on abdominal viscera of growing male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Ajibola, Abdulwahid; Chamunorwa, Joseph P; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2013-04-01

    The high intake of refined sugars, mainly fructose has been implicated in the epidemiology of metabolic diseases in adults and children. With an aim to determine whether honey can substitute refined sugars without adverse effect, the long-term effects of natural honey and cane syrup have been compared on visceral morphology in growing rats fed from neonatal age. Honey increased the caecum and pancreas weights in male rats, which could enhance enzymatic activities of pancreas and digestive functions by intestinal microflora of caecum. Unlike honey, cane syrup caused fatty degenerations in the liver of both male and female rats. Honey enhanced intestinal villi growth, and did not cause pathology in the rodents' abdominal viscera, suggesting potential nutritional benefit as substitution for refined sugars in animal feed.

  20. 14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  1. San Sebastián: the social and political effects of sugar mill closure in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Powell, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Mexico's sugar mills face an uncertain future: the closure of San Sebastián may well presage others if the climate for sugar production on national and international levels does not improve. While the continued squeezing of small cane producers reflects processes affecting peasant agriculture generally in Mexico, and indeed beyond, the fate of the mill workers made redundant when the mill closed similarly mirrors broad tendencies in labor in both the developed and developing world under neoliberalism. Former workers fell back upon personal, family, and community resources by migrating to the U.S. or locally reconstructing livelihoods characterized by a reduction in income, security, and access to social benefits. This article reports on the impact of the mill closure on the livelihoods of former mill worker families in the community of San Sebastián and offers some observations on their responses to the situation.

  2. Genetic suppression analysis in novel vacuolar processing enzymes reveals their roles in controlling sugar accumulation in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Ariizumi, Tohru; Higuchi, Kenji; Arakaki, Shoko; Sano, Tsunenori; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    In plant cells, many vacuolar proteins are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum and are subsequently transported to the vacuole. These precursors are subject to post-translational modifications to allow the active mature forms to be produced. Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) has been identified as a family of cysteine proteases involved in protein maturation in the vacuole. In this study, novel VPE genes were isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and they were designated SlVPE1-SlVPE5. Phylogenic analysis suggested that SlVPE1 and SlVPE2 were categorized as the seed coat type, SlVPE4 was categorized as the seed type, and both SlVPE3 and SlVPE5 were categorized as the vegetative type. Expression analysis demonstrated that these genes were expressed during fruit development, and that their expression profiles agreed with this classification. High VPE enzyme activity was observed during tomato fruit development; the enzyme activity was correlated with the SlVPE mRNA levels, indicating that the SlVPE encoded active VPE proteins. The total sugar content was higher in RNA interference (RNAi) lines compared with the control plants, suggesting negative roles for SlVPE in sugar accumulation. The quantitative expression analysis of each SlVPE gene in the RNAi lines suggested that the suppression of SlVPE5 probably had the strongest effect on the sugar accumulation observed. The suppression of SlVPE did not influence the total amino acid content, suggesting that the molecular targets of SlVPE were mainly involved in sugar accumulation.

  3. Development of a Preschool "Kiddy Cane."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrund, R. L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a "kiddy cane" for use with young children with blindness, aged 2-6, is described including development of the prototype, field testing, modifications resulting from feedback from specialists, and ongoing evaluation. (Author/DB)

  4. VIEW OF SUGAR MILL RUINS LOOKING NORTH SHOWING CHIMNEY AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SUGAR MILL RUINS LOOKING NORTH SHOWING CHIMNEY AT LEFT AND MASONRY BASE OF STEAM ENGINE AND CANE MILL AT RIGHT - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  5. 2. View of sugar mill ruins looking N showing chimney ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of sugar mill ruins looking N showing chimney at left and masonry base of steam engine and cane mill at right. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  6. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup.

    PubMed

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-10-01

    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process.

  7. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  8. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... from corn starch. Lactose (milk sugar) is the carbohydrate that is in milk. It is made up ... amounts of these foods in place of other carbohydrates. If you have diabetes: Sugars affect blood glucose ...

