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Sample records for canid nematode angiostrongylus

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis lungworm and molecular phylogeny of Metastrongyloid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2016-09-01

    Angiostrongylus malaysiensis is a nematode parasite of various rat species. When first documented in Malaysia, it was referred to as A. cantonensis. Unlike A. cantonensis, the complete mitochondrial genome of A. malaysiensis has not been documented. We report here its complete mitogenome, its differentiation from A. cantonensis, and the phylogenetic relationships with its congeners and other Metastrongyloid taxa. The whole mitogenome of A. malaysiensis had a total length of 13,516bp, comprising 36 genes (12 PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region. It is longer than that of A. cantonensis (13,509bp). Its control region had a long poly T-stretch of 12bp which was not present in A. cantonensis. A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis had identical start codon for the 12 PCGs, but four PCGs (atp6, cob, nad2, nad6) had different stop codon. The cloverleaf structure for the 22 tRNAs was similar in A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis except the TΨC-arm was absent in trnV for A. malaysiensis but present in A. cantonensis. The Angiostrongylus genus was monophyletic, with A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis forming a distinct lineage from that of A. costaricensis and A. vasorum. The genetic distance between A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis was p=11.9% based on 12 PCGs, p=9.5% based on 2 rRNA genes, and p=11.6% based on 14 mt-genes. The mitogenome will prove useful for studies on phylogenetics and systematics of Angiostrongylus lungworms and other Metastrongyloid nematodes.

  2. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. PMID:25910624

  3. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes.

  4. Increased prevalence and geographic spread of the cardiopulmonary nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum in fox populations in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C S; Garcia Gato, R; Learmount, J; Aziz, N A; Montgomery, C; Rose, H; Coulthwaite, C L; McGarry, J W; Forman, D W; Allen, S; Wall, R; Morgan, E R

    2015-08-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is becoming more widely recorded globally, and is of increasing concern as a cause of disease in dogs. Apparent geographic spread is difficult to confirm due to a lack of standardized disease recording systems, increasing awareness among veterinary clinicians, and recent improvements in diagnostic technologies. This study examines the hypothesis that A. vasorum has spread in recent years by repeating the methods of a previous survey of the fox population. The hearts and lungs of 442 foxes from across Great Britain were collected and examined by dissection and flushing of the pulmonary circulation and microscopic inspection of tracheal scrapes. Sampling and parasite extraction methods were identical to an earlier survey in 2005 to ensure comparability. Prevalence of A. vasorum was 18·3% (exact binomial confidence bounds 14·9-22·3), compared with 7·3% previously (5·3-9·9, n = 546), and had increased significantly in most regions, e.g. 7·4% in the Northern UK (previously zero) and 50·8% in the south-east (previously 23·2%). Other nematodes identified were Crenosoma vulpis (prevalence 10·8%, CI 8·1-14·2) and Eucoleus aerophilus (31·6%, CI 27·3-36·2). These data support the proposal that A. vasorum has increased in prevalence and has spread geographically in Great Britain.

  5. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongyloidea) in molluscs from harbour areas in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; Mendonça, Cristiane Lafeta Furtado de; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Caldeira, Roberta Lima

    2012-09-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common aetiological agent of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Following a report indicating the presence of this parasite in Brazil in 2007, the present study was undertaken to investigate the presence of A. cantonensis in the surrounding Brazilian port areas. In total, 30 ports were investigated and the following molluscs were identified: Achatina fulica, Belocaulus sp., Bradybaena similaris sp., Cyclodontina sp., Helix sp., Leptinaria sp., Melampus sp., Melanoides tuberculata, Phyllocaulis sp., Pomacea sp., Pseudoxychona sp., Rhinus sp., Sarasinula marginata, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Succinea sp., Tomigerus sp., Wayampia sp. and specimens belonging to Limacidae and Orthalicinae. Digestion and sedimentation processes were performed and the sediments were examined. DNA was extracted from the obtained larvae and the internal transcribed spacer region 2 was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism after digestion with the endonuclease ClaI. Of the 30 ports investigated in this study, 11 contained molluscs infected with A. cantonensis larvae. The set of infected species consisted of S. octona, S. marginata, A. fulica and B. similaris. A total of 36.6% of the investigated ports were positive for A. cantonensis, indicating a wide distribution of this worm. It remains uncertain when and how A. cantonensis was introduced into South America.

  6. Angiocaulus gubernaculatus in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis) from the California Channel Islands and comments on the diagnosis of angiostrongylidae nematodes in canid and mustelid hosts.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, C T; Patton, S; Munson, L; Johnsont, E M; Coonan, T J

    2001-10-01

    Adult nematode parasites were recovered from the heart blood of a deceased island fox (Urocyon littoralis) submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of death. Examination of the recovered nematodes supported the generic diagnosis of Angiocaulus, a parasite in Angiostrongylidae found in domestic and wild canids and mustelids. Specific diagnosis of the worms from the island fox as Angiocaulus gubernaculatus is based on the morphology of the dorsal ray in the copulatory bursa of the male worm and its comparison with published descriptions of Angiocaulus raillieti and A. gubernaculatus. Although A. gubernaculatus has been typically associated with mustelid hosts, its occurrence in the island fox indicates that the host distribution for the parasite may not be as restricted as previously believed.

  7. Pneumonia from Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Gibbons, Lynda M; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Wenzlow, Nanny; Redrobe, Sharon P

    2009-03-01

    A 9-year-old, male, captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) in an urban zoo in the United Kingdom presented with respiratory distress and weight loss. The animal was euthanatized, and a postmortem examination was performed. The lungs were diffusely consolidated with extensive mineralization. Microscopically, there was extensive obliteration of normal pulmonary architecture by sheets and coalescing nodules of partially mineralized fibrous tissue and granulomatous inflammation centered on large numbers of nematode larvae and eggs. First stage nematode larvae were isolated from lung tissue and were characterized as Angiostrongylus vasorum on the basis of their morphology and sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and the entire second internal transcribed spacer. Although A. vasorum has previously been reported in red pandas in a zoological collection in Denmark, this study is the first reported case in the United Kingdom and occurs against a background of geographical spread and increased incidence of disease in domestic and wild canids. Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered a differential diagnosis for respiratory disease in the red panda and taken into account when planning parasite and pest control programs for zoological collections.

  8. Comparison of three methods for the detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum in the final host.

    PubMed

    Houpin, E; McCarthy, G; Ferrand, M; De Waal, T; O'Neill, E J; Zintl, A

    2016-04-15

    Angiostrongylosis is potentially fatal parasitic nematode infection affecting dogs which can be difficult to diagnose. In recent years several microscopical, serological and molecular detection methods have been developed, however there are few studies that have compared the relative performance of these methods. Screening necropsy material from an opportunistic sample of 140 foxes (82 of which were considered to be infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum), indicated sensitivities of 84.1% for dissection and visual examination of plucks, 69.5% for nested PCR of an 18S rRNA fragment and 76.8% for a canine A. vasorum antigen detection test (IDEXX Angio Detect) of tissue fluid samples respectively. Agreement between the tests ranged from 45.6 to 79.7%. A novel nested PCR-RFLP for the detection and identification of canid lungworm spp. is described.

  9. Detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus (A.) vasorum is a nematode that causes angiostrongylosis in domestic and wild canids. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are suspected of providing a wildlife reservoir for A. vasorum infections in pet dogs. To obtain data on the occurrence of A. vasorum in wildlife, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of A. vasorum DNA by means of real-time PCR. A. vasorum DNA was detected in 11 out of 122 (9.0 %) lungs of red foxes and in none of the lung samples of raccoon dogs. These data suggest that red foxes are a reservoir of A. vasorum infections for pet dogs in this area.

  10. Molecular identification of novel intermediate host species of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Patel, Zainab; Gill, A Christina; Fox, Mark T; Hermosilla, Carlos; Backeljau, Thierry; Breugelmans, Karin; Keevash, Esther; McEwan, Claudia; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Elson-Riggins, Jocelyn G

    2014-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that can cause serious and potentially fatal disease in dogs and other canids. The aim of this study was to determine the intermediate slug species infected in nature by sampling sites in Greater London and Hertfordshire located within a known hyperendemic region. Overall, A. vasorum larvae were recovered from 6/381 slugs (1.6%) by tissue digestion, and their identity was confirmed by PCR. Infected slugs originated from three different sites in the Greater London area: one in Waltham Forest and two in Bromley. Slugs parasitised by A. vasorum were identified by a combination of external morphological characteristics and molecular techniques and belonged to three different families: the Arionidae, the Milacidae and the Limacidae. This includes two new host records for the parasite: Arion distinctus and Tandonia sowerbyi. This is the first record of A. vasorum in the family Milacidae, indicating that the parasite has a broader intermediate host range than previously recognised.

  11. The development of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822).

    PubMed

    Mozzer, L R; Coaglio, A L; Dracz, R M; Ribeiro, V M A; Lima, W S

    2015-11-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that infects the heart and pulmonary artery and its branches of domestic and wild canids. The parasite can use several species of terrestrial and aquatic molluscs as intermediate hosts, although susceptibility varies. Pomacea canaliculata is a mollusc found in lakes, swamps and rivers in South America. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility, parasite growth, oviposition and larval development of 282 P. canaliculata infected with 500 A. vasorum first-instar larvae (L1). From day 5 post-infection (pi) to day 30 pi, seven specimens per day were sacrificed to recover the larval instars. We compared 50 egg masses from infected and uninfected molluscs to determine the number of eggs per clutch, the hatching rate and the growth of the molluscs. The percentage of recovered larvae ranged from 39.17% to 67.5%. First-stage larvae (L1) were found until day 19 pi, second-stage larvae (L2) were found from days 11 to 25 pi, and third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered only after day 19 pi. Infected snails exhibited the most eggs during spawning, although the rate of hatching and shell size were lower in the infected snails compared with controls. This is the first report of an experimental infection of P. canaliculata with A. vasorum, and the results confirm the non-specificity of the nematode in relation to the intermediate host and indicate the importance of epidemiological surveys of this parasite and mollusc.

  12. Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific Basin: the global dispersal of a peridomestic zoonosis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats.

    PubMed

    Kliks, M M; Palumbo, N E

    1992-01-01

    The principal etiologic agent of human eosinophilic meningitis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was first detected in rats in Canton, China in 1933. The first human case was detected on Taiwan in 1944. Epidemic outbreaks were noted on Ponape (E. Caroline Is.) from 1944 to 1948. The disease may present as transient meningitis or a more severe disease involving the brain, spinal cord and nerve roots, with a characteristic eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and CSF. Since 1961 it has been known that human infections are usually acquired by purposeful or accidental ingestion of infective larvae in terrestrial mollusks, planaria and fresh-water crustacea. There is no effective specific treatment. The African land snail, Achatina fulica played an important role in the panpacific dispersal of the organism: it will be important in Africa in the future as well. Rats were, and will continue to be the principal agents of expansion of the parasite beyond the Indopacific area. During and just after WWII the parasite was introduced, and/or spread passively from South and Southeast Asia into the Western Pacific islands and eastward and southward through Micronesia, Melanesia, Australia and into Polynesia, sequestered in shipments of war material and facilitated by post-war commerce. In the 1950s numerous cases were identified for the first time on Sumatra, the Philippines, Taiwan, Saipan, New Caledonia, and as far east as Rarotonga and Tahiti. Then cases were detected in Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Java, Sarawak, the New Hebrides, Guam and Hawaii during the 1960s. Subsequently in the Pacific Basin the disease has appeared on Okinawa, other Ryukyu islands, Honshu, Kyushu, New Britain, American Samoa and Western Samoa, Australia, Hong Kong, Bombay, India, Fiji and most recently in mainland China. The parasite in rats now occurs throughout the Indopacific Basin and littoral. Beyond the Indopacific region, the worm has been found in rodents in Madagascar (ca 1963), Cuba (1973), Egypt

  13. Insights into the immuno-molecular biology of Angiostrongylus vasorum through transcriptomics--prospects for new interventions.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Brendan R E; Schnyder, Manuela; Deplazes, Peter; Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Mangiola, Stefano; Boag, Peter R; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a metastrongyloid nematode of dogs and other canids of major clinical importance in many countries. In order to gain first insights into the molecular biology of this worm, we conducted the first large-scale exploration of its transcriptome, and predicted essential molecules linked to metabolic and biological processes as well as host immune responses. We also predicted and prioritized drug targets and drug candidates. Following Illumina sequencing (RNA-seq), 52.3 million sequence reads representing adult A. vasorum were assembled and annotated. The assembly yielded 20,033 contigs, which encoded proteins with 11,505 homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, and additional 2252 homologues in various other parasitic helminths for which curated data sets were publicly available. Functional annotation was achieved for 11,752 (58.6%) proteins predicted for A. vasorum, including peptidases (4.5%) and peptidase inhibitors (1.6%), protein kinases (1.7%), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (1.5%) and phosphatases (1.2%). Contigs encoding excretory/secretory and immuno-modulatory proteins represented some of the most highly transcribed molecules, and encoded enzymes that digest haemoglobin were conserved between A. vasorum and other blood-feeding nematodes. Using an essentiality-based approach, drug targets, including neurotransmitter receptors, an important chemosensory ion channel and cysteine proteinase-3 were predicted in A. vasorum, as were associated small molecular inhibitors/activators. Future transcriptomic analyses of all developmental stages of A. vasorum should facilitate deep explorations of the molecular biology of this important parasitic nematode and support the sequencing of its genome. These advances will provide a foundation for exploring immuno-molecular aspects of angiostrongylosis and have the potential to underpin the discovery of new methods of intervention.

  14. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails.

    PubMed

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Aung, Win Papa; Phosuk, Issarapong; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA) and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI) from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis) and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies.

  15. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails.

    PubMed

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Aung, Win Papa; Phosuk, Issarapong; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA) and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI) from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis) and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies. PMID:27513930

  16. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Aung, Win Papa; Phosuk, Issarapong; Laummaunwai, Porntip

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA) and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI) from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis) and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies. PMID:27513930

  17. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review.

    PubMed

    Spratt, David M

    2015-08-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100-500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive

  18. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review.

    PubMed

    Spratt, David M

    2015-08-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100-500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive

  19. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where

  20. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and rat lungworm disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2013-06-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  1. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Rat Lungworm Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Simões, Raquel; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  2. The Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis/mackerrasae Complex in Molluscs from the Sydney Region.

    PubMed

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Lee, Rogan; Shea, Michael; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Malik, Richard; Jones, Malcolm; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae are metastrongyloid nematodes that infect various rat species. Terrestrial and aquatic molluscs are intermediate hosts of these worms while humans and dogs are accidental hosts. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterised by eosinophilic meningitis. Although both A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae are found in Australia, A. cantonensis appears to account for most infections in humans and animals. Due to the occurrence of several severe clinical cases in Sydney and Brisbane, the need for epidemiological studies on angiostrongyliasis in this region has become apparent. In the present study, a conventional PCR and a TaqMan assay were compared for their ability to amplify Angiostrongylus DNA from DNA extracted from molluscs. The TaqMan assay was more sensitive, capable of detecting the DNA equivalent to one hundredth of a nematode larva. Therefore, the TaqMan assay was used to screen molluscs (n=500) of 14 species collected from the Sydney region. Angiostrongylus DNA was detected in 2 of the 14 mollusc species; Cornu aspersum [14/312 (4.5%)], and Bradybaenia similaris [1/10 (10%)], which are non-native terrestrial snails commonly found in urban habitats. The prevalence of Angiostrongylus spp. was 3.0% ± 0.8% (CI 95%). Additionally, experimentally infected Austropeplea lessoni snails shed A. cantonensis larvae in their mucus, implicating mucus as a source of infection. This is the first Australian study to survey molluscs using real-time PCR and confirms that the garden snail, C. aspersum, is a common intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. in Sydney.

  3. The Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis/mackerrasae Complex in Molluscs from the Sydney Region

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Lee, Rogan; Shea, Michael; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Malik, Richard; Jones, Malcolm; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae are metastrongyloid nematodes that infect various rat species. Terrestrial and aquatic molluscs are intermediate hosts of these worms while humans and dogs are accidental hosts. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterised by eosinophilic meningitis. Although both A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae are found in Australia, A. cantonensis appears to account for most infections in humans and animals. Due to the occurrence of several severe clinical cases in Sydney and Brisbane, the need for epidemiological studies on angiostrongyliasis in this region has become apparent. In the present study, a conventional PCR and a TaqMan assay were compared for their ability to amplify Angiostrongylus DNA from DNA extracted from molluscs. The TaqMan assay was more sensitive, capable of detecting the DNA equivalent to one hundredth of a nematode larva. Therefore, the TaqMan assay was used to screen molluscs (n=500) of 14 species collected from the Sydney region. Angiostrongylus DNA was detected in 2 of the 14 mollusc species; Cornu aspersum [14/312 (4.5%)], and Bradybaenia similaris [1/10 (10%)], which are non-native terrestrial snails commonly found in urban habitats. The prevalence of Angiostrongylus spp. was 3.0% ± 0.8% (CI 95%). Additionally, experimentally infected Austropeplea lessoni snails shed A. cantonensis larvae in their mucus, implicating mucus as a source of infection. This is the first Australian study to survey molluscs using real-time PCR and confirms that the garden snail, C. aspersum, is a common intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. in Sydney. PMID:26000568

  4. The first report of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea) in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum belongs to the superfamily of Metastrongyloidea. This nematode occurs in foxes, dogs and other predators. The Nematode A. vasorum place themselves in the pulmonary artery and its branches, and in the right ventricle and atrium of the heart. Numerous species of land snails are the intermediate hosts of the parasite. In 2013, lungs and hearts of 76 foxes shot in the Forest District Głęboki Bród in Augustowska Primeval Forest were parasitologically necropsied. Four of the examined foxes were infected with the nematode A. vasorum, a prevalence of 5.2%. In one fox pericardium there were 6 male and 6 female nematodes. In the remaining three foxes nematodes were localized in the pulmonary artery. In two foxes 2 specimens of nematodes were detected (male and female, and two females) while 1 female was detected in the other fox. This is the first report of the presence of the nematode A. vasorum in fox in Poland.

  5. Combined Serological Detection of Circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum Antigen and Parasite-specific Antibodies in Dogs from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Schaper, Roland; Lukács, Zoltán; Hornok, Sándor; Farkas, Róbert

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, also known as the French heartworm, is increasingly being reported from various European countries. The adults of this parasite species live in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of wild canids and domestic dogs. Larval stages and eggs in the lungs induce inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. Furthermore, haematological and neurological signs and even death may occur. In Hungary, A. vasorum has been identified in red foxes, golden jackals and in two dogs and some slugs. In this first large-scale survey, 1247 sera from pet dogs were collected and tested by an ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of A. vasorum and by a separate ELISA to detect specific antibodies against the parasite. A total of 1.36% (n = 17, 95 % confidence intervals, CI: 0.80 - 2.17 %) of the animals were positive in both ELISAs, while 1.76 % (n = 22, CI: 1.11 - 2.66 %) of the tested dogs were antigen-positive only and 2.73 % (n = 34, CI: 1.90 - 3.79 %) were positive for specific antibodies only. Regions with antigen- and antibody-positive animals overlapped and were distributed over nearly the whole sampled areas of the country. A considerable number of cases was observed in Budapest and also in the southern part of the country bordering Croatia, while in the most eastern part bordering Ukraine no positive samples were detected. These results confirm the endemic occurrence of A. vasorum in dogs originating from different parts of Hungary and the significant advantages of A. vasorum serology in epidemiological studies. PMID:26152415

  6. Combined Serological Detection of Circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum Antigen and Parasite-specific Antibodies in Dogs from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Schaper, Roland; Lukács, Zoltán; Hornok, Sándor; Farkas, Róbert

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, also known as the French heartworm, is increasingly being reported from various European countries. The adults of this parasite species live in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of wild canids and domestic dogs. Larval stages and eggs in the lungs induce inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. Furthermore, haematological and neurological signs and even death may occur. In Hungary, A. vasorum has been identified in red foxes, golden jackals and in two dogs and some slugs. In this first large-scale survey, 1247 sera from pet dogs were collected and tested by an ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of A. vasorum and by a separate ELISA to detect specific antibodies against the parasite. A total of 1.36% (n = 17, 95 % confidence intervals, CI: 0.80 - 2.17 %) of the animals were positive in both ELISAs, while 1.76 % (n = 22, CI: 1.11 - 2.66 %) of the tested dogs were antigen-positive only and 2.73 % (n = 34, CI: 1.90 - 3.79 %) were positive for specific antibodies only. Regions with antigen- and antibody-positive animals overlapped and were distributed over nearly the whole sampled areas of the country. A considerable number of cases was observed in Budapest and also in the southern part of the country bordering Croatia, while in the most eastern part bordering Ukraine no positive samples were detected. These results confirm the endemic occurrence of A. vasorum in dogs originating from different parts of Hungary and the significant advantages of A. vasorum serology in epidemiological studies.

  7. Predatory activity of the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium, Monacrosporium sinense and Arthrobotrys robusta on Angiostrongylus vasorum first-stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Carvalho, R O; Araujo, J M; Silva, A R; Araújo, J V; Lima, W S; Tavela, A O; Ferreira, S R

    2009-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that parasitizes domestic dogs and wild canids. We compared the predatory capacity of isolates from the predatory fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34), Monacrosporium sinense (SF53) and Arthrobotrys robusta (I31) on first-stage larvae (L1) of A. vasorum under laboratory conditions. L1 A. vasorum were plated on 2% water-agar (WA) Petri dishes marked into 4 mm diameter fields with the four grown isolates and a control without fungus. Plates of treated groups contained each 1000 L1 A. vasorum and 1000 conidia of the fungal isolates AC001, NF34, SF53 and I31 on 2% WA. Plates of the control group (without fungus) contained only 1000 L1 A. vasorum on 2% WA. Ten random fields (4 mm diameter) were examined per plate of treated and control groups, every 24 h for 7 days. Nematophagous fungi were not observed in the control group during the experiment. There was no variation in the predatory capacity among the tested fungal isolates (P>0.05) during the 7 days of the experiment. There was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of 80.3%, 74.5%, 74.2% and 71.8% in the means of A. vasorum L1 recovered from treatments with isolates AC001, NF34, SF53 and I31, respectively, compared to the control without fungi. In this study, the four isolates of predatory fungi were efficient in the in vitro capture and destruction of A. vasorum L1, confirming previous work on the efficiency of nematophagous fungi in the control of nematode parasites of dogs and as a possible alternative method of biological control. PMID:19216825

  8. Biology, Systematics, Life Cycle, and Distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Cause of Rat Lungworm Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode in the family Angiostrongylidae. It is the cause of angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), which manifests as eosinophilic meningitis. First described in 1935 from rats in China, A. cantonensis was placed in the genus Parastrongylus in 1986, but most workers have not adopted this treatment. The taxonomy of A. cantonensis and related worms is largely based on adult morphology, notably of the male bursa. However, identification of infective third stage larvae is more difficult. The natural life cycle involves rats as the definitive host and snails or slugs as the intermediate host. Human infection, as accidental hosts, results in worms maturing in the brain, but dying there instead of moving back into the bloodstream, as in rats, thereby leading to eosinophilic meningitis. The disease is an emerging infectious disease; Angiostrongylus cantonensis continues to be reported in new regions beyond its native range. PMID:23901372

  9. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: a review of its distribution, molecular biology and clinical significance as a human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Joel; Chan, Douglas; Sandaradura, Indy; Malik, Richard; Spielman, Derek; Lee, Rogan; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2016-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode found widely in the Asia-Pacific region, and the aetiological agent of angiostrongyliasis; a disease characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Rattus rats are definitive hosts of A. cantonensis, while intermediate hosts include terrestrial and aquatic molluscs. Humans are dead-end hosts that usually become infected upon ingestion of infected molluscs. A presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical features, a history of mollusc consumption, eosinophilic pleocytosis in cerebral spinal fluid, and advanced imaging such as computed tomography. Serological tests are available for angiostrongyliasis, though many tests are still under development. While there is no treatment consensus, therapy often includes a combination of anthelmintics and corticosteroids. Angiostrongyliasis is relatively rare, but is often associated with morbidity and sometimes mortality. Recent reports suggest the parasites' range is increasing, leading to fatalities in regions previously considered Angiostrongylus-free, and sometimes, delayed diagnosis in newly invaded regions. Increased awareness of angiostrongyliasis would facilitate rapid diagnosis and improved clinical outcomes. This paper summarizes knowledge on the parasites' life cycle, clinical aspects and epidemiology. The molecular biology of Angiostrongylus spp. is also discussed. Attention is paid to the significance of angiostrongyliasis in Australia, given the recent severe cases reported from the Sydney region. PMID:27225800

  10. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: a review of its distribution, molecular biology and clinical significance as a human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Joel; Chan, Douglas; Sandaradura, Indy; Malik, Richard; Spielman, Derek; Lee, Rogan; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2016-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode found widely in the Asia-Pacific region, and the aetiological agent of angiostrongyliasis; a disease characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Rattus rats are definitive hosts of A. cantonensis, while intermediate hosts include terrestrial and aquatic molluscs. Humans are dead-end hosts that usually become infected upon ingestion of infected molluscs. A presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical features, a history of mollusc consumption, eosinophilic pleocytosis in cerebral spinal fluid, and advanced imaging such as computed tomography. Serological tests are available for angiostrongyliasis, though many tests are still under development. While there is no treatment consensus, therapy often includes a combination of anthelmintics and corticosteroids. Angiostrongyliasis is relatively rare, but is often associated with morbidity and sometimes mortality. Recent reports suggest the parasites' range is increasing, leading to fatalities in regions previously considered Angiostrongylus-free, and sometimes, delayed diagnosis in newly invaded regions. Increased awareness of angiostrongyliasis would facilitate rapid diagnosis and improved clinical outcomes. This paper summarizes knowledge on the parasites' life cycle, clinical aspects and epidemiology. The molecular biology of Angiostrongylus spp. is also discussed. Attention is paid to the significance of angiostrongyliasis in Australia, given the recent severe cases reported from the Sydney region.

  11. Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Neola, Benedetto; Restucci, Brunella; Pagano, Teresa B; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) infection was detected at post-mortem examination in the pulmonary arteries and hearts of 34/102 (33,3%) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the Campania Region in southern Italy. Pathological changes consisted of granulomatous interstitial pneumonia caused by larvae and intravascular pulmonary adult nematodes. These changes confirm that angiostrongylosis infection in red foxes has a mainly chronic course, in which the infected host may disperse parasite larvae in the environment over its lifetime. Results suggest that the life cycle of A. vasorum is well established in the red fox in the Campania Region representing a potential infection risk for dogs.

  12. Orphon spliced-leader sequences form part of a repetitive element in Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed Central

    Joshua, G W; Perler, F B; Wang, C C

    1995-01-01

    In nematodes, the 22 nucleotide (nt) spliced leader (SL) is normally encoded by a multi-copy, tandemly reiterated SL gene and is trans-spliced from SL-RNA onto the 5' end of a subset of mRNAs. We have found that the SL is also encoded at multiple (> 100) orphon genomic sites in the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. At these sites the sequence forms part of a 198 bp repetitive element (designated con-198). Transcription from two genomic elements that contain the con-198 sequence has been characterised. At one element (G-2) an approximately 850 nt RNA with an internal SL is transcribed. At the other (G-1), transcription takes place 3 kb downstream of the con-198 sequence. Images PMID:7731790

  13. Neuroparasitic Infections: Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:16170738

  14. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  15. First report of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in wild canids.

    PubMed

    Smout, Felicity A; Thompson, R C Andrew; Skerratt, Lee F

    2013-12-01

    The parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum is common in dogs, cats and humans throughout Asia, inhabiting the small intestine and possibly leading to iron-deficient anaemia in those infected. It has previously been discovered in domestic dogs in Australia and this is the first report of A. ceylanicum in wild canids. Wild dogs (dingoes and dingo hybrids) killed in council control operations (n = 26) and wild dog scats (n = 89) were collected from the Wet Tropics region around Cairns, Far North Queensland. All of the carcasses (100%) were infected with Ancylostoma caninum and three (11.5%) had dual infections with A. ceylanicum. Scats, positively sequenced for hookworm, contained A. ceylanicum, A. caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense, with A. ceylanicum the dominant species in Mount Windsor National Park, with a prevalence of 100%, but decreasing to 68% and 30.8% in scats collected from northern and southern rural suburbs of Cairns, respectively. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from this wild dog reservoir to communities in the Wet Tropics should be determined. PMID:24533332

  16. Genetic differences in the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae), in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Dusitsittipon, S; Thaenkham, U; Watthanakulpanich, D; Adisakwattana, P; Komalamisra, C

    2015-09-01

    This study surveyed the genetic differences among Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) using the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. Partial cytb sequences were determined for 91 worms from eight locations in Thailand. Using morphological techniques, the nematodes were found to be A. cantonensis. Phylogenetic analysis found two main clades, which were subdivided into four subclades (clusters). Haplotype network analysis showed that 11 distinct cytb haplotypes were also present in four groups of A. cantonensis. There was no observable relationship between the genetic differentiation of gene flow and geographical distance. This low genetic variation and geographical distribution of A. cantonensis in each location indicates a founder effect, which may have resulted from multiple independent origins, and suggests that haplotypes migrated from endemic areas via human-related activities.

  17. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata).

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Haga, Atsushi; Mizuno, Eriko; Onuma, Manabu; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with rodents serving as natural definitive hosts. We report A. cantonensis in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata, Thomas, 1906), a native endangered species in Japan. Adult and larvae of A. cantonensis were macroscopically, histologically, and genetically detected in three tree rats collected between August 2011 and January 2012 in the Yambaru area of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Pathologic observations of the lungs of rats showed that infection may be lethal. We also conducted a retrospective genetic survey of helminths parasitic in lung in cryopreserved lung samples of Ryukyu Islands tree rats collected between 2007 and 2011 in the Yambaru area and found A. cantonensis DNA in one of 29 samples, which was collected in December 2010. PMID:24499332

  18. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis: an emergent disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Fernandez, Monica; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) is an acute disease that affects the central nervous system. It is primarily caused by infection with the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This infection was previously restricted to certain Asian countries and the Pacific Islands, but it was first reported in Brazil in 2007. Since then, intermediate and definitive hosts infected with A. cantonensis have been identified within the urban areas of many states in Brazil, including those in the northern, northeastern, southeastern and southern regions. The goals of this review are to draw the attention of the medical community and health centres to the emergence of EoM in Brazil, to compile information about several aspects of the human infection and mode of transmission and to provide a short protocol of procedures for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25075779

  19. Clinical manifestations of Eosinophilic meningitis due to infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in children.

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Senthong, Vichai; Limpawattana, Panita; Auvichayapat, Narong; Tassniyom, Sompon; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2013-12-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis, caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is prevalent in northeastern Thailand, most commonly in adults. Data regarding clinical manifestations of this condition in children is limited and may be different those in adults. A chart review was done on 19 eosinophilic meningitis patients aged less than 15 years in Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Clinical manifestations and outcomes were reported using descriptive statistics. All patients had presented with severe headache. Most patients were males, had fever, nausea or vomiting, stiffness of the neck, and a history of snail ingestion. Six patients had papilledema or cranial nerve palsies. It was shown that the clinical manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis in children are different from those in adult patients. Fever, nausea, vomiting, hepatomegaly, neck stiffness, and cranial nerve palsies were all more common in children than in adults.

  20. Mitochondrial Genome Supports Sibling Species of Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chow, Wan-Loo; Chan, Kok-Gan; Abrahams-Sandi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode that causes abdominal or intestinal angiostrongyliasis in humans. It is endemic to the Americas. Although the mitochondrial genome of the Brazil taxon has been published, there is no available mitochondrial genome data on the Costa Rica taxon. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of the Costa Rica taxon and its genetic differentiation from the Brazil taxon. The whole mitochondrial genome was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 13,652 bp, comprising 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes-PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region (A + T rich non-coding region). It is longer than that of the Brazil taxon (13,585 bp). The larger mitogenome size of the Costa Rica taxon is due to the size of the control region as the Brazil taxon has a shorter length (265 bp) than the Costa Rica taxon (318 bp). The size of 6 PCGs and the start codon for ATP6, CYTB and NAD5 genes are different between the Costa Rica and Brazil taxa. Additionally, the two taxa differ in the stop codon of 6 PCGs. Molecular phylogeny based on 12 PCGs was concordant with two rRNA, 22 tRNA and 36 mitochondrial genes. The two taxa have a genetic distance of p = 16.2% based on 12 PCGs, p = 15.3% based on 36 mitochondrial genes, p = 13.1% based on 2 rRNA genes and p = 10.7% based on 22 tRNA genes, indicating status of sibling species. The Costa Rica and Brazil taxa of A. costaricensis are proposed to be accorded specific status as members of a species complex.

  1. Intermediate Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Tenerife, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Feliu, Carlos; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis, the main clinical manifestation of which is eosinophilic meningitis. Although this parasite has been found recently in its definitive rat host in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), showing a widespread distribution over the north-east part of the island, there are no available data regarding which snail and/or slug species are acting as intermediate hosts on this island. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the possible role of three mollusc species, Plutonia lamarckii, Cornu aspersum and Theba pisana, as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in Tenerife. Between 2011 and 2014, 233 molluscs were collected from five biotopes where rats had been found previously to harbor either adult worms or antibodies against A. cantonensis, and the identification was carried out on the basis of morphological features and a LAMP technique. The prevalence of A. cantonensis larvae in the mollusc samples, based on morphological identification, was 19.3%, whereas 59 out of the 98 individuals (60.2%) analyzed by LAMP were positive. Positive results were obtained for the three mollusc species analyzed and two of the positive samples, both obtained from P. lamarckii, were confirmed as positive by 18S rRNA and ITS1 PCR. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA PCR products showed 100% similarity with previously published A. cantonensis sequences. These results may be relevant from a public health point of view, since all the biotopes from which the samples were obtained were in inhabited areas or areas with human activity, but it is also important from the perspective of a possible transmission to other accidental hosts, such as dogs and horses, animals that are present in some of the areas analyzed. PMID:25803658

  2. Mitochondrial Genome Supports Sibling Species of Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chow, Wan-Loo; Chan, Kok-Gan; Abrahams-Sandi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode that causes abdominal or intestinal angiostrongyliasis in humans. It is endemic to the Americas. Although the mitochondrial genome of the Brazil taxon has been published, there is no available mitochondrial genome data on the Costa Rica taxon. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of the Costa Rica taxon and its genetic differentiation from the Brazil taxon. The whole mitochondrial genome was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 13,652 bp, comprising 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes—PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region (A + T rich non-coding region). It is longer than that of the Brazil taxon (13,585 bp). The larger mitogenome size of the Costa Rica taxon is due to the size of the control region as the Brazil taxon has a shorter length (265 bp) than the Costa Rica taxon (318 bp). The size of 6 PCGs and the start codon for ATP6, CYTB and NAD5 genes are different between the Costa Rica and Brazil taxa. Additionally, the two taxa differ in the stop codon of 6 PCGs. Molecular phylogeny based on 12 PCGs was concordant with two rRNA, 22 tRNA and 36 mitochondrial genes. The two taxa have a genetic distance of p = 16.2% based on 12 PCGs, p = 15.3% based on 36 mitochondrial genes, p = 13.1% based on 2 rRNA genes and p = 10.7% based on 22 tRNA genes, indicating status of sibling species. The Costa Rica and Brazil taxa of A. costaricensis are proposed to be accorded specific status as members of a species complex. PMID:26230642

  3. [STRUCTURE OF PARAPATELLAR CARTILAGES IN CANIDS].

    PubMed

    Slesarenko, N A; Shirokova, Ye O

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish general patterns and morphological characteristics of the parapatellar structures of the knee joint in canids: dogs of factory breeding - Caucasian shepherd dog (n=15), Central Asian shepherd dog (n=14), poodle (n=9), the toy Terrier (n=13), Yorkshire Terrier (n=14) and Steppenwolf (n=17) and foxes (n=7) obtained from natural biocenoses. Subtle anatomical dissection was conducted and macroscopic evaluation of the structures was performed together with light microscopic analysis of serial histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picrofuchsin-fuchselin. Comparative analysis of the parapatellar cartilages allowed to establish both common regularities and breed-specific signs of their structure, that resulted from the impact of biomechanics of the locomotor behavior of the animals. In all the investigated canids parapatellar cartilages were formed by fibrous cartilaginous tissue with a predominance of fibrous structures over the cellular component and they could be divided into 3 zones - superficial, medial and deep. The peculiarities of the fibroarchitectonics of collagen bundles in each of them correspond to the nature of the pattern of biomechanical loads applied. Micromorphological studies performed show that parapatellar cartilages can act as compensatory devices, leveling functional overload of the quadriceps femoris in the extension phase of the knee joint.