  9. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  10. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  11. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  12. Drop-off detection with the long cane: effect of cane shaft weight and rigidity on performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Auer, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Most travellers who are blind rely on a long cane to detect drop-offs on their walking paths. We examined how different cane shaft materials affect drop-off detection performance through providing different vibrotactile and proprioceptive feedbacks to the cane user. Results of the study showed a significant interaction between cane shaft weight and how the cane is used. A heavier cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the individual used the 'constant contact technique' - cane tip stays in contact with the walking surface at all times - but not when he used the 'two-point touch technique' - cane tip is rhythmically tapped on the surface. In addition, a more flexible cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the two-point touch technique was used but not when the constant contact technique was used. It is recommended that, when blind individuals select a cane shaft material, they consider which long cane technique they use more often. Practitioner Summary: Long cane shaft material affects how well a blind individual can detect drop-offs. A heavier shaft was advantageous when using the constant contact technique (cane tip stays in continuous contact with the surface), while a more flexible shaft was better when using the two-point touch technique (cane tip rhythmically taps the surface).

  13. Drop-off detection with the long cane: effect of cane shaft weight and rigidity on performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Auer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Most travellers who are blind rely on a long cane to detect drop-offs on their walking paths. We examined how different cane shaft materials affect drop-off detection performance through providing different vibrotactile and proprioceptive feedbacks to the cane user. Results of the study showed a significant interaction between cane shaft weight and how the cane is used. A heavier cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the individual used the ‘constant contact technique’ – cane tip stays in contact with the walking surface at all times – but not when he used the ‘two-point touch technique’ – cane tip is rhythmically tapped on the surface. In addition, a more flexible cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the two-point touch technique was used but not when the constant contact technique was used. It is recommended that, when blind individuals select a cane shaft material, they consider which long cane technique they use more often. Practitioner Summary: Long cane shaft material affects how well a blind individual can detect drop-offs. A heavier shaft was advantageous when using the constant contact technique (cane tip stays in continuous contact with the surface), while a more flexible shaft was better when using the two-point touch technique (cane tip rhythmically taps the surface). PMID:27065052

  14. Sugar-derived glasses support thermal and photo-initiated electron transfer processes over macroscopic distances.

    PubMed

    Navati, Mahantesh S; Friedman, Joel M

    2006-11-24

    Trehalose-derived glasses are shown to support long range electron transfer reactions between spatially well separated donors and protein acceptors. The results indicate that these matrices can be used not only to greatly stabilize protein structures but also to facilitate both thermal and photo-initiated hemeprotein reduction over large macroscopic distances. To date the promise of exciting new protein-based technologies that can harness the exceptional tunability of protein functionality has been significantly thwarted by both intrinsic instability and stringent solvent/environment requirements for the expression of functional properties. The presented results raise the prospect of overcoming these limitations with respect to incorporating redox active proteins into solid state devices such as tunable batteries, switches, and solar cells. The findings also have implications for formulations intended to enhance long term storage of biomaterials, new protein-based synthetic strategies, and biophysical studies of functional intermediates trapped under nonequilibrium conditions. In addition, the study shows that certain sugars such as glucose or tagatose, when added to redox-inactive glassy matrices, can be used as a source of thermal electrons that can be harvested by suitable redox active proteins, raising the prospect of using common sugars as an electron source in solid state thermal fuel cells.

  15. Trends in sugar supply and consumption in Australia: is there an Australian Paradox?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High consumption of refined carbohydrate, in particular sugar, has been identified as a possible contributory factor in greater risk of excess weight gain. In spite of data limitations, one recent paper suggests that Australian sugar consumption has decreased over the same time period that obesity has increased, a so called ‘Australian Paradox’. Given the significant public health focus on nutrition, we aimed to estimate Australian sugar supply and consumption over recent decades, to determine whether these data could be used to make any conclusions about sugar’s role in obesity. Methods Foods high in sugar were identified. Data relating to sugar supply and consumption from 1988 to 2010 were obtained from multiple sources. Using these data we attempted to generate a time series estimate of sugar in Australia’s food supply. Results Australia produces and exports sugar from sugar cane and the sugar in imported foods has received little attention. We were unable to produce a reliable and robust estimate of total sugars in the Australian diet due to data limitations and a lack of current data sources. However, available Import data showed large increases in the volume and value of imported sweetened products between 1988 and 2010 to over 30 grams of sugar per person per day. Value estimates of local production of sweetened products also show substantial increases in this period. Conclusion The Australian Paradox assertion is based on incomplete data, as it excludes sugar contained in imported processed foods, which have increased markedly. A major Australian public health target is to improve the quality of the food supply, and actions have been set in terms of achieving broader environmental changes. However, evaluation of progress is hampered by lack of high quality data relating to supply and consumption. We recommend the regular collection of comprehensive food supply statistics, which include both local production and imports. This would provide

  16. Performance of metal compound on thermolysis and electrolysis on sugar industries waste water treatment: COD and color removal with sludge analysis (batch-experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Omprakash

    2016-06-01

    The sugar cane industry is one of the most water demanding industries. Sugar industries consume and generate excess amount of water. The generated water contains organic compounds, which would cause pollution. The aim of this research work is to study the effectiveness of metal compound for treatment of sugar industry waste water by thermolysis and electrolysis process. The result shows ferrous metal catalyst shows 80 and 85 % chemical oxygen demand and color removal at pH 6, optimum mass loading 4 kg/m3, treatment temperature 85 °C and treatment time 9 h. When ferrous material was used as electrode, maximum 81 % chemical oxygen demand and 84 % color removal at pH 6, current density 156 Am-2, treatment time 120 min and anode consumption 0.7 g for 1.5 L wastewater were obtained.

  17. Processing Pipeline of Sugarcane Spectral Response to Characterize the Fallen Plants Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Agustín; Kemerer, Alejandra; Hadad, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, in agronomic systems it is possible to make a variable management of inputs to improve the efficiency of agronomic industry and optimize the logistics of the harvesting process. In this way, it was proposed for sugarcane culture the use of remote sensing tools and computational methods to identify useful areas in the cultivated lands. The objective was to use these areas to make variable management of the crop. When at the moment of harvesting the sugarcane there are fallen stalks, together with them some strange material (vegetal or mineral) is collected. This strange material is not millable and when it enters onto the sugar mill it causes important looses of efficiency in the sugar extraction processes and affects its quality. Considering this issue, the spectral response of sugarcane plants in aerial multispectral images was studied. The spectral response was analyzed in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Then, the aerial images were segmented to obtain homogeneous regions useful for producers to make decisions related to the use of inputs and resources according to the variability of the system (existence of fallen cane and standing cane). The obtained segmentation results were satisfactory. It was possible to identify regions with fallen cane and regions with standing cane with high precision rates.

  18. Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser perforation as skin pretreatment to improve sugar infusion process of frozen blueberries.

    PubMed

    Fujimaru, Tomomi; Ling, Qingyue; Morrissey, Michael T

    2012-02-01

    Sugar infusion is a widely used osmotic treatment for fruit preservation, but the process is inherently slow and the waxy skins of some fruits hinder mass transfer during the process. This work examined the utility of perforation by a carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser as a novel skin treatment to improve the infusion process. In 2 experiments, individually quick frozen (IQF) blueberries were subjected to varying degrees of laser perforation (3 levels of perforation density × 3 levels of perforation depth), and then infused stepwise with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to a final °Brix of 70 using varying solution concentration increment (5, 10, 20, and 30 °Brix/d). At each concentration, increasing perforation density and depth promoted solute migration into the fruit with increased fruit weight (P < 0.05; up to 24.15%, 37.23%, 52.89%, 65.34% wt. increase at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °Brix/d compared to the controls). Laser-treated blueberries maintained the original shape without excessive shrinkage and texture hardening due to enhanced solute incorporation, while the controls and mechanically treated samples were ruptured and wrinkled at the end of the process. Increasing solution concentrations shortened the process duration but decreased final fruit weight due to greater osmotic gradients. However, negative effects of using higher solution concentrations on final fruit weight were significantly alleviated with moderate-to-high doses of laser perforation (P < 0.001). Overall, the results demonstrate that laser perforation can be a viable skin pretreatment technique, offering marked improvement on final process yield, process efficiency, and product quality. CO(2) laser perforation as a novel skin pretreatment for sugar infusion of individually quick frozen (IQF) blueberries is presented. The technique markedly improves the product yield and quality. Although further investigation is needed, the method may potentially be used for other waxy skin fruits such as cranberries