  4. Central nervous system manifestations of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Yuri C.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Kazacos, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Over 20 species of Angiostrongylus have been described from around the world, but only Angiostrongylus cantonensis has been confirmed to cause central nervous system disease in humans. A neurotropic parasite that matures in the pulmonary arteries of rats, A. cantonensis is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in southern Asia and the Pacific and Caribbean islands. The parasite can also cause encephalitis/encephalomyelitis and rarely ocular angiostrongyliasis. The present paper reviews the life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis of A. cantonesis infection. Emphasis is given on the spectrum of central nervous system manifestations and disease pathogenesis. PMID:25312338

  5. A survey of Angiostrongylus species in definitive hosts in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Reid, Simon A.; Aland, Kieran V.; Restrepo, Angela Cadavid; Traub, Rebecca J.; McCarthy, James S.; Jones, Malcolm K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent sporadic reports of angiostrongyliasis in humans, dogs and wildlife in eastern Australia there has been no systematic study to explore the epidemiology of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive and intermediate hosts in the region. Little is known about the epidemiology of Angiostrongylus species in the definitive host in southeast Queensland, since the only survey conducted in this region was performed in the late 1960s. In this study, free-living populations of Rattus spp. were sampled and examined for the presence of adult and larval Angiostrongylus in the lungs, and of larvae in faeces. The prevalence of infection with Angiostrongylus spp. was 16.5% in Rattus spp. trapped in urban Brisbane and surrounds. This prevalence is much higher than estimates of earlier studies. This highlights the possible risk of zoonotic infection in children, dogs and wildlife in this region and indicates the necessity for public awareness as well as more detailed epidemiological studies on this parasite in eastern Australia. PMID:26236633

  6. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: morphological and behavioral investigation within the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Zhang, Chao-Wei; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-06-01

    An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail's distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae while developing within P. canaliculata. The distribution of refractile granules in the larval body and characteristic head structures changed during the developmental cycle. Two well-developed, rod-like structures with expanded knob-like tips at the anterior part were observed under the buccal cavity as early as the late second developmental stage. A "T"-shaped structure at the anterior end and its tenacity distinguished the outer sheath from that shed during the second molting. Early first-stage larvae obtained from fresh rat feces are free moving and characterized by a coiled tail, whereas a mellifluous "Q"-movement was the behavioral trait of third-stage A. cantonensis larvae outside the host tissue. In combination, the distribution of refractive granules, distinct head features, variations in sheaths, and behavioral characteristics can be utilized for differentiation of larval stages, and for distinguishing A. cantonensis larvae from those of other free-living nematodes. PMID:19172296

  7. Larval development of Angiostrongylus vasorum in the land snail Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Crisi, Paolo Emidio; Bartolini, Roberto; Iorio, Raffaella; Talone, Tonino; Filippi, Laura; Traversa, Donato

    2015-10-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum affects the heart and pulmonary arteries of dogs and wild animals. Over the recent years, dog angiostrongylosis has gained great attention in the veterinary community for the expansion of its geographic range and for a rise in the number of clinical cases. Global warming, changes in phenology of mollusc intermediate hosts and movements of wild reservoirs have been evocated in the spreading of mollusc-borne parasites, including A. vasorum. The land snail Helix aspersa, a vector of other respiratory metastrongyloids, is endemic in most regions of the World, where it is a pest outside its native Mediterranean range. In the present study, the susceptibility and suitability of H. aspersa as an intermediate host of A. vasorum were investigated along with the characteristics of larval recovery and development following two different ways of inoculation, i.e. experimental (group A) vs natural infection (group B). After infections, the snails were kept at environmental conditions for 2 months. Five snails from groups A and B were randomly selected, digested and examined at 15-day intervals for 2 months. L1s, L2s and L3s were microscopically identified based on key morphological and morphometric characteristics and their identity was genetically confirmed. The results showed that A. vasorum may reach the infective stage in H. aspersa and that uptake of larvae and parasitic burden within the snails depend on the grazing capability of the molluscs. Biological and epidemiological implications are discussed.

  8. Epidemiological survey of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs and slugs around a new endemic focus in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Helm, J; Roberts, L; Jefferies, R; Shaw, S E; Morgan, E R

    2015-07-11

    The nematode parasite Angiostrongylus vasorum is an increasingly important cause of respiratory and other diseases in dogs. Geographical spread from previously limited endemic foci has occurred rapidly. This paper investigates parasite epidemiology around the location of the first reported case in Scotland in 2009: by detection of A vasorum-specific DNA in gastropod intermediate hosts, and in dogs circulating DNA and specific antibodies, and first stage larvae in faeces. Overall prevalence in gastropods was 6.7 per cent (16/240), with parasite DNA found in slugs in the Arion ater and Arion hortensis species aggregates and the snail Helix aspersa (syn. Cornu aspersum). Of 60 dogs presenting with clinical signs compatible with angiostrongylosis, none tested positive using PCR on peripheral blood or Baermann test on faeces, and none of 35 tested for circulating anti-A vasorum antibodies were positive. PCR prevalence in gastropods was highest (11 per cent) in the park frequented by the canine angiostrongylosis index case. Molecular survey for infection in gastropods is a potentially informative and efficient method for characterising the distribution of A vasorum and therefore local risk of canine infection. However, there appears to be a complex relationship between prevalence in gastropods and emergence of canine clinical disease, which requires further work to advance understanding of parasite transmission and geographical disease spread.

  9. Larval development of Angiostrongylus vasorum in the land snail Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Crisi, Paolo Emidio; Bartolini, Roberto; Iorio, Raffaella; Talone, Tonino; Filippi, Laura; Traversa, Donato

    2015-10-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum affects the heart and pulmonary arteries of dogs and wild animals. Over the recent years, dog angiostrongylosis has gained great attention in the veterinary community for the expansion of its geographic range and for a rise in the number of clinical cases. Global warming, changes in phenology of mollusc intermediate hosts and movements of wild reservoirs have been evocated in the spreading of mollusc-borne parasites, including A. vasorum. The land snail Helix aspersa, a vector of other respiratory metastrongyloids, is endemic in most regions of the World, where it is a pest outside its native Mediterranean range. In the present study, the susceptibility and suitability of H. aspersa as an intermediate host of A. vasorum were investigated along with the characteristics of larval recovery and development following two different ways of inoculation, i.e. experimental (group A) vs natural infection (group B). After infections, the snails were kept at environmental conditions for 2 months. Five snails from groups A and B were randomly selected, digested and examined at 15-day intervals for 2 months. L1s, L2s and L3s were microscopically identified based on key morphological and morphometric characteristics and their identity was genetically confirmed. The results showed that A. vasorum may reach the infective stage in H. aspersa and that uptake of larvae and parasitic burden within the snails depend on the grazing capability of the molluscs. Biological and epidemiological implications are discussed. PMID:26122991

  10. Fatal Angiostrongylus dujardini infection in callitrichid monkeys and suricates in an Italian zoological garden.

    PubMed

    Eleni, Claudia; Di Cesare, Angela; Cavicchio, Paolo; Tonnicchia, Maria Cristina; Meoli, Roberta; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Paoletti, Barbara; Pietrobelli, Mario; De Liberato, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports four fatal cases of metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus dujardini infection observed in a Saguinus oedipus and a Callimico goeldii monkey and in two suricates (Suricata suricatta). All animals were kept in captivity in a zoo of central Italy. The two monkeys died with no premonitory signs, while the two-month-old suricates showed malaise, anorexia and tachypnea for a few days prior to death. Cardiomegaly and/or granulomatous pneumonia were the major anatomo-pathological findings. Inflammatory lesions were observed in the liver, heart and kidney of the suricates at histology. A. dujardini diagnosis was confirmed through both morphological identification of adult worms recovered at necropsy and molecular characterization of larvae in tissue samples. Callitrichidae and suricates are active predators and maintain their hunting behaviour in captivity and it is then likely that they were exposed to infection by preying on parasitized gastropods, intermediate hosts of A. dujardini, entering zoo enclosures from the surrounding environment. This is the first report of A. dujardini in Italy and in S. suricatta. PMID:27094227

  11. Fatal Angiostrongylus dujardini infection in callitrichid monkeys and suricates in an Italian zoological garden.

    PubMed

    Eleni, Claudia; Di Cesare, Angela; Cavicchio, Paolo; Tonnicchia, Maria Cristina; Meoli, Roberta; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Paoletti, Barbara; Pietrobelli, Mario; De Liberato, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports four fatal cases of metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus dujardini infection observed in a Saguinus oedipus and a Callimico goeldii monkey and in two suricates (Suricata suricatta). All animals were kept in captivity in a zoo of central Italy. The two monkeys died with no premonitory signs, while the two-month-old suricates showed malaise, anorexia and tachypnea for a few days prior to death. Cardiomegaly and/or granulomatous pneumonia were the major anatomo-pathological findings. Inflammatory lesions were observed in the liver, heart and kidney of the suricates at histology. A. dujardini diagnosis was confirmed through both morphological identification of adult worms recovered at necropsy and molecular characterization of larvae in tissue samples. Callitrichidae and suricates are active predators and maintain their hunting behaviour in captivity and it is then likely that they were exposed to infection by preying on parasitized gastropods, intermediate hosts of A. dujardini, entering zoo enclosures from the surrounding environment. This is the first report of A. dujardini in Italy and in S. suricatta.

  12. Lung and hearth nematodes in some Spanish mammals.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, F; Iglesias, R; Bos, J; Rey, J; Sanmartin Durán, M L

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen host species belonging to the orders Rodentia, Insectivora and Carnivora from various localities in Galicia (NW Spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. The following species were found: Parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in Apodemus sylvaticus, Crenosoma striatum in Erinaceus europaeus (83%), Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in Vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), Crenosoma taiga in Putorius putorius (100%) and Crenosoma sp. in Meles meles (25%). In Crocidura russula nematode larvae were found (3.3%). Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus, Talpa caeca, Sorex araneus, Genetta genetta and Canis lupus were not parasitized by lung or heart parasites.

  13. [Intestinal perforation by Angiostrongylus costaricensis. A report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G A

    1992-05-01

    Two cases of abdominal angiostronylosis with terminal ileum perforation are reported. The first two cases diagnosed in Panama of a well established eosinophilic granulomatous process which affects mostly children in Costa Rica. The parasite Angiostrongylus costaricensis has been demonstrated in cases with a geographic range, from Mexico down to Brazil. The parasite has been found in rodents in Panama (Sigmodon hispidus and Rattus rattus) with an still pending further epidemiological and serological studies in order to determine the true disease morbidity. PMID:1620898

  14. Angiostrongylus cantonensis cathepsin B-like protease (Ac-cathB-1) is involved in host gut penetration.

    PubMed

    Long, Ying; Cao, Binbin; Yu, Liang; Tukayo, Meks; Feng, Chonglv; Wang, Yinan; Luo, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Although the global spread of the emerging zoonosis, human angiostrongyliasis, has attracted increasing attention, understanding of specific gene function has been impeded by the inaccessibility of genetic manipulation of the pathogen nematode causing this disease, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Many parasitic proteases play key roles in host-parasite interactions, but those of A. cantonensis are always expressed as the inactive form in prokaryotic expression systems, thereby impeding functional studies. Hence, a lentiviral system that drives secreted expression of target genes fused to a Myc-His tag was used to obtain recombinant Ac-cathB-1 with biological activity. Although this class of proteases was always reported to function in nutrition and immune evasion in parasitic nematodes, recombinant Ac-cathB-1 was capable of hydrolysis of fibronectin and laminin as well as the extracellular matrix of IEC-6 monolayer, so that the intercellular space of the IEC-6 monolayer increased 5.15 times as compared to the control, while the shape of the adherent cells partly rounded up. This suggests a probable role for this protease in intestinal epithelial penetration. The inhibition of Ac-cathB-1 enzymatic activity with antiserum partly suppressed larval penetration ability in the isolated intestine. Thus, an effective system for heterologous expression of parasite proteases is presented for studying gene function in A. cantonensis; and Ac-cathB-1 was related to larval penetration ability in the host small intestine.

  15. Angiostrongylus cantonensis cathepsin B-like protease (Ac-cathB-1) is involved in host gut penetration

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ying; Cao, Binbin; Yu, Liang; Tukayo, Meks; Feng, Chonglv; Wang, Yinan; Luo, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Although the global spread of the emerging zoonosis, human angiostrongyliasis, has attracted increasing attention, understanding of specific gene function has been impeded by the inaccessibility of genetic manipulation of the pathogen nematode causing this disease, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Many parasitic proteases play key roles in host-parasite interactions, but those of A. cantonensis are always expressed as the inactive form in prokaryotic expression systems, thereby impeding functional studies. Hence, a lentiviral system that drives secreted expression of target genes fused to a Myc-His tag was used to obtain recombinant Ac-cathB-1 with biological activity. Although this class of proteases was always reported to function in nutrition and immune evasion in parasitic nematodes, recombinant Ac-cathB-1 was capable of hydrolysis of fibronectin and laminin as well as the extracellular matrix of IEC-6 monolayer, so that the intercellular space of the IEC-6 monolayer increased 5.15 times as compared to the control, while the shape of the adherent cells partly rounded up. This suggests a probable role for this protease in intestinal epithelial penetration. The inhibition of Ac-cathB-1 enzymatic activity with antiserum partly suppressed larval penetration ability in the isolated intestine. Thus, an effective system for heterologous expression of parasite proteases is presented for studying gene function in A. cantonensis; and Ac-cathB-1 was related to larval penetration ability in the host small intestine. PMID:26682577

  16. Angiostrongylus cantonensis cathepsin B-like protease (Ac-cathB-1) is involved in host gut penetration.

    PubMed

    Long, Ying; Cao, Binbin; Yu, Liang; Tukayo, Meks; Feng, Chonglv; Wang, Yinan; Luo, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Although the global spread of the emerging zoonosis, human angiostrongyliasis, has attracted increasing attention, understanding of specific gene function has been impeded by the inaccessibility of genetic manipulation of the pathogen nematode causing this disease, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Many parasitic proteases play key roles in host-parasite interactions, but those of A. cantonensis are always expressed as the inactive form in prokaryotic expression systems, thereby impeding functional studies. Hence, a lentiviral system that drives secreted expression of target genes fused to a Myc-His tag was used to obtain recombinant Ac-cathB-1 with biological activity. Although this class of proteases was always reported to function in nutrition and immune evasion in parasitic nematodes, recombinant Ac-cathB-1 was capable of hydrolysis of fibronectin and laminin as well as the extracellular matrix of IEC-6 monolayer, so that the intercellular space of the IEC-6 monolayer increased 5.15 times as compared to the control, while the shape of the adherent cells partly rounded up. This suggests a probable role for this protease in intestinal epithelial penetration. The inhibition of Ac-cathB-1 enzymatic activity with antiserum partly suppressed larval penetration ability in the isolated intestine. Thus, an effective system for heterologous expression of parasite proteases is presented for studying gene function in A. cantonensis; and Ac-cathB-1 was related to larval penetration ability in the host small intestine. PMID:26682577

  17. Abolition of peroxiredoxin-5 mitochondrial targeting during canid evolution.

    PubMed

    Van der Eecken, Valérie; Clippe, André; Dekoninck, Sophie; Goemaere, Julie; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Knoops, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    In human, the subcellular targeting of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5), a thioredoxin peroxidase, is dependent on the use of multiple alternative transcription start sites and two alternative in-frame translation initiation sites, which determine whether or not the region encoding a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is translated. In the present study, the abolition of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in dog is highlighted and the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of mitochondrial PRDX5 during evolution is examined. Here, we show that the absence of mitochondrial PRDX5 is generalized among the extant canids and that the first events leading to PRDX5 MTS abolition in canids involve a mutation in the more 5' translation initiation codon as well as the appearance of a STOP codon. Furthermore, we found that PRDX5 MTS functionality is maintained in giant panda and northern elephant seal, which are phylogenetically closely related to canids. Also, the functional consequences of the restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were investigated. The restoration of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in MDCK cells, instead of protecting, provokes deleterious effects following peroxide exposure independently of its peroxidase activity, indicating that mitochondrial PRDX5 gains cytotoxic properties under acute oxidative stress in MDCK cells. Altogether our results show that, although mitochondrial PRDX5 cytoprotective function against oxidative stress has been clearly demonstrated in human and rodents, PRDX5 targeting to mitochondria has been evolutionary lost in canids. Moreover, restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog MDCK cells, instead of conferring protection against peroxide exposure, makes them more vulnerable. PMID:24023783

  18. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, E.; Kam, M.; Hefner, R.; Hersteinsson, P.; Angerbjorn, A.; Dalen, L.; Fuglei, E.; Noren, K.; Adams, J.R.; Vucetich, J.; Meier, T.J.; Mech, L.D.; Vonholdt, B.M.; Stahler, D.R.; Wayne, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1-8% and 20-22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-06-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

  20. Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-06-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids.

  1. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjorn, Anders; Dalen, Love; Fuglei, Eva; Noren, Karin; Adams, Jennifer R.; Vicetich, John; Meier, Thomas J.; Mech, L.D.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1–8% and 20–22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk.

  2. Comparison of faecal techniques including FLOTAC for copromicroscopic detection of first stage larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Kohler, Lucia; Deplazes, Peter; Torgerson, Paul; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2011-07-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a metastrongylid nematode that resides in the pulmonary arteries and the right heart chambers. In dogs, infection results in respiratory, bleeding and neurological disorders and further clinical signs. In the present study, FLOTAC was evaluated for the detection of first-stage larvae (L1) of A. vasorum in canine faecal samples. This technique is based on the counting of parasitic stages (eggs, larvae, oocysts and cysts) in chambers after spinning of faecal samples onto a surface. In a first step, nine flotation solutions were evaluated using faeces of two experimentally infected dogs. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity (s.g.) 1.2) and zinc sulphate plus potassium iodomercurate (s.g. 1.45) gave good results. However, with the latter technique, the larvae were slightly deformed. Subsequently, FLOTAC, using zinc sulphate, was compared through a randomisation technique with McMaster, flotation in tube and Baermann-Wetzel technique. The mean larvae per gramme (LPG) obtained by the FLOTAC for both dogs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained by the other three techniques (the means of the other techniques all lie below the 95% CI of the mean LPG of the FLOTAC technique). In addition, the FLOTAC results were consistent across replicates with only Poisson (or random) variation between individual replicates. The other techniques appear to be less consistent with evidence of extra-Poisson variation in at least one of the two dogs across the replicates within each technique. The FLOTAC technique may contribute to an improvement of the ability to diagnose canine lungworm infections and represent a valuable alternative for larval counting of A. vasorum in faecal samples, especially following transport or storage where there may be limited larvae viability, and larval migration techniques cannot be used.

  3. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans.

    PubMed

    Green, Patrick A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

    2012-12-01

    Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

  4. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Patrick A; Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

  5. Low seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Steinman, A; Shpigel, N Y; Mazar, S; King, R; Baneth, G; Savitsky, I; Shkap, V

    2006-04-15

    The role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of Neospora caninum as well as the relationship between N. caninum infection of farm dogs and cattle were demonstrated, however, evidence is scarce regarding the role of wild canids in domestic animal neosporosis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of wild canids in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in Israel by analyzing the prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in wild canids. Sera samples were collected from 114 free ranging wild golden jackals (Canis aureus), 24 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and nine wolves (Canis lupus), which were collected in Israel during the years 1999-2004. Of a total of 147 wild canids tested antibodies to N. caninum were only found in two golden jackals with IFAT titers of 1:50, and in one red fox and one wolf with IFAT titer of 1:400. The low seroprevalence found in this study (2.7%) indicated that wild canids probably do not have an important role in the epidemiology of N. caninum in Israel. However, since the diet of different species of wild canids and even diverse populations of the same canid species vary, it is possible that other results might be obtained from specific wild canids populations, which scavenge in the vicinity of infected bovines. PMID:16436314

  6. Low seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Steinman, A; Shpigel, N Y; Mazar, S; King, R; Baneth, G; Savitsky, I; Shkap, V

    2006-04-15

    The role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of Neospora caninum as well as the relationship between N. caninum infection of farm dogs and cattle were demonstrated, however, evidence is scarce regarding the role of wild canids in domestic animal neosporosis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of wild canids in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in Israel by analyzing the prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in wild canids. Sera samples were collected from 114 free ranging wild golden jackals (Canis aureus), 24 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and nine wolves (Canis lupus), which were collected in Israel during the years 1999-2004. Of a total of 147 wild canids tested antibodies to N. caninum were only found in two golden jackals with IFAT titers of 1:50, and in one red fox and one wolf with IFAT titer of 1:400. The low seroprevalence found in this study (2.7%) indicated that wild canids probably do not have an important role in the epidemiology of N. caninum in Israel. However, since the diet of different species of wild canids and even diverse populations of the same canid species vary, it is possible that other results might be obtained from specific wild canids populations, which scavenge in the vicinity of infected bovines.

  7. Nematodes parasites of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) in the seasonally dry tropical highlands of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raul; López-González, Carlos A; Jones, Robert W

    2011-06-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) is the most abundant and opportunistic wild canid in Mexico. However, the parasites of this canid in Mexico are poorly known, and an intensive parasite survey is lacking. A survey of gray fox parasitological feces was conducted in El Cimatario National Park, a protected area representative of the seasonally dry, tropical highlands of Mexico. Feces were collected in six 1-km-length transects during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2004. The coproparasitoscopical survey registered nine species of nematodes, typical of wild and domestic canids such as Strongyloides stercoralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Dioctophyme renale, Trichuris vulpis, Trichuris sp., and Capillaria sp. Ecological factors such as temperature and humidity appear to play a more important role in the establishment of these species of parasites in this protected area than the presence of domestic dogs.

  8. Spread of the Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Giant African Land Snails (Lissachatina fulica) in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Sanders, Lakyn R; Schill, W Bane; Xayavong, Maniphet V; da Silva, Alexandre J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Smith, Trevor

    2015-07-01

    The rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a parasitic nematode that causes rat lungworm disease. It is the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis and is a zoonotic health risk. We confirmed the presence of A. cantonensis using species-specific, quantitative PCR in 18 of 50 (36%) giant African land snails (Lissachatina fulica) collected from Miami, Florida, US in May 2013. These snails were collected from seven of 21 core areas that the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services monitor weekly. Rat lungworms have not previously been identified in these areas. Duplicate DNA extractions of foot muscle tissue from each snail were tested. Of the seven core areas we examined, six were positive for A. cantonensis and prevalence of infection ranged from 27% to 100%. Of the 18 positive snails, only five were positive in both extractions. Our results confirm an increase in the range and prevalence of rat lungworm infection in Miami. We also emphasize the importance of extracting sufficient host tissue to minimize false negatives. PMID:25973628

  9. First report of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Hepatozoon from a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Whitney M; Brown, Justin D; Allison, Andrew B; Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-02-24

    Angiostrongylus vasorum was identified in the lungs of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, United States (US), indicating a new geographical location for this metastrongylid nematode. The fox was euthanized and submitted for necropsy after displaying erratic behavior. We did not detect rabies virus or canine distemper virus from the fox. We observed bronchopneumonia associated with A. vasorum infection disseminated in both lungs. In addition, protozoal meronts were observed in the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node, and were identified as Hepatozoon canis. Lymphoid depletion was also observed in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node. In addition to A. vasorum and H. canis infections, Eucoleus aerophilus eggs and adult worms were observed in the lungs of the fox. Severe lesions associated with A. vasorum infection were observed in the lungs and these were determined to be the likely cause of morbidity; however, synergistic effects among the multiple infections detected in this fox cannot be ruled out. This is the first report of an autochthonous A. vasorum infection in the US and from outside of Newfoundland Canada, the only place in North America where the parasite is known to be endemic. Additionally, this is the first report of a H. canis infection in a red fox from the US. PMID:24412356

  10. Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A; Cowie, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms. PMID:23901391

  11. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases.

  12. Linkage Disequilibrium and Demographic History of Wild and Domestic Canids

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Melissa M.; Granka, Julie M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Sutter, Nathan B.; Boyko, Adam R.; Zhu, Lan; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in natural populations of a nonmodel species has been difficult due to the lack of available genomic markers. However, with advances in genotyping and genome sequencing, genomic characterization of natural populations has become feasible. Using sequence data and SNP genotypes, we measured LD and modeled the demographic history of wild canid populations and domestic dog breeds. In 11 gray wolf populations and one coyote population, we find that the extent of LD as measured by the distance at which r2 = 0.2 extends <10 kb in outbred populations to >1.7 Mb in populations that have experienced significant founder events and bottlenecks. This large range in the extent of LD parallels that observed in 18 dog breeds where the r2 value varies from ∼20 kb to >5 Mb. Furthermore, in modeling demographic history under a composite-likelihood framework, we find that two of five wild canid populations exhibit evidence of a historical population contraction. Five domestic dog breeds display evidence for a minor population contraction during domestication and a more severe contraction during breed formation. Only a 5% reduction in nucleotide diversity was observed as a result of domestication, whereas the loss of nucleotide diversity with breed formation averaged 35%. PMID:19189949

  13. First Report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) Infections in Invasive Rodents from Five Islands of the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Takuma; Yabe, Tatsuo; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) is a parasite of murid rodents and causative agent of human neuro-angiostrongyliasis. In 2011, the Ogasawara Islands in the western North Pacific were assigned a World Natural Heritage site status. The occurrence of A. cantonensis is well documented in the Chichijima, Hahajima, and Anijima Islands. However, the occurrence of A. cantonensis in the other islands of the Ogasawara Islands has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Between March 2010 and July 2011, 57 Rattus norvegicus and 79 R. rattus were collected from 9 islands (the Hahajima group: Anejima, Imoutojima, Meijima, Mukohjima, and Hirajima; Chichijima group: Minamijima; Mukojima group: Nakoudojima and Yomejima; and Iwojima group: Iwojima). Adult nematodes were found in the pulmonary artery of 46 R. norvegicus collected in the 5 islands of the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hrajima, and Mukohjima Islands). These nematodes were identified by molecular analysis as A. cantonensis. Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed that all the samples from the Ogasawara Islands shared only a single lineage of A. cantonensis, which has been previously detected in the Okinawa, Hawaii, and Brazil. Conclusions/Significance We describe new endemic foci of rat angiostrongyliasis in the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hirajima, and Mukohjima Islands) of the Ogasawara Islands. These findings indicate that the endemic foci of A. cantonensis are widely distributed in the Ogasawara Islands. Although human cases have not yet been reported in the Ogasawara Islands, the widespread detection of A. cantonensis could be of importance from the perspective of public health. PMID:23950989

  14. Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

    2015-02-01

    SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Southeastern Pre-Columbian Canids.

    PubMed

    Brzeski, Kristin E; DeBiasse, Melissa B; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2016-05-01

    The taxonomic status of the red wolf (Canis rufus) is heavily debated, but could be clarified by examining historic specimens from the southeastern United States. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 3 ancient (350-1900 year olds) putative wolf samples excavated from middens and sinkholes within the historic red wolf range. We detected 3 unique mtDNA haplotypes, which grouped with the coyote mtDNA clade, suggesting that the canids inhabiting southeastern North America prior to human colonization from Europe were either coyotes, which would vastly expand historic coyote distributions, an ancient coyote-wolf hybrid, or a North American evolved red wolf lineage related to coyotes. Should the red wolf prove to be a distinct species, our results support the idea of either an ancient hybrid origin for red wolves or a shared common ancestor between coyotes and red wolves.

  16. Estrus induction and synchronization in canids and felids.

    PubMed

    Kutzler, M A

    2007-08-01

    Indications for estrus induction in the dog and cat include potential missed breeding opportunities or conception failure, the treatment of primary or secondary anestrus, out-of-season breeding (feline) and synchronization of ovulation for embryo transfer programs. Reported methods for estrus induction in bitches and queens include the use of synthetic estrogens (diethylstilbesterol), dopamine agonists (bromocriptine and cabergoline), GnRH agonists (lutrelin, buserelin, fertirelin, deslorelin, and leuprolide), exogenous gonadotropins (LH, FSH, hCG, PMSG, and human menopausal gonadotropin) and opiate antagonists (naloxone). These methods vary widely in efficacy of inducing estrus as well as in the fertility of the induced estrus. The applicability of some of these methods for clinical practice is questionable. This review will summarize published reports on estrus induction in canids and felids, both wild and domestic, and provide an update on research using a long-acting injectable deslorelin preparation in bitches.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Southeastern Pre-Columbian Canids.

    PubMed

    Brzeski, Kristin E; DeBiasse, Melissa B; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2016-05-01

    The taxonomic status of the red wolf (Canis rufus) is heavily debated, but could be clarified by examining historic specimens from the southeastern United States. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 3 ancient (350-1900 year olds) putative wolf samples excavated from middens and sinkholes within the historic red wolf range. We detected 3 unique mtDNA haplotypes, which grouped with the coyote mtDNA clade, suggesting that the canids inhabiting southeastern North America prior to human colonization from Europe were either coyotes, which would vastly expand historic coyote distributions, an ancient coyote-wolf hybrid, or a North American evolved red wolf lineage related to coyotes. Should the red wolf prove to be a distinct species, our results support the idea of either an ancient hybrid origin for red wolves or a shared common ancestor between coyotes and red wolves. PMID:26774058

  18. A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph M.; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family – one domesticated, and one wild – make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple

  19. Survey of antibodies to Leishmania spp. in wild canids from Pennsylvania and Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Alexander, Andrew; Byrd, Darrica; Weaver, Melanie; Stewart, Richard; Gerhold, Richard; Houston, Allan; Van Why, Kyle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2013-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Infections with the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania infantum, cause the VL. Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir host for human VL, and wild canids are also susceptible. In the United States, infections with L. infantum are common in the foxhound dog breed. Little information is available regarding L. infantum in wild canids in the Unites States. Sera from 11 foxes and 256 coyotes originating in Pennsylvania and Tennessee (USA) were tested for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. with rapid immunochromatographic dipstick assays, which utilize recombinant antigen K39. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were found in 5 of 267 (1.9%) of wild canids from Pennsylvania, including four coyotes and one red fox. These results suggest that wild canids are exposed to Leishmania spp. at a low level in the United States.

  20. Angiostrongylus vasorum Causing Severe Granulomatous Hepatitis with Concurrent Multiple Acquired PSS.

    PubMed

    Cook, Simon; Priestnall, Simon L; Blake, Damer; Meeson, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    A 14 mo old female Jack Russell terrier presented with a 12 hr history of vomiting and inappetence. She was subsequently diagnosed with multiple acquired portosystemic shunts during an exploratory celiotomy. Gross and histopathological hepatic abnormalities were consistent with chronic disease, including features suggestive of portal hypertension that was potentially caused by migrating and resident Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae. Fecal analysis and polymerase chain reaction of hepatic tissue confirmed the presence of Angiostrongylus vasorum . The dog recovered clinically following empirical treatment and supportive care. A lack of parasite burden was confirmed 9 wk postdiagnosis; however, serum biochemical analysis at that time was suggestive of ongoing hepatic dysfunction.

  1. [Helminthofauna of wild canids in Azerbaijan and ways of its formation].

    PubMed

    Fataliev, G G

    2011-01-01

    The complete list of helminthes parasitizing canids in Azerbaijan is given; ways of formation of the canids' helminthofauna in Azerbaijan are reconstructed. As a result of our study, 42 helminth species were recorded; 25 of them parasitize jackals, 16 parasitize wolfs, and 39 species were found in foxes. The helminthofauna includes 5 species of Trematoda, 14 species of Cestoda, 1 species of Acanthocephala, and 22 species of Nematoda. By the life cycle, 32 species belong to biohelminthes and 10 species are geohelminthes.

  2. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

  3. Fleas infesting pets in the era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals. PMID:23497511

  4. Infectious diseases in Yellowstone’s canid community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Doug W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Each summer Yellowstone Wolf Project staff visit den sites to monitor the success of wolf reproduction and pup rearing behavior. For the purposes of wolf monitoring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is divided into two study areas, the northern range and the interior, each distinguished by their ecological and physiographical differences. The 1,000 square kilometer northern range, characterized by lower elevations (1,500–2,200 m), serves as prime winter habitat for ungulates and supports a higher density of wolves than the interior (20–99 wolves/1,000 km2 versus 2–11 wolves/1,000 km2). The interior of the park encompasses 7,991 square kilometers, is higher in elevation, receives higher annual snowfall, and generally supports lower densities of wolves and ungulates. During the Yellowstone Wolf Project’s 2005 observations on the northern range, researchers noticed that some wolf pups were disappearing and those that remained were unusually listless. The Slough Creek pups, at first numbering 18, dwindled to three survivors. Similar findings were mirrored at other den sites across the northern range. When annual den surveys were conducted in late July, all that remained were scattered piles of bones and fur. Coyotes suffered similar setbacks in 2005, with many of the survivors exhibiting neurological shakes and tremors. The park’s canids had been affected by something, but what? Prompted by what seemed to be a disease outbreak, the Yellowstone Wolf Project, the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center (YERC), and the University of Minnesota decided to take several collaborative approaches toward improving our understanding of the presence and role of infectious disease in Yellowstone’s canid community. Several serological studies have been conducted in the past among the park’s coyotes (Gese et al. 1997) and cougars (Biek 2006), providing a helpful foundation on which to build and compare. A serological survey was conducted, using serum samples collected

  5. Microglia activation: one of the checkpoints in the CNS inflammation caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in rodent model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Wu, Feng; He, Ai; Zeng, Xin; Ouyang, Li-si; Liu, Ming-she; Zheng, Huan-qin; Lei, Wan-long; Wu, Zhong-dao; Lv, Zhi-yue

    2015-09-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is a rodent nematode. Adult worms of A. cantonensis live in the pulmonary arteries of rats; humans are non-permissive hosts like the mice. The larva cannot develop into an adult worm and only causes serious eosinophilic meningitis or meningo-encephalitis if humans or mice eat food containing larva of A. cantonensis in the third stage. The differing consequences largely depend on differing immune responses of hosts to parasite during A. cantonensis invasion and development. To further understand the reasons why mice and rats attain different outcomes in A. cantonensis infection, we used the HE staining to observe the pathological changes of infected mice and rats. In addition, we measured mRNA levels of some cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, Eotaxin, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL-17A, TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS) in brain tissues of mice and rats by real-time PCR. The result showed that brain inflammation in mice was more serious than in rats. Meanwhile, mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS increased after mice were infected. In contrast, mRNA levels of these cytokines in rats brain tissues decreased at post- infection 21 days. These cytokines mostly were secreted by activated microglia in central nervous system. Microglia of mice and rats were showed by Iba-1 (microglia marker) staining. In micee brains, microglia got together and had more significant activation than in rats brains. The results demonstrate that mice and rats have different CNS inflammation after infection by A. cantonensis, and it is in line with other researchers' reported findings. In conclusion, it is suggested that microglia activation is probably to be one of the most important factors in angiostrongyliasis from our study. PMID:26002828

  6. Development-Specific Differences in the Proteomics of Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li-Li; Song, Zeng-Mei; Li, Xing-Pan; Hua, Qian-Qian; Li, Qiang; Xia, Chao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging communicable disease. Several different hosts are required to complete the life cycle of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. However, we lack a complete understanding of variability of proteins across different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression. In this study, we extracted soluble proteins from various stages of the A. cantonensis life cycle [female adults, male adults, the fifth-stage female larvae (FL5), the fifth-stage male larvae (ML5) and third-stage larvae (L3)], separated those proteins using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) at pH 4–7, and analyzed the gel images using DeCyder 7.0 software. This proteomic analysis produced a total of 183 different dominant protein spots. Thirty-seven protein spots were found to have high confidence scores (>95%) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Comparative proteomic analyses revealed that 29 spots represented cytoskeleton-associated proteins and functional proteins. Eight spots were unnamed proteins. Twelve protein spots that were matched to the EST of different-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were identified. Two genes and the internal control 18s were chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the qPCR results were consistent with those of the DIGE studies. These findings will provide a new basis for understanding the characteristics of growth and development of A. cantonensis and the host–parasite relationship. They may also assist searches for candidate proteins suitable for use in diagnostic assays and as drug targets for the control of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis. PMID:24204717

  7. Preliminary molecular characterization of the human pathogen Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    He, Hualiang; Cheng, Mei; Yang, Xiao; Meng, Jinxiu; He, Ai; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Zhuoya; Guo, Pengjuan; Pan, Zhihua; Zhan, Ximei

    2009-01-01

    Background Human angiostrongyliasis is an emerging food-borne public health problem, with the number of cases increasing worldwide, especially in mainland China. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of this severe disease. However, little is known about the genetics and basic biology of A. cantonensis. Results A cDNA library of A. cantonensis fourth-stage larvae was constructed, and ~1,200 clones were sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses revealed 378 cDNA clusters, 54.2% of which matched known genes at a cutoff expectation value of 10-20. Of these 378 unique cDNAs, 168 contained open reading frames encoding proteins containing an average of 238 amino acids. Characterization of the functions of these encoded proteins by Gene Ontology analysis showed enrichment in proteins with binding and catalytic activity. The observed pattern of enzymes involved in protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and glycolysis may reflect the central nervous system habitat of this pathogen. Four proteins were tested for their immunogenicity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and histopathological examinations. The specificity of each of the four proteins was superior to that of crude somatic and excretory/secretory antigens of larvae, although their sensitivity was relatively low. We further showed that mice immunized with recombinant cystatin, a product of one of the four cDNA candidate genes, were partially protected from A. cantonensis infection. Conclusion The data presented here substantially expand the available genetic information about the human pathogen A. cantonensis, and should be a significant resource for angiostrongyliasis researchers. As such, this work serves as a starting point for molecular approaches for diagnosing and controlling human angiostrongyliasis. PMID:19852860

  8. Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are roundworms in the phylum Nematoda. Although most are free-living, some nematodes are parasites of plants, humans, or livestock. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae & Heterorhabditidae only parasitize insects. These nematodes are used as environmentally friend...