  19. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  20. Anaerobic-fed and sequencing-batch treatment of sugar-beet processing wastes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alkaya, Emrah; Demirer, Göksel N

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a batch-fed continuously mixed anaerobic reactor (FCMR) with an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), in terms of waste stabilization and methane production treating sugar-beet processing wastewater and beet-pulp simultaneously. A reactor was operated as FCMR, which then was operated as an ASBR by changing operational conditions after the steady-state was reached. Although the hydraulic retention time value of the ASBR configuration was lower (8 days) than that of the FCMR (15 days) and the corresponding organic loading rate (OLR) was higher (0.71 to 1.33 g COD/L x d), increased biomass retention enabled a significant increase in biomethanation for the ASBR configuration. So, methane production yield of 255 +/- 11 mL/g COD-added was increased to 337 +/- 15 mL/g COD-added (32.2% increase in methane yield) when the configuration was changed from FCMR to ASBR. The experimental results indicated that the ASBR configuration, which was applied to sugar-beet processing wastes for the first time, was superior to the FCMR configuration.

  1. Valorization of sugar-to-ethanol process waste vinasse: A novel biorefinery approach using edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the integration of edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi into the existing sugar- or molasses-to-ethanol processes, to grow on vinasse or stillage and produce ethanol and protein-rich fungal biomass. Two fungal strains, Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae were examined in shake flasks and airlift-bioreactors, resulting in reduction of vinasse COD by 34% and viscosity by 21%. Utilization of glycerol and sugars were observed, yielding 202.4 or 222.8g dry fungal biomass of N. intermedia or A. oryzae respectively, per liter of vinasse. Integration of the current process at an existing ethanol facility producing about 100,000m(3) of ethanol per year could produce around 200,000-250,000tons of dry fungal biomass (40-45% protein) together with about 8800-12,600m(3) extra ethanol (8.8-12.6% of production-rate improvement). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    PubMed

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL(-1) (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL(-1) (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Enhanced poly(L-malic acid) production from pretreated cane molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Jiaxing; Hu, Lei; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-16

    Poly(L-malic acid) (PMA) is a natural polyester with many attractive properties for biomedical application. However, the cost of PMA production is high when glucose is used as a carbon source. To solve this problem, cane molasses as a low-cost feedstock was applied for the production of PMA. Six pretreatment methods were applied to cane molasses before fermentation. Pretreatment with combined tricalcium phosphate, potassium ferrocyanide, and sulfuric acid (TPFSA) removed significant amounts of metal ions from cane molasses. The PMA concentration increased from 5.4 g/L (untreated molasses) to 36.9 g/L (TPFSA-pretreated molasses) after fermentation in shake flasks. A fed-batch fermentation strategy was then developed. In this method, TPFSA-pretreated cane molasses solution was continuously fed into the fermentor to maintain the total sugar concentration at 20 g/L. This technique generated approximately 95.4 g/L PMA with a productivity of 0.57 g/L/hr. The present study indicated that fed-batch fermentation using pretreated cane molasses is a feasible technique for producing high amounts of PMA.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  5. Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  6. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    PubMed

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels.

  9. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  10. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  11. Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

  12. Behavioral Analyses of Sugar Processing in Choice, Feeding, and Learning in Larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Schipanski, Angela; Yarali, Ayse; Niewalda, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Gustatory stimuli have at least 2 kinds of function: They can support immediate, reflexive responses (such as substrate choice and feeding) and they can drive internal reinforcement. We provide behavioral analyses of these functions with respect to sweet taste in larval Drosophila. The idea is to use the dose–effect characteristics as behavioral “fingerprints” to dissociate reflexive and reinforcing functions. For glucose and trehalose, we uncover relatively weak preference. In contrast, for fructose and sucrose, preference responses are strong and the effects on feeding pronounced. Specifically, larvae are attracted to, and feeding is stimulated most strongly for, intermediate concentrations of either sugar: Using very high concentrations (4 M) results in weakened preference and suppression of feeding. In contrast to such an optimum function regarding choice and feeding, an asymptotic dose–effect function is found for reinforcement learning: Learning scores reach asymptote at 2 M and remain stable for a 4-M concentration. A similar parametric discrepancy between the reflexive (choice and feeding) and reinforcing function is also seen for sodium chloride (Niewalda T, Singhal S, Fiala A, Saumweber T, Wegener S, Gerber B, in preparation). We discuss whether these discrepancies are based either on inhibition from high-osmolarity sensors upon specifically the reflexive pathways or whether different sensory pathways, with different effective dose–response characteristics, may have preferential access to drive either reflex responses or modulatory neurons mediating internal reinforcement, respectively. PMID:18511478

  13. Behavioral analyses of sugar processing in choice, feeding, and learning in larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Schipanski, Angela; Yarali, Ayse; Niewalda, Thomas; Gerber, Bertram

    2008-07-01

    Gustatory stimuli have at least 2 kinds of function: They can support immediate, reflexive responses (such as substrate choice and feeding) and they can drive internal reinforcement. We provide behavioral analyses of these functions with respect to sweet taste in larval Drosophila. The idea is to use the dose-effect characteristics as behavioral "fingerprints" to dissociate reflexive and reinforcing functions. For glucose and trehalose, we uncover relatively weak preference. In contrast, for fructose and sucrose, preference responses are strong and the effects on feeding pronounced. Specifically, larvae are attracted to, and feeding is stimulated most strongly for, intermediate concentrations of either sugar: Using very high concentrations (4 M) results in weakened preference and suppression of feeding. In contrast to such an optimum function regarding choice and feeding, an asymptotic dose-effect function is found for reinforcement learning: Learning scores reach asymptote at 2 M and remain stable for a 4-M concentration. A similar parametric discrepancy between the reflexive (choice and feeding) and reinforcing function is also seen for sodium chloride (Niewalda T, Singhal S, Fiala A, Saumweber T, Wegener S, Gerber B, in preparation). We discuss whether these discrepancies are based either on inhibition from high-osmolarity sensors upon specifically the reflexive pathways or whether different sensory pathways, with different effective dose-response characteristics, may have preferential access to drive either reflex responses or modulatory neurons mediating internal reinforcement, respectively.

  14. 40 CFR 409.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.21... (raw sugar) contained within aqueous solution at the beginning of the process for production of refined cane sugar. ...

  15. 40 CFR 409.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409... raw material (raw sugar) contained within aqueous solution at the beginning of the process for production of refined cane sugar. ...

  16. 40 CFR 409.31 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.31... (raw sugar) contained within aqueous solution at the beginning of the process for production of refined cane sugar. ...

  17. 40 CFR 409.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.21... (raw sugar) contained within aqueous solution at the beginning of the process for production of refined cane sugar. ...

  18. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Richael, Craig; Chamberlain, Patrick; Busse, James S; Bussan, Alvin J; Jiang, Jiming; Bethke, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv) expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  19. Vacuolar Invertase Gene Silencing in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Improves Processing Quality by Decreasing the Frequency of Sugar-End Defects

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Richael, Craig; Chamberlain, Patrick; Busse, James S.; Bussan, Alvin J.; Jiang, Jiming; Bethke, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv) expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide. PMID:24695527

  20. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.