  9. Using Domestic and Free-Ranging Arctic Canid Models for Environmental Molecular Toxicology Research.

    PubMed

    Harley, John R; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Federico M; Beyer, Richard P; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Dunlap, Kriya L; Knott, Katrina K; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2016-02-16

    The use of sentinel species for population and ecosystem health assessments has been advocated as part of a One Health perspective. The Arctic is experiencing rapid change, including climate and environmental shifts, as well as increased resource development, which will alter exposure of biota to environmental agents of disease. Arctic canid species have wide geographic ranges and feeding ecologies and are often exposed to high concentrations of both terrestrial and marine-based contaminants. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) has been used in biomedical research for a number of years and has been advocated as a sentinel for human health due to its proximity to humans and, in some instances, similar diet. Exploiting the potential of molecular tools for describing the toxicogenomics of Arctic canids is critical for their development as biomedical models as well as environmental sentinels. Here, we present three approaches analyzing toxicogenomics of Arctic contaminants in both domestic and free-ranging canids (Arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus). We describe a number of confounding variables that must be addressed when conducting toxicogenomics studies in canid and other mammalian models. The ability for canids to act as models for Arctic molecular toxicology research is unique and significant for advancing our understanding and expanding the tool box for assessing the changing landscape of environmental agents of disease in the Arctic. PMID:26730740

  10. An investigation of palaeodietary variability in European Pleistocene canids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, Lucy O. H.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2014-07-01

    Temporal and interspecific dietary variability were investigated in three canid taxa, Canis lupus, Canis mosbachensis and Canis etruscus, across a range of British and mainland European wolf assemblages from the Early Pleistocene to Recent periods. Using established cranio-dental indicators to reveal dietary specialisations towards bone eating, flesh slicing, and non-flesh food crushing, inferences were made concerning the proportions of flesh to non-flesh foods in the diet, and hence the level of carnivory adopted by each taxon. Significant temporal differences were found in the diet and frequency of tooth wear of C. lupus from MIS 3, 5a and 7 in Britain. Relative body size comparisons based on lower carnassial length also revealed variation in body size for the Pleistocene age groups, correlating with differences in diet. Stepwise Discriminant Function Analyses revealed large-bodied MIS 5a C. lupus to be hypercarnivorous and specialised in fast flesh slicing and to some extent bone consumption, whereas relatively smaller-bodied MIS 3 and 7 C. lupus were both less carnivorous and more specialised in crushing non-meat foods. Modern wolves from central Sweden are smaller than those of MIS 5a and hypercarnivorous, although with greater specialisation towards crushing of non-meat foods. Temporal variations in diet were related to changes in prey diversity, competition from other carnivores, openness of the environment, and ultimately climate, and reflect the cranio-dental plasticity of C. lupus. In contrast, no temporal differences in diet were found in age groups of C. mosbachensis and C. etruscus, which may relate to more stable overall conditions in comparison to the later Pleistocene. The cranio-dental characteristics of the smaller-bodied mesocarnivore C. etruscus indicate adaptations to non-meat food crushing, whereas in the similarly small C. mosbachensis, enhanced flesh slicing capabilities and reduced crushing abilities indicate that it was more carnivorous

  11. Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Thalmann, O; Shapiro, B; Cui, P; Schuenemann, V J; Sawyer, S K; Greenfield, D L; Germonpré, M B; Sablin, M V; López-Giráldez, F; Domingo-Roura, X; Napierala, H; Uerpmann, H-P; Loponte, D M; Acosta, A A; Giemsch, L; Schmitz, R W; Worthington, B; Buikstra, J E; Druzhkova, A; Graphodatsky, A S; Ovodov, N D; Wahlberg, N; Freedman, A H; Schweizer, R M; Koepfli, K-P; Leonard, J A; Meyer, M; Krause, J; Pääbo, S; Green, R E; Wayne, R K

    2013-11-15

    The geographic and temporal origins of the domestic dog remain controversial, as genetic data suggest a domestication process in East Asia beginning 15,000 years ago, whereas the oldest doglike fossils are found in Europe and Siberia and date to >30,000 years ago. We analyzed the mitochondrial genomes of 18 prehistoric canids from Eurasia and the New World, along with a comprehensive panel of modern dogs and wolves. The mitochondrial genomes of all modern dogs are phylogenetically most closely related to either ancient or modern canids of Europe. Molecular dating suggests an onset of domestication there 18,800 to 32,100 years ago. These findings imply that domestic dogs are the culmination of a process that initiated with European hunter-gatherers and the canids with whom they interacted. PMID:24233726

  12. [Helminthofauna of wild canids in Azerbaijan and ways of its formation].

    PubMed

    Fataliev, G G

    2011-01-01

    The complete list of helminthes parasitizing canids in Azerbaijan is given; ways of formation of the canids' helminthofauna in Azerbaijan are reconstructed. As a result of our study, 42 helminth species were recorded; 25 of them parasitize jackals, 16 parasitize wolfs, and 39 species were found in foxes. The helminthofauna includes 5 species of Trematoda, 14 species of Cestoda, 1 species of Acanthocephala, and 22 species of Nematoda. By the life cycle, 32 species belong to biohelminthes and 10 species are geohelminthes. PMID:21874846

  13. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas.

  14. Vectors and Spatial Patterns of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Selected Rice-Farming Villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Tujan, Ma. Angelica A.; Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C.; Paller, Vachel Gay V.

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, rats and snails abound in agricultural areas as pests and source of food for some of the local people which poses risks of parasite transmission to humans such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study was conducted to determine the extent of A. cantonensis infection among rats and snails collected from rice-farming villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija. A total of 209 rats, 781 freshwater snails, and 120 terrestrial snails were collected for the study. Heart and lungs of rats and snail tissues were examined and subjected to artificial digestion for parasite collection. Adult worms from rats were identified using SSU rDNA gene. Seven nematode sequences obtained matched A. cantonensis. Results revealed that 31% of the rats examined were positive with A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi showed prevalence of 46% and 29%, respectively. Furthermore, only Pomacea canaliculata (2%) and Melanoides maculata (1%) were found to be positive for A. cantonensis among the snails collected. Analysis of host distribution showed overlapping habitats of rats and snails as well as residential and agricultural areas indicating risks to public health. This study presents a possible route of human infection for A. cantonensis through handling and consumption of P. canaliculata and M. maculata or crops contaminated by these snails. PMID:27313865

  15. Vectors and Spatial Patterns of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Selected Rice-Farming Villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tujan, Ma Angelica A; Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C; Paller, Vachel Gay V

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, rats and snails abound in agricultural areas as pests and source of food for some of the local people which poses risks of parasite transmission to humans such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study was conducted to determine the extent of A. cantonensis infection among rats and snails collected from rice-farming villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija. A total of 209 rats, 781 freshwater snails, and 120 terrestrial snails were collected for the study. Heart and lungs of rats and snail tissues were examined and subjected to artificial digestion for parasite collection. Adult worms from rats were identified using SSU rDNA gene. Seven nematode sequences obtained matched A. cantonensis. Results revealed that 31% of the rats examined were positive with A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi showed prevalence of 46% and 29%, respectively. Furthermore, only Pomacea canaliculata (2%) and Melanoides maculata (1%) were found to be positive for A. cantonensis among the snails collected. Analysis of host distribution showed overlapping habitats of rats and snails as well as residential and agricultural areas indicating risks to public health. This study presents a possible route of human infection for A. cantonensis through handling and consumption of P. canaliculata and M. maculata or crops contaminated by these snails. PMID:27313865

  16. Development of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera and Céspedes 1971 (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) larvae in the intermediate host Sarasinula marginata (Semper 1885) (Mollusca: Soleolifera).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Cristiane L G F; Carvalho, Omar S; Mota, Ester M; Lenzi, Henrique L

    2008-04-01

    In life cycle of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, veronicellidae mollusks participate as the invertebrate host while rodents as the main vertebrate host. The current work shows a sequential larval development of A. costaricensis in Sarasinula marginata, individually killed and digested from day 1 to 43, post infection. Some larvae, recovered from sedimentation, were submitted to selective staining after paraffin embedded or inclusion in JB-4 to study inner structures. As control, four slugs were used, two killed at the beginning of infection and the others at the end of the experiment. At day 2 post infection, larvae were motionless and thick, presenting initial retention of granules. At day 4, L2 were detected, persisting until 43 days post infection. Larvae L2 displayed a large amount of granules rich in lipids and carbohydrates through its overall body, with more accumulation at the medial third corresponding to the esophagus-intestine transition site. Lipid granules, the main energetic source, were located at the basal and apical regions of intestinal cells. Both L1 and L3 presented bilateral alae, which is also common in other nematodes. Transition forms between L2 to L3 molts were also observed.

  17. Rupture of the thoracic aorta associated with experimental Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mozzer, L R; Lima, W S

    2012-05-01

    This note describes the sudden death of a dog by the rupture of the thoracic aorta caused by the presence of Angiostrongylus vasorum. A female mongrel canine with a history of weight loss and exhaustion died two hours after clinical examination. At necropsy, performed one hour after death, showed the presence of clotted blood in the thoracic cavity. Haemothorax was diagnosed. The thoracic aorta wall was thin, congested and an abnormal hole in the wall was detected approximately 0.5 cm from the entrance to the diaphragm. From clotted blood collected from the thoracic cavity, 224 first stage larvae (L1) and 15 adults of Angiostrongylus vasorum were recovered alive. Also, from a blood clot found in the aorta, four adult females and 47 L1 larvae were recovered alive. Possibly, this parasite was responsible for the aortic rupture and death of the animal.

  18. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given. PMID:23901382

  19. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given.

  20. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

    PubMed

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.

  1. Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Lindo, John F.; Waugh, Cecilia; Hall, John; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Ashley, Deanna; Sullivan, James J.; Bishop, Henry S.; Robinson, David G.; Holtz, Timothy; Robinson, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:11927033

  2. The evolutionary dynamics of canid and mongoose rabies virus in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Davis, P L; Rambaut, A; Bourhy, H; Holmes, E C

    2007-01-01

    Two variants of rabies virus (RABV) currently circulate in southern Africa: canid RABV, mainly associated with dogs, jackals, and bat-eared foxes, and mongoose RABV. To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of these variants, we performed coalescent-based analyses of the G-L inter-genic region, allowing for rate variation among viral lineages through the use of a relaxed molecular clock. This revealed that mongoose RABV is evolving more slowly than canid RABV, with mean evolutionary rates of 0.826 and 1.676 x 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively. Additionally, mongoose RABV exhibits older genetic diversity than canid RABV, with common ancestors dating to 73 and 30 years, respectively, and while mongoose RABV has experienced exponential population growth over its evolutionary history in Africa, populations of canid RABV have maintained a constant size. Hence, despite circulating in the same geographic region, these two variants of RABV exhibit striking differences in evolutionary dynamics which are likely to reflect differences in their underlying ecology. PMID:17401615

  3. Disentangling canid howls across multiple species and subspecies: Structure in a complex communication channel.

    PubMed

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Root-Gutteridge, Holly; Habib, Bilal; Koler-Matznick, Janice; Mitchell, Brian; Palacios, Vicente; Waller, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Wolves, coyotes, and other canids are members of a diverse genus of top predators of considerable conservation and management interest. Canid howls are long-range communication signals, used both for territorial defence and group cohesion. Previous studies have shown that howls can encode individual and group identity. However, no comprehensive study has investigated the nature of variation in canid howls across the wide range of species. We analysed a database of over 2000 howls recorded from 13 different canid species and subspecies. We applied a quantitative similarity measure to compare the modulation pattern in howls from different populations, and then applied an unsupervised clustering algorithm to group the howls into natural units of distinct howl types. We found that different species and subspecies showed markedly different use of howl types, indicating that howl modulation is not arbitrary, but can be used to distinguish one population from another. We give an example of the conservation importance of these findings by comparing the howls of the critically endangered red wolves to those of sympatric coyotes Canis latrans, with whom red wolves may hybridise, potentially compromising reintroduced red wolf populations. We believe that quantitative cross-species comparisons such as these can provide important understanding of the nature and use of communication in socially cooperative species, as well as support conservation and management of wolf populations.

  4. Disentangling canid howls across multiple species and subspecies: Structure in a complex communication channel.

    PubMed

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Root-Gutteridge, Holly; Habib, Bilal; Koler-Matznick, Janice; Mitchell, Brian; Palacios, Vicente; Waller, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Wolves, coyotes, and other canids are members of a diverse genus of top predators of considerable conservation and management interest. Canid howls are long-range communication signals, used both for territorial defence and group cohesion. Previous studies have shown that howls can encode individual and group identity. However, no comprehensive study has investigated the nature of variation in canid howls across the wide range of species. We analysed a database of over 2000 howls recorded from 13 different canid species and subspecies. We applied a quantitative similarity measure to compare the modulation pattern in howls from different populations, and then applied an unsupervised clustering algorithm to group the howls into natural units of distinct howl types. We found that different species and subspecies showed markedly different use of howl types, indicating that howl modulation is not arbitrary, but can be used to distinguish one population from another. We give an example of the conservation importance of these findings by comparing the howls of the critically endangered red wolves to those of sympatric coyotes Canis latrans, with whom red wolves may hybridise, potentially compromising reintroduced red wolf populations. We believe that quantitative cross-species comparisons such as these can provide important understanding of the nature and use of communication in socially cooperative species, as well as support conservation and management of wolf populations. PMID:26809021

  5. Comparative pathogenesis of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus mackerrasae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis in murine and guinea pig models of human infection.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Harvie, Marina C; Owen, Helen C; Veríssimo, Carolina; Aland, Kieran V; Reid, Simon A; Traub, Rebecca J; McMANUS, Donald P; McCARTHY, James S; Jones, Malcolm K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated comparatively the pathogenicity of experimental infection of mice and guinea pigs, with Angiostrongylus mackerrasae and the closely related species A. cantonensis. Time course analyses showed that A. mackerrasae causes eosinophilic meningitis in these hosts, which suggests that the species has the potential to cause meningitis in humans and domestic animals. Both A. mackerrasae and the genetically similar A. cantonensis caused eosinophilic meningitis in mice at two time points of 14 and 21 days post infection (dpi). The brain lesions in mice infected with A. mackerrasae were more granulomatous in nature and the parasites were more likely to appear degenerate compared with lesions caused by A. cantonensis. This may indicate that the mouse immune system eliminates A. mackerrasae infection more effectively. The immunologic responses of mice infected with the two Angiostrongylus species was compared by assessing ex vivo stimulated spleen derived T cells and cytokines including interferon-gamma, interleukin 4 and interleukin 17 on 14 and 21 dpi. The results were similar for mice infected with A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae. Serum from the infected animals with either A. cantonensis or A. mackerrasae recognized total soluble antigen of A. cantonensis female worms on Western blot.

  6. Comparative pathogenesis of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus mackerrasae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis in murine and guinea pig models of human infection.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Harvie, Marina C; Owen, Helen C; Veríssimo, Carolina; Aland, Kieran V; Reid, Simon A; Traub, Rebecca J; McMANUS, Donald P; McCARTHY, James S; Jones, Malcolm K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated comparatively the pathogenicity of experimental infection of mice and guinea pigs, with Angiostrongylus mackerrasae and the closely related species A. cantonensis. Time course analyses showed that A. mackerrasae causes eosinophilic meningitis in these hosts, which suggests that the species has the potential to cause meningitis in humans and domestic animals. Both A. mackerrasae and the genetically similar A. cantonensis caused eosinophilic meningitis in mice at two time points of 14 and 21 days post infection (dpi). The brain lesions in mice infected with A. mackerrasae were more granulomatous in nature and the parasites were more likely to appear degenerate compared with lesions caused by A. cantonensis. This may indicate that the mouse immune system eliminates A. mackerrasae infection more effectively. The immunologic responses of mice infected with the two Angiostrongylus species was compared by assessing ex vivo stimulated spleen derived T cells and cytokines including interferon-gamma, interleukin 4 and interleukin 17 on 14 and 21 dpi. The results were similar for mice infected with A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae. Serum from the infected animals with either A. cantonensis or A. mackerrasae recognized total soluble antigen of A. cantonensis female worms on Western blot. PMID:27278827

  7. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  8. Entomopathogenic nematodes and insect management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Heterorhabditis, Steinernema, and Neosteinernema) are used as bioinsecticides. The nematodes are ubiquitous and have been isolated in soil of every continent except Antarctica. The nematodes kill insects through a mutualism with a bacterium (Photorhabdus spp. or ...

  9. Seroepidemiological survey and spatial analysis of the occurrence of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Swiss dogs in relation to biogeographic aspects.

    PubMed

    Lurati, L; Deplazes, P; Hegglin, D; Schnyder, M

    2015-09-15

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a metastrongyloid nematode living in the pulmonary arteries and in the right heart causing potentially fatal respiratory distress, coagulopathies and a wide range of other clinical signs in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence and distribution of A. vasorum in Swiss dogs and to identify correlations with biogeographic aspects. A total of 6136 dog sera from all over the country submitted by veterinarians for haematological or chemical analyses were examined for the presence of circulating A. vasorum parasite antigen and specific antibodies against A. vasorum by ELISA. The combined seroprevalence for both specific antibodies and antigen was 0.96% (95% confidence intervals: 0.7-1.2%), while the overall antibody prevalence was 3.08% (CI: 2.7-3.5%) and the antigen prevalence 2.17% (CI: 1.8-2.6%). The highest prevalence for dogs identified as positive in both ELISAs was detected in Western Switzerland (around Geneva, 2.21%, CI: 0.7-5.1%), representing a new endemic area. Known endemic regions in Southern Switzerland (Ticino, 2.17%, CI: 1.0-4.0%) and in the High Rhine area (northern Switzerland, 1.11%, CI: 0.4-2.4%) were confirmed. Spatial analysis identified a cluster with a radius of approximately 30 km in Sisseln, located in this latter region at the German border, for antibody positive dogs, which interestingly corresponded to the location of historical cases of canine angiostrongylosis diagnosed 12-16 years previously. In total 96.6% (57/59) of the antigen- and antibody positive samples originated from areas with a mean temperature warmer than -2 °C in January. Correspondingly, most of the samples (53/59, 89.8%) positive in both ELISAs originated from areas below 700 meters above sea level (m asl), suggesting the altitude being a limiting factor for A. vasorum transmission in Switzerland. This study confirms previously known endemic areas for A. vasorum in Switzerland, and additionally identifies positive dogs

  10. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed. PMID:20653938

  11. The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, R de A; Duarte, N F H; Rolim, B N; Soares Júnior, F A; Franco, I C F; Ferrer, L L; Almeida, C P; Duarte, B H; de Araújo, D B; Rocha, M F G; Brilhante, R S N; Favoretto, S R; Sidrim, J J C

    2016-09-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23.97%) wild canids and 104 (23.74%) other wild animals (bats, marmosets and raccoons). Approximately 33% of wild canids surveyed (n = 317) were positive for rabies. During the studied period, a total of 1923 attacks on humans by wild canids were registered. Males (n = 1405) were more affected than females (n = 520; 72.98% versus 27.01%), and the median age of all cases was 36.5 years. Injuries to individuals up to 19 years old corresponded to approximately 30% (n = 565) of all cases. Most of the victims lived in rural areas (72.46%; n = 1395), and the majority showed bites (81.13%; n = 1677) or scratches (12.23%; n = 253). Injuries were considered profound (52.1%; n = 1003), superficial (40.91; n = 788) or multiple with severe laceration (6.98%; n = 134). Only 1300 (67.53%) victims were enrolled for the complete rabies post-exposure prophylaxis scheme. Data from the present study confirm that wild canids are important hosts of rabies virus in northeastern Brazil and jeopardize rabies control in this area. Local authorities should focus their efforts in education of health professionals. In addition, strategies should be formulated to preserve wildlife. PMID:26815766

  12. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-03-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis and Angiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylus species parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  13. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-03-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis and Angiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylus species parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported.

  14. The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Discusses advantages of nematode use for studying patterns of cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Describes nematode development. Cites experimental approaches available for genetic studies. Reviews the topics of control of cell division and differentiation, the nervous system, and muscle assembly and function of the organism. (RT)

  15. Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog

    PubMed Central

    Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  16. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in captive neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids.

    PubMed

    André, M R; Adania, C H; Teixeira, R H F; Silva, K F; Jusi, M M G; Machado, S T Z; de Bortolli, C P; Falcade, M; Sousa, L; Alegretti, S M; Felippe, P A N; Machado, R Z

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to detect antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild captive carnivores maintained in Brazilian zoos. Blood samples were collected from 142 Brazilian wild felids and 19 exotic felids in zoos, and 3 European wolves (Canis lupus) and 94 Brazilian wild canids maintained in captivity in Brazilian zoos of São Paulo, Mato Grosso states and Federal District. One hundred and two (63.4%) and 70 (50.3%) of the 161 wild felids tested were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum by indirect immunofluorescent assay test (IFAT), respectively. Among sampled wild canids, 49 (50.5%) and 40 (41.2%) animals were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum antigens by IFAT, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of antibodies to N. caninum in Brazilian wild captive felids and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus (Lund)).

  17. Transferability of short tandem repeat markers for two wild Canid species inhabiting the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, F M; Telles, M P C; Resende, L V; Soares, T N; Diniz-Filho, J A F; Jácomo, A T A; Silveira, L

    2006-01-01

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) are two wild-canid species found in the Brazilian Cerrado. We tested cross-amplification and transferability of 29 short tandem repeat primers originally developed for cattle and domestic dogs and cats on 38 individuals of each of these two species, collected in the Emas National Park, which is the largest national park in the Cerrado region. Six of these primers were successfully transferred (CSSM-038, PEZ-05, PEZ-12, LOCO-13, LOCO-15, and PEZ-20); five of which were found to be polymorphic. Genetic parameter values (number of alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosities, and fixation indices) were within the expected range reported for canid populations worldwide. PMID:17183492

  18. Ancient DNA analysis affirms the canid from Altai as a primitive dog.

    PubMed

    Druzhkova, Anna S; Thalmann, Olaf; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Wayne, Robert K

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  19. Naturally occurring and melengestrol acetate-associated reproductive tract lesions in zoo canids.

    PubMed

    Moresco, A; Munson, L; Gardner, I A

    2009-11-01

    As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not been evaluated. This retrospective study documented spontaneously occurring lesions and investigated the impact of MGA on the reproductive health of zoo canids. Reproductive tracts from adult females were submitted by US zoos to the Association of Zoos & Aquariums' Wildlife Contraception Center Health Surveillance Program. Reproductive tracts were sampled and processed for histopathologic examination following standard protocols. Microscopic evaluations were performed without prior knowledge of MGA treatment status. Prevalence of uterine lesions was evaluated and compared between MGA-treated animals (n = 20) and control (untreated) animals (n = 61). Common lesions within the study population as a whole included endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Treatment with MGA was a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia, hydrometra, fibrosis, and adenomyosis. Uterine mineralization occurred exclusively in MGA-treated animals. Results indicate that MGA contraception can lead to lesions that may permanently impair the fertility of females. Therefore, if long-term contraception of zoo canids is necessary, the use of alternate methods of reproductive control such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs or GnRH vaccines that reduce gonadal hormone exposure should be pursued.

  20. Comparative genomics of 3 farm canids in relation to the dog.

    PubMed

    Switonski, M; Szczerbal, I; Nowacka-Woszuk, J

    2009-01-01

    There are 3 canids besides the dog (Canis familiaris): the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides), which have been extensively studied with the use of cytogenetic and molecular genetics techniques. These 3 species are considered as farm fur-bearing animals. In addition, they are also useful models in comparative genomic studies of the canids. In this review genome organization, karyotype evolution, comparative marker maps, DNA polymorphism and similarity of selected gene sequences of the 3 farm species are discussed in relation to the dog. Also the nature and variability of the B chromosomes, present in the red fox and the Chinese raccoon dog, were considered. These comparative analyses showed that among the studied canids the Chinese raccoon dog is phylogenetically the closest species to the dog. On the other hand, the most advanced linkage and cytogenetic marker maps of the red fox genome facilitate genome scanning studies with the aim to search for chromosome locations of QTL regions for behavior and production traits. PMID:20016159

  1. The role of clade competition in the diversification of North American canids

    PubMed Central

    Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre; Salamin, Nicolas; Quental, Tiago B.

    2015-01-01

    The history of biodiversity is characterized by a continual replacement of branches in the tree of life. The rise and demise of these branches (clades) are ultimately determined by changes in speciation and extinction rates, often interpreted as a response to varying abiotic and biotic factors. However, understanding the relative importance of these factors remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we analyze the rich North American fossil record of the dog family Canidae and of other carnivores to tease apart the roles of competition, body size evolution, and climate change on the sequential replacement of three canid subfamilies (two of which have gone extinct). We develop a novel Bayesian analytic framework to show that competition from multiple carnivore clades successively drove the demise and replacement of the two extinct canid subfamilies by increasing their extinction rates and suppressing their speciation. Competitive effects have likely come from ecologically similar species from both canid and felid clades. These results imply that competition among entire clades, generally considered a rare process, can play a more substantial role than climate change and body size evolution in determining the sequential rise and decline of clades. PMID:26124128

  2. Reibergram of Intrathecal Synthesis of C4 in Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto Juan; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Rodríguez-Rey, Alexis; Gutiérrez-Hernández, Juan Carlos; de Paula-Almeida, Susana Olga

    2010-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis produces eosinophilic meningitis in humans and is endemic in Thailand, Taiwan, China, and the Caribbean region. During infection with this parasite, it is important to know if the complement system may be activated by the classical or lectin pathway. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 20 patients with meningitic angiostrongyliasis were used to quantify C4 levels and albumin. Results were plotted on a C4 CSF/serum quotient diagram or Reibergram. Twelve patients showed intrathecal synthesis of C4. Antibody-dependent complement cytotoxicity should be considered as a possible mechanism that destroys third-stage larvae of this helminth in cerebrospinal fluid of affected patients. PMID:20519605

  3. Aquatic molluscs as auxiliary hosts for terrestrial nematode parasites: implications for pathogen transmission in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Morley, N J

    2010-06-01

    Nematodes are common parasites of molluscs but are often overlooked. Both metastrongyloid and rhabditoid species dominate the fauna within land snail and slug populations. Nevertheless, a key characteristic of many laboratory studies is the ability of these terrestrial nematodes to utilize aquatic molluscs as auxiliary hosts. The significance of this to the ecology of the parasite has never been evaluated. There is increasing concern as to the impact of climate change on the epidemiology of many parasitic diseases. In particular, it has been suggested that host switching may increase under the pressure of extreme climatic conditions. It is therefore timely to assess the role that aquatic molluscs may play in transmitting terrestrial nematodes, which include species of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. vasorum, and Muellerius capillaris. The present review assesses the mechanisms of terrestrial nematode transmission through aquatic molluscs focusing on metastrongyloid and rhabditoid species, the importance of variable susceptibility of molluscan hosts, field studies on natural occurrence within aquatic habitats, and the impact of extreme climatic events (floods and droughts) that may increase in frequency under climate change.

  4. Comparison of coprological, immunological and molecular methods for the detection of dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum before and after anthelmintic treatment.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, M; Jefferies, R; Schucan, A; Morgan, E R; Deplazes, P

    2015-09-01

    Timely diagnosis of the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is important in view of severe and permanent lung and cardiovascular lesions that may occur. The performance of the classical Baermann coprological method was compared with ELISAs for the serological detection of circulating antigen and specific antibodies and with Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on EDTA blood, feces and tracheal swabs of serial samples from experimentally inoculated dogs over 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi) (n = 16) and following anthelmintic treatment (n = 6). Patency was observed from 6.7 to 7.6 wpi in all dogs, Baermann results were then mostly positive (116/119, 97%) during the patent period, with wide variations in the numbers of first stage larvae numbers. Blood PCR was tested positive on 1-2 occasions in 11/16 dogs in the pre-patent period, while all tested positive by antibody-detection ELISA by 6 wpi. The proportion of dogs testing positive by fecal PCR and antigen-detection ELISA rose early in the patent period. Tracheal swabs were occasionally DNA-positive in 3/16 dogs starting from 10 wpi. Following treatment, larval excretion stopped within 3 weeks and blood PCR results became negative within 1 week (5/6 dogs), while 4/6 dogs were positive for parasite DNA in tracheal swabs. Parasite antigen and specific antibodies both persisted in the blood for 3-9 weeks after treatment, with average optical densities and the proportion of positive dogs falling gradually, while results using other tests were much more variable. Results indicate that the earliest and most consistent results are obtained by the ELISAs, which can also be used for monitoring dogs after anthelmintic treatment.

  5. Comparison of coprological, immunological and molecular methods for the detection of dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum before and after anthelmintic treatment.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, M; Jefferies, R; Schucan, A; Morgan, E R; Deplazes, P

    2015-09-01

    Timely diagnosis of the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is important in view of severe and permanent lung and cardiovascular lesions that may occur. The performance of the classical Baermann coprological method was compared with ELISAs for the serological detection of circulating antigen and specific antibodies and with Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on EDTA blood, feces and tracheal swabs of serial samples from experimentally inoculated dogs over 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi) (n = 16) and following anthelmintic treatment (n = 6). Patency was observed from 6.7 to 7.6 wpi in all dogs, Baermann results were then mostly positive (116/119, 97%) during the patent period, with wide variations in the numbers of first stage larvae numbers. Blood PCR was tested positive on 1-2 occasions in 11/16 dogs in the pre-patent period, while all tested positive by antibody-detection ELISA by 6 wpi. The proportion of dogs testing positive by fecal PCR and antigen-detection ELISA rose early in the patent period. Tracheal swabs were occasionally DNA-positive in 3/16 dogs starting from 10 wpi. Following treatment, larval excretion stopped within 3 weeks and blood PCR results became negative within 1 week (5/6 dogs), while 4/6 dogs were positive for parasite DNA in tracheal swabs. Parasite antigen and specific antibodies both persisted in the blood for 3-9 weeks after treatment, with average optical densities and the proportion of positive dogs falling gradually, while results using other tests were much more variable. Results indicate that the earliest and most consistent results are obtained by the ELISAs, which can also be used for monitoring dogs after anthelmintic treatment. PMID:26036271

  6. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus) by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW) disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II). In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD) group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD) group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI), and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats. PMID:25910229

  7. New insights onto cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pipia, A P; Varcasia, A; Tosciri, G; Seu, S; Manunta, M L; Mura, M C; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Brianti, E; Scala, A

    2014-04-01

    Dog heartworms Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis cause severe parasitological diseases; the importance of these parasitosis is growing due to their health impact on animals, the possible zoonotic implications and the recent spreading across several European countries and previously non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to update the epidemiological scenario of cardiopulmonary nematodes A. vasorum and D. immitis in dogs of Sardinia island and to perform a morphological identification of larvae by the use of the Baermann and Knott techniques respectively and the molecular characterization of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and the second ribosomal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of larvae L1 of A. vasorum. In the present study, 3.4% (5/146) of dogs resulted positive at Baermann technique for A. vasorum while 8.9% (61/684) to D. immitis. If on one side A. vasorum can be considered an emerging parasite in Sardinia, the parasitic pressure and the risk of infection for D. immitis in the island seems to be increased compared with the recent past.

  8. PHYLOGENY OF ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS IN THAILAND BASED ON CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE SUBUNIT I GENE SEQUENCE.

    PubMed

    Apichat, Vitta; Narongrit, Srisongcram; Jittranuch, Thiproaj; Anucha, Wongma; Wilaiwan, Polsut; Chamaiporn, Fukruksa; Thatcha, Yimthin; Bandid, Mangkit; Aunchalee, Thanwisai; Paron, Dekumyoy

    2016-05-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious agent causing eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis in humans with clinical manifestation of severe headache. Molecular genetic studies on classification and phylogeny of A. cantonensis in Thailand are limited. This study surveyed A. cantonensis larvae prevalence in natural intermediate hosts across Thailand and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 14,032 freshwater and land snails were collected from 19 provinces of Thailand. None of Filopaludina sp, Pomacea sp, and Cyclophorus sp were infected with Angiostrongylus larvae, whereas Achatina fulica, Cryptozona siamensis, and Megaustenia siamensis collected from Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Phetchabun, Phitsanulok, and Tak Provinces were infected, with C. siamensis being the common intermediate host. Based on morphology, larvae isolated from 11 samples of these naturally infected snails preliminarily were identified as A. cantonensis. Comparison of partial nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene revealed that four sequences are identical to A. cantonensis haplotype ac4 from Bangkok and the other seven to that of A. cantonensis isolate AC Thai, indicating two independent lineages of A. cantonensis in Thailand.

  9. PHYLOGENY OF ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS IN THAILAND BASED ON CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE SUBUNIT I GENE SEQUENCE.

    PubMed

    Apichat, Vitta; Narongrit, Srisongcram; Jittranuch, Thiproaj; Anucha, Wongma; Wilaiwan, Polsut; Chamaiporn, Fukruksa; Thatcha, Yimthin; Bandid, Mangkit; Aunchalee, Thanwisai; Paron, Dekumyoy

    2016-05-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious agent causing eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis in humans with clinical manifestation of severe headache. Molecular genetic studies on classification and phylogeny of A. cantonensis in Thailand are limited. This study surveyed A. cantonensis larvae prevalence in natural intermediate hosts across Thailand and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 14,032 freshwater and land snails were collected from 19 provinces of Thailand. None of Filopaludina sp, Pomacea sp, and Cyclophorus sp were infected with Angiostrongylus larvae, whereas Achatina fulica, Cryptozona siamensis, and Megaustenia siamensis collected from Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Phetchabun, Phitsanulok, and Tak Provinces were infected, with C. siamensis being the common intermediate host. Based on morphology, larvae isolated from 11 samples of these naturally infected snails preliminarily were identified as A. cantonensis. Comparison of partial nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene revealed that four sequences are identical to A. cantonensis haplotype ac4 from Bangkok and the other seven to that of A. cantonensis isolate AC Thai, indicating two independent lineages of A. cantonensis in Thailand. PMID:27405119

  10. Severe eosinophilic meningitis owing to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in young Jamaican children: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Evans-Gilbert, Tracy; Lindo, John F; Henry, Sonia; Brown, Paul; Christie, Celia D C

    2014-05-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an endemic and emerging disease that affects adults and children in Jamaica. Most cases resolve without sequelae, but young children are at high risk of neurological damage and death. Treatment with corticosteroids and albendazole is considered safe for adults and children, but protocols for its use in children have not been established. A 19-month-old infant with permanent neurological sequlae caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis is reported, and five other Jamaican cases are summarized. A review of the literature of children with permanent neurological sequlae and death is presented. Children <5 years (especially <2) were at increased risk of incomplete recovery and death if they presented with bulbar signs, flaccid paresis and coma. None of the severe or fatal cases received early intervention with anthelminthics, and disease progression was not altered with corticosteroids. In view of the pathophysiology, necropsy reports and animal studies, it seems that the early use of larvicidals may change the course of severe presentations.

  11. Entomopathogenic nematode application technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol success when using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema relies on a variety of factors including components of the application event itself. Successful application encompasses both abiotic and biotic influences. For example, adverse array of equi...

  12. Ancient DNA analysis of the oldest canid species from the Siberian Arctic and genetic contribution to the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Merriwether, D Andrew; Kasparov, Alexei K; Nikolskiy, Pavel A; Sotnikova, Marina V; Pavlova, Elena Yu; Pitulko, Vladimir V

    2015-01-01

    Modern Arctic Siberia provides a wealth of resources for archaeological, geological, and paleontological research to investigate the population dynamics of faunal communities from the Pleistocene, particularly as the faunal material coming from permafrost has proven suitable for genetic studies. In order to examine the history of the Canid species in the Siberian Arctic, we carried out genetic analysis of fourteen canid remains from various sites, including the well-documented Upper Paleolithic Yana RHS and Early Holocene Zhokhov Island sites. Estimated age of samples range from as recent as 1,700 years before present (YBP) to at least 360,000 YBP for the remains of the extinct wolf, Canis cf. variabilis. In order to examine the genetic affinities of ancient Siberian canids species to the domestic dog and modern wolves, we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and compared them to published ancient and modern canid sequences. The older canid specimens illustrate affinities with pre-domestic dog/wolf lineages while others appear in the major phylogenetic clades of domestic dogs. Our results suggest a European origin of domestic dog may not be conclusive and illustrates an emerging complexity of genetic contribution of regional wolf breeds to the modern Canis gene pool. PMID:26018528

  13. Unique inhibitory cascade pattern of molars in canids contributing to their potential to evolutionary plasticity of diet

    PubMed Central

    Asahara, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    Developmental origins that guide the evolution of dental morphology and dental formulae are fundamental subjects in mammalian evolution. In a previous study, a developmental model termed the inhibitory cascade model was established. This model could explain variations in relative molar sizes and loss of the lower third molars, which sometimes reflect diet, in murine rodents and other mammals. Here, I investigated the pattern of relative molar sizes (inhibitory cascade pattern) in canids, a taxon exhibiting a wide range of dietary habits. I found that interspecific variation in canid molars suggests a unique inhibitory cascade pattern that differs from that in murine rodents and other previously reported mammals, and that this variation reflects dietary habits. This unique variability in molars was also observed in individual variation in canid species. According to these observations, canid species have greater variability in the relative sizes of first molars (carnassials), which are functionally important for dietary adaptation in the Carnivora. In conclusion, an inhibitory cascade that differs from that in murine rodents and other mammals may have contributed to diverse dietary patterns and to their parallel evolution in canids. PMID:23467478

  14. Ancient DNA Analysis of the Oldest Canid Species from the Siberian Arctic and Genetic Contribution to the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Esther J.; Merriwether, D. Andrew; Kasparov, Alexei K.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.; Sotnikova, Marina V.; Pavlova, Elena Yu; Pitulko, Vladimir V.

    2015-01-01

    Modern Arctic Siberia provides a wealth of resources for archaeological, geological, and paleontological research to investigate the population dynamics of faunal communities from the Pleistocene, particularly as the faunal material coming from permafrost has proven suitable for genetic studies. In order to examine the history of the Canid species in the Siberian Arctic, we carried out genetic analysis of fourteen canid remains from various sites, including the well-documented Upper Paleolithic Yana RHS and Early Holocene Zhokhov Island sites. Estimated age of samples range from as recent as 1,700 years before present (YBP) to at least 360,000 YBP for the remains of the extinct wolf, Canis cf. variabilis. In order to examine the genetic affinities of ancient Siberian canids species to the domestic dog and modern wolves, we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and compared them to published ancient and modern canid sequences. The older canid specimens illustrate affinities with pre-domestic dog/wolf lineages while others appear in the major phylogenetic clades of domestic dogs. Our results suggest a European origin of domestic dog may not be conclusive and illustrates an emerging complexity of genetic contribution of regional wolf breeds to the modern Canis gene pool. PMID:26018528

  15. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-01-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis andAngiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylusspecies parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  16. Phylogenetics and systematics of Angiostrongylus lungworms and related taxa (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) inferred from the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, P; Lim, P E; Yong, H S

    2015-05-01

    The Angiostrongylus lungworms are of public health and veterinary concern in many countries. At the family level, the Angiostrongylus lungworms have been included in the family Angiostrongylidae or the family Metastrongylidae. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness and suitability of the nuclear 18S (small subunit, SSU) rDNA sequences for differentiating various taxa of the genus Angiostrongylus, as well as to determine the systematics and phylogenetic relationship of Angiostrongylus species and other metastrongyloid taxa. This study revealed six 18S (SSU) haplotypes in A. cantonensis, indicating considerable genetic diversity. The uncorrected pairwise 'p' distances among A. cantonensis ranged from 0 to 0.86%. The 18S (SSU) rDNA sequences unequivocally distinguished the five Angiostrongylus species, confirmed the close relationship of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis and that of A. costaricensis and A. dujardini, and were consistent with the family status of Angiostrongylidae and Metastrongylidae. In all cases, the congeneric metastrongyloid species clustered together. There was no supporting evidence to include the genus Skrjabingylus as a member of Metastrongylidae. The genera Aelurostrongylus and Didelphostrongylus were not recovered with Angiostrongylus, indicating polyphyly of the Angiostrongylidae. Of the currently recognized families of Metastrongyloidea, only Crenosomatidae appeared to be monophyletic. In view of the unsettled questions regarding the phylogenetic relationships of various taxa of the metastrongyloid worms, further analyses using more markers and more taxa are warranted.

  17. Molecular genomics resource for the parasitic nematode Spirocerca lupi: Identification of 149 microsatellite loci using FIASCO and next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kerry; Mitha, Janishtha R; Greeff, Jaco M; de Waal, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic diversity and movement patterns in parasitic organisms is paramount to establish control and management strategies. In this study we developed a microsatellite resource as well as a diagnostic multiplex for the cosmopolitan parasitic nematode Spirocerca lupi, known to cause spirocercosis in canids. A combination of microsatellite enrichment and 454 sequencing was used to identify 149 unique microsatellite loci in S. lupi. Twenty loci were characterized further in two sampling sites in South Africa, with 10 loci identified as polymorphic (allele ranges from 4 to 17). These loci were designed into a single diagnostic multiplex suitable for species identification and population genetics studies. The markers were also successful in cross-species amplification in Cylicospirura felineus, Philonema oncorhynchi and Gongylonema pulchrum. Our resource provides a large set of candidate loci for a number of nematode studies as well as loci suitable for diversity and population genetics studies of S. lupi within the South African context as well as globally.

  18. Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55-31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

  19. Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55-31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World.

  20. Presence of antibotulinum neurotoxin antibodies in selected wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Amir; Millet, Neta; Frenkel, Chana; King, Roni; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2007-07-01

    Serum samples from 35 golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus), eight wolves (Canis lupus), and four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from various regions of Israel were collected during the years 2001-04 and tested for antibodies to Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types C and D. Antibodies against BoNT types C and D were detected in 10 (29%) and in 3 (9%) of 35 golden jackals, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report describes detection of anti BoNT antibodies in wild canids other than coyotes (Canis latrans) for the first time and demonstrates that C. botulinum type C is prevalent in Israel. PMID:17699099

  1. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several

  2. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several

  3. Presence of antibotulinum neurotoxin antibodies in selected wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Amir; Millet, Neta; Frenkel, Chana; King, Roni; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2007-07-01

    Serum samples from 35 golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus), eight wolves (Canis lupus), and four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from various regions of Israel were collected during the years 2001-04 and tested for antibodies to Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types C and D. Antibodies against BoNT types C and D were detected in 10 (29%) and in 3 (9%) of 35 golden jackals, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report describes detection of anti BoNT antibodies in wild canids other than coyotes (Canis latrans) for the first time and demonstrates that C. botulinum type C is prevalent in Israel.

  4. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several

  5. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  6. [Investigation on serology, risk factor and awareness of angiostrongylus cantonensis in Hainan province].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-chun; Hu, Xi-min; Tong, Chong-jin; Liu, Jian; Li, Mei-tong; Wang, Shan-qing

    2011-02-28

    Five survey sites were selected from Hainan Province and one village were randomly extracted in each site. A survey that covered knowledge and risk factor on angiostrongyliasis cantonensis was conducted and infection rate of Angiostrongylus cantonensis tested by ELISA. Among 393 sampled people, the sero-positive IgG rate was 20.6% and about 39.7% residents were found with a history of eating snails in recent half year, 12.5% from respondents had the habit of eating raw snails. Questionnairing showed that the ratio of awareness on A. cantonensis was 8.4%. All factors were analyzed by multi-logistic module and showed that the history of snail-eating and resident area may be the risk factors.

  7. First report of a naturally patent infection of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Gutierrez, Natalia; Chinchilla, Adriana; Annoscia, Giada; Colella, Vito; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Santoro, Mario

    2015-09-15

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is the zoonotic agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in several countries in North and South America. Rodents are recognized as the main definitive hosts of A. costaricensis, but other wildlife species can develop patent infections. Although, several human cases have been described in the literature, the role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of the infection is not clear. Here we review the literature available on A. costaricensis in mammals and describe the first confirmed fatal case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a 4-month-old dog, presented with intestinal perforation, peritonitis and faecal shedding of first-stage larvae. Parasite identity was confirmed by morphology, histology and molecular characterization of target genes. This is the first record of a naturally infected dog acting as a definitive host for A. costaricensis. These data suggest that dogs may potentially spread this parasite in urbanized areas.

  8. First report of a naturally patent infection of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Gutierrez, Natalia; Chinchilla, Adriana; Annoscia, Giada; Colella, Vito; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Santoro, Mario

    2015-09-15

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is the zoonotic agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in several countries in North and South America. Rodents are recognized as the main definitive hosts of A. costaricensis, but other wildlife species can develop patent infections. Although, several human cases have been described in the literature, the role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of the infection is not clear. Here we review the literature available on A. costaricensis in mammals and describe the first confirmed fatal case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a 4-month-old dog, presented with intestinal perforation, peritonitis and faecal shedding of first-stage larvae. Parasite identity was confirmed by morphology, histology and molecular characterization of target genes. This is the first record of a naturally infected dog acting as a definitive host for A. costaricensis. These data suggest that dogs may potentially spread this parasite in urbanized areas. PMID:26321134

  9. Development of Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Antigen Detection in Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mu-Xin; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Huang, Da-Na; Ai, Lin; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is difficult to be diagnosed for the reason that no ideal method can be used. Serologic tests require specific equipment and are not always available in poverty-stricken zone and are time-consuming. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) may be useful for angiostrongyliasis control. We established a LFIA for the diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis adults. The sensitivity and specificity were 91.1% and 100% in LFIA, while those of commercial ELISA kit was 97.8% and 86.3%, respectively. Youden index was 0.91 in LFIA and 0.84 in commercial ELISA kit. LFIA showed detection limit of 1 ng/ml of A. cantonensis ES antigens. This LFIA was simple, rapid, highly sensitive and specific, which opened an alternative approach for the diagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis. PMID:27417097

  10. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  11. Habitat changes and changing predatory habits in North American fossil canids.

    PubMed

    Figueirido, B; Martín-Serra, A; Tseng, Z J; Janis, C M

    2015-01-01

    The spread of open grassy habitats and the evolution of long-legged herbivorous mammals with high-crowned cheek teeth have been viewed as an example of coevolution. Previous studies indicate that specialized predatory techniques in carnivores do not correlate with the spread of open habitats in North America. Here we analyse new data on elbow-joint shape for North American canids over the past ∼37 million years and show that incipiently specialized species first appeared along with the initial spread of open habitats in the late Oligocene. Elbow-joint morphologies indicative of the behavior of modern pounce-pursuit predators emerged by the late Miocene coincident with a shift in plant communities from C3 to C4 grasses. Finally, pursuit canids first emerged during the Pleistocene. Our results indicate that climate change and its impact on vegetation and habitat structure can be critical for the emergence of ecological innovations and can alter the direction of lineage evolution. PMID:26285033

  12. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids

    PubMed Central

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Pollinger, John P.; Earl, Dent A.; Knowles, James C.; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Sidorovich, Vadim; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Musiani, Marco; Kays, Roland; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection. PMID:21566151

  13. Iterative adaptive radiations of fossil canids show no evidence for diversity-dependent trait evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Graham J.

    2015-04-01

    A long-standing hypothesis in adaptive radiation theory is that ecological opportunity constrains rates of phenotypic evolution, generating a burst of morphological disparity early in clade history. Empirical support for the early burst model is rare in comparative data, however. One possible reason for this lack of support is that most phylogenetic tests have focused on extant clades, neglecting information from fossil taxa. Here, I test for the expected signature of adaptive radiation using the outstanding 40-My fossil record of North American canids. Models implying time- and diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution are strongly rejected for two ecologically important traits, body size and grinding area of the molar teeth. Instead, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes implying repeated, and sometimes rapid, attraction to distinct dietary adaptive peaks receive substantial support. Diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution seem uncommon in clades, such as canids, that exhibit a pattern of replicated adaptive radiation. Instead, these clades might best be thought of as deterministic radiations in constrained Simpsonian subzones of a major adaptive zone. Support for adaptive peak models may be diagnostic of subzonal radiations. It remains to be seen whether early burst or ecological opportunity models can explain broader adaptive radiations, such as the evolution of higher taxa.

  14. Iterative adaptive radiations of fossil canids show no evidence for diversity-dependent trait evolution.

    PubMed

    Slater, Graham J

    2015-04-21

    A long-standing hypothesis in adaptive radiation theory is that ecological opportunity constrains rates of phenotypic evolution, generating a burst of morphological disparity early in clade history. Empirical support for the early burst model is rare in comparative data, however. One possible reason for this lack of support is that most phylogenetic tests have focused on extant clades, neglecting information from fossil taxa. Here, I test for the expected signature of adaptive radiation using the outstanding 40-My fossil record of North American canids. Models implying time- and diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution are strongly rejected for two ecologically important traits, body size and grinding area of the molar teeth. Instead, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes implying repeated, and sometimes rapid, attraction to distinct dietary adaptive peaks receive substantial support. Diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution seem uncommon in clades, such as canids, that exhibit a pattern of replicated adaptive radiation. Instead, these clades might best be thought of as deterministic radiations in constrained Simpsonian subzones of a major adaptive zone. Support for adaptive peak models may be diagnostic of subzonal radiations. It remains to be seen whether early burst or ecological opportunity models can explain broader adaptive radiations, such as the evolution of higher taxa.

  15. Iterative adaptive radiations of fossil canids show no evidence for diversity-dependent trait evolution

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Graham J.

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing hypothesis in adaptive radiation theory is that ecological opportunity constrains rates of phenotypic evolution, generating a burst of morphological disparity early in clade history. Empirical support for the early burst model is rare in comparative data, however. One possible reason for this lack of support is that most phylogenetic tests have focused on extant clades, neglecting information from fossil taxa. Here, I test for the expected signature of adaptive radiation using the outstanding 40-My fossil record of North American canids. Models implying time- and diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution are strongly rejected for two ecologically important traits, body size and grinding area of the molar teeth. Instead, Ornstein–Uhlenbeck processes implying repeated, and sometimes rapid, attraction to distinct dietary adaptive peaks receive substantial support. Diversity-dependent rates of morphological evolution seem uncommon in clades, such as canids, that exhibit a pattern of replicated adaptive radiation. Instead, these clades might best be thought of as deterministic radiations in constrained Simpsonian subzones of a major adaptive zone. Support for adaptive peak models may be diagnostic of subzonal radiations. It remains to be seen whether early burst or ecological opportunity models can explain broader adaptive radiations, such as the evolution of higher taxa. PMID:25901311

  16. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  17. A Pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids.

  18. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in Australian canids with natural or experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Fraser, A; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2000-02-01

    Coproparasitological and purging methods for diagnosing canids infected with the intestinal helminth Echinococcus granulosus, an important zoonotic parasite, are unreliable. Detection of coproantigens in feces of infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is suitable for detecting patent and prepatent infections with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, natural and experimental infections in domestic and wild Australian canids were investigated using a coproantigen capture ELISA. Experimental infection of dogs with E. granulosus was detected at between 14 and 22 days postinfection (PI), and optical density (OD) values remained high until termination of experiments 35 days PI. After chemotherapy, coproantigen levels in infected dogs dropped rapidly, becoming negative 2-4 days after treatment. In experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the coproantigen excretion profile was different, with ELISA OD levels peaking 15-17 days PI, then falling to low or undetectable levels by 30 days PI. Coproantigens were detected in the feces of naturally infected Australian wild dogs (dingoes, dingo/domestic dog hybrids) with infection levels ranging between 2 worms and 42,600. Preliminary data on the stability of coproantigen in dog feces exposed to environmental conditions indicated that there was no change in antigenicity over 6 days. The results suggest the coproantigen ELISA could be successfully used to monitor E. granulosus prevalence rates in Australian domestic dogs, foxes, and wild dogs. PMID:10701577

  19. DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.

    PubMed

    Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

    2010-12-21

    Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme.

  20. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Pollinger, John P; Earl, Dent A; Knowles, James C; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Sidorovich, Vadim; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Musiani, Marco; Kays, Roland; Bustamante, Carlos D; Ostrander, Elaine A; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection.

  1. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans.

  2. Formulation of Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The enduring stages of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are infective juveniles, which require a high humidity and sufficient ventilation for survival. Formulations must account for these requirements. Nematodes may be formulated inside the insects in which they reproduced or they need to be cleaned and mixed with a suitable binder to maintain humidity but allowing for gas exchange. Another method for formulation is the encapsulation in beads of Ca-alginate. Generic procedures for these formulation techniques are described. PMID:27565496

  3. Molecular phylogeography of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) and genetic relationships with congeners using cytochrome b gene marker.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Song, Sze-Looi; Prasartvit, Anchana; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important emerging zoonotic parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in many parts of the world. To-date there is only a single study using mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene to determine its genetic structure in eight geographical localities in Thailand. The present study examined the molecular phylogeography of this rat lungworm and its phylogenetic relationship with congeners using CYTB gene marker. A total of 15 CYTB haplotypes was found in 37 sequences from 14 geographical localities (covering north, west, east, central and south regions) in Thailand. These CYTB haplotypes were distinct from those of A. cantonensis for China and Hawaii. In Thailand, some CYTB haplotypes appeared to be confined to specific geographical localities. The partial CYTB DNA nucleotide sequences separated unequivocally the A. cantonensis isolates of Thailand, China and Hawaii as well as the congeners Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, A. costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum, with A. malaysiensis grouped with A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis grouped with A. vasorum. Likewise the congeners of Metastrongylus and Onchocerca genera could also be clearly differentiated. The present study added two new definitive hosts (Bandicota savilei and Rattus losea) and three new localities (Mae Hong Son in the north, Tak in the west, and Phang Nga in the south) for A. malaysiensis in Thailand, indicating its wide occurrence in the country. Three CYTB haplotypes were found in the Thailand samples of A. malaysiensis. In addition to differentiation of congeners, CYTB gene marker could be used for determining the genetic diversity of a given population/taxon.

  4. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon spp. infection in endangered Indian wild felids and canids.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Poornachandar, Anantula; Srinivas, Pasham; Rao, Kancharapu Ramachandra; Lakshmikantan, Uthandaraman; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-05-25

    Hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. The objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Indian tiger, Indian leopard, Indian wild dog, Indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from Hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. Hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 Asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 Indian tigers, 2 out of 4 Indian leopards and 2 out of 2 Indian wild dogs and, 2 out of 4 domestic cats and 2 out of 3 domestic dog samples by PCR. Sequencing of PCR amplicon and BLAST analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard and domestic cat was Hepatozoon felis (98-99% similarity) and in the Indian wild and domestic dog the phylogenetic neighbour was Hepatozoon canis (97-100% similarity). Presence of H. felis and H. canis in both domestic and wild animals suggested that they are not host specific and the same parasite causes infection in domestic and wild felids and canids in India and from different parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection and molecular characterization of H. felis infection in Asiatic lions, Indian tigers, Indian leopards and H. canis in Indian wild dog. Hepatozoon spp. may be a potential pathogen and an opportunistic parasite in immuno-compromised animals and could thus represent a threat to endangered Indian wild felids and canids.

  5. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon spp. infection in endangered Indian wild felids and canids.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Poornachandar, Anantula; Srinivas, Pasham; Rao, Kancharapu Ramachandra; Lakshmikantan, Uthandaraman; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-05-25

    Hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. The objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Indian tiger, Indian leopard, Indian wild dog, Indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from Hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. Hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 Asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 Indian tigers, 2 out of 4 Indian leopards and 2 out of 2 Indian wild dogs and, 2 out of 4 domestic cats and 2 out of 3 domestic dog samples by PCR. Sequencing of PCR amplicon and BLAST analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard and domestic cat was Hepatozoon felis (98-99% similarity) and in the Indian wild and domestic dog the phylogenetic neighbour was Hepatozoon canis (97-100% similarity). Presence of H. felis and H. canis in both domestic and wild animals suggested that they are not host specific and the same parasite causes infection in domestic and wild felids and canids in India and from different parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection and molecular characterization of H. felis infection in Asiatic lions, Indian tigers, Indian leopards and H. canis in Indian wild dog. Hepatozoon spp. may be a potential pathogen and an opportunistic parasite in immuno-compromised animals and could thus represent a threat to endangered Indian wild felids and canids. PMID:22154254

  6. A longitudinal study of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an urban population of Rattus norvegicus in Brazil: the influences of seasonality and host features on the pattern of infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite and the most important cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide in humans. In Brazil, this disease has been reported in the states of Espírito Santo and Pernambuco. The parasite has been detected in the naturally infected intermediate host, in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The murid Rattus norvegicus R. rattus were recently reported to be naturally infected in Brazil. In this study, we conducted a two-year investigation of the dissemination pattern of A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and examined the influence of seasonality, year, host weight and host gender on parasitological parameters of A. cantonensis in rats. Methods The study was conducted in an area of Trindade, São Gonçalo municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prevalence of infected rats, intensity and abundance of A. cantonensis were calculated, and generalized linear models were created and compared to verify the contribution of host gender, host weight, year and seasonality to the variations in A. cantonensis abundance and prevalence in rats. Results The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was stable during the rainy (71%, CI 58.9- 81.6) and dry seasons (71%, CI 57.9-80.8) and was higher in older rats and in females. Seasonality, host weight (used as a proxy of animal age) and gender were all contributing factors to variation in parasite abundance, with females and heavier (older) animals showing larger abundance of parasites, and extreme values of parasite abundance being more frequent in the dry season. Conclusions The high prevalence of this parasite throughout the study suggests that its transmission is stable and that conditions are adequate for the spread of the parasite to previously unaffected areas. Dispersion of the parasite to new areas may be mediated by males that tend to have larger dispersal ability, while females may be more

  7. The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041

  8. Soil Nematodes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    There has been much work on plant-feeding nematodes, and less on other soil nematodes, their distribution, abundance, intrinsic properties, and interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Seasonal variation in nematode fauna as a whole is correlated with factors such as moisture, temperature, and plant growth; at each site nematode distribution generally reflects root distribution. There is a positive correlation between average nematode abundance and primary production as controlled by moisture, temperature, nutrients, etc. Soil nematodes, whether bacterial feeders, fungivores, plant feeders, omnivores, or predators, all influence the populations of the organisms they feed on. Although soil trematodes probably contribute less than 1% to soil respiration they may play an important role in nutrient cycling in the soil through their influence on bacterial growth and plant nutrient availability. PMID:19300638

  9. Soil nematodes in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Yeates, G W

    1979-07-01

    There has been much work on plant-feeding nematodes, and less on other soil nematodes, their distribution, abundance, intrinsic properties, and interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Seasonal variation in nematode fauna as a whole is correlated with factors such as moisture, temperature, and plant growth; at each site nematode distribution generally reflects root distribution. There is a positive correlation between average nematode abundance and primary production as controlled by moisture, temperature, nutrients, etc. Soil nematodes, whether bacterial feeders, fungivores, plant feeders, omnivores, or predators, all influence the populations of the organisms they feed on. Although soil trematodes probably contribute less than 1% to soil respiration they may play an important role in nutrient cycling in the soil through their influence on bacterial growth and plant nutrient availability.

  10. [Trophic types of the nematodes].

    PubMed

    Kornobis, Franciszek Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present trophic types (i.e non-systematic groups feeding on the same kind of food) of the nematodes. Seven trophic types (covering all known species) are described: (1) microbivores (nematodes feeding on unicellular microorganisms) with two examples: C. elegans and the nematodes of two families: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, (2) parasites of Vertebrates, (3) parasites of Invertebrates with example of the family Acugutturidae, (4) parasites of plants with two examples: Tylenchorhynchus dubius and Heterodera schachtii, (5) parasites of fungi, (6) predatory nematodes, (7) omnivores (nematodes feeding on different kinds of food). Basic information on the anatomy of the alimentary canal and feeding behaviour of the nematodes are also provided.

  11. Bacterial endosymbionts of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several groups of bacteria have been reported as endosymbionts of various orders of nematodes including the filarial nematodes (Brugia malayi, Wucheria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus (Spiruida)), the entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp., and Heterorhabditis spp. (Rhabditida)), and plant-p...

  12. Gas sensing in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, M A; Hallem, E A

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all animals are capable of sensing changes in environmental oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, which can signal the presence of food, pathogens, conspecifics, predators, or hosts. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model system for the study of gas sensing. C. elegans detects changes in O2 and CO2 levels and integrates information about ambient gas levels with other internal and external cues to generate context-appropriate behavioral responses. Due to its small nervous system and amenability to genetic and genomic analyses, the functional properties of its gas-sensing microcircuits can be dissected with single-cell resolution, and signaling molecules and natural genetic variations that modulate gas responses can be identified. Here, we discuss the neural basis of gas sensing in C. elegans, and highlight changes in gas-evoked behaviors in the context of other sensory cues and natural genetic variations. We also discuss gas sensing in other free-living nematodes and parasitic nematodes, focusing on how gas-sensing behavior has evolved to mediate species-specific behavioral requirements. PMID:24906953

  13. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Hernández, Hermes Fundora; Barroso, Jesús Callol; Sanchez-Martinez, Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram) was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis. PMID:19032790

  14. Transmission of Angiostrongylus cantonensis through the giant African snail Achatina fulica: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sithithaworn, P; Brockelman, W Y; Brockelman, C

    1991-12-01

    Observations on transmission of the rat lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, from rats to the snail intermediate host. Achatina fulica, in a vacant lot in Bangkok are described. The prevalence of A. cantonensis increased with snail age until 200 days of age when it attained a plateau of 50-60%. The overall prevalence was 53%. The worm burden slowly rose with age until 200 days of age beyond which it remained relatively constant. The highest mean worm burden of 5,478 was observed in the oldest age group. The parasite distribution in the snail population was highly aggregated both within each age class and in the overall population. Experiments on susceptibility of snails to laboratory infection revealed that worm recovery was dependent on dose of first stage larval infection but was independent of snail size in the range of 4-8 cm. The percent worm recovery of third stage larvae was negatively correlated with dose of infection, and no density-dependent effects of worm burden on worm size were observed.

  15. Angiostrongylus vasorum in Great Britain: a nationwide postal questionnaire survey of veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Kirk, L; Limon, G; Guitian, F J; Hermosilla, C; Fox, M T

    2014-08-01

    The lungworm, Angiostrongylus vasorum, was first reported in indigenous dogs in southwestern England in 1980 and has since been recorded in Wales, southeastern England and, more recently, in the West Midlands, northern England and Scotland. The nationwide distribution of the parasite was evaluated using a postal questionnaire sent to 3950 small animal practices during 2009. Information was sought on the location of each practice, awareness of the parasite locally, number of cases diagnosed over the past year and whether diagnosis was based on clinical signs alone or supported by additional tests. 1419 practices returned a usable response, the majority being located in a city/town. Nearly one-third of responding practices were aware of the parasite locally, 20.7 per cent had seen at least one confirmed case and 0.3 per cent >20 confirmed cases over the past year. The most widely used tests were faecal examination and any type of imaging. Existing clusters of infection were detected in southeastern England and south Wales; infection was also found to be widespread in central England, though patchy in northern England and Scotland. Using distribution of clinical cases as an indicator of parasite distribution, this study confirmed that A. vasorum has spread beyond traditional UK endemic foci.

  16. First report of a fatal autochthonous canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Sandra; Poncelet, Luc; Lempereur, Laetitia; Caron, Yannick; Bayrou, Calixte; Cassart, Dominique; Grimm, Felix; Losson, Bertrand

    2015-02-01

    Canine angiostrongylosis is considered as an emergent disease in Europe and Canada. A fatal case of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection is described in a four and a half month old puppy born in Belgium. The dog was presented with marked neurological disorders, body weight loss, a profound weakness and mild respiratory signs. The dog was given antibiotics and mucolytic compounds with very little improvement and consequently was referred to a specialist for additional examinations. As the general condition of the dog was rapidly declining, the animal was euthanized shortly after on its owners' request and a necropsy was carried out. Extensive gross pulmonary lesions were observed and histopathological examination revealed the presence of numerous larvae with morphology compatible with A. vasorum. Larvae were also found in the product of a bronchoalveolar lavage but fecal material was not examined. The presence of A. vasorum circulating serum antigen was demonstrated through ELISA; additionally an A. vasorum specific PCR was performed on brain material and yielded a positive result. This case confirms that the clinical diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis can be very challenging especially when respiratory signs are absent or very mild such in the present case. This is the first reported case of canine angiostrongylosis in Belgium.

  17. Spatial, demographic and clinical patterns of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in the dog population of Southern England.

    PubMed

    Blehaut, T R W; Hardstaff, J L; Chapman, P S; Pfeiffer, D U; Boag, A K; Guitian, F J

    2014-08-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to provide updated knowledge of the spatial pattern of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in Southern England and to investigate associations between selected host characteristics (age, breed, sex), risk of infection and clinical presentation (cardiorespiratory signs v haemorrhagic diathesis). One hundred and forty-one cases diagnosed between April 1999 and July 2012 were compared with a control population of dogs referred to the same hospital. A significant association was found between haemorrhagic diathesis and breed but not for other host characteristics and clinical presentations. Younger dogs and certain breeds of dog (Jack Russell terriers, Cocker Spaniels, Springer Spaniels, Cavalier King Charles spaniels and Staffordshire Bull Terriers) had significantly higher odds of angiostrongylosis than other breeds in the study. A significant cluster of cases was found in Southern England. Animals presenting with cardiorespiratory signs or haemorrhagic diathesis in Southern England, especially if they are young or of a breed associated with angiostrongylosis, should be given special consideration with regards to possible A. vasorum infestation. Our results should be interpreted bearing in mind that they are based on the retrospective exploration of dogs seen at a referral centre.

  18. [Natural infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum: characterisation of 3 dogs with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Glaus, T; Schnyder, M; Dennler, M; Tschuor, F; Wenger, M; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N

    2010-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), together with its accompanying clinical signs and underlying causes, e.g. pulmonary thrombosis, are more and more recognized as an important clinical entity also in dogs. This article characterizes the clinical picture of 3 dogs with PH caused by natural infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum. All 3 dogs were of small breeds ( < 10 kg), the age at the time of diagnosis was 1, 2 and 11 years. Clinically, dyspnea and exercise intolerance were the predominating signs, 2 dogs developed hemoptysis, 1 dog developed right sided congestive heart failure. Severe arterial hypoxemia (PaO2 41 - 53 mmHg) reflected the severity of pulmonary parenchymal and vascular damage. Severe hyperglobulinemia (59 und 88 g/l) in two dogs implicated a long lasting infection. Anthelmintic treatment in 2 dogs resulted in quick clinical, radiographic and echocardiographic normalization. PH is the consequence of multiple causes and pathomechanisms, and the recognition of PH is primarily of differential diagnostic relevance. Prognosis and therapy in cases with PH mainly depend on the underlying cause, rather than on the PH and on its degree.

  19. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: identification and characterization of microRNAs in male and female adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Xin; Ai, Lin; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhang, Ren-Li; Chen, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Guo, Jian; Cai, Yu-Chun; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2011-06-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic pleocytosis in humans and is of significant socio-economic importance globally. microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis and pathogenesis. They have been identified in a diverse range of organisms. The objective of this study was to determine and characterize miRNAs of female and male adults of A. cantonensis by Solexa deep sequencing. A total of 8,861,260 and 10,957,957 high quality reads with 20 and 23 conserved miRNAs were obtained in females and males, respectively. No new miRNA sequence was found. Nucleotide bias analysis showed that uracil was the prominent nucleotide, particularly at positions of 1, 10, 14, 17 and 22, approximately at the beginning, middle and the end of the conserved miRNAs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in A. cantonensis, which may represent a new platform for studying regulation of genes and their networks in A. cantonensis.

  20. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: role of eosinophils in the neurotoxic syndrome (Gordon-like phenomenon).

    PubMed

    Perez, O; Capron, M; Lastre, M; Venge, P; Khalife, J; Capron, A

    1989-05-01

    The role of eosinophils in the pathophysiology of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections was investigated in nonpermissive (guinea pig) and permissive (rat) hosts. Neurological symptoms similar to the Gordon phenomenon (ataxia, tremor, paralysis) together with a loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum were observed after intracraneal injection of human eosinophil extracts or after infection with A. cantonensis, only in guinea pigs and not in rats. Blood eosinophilia as well as eosinophil numbers present in the cerebellum and in the cerebrospinal fluid were higher in guinea pigs than in rats, at all times after infection with A. cantonensis. Increased levels of cytotoxicity toward L3 larvae in vitro were obtained in the presence of guinea pig eosinophils and IgE antibodies, rather than with the corresponding rat effector system. The detection of one eosinophil granule component, the eosinophil peroxidase, in the cerebrospinal fluid from infected guinea pigs but not from rats suggested that in nonpermissive hosts, neurological disorders, similar to the previously described Gordon phenomenon, might be due to eosinophil neurotoxins released after interaction of eosinophils with the parasites.

  1. Eosinophilic Meningitis Attributable to Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Hawaii: Clinical Characteristics and Potential Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Natasha S.; Blackburn, Brian G.; Park, Sarah Y.; Sejvar, James J.; Effler, Paul V.; Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    The most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis is Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which is transmitted largely by consumption of snails/slugs. We previously identified cases of angiostrongyliasis that occurred in Hawaii from 2001 to 2005; the highest incidence was on the island of Hawaii. We now report symptoms, laboratory parameters, and exposures. Eighteen patients were evaluated; 94% had headache, and 65% had sensory symptoms (paresthesia, hyperesthesia, and/or numbness). These symptoms lasted a median of 17 and 55 days, respectively. Three persons recalled finding a slug in their food/drink. Case-patients on the island of Hawaii were more likely than case-patients on other islands to consume raw homegrown produce in a typical week (89% versus 0%, P < 0.001) and to see snails/slugs on produce (56% versus 0%, P = 0.03). Residents and travelers should be aware of the potential risks of eating uncooked produce in Hawaii, especially if it is from the island of Hawaii and locally grown. PMID:21976573

  2. Natural Infection of Wild Canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) with the Intraendothelial Piroplasm Rangelia vitalii in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fredo, Gabriela; Bianchi, Matheus V; De Andrade, Caroline P; De Souza, Suyene O; Leite-Filho, Ronaldo V; Bandinelli, Marcele B; Amorim, Derek B; Driemeier, David; Sonne, Luciana

    2015-10-01

    Rangelia vitalii is a piroplasm that infects canines, causing lesions typical of a hemolytic disorder. Two wild canids, a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and a Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), were presented for necropsy in Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. On gross examination, both animals had pale mucosae and moderate tick infestation (Amblyomma aureolatum). There was severe splenomegaly, and the liver had a diffusely orange-reddish lobular pattern. The mesenteric lymph nodes were brownish and slightly enlarged. Structures compatible with R. vitalii were observed in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells in the liver, stomach, heart, kidney, lungs, lymph nodes, and bladder. The agent was characterized by PCR and genetic sequencing of liver samples and ticks. We show that parasitism with R. vitalii follows an epidemiologic cycle in which wild canids act as reservoirs.

  3. Social networks of educated nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound...

  4. 3D morphometric analysis of fossil canid skulls contradicts the suggested domestication of dogs during the late Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Drake, Abby Grace; Coquerelle, Michael; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2015-02-05

    Whether dogs were domesticated during the Pleistocene, when humans were hunter-gatherers, or during the Neolithic, when humans began to form permanent settlements and engage in agriculture, remains controversial. Recently discovered Paleolithic fossil skulls, Goyet dated 31,680 +/- 250 YBP and Eliseevichi MAE 447/5298 dated 13,905 +/- 55 YBP, were previously identified as dogs. However, new genetic studies contradict the identification of these specimens as dogs, questioning the validity of traditional measurements used to morphologically identify canid fossil skulls. We employ 3D geometric morphometric analyses to compare the cranial morphology of Goyet and Eliseevichi MAE to that of ancient and modern dogs and wolves. We demonstrate that these Paleolithic canids are definitively wolves and not dogs. Compared to mesaticephalic (wolf-like breeds) dog skulls, Goyet and Eliseevichi MAE, do not have cranial flexion and the dorsal surface of their muzzles has no concavity near the orbits. Morphologically, these early fossil canids resemble wolves, and thus no longer support the establishment of dog domestication in the Paleolithic.

  5. 3D morphometric analysis of fossil canid skulls contradicts the suggested domestication of dogs during the late Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Drake, Abby Grace; Coquerelle, Michael; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Whether dogs were domesticated during the Pleistocene, when humans were hunter-gatherers, or during the Neolithic, when humans began to form permanent settlements and engage in agriculture, remains controversial. Recently discovered Paleolithic fossil skulls, Goyet dated 31,680 +/- 250 YBP and Eliseevichi MAE 447/5298 dated 13,905 +/- 55 YBP, were previously identified as dogs. However, new genetic studies contradict the identification of these specimens as dogs, questioning the validity of traditional measurements used to morphologically identify canid fossil skulls. We employ 3D geometric morphometric analyses to compare the cranial morphology of Goyet and Eliseevichi MAE to that of ancient and modern dogs and wolves. We demonstrate that these Paleolithic canids are definitively wolves and not dogs. Compared to mesaticephalic (wolf-like breeds) dog skulls, Goyet and Eliseevichi MAE, do not have cranial flexion and the dorsal surface of their muzzles has no concavity near the orbits. Morphologically, these early fossil canids resemble wolves, and thus no longer support the establishment of dog domestication in the Paleolithic. PMID:25654325

  6. Improved molecular detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mollusks and other environmental samples with a species-specific ITS1-based TaqMan assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans can become infected by ingesting food items contaminated with the third-stage infectious larvae released from infected mollusks as well as by ingesting mollusks or paratenic hosts carrying the infectious st...

  7. Evidence of Coat Color Variation Sheds New Light on Ancient Canids

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, Morgane; Tresset, Anne; Hitte, Christophe; Petit, Coraline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lagoutte, Laetitia; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Balasescu, Adrian; Boroneant, Adina; Mashkour, Marjan; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) and CBD103 (canine-β-defensin), in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes) from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic) to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age). We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C) of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus) on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant KB allele (CBD103), which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r), the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10 000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process. PMID:24098367

  8. Serum lipid concentrations in six canid and four ursid species in four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Slifka, Kerri A; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann M

    2004-03-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in healthy captive wild canids and ursids, and the values were compared with previously published data. Serum lipid levels were evaluated in blood samples collected from eight African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), three arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), nine gray wolves (Canis lupus), four maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), two Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baleiyi), nine red wolves (Canis rufus), two brown bears (Ursus arctos), six polar bears (Ursus maritimus), six spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus), and five sun bears (Ursus malayanus). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Although the results showed a great variation among species, circulating lipids appeared especially high, sometimes extremely so, in the spectacled bears, polar bears, sun bears, and maned wolves compared with all other species sampled. The study provides a substantial basis for comparing lipid levels in presumed healthy animals and indicates a need for controlled study of the effects of diet on circulating lipid levels. PMID:15193071

  9. Use of volatile organic components in scat to identify canid species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, E.; Bender, L.C.; Eiceman, G.A.; Pierce, K.M.; Prasad, S.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of wildlife species from indirect evidence can be an important part of wildlife management, and conventional +methods can be expensive or have high error rates. We used chemical characterization of the volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in scat as a method to identify 5 species of North American canids from multiple individuals. We sampled vapors of scats in the headspace over a sample using solid-phase microextraction and determined VOC content using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. We used linear discriminant analysis to develop models for differentiating species with bootstrapping to estimate accuracy. Our method correcdy classified 82.4% (bootstrapped 95% CI = 68.8-93.8%) of scat samples. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scat was most frequendy misclassified (25.0% of scats misclassified); red fox was also the most common destination for misclassified samples. Our findings are the first reported identification of animal species using VOCs in vapor emissions from scat and suggest that identification of wildlife species may be plausible through chemical characterization of vapor emissions of scat.

  10. Evidence of coat color variation sheds new light on ancient canids.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Morgane; Tresset, Anne; Hitte, Christophe; Petit, Coraline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lagoutte, Laetitia; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Balasescu, Adrian; Boroneant, Adina; Mashkour, Marjan; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) and CBD103 (canine-β-defensin), in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes) from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic) to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age). We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C) of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus) on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant K(B) allele (CBD103), which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r), the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10,000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process. PMID:24098367

  11. Global decline in suitable habitat for Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus) cantonensis: the role of climate change.

    PubMed

    York, Emily M; Butler, Christopher J; Lord, Wayne D

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is implicated in the alteration of the ranges of species worldwide. Such shifts in species distributions may introduce parasites/pathogens, hosts, and vectors associated with disease to new areas. The parasite Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus) cantonensis is an invasive species that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans and neurological abnormalities in domestic/wild animals. Although native to southeastern Asia, A. cantonensis has now been reported from more than 30 countries worldwide. Given the health risks, it is important to describe areas with potentially favorable climate for the establishment of A. cantonensis, as well as areas where this pathogen might become established in the future. We used the program Maxent to develop an ecological niche model for A. cantonensis based on 86 localities obtained from published literature. We then modeled areas of potential A. cantonensis distribution as well as areas projected to have suitable climatic conditions under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios by the 2050s and the 2070s. The best model contained three bioclimatic variables: mean diurnal temperature range, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of warmest quarter. Potentially suitable habitat for A. cantonensis was located worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. Under all climate change RCP scenarios, the center of the projected distribution shifted away from the equator at a rate of 68-152 km per decade. However, the extent of areas with highly suitable habitat (>50%) declined by 10.66-15.66% by the 2050s and 13.11-16.11% by the 2070s. These results conflict with previous studies, which have generally found that the prevalence of tropical pathogens will increase during the 21st century. Moreover, it is likely that A. cantonensis will continue to expand its current range in the near future due to introductions and host expansion, whereas climate change will reduce the total geographic area of

  12. Characterization of the N-glycans of female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Carolina M; Morassutti, Alessandra L; von Itzstein, Mark; Sutov, Grigorij; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; McAtamney, Sarah; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Glycoconjugates play a crucial role in the host-parasite relationships of helminthic infections, including angiostrongyliasis. It has previously been shown that the antigenicity of proteins from female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms may depend on their associated glycan moieties. Here, an N-glycan profile of A. cantonensis is reported. A total soluble extract (TE) was prepared from female A. cantonensis worms and was tested by western blot before and after glycan oxidation or N- and O-glycosidase treatment. The importance of N-glycans for the immunogenicity of A. cantonensis was demonstrated when deglycosylation of the TE with PNGase F completely abrogated IgG recognition. The TE was also fractionated using various lectin columns [Ulex europaeus (UEA), concanavalin A (Con A), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA)], and then each fraction was digested with PNGase F. Released N-glycans were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Complex-type, high mannose, and truncated glycan structures were identified in all five fractions. Sequential MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis of the major MS peaks identified complex-type structures, with a α1-6 fucosylated core and truncated antennas. Glycoproteins in the TE were labeled with BodipyAF558-SE dye for a lectin microarray analysis. Fluorescent images were analyzed with ProScanArray imaging software followed by statistical analysis. A total of 29 lectins showed positive binding to the TE. Of these, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), PNA, and Wisteria floribunda (WFA), which recognize galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), exhibited high affinity binding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that female A. cantonensis worms have characteristic helminth N-glycans.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome reveals genetic diversity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2015-12-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Earlier work on its mitochondrial genome was based on long polymerase chain reaction method. To date, only the mitogenome of the isolates from China has been studied. We report here the complete mitogenome of the Thailand isolate based on next generation sequencing and compare the genetic diversity with other isolates. The mitogenome of the Thailand isolate (13,519bp) is longer than those of the China isolates (13,497-13,502bp). Five protein-coding genes (atp6, cox1, cox2, cob, nad2) show variations in length among the isolates. The stop codon of the Thailand isolate differs from the China and Taiwan isolates in 4 genes (atp6, cob, nad2, nad6). Additionally, the Thailand isolate has 4 incomplete T stop codon compared to 3 in the China and Taiwan isolates. The control region is longer in the Thailand isolate (258bp) than the China (230-236bp) and Taiwan (237bp) isolates. The intergenic sequence between nad4 and cox1 genes in the Thailand isolate lacks 2bp (indels) at the 5'-end of the sequence as well as differs at 7 other sites compared to the China and Taiwan isolates. In the Thailand isolate, 18 tRNAs lack the entire TΨC-arm, compared to 17 in the China isolate and 16 in the Taiwan isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on 36 mt-genes, 12 PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and control region all indicate closer genetic affinity between the China and Taiwan isolates compared to the Thailand isolate. Based on 36 mt-genes, the inter-isolate genetic distance varies from p=3.2% between China and Taiwan isolates to p=11.6% between Thailand and China isolates. The mitogenome will be useful for population, phylogenetics and phylogeography studies.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome reveals genetic diversity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2015-12-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Earlier work on its mitochondrial genome was based on long polymerase chain reaction method. To date, only the mitogenome of the isolates from China has been studied. We report here the complete mitogenome of the Thailand isolate based on next generation sequencing and compare the genetic diversity with other isolates. The mitogenome of the Thailand isolate (13,519bp) is longer than those of the China isolates (13,497-13,502bp). Five protein-coding genes (atp6, cox1, cox2, cob, nad2) show variations in length among the isolates. The stop codon of the Thailand isolate differs from the China and Taiwan isolates in 4 genes (atp6, cob, nad2, nad6). Additionally, the Thailand isolate has 4 incomplete T stop codon compared to 3 in the China and Taiwan isolates. The control region is longer in the Thailand isolate (258bp) than the China (230-236bp) and Taiwan (237bp) isolates. The intergenic sequence between nad4 and cox1 genes in the Thailand isolate lacks 2bp (indels) at the 5'-end of the sequence as well as differs at 7 other sites compared to the China and Taiwan isolates. In the Thailand isolate, 18 tRNAs lack the entire TΨC-arm, compared to 17 in the China isolate and 16 in the Taiwan isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on 36 mt-genes, 12 PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and control region all indicate closer genetic affinity between the China and Taiwan isolates compared to the Thailand isolate. Based on 36 mt-genes, the inter-isolate genetic distance varies from p=3.2% between China and Taiwan isolates to p=11.6% between Thailand and China isolates. The mitogenome will be useful for population, phylogenetics and phylogeography studies. PMID:26348256

  15. Characterization of the N-glycans of female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Carolina M; Morassutti, Alessandra L; von Itzstein, Mark; Sutov, Grigorij; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; McAtamney, Sarah; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Glycoconjugates play a crucial role in the host-parasite relationships of helminthic infections, including angiostrongyliasis. It has previously been shown that the antigenicity of proteins from female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms may depend on their associated glycan moieties. Here, an N-glycan profile of A. cantonensis is reported. A total soluble extract (TE) was prepared from female A. cantonensis worms and was tested by western blot before and after glycan oxidation or N- and O-glycosidase treatment. The importance of N-glycans for the immunogenicity of A. cantonensis was demonstrated when deglycosylation of the TE with PNGase F completely abrogated IgG recognition. The TE was also fractionated using various lectin columns [Ulex europaeus (UEA), concanavalin A (Con A), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA)], and then each fraction was digested with PNGase F. Released N-glycans were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Complex-type, high mannose, and truncated glycan structures were identified in all five fractions. Sequential MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis of the major MS peaks identified complex-type structures, with a α1-6 fucosylated core and truncated antennas. Glycoproteins in the TE were labeled with BodipyAF558-SE dye for a lectin microarray analysis. Fluorescent images were analyzed with ProScanArray imaging software followed by statistical analysis. A total of 29 lectins showed positive binding to the TE. Of these, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), PNA, and Wisteria floribunda (WFA), which recognize galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), exhibited high affinity binding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that female A. cantonensis worms have characteristic helminth N-glycans. PMID:27107931

  16. Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode–predatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or ‘traps’. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator–prey interactions in prey defense mechanisms. PMID:25514608

  17. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Denis S.; Alborn, Hans T.; Duncan, Larry W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments. PMID:26404058

  18. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Willett, Denis S; Alborn, Hans T; Duncan, Larry W; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-09-25

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments.

  19. Using nematodes in soil ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Sochová, Ivana; Hofman, Jakub; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-04-01

    Nematodes represent a very abundant group of soil organisms and non-parasitic species are important for soil quality and in the soil food web. In recent years, it has been shown that nematodes are appropriate bioindicators of soil condition and they are also suitable organisms for laboratory toxicity testing. The aims of this paper are to overview and critically assess methods and approaches for researching soil nematode ecotoxicology. In natural ecosystems, nematode abundance and community structure analyses were proved to be sensitive indicators of stress caused by soil pollutants and ecological disturbance. Community structure analyses may be approached from a functional or ecological point of view; species are divided into groups according to their feeding habits or alternatively the maturity index is calculated according to their ecological strategy. Many environmental factors have the potential to affect nematode community, which consequently results in high space and time variability. This variance is major handicap in field ecotoxicological studies because pollutant-nematode relationships are obscured. For prospective risk assessment of chemicals, several toxicity tests with nematodes were developed and are increasingly used. Sensitivity of these tests is comparable to tests with other soil species (e.g. enchytraeids, earthworms and springtails) while tests are less demanding to space and time. Most studies have focused on metal toxicity but organic compounds are almost overlooked. Endpoints used in tests were often mortality, reproduction or movement, but more sublethal endpoints such as feeding or biomarkers have been used recently too. Although there is an increasing amount of knowledge in soil nematode ecotoxicology, there is still a lot of various issues in this topic to research.

  20. Factors associated with uterine endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in wild canids: implications for fertility.

    PubMed

    Asa, Cheryl S; Bauman, Karen L; Devery, Sarah; Zordan, Martín; Camilo, Gerardo R; Boutelle, Sally; Moresco, Anneke

    2014-01-01

    The ability to safely and effectively manage reproduction is central to the success of AZA captive-breeding programs. Although the AZA Wildlife Contraception Center routinely monitors contraceptive safety, there have been no studies that compare the effects of contraceptive use to separation of males from females, the other option for preventing reproduction. We used retrospective medical records and pathology reports submitted by AZA and related facilities for the seven AZA-managed canid species to assess rates of uterine pathology relative to female reproductive life histories. Our results showed that the prevalence of both pyometra and endometrial hyperplasia (EH) was associated not only with treatment with the two most common contraceptives (Suprelorin® and MGA implants) but also with the number of years barren (i.e., not producing a litter and not contracepted). Rates of pyometra and EH were especially high in African painted dogs and red wolves, but lowest in swift and fennec foxes. The number of years producing a litter had a low association, suggesting it could be protective against uterine pathology. A more recently developed Suprelorin® protocol using Ovaban® to prevent the initial stimulation phase, followed by implant removal when reversal is desired, may be a safer contraceptive option. These results concerning the relationship between reproductive management and uterine health have important implications for AZA-managed programs, since the unsustainability of many captive populations may be due at least in part to infertility. Managing a female's reproductive lifespan to optimize or maintain fertility will require a reconsideration of how breeding recommendations are formulated. PMID:23553688

  1. Factors associated with uterine endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in wild canids: implications for fertility.

    PubMed

    Asa, Cheryl S; Bauman, Karen L; Devery, Sarah; Zordan, Martín; Camilo, Gerardo R; Boutelle, Sally; Moresco, Anneke

    2014-01-01

    The ability to safely and effectively manage reproduction is central to the success of AZA captive-breeding programs. Although the AZA Wildlife Contraception Center routinely monitors contraceptive safety, there have been no studies that compare the effects of contraceptive use to separation of males from females, the other option for preventing reproduction. We used retrospective medical records and pathology reports submitted by AZA and related facilities for the seven AZA-managed canid species to assess rates of uterine pathology relative to female reproductive life histories. Our results showed that the prevalence of both pyometra and endometrial hyperplasia (EH) was associated not only with treatment with the two most common contraceptives (Suprelorin® and MGA implants) but also with the number of years barren (i.e., not producing a litter and not contracepted). Rates of pyometra and EH were especially high in African painted dogs and red wolves, but lowest in swift and fennec foxes. The number of years producing a litter had a low association, suggesting it could be protective against uterine pathology. A more recently developed Suprelorin® protocol using Ovaban® to prevent the initial stimulation phase, followed by implant removal when reversal is desired, may be a safer contraceptive option. These results concerning the relationship between reproductive management and uterine health have important implications for AZA-managed programs, since the unsustainability of many captive populations may be due at least in part to infertility. Managing a female's reproductive lifespan to optimize or maintain fertility will require a reconsideration of how breeding recommendations are formulated.

  2. Water developments and canids in two North American deserts: a test of the indirect effect of water hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lucas K; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; Bunnell, Kevin D; McMillan, Brock R

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids.

  3. Water Developments and Canids in Two North American Deserts: A Test of the Indirect Effect of Water Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lucas K.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Bunnell, Kevin D.; McMillan, Brock R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097

  4. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication. PMID:24918751

  5. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  6. 14-3-3β protein expression in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasite endemic in the Southeast Asian and Pacific regions. Humans are incidentally infected either by eating uncooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables containing the living third-stage larvae. The 14-3-3β protein is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of neuronal damage during the development of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In addition, increased 14-3-3β protein is also found in CSF from patients with a variety of neurological disorders. The goal of this study is to determine the roles of serum/CSF14-3-3β protein in patients with eosinophilic meningitis. Methods In a cohort study among nine Thai laborers with eosinophilic meningitis due to eating raw snails (Pomacea canaliculata), we examined the CSF weekly while patients were still hospitalized and followed up the serum for 6 months. The levels of 14-3-3β protein in CSF were analyzed by western blot and an in-house 14-3-3β enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement was established and tested in an animal model of eosinophilic meningitis. Results The elevated 14-3-3β level was detected in the CSF from eight out of nine (81%) patients After 2 weeks of treatment, all patients showed a declined level or cleared of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF. By developing an in-house ELISA for measurement of 14-3-3β protein, it was found that the serum 14-3-3β level was significantly increased in patients during initial visit. . This finding was consistent to the animal experiment result in which there was severe blood brain barrier damage three weeks after infection and increased 14-3-3β protein expression in the CSF and serum by western blot and in house ELISA. After treatment, the serum 14-3-3β level in meningitis patients was rapidly returned to normal threshold. There was a correlation between initial CSF 14-3-3β level with severity of headache (r = 0.692, p = 0.039), CSF pleocytosis (r = 0.807, p = 0.009) and eosinophilia (r = 0

  7. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection on Mayotte Island, Indian Ocean, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Epelboin, Loïc; Blondé, Renaud; Chamouine, Abdourahim; Chrisment, Alexandra; Diancourt, Laure; Villemant, Nicolas; Atale, Agnès; Cadix, Claire; Caro, Valérie; Malvy, Denis; Collet, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human angiostrongyliasis (HA) is a neurological helminthic disease caused by the lung worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is suspected in the combination of travel or a residence in an endemic area and eosinophilic meningitis. In Mayotte, an island in the Indian Ocean, cases are rare but regular. The main objective of our study was to describe the epidemiological and diagnosis clues of HA in Mayotte. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the contribution of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT- PCR) for the diagnosis of HA, delineate the characteristics of the local transmission and ascertain the presence of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica, the potential vector of the disease. Materials and Methods Between 2007 and 2012, all cases of eosinophilic meningitis were retrospectively included and investigated by RT- PCR in the CSF. Descriptive analysis was conducted for clinical, biological and radiological features, and were analyzed for all patients together with the search for prognostic factors for mortality. Concurrently, geolocalization and temporal parameters were studied to correlate the occurrence of the cases with rainfall seasons and snails were collected to enhance a parasitic carriage with real time PCR. Results During the 6-year period of the study, 14 cases were identified (2.3 cases/year) and 9 among 10 remaining CSF were positive in PCR. Among 14 cases of EM, 13 were less than 2 year-old children. The 1 year mortality rate was 5/14 (35.7%). Among survivors, 3/7 (42.8%) presented neurological sequelae. Factors associated with mortality were dysfunction of cranial nerves, abnormal brain imaging, and CSF glucose level inferior to 2 mmol/l. Occurrence of cases was temporarily and spatially correlated to the rainy season. Among the 64 collected giant snails, 6 (9.4%) were positive with A. cantonensis PCR. The likely main route of transmission was the children licking snails, carriers of the parasite. Conclusion In Mayotte, HA was mainly

  8. Basic and applied research: Entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema kill arthropods with the aid of their bacterial symbionts. These nematodes are potent microbial control agents that have been widely commercialized for control of economically important insect pests. Biocontrol efficacy relies...

  9. In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate parasites of insects. The nematodes are used widely as biopesticides for suppression of insect pests. More than a dozen entomopathogenic nematode species have been commercialized for use in biological control. Most nematodes intended for commercial application are produced in artificial media via solid or liquid fermentation. However, for laboratory research and small greenhouse or field trials, in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes is the common method of propagation. Additionally, small companies continue to produce nematodes using in vivo methods for application in niche markets. Advances in mechanization and alternative production routes (e.g., production geared toward application of nematodes in infected host cadavers) can improve efficiency and economy of scale. The objective of this chapter is to describe basic and advanced procedures for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:27565497

  10. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Xayavong, Maniphet; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Park, Sarah Y; Whelen, A Christian; Calimlim, Precilia S; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Honda, Stacey A A; Higa, Karen; Kitsutani, Paul; Chea, Nora; Heng, Seng; Johnson, Stuart; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fox, LeAnne M; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis. Timely diagnosis of these infections is difficult, partly because reliable laboratory diagnostic methods are unavailable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of A. cantonensis DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. A total of 49 CSF specimens from 33 patients with eosinophilic meningitis were included: A. cantonensis DNA was detected in 32 CSF specimens, from 22 patients. Four patients had intermittently positive and negative real-time PCR results on subsequent samples, indicating that the level of A. cantonensis DNA present in CSF may fluctuate during the course of the illness. Immunodiagnosis and/or supplemental PCR testing supported the real-time PCR findings for 30 patients. On the basis of these observations, this real-time PCR assay can be useful to detect A. cantonensis in the CSF from patients with eosinophilic meningitis.

  11. Prevalence and intensity of infection with third stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mollusks from Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tesana, Smarn; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Laha, Thewarach; Andrews, Ross

    2009-06-01

    Prevalences and intensity of infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis third stage larvae were examined in mollusks to determine whether they are potential intermediate hosts in eight provinces, northeast Thailand. Mollusk samples were collected from 24 reservoirs (3 reservoirs/province) in close to human cases during the previous year. Six out of 24 localities and 9 (3 new record species) out of 27 species were found with the infection. The highest intensity in infected species was found to be only one or two snails, whereas the majority had very low or no infection. The highest density was found in Pila pesmei and the lowest in Pila polita. The edible snails, P. polita, P. pesmei, and Hemiplecta distincta have the potential to transmit A. cantonensis to man. The varying density levels of larvae in infected snails may reflect observed variation in symptoms of people who traditionally eat a raw snail dish. PMID:19478262

  12. A Serological Survey of Infectious Disease in Yellowstone National Park’s Canid Community

    PubMed Central

    Almberg, Emily S.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991–2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5–0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [≥1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5–1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [≥1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6–4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [≥5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals’ odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might

  13. A serological survey of infectious disease in yellowstone national park's canid community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, E.S.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.; Sheldon, J.W.; Crabtree, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [???1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [???1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [???5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be

  14. Report on the occurrence of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in southern Brazil, in a new intermediate host from the genus Sarasinula (Veronicellidae, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Laitano, A C; Genro, J P; Fontoura, R; Branco, S S; Maurer, R L; Graeff-Teixeira, C; Milanez, J M; Chiaradia, L A; Thomé, J W

    2001-01-01

    Veronicellid slugs are the main intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus costaricencis. In a rural locality in Nova Itaberaba (SC, southern Brazil) Sarasinula linguaeformis was identified as a crop pest. The parasitological examination revealed A. costaricencis infection in 43 out ot 50 slugs. The prevalence of 86% and the individual parasitic burdens are the highest sofar reported in Brazil and S. linguaeformis is the first species from the genus Sarasinula to be identified as intermediate host for A. costaricencis in southern Brazil.

  15. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

  16. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Teem, John L; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-06-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas. PMID:23901374

  17. Plant Nematodes Occurring in Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    Wehunt, E. J.; Golden, A. M.; Robbins, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 110 species of plant nematodes were found in various habitats in Arkansas. Thirty species from 19 genera are reported here for the first time. Included in the new reports are the known plant pathogens Criconemella onoense, Hirshmanniella oryzae, Longidorus elongatus, and Pratylenchus pratensis. PMID:19287671

  18. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Jacqueline B.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics

  19. Species resilience in Pleistocene hominids that traveled far and ate widely: an analogy to the wolf-like canids.

    PubMed

    Arcadi, A Clark

    2006-10-01

    Morphological and genetic analyses have yet to resolve the question of whether more than one species of Homo existed contemporaneously in the Pleistocene. In an effort to contribute a process-related perspective to hominid phylogenetic reconstruction, this paper uses an analogy to the northern wolf-like canids (the wolves and coyotes) to ask the question, How many Homo species should there be, given their likely behavioral profile(s)? In contrast to earlier comparisons to social carnivores which sought to illuminate specific aspects of hominid behavioral ecology, this paper explores behavioral constraints on the process of speciation itself. The analogy suggests that because Pleistocene Homo probably exhibited high habitat tolerance, they would not have had the opportunity to speciate, especially in Africa. In contrast to an earlier single-species hypothesis based on competitive exclusion between sympatric hominid species, this paper explores constraints on the process of speciation under conditions of temporary allopatry.

  20. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor.

    PubMed

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J; Chapman, Erica S; Trent, Jeffery M; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wayne, Robert K; Karyadi, Danielle M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2015-11-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world.

  1. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W.; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H.; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G.; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Chapman, Erica S.; Trent, Jeffery M.; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Wayne, Robert K.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world. PMID:26232412

  2. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments.

    PubMed

    Heininger, Peter; Höss, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Pelzer, Jürgen; Traunspurger, Walter

    2007-03-01

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. PMID:16905227

  3. Ecology and evolution of soil nematode chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Ali, Jared Gregory; Helder, Johannes; van der Putten, Wim H

    2012-06-01

    Plants influence the behavior of and modify community composition of soil-dwelling organisms through the exudation of organic molecules. Given the chemical complexity of the soil matrix, soil-dwelling organisms have evolved the ability to detect and respond to these cues for successful foraging. A key question is how specific these responses are and how they may evolve. Here, we review and discuss the ecology and evolution of chemotaxis of soil nematodes. Soil nematodes are a group of diverse functional and taxonomic types, which may reveal a variety of responses. We predicted that nematodes of different feeding guilds use host-specific cues for chemotaxis. However, the examination of a comprehensive nematode phylogeny revealed that distantly related nematodes, and nematodes from different feeding guilds, can exploit the same signals for positive orientation. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), which is ubiquitous in soil and indicates biological activity, is widely used as such a cue. The use of the same signals by a variety of species and species groups suggests that parts of the chemo-sensory machinery have remained highly conserved during the radiation of nematodes. However, besides CO(2), many other chemical compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, have been shown to induce chemotaxis in nematodes. Plants surrounded by a complex nematode community, including beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes, plant-parasitic nematodes, as well as microbial feeders, are thus under diffuse selection for producing specific molecules in the rhizosphere that maximize their fitness. However, it is largely unknown how selection may operate and how belowground signaling may evolve. Given the paucity of data for certain groups of nematodes, future work is needed to better understand the evolutionary mechanisms of communication between plant roots and soil biota.

  4. Developing sustainable systems for nematode management.

    PubMed

    Barker, K R; Koenning, S R

    1998-01-01

    Early researchers identified key concepts and developed tactics for multiple-option management of nematodes. Although the emphasis on integrated pest management over the past three decades has promoted strategies and tactics for nematode management, comprehensive studies on the related soil biology-ecology are relatively recent. Traditional management tactics include host resistance (where available), cultural tactics such as rotation with nonhosts, sanitation and avoidance, and destruction of residual crop roots, and the judicious use of nematicides. There have been advances in biological control of nematodes, but field-scale exploitation of this tactic remains to be realized. New technologies and resources are currently becoming central to the development of sustainable systems for nematode-pest-crop management: molecular diagnostics for nematode identification, genetic engineering for host resistance, and the elucidation and application of soil biology for general integrated cropping systems. The latter strategy includes the use of nematode-pest antagonistic cover crops, animal wastes, and limited tillage practices that favor growth-promoting rhizobacteria, earthworms, predatory mites, and other beneficial organisms while suppressing parasitic nematodes and other plant pathogens. Certain rhizobacteria may induce systemic host resistance to nematodes and, in some instances, to foliage pathogens. The systems focusing on soil biology hold great promise for sustainable crop-nematode management, but only a few research programs are currently involved in this labor-intensive endeavor.

  5. Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; McKenry, M. V.

    2004-01-01

    Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

  6. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Xayavong, Maniphet; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Park, Sarah Y; Whelen, A Christian; Calimlim, Precilia S; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Honda, Stacey A A; Higa, Karen; Kitsutani, Paul; Chea, Nora; Heng, Seng; Johnson, Stuart; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fox, LeAnne M; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis. Timely diagnosis of these infections is difficult, partly because reliable laboratory diagnostic methods are unavailable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of A. cantonensis DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. A total of 49 CSF specimens from 33 patients with eosinophilic meningitis were included: A. cantonensis DNA was detected in 32 CSF specimens, from 22 patients. Four patients had intermittently positive and negative real-time PCR results on subsequent samples, indicating that the level of A. cantonensis DNA present in CSF may fluctuate during the course of the illness. Immunodiagnosis and/or supplemental PCR testing supported the real-time PCR findings for 30 patients. On the basis of these observations, this real-time PCR assay can be useful to detect A. cantonensis in the CSF from patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:26526920

  7. A review on the Late Villafranchian medium-sized canid Canis arnensis based on the evidence from Poggio Rosso (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini Lucenti, Saverio; Rook, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    The fossil canid material recovered from the Early Pleistocene site of Poggio Rosso offers the opportunity to revise the taxonomical status of the Arno River dog, Canis arnensis. To date, the identification of this species is still a matter of debate due, on the one hand, to the poor state of preservation of the type specimens, and on the other hand to the lack of homogeneous descriptions and a clear diagnosis. The fossils recovered from Poggio Rosso show a good state of preservation with little (if any) plastic deformation, allowing re-evaluation of the dental and cranial characters typical of this species, as well as the proposal, for the first time, of a precise and specific diagnosis. The anatomical and morphometric features of C. arnensis exclude a close taxonomical relationship with the coeval Canis etruscus, suggesting instead a closer affinity to modern canids. The C. arnensis arrived in Italy around 1.9 Ma as the result of a dispersal event, and Poggio Rosso is the first Italian site recording the occurrence of this species. The dispersal of C. arnensis represents the arrival of the first modern canids in Europe and is therefore a significantly important biochronological event in European faunal assemblages.

  8. Endemic Oscheius Nematodes of Hawai'i

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) parasitize insects utilizing mutualistic bacteria to kill the host, allowing the nematode to feed and reproduce within the insect cadaver. Consequently EPNs are highly sought after for their biological control potential. A survey for EPNs was conducted on O’ahu and...

  9. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors.

  10. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. PMID:27211240

  11. Parasitic Nematodes - From Genomes to Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management pra...

  12. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective ...

  13. Blends of ascarosides regulate dispersal in nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of ascarosides regulate dispersal in nematodes Presenter: Dr. Fatma Kaplan Dispersal is an important behavior for many organisms. It can easily be observed when infectious juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) leave a consumed insect host. Dauer larvae of ...

  14. Subtilisin-like proteases in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Poole, Catherine B; Jin, Jingmin; McReynolds, Larry A

    2007-09-01

    Cleavage by subtilisin-like proteases (subtilases) is an essential step in post-translational processing of proteins found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Our knowledge of the diversity of this protease family in nematodes is aided by the rapid increase in sequence information, especially from the Brugia malayi genome project. Genetic studies of the subtilases in Caenorhabitis elegans give valuable insight into the biological function of these proteases in other nematode species. In this review, we focus on the subtilases in filarial nematodes as well as other parasitic and free-living nematodes in comparison to what is known in C. elegans. Topics to be addressed include expansion and diversity of the subtilase gene family during evolution, enhanced complexity created by alternative RNA splicing, molecular and biochemical characterization of the different subtilases and the challenges of designing subtilase-specific inhibitors for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17570539

  15. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  16. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sara B; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host-parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  17. Complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome and its phylogenetic relationship with other Canids ( Canis, Canidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxia; Li, Qifa; Zhao, Xingbo; Xie, Zhuang; Xu, Yinxue

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was determined, and the phylogenetic relationships between the Tibetan Mastiff and other species of Canidae were analyzed using the coyote (Canis latrans) as an outgroup. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mtDNA was 16 710 bp, and included 22 tRNA genes, 2S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and one non-coding region (D-loop region), which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. The characteristics of the protein-coding genes, non-coding region, tRNA and rRNA genes among Canidae were analyzed in detail. Neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees of Canids constructed using 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that as the coyotes and Tibetan wolves clustered together, so too did the gray wolves and domestic dogs, suggesting that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from the gray wolf as did other domestic dogs. Domestic dogs clustered into four clades, implying at least four maternal origins (A to D). The Tibetan Mastiff, which belongs to clade A, appears to be closely related to the Saint Bernard and the Old English Sheepdog. PMID:22440697

  18. The physiology of cooperative breeding in a rare social canid; sex, suppression and pseudopregnancy in female Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, Freya; Paris, Monique; Macdonald, David W; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Johnson, Paul J; Farstad, Wenche; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2013-10-01

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, differ from other cooperatively breeding canids in that they combine intense sociality with solitary foraging, making them a suitable species in which to study the physiology of cooperative breeding. The reproductive physiology of twenty wild female Ethiopian wolves (eleven dominant and nine subordinate) in Ethiopia's Bale Mountains National Park was studied non-invasively through the extraction and assaying of estradiol, progesterone and glucocorticoids in collected fecal samples using enzyme and radioimmunoassays. All dominant females showed increased estradiol concentrations and/or mating behavior during the annual mating season. In contrast, none of the subordinate females showed increased estradiol concentrations or mating behavior during the mating season. However, two subordinate females came into estrus outside of the mating season. Both dominant and subordinate females had higher average progesterone concentrations during the dominant female's pregnancy than at other times of the year, and two subordinate females allosuckled the dominant female's pups. No statistically significant differences in glucocorticoid concentrations were found between dominant and subordinate females. These results suggest that subordinate females are reproductively suppressed during the annual mating season, but may ovulate outside of the mating season and become pseudopregnant. No evidence was found to suggest that reproductive suppression in subordinate females was regulated through aggressive behaviors, and no relationship was found between fecal glucocorticoids and dominance status.

  19. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions. PMID:23130987

  20. Temporal-spatial pathological changes in the brains of permissive and non-permissive hosts experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Chen; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chen, Kuang-Yao; Wang, Tzu-Yi; Li, Chung-Han

    2015-10-01

    Human cerebral angiostrongyliasis becomes an emerging disease in many parts of the world. By postmortem examination, Angiostrongylus cantonensis have been reported to cause severe pathological changes in the central nervous system. The present study was designed to determine the temporal-spatial pathological changes through experimental infections and histopathological examination of permissive (SD rats) and non-permissive (ICR mice) hosts. After infecting SD rats with 25, 50, or 100 third-stage larvae (L3) and ICR mice with 25 L3, one animal from each group was sacrificed daily from day 1 to day 30 post-infection. Each rat brain was cut into six sections and mouse brain into five sections. These sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Eosinophilic meningitis was found to be the most commonly pathological change and occurred on day 17 post-infection in rats with 25 L3, day 9 in the 50- or 100-L3 groups, and day 12 in infected mice. Thickness of the meninges increased 9-24 folds in infected rats and 89 folds in an infected mouse on day 28. Encephalitis, congestion, perivascular cuffing, and haemorrhage were revealed in infected mice and rats with 100 L3. Fifth-stage larvae were frequently observed in the meninges but occasionally in the parenchyma. Significant correlations between meningitis and presence of larvae in the meninges were found in the three infected rat groups but not in the infected mice. The results indicate that the clinical course of A. cantonensis infection is not self-limited but becomes more severe with the intensity of infection.

  1. Immunolocalization and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changmao; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Wenzhen; Luo, Damin

    2014-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the anatomic sites of expression and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The immunolocalization results revealed that native AC-cathBs were found present in the L1 and L3 larvae, female and male adults, and the AC-cathBs were localized mainly on the digestive tract of A. cantonensis and expressed at varied levels and in different patterns in the internal tissues according to their developmental stage. Consistent with the infective stage of L3 is a much more intense staining of AC-cathBs in the esophagus compared with the intestine. In contrast to L3, more abundant signals were located to the intestine of adults, suggesting that nutrition digestion likely to be the main function of the protease at this point. AC-cathBs fluorescent signals were present in excretory pore, excretory tube in lateral cords, and muscular esophagus of larvae, further supported the AC-cathB-1, -2 likely to be released by A. cantonensis as excretory/secretory products. Additionally, only the protein AC-cathB-2 was detected in the reproductive system, especially in the wall of vas deferens, uterus, and oviduct of the parasites, whether the AC-cathB-2 has some function in germ cells development and maturation need to be further characterized. Although the anatomic sites and expression patterns were different in larvae and adults and the corresponding function might not the same, AC-cathB-1 and -2 involved in the host-parasite interaction in addition to digestive function.

  2. Global Decline in Suitable Habitat for Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus) cantonensis: The Role of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    York, Emily M.; Butler, Christopher J.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is implicated in the alteration of the ranges of species worldwide. Such shifts in species distributions may introduce parasites/pathogens, hosts, and vectors associated with disease to new areas. The parasite Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus) cantonensis is an invasive species that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans and neurological abnormalities in domestic/wild animals. Although native to southeastern Asia, A. cantonensis has now been reported from more than 30 countries worldwide. Given the health risks, it is important to describe areas with potentially favorable climate for the establishment of A. cantonensis, as well as areas where this pathogen might become established in the future. We used the program Maxent to develop an ecological niche model for A. cantonensis based on 86 localities obtained from published literature. We then modeled areas of potential A. cantonensis distribution as well as areas projected to have suitable climatic conditions under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios by the 2050s and the 2070s. The best model contained three bioclimatic variables: mean diurnal temperature range, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of warmest quarter. Potentially suitable habitat for A. cantonensis was located worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. Under all climate change RCP scenarios, the center of the projected distribution shifted away from the equator at a rate of 68–152 km per decade. However, the extent of areas with highly suitable habitat (>50%) declined by 10.66–15.66% by the 2050s and 13.11–16.11% by the 2070s. These results conflict with previous studies, which have generally found that the prevalence of tropical pathogens will increase during the 21st century. Moreover, it is likely that A. cantonensis will continue to expand its current range in the near future due to introductions and host expansion, whereas climate change will reduce the total geographic

  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel gene encoding 16 kDa protein (Ac16) from Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Yu; Lv, Zhi-Yue; Wei, Jie; Liao, Qi; Zheng, Huan-Qin; Wu, Zhong-Dao

    2012-06-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. A novel gene (AC16) was isolated from a cDNA library of A. cantonensis fourth-stage larvae. The putative 16-kDa protein has 149 amino acids and is homologous to an immunodominant hypodermal antigen (IHA16) from Ancylostoma caninum (identities = 57%). In this paper, we cloned the gene and purified the recombinant Ac16 (rAC16) protein. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that Ac16 was expressed significantly higher in the fourth-stage larvae and adult worms derived from rats than that in the fourth-stage larvae derived from mice. Moreover, sera from rat (permissive host) infected with A. cantonensis detected Ac16 by Western blot, while sera from infected mouse (non-permissive host) could not. The results implied that Ac16 was related to the parasitic adaptation of A. cantonensis in different hosts and non-permissive host mouse had no circulating antibody to the antigen Ac16 from A. cantonensis and thus might contribute to understanding the mechanism of parasite immune evasion. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of Ac16 antibody diagnosing A. cantonensis infection by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the Ac16 antibody had a 79.17% sensitivity to rAC16 and 83.33% to crude adult worm antigens (CA) (P > 0.05), while the specificity to rAC16 and to CA were 95.89% and 86.30% respectively (P < 0.05), thus implying that rAc16 may constitute a putative serodiagnostic antigen for Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis. PMID:22146998

  4. Temporal-spatial pathological changes in the brains of permissive and non-permissive hosts experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Chen; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chen, Kuang-Yao; Wang, Tzu-Yi; Li, Chung-Han

    2015-10-01

    Human cerebral angiostrongyliasis becomes an emerging disease in many parts of the world. By postmortem examination, Angiostrongylus cantonensis have been reported to cause severe pathological changes in the central nervous system. The present study was designed to determine the temporal-spatial pathological changes through experimental infections and histopathological examination of permissive (SD rats) and non-permissive (ICR mice) hosts. After infecting SD rats with 25, 50, or 100 third-stage larvae (L3) and ICR mice with 25 L3, one animal from each group was sacrificed daily from day 1 to day 30 post-infection. Each rat brain was cut into six sections and mouse brain into five sections. These sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Eosinophilic meningitis was found to be the most commonly pathological change and occurred on day 17 post-infection in rats with 25 L3, day 9 in the 50- or 100-L3 groups, and day 12 in infected mice. Thickness of the meninges increased 9-24 folds in infected rats and 89 folds in an infected mouse on day 28. Encephalitis, congestion, perivascular cuffing, and haemorrhage were revealed in infected mice and rats with 100 L3. Fifth-stage larvae were frequently observed in the meninges but occasionally in the parenchyma. Significant correlations between meningitis and presence of larvae in the meninges were found in the three infected rat groups but not in the infected mice. The results indicate that the clinical course of A. cantonensis infection is not self-limited but becomes more severe with the intensity of infection. PMID:26299243

  5. An 8-week brain MRI follow-up analysis of rat eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Shyu, L Y; Tsai, H H; Lin, D P; Chang, H H; Tyan, Y S; Weng, J C

    2014-09-01

    Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection.

  6. A checklist of nematode parasites from Indonesian murids.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Purwaningsih, Endang

    2013-01-24

    A checklist of nematode parasites from Indonesian murids with their geographic distribution is presented. This checklist is compiled from three sources: the catalogue of nematode parasites of Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (unpublished specimens in the collection), data from our previous research and articles on nematodes of Indonesian murids. This checklist is presented as a list of nematode parasites with host information, and a host list with information on their nematodes. This paper reports 38 nominal species of nematodes and 13 species identified to the generic level only. The nematodes reported comprise 32 genera and 17 families parasitizing 32 species of Indonesian murids.

  7. An eye on RNAi in nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Maule, Aaron G; McVeigh, Paul; Dalzell, Johnathan J; Atkinson, Louise; Mousley, Angela; Marks, Nikki J

    2011-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionised approaches to gene function determination. From a parasitology perspective, gene function studies have the added dimension of providing validation data, increasingly deemed essential to the initial phases of drug target selection, pre-screen development. Notionally advantageous to those working on nematode parasites is the fact that Caenorhabditis elegans research spawned RNAi discovery and continues to seed our understanding of its fundamentals. Unfortunately, RNAi data for nematode parasites illustrate variable and inconsistent susceptibilities which undermine confidence and exploitation. Now well-ensconced in an era of nematode parasite genomics, we can begin to unscramble this variation.

  8. Visualizing bacteria in nematodes using fluorescent microscopy.

    PubMed

    Murfin, Kristen E; Chaston, John; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2012-10-19

    Symbioses, the living together of two or more organisms, are widespread throughout all kingdoms of life. As two of the most ubiquitous organisms on earth, nematodes and bacteria form a wide array of symbiotic associations that range from beneficial to pathogenic (1-3). One such association is the mutually beneficial relationship between Xenorhabdus bacteria and Steinernema nematodes, which has emerged as a model system of symbiosis (4). Steinernema nematodes are entomopathogenic, using their bacterial symbiont to kill insects (5). For transmission between insect hosts, the bacteria colonize the intestine of the nematode's infective juvenile stage (6-8). Recently, several other nematode species have been shown to utilize bacteria to kill insects (9-13), and investigations have begun examining the interactions between the nematodes and bacteria in these systems (9). We describe a method for visualization of a bacterial symbiont within or on a nematode host, taking advantage of the optical transparency of nematodes when viewed by microscopy. The bacteria are engineered to express a fluorescent protein, allowing their visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Many plasmids are available that carry genes encoding proteins that fluoresce at different wavelengths (i.e. green or red), and conjugation of plasmids from a donor Escherichia coli strain into a recipient bacterial symbiont is successful for a broad range of bacteria. The methods described were developed to investigate the association between Steinernema carpocapsae and Xenorhabdus nematophila (14). Similar methods have been used to investigate other nematode-bacterium associations (9) (,) (15-18)and the approach therefore is generally applicable. The method allows characterization of bacterial presence and localization within nematodes at different stages of development, providing insights into the nature of the association and the process of colonization (14) (,) (16) (,) (19). Microscopic analysis reveals both

  9. How cellular slime molds evade nematodes.

    PubMed Central

    Kessin, R H; Gundersen, G G; Zaydfudim, V; Grimson, M

    1996-01-01

    We have found a predator-prey association between the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and the free soil living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans feeds on the amoebae and multiplies indefinitely when amoebae are the sole food source. In an environment created from soil, D. discoideum grows and develops, but not in the presence of C. elegans. During development, C. elegans feeds on amoebae until they aggregate and synthesize an extracellular matrix called the slime sheath. After the sheath forms, the aggregate and slug are protected. Adult nematodes ingest Dictyostelium spores, which pass through the gut of the worm without loss of structure and remain viable. Nematodes kill the amoebae but disperse the spores. The sheath that is constructed when the social amoebae aggregate and the spore coats of the individual cells may protect against this predator. Individual amoebae may also protect themselves by secreting compounds that repel nematodes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8643493

  10. Radiographic analysis of vocal tract length and its relation to overall body size in two canid species

    PubMed Central

    Plotsky, K.; Rendall, D.; Riede, T.; Chase, K.

    2013-01-01

    Body size is an important determinant of resource and mate competition in many species. Competition is often mediated by conspicuous vocal displays, which may help to intimidate rivals and attract mates by providing honest cues to signaler size. Fitch proposed that vocal tract resonances (or formants) should provide particularly good, or honest, acoustic cues to signaler size because they are determined by the length of the vocal tract, which in turn, is hypothesized to scale reliably with overall body size. There is some empirical support for this hypothesis, but to date, many of the effects have been either mixed for males compared with females, weaker than expected in one or the other sex, or complicated by sampling issues. In this paper, we undertake a direct test of Fitch’s hypothesis in two canid species using large samples that control for age- and sex-related variation. The samples involved radiographic images of 120 Portuguese water dogs Canis lupus familiaris and 121 Russian silver foxes Vulpes vulpes. Direct measurements were made of vocal tract length from X-ray images and compared against independent measures of body size. In adults of both species, and within both sexes, overall vocal tract length was strongly and significantly correlated with body size. Effects were strongest for the oral component of the vocal tract. By contrast, the length of the pharyngeal component was not as consistently related to body size. These outcomes are some of the clearest evidence to date in support of Fitch’s hypothesis. At the same time, they highlight the potential for elements of both honest and deceptive body signaling to occur simultaneously via differential acoustic cues provided by the oral versus pharyngeal components of the vocal tract. PMID:24363497

  11. Conserving and Enhancing Biological Control of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  12. Tropical nematode diversity: vertical stratification of nematode communities in a Costa Rican humid lowland rainforest.

    PubMed

    Powers, T O; Neher, D A; Mullin, P; Esquivel, A; Giblin-Davis, R M; Kanzaki, N; Stock, S P; Mora, M M; Uribe-Lorio, L

    2009-03-01

    Comparisons of nematode communities among ecosystems have indicated that, unlike many organisms, nematode communities have less diversity in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. There are, however, few studies of tropical nematode diversity on which to base conclusions of global patterns of diversity. This study reports an attempt to estimate nematode diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica. We suggest one reason that previous estimates of tropical nematode diversity were low is because habitats above the mineral soil are seldom sampled. As much as 62% of the overall genetic diversity, measured by an 18S ribosomal barcode, existed in litter and understorey habitats and not in soil. A maximum-likelihood tree of barcodes from 360 individual nematodes indicated most major terrestrial nematode lineages were represented in the samples. Estimated 'species' richness ranged from 464 to 502 within the four 40 x 40 m plots. Directed sampling of insects and their associated nematodes produced a second set of barcodes that were not recovered by habitat sampling, yet may constitute a major class of tropical nematode diversity. While the generation of novel nematode barcodes proved relatively easy, their identity remains obscure due to deficiencies in existing taxonomic databases. Specimens of Criconematina, a monophyletic group of soil-dwelling plant-parasitic nematodes were examined in detail to assess the steps necessary for associating barcodes with nominal species. Our results highlight the difficulties associated with studying poorly understood organisms in an understudied ecosystem using a destructive (i.e. barcode) sampling method. PMID:19207247

  13. Molecular assessment of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north Africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Maia, João P; Alvares, Francisco; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Brito, José C; Leite, João V; Harris, D James

    2014-10-01

    Parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. Hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. However, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as trophic transmission. Using the 18S rRNA gene as a marker, we provide an assessment of Hepatozoon prevalence in six wild canid and two rodent species collected between 2003 and 2012 from remote areas in North Africa. By combining this with other predator-prey systems in a phylogenetic framework, we investigate Hepatozoon transmission dynamics in distinct host taxa. Prevalence was high overall among host species (African jerboa Jaculus jaculus [17/47, 36%], greater Egyptian jerboa Jaculus orientalis [5/7, 71%], side-striped jackal Canis adustus [1/2, 50%], golden jackal Canis aureus [6/32, 18%], pale fox Vulpes pallida [14/28, 50%], Rüppell's fox Vulpes rueppellii [6/11, 55%], red fox Vulpes vulpes [8/16, 50%], and fennec fox Vulpes zerda [7/11, 42%]). Phylogenetic analysis showed further evidence of occasional transmission of Hepatozoon lineages from prey to canid predators, which seems to occur less frequently than in other predator-prey systems such as between snakes and lizards. Due to the complex nature of the Hepatozoon lifecycle (heteroxenous and vector-borne), future studies on these wild host species need to clarify the dynamics of alternative modes of Hepatozoon transmission and identify reservoir and definitive hosts in natural populations. We also detected putative Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) infections in two canid species from this region, V. pallida (1/28) and V. zerda (1/11). PMID:25050803

  14. Biocontrol: Fungi as Nematode Control Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mankau, R.

    1980-01-01

    The fungal antagonists of nematodes consist of a great variety of organisms belonging to widely divergent orders and families of fungi. They include the nematode-trapping fungi, endoparasitic fungi, parasites of nematode eggs and cysts, and fungi which produce metabolites toxic to nematodes. The diversity, adaptations, and distribution of nematode-destroying fungi and taxonomic problems encountered in their study are reviewed. The importance of nemato-phagous fungi in soil biology, with special emphasis on their relationship to populations of plant-parasitic nematodes, is considered. While predacious fungi have long been investigated as possible biocontrol agents and have often exhibited spectacular results in vitro, their performance in field studies has generated little enthusiasm among nematologists. To date no species has demonstrated control of any plant pest to a degree achieved with nematicides, but recent studies have provided a much clearer concept of possibilities and problems in the applied use of fungal antagonists. The discovery of new species, which appear to control certain pests effectively under specific conditions, holds out some promise that fungi may be utilized as alternatives to chemical control after a more thorough and expanded study of their biology and ecology. PMID:19300699

  15. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test.

  16. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test. PMID:26450840

  17. Ym1, an eosinophilic chemotactic factor, participates in the brain inflammation induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Lv, Zhiyue; Wang, Fuzhen; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Qixian; Li, Shuting; Yang, Fan; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Xiaoying; Wu, Zhongdao

    2013-07-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has caused hundreds of cases of human angiostrongyliasis worldwide. The larva in nonpermissive hosts cannot develop into an adult worm and can cause eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis. The mechanism of brain inflammation caused by the worm remains poorly defined. According to previous data of GeneChip, Ym1 in the brain of mice 21 days after infection with A. cantonensis was highly upregulated to over 7,300 times than the untreated mice. Ym1 is an eosinophilic chemotactic factor with the alternative names of chitinase-3-like protein 3, eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, and ECF-L. Ym1 displays chemotactic activity for T lymphocytes, bone marrow cells, and eosinophils and may favor inflammatory responses induced by parasitic infections and allergy. It has been reported that Ym1 is synthesized and secreted by activated macrophages during parasitic infection (Chang et al., J Biol Chem 276(20):17497-17506, 2001). In the brain, microglia are alternatively activated macrophage-derived cells which are the key immune cells in central nervous system inflammation. To explore the role of Ym1 in inflammation caused by A. cantonensis-infected mice, we examined the levels of Ym1 in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the infected animals, followed by detection of the mRNA expression level of Ym1 in various organs including the brain, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney and of the cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in the brain of the infected mice with or without intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation) by real-time reserve transcription PCR. Furthermore, immunolocalization of Ym1 in the brains of the infected mice was observed by using a fluorescence microscope. Our results showed that Ym1 was most highly expressed in the brains and CSF of the infected mice along with the process of inflammation. The antibody localized Ym1 to the microglia in the brain of the mice

  18. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies. PMID:25938277

  20. The Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata, a Novel Vector of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its Introduction, Spread, and Control in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail. PMID:23901377

  1. Evaluation of dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) for rapid serodiagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angio-strongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea).

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, P; Prasartvit, A; Gan, X X; Yong, H S

    2015-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most frequent cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans in Thailand and worldwide. Because of difficulty of recovering the Angiostrongylus larvae from infected patients, detection of parasite-specific antibodies is used to support clinical diagnosis. This study tested serum samples from eosinophilic meningitis patients and individuals at risk of infection with A. cantonensis to evaluate a recently developed simple and rapid dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) for detection of specific antibodies against A. cantonensis. Purified 31-kDa glycoprotein of A. cantonensis and protein A colloidal gold conjugate were employed to detect the 31-kDa anti-A. cantonensis antibody in patients sera from the parasite endemic areas of northeast Thailand. The results were compared with those obtained by dot-blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with 31-kDa A. cantonensis antigen. The overall positivity rate of DIGFA and dot-blot ELISA for A. cantonensis infection in 98 clinically diagnosed cases from three highly endemic districts in Khon Kaen province were 39.79% and 37.75%, respectively. Among 86 sera of subjects at risk of infection with A. cantonensis, 24.41% were positive by DIGFA and 23.25% by dot-blot ELISA. There were good correlation between the visual grading of DIGFA and dot-blot ELISA in both groups of defined sera. DIGFA is as sensitive and specific as dot-blot ELISA for confirming eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis infection, with advantages of simplicity, rapidity and without the use of specific and expensive equipment, and can be used in field settings.

  2. Effect of Thai 'koi-hoi' food flavoring on the viability and infectivity of the third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2010-03-01

    The effect of the food flavoring of 'koi-hoi', a popular Thai snail dish, on the viability and infectivity of Angiostrongylus (=Parastrongylus) cantonensis third-stage larvae was assessed in a mouse model. Groups of 50 each of actively moving, non-motile coiled, and extended larvae were obtained from experimentally infected snail meat, after one-hour exposure to standard 'koi-hoi' flavoring. These larvae and groups of 50 unexposed moving larvae (control) were individually fed to each group of three experimental BALB/c mice. The effect on Angiostrongylus worm burden was measured after 3 weeks of infection. Infectivity of the motile larvae after exposure to 'koi-hoi' food flavoring was 38 + or - 5.29%. This was highly significantly lower than the infectivity (62 + or - 7.21%) of the control (unexposed) third-stage larvae (chi(2) = 17.28, P < 0.001). In the non-motile larvae resulting from exposure to the food flavoring, no adult worm was recovered from the extended larvae, indicating that they were no longer alive and unable to cause infection. A small proportion (3.33 + or - 2.31%) of the coiled larvae developed into young adult worms, indicating that mobility alone is not a definitive indicator of viability. The present study confirms that the food flavoring components of 'koi-hoi' dish adversely affect the viability and infectivity of A. cantonensis larvae. Exposure of the third-stage larvae to 'koi-hoi' food flavoring resulted in decreased viability and eventually death. Prolonged treatment with food flavoring to inactivate/immobilize and then kill the infective, third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in snail meat prior to consumption may be one of the possible economical means of reducing human infection. PMID:19931504

  3. Durotaxis in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Parida, Lipika; Padmanabhan, Venkat

    2016-08-01

    Durotaxis is a process where cells are able to sense the stiffness of substrates and preferentially migrate toward stiffer regions. Here, we show that the 1-mm-long nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans are also able to detect the rigidity of underlying substrates and always migrate to regions of higher stiffness. Our results indicate that C. elegans are able to judiciously make a decision to stay on stiffer regions. We found that the, undulation frequency, and wavelength of worms, crawling on surfaces show nonmonotonic behavior with increasing stiffness. A number of control experiments were also conducted to verify whether C. elegans are really able to detect the rigidity of substrates or whether the migration to stiffer regions is due to other factors already reported in the literature. As it is known that bacteria and other single-celled organisms exhibit durotaxis toward stiffer surfaces, we conjecture that durotaxis in C. elegans may be one of the strategies developed to improve their chances of locating food.

  4. Durotaxis in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Parida, Lipika; Padmanabhan, Venkat

    2016-08-01

    Durotaxis is a process where cells are able to sense the stiffness of substrates and preferentially migrate toward stiffer regions. Here, we show that the 1-mm-long nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans are also able to detect the rigidity of underlying substrates and always migrate to regions of higher stiffness. Our results indicate that C. elegans are able to judiciously make a decision to stay on stiffer regions. We found that the, undulation frequency, and wavelength of worms, crawling on surfaces show nonmonotonic behavior with increasing stiffness. A number of control experiments were also conducted to verify whether C. elegans are really able to detect the rigidity of substrates or whether the migration to stiffer regions is due to other factors already reported in the literature. As it is known that bacteria and other single-celled organisms exhibit durotaxis toward stiffer surfaces, we conjecture that durotaxis in C. elegans may be one of the strategies developed to improve their chances of locating food. PMID:27508449

  5. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part I: Protozoa and tick-borne agents.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Pfeffer, Martin; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Deplazes, Peter; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed radical changes in climate, landscape, and ecosystems. These events, together with other factors such as increasing illegal wildlife trade and changing human behaviour towards wildlife, are resulting into thinning boundaries between wild canids and felids and their domestic counterparts. As a consequence, the epidemiology of diseases caused by a number of infectious agents is undergoing profound readjustements, as pathogens adapt to new hosts and environments. Therefore, there is a risk for diseases of wildlife to spread to domestic carnivores and vice versa, and for zoonotic agents to emerge or re-emerge in human populations. Hence, the identification of the hazards arising from the co-habitation of these species is critical in order to plan and develop adequate control strategies against these pathogens. In the first of this two-part article, we review the role that wild canids and felids may play in the transmission of protozoa and arthropod-borne agents to dogs and cats in Europe, and provide an account of how current and future progress in our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of parasites, as well as of host-parasite interactions, can assist efforts aimed at controlling parasite transmission.

  6. Nematode model systems in evolution and development.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ralf J; Bumbarger, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in all areas of modern biology. Using the knowledge about C. elegans as a baseline, nematodes are now intensively studied in evolution and development. Evolutionary developmental biology or for short, 'evo-devo' has been developed as a new research discipline during the last two decades to investigate how changes in developmental processes and mechanisms result in the modification of morphological structures and phenotypic novelty. In this article, we review the concepts that make nematode evo-devo a successful approach to evolutionary biology. We introduce selected model systems for nematode evo-devo and provide a detailed discussion of four selected case studies. The most striking finding of nematode evo-devo is the magnitude of developmental variation in the context of a conserved body plan. Detailed investigation of early embryogenesis, gonad formation, vulva development, and sex determination revealed that molecular mechanisms evolve rapidly, often in the context of a conserved body plan. These studies highlight the importance of developmental systems drift and neutrality in evolution. PMID:23801489

  7. Biocontrol: The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management

    PubMed Central

    Webster, John M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management. PMID:19300702

  8. [Research Progress on Genetic Diversity in Animal Parasitic Nematodes].

    PubMed

    YIN, Fang-yuan; LI, Fa-cai; ZHAO, Jun-long; HU, Min

    2015-10-01

    The development of molecular genetic markers for parasitic nematodes has significant implications in fundamental and applied research in Veterinary Parasitology. Knowledge on genetic diversity of nematodes would not only provide a theoretical basis for understanding the spread of drug-resistance alleles, but also have implications in the development of nematode control strategies. This review discusses the applications of molecular genetic markers (RFLP, RAPD, PCR-SSCP, AFLP, SSR and mitochondrial DNA) in research on the genetic diversity of parasitic nematodes.

  9. Nematode feeding sites: unique organs in plant roots.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Vieira, Paulo; Gheysen, Godelieve; de Almeida-Engler, Janice

    2013-11-01

    Although generally unnoticed, nearly all crop plants have one or more species of nematodes that feed on their roots, frequently causing tremendous yield losses. The group of sedentary nematodes, which are among the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes, cause the formation of special organs called nematode feeding sites (NFS) in the root tissue. In this review we discuss key metabolic and cellular changes correlated with NFS development, and similarities and discrepancies between different types of NFS are highlighted.

  10. [Research Progress on Genetic Diversity in Animal Parasitic Nematodes].

    PubMed

    YIN, Fang-yuan; LI, Fa-cai; ZHAO, Jun-long; HU, Min

    2015-10-01

    The development of molecular genetic markers for parasitic nematodes has significant implications in fundamental and applied research in Veterinary Parasitology. Knowledge on genetic diversity of nematodes would not only provide a theoretical basis for understanding the spread of drug-resistance alleles, but also have implications in the development of nematode control strategies. This review discusses the applications of molecular genetic markers (RFLP, RAPD, PCR-SSCP, AFLP, SSR and mitochondrial DNA) in research on the genetic diversity of parasitic nematodes. PMID:26931047

  11. Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR(CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins have been shown to act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection; however, the receptors for nematode CLE-like peptides have not been identified. Her...

  12. Site-Specific Detection and Management of Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematode distribution varies significantly throughout a field and is highly correlated to soil texture and other edaphic factors. Field-wide application results in nematicides being applied to areas without nematodes and the application of sub-effective levels in areas with high nematode densities. ...

  13. A novel flavivirus in the soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a subterranean root pathogen that causes the most damaging disease of soybean in the United States. A novel nematode virus genome, soybean cyst nematode virus 5 (SbCNV5), was identified in RNASeq data from SCN eggs and second-stage juveniles. T...

  14. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  15. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  16. Nematode Community Structure of Forest Woodlots. I. Relationships Based on Similarity Coefficients of Nematode Species

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. R.; Ferris, V. R.; Ferris, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Associations among nematode communities were studied in 18 Indiana mixed-hardwood stands of varying composition, soils, physiography, and past management practices. All sites were sampled in April, July, and October of 1968 and 1969. A total of 175 species representing eight orders were found, with 18 species occurring in all 18 sites, and approximately half the total species occurring in more than 50% of the sites. Taxonomic similarity, based on nematode species composition, was determined for the woodlots by means of a resemblance equation. Woodlots containing similar nematode species also showed similarities in dominant tree species and in soil types. Sites that had undergone major disturbances were the most dissimilar. PMID:19319263

  17. Hsp-90 and the biology of nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Him, Nik AIIN; Gillan, Victoria; Emes, Richard D; Maitland, Kirsty; Devaney, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Background Hsp-90 from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique in that it fails to bind to the specific Hsp-90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA). Here we surveyed 24 different free-living or parasitic nematodes with the aim of determining whether C. elegans Hsp-90 was the exception or the norm amongst the nematodes. We combined these data with codon evolution models in an attempt to identify whether hsp-90 from GA-binding and non-binding species has evolved under different evolutionary constraints. Results We show that GA-binding is associated with life history: free-living nematodes and those parasitic species with free-living larval stages failed to bind GA. In contrast, obligate parasites and those worms in which the free-living stage in the environment is enclosed within a resistant egg, possess a GA-binding Hsp-90. We analysed Hsp-90 sequences from fifteen nematode species to determine whether nematode hsp-90s have undergone adaptive evolution that influences GA-binding. Our data provide evidence of rapid diversifying selection in the evolution of the hsp-90 gene along three separate lineages, and identified a number of residues showing significant evidence of adaptive evolution. However, we were unable to prove that the selection observed is correlated with the ability to bind geldanamycin or not. Conclusion Hsp-90 is a multi-functional protein and the rapid evolution of the hsp-90 gene presumably correlates with other key cellular functions. Factors other than primary amino acid sequence may influence the ability of Hsp-90 to bind to geldanamycin. PMID:19849843

  18. UDP-galactopyranose mutase in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wesener, Darryl A; May, John F; Huffman, Elizabeth M; Kiessling, Laura L

    2013-06-25

    Nematodes represent a diverse phylum of both free living and parasitic species. While the species Caenorhabditis elegans is a valuable model organism, parasitic nematodes or helminths pose a serious threat to human health. Indeed, helminths cause many neglected tropical diseases that afflict humans. Nematode glycoconjugates have been implicated in evasive immunomodulation, a hallmark of nematode infections. One monosaccharide residue present in the glycoconjugates of several human pathogens is galactofuranose (Galf). This five-membered ring isomer of galactose has not been detected in mammals, making Galf metabolic enzymes attractive therapeutic targets. The only known pathway for biosynthetic incorporation of Galf into glycoconjugates depends upon generation of the glycosyl donor UDP-Galf by the flavoenzyme uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) galactopyranose mutase (UGM or Glf). A putative UGM encoding gene (glf-1) was recently identified in C. elegans. We sought to assess the catalytic activity of the corresponding gene product (CeUGM). CeUGM catalyzes the isomerization of UDP-Galf and UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp). In the presence of enzyme, substrate, and a hydride source, a galactose-N5-FAD adduct was isolated, suggesting the CeUGM flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor serves as a nucleophile in covalent catalysis. Homology modeling and protein variants indicate that CeUGM possesses an active site similar to that of prokaryotic enzymes, despite the low sequence identity (∼15%) between eukaryotic and prokaryotic UGM proteins. Even with the primary sequence differences, heterocyclic UGM inhibitors developed against prokaryotic proteins also inhibit CeUGM activity. We postulate that inhibitors of CeUGM can serve as chemical probes of Galf in nematodes and as anthelmintic leads. The available data suggest that CeUGM facilitates the biosynthetic incorporation of Galf into nematode glycoconjugates through generation of the glycosyl donor UDP-Galf.

  19. Patterns of MHC-DRB1 polymorphism in a post-glacial island canid, the Newfoundland red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix), suggest balancing selection at species and population timescales.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H Dawn; Langille, Barbara L; Hann, Crystal A; Whitney, Hugh G

    2016-05-01

    As the only native insular Newfoundland canid between the extinction of the wolf in the 1930s and the recent arrival of coyotes, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix Bangs 1898) poses interesting questions about genetic distinctiveness and the post-glacial colonization history of the island's depauperate mammalian fauna. Here, we characterized genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR β1 domain (DRB1) locus in 28 red foxes from six sampling localities island-wide and compared it with mitochondrial control region (CR) diversity and DRB1 diversity in other canids. Our goals were to describe novel DRB1 alleles in a new canid population and to make inferences about the role of selection in maintaining their diversity. As in numerous studies of vertebrates, we found an order-of-magnitude higher nucleotide diversity at the DRB1 locus compared with the CR and significantly positive nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios, indicative of selection in the distant past. Although the evidence is weaker, the Ewens-Watterson test of neutrality and the geographical distribution of variation compared with the CR suggest a role for selection over the evolutionary timescale of populations. We report the first genetic data from the DRB1 locus in the red fox and establish baseline information regarding immunogenetic variation in this island canid population which should inform continued investigations of population demography, adaptive genetic diversity, and wildlife disease in red foxes and related species.

  20. Patterns of MHC-DRB1 polymorphism in a post-glacial island canid, the Newfoundland red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix), suggest balancing selection at species and population timescales.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H Dawn; Langille, Barbara L; Hann, Crystal A; Whitney, Hugh G

    2016-05-01

    As the only native insular Newfoundland canid between the extinction of the wolf in the 1930s and the recent arrival of coyotes, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix Bangs 1898) poses interesting questions about genetic distinctiveness and the post-glacial colonization history of the island's depauperate mammalian fauna. Here, we characterized genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR β1 domain (DRB1) locus in 28 red foxes from six sampling localities island-wide and compared it with mitochondrial control region (CR) diversity and DRB1 diversity in other canids. Our goals were to describe novel DRB1 alleles in a new canid population and to make inferences about the role of selection in maintaining their diversity. As in numerous studies of vertebrates, we found an order-of-magnitude higher nucleotide diversity at the DRB1 locus compared with the CR and significantly positive nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios, indicative of selection in the distant past. Although the evidence is weaker, the Ewens-Watterson test of neutrality and the geographical distribution of variation compared with the CR suggest a role for selection over the evolutionary timescale of populations. We report the first genetic data from the DRB1 locus in the red fox and establish baseline information regarding immunogenetic variation in this island canid population which should inform continued investigations of population demography, adaptive genetic diversity, and wildlife disease in red foxes and related species. PMID:26894280

  1. Detecting Nematode Features from Digital Images

    PubMed Central

    de la Blanca, N. Pérez; Fdez-Valdivia, J.; Castillo, P.; Gómez-Barcina, A.

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for estimating and calibrating nematode features from digitial images are described and evaluated by illustration and mathematical formulae. Technical problems, such as capturing and cleaning raw images, standardizing the grey level range of images, and the detection of characteristics of the body habitus, presence or absence of stylet knobs, and tail and lip region shape are discussed. This study is the first of a series aimed at developing a set of automated methods to permit more rapid, objective characterizations of nematode features than is achievable by cumbersome conventional methods. PMID:19282998

  2. Genomics of reproduction in nematodes: prospects for parasite intervention?

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; Cottee, Pauline A; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-02-01

    Understanding reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes has the potential to lead to the informed design of new anthelmintics and control strategies. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination, gametogenesis and reproductive physiology for most parasitic nematodes. Together with comparative analyses of data for the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, molecular investigations are beginning to provide insights into the processes involved in reproduction and development in parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent developments, focusing on technological aspects and on molecules associated with sex-specific differences in adult nematodes. PMID:18182326

  3. Mining nematode genome data for novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeremy M; Zhang, Yinhua; Kumar, Sanjay; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2005-03-01

    Expressed sequence tag projects have currently produced over 400 000 partial gene sequences from more than 30 nematode species and the full genomic sequences of selected nematodes are being determined. In addition, functional analyses in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have addressed the role of almost all genes predicted by the genome sequence. This recent explosion in the amount of available nematode DNA sequences, coupled with new gene function data, provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify pre-validated drug targets through efficient mining of nematode genomic databases. This article describes the various information sources available and strategies that can expedite this process.

  4. The evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Jonathan; Harrison, Neale; Stansfield, Ian; Connolly, Bernadette; Müller, Berndt

    2010-08-01

    Spliced leader trans-splicing occurs in many primitive eukaryotes including nematodes. Most of our knowledge of trans-splicing in nematodes stems from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and relatives, and from work with Ascaris. Our investigation of spliced leader trans-splicing in distantly related Dorylaimia nematodes indicates that spliced-leader trans-splicing arose before the nematode phylum and suggests that the spliced leader RNA gene complements in extant nematodes have evolved from a common ancestor with a diverse set of spliced leader RNA genes.

  5. Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

    2014-02-01

    Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations.

  6. Breeding Plants for Resistance to Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, H. Roger; Hussey, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    Plant breeders and nematologists have developed improved cultivars of important crop species with resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes. The effectiveness of these breeding efforts has depended on the availability of efficient screening procedures, identification of adequate sources of durable resistance, nature of the nematode feeding habit, and knowledge of the inheritance of resistance. These factors determine to a large degree the breeding method and potential success of the research. Systematic searches for nematode resistance have identified resistant germplasm lines within crop species or from related species. When the resistance gene(s) is from related species, incongruity barriers or sterility of the resulting hybrids often must be overcome. In these situations, backcrossing is usually necessary to incorporate the resistance gene(s) and recover the desirable commercial traits of the crop species. If the resistance gene(s) is present within the crop species, the choice of breeding method depends on the inheritance of the resistance, type of screening procedure, and other important breeding objectives for the species. In the future, plant molecular biologists and geneticists will make available novel sources of nematode resistance through incorporation of transgenes from other genera. These efforts will likely require conventional breeding strategies before commercial utilization of an improved resistant cultivar. PMID:19282990

  7. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  8. Key to nematodes reported in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Malcolm E.

    1974-01-01

    This key, covering 171 species and subspecies of nematodes in 49 genera, is based on the the listings in the author's "Catalogue of Helminths of Waterfowl" (McDonald, 1969b), but includes 19 additional forms from his continuing survey of new literature.

  9. The genomes of root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Bird, David McK; Williamson, Valerie M; Abad, Pierre; McCarter, James; Danchin, Etienne G J; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Opperman, Charles H

    2009-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and are extremely challenging to control. The recent completion of two root-knot nematode genomes opens the way for a comparative genomics approach to elucidate the success of these parasites. Sequencing revealed that Meloidogyne hapla, a diploid that reproduces by facultative, meiotic parthenogenesis, encodes approximately 14,200 genes in a compact, 54 Mpb genome. Indeed, this is the smallest metazoan genome completed to date. By contrast, the 86 Mbp Meloidogyne incognita genome encodes approximately 19,200 genes. This species reproduces by obligate mitotic parthenogenesis and exhibits a complex pattern of aneuploidy. The genome includes triplicated regions and contains allelic pairs with exceptionally high degrees of sequence divergence, presumably reflecting adaptations to the strictly asexual reproductive mode. Both root-knot nematode genomes have compacted gene families compared with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and both encode large suites of enzymes that uniquely target the host plant. Acquisition of these genes, apparently via horizontal gene transfer, and their subsequent expansion and diversification point to the evolutionary history of these parasites. It also suggests new routes to their control. PMID:19400640

  10. Thermoregulation in the life cycle of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Eileen

    2006-05-31

    An unanswered question in the biology of many parasites is the mechanism by which environmental (or external) and intrinsic signals are integrated to determine the switch from one developmental stage to the next. This is particularly pertinent for nematode parasites, many of which have a free-living stage in the environment prior to infection of the mammalian host, or for parasites such as filarial nematodes, which utilise an insect vector for transmission. The environmental changes experienced by a parasite upon infection of a mammalian host are extremely complex and poorly understood. However, the ability of a parasite to sense its new environment must be intrinsically linked to its developmental programme, as progression of the life cycle is dependent upon the infection event. In this review, the relationship between temperature and development in filarial nematodes and in the free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans is summarised, with a focus on the role of heat shock factor and heat shock protein 90 in the nematode life cycle. PMID:16620827

  11. Meloidogyne incognita nematode resistance QTL in carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests attacking carrots (Daucus carota) worldwide, causing galling and forking of the storage roots, rendering them unacceptable for market. Genetic resistance could significantly reduce the need for broad-spectrum soil fumigants in carrot production....

  12. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  13. The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Starr, J. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Robinson, A. F.; Roberts, P. A.; Nichols, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality. PMID:19259500

  14. Xenobiotic detoxification in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Tim H; Dodd, Allyn K

    2006-09-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism for the study of such diverse aspects of animal physiology and behavior as embryonic development, chemoreception, and the genetic control of lifespan. Yet, even though the entire genome sequence of this organism was deposited into public databases several years ago, little is known about xenobiotic metabolism in C. elegans. In part, the paucity of detoxification information may be due to the plush life enjoyed by nematodes raised in the laboratory. In the wild, however, these animals experience a much greater array of chemical assaults. Living in the interstitial water of the soil, populations of C. elegans exhibit a boom and bust lifestyle characterized by prodigious predation of soil microbes punctuated by periods of dispersal as a non-developing alternative larval stage. During the booming periods of population expansion, these animals almost indiscriminately consume everything in their environment including any number of compounds from other animals, microorganisms, plants, and xenobiotics. Several recent studies have identified many genes encoding sensors and enzymes these nematodes may use in their xeno-coping strategies. Here, we will discuss these recent advances, as well as the efforts by our lab and others to utilize the genomic resources of the C. elegans system to elucidate this nematode's molecular defenses against toxins.

  15. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of diseases caused by protozoan parasites characterised by a two-way transmission route between domestic and wild carnivore species. In this second and final part, we focus our attention on parasitic diseases caused by helminth and arthropod parasites shared between domestic and wild canids and felids in Europe. While a complete understanding of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of these parasites is particularly challenging to achieve, especially given the complexity of the environments in which these diseases perpetuate, advancements in current knowledge of transmission routes is crucial to provide policy-makers with clear indications on strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases on changing ecosystems.

  16. Tracking the origins and diet of an endemic island canid (Urocyon littoralis) across 7300 years of human cultural and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Smith, Chelsea; Sillett, T. Scott; Ralls, Katherine; Teeter, Wendy; Vellanoweth, René L.; Newsome, Seth D.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how human activities have influenced the foraging ecology of wildlife is important as our planet faces ongoing and impending habitat and climatic change. We review the canine surrogacy approach (CSA)-a tool for comparing human, dog, and other canid diets in the past-and apply CSA to investigate possible ancient human resource provisioning in an endangered canid, the California Channel Islands fox (Urocyon littoralis). We conducted stable isotope analysis of bone collagen samples from ancient and modern island foxes (n = 214) and mainland gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n = 24). We compare these data to isotope values of ancient humans and dogs, and synthesize 29 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates that fine-tune the chronology of island foxes. AMS dates confirm that island foxes likely arrived during the early Holocene (>7300 cal BP) on the northern islands in the archipelago and during the middle Holocene (>5500 cal BP) on the southern islands. We found no evidence that island foxes were consistently using anthropogenic resources (e.g., food obtained by scavenging around human habitation sites or direct provisioning by Native Americans), except for a few individuals on San Nicolas Island and possibly on San Clemente and Santa Rosa islands. Decreases in U. littoralis carbon and nitrogen isotope values between prehistoric times and the 19th century on San Nicolas Island suggest that changes in human land use from Native American hunter-gatherer occupations to historical ranching had a strong influence on fox diet. Island foxes exhibit considerable dietary variation through time and between islands and have adapted to a wide variety of climatic and cultural changes over the last 7300 years. This generalist foraging strategy suggests that endemic island foxes may be resilient to future changes in resource availability.

  17. Overview of nematodes infesting cotton in the U.S., life beyond Temik.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three primary nematode pathogens of cotton are the cotton root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis), and the Columbia lance nematode (Hoplolaimus columbus). Those three nematodes are estimated to reduce US cotton production by 4.2%, with the co...

  18. Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Dustin; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Nematodes have evolved elegant strategies that allow them to evade, suppress, or modulate host immune responses in order to persist and spread in the host. Nematode immunomodulation involves the secretion of molecules that are capable of suppressing various aspects of the host immune response in order to promote nematode invasion. Immunomodulatory mechanisms can be identified in parasitic nematodes infecting insects, plants, and mammals and vary greatly in the specific tactics by which the parasites modify the host immune response. Nematode-derived immunomodulatory effects have also been shown to affect, negatively or positively, the outcome of some concurrent diseases suffered by the host. Understanding nematode immunomodulatory actions will potentially reveal novel targets that will in turn lead to the development of effective means for the control of destructive nematode parasites. PMID:27649248

  19. Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dustin; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Nematodes have evolved elegant strategies that allow them to evade, suppress, or modulate host immune responses in order to persist and spread in the host. Nematode immunomodulation involves the secretion of molecules that are capable of suppressing various aspects of the host immune response in order to promote nematode invasion. Immunomodulatory mechanisms can be identified in parasitic nematodes infecting insects, plants, and mammals and vary greatly in the specific tactics by which the parasites modify the host immune response. Nematode-derived immunomodulatory effects have also been shown to affect, negatively or positively, the outcome of some concurrent diseases suffered by the host. Understanding nematode immunomodulatory actions will potentially reveal novel targets that will in turn lead to the development of effective means for the control of destructive nematode parasites. PMID:27649248

  20. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment.

  1. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  2. Nitrogen addition regulates soil nematode community composition through ammonium suppression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cunzheng; Zheng, Huifen; Li, Qi; Lü, Xiaotao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Haiyang; Chen, Quansheng; He, Nianpeng; Kardol, Paul; Liang, Wenju; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has greatly changed the composition and functioning of soil communities. Nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of soil organisms, and they occupy key trophic positions in the soil detritus food web. Nematodes have therefore been proposed as useful indicators for shifts in soil ecosystem functioning under N enrichment. Here, we monitored temporal dynamics of the soil nematode community using a multi-level N addition experiment in an Inner Mongolia grassland. Measurements were made three years after the start of the experiment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the mechanisms regulating nematode responses to N enrichment. Across the N enrichment gradient, significant reductions in total nematode abundance, diversity (H' and taxonomic richness), maturity index (MI), and the abundance of root herbivores, fungivores and omnivores-predators were found in August. Root herbivores recovered in September, contributing to the temporal variation of total nematode abundance across the N gradient. Bacterivores showed a hump-shaped relationship with N addition rate, both in August and September. Ammonium concentration was negatively correlated with the abundance of total and herbivorous nematodes in August, but not in September. Ammonium suppression explained 61% of the variation in nematode richness and 43% of the variation in nematode trophic group composition. Ammonium toxicity may occur when herbivorous nematodes feed on root fluid, providing a possible explanation for the negative relationship between herbivorous nematodes and ammonium concentration in August. We found a significantly positive relationship between fungivores and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), suggesting bottom-up control of fungivores. No such relationship was found between bacterivorous nematodes and bacterial PLFA. Our findings contribute to the understanding of effects of N enrichment in

  3. Studies on Lasioseius scapulatus, a Mesostigmatid mite predaceous on nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Imbriani, I.; Mankau, R.

    1983-01-01

    The life history and feeding habits of Lasioseius scapulatus, an ascid predator and potential biocontrol agent of nematodes, was examined. Reproduction was asexual, and the life cycle was 8-10 days at room temperature. Life history consisted of the egg, protonymph, deutonymph, and adult. Both nymphal stages and the adult captured and consumed nematodes. Two fungal genera and eight genera of nematodes were suitable food sources. Second-stage root-knot nematode juveniles were eaten, but eggs and adult females were not. The mite fed voraciously on nematodes and drastically reduced Aphelenchus avenae populations in vitro. It is suggested that mites are of considerable importance in the ecology of certain nematodes. PMID:19295841

  4. Rolling Circle Amplification of Complete Nematode Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sha; Hyman, Bradley C.

    2005-01-01

    To enable investigation of nematode mitochondrial DNA evolution, methodology has been developed to amplify intact nematode mitochondrial genomes in preparative yields using a rolling circle replication strategy. Successful reactions were generated from whole cell template DNA prepared by alkaline lysis of the rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and a mermithid nematode, Thaumamermis cosgrovei. These taxa, representing the two major nematode classes Chromodorea and Enoplea, maintain mitochondrial genomes of 13.8 kb and 20.0 kb, respectively. Efficient amplifications were conducted on template DNA isolated from individual or pooled nematodes that were alive or stored at -80°C. Unexpectedly, these experiments revealed that multiple T. cosgrovei mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are maintained in our local population. Rolling circle amplification products can be used as templates for standard PCR reactions with specific primers that target mitochondrial genes or for direct DNA sequencing. PMID:19262866

  5. Activation of Sonic Hedgehog Leads to Survival Enhancement of Astrocytes via the GRP78-Dependent Pathway in Mice Infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuang-Yao; Cheng, Chien-Ju; Wang, Lian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection may cause elevation of ROS and antioxidants in the CSF of infected mice. Astrocytes may protect the surrounding neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death by secreting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) via the PI3-K/AKT/Bcl-2 pathway. This study was conducted to determine the role of the Shh signaling pathway in A. cantonensis-infected BABL/c mice by coculturing astrocytes with living fifth-stage larvae or soluble antigens. The Shh pathway was activated with corresponding increases in the level of the Shh. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Shh were increased in astrocyte cocultured with living fifth-stage larvae or soluble antigens. The survival of astrocytes pretreated with Shh was significantly elevated in cocultures with the antigens but reduced by its inhibitor cyclopamine. The expression of GRP78 and Bcl-2 was significantly higher in astrocytes pretreated with recombinant Shh. These findings suggest that the expression of Shh may inhibit cell death by activating Bcl-2 through a GRP78-dependent pathway. PMID:25961032

  6. Dexamethasone downregulated the expression of CSF 14-3-3β protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Bi-Yao; Yen, Chuan-Min; Wann, Shue-Ren; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. A previous study demonstrated that the 14-3-3β protein is a neuropathological marker in monitoring neuronal damage in meningitis. Steroids are commonly used in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. However, the mechanism by which steroids act in eosinophilic meningitis is unknown. We hypothesized that the beneficial effect of steroids on eosinophilic meningitis is partially mediated by the down-regulation of 14-3-3β protein expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal study, we determined the dynamic changes of 14-3-3β protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis. The 14-3-3β protein in serum and CSF was increased in week 2 and 3 after infections. Dexamethasone administration significantly decreased the amounts of CSF 14-3-3β protein. By developing an in-house ELISA to measure 14-3-3β protein, it was found that the amounts of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF and serum increased over a three-week period after infection. There was a remarkable reduction of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF after 2 weeks of dexamethasone treatment. In conclusion, the administration of corticosteroids in mice with eosinophilic meningitis decreased the expression of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF.

  7. Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-02-01

    The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails.

  8. Soluble antigen derived from IV larva of Angiostrongylus cantonensis promotes chitinase-like protein 3 (Chil3) expression induced by interleukin-13.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Wei, Jie; Liu, Zhen; Zeng, Xin; Yu, Zilong; Lv, Zhiyue; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-10-01

    Angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is an emerging food-borne parasitic disease, which refers basically to eosinophilic meningitis. Chitinase-like protein 3 (Chil3), a member of chitinase-like protein family which has chemotactic activity for eosinophils, is reported to be highly upregulated in brain of mouse infected with A. cantonensis. The mechanisms of high expression of Chil3 and the association between A. cantonensis and Chil3 are rarely reported. In order to understand the mechanism of high expression of Chil3 in A. cantonensis-infected mouse, we measured the level of Chil3 in RAW 264.7 and BV2 cell lines stimulated with soluble antigen of A. cantonensis by qPCR and ELISA. To explore the role of Chil3 in inflammation caused by A. cantonensis, we extracted and cultured brain mononuclear cells (BMNCs) and detected the eosinophil chemotactic activity of Chil3 using transwell assay and flow cytometer. Furthermore, we treated the infected mice by injection with rmChil3 and then counted the number of larvae in brains of infected mice and treated mice to examine the association between the worm and Chil3. Our results showed the soluble antigen from A. cantonensis could promote the Chil3 expression in macrophage and microglial cell lines induced by interleukin-13. In conclusion, we supposed that high expression of Chil3 enhanced by soluble antigens from A. cantonensis might be the reason of serious eosinophil infiltration in mouse brain after A. cantonensis infection.

  9. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  10. Ectoparasitic Acugutturid Nematodes of Adult Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, A. M.; Rogers, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    Noctuidonema guyaneme is an interesting ectoparasite of adult Lepidoptera that feeds on hosts from at least five families with its long stylet. Noctuidonema guyanense spends its entire life on the adult moth and is sustained as it is passed from moth to moth during host mating. Overlapping host generations are essential for parasite survival. This nematode occurs throughout tropical and subtropical America and is transported by at least one of its hosts, Spodoptera frugiperda, during migration to northern sites in the United States each spring. Noctuidonema guyanense debilitates its hosts. Research conducted to help determine the biological control importance of this nematode is reviewed. Two additional species, N. daptria and N. dibolia, are now known for Noctuidonema. PMID:19277339

  11. All the microbiology nematodes can teach us

    PubMed Central

    Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Be it their pervasiveness, experimental tractability or their impact on human health and agriculture, nematode–bacterium associations are far-reaching research subjects. Although the omics hype did not spare them and helped reveal mechanisms of communication and exchange between the associated partners, a huge amount of knowledge still awaits to be harvested from their study. Here, I summarize and compare the kind of research that has been already performed on the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and on symbiotic nematodes, both marine and entomopathogenic ones. The emerging picture highlights how complementing genetic studies with ecological ones (in the case of well-established genetic model systems such as C. elegans) and vice versa (in the case of the yet uncultured Stilbonematinae) will deepen our understanding of how microbial symbioses evolved and how they impact our environment. PMID:26839382

  12. [Tendencies of nematodes communities to recover after soil cover degradation].

    PubMed

    Gruzdeva, L I; Sushchuk, A A

    2010-01-01

    The way nematodes form communities on a new substrate after complete soil and plant cover degradation is studied on a model of industrial dumping. It is revealed that recovery of soil cover after degradation begins with invasion of mainly the upper soil horizon by nematodes. At the early stages, species that are resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions dominate (bacteriophages), next the abundances of carnivores and nematodes that are connected with plants increase, which indicates the process of biocenosis regeneration. PMID:21275095

  13. Distribution of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Sandall, L. J.; Wysong, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 552 soybean fields in 20 counties in Nebraska in 1986-88 revealed 35 fields infested with the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Identification was confirmed with a greenhouse bioassay, using 'Lee 74' soybean, and by the application of a DNA hybridization probe derived from SCN mitochondrial DNA. Most of the SCN-infested fields were located on the Missouri River floodplain and in the southeastern corner of the state. PMID:19287657

  14. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes.

  15. On the Methodology of Nematode Extraction from Field Samples: Density Flotation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Viglierchio, David R.; Yamashita, Tom T.

    1983-01-01

    Density flotation has been frequently used for the extraction of nematodes from field samples. Density flotation curves for four nematode species and five solutes have been prepared. The curves confirm that flotation was governed by several factors: solute density, solute osmotic activity, and physiological properties of the nematode species. Nematode viability and function can be adversely affected by improper selection of solute for density extraction of nematodes; nevertheless, some nematode species can be enriched from mixtures by density and solute selection. PMID:19295831

  16. A White Paper on Nematode Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Bird, David McK.; Blaxter, Mark L.; McCarter, James P.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Sternberg, Paul W.; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2005-01-01

    In response to the new opportunities for genome sequencing and comparative genomics, the Society of Nematology (SON) formed a committee to develop a white paper in support of the broad scientific needs associated with this phylum and interests of SON members. Although genome sequencing is expensive, the data generated are unique in biological systems in that genomes have the potential to be complete (every base of the genome can be accounted for), accurate (the data are digital and not subject to stochastic variation), and permanent (once obtained, the genome of a species does not need to be experimentally re-sampled). The availability of complete, accurate, and permanent genome sequences from diverse nematode species will underpin future studies into the biology and evolution of this phylum and the ecological associations (particularly parasitic) nematodes have with other organisms. We anticipate that upwards of 100 nematode genomes will be solved to varying levels of completion in the coming decade and suggest biological and practical considerations to guide the selection of the most informative taxa for sequencing. PMID:19262884

  17. Xenobiotic Detoxification in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lindblom, Tim H.; Dodd, Allyn K.

    2009-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism for the study of such diverse aspects of animal physiology and behavior as embryonic development, chemoreception, and the genetic control of lifespan. Yet, even though the entire genome sequence of this organism was deposited into public databases several years ago, little is known about xenobiotic metabolism in C. elegans. In part, the paucity of detoxification information may be due to the plush life enjoyed by nematodes raised in the laboratory. In the wild, however, these animals experience a much greater array of chemical assaults. Living in the interstitial water of the soil, populations of C. elegans exhibit a boom and bust lifestyle characterized by prodigious predation of soil microbes punctuated by periods of dispersal as a non-developing alternative larval stage. During the booming periods of population expansion, these animals almost indiscriminately consume everything in their environment including any number of compounds from other animals, microorganisms, plants, and xenobiotics. Several recent studies have identified many genes encoding sensors and enzymes these nematodes may use in their xeno-coping strategies. Here, we will discuss these recent advances, as well as the efforts by our lab and others to utilize the genomic resources of the C. elegans system to elucidate this nematode’s molecular defenses against toxins. PMID:16902959

  18. Assaying Environmental Nickel Toxicity Using Model Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D.; Huffnagle, Ian M.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species. PMID:24116204

  19. Entomopathogenic Nematode Production and Application Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Han, Richou; Dolinksi, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Production and application technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo, and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be the appropriate method. In vivo production is also appropriate for niche markets and small growers where a lack of capital, scientific expertise or infrastructure cannot justify large investments into in vitro culture technology. In vitro technology is used when large scale production is needed at reasonable quality and cost. Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes are usually applied using various spray equipment and standard irrigation systems. Enhanced efficacy in EPN applications can be facilitated through improved delivery mechanisms (e.g., cadaver application) or optimization of spray equipment. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in developing EPN formulations, particularly for above ground applications, e.g., mixing EPNs with surfactants or polymers or with sprayable gels. Bait formulations and insect host cadavers can enhance EPN persistence and reduce the quantity of nematodes required per unit area. This review provides a summary and analysis of factors that affect production and application of EPNs and offers insights for their future in biological insect suppression. PMID:23482883

  20. Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

  1. Evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, J G; Nadler, S A; Adams, B J

    2004-01-01

    Despite extraordinary diversity of free-living species, a comparatively small fraction of nematodes are parasites of plants. These parasites represent at least three disparate clades in the nematode tree of life, as inferred from rRNA sequences. Plant parasites share functional similarities regarding feeding, but many similarities in feeding structures result from convergent evolution and have fundamentally different developmental origins. Although Tylenchida rRNA phylogenies are not fully resolved, they strongly support convergent evolution of sedentary endoparasitism and plant nurse cells in cyst and root-knot nematodes. This result has critical implications for using model systems and genomics to identify and characterize parasitism genes for representatives of this clade. Phylogenetic studies reveal that plant parasites have rich and complex evolutionary histories that involve multiple transitions to plant parasitism and the possible use of genes obtained by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes. Developing a fuller understanding of plant parasitism will require integrating more comprehensive and resolved phylogenies with appropriate choices of model organisms and comparative evolutionary methods.

  2. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  3. Detection and Description of Soils with Specific Nematode Suppressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Soils with specific suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes are of interest to define the mechanisms that regulate population density. Suppressive soils prevent nematodes from establishing and from causing disease, and they diminish disease severity after initial nematode damage in continuous culturing of a host. A range of non-specific and specific soil treatments, followed by infestation with a target nematode, have been employed to identify nematode-suppressive soils. Biocidal treatments, soil transfer tests, and baiting approaches together with observations of the plant-parasitic nematode in the root zone of susceptible host plants have improved the understanding of nematode-suppressive soils. Techniques to demonstrate specific soil suppressiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes are compared in this review. The overlap of studies on soil suppressiveness with recent advances in soil health and quality is briefly discussed. The emphasis is on methods (or criteria) used to detect and identify soils that maintain specific soil suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes. While biocidal treatments can detect general and specific soil suppressiveness, soil transfer studies, by definition, apply only to specific soil suppressiveness. Finally, potential strategies to exploit suppressive soils are presented. PMID:19262851

  4. Nematodes Associated with Plants from Naturally Acidic Wetlands Soil

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert John; Smart, Grover C.

    1994-01-01

    Four plants, Cyperus ochraceus, Eriocaulon compressum, Lythrum alatum, and Xyris jupicai, growing along the shoreline of an oligotrophic lake in north central Florida were sampled for nematodes. The nematodes recovered were placed in four trophic groups: bacterivores, herbivores, omnivores, and predators. When the nematodes on all plants were considered, 27% were bacterivores, 23% were herbivores, 7% were omnivores, and 43% were predators. Tripyla was the dominant predator and the dominant genus of all nematodes, and Malenchus was the dominant herbivore. Dominance was not clearly pronounced in the other trophic groups. PMID:19279927

  5. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens.

  6. Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Mondino, Eduardo A; Covacevich, Fernanda; Studdert, Guillermo A; Pimentel, João P; Berbara, Ricardo L L

    2015-01-01

    We examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB-) for extracting nucleic acid (DNA) from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. After DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplifications were performed and considered as indicators of successful DNA extraction. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes on agroecosystems.

  7. Nematode parasites of Chelidae (Testudines) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Souza, Jéssica D; Coimbra, Marco Antônio A; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-09-01

    The presence of helminths associated with freshwater turtles is rarely reported. There are no records of nematodes parasitizing Acanthochelys spixii, and for Hydromedusa tectifera, there is only the report of unidentified nematodes found in this species in Argentina. This is the first report of nematodes (Spiroxys contortus and Camallanus sp.) in A. spixii and the first record of Spiroxys contortus and Camallanus sp. in H. tectifera. This is the southernmost record of S . contortus because this nematode was previously recorded only in Mexico. PMID:23812643

  8. Nematodes associated with plants from naturally acidic wetlands soil.

    PubMed

    Cox, R J; Smart, G C

    1994-12-01

    Four plants, Cyperus ochraceus, Eriocaulon compressum, Lythrum alatum, and Xyris jupicai, growing along the shoreline of an oligotrophic lake in north central Florida were sampled for nematodes. The nematodes recovered were placed in four trophic groups: bacterivores, herbivores, omnivores, and predators. When the nematodes on all plants were considered, 27% were bacterivores, 23% were herbivores, 7% were omnivores, and 43% were predators. Tripyla was the dominant predator and the dominant genus of all nematodes, and Malenchus was the dominant herbivore. Dominance was not clearly pronounced in the other trophic groups.

  9. Utilization of management zones for reniform nematodes in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to record measurements of soil electrical conductivity (EC) and field elevation at precise and closely-spaced GPS coordinates allows us to define nematode management zones based on field physical characteristics which may affect reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) population lev...

  10. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  11. [Resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes in sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-08-01

    The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.

  12. Two new species of soil nematodes from Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Chanu, Loukrakpam Bina; Meitei, N Mohilal; Shah, M Manjur

    2016-09-01

    Survey for soil nematodes associated with mulberry plants in valley districts of Manipur revealed the presence of two new species of soil nematodes of the genus Tylenchus sp. and Telotylenchus sp. The two new species are described and illustrated here. PMID:27605765

  13. Occurrence and distribution of nematodes in Idaho crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted in Idaho during the 2000-2006 cropping seasons to study the occurrence, population density, host association and distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with major crops, grasses and weeds. Eighty-four species and 43 genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were record...

  14. Com Yield Increases Relative to Nonfumigant Chemical Control of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Don C.; Tollefson, Jon; Hinz, Paul; Thomas, Stephen H.

    1978-01-01

    Corn yields were measured after application of nematicides in 16 experiments, mostly in medium-to-heavily textured soil, at 12 locations in Iowa during 1973-1976. The average maximum yield increase in plots treated with nematicides was 21% over yields in untreated plots. Yields were correlated negatively with nematode numbers or nematode biomass in nearly all comparisons. Correlations of nematode numbers in the soil with yield averaged -0.56 for Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, -0.45 for Hoplolaimus galeatus, -0.51 for Pratylenchus spp., and -0.64 for Xiphinema americanum. Correlation coefficients for numbers of nematodes in the roots and yield averaged -0.63 for Pratylenchus spp. and -0.56 H. galeatus. Correlation coefficients for yield and total number of nematodes averaged -0.65 in roots and -0.55 in soils. Negative correlations also were greater for comparisons of yield with total parasitic-nematode biomass than with numbers of individual nematodes of a species or total numbers of parasitic nematodes. PMID:19305831

  15. Characterization of reniform nematode genome through shotgun sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reniform nematode (RN), a major agricultural pest particularly on cotton in the United States(U.S.), is among the major plant parasitic nematodes for which limited genomic information exists. In this study, over 380 Mb of sequence data were generated from four pooled adult female RN and assembl...

  16. Viability and virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure environmental stress such as from ultraviolet radiation. Our objective was to compare UV tolerance among a broad array of nematode species. We compared 9 different EPN species and ...

  17. Nematode resistance and agronomic performance of LONREN and NEMSTACK lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LONREN lines have resistance to reniform nematodes that was obtained from Gossypium longicalyx. The NEMSTACK lines have the same resistance recombined with the rkn-1 gene for resistance to root knot nematode from 'Acala NemX.' Different LONREN lines vary depending on whether the resistance gene was...

  18. Granite rock outcrops: an extreme environment for soil nematodes?

    PubMed

    Austin, Erin; Semmens, Katharine; Parsons, Charles; Treonis, Amy

    2009-03-01

    We studied soil nematode communities from the surface of granite flatrock outcrops in the eastern Piedmont region of the United States. The thin soils that develop here experience high light intensity and extreme fluctuations in temperature and moisture and host unique plant communities. We collected soils from outcrop microsites in Virginia (VA) and North Carolina (NC) in various stages of succession (Primitive, Minimal, and Mature) and compared soil properties and nematode communities to those of adjacent forest soils. Nematodes were present in most outcrop soils, with densities comparable to forest soils (P > 0.05). Nematode communities in Mature and Minimal soils had lower species richness than forest soils (P < 0.05) and contained more bacterial-feeders and fewer fungal-feeders (P < 0.05). Primitive soils contained either no nematodes (NC) or only a single species (Mesodorylaimus sp., VA). Nematode communities were similar between Mature and Minimal soils, according to trophic group representation, MI, PPI, EI, SI, and CI (P > 0.05). Forest soils had a higher PPI value (P < 0.05), but otherwise community indices were similar to outcrop soils (P > 0.05). Outcrop nematode communities failed to group together in a Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, indicating higher variability in community structure than the Forest soils, which did cluster together. A high proportion of the nematodes were extracted from outcrop soils in coiled form (33-89%), indicating that they used anhydrobiosis to persist in this unique environment.

  19. Development of Reniform Nematode Resistance in Upland Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this review is to assess development of resistance to the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton cultivars with reniform nematode resistance are needed. The development of resistant cultivars appears possible but presents a signifi...

  20. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  1. Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

  2. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Odile; Diniz, Daniel G.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Pinto de Oliveira, Norimar; Frota de Almeida, Izabela Negrão; Frota de Almeida, Rafael Negrão; Frota de Almeida, Luciana Negrão; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sobrinho, Edmundo Frota de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    A male nematode was extracted from iris fibers of a man from the Brazilian Amazon region. This nematode belonged to the genus Pelecitus but was distinct from the 16 known species in this genus. Similarities with Pelecitus spp. from neotropical birds suggested an avian origin for this species. PMID:21529397

  3. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  4. Directional movement of parasitic nematodes in response to electrical current

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steinernematid nematodes are parasites that are important natural regulating agents of insect populations. The infective juvenile nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli that aid in survival and host finding. Host finding strategies among steinernematids differ along a continuum from ambush (sit...

  5. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical current

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are important regulating agents of insect populations. The infective juvenile nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli that aid in survival and host finding. Identification of novel cues in the nematodes’ environment can help ...

  6. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) is a destructive pest of potatoes and other solanaceous plants. Potatoes... no longer required. From 1977 until 2010, potato production fields in the townships of Elba and Byron... nematode quarantine. In 2007, there were 13 farms in Genesee County that harvested potatoes. These...

  7. Soybean lines evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four wild and domestic soybean (Glycine max and G. soja) lines were evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in growth chamber tests with a day length of 16 hours and temperature held constant at 28 C. Several entries for which reactions to reniform nematode w...

  8. High Sensitivity NMR and Mixture Analysis for Nematode Behavioral Metabolomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are the most abundant animal on earth, and they parasitize virtually all plants and animals. Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living nematode that lives in soil and composting material. We have shown that C. elegans releases at least 40 small molecules into its environment including many...

  9. [Evolution and systematics of nematodes based on molecular investigation].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna; Perec, Agnieszka

    2004-01-01

    Evolution and systematics of nematodes based on molecular investigation. The use of molecular phylogenetics to examine the interrelationships between animal parasites, free-living nematodes, and plant parasites versus traditional classification based on morphological-ecological characters was discussed and reviewed. Distinct differences were observed between parasitic nematodes and free-living ones. Within the former group, animal parasites turned out to be distinctly different from plant parasites. Using small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene sequence from a wide range of nematodes, there is a possibility to compare animal-parasitic, plant-parasitic and free-living taxa. Nowadays the parasitic nematodes expressed sequence tag (EST) project is currently generating sequence information to provide a new source of data to examine the evolutionary history of this taxonomic group. PMID:16859012

  10. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

  11. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of diseases caused by protozoan parasites characterised by a two-way transmission route between domestic and wild carnivore species. In this second and final part, we focus our attention on parasitic diseases caused by helminth and arthropod parasites shared between domestic and wild canids and felids in Europe. While a complete understanding of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of these parasites is particularly challenging to achieve, especially given the complexity of the environments in which these diseases perpetuate, advancements in current knowledge of transmission routes is crucial to provide policy-makers with clear indications on strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases on changing ecosystems. PMID:26049678

  12. Association of MC3R gene polymorphisms with body weight in the red fox and comparative gene organization in four canids.

    PubMed

    Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M

    2011-02-01

    There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight.

  13. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs.

  14. Sequence analysis in partial genes of five isolates of Angiostrongylus cantonensis from Taiwan and biological comparison in infectivity and pathogenicity between two strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, June-Der; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Lian-Chen; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Tu, Hung-Pin; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-05-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious agent causing eosinophilic meningitis and is present in Taiwan, Thailand and the Pacific islands. Clinical symptoms vary within different endemic regions, and their severity is probably dependent on the number of ingested parasites and the diversity among strains. The experimentally definitive host is the rat, and non-permissive hosts are certain mammals such as humans and mice. In this study, the partial gene sequences of two A. cantonensis strains isolated from five different regions in Taiwan were selected and molecularly analyzed. The internal transcribed spacer gene and cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I gene sequences of the Hualien (H) strain of A. cantonensis differed from those of the Pingtung (P) strain and the other three strains by 19% and 11%, respectively. We analyzed the infectivity, fecundity, and development of the H and P strain in rats and host pathogenicity in mice inoculated with both strains. The number of the emerged first-stage larvae, adult recovery, and average length of adults in Sprague-Dawley rats significantly differed between rats inoculated with the H and P strain. Young adult recovery, average length of young adults, eosinophil counts in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), glutathione peroxidase concentration, levels of reactive oxygen species as well as malondialdehyde concentration in the CSF, and the survival of mice significantly differed between BALB/c mice inoculated with the H and P strain. The H strain of A. cantonensis had lower infectivity, delayed fecundity, and poor development in rats, and caused milder pathology and lower mortality in mice than the P strain. These data clearly indicate that the H strain of A. cantonensis is a pathogenically distinct strain with lower infectivity to its definitive host, and causing mild pathogenic symptoms to its non-permissive host.

  15. Development of brain injury in mice by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection is associated with the induction of transcription factor NF-kappaB, nuclear protooncogenes, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Shiow, S J; Chung, H C; Huang, C Y; Lin, C L; Hsu, J D; Shyu, L Y; Wang, C J

    2000-07-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is endemic to the Pacific area of Asia, especially Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan. Although eosinophilia is an important clinical manifestation of A. cantonensis infection, the role of eosinophils in the progress of the infection remains to be elucidated. In this experiment, we showed that A. cantonensis-caused eosinoplia and inflammation might lead to the induction of NF-kappaB and protooncogene expression via activation of the tyrosine phosphorylation signal pathway. After mice were infected daily with 30 third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis by oral adminstration for 6 weeks, no significant differences PKC-alpha, MEK-1, ERK-2, JNK, and p38 protein expression were found between the control and infected mice. However, the protein tyrosine phosphorylation levels, NF-kappaB, and iNOS protein products were significantly increased by 3.5-, 3.3-, and 6.3-fold, respectively, after 3 weeks of A. cantonensis infection. The same pattern was found for c-Myc, c-Jun, and c-Fos proteins, which were elevated by 3.2-, 2.3-, and 3.4-fold, respectively, compared to control animals after 3 weeks. The expression potency of these proteins started increasing in week 1, reaching maximal induction in week 3, and then declining in week 5 after A. cantonensis infection. Another consistent result was noted in the pathological observations, including eosinophilia, leukocyte infiltration, granulomatous reactions, and time responses in brain tissues of infected mice. These data suggest that the development of brain injury by eosinophlia of A. cantonensis infection is associated with NF-kappaB and/or nuclear protooncogenes expression, which is activated by the tyrosine phosphorylation pathway.

  16. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs. PMID:26152413

  17. Efficacy and safety of imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on solution and fenbendazole in the treatment of dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866).

    PubMed

    Willesen, J L; Kristensen, A T; Jensen, A L; Heine, J; Koch, J

    2007-07-20

    A randomized, blinded, controlled multicentre field trial study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on solution and fenbendazole in treating dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum. Dogs were randomly treated either with a single dose of 0.1 ml/kg bodyweight of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on solution or with 25 mg/kg bodyweight fenbendazole per os for 20 days. The study period was 42 days with dogs being examined on days 0, 7 and 42. The primary efficacy parameter was the presence of L1 larvae in faecal samples evaluated by a Baermann test from three consecutive days. Thoracic radiographs performed on each visit were being taken as a paraclinical parameter to support the results of the Baermann test. Twenty-seven dogs in the imidacloprid/moxidectin group and 23 dogs in the fenbendazole group completed the study according to protocol. The efficacies of the two treatment protocols were 85.2% (imidacloprid/moxidectin) and 91.3% (fenbendazole) with no significant difference between treatment groups. On radiographic evaluation pulmonary parenchyma showed similar improvement in each group. No serious adverse effects to treatment were recorded: most of the minor adverse effects were gastrointestinal such as diarrhea (nine dogs), vomitus (eight dogs) and salivation (three dogs). In general, these adverse effects were of short duration (1-2 days) within the first few days after treatment start and required little or no treatment. This prospective study demonstrates that both treatment protocols used are efficacious under field conditions, that treatment of mildly to moderately infected dogs with either of these protocols is safe and yields an excellent prognosis for recovering from the infection.

  18. Soluble antigen derived from IV larva of Angiostrongylus cantonensis promotes chitinase-like protein 3 (Chil3) expression induced by interleukin-13.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Wei, Jie; Liu, Zhen; Zeng, Xin; Yu, Zilong; Lv, Zhiyue; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-10-01

    Angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is an emerging food-borne parasitic disease, which refers basically to eosinophilic meningitis. Chitinase-like protein 3 (Chil3), a member of chitinase-like protein family which has chemotactic activity for eosinophils, is reported to be highly upregulated in brain of mouse infected with A. cantonensis. The mechanisms of high expression of Chil3 and the association between A. cantonensis and Chil3 are rarely reported. In order to understand the mechanism of high expression of Chil3 in A. cantonensis-infected mouse, we measured the level of Chil3 in RAW 264.7 and BV2 cell lines stimulated with soluble antigen of A. cantonensis by qPCR and ELISA. To explore the role of Chil3 in inflammation caused by A. cantonensis, we extracted and cultured brain mononuclear cells (BMNCs) and detected the eosinophil chemotactic activity of Chil3 using transwell assay and flow cytometer. Furthermore, we treated the infected mice by injection with rmChil3 and then counted the number of larvae in brains of infected mice and treated mice to examine the association between the worm and Chil3. Our results showed the soluble antigen from A. cantonensis could promote the Chil3 expression in macrophage and microglial cell lines induced by interleukin-13. In conclusion, we supposed that high expression of Chil3 enhanced by soluble antigens from A. cantonensis might be the reason of serious eosinophil infiltration in mouse brain after A. cantonensis infection. PMID:27256220

  19. Biological control of nematode parasites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M

    2006-04-01

    In a world in which sheep producers are facing increasing problems due to the rapid spread of anthelmintic resistance, the battle against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes is a difficult one. One of the potential new tools for integrated control strategies is biological control by means of the nematode-destroying microfungus Duddingtonia flagrans. This fungus forms sticky traps that catch developing larval stages of parasitic nematodes in the fecal environment. When resting spores (chlamydospores) of this fungus are fed daily to grazing animals for a period of time, the pasture infectivity and thus, the worm burden of grazing animals are lowered, especially in young lambs. Research has been conducted throughout the world covering many different climates and management systems. An Australian parasite model showed that if the fungus performs efficiently (> or =90% reduction in worm burden) for 2 or 3 mo, it should contribute significantly to a reduction in the number of dead lambs otherwise occurring when managed only by anthelmintic treatment and grazing management. Feeding or field trials have clearly demonstrated that dosing with a few hundred thousand spores per kilogram of live BW not only reduced the number of infective larvae but also increased the BW of the lambs compared with controls not given fungus. Initial Australian work with feeding spores by means of a block formulation or a slow-release device has shown some promise, but further work is needed to fully develop these delivery systems. In tropical Malaysia, small paddock trials and field studies resulted in significant improvements, in terms of lower worm burdens and increased live BW, when feeding half a million spores daily to grazing lambs. Additional benefits have been observed when the fungus is employed in combination with a fast rotational grazing system. Research has also demonstrated that spores can be delivered in slightly moist feed block material, but only if such blocks are consumed

  20. Multifaceted effects of host plants on entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hazir, Selcuk; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Canan; Leite, Luis G; Cakmak, Ibrahim; Olson, Dawn

    2016-03-01

    The success of parasites can be impacted by multi-trophic interactions. Tritrophic interactions have been observed in parasite-herbivore-host plant systems. Here we investigate aspects of multi-trophic interactions in a system involving an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), its insect host, and host plant. Novel issues investigated include the impact of tritrophic interactions on nematode foraging behavior, the ability of EPNs to overcome negative tritrophic effects through genetic selection, and interactions with a fourth trophic level (nematode predators). We tested infectivity of the nematode, Steinernema riobrave, to corn earworm larvae (Helicoverpa zea) in three host plants, tobacco, eggplant and tomato. Tobacco reduced nematode virulence and reproduction relative to tomato and eggplant. However, successive selection (5 passages) overcame the deficiency; selected nematodes no longer exhibited reductions in phenotypic traits. Despite the loss in virulence and reproduction nematodes, first passage S. riobrave was more attracted to frass from insects fed tobacco than insects fed on other host plants. Therefore, we hypothesized the reduced virulence and reproduction in S. riobrave infecting tobacco fed insects would be based on a self-medicating tradeoff, such as deterring predation. We tested this hypothesis by assessing predatory success of the mite Sancassania polyphyllae and the springtail Sinella curviseta on nematodes reared on tobacco-fed larvae versus those fed on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, tomato fed larvae, or eggplant fed larvae. No advantage was observed in nematodes derived from tobacco fed larvae. In conclusion, our results indicated that insect-host plant diet has an important effect on nematode foraging, infectivity and reproduction. However, negative host plant effects, might be overcome through directed selection. We propose that host plant species should be considered when designing biocontrol programs using EPNs. PMID:26896698

  1. Digestion of FMRFamide and nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (nematode FLPs) by the soluble fraction from Panagrellus redivivus homogenate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases in the soluble fraction of homogenates prepared from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus hydrolyzed the amidated invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFa and FLRFa, and nematode FMRFa-like peptides (FLPs) KPNFLRFa (FLP-1), APKPKFIRFa (FLP-5), KNEFIRFa (FLP-8), KPSFVRFa (FLP-9), RNKFEFIR...

  2. Discovery and initial analysis of novel viral genomes in the soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are the most abundant multi-cellular animals on earth, yet little is known about their natural viral pathogens and no nematode virus genomes have been published. Consequently, nematode viruses have been overlooked as important biotic factors in the study of nematode ecology. Here we show t...

  3. Vertebrate herbivores influence soil nematodes by modifying plant communities.

    PubMed

    Veen, G F; Olff, Han; Duyts, Henk; van der Putten, Wim H

    2010-03-01

    Abiotic soil properties, plant community composition, and herbivory all have been reported as important factors influencing the composition of soil communities. However, most studies thus far have considered these factors in isolation, whereas they strongly interact in the field. Here, we study how grazing by vertebrate herbivores influences the soil nematode community composition of a floodplain grassland while we account for effects of grazing on plant community composition and abiotic soil properties. Nematodes are the most ubiquitous invertebrates in the soil. They include a variety of feeding types, ranging from microbial feeders to herbivores and carnivores, and they perform key functions in soil food webs. Our hypothesis was that grazing affects nematode community structure and composition through altering plant community structure and composition. Alternatively, we tested whether the effects of grazing may, directly or indirectly, run via changes in soil abiotic properties. We used a long-term field experiment containing plots with and without vertebrate grazers (cattle and rabbits). We compared plant and nematode community structure and composition, as well as a number of key soil abiotic properties, and we applied structural equation modeling to investigate four possible pathways by which grazing may change nematode community composition. Aboveground grazing increased plant species richness and reduced both plant and nematode community heterogeneity. There was a positive relationship between plant and nematode diversity indices. Grazing decreased the number of bacterial-feeding nematodes, indicating that in these grasslands, top-down control of plant production by grazing leads to bottom-up control in the basal part of the bacterial channel of the soil food web. According to the structural equation model, grazing had a strong effect on soil abiotic properties and plant community composition, whereas plant community composition was the main determinant of

  4. Transgenesis in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinshe; Shao, Hongguang; Junio, Ariel; Nolan, Thomas J.; Massey, Holman C.; Pearce, Edward J.; Viney, Mark E.; Lok, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Strongyloides and related genera are advantageous subjects for transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, primarily by gonadal microinjection as has been used with Caenorhabditis elegans. Transgenesis has been achieved in S. stercoralis and in Parastrongyloides trichosuri, but both of these lack well-adapted, conventional laboratory hosts in which to derive transgenic lines. By contrast, Strongyloides ratti develops in laboratory rats with high efficiency and offers the added advantages of robust genomic and transcriptomic databases and substantial volumes of genetic, developmental and immunological data. Therefore, we evaluated methodology for transgenesis in S. stercoralis as a means of transforming S. ratti. S. stercoralis-based GFP reporter constructs were expressed in a proportion of F1 transgenic S. ratti following gonadal microinjection into parental free-living females. Frequencies of transgene expression in S. ratti, ranged from 3.7% for pAJ09 to 6.8% for pAJ20; respective frequencies for these constructs in S. stercoralis were 5.6% and 33.5%. Anatomical patterns of transgene expression were virtually identical in S. ratti and S. stercoralis. This is the first report of transgenesis in S. ratti, an important model organism for biological investigations of parasitic nematodes. Availability of the rat as a well-adapted laboratory host will facilitate derivation of transgenic lines of this parasite. PMID:21723330

  5. Control strategies for human intestinal nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Crompton, D W; Savioli, L

    1999-01-01

    In recent years significant progress has been made in understanding the ecology, epidemiology and related morbidity and development of new tools for the control of soil-transmitted helminths. Such knowledge has recognized the impact of helminth infections on the health of infected groups and has created a rational basis for their control. Schoolchildren harbour some of the most intense helminthic infections, which produce adverse effects on health, growth and scholastic performance. However, although great effort has been put into targeting school-age children, women of child-bearing age and pre-school children are two other groups at high risk of morbidity due to intestinal nematode infections. Highly effective and safety-tested, single-dose anthelminthic drugs are now available, permitting periodical deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups at affordable prices. Four anthelminthics against all intestinal nematodes are included in the WHO Essential Drug List (albendazole, levamisole, mebendazole and pyrantel). Recently ivermectin has also been registered for use against Strongyloides stercoralis in humans. Several well-monitored country experiences have shown that chemotherapy-based control of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminths is possible and highly cost-effective.

  6. Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Rosengarten, Jamila; Koller, Robert; Mulder, Christian; Urich, Tim; Bonkowski, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Soils host the most complex communities on Earth, including the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes, i.e. heterotrophic protists. Protists are generally considered as bacterivores, but evidence for negative interactions with nematodes both from laboratory and field studies exist. However, direct impacts of protists on nematodes remain unknown. We isolated the soil-borne testate amoeba Cryptodifflugia operculata and found a highly specialized and effective pack-hunting strategy to prey on bacterivorous nematodes. Enhanced reproduction in presence of prey nematodes suggests a beneficial predatory life history of these omnivorous soil amoebae. Cryptodifflugia operculata appears to selectively impact the nematode community composition as reductions of nematode numbers were species specific. Furthermore, we investigated 12 soil metatranscriptomes from five distinct locations throughout Europe for 18S ribosomal RNA transcripts of C. operculata. The presence of C. operculata transcripts in all samples, representing up to 4% of the active protist community, indicates a potential ecological importance of nematophagy performed by C. operculata in soil food webs. The unique pack-hunting strategy on nematodes that was previously unknown from protists, together with molecular evidence that these pack hunters are likely to be abundant and widespread in soils, imply a considerable importance of the hitherto neglected trophic link 'nematophagous protists' in soil food webs.

  7. Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Rosengarten, Jamila; Koller, Robert; Mulder, Christian; Urich, Tim; Bonkowski, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Soils host the most complex communities on Earth, including the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes, i.e. heterotrophic protists. Protists are generally considered as bacterivores, but evidence for negative interactions with nematodes both from laboratory and field studies exist. However, direct impacts of protists on nematodes remain unknown. We isolated the soil-borne testate amoeba Cryptodifflugia operculata and found a highly specialized and effective pack-hunting strategy to prey on bacterivorous nematodes. Enhanced reproduction in presence of prey nematodes suggests a beneficial predatory life history of these omnivorous soil amoebae. Cryptodifflugia operculata appears to selectively impact the nematode community composition as reductions of nematode numbers were species specific. Furthermore, we investigated 12 soil metatranscriptomes from five distinct locations throughout Europe for 18S ribosomal RNA transcripts of C. operculata. The presence of C. operculata transcripts in all samples, representing up to 4% of the active protist community, indicates a potential ecological importance of nematophagy performed by C. operculata in soil food webs. The unique pack-hunting strategy on nematodes that was previously unknown from protists, together with molecular evidence that these pack hunters are likely to be abundant and widespread in soils, imply a considerable importance of the hitherto neglected trophic link 'nematophagous protists' in soil food webs. PMID:26079718

  8. Changes in soil nematode communities under the impact of fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzdeva, L. I.; Matveeva, E. M.; Kovalenko, T. E.

    2007-06-01

    Changes taking place in the communities of soil nematodes of an artificially sown meadow under the impact of annually applied mineral fertilizers have been studied in a field experiment for nine years. It is shown that changes in the species composition, trophic structure, and numbers of nematodes from different genera depend on the fertilizer applied and on the competitiveness of the plant species grown. The spectra of nematode genera sensitive to the complete mineral fertilizer (NPK) and to the particular nutrients have been identified with the use of a number of parameters, including the maturity index of nematode communities, the biotope preferences of the particular nematode genera, and the general pattern of nematode habitats. The results obtained in this study can be used to assess the effect of mineral fertilizers on the soil fauna and to suggest optimum application rates of mineral fertilizers ensuring the sustainable development of meadow herbs. The use of the data on the trophic structure of nematode communities for predicting the ways of organic matter decomposition in the soil is discussed.

  9. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year screening process, 13 selections emerged with either almost complete or complete combined resistance to M. incognita Race 3, M. incognita pathotype Harmony C, M. arenaria pathotype Harmony A, and X. index, important nematode pests of grapevines. Durability of this broad resistance was tested by challenging the selections with the target nematodes in combination and with the target nematodes in combinations with species not included in the screening process. Durability of resistance of the candidate rootstocks was also tested by exposure to the nematode communities of infested field soils from different locations. Breadth of resistance was determined on the basis of their host status to non-target nematodes, including Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Paratylenchus hamatus. After a total of 204 separate trials, the rootstocks were released to the grape industry as UCD GRN1, UCD GRN2, UCD GRN3, UCD GRN4, and UCD GRN5. We provide a compilation of current knowledge of the host status of these five newly released rootstocks and of 27 other rootstock cultivars to plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482972

  10. Assaying Predatory Feeding Behaviors in Pristionchus and Other Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, James W; Wilecki, Martin; Okumura, Misako; Sommer, Ralf J

    2016-01-01

    This protocol provides multiple methods for the analysis and quantification of predatory feeding behaviors in nematodes. Many nematode species including Pristionchus pacificus display complex behaviors, the most striking of which is the predation of other nematode larvae. However, as these behaviors are absent in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, they have thus far only recently been described in detail along with the development of reliable behavioral assays (1). These predatory behaviors are dependent upon phenotypically plastic but fixed mouth morphs making the correct identification and categorization of these animals essential. In P. pacificus there are two mouth types, the stenostomatous and eurystomatous morphs (2), with only the wide mouthed eurystomatous containing an extra tooth and being capable of killing other nematode larvae. Through the isolation of an abundance of size matched prey larvae and subsequent exposure to predatory nematodes, assays including both "corpse assays" and "bite assays" on correctly identified mouth morph nematodes are possible. These assays provide a means to rapidly quantify predation success rates and provide a detailed behavioral analysis of individual nematodes engaged in predatory feeding activities. In addition, with the use of a high-speed camera, visualization of changes in pharyngeal activity including tooth and pumping dynamics are also possible. PMID:27684744

  11. Unraveling flp-11/flp-32 dichotomy in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Louise E; Miskelly, Iain R; Moffett, Christy L; McCoy, Ciaran J; Maule, Aaron G; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela

    2016-10-01

    FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) signalling systems are core to nematode neuromuscular function. Novel drug discovery efforts associated with nematode FLP/FLP receptor biology are advanced through the accumulation of basic biological data that can reveal subtle complexities within the neuropeptidergic system. This study reports the characterisation of FMRFamide-like peptide encoding gene-11 (flp-11) and FMRFamide-like peptide encoding gene-32 (flp-32), two distinct flp genes which encode the analogous peptide, AMRN(A/S)LVRFamide, in multiple nematode species - the only known example of this phenomenon within the FLPergic system of nematodes. Using bioinformatics, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry and behavioural assays we show that: (i) flp-11 and -32 are distinct flp genes expressed individually or in tandem across multiple nematode species, where they encode a highly similar peptide; (ii) flp-11 does not appear to be the most widely expressed flp in Caenorhabditis elegans; (iii) in species expressing both flp-11 and flp-32, flp-11 displays a conserved, restricted expression pattern across nematode clades and lifestyles; (iv) in species expressing both flp-11 and flp-32, flp-32 expression is more widespread and less conserved than flp-11; (v) in species expressing only flp-11, the flp-11 expression profile is more similar to the flp-32 profile observed in species expressing both; and (vi) FLP-11 peptides inhibit motor function in multiple nematode species. The biological significance and evolutionary origin of flp-11 and -32 peptide duplication remains unclear despite attempts to identify a common ancestor; this may become clearer as the availability of genomic data improves. This work provides insight into the complexity of the neuropeptidergic system in nematodes, and begins to examine how nematodes may compensate for structural neuronal simplicity. From a parasite control standpoint, this work underscores the importance of basic biological data, and has

  12. Unraveling flp-11/flp-32 dichotomy in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Louise E; Miskelly, Iain R; Moffett, Christy L; McCoy, Ciaran J; Maule, Aaron G; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela

    2016-10-01

    FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) signalling systems are core to nematode neuromuscular function. Novel drug discovery efforts associated with nematode FLP/FLP receptor biology are advanced through the accumulation of basic biological data that can reveal subtle complexities within the neuropeptidergic system. This study reports the characterisation of FMRFamide-like peptide encoding gene-11 (flp-11) and FMRFamide-like peptide encoding gene-32 (flp-32), two distinct flp genes which encode the analogous peptide, AMRN(A/S)LVRFamide, in multiple nematode species - the only known example of this phenomenon within the FLPergic system of nematodes. Using bioinformatics, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry and behavioural assays we show that: (i) flp-11 and -32 are distinct flp genes expressed individually or in tandem across multiple nematode species, where they encode a highly similar peptide; (ii) flp-11 does not appear to be the most widely expressed flp in Caenorhabditis elegans; (iii) in species expressing both flp-11 and flp-32, flp-11 displays a conserved, restricted expression pattern across nematode clades and lifestyles; (iv) in species expressing both flp-11 and flp-32, flp-32 expression is more widespread and less conserved than flp-11; (v) in species expressing only flp-11, the flp-11 expression profile is more similar to the flp-32 profile observed in species expressing both; and (vi) FLP-11 peptides inhibit motor function in multiple nematode species. The biological significance and evolutionary origin of flp-11 and -32 peptide duplication remains unclear despite attempts to identify a common ancestor; this may become clearer as the availability of genomic data improves. This work provides insight into the complexity of the neuropeptidergic system in nematodes, and begins to examine how nematodes may compensate for structural neuronal simplicity. From a parasite control standpoint, this work underscores the importance of basic biological data, and has

  13. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, particularly with the genus Pasteuria, are considered. Also discussed are other soil bacterial species that are potential biocontrol agents. Products of their bacterial fermentation in soil are toxic to nematodes, making them effective biocontrol agents. PMID:19300701

  14. A Method for Staining Nematode Secretions and Structures

    PubMed Central

    Premachandran, D.; Von Mende, N.; Hussey, R. S.; McClure, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Secretions from amphids, phasmids, and excretory system were stained by incubating nematodes in 0.1% coomassie brilliant blue G-250 in 40% aqueous methanol containing 10% acetic acid on slides with coverslips sealed with nail polish or Zut. Nematodes incubated in this staining solution usually produced copious amounts of secretions from their amphids and excretory pore. Phasmids also stained dark blue, enabling them to be easily observed. Other biological dyes stained these secretions or were useful for differentiating specific morphological features of nematodes. PMID:19290186

  15. Detection and quantification of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica), lesion nematode (Pratylenchus zeae) and dagger nematode (Xiphinema elongatum) parasites of sugarcane using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Berry, Shaun D; Fargette, Mireille; Spaull, Vaughan W; Morand, Serge; Cadet, Patrice

    2008-06-01

    A number of different plant parasitic nematode species are found associated with sugarcane in South Africa. Of these, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica), the lesion nematode (Pratylenchus zeae) and the dagger nematode (Xiphinema elongatum) are potentially the most damaging pests. Identification and enumeration of the number of these nematodes are necessary for providing advice to farmers as well as studying the effects of various treatments in field and glasshouse trials. We report on the development, use, and extent of specificity of three sets of primers, for M. javanica, P. zeae and X. elongatum, and on tests to detect and quantify the number of these nematodes in soil samples using SYBR Green I dye and real-time PCR technology. Amplicons from the three target species (obtained with their respective primer sets) are discernible in size by gel electrophoresis (380bp for M. javanica, 250bp for P. zeae and 500bp for X. elongatum). Also, these amplicons have characteristic melting temperatures of 83.8 degrees C (M. javanica), 86.6 degrees C (P. zeae) and 86.1 degrees C (X. elongatum). Investigations into multiplex reactions found competition between species with M. javanica competing with P. zeae and X. elongatum. Subsequent single tube (simplex) assays, enabled the construction of calibration curves for each of the three species. These were then used for quantification of the numbers of each of these species in nematode samples extracted from the field, with a high (R2=0.83) and significant positive correlation between real-time PCR and counts performed with microscopy.

  16. Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, B A; King, R; Sheichat, N; Eventov, B; David, D

    2008-01-01

    Since 1956, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) have been the primary vectors maintaining wildlife rabies in Israel. Oral rabies vaccination of wild canids, initiated in 1998, resulted in near-elimination of the disease in wildlife by 2005. In 2005 and 2006, an outbreak of rabies was observed in stray dogs in the vaccinated area of the Golan Heights, with no cases in foxes or jackals. Epidemiological investigations showed that the infected dogs were from territories across the border. This was confirmed by molecular analysis, which showed that the virus was different from rabies isolates endemic to this area. The objective of this study was to determine bait acceptance and the feasibility of oral rabies vaccination in packs of livestock guardian dogs. Coated sachets and fishmeal polymer baits of Raboral V-RG (Merial, USA) were tested in five different test zones. Both formats were hand-fed to individual dogs and to dogs belonging to dog packs. Bait uptake and consumption were observed in each dog. The estimated efficacy of oral rabies vaccination was very low (a maximum of 28%). Vaccine delivery problems were observed in dogs belonging to packs, whereby dominant animals consumed multiple baits and in competitive situations baits were swallowed whole. The uncertainty of oral vaccination necessitated turning to other methods to control this outbreak: stray dogs were removed and herd dogs were vaccinated parenterally. This study showed that oral rabies vaccination of dogs in packs using baits designed for wildlife would not be effective. Possibly, different baits or steps to circumvent competition within the pack will make this approach feasible. PMID:18634475

  17. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Natalie S; Statham, Mark J; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from

  18. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Natalie S.; Statham, Mark J.; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California’s role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from

  19. Nematode parasite genes: what's in a name?

    PubMed

    Beech, Robin N; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Neveu, Cédric; Dent, Joseph A

    2010-07-01

    The central theme of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is that names are meaningless, artificial constructs, detached from any underlying reality. By contrast, we argue that a well chosen gene name can concisely convey a wealth of relevant biological information. A consistent nomenclature adds transparency that can have a real impact on our understanding of gene function. Currently, genes in parasitic nematodes are often named ad hoc, leading to confusion that can be resolved by adherence to a nomenclature standard adapted from Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate this with ligand-gated ion-channels and propose that the flood of genome data and differences between parasites and the free living C. elegans will require modification of the standard.

  20. Soil Organic Matter and Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, T. L.; Mitkowski, N. A.; Abawi, G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  1. Nematode parasites of waterfowl (Anseriformes) from western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, M.E.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-four species of nematodes were found in 415 Anseriformes (Anatidae) of 27 species; 93.7% of birds over 4 weeks old were infected. Data on prevalence, host specificity, age of host, and geographic distribution are given. Infections were more intense in sick birds and birds in poor physical condition. Accidental or abnormal infection was more likely in sick than in normal birds. From 1 to 13 species of nematodes are reported from each host species, including 118 new host records, 3 nematodes new for North America, and 1 new species. Multiple infections were present in 76.5% of birds parasitized; eight species of nematodes were found in one whistling swan (Olor columbianus).

  2. Nematode Hsp90: highly conserved but functionally diverse.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    Nematodes are amongst the most successful and abundant organisms on the planet with approximately 30 000 species described, although the actual number of species is estimated to be one million or more. Despite sharing a relatively simple and invariant body plan, there is considerable diversity within the phylum. Nematodes have evolved to colonize most ecological niches, and can be free-living or can parasitize plants or animals to the detriment of the host organism. In this review we consider the role of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the nematode life cycle. We describe studies on Hsp90 in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and comparative work on the parasitic species Brugia pahangi, and consider whether a dependence upon Hsp90 can be exploited for the control of parasitic species. PMID:24721950

  3. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  4. Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?

    PubMed Central

    Stepek, Gillian; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths. Despite modern medical practices, the proportion of the population infected with GI nematodes is not falling. This is due to a number of factors, the most important being the lack of good healthcare, sanitation and health education in many developing countries. A relatively new problem is the development of resistance to the small number of drugs available to treat GI nematode infections. Here we review the most important parasitic GI nematodes and the methods available to control them. In addition, we discuss the current status of new anthelmintic treatments, particularly the plant cysteine proteinases from various sources of latex-bearing plants and fruits. PMID:16965561

  5. Determining Consistency of Spatial Dispersion of Nematodes in Small Plots

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    Nematode population densities in field plots were estimated by collecting samples consisting of 12 soil cores. Plots encompassed a variety of plant hosts and sampling dates, and provided data on the population densities of seven species of plant-parasitic nematodes. Three separate samples were collected per plot on each sampling date to obtain estimates of the mean and variance of numbers for each species. For each nematode species, these estimates were used to derive the Taylor's Power Law regression over plots having identical hosts and sampling dates. For some nematode species, comparisons of regression equations among different sampling dates on the same host revealed similarities in values of a and b from Taylor's Power Law. Parameters of Taylor's Power Law relationships were used to develop sampling plans and to obtain estimates of sample precision. Precision estimates from specific and general sampling plans are illustrated for Belonolaimus longicaudatus. PMID:19283095

  6. SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

  7. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn.

  8. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn. PMID:25011306

  9. Nematode infection: A rare mimic of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hotchen, Andrew; Chin, Kian; Raja, Mahzar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is a common condition seen in all surgical units. One rare condition that can mimic acute appendicitis is a nematode infection of the bowel. There have been few reported cases of nematode infection within the appendix and none that have been accompanied by intra-operative pictures. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 16-year-old female presented with a 12 h history of right iliac fossa pain and mild pyrexia. Bloods showed a neutrophilia and normal C-reactive protein. Laparoscopy was performed which revealed a non-inflamed appendix. The appendix was dissected and a live nematode was visualised exiting the base of the appendix. Anti-helminthics were given and the infection resolved. DISCUSSION Nematode infection is most commonly seen in Africa, Asia and South America. When seen within the United Kingdom (UK), it is seen most commonly within high-risk populations. Testing for these infections is not routine within the UK and when they are performed, the results take a considerable amount of time to return. These tests should be considered within high-risk populations so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of considering rare causes of right iliac fossa pain including nematode infection in a young patient. The case highlights this by giving intra-operative pictures of live nematodes upon dissection of the appendix. PMID:25024022

  10. Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretation of nematode community indices requires a reference to a relatively undisturbed community. Maturity and trophic diversity index values were compared for five pairs of certified organically and conventionally managed soils in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Available nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium) was estimated at various lag periods relative to times of sampling for nematode communities to determine the strength of correlative relationship between nematode communities and nitrogen availability. Soils were sampled six times yearly in 1993 and 1994 to determine the best time of year to sample. Maturity values for plant parasites were greater in organically than conventionally managed soils, and differences between management systems were greater in fall than spring months. However, other maturity and diversity indices did not differ between the two management practices. Differences in crop species grown in the two systems accounted for most differences observed in the community of plant-parasitic nematodes. Indices of free-living nematodes were correlated negatively with concentrations of ammonium, whereas indices of plant-parasitic nematodes were correlated positively with concentrations of nitrate. Due to the similarity of index values between the two systems, organically managed soils are not suitable reference sites for monitoring and assessing the biological aspects of soil quality for annually harvested crops. PMID:19270884

  11. Temperature-based bioclimatic parameters can predict nematode metabolic footprints.

    PubMed

    Bhusal, Daya Ram; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Sgardelis, Stefanos P

    2015-09-01

    Nematode metabolic footprints (MFs) refer to the lifetime amount of metabolized carbon per individual, indicating a connection to soil food web functions and eventually to processes supporting ecosystem services. Estimating and managing these at a convenient scale requires information upscaling from the soil sample to the landscape level. We explore the feasibility of predicting nematode MFs from temperature-based bioclimatic parameters across a landscape. We assume that temperature effects are reflected in MFs, since temperature variations determine life processes ranging from enzyme activities to community structure. We use microclimate data recorded for 1 year from sites differing by orientation, altitude and vegetation cover. At the same sites we estimate MFs for each nematode trophic group. Our models show that bioclimatic parameters, specifically those accounting for temporal variations in temperature and extremities, predict most of the variation in nematode MFs. Higher fungivorous and lower bacterivorous nematode MFs are predicted for sites with high seasonality and low isothermality (sites of low vegetation, mostly at low altitudes), indicating differences in the relative contribution of the corresponding food web channels to the metabolism of carbon across the landscape. Higher plant-parasitic MFs were predicted for sites with high seasonality. The fitted models provide realistic predictions of unknown cases within the range of the predictor's values, allowing for the interpolation of MFs within the sampled region. We conclude that upscaling of the bioindication potential of nematode communities is feasible and can provide new perspectives not only in the field of soil ecology but other research areas as well.

  12. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Sofie; Backeljau, Thierry; Moens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches <1 km apart. In contrast, only little genetic structuring was observed within an estuary (<50 km), indicating that these small scale fluctuations in genetic differentiation are stabilized over deeper time scales through extensive gene flow. Interestingly, nematode species with contrasting life histories (extreme colonizers vs persisters) or with different habitat preferences (algae vs sediment) show similar, low genetic structuring. Finally, historical events have shaped the genetic pattern of marine nematodes and show that gene flow is restricted at large geographical scales. We also discuss the presence of substantial cryptic diversity in marine nematodes, and end with highlighting future important steps to further unravel nematode evolution and diversity. PMID:23356547

  13. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches <1 km apart. In contrast, only little genetic structuring was observed within an estuary (<50 km), indicating that these small scale fluctuations in genetic differentiation are stabilized over deeper time scales through extensive gene flow. Interestingly, nematode species with contrasting life histories (extreme colonizers vs persisters) or with different habitat preferences (algae vs sediment) show similar, low genetic structuring. Finally, historical events have shaped the genetic pattern of marine nematodes and show that gene flow is restricted at large geographical scales. We also discuss the presence of substantial cryptic diversity in marine nematodes, and end with highlighting future important steps to further unravel nematode evolution and diversity. PMID:23356547

  14. Diverse Host-Seeking Behaviors of Skin-Penetrating Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Castelletto, Michelle L.; Gang, Spencer S.; Okubo, Ryo P.; Tselikova, Anastassia A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Platzer, Edward G.; Lok, James B.; Hallem, Elissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Skin-penetrating parasitic nematodes infect approximately one billion people worldwide and are responsible for some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. The infective larvae of skin-penetrating nematodes are thought to search for hosts using sensory cues, yet their host-seeking behavior is poorly understood. We conducted an in-depth analysis of host seeking in the skin-penetrating human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, and compared its behavior to that of other parasitic nematodes. We found that Str. stercoralis is highly mobile relative to other parasitic nematodes and uses a cruising strategy for finding hosts. Str. stercoralis shows robust attraction to a diverse array of human skin and sweat odorants, most of which are known mosquito attractants. Olfactory preferences of Str. stercoralis vary across life stages, suggesting a mechanism by which host seeking is limited to infective larvae. A comparison of odor-driven behavior in Str. stercoralis and six other nematode species revealed that parasite olfactory preferences reflect host specificity rather than phylogeny, suggesting an important role for olfaction in host selection. Our results may enable the development of new strategies for combating harmful nematode infections. PMID:25121736

  15. Activation of a Pollenin Promoter upon Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, M.; de Oliveira Manes, C.-L.; Van Montagu, M.; Gheysen, G.

    2002-01-01

    Three glycine-rich protein genes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Atgrp-6, Atgrp-7, and Atgrp-8) that correspond to putative genes coding for pollenins (AtolnB;2, AtolnB;3, and AtolnB;4, respectively) are expressed predominantly in the anthers and, more specifically, in the tapetum layer. Tapetal cells are responsible for nutrition of developing pollen grains and show some functional similarities to nematode feeding sites (NFS) induced in plant roots by sedentary parasitic nematodes. The aim of this study was to analyze promoter activity of the Atgrp genes in NFS. Transformed Arabidopsis plants containing a promoter-ß-glucuronidase (gus) fusion of the Atgrp-7 gene were inoculated with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. GUS assays were performed at different time points after infection. Histochemical analysis revealed an up-regulation of Atgrp-7-gus expression 3 days after inoculation in the feeding sites of both nematodes. Maximal Atgrp-7-gus staining levels in NFS were observed 1 week after nematode infection. PMID:19265912

  16. Low cryoprotectant concentrations and fast cooling for nematode cryostorage.

    PubMed

    Irdani, Tiziana; Scotto, Cristina; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2011-08-01

    Cryopreservation protocols based on slow freezing or vitrification often result in cell injury due to ice formation, cell dehydration and/or toxic concentrations of cryoprotectant (CPA). In this study, we present a cryopreservation technique based on low, non-toxic concentrations of cryoprotectants (≈ 2-4M) combined with a rapid cooling rate in the liquid nitrogen phase (-196°C). Protocols for successfully cryopreserving the plant parasitic nematodes Globodera tabacum tabacum, Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita were developed, as demonstrated by the high survival rates and reproducibility of cyst and root-knot nematode species post-cryostorage. This approach for effective cryopreservation of viable plant-parasitic nematodes was developed by inducing an "apparent vitrification" by rapid cooling of the microscopic samples in less than 2M of cryoprotectant. The extremely thin structure (15-20 μm width, 350-400 μm length) of these nematodes, in combination with a direct and rapid exposure to LN(2), likely prevents the formation of damaging ice crystals. Moreover, this procedure results in viability of both short- and long-cryostorage samples. These techniques could potentially be used for the near-indefinite preservation of thousands of different nematode species. A cryo-nematode collection produced in our lab is available and presented here.

  17. Communities of terrestrial nematodes after different approaches to heathland restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radochova, Petra; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Since the 20th century, the distribution of European heathlands rapidly decreased due to agricultural intensification, heavy use of artificial fertilizers or acidification (Aerts & Heil, 1993). Therefore, various attempts of heathland restoration are under way in these days. Analysis of nematode community composition can be one of the tools suitable for succession evaluation (Ferris et al., 2001). In 2011, 2013 and 2014, soil samples were collected from heathland restoration experiment (launched in 2011) where different restoration methods were applied in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment; existing heathlands were also sampled to identify the target community both in dry and wet heathland. A total of 60 samples of extracted nematodes were analysed for absolute abundance, trophic groups, and genera dominance. Various indices were calculated to describe the nematode community. We were able to prove faster development of wet heathlands towards the target community. However, because of large data variability, there was no significant difference between treatments. Development of wet and dry heathlands differed also in increased proportion of omniphagous nematodes in 2013 and predators in 2014 in dry heathlands. After three years of heathland restoration, nematode community has not yet reached parameters of the target community. References Aerts, R., Heil, G. W., 1993. Heathlands: patterns and processes in a changing environment, 1st ed, Geobotany: 20. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 229. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., De Goede, R. G. M., 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis oncept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18, 13-29.

  18. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Manosalva, Patricia; Manohar, Murli; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Chen, Shiyan; Koch, Aline; Kaplan, Fatma; Choe, Andrea; Micikas, Robert J.; Wang, Xiaohong; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Sternberg, Paul W.; Williamson, Valerie M.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr#18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways. Ascr#18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial, oomycete, fungal and nematode infections. These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small-molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. PMID:26203561

  19. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tushar K.; Papolu, Pradeep K.; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60–80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  20. Pan-phylum Comparison of Nematode Metabolic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Rosa, Bruce A.; Lewis, Warren G.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are among the most important causative pathogens of neglected tropical diseases. The increased availability of genomic and transcriptomic data for many understudied nematode species provides a great opportunity to investigate different aspects of their biology. Increasingly, metabolic potential of pathogens is recognized as a critical determinant governing their development, growth and pathogenicity. Comparing metabolic potential among species with distinct trophic ecologies can provide insights on overall biology or molecular adaptations. Furthermore, ascertaining gene expression at pathway level can help in understanding metabolic dynamics over development. Comparison of biochemical pathways (or subpathways, i.e. pathway modules) among related species can also retrospectively indicate potential mistakes in gene-calling and functional annotation. We show with numerous illustrative case studies that comparisons at the level of pathway modules have the potential to uncover biological insights while remaining computationally tractable. Here, we reconstruct and compare metabolic modules found in the deduced proteomes of 13 nematodes and 10 non-nematode species (including hosts of the parasitic nematode species). We observed that the metabolic potential is, in general, concomitant with phylogenetic and/or ecological similarity. Varied metabolic strategies are required among the nematodes, with only 8 out of 51 pathway modules being completely conserved. Enzyme comparison based on topology of metabolic modules uncovered diversification between parasite and host that can potentially guide therapeutic intervention. Gene expression data from 4 nematode species were used to study metabolic dynamics over their life cycles. We report unexpected differential metabolism between immature and mature microfilariae of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. A set of genes potentially important for parasitism is also reported, based on an analysis of gene expression in

  1. Pan-phylum Comparison of Nematode Metabolic Potential.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Rosa, Bruce A; Lewis, Warren G; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes are among the most important causative pathogens of neglected tropical diseases. The increased availability of genomic and transcriptomic data for many understudied nematode species provides a great opportunity to investigate different aspects of their biology. Increasingly, metabolic potential of pathogens is recognized as a critical determinant governing their development, growth and pathogenicity. Comparing metabolic potential among species with distinct trophic ecologies can provide insights on overall biology or molecular adaptations. Furthermore, ascertaining gene expression at pathway level can help in understanding metabolic dynamics over development. Comparison of biochemical pathways (or subpathways, i.e. pathway modules) among related species can also retrospectively indicate potential mistakes in gene-calling and functional annotation. We show with numerous illustrative case studies that comparisons at the level of pathway modules have the potential to uncover biological insights while remaining computationally tractable. Here, we reconstruct and compare metabolic modules found in the deduced proteomes of 13 nematodes and 10 non-nematode species (including hosts of the parasitic nematode species). We observed that the metabolic potential is, in general, concomitant with phylogenetic and/or ecological similarity. Varied metabolic strategies are required among the nematodes, with only 8 out of 51 pathway modules being completely conserved. Enzyme comparison based on topology of metabolic modules uncovered diversification between parasite and host that can potentially guide therapeutic intervention. Gene expression data from 4 nematode species were used to study metabolic dynamics over their life cycles. We report unexpected differential metabolism between immature and mature microfilariae of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. A set of genes potentially important for parasitism is also reported, based on an analysis of gene expression in

  2. Pan-phylum Comparison of Nematode Metabolic Potential.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Rosa, Bruce A; Lewis, Warren G; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes are among the most important causative pathogens of neglected tropical diseases. The increased availability of genomic and transcriptomic data for many understudied nematode species provides a great opportunity to investigate different aspects of their biology. Increasingly, metabolic potential of pathogens is recognized as a critical determinant governing their development, growth and pathogenicity. Comparing metabolic potential among species with distinct trophic ecologies can provide insights on overall biology or molecular adaptations. Furthermore, ascertaining gene expression at pathway level can help in understanding metabolic dynamics over development. Comparison of biochemical pathways (or subpathways, i.e. pathway modules) among related species can also retrospectively indicate potential mistakes in gene-calling and functional annotation. We show with numerous illustrative case studies that comparisons at the level of pathway modules have the potential to uncover biological insights while remaining computationally tractable. Here, we reconstruct and compare metabolic modules found in the deduced proteomes of 13 nematodes and 10 non-nematode species (including hosts of the parasitic nematode species). We observed that the metabolic potential is, in general, concomitant with phylogenetic and/or ecological similarity. Varied metabolic strategies are required among the nematodes, with only 8 out of 51 pathway modules being completely conserved. Enzyme comparison based on topology of metabolic modules uncovered diversification between parasite and host that can potentially guide therapeutic intervention. Gene expression data from 4 nematode species were used to study metabolic dynamics over their life cycles. We report unexpected differential metabolism between immature and mature microfilariae of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. A set of genes potentially important for parasitism is also reported, based on an analysis of gene expression in

  3. Two candidate genes (FTO and INSIG2) for fat accumulation in four canids: chromosome mapping, gene polymorphisms and association studies of body and skin weight of red foxes.

    PubMed

    Grzes, M; Szczerbal, I; Fijak-Nowak, H; Szydlowski, M; Switonski, M

    2011-01-01

    Fat accumulation is a polygenic trait which has a significant impact on human health and animal production. Obesity is also an increasingly serious problem in dog breeding. The FTO and INSIG2 are considered as candidate genes associated with predisposition for human obesity. In this report we present a comparative genomic analysis of these 2 genes in 4 species belonging to the family Canidae - the dog and 3 species which are kept in captivity for fur production, i.e. red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. We cytogenetically mapped these 2 loci by FISH and compared the entire coding sequence of INSIG2 and a fragment of the coding sequence of FTO. The FTO gene was assigned to the following chromosomes: CFA2q25 (dog), VVU2q21 (red fox), ALA8q25 (arctic fox) and NPP10q24-25 (Chinese raccoon dog), while the INSIG2 was mapped to CFA19q17, VVU5p14, ALA24q15 and NPP9q22, respectively. Altogether, 29 SNPs were identified (16 in INSIG2 and 13 in FTO) and among them 2 were missense substitutions in the dog (23C/T, Thr>Met in the FTO gene and 40C/A, Arg>Ser in INSIG2). The distribution of these 2 SNPs was studied in 14 dog breeds. Two synonymous SNPs, one in the FTO gene (-28T>C in the 5'-flanking region) and one in the INSIG2 (10175C>T in intron 2), were used for the association studies in red foxes (n = 390) and suggestive evidence was observed for their association with body weight (FTO, p < 0.08) and weight of raw skin (INSIG2, p < 0.05). These associations indicate that both genes are potential candidates for growth or adipose tissue accumulation in canids. We also suggest that the 2 missense substitutions found in dogs should be studied in terms of genetic predisposition to obesity.

  4. Scavenger deterrent factor (SDF) from symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gulcu, Baris; Hazir, Selcuk; Kaya, Harry K

    2012-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are symbiotically associated with bacteria in the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively. The symbiotic bacteria produce a chemical compound(s) that deterred ants from feeding on nematode-killed insects (i.e., cadavers) and has been previously referred to as an Ant Deterrent Factor (ADF). We studied the response of different arthropod scavenger species which included the ant Lepisiota frauenfeldi, cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula sp., and calliphorid fly Chrysomya albiceps, to ADF. These scavengers (ants, crickets, and wasps) were exposed to cadavers with and without the nematode/bacterium complex or to Photorhabdus luminescens cultures of different ages on different substrates. The ant, cricket, and wasp species did not feed on nematode-killed insects containing the nematode/bacterium complex that were 2 days old and older but fed on 1-day-old nematode-killed and freeze -killed insects. Crickets consumed 2- to 7-day-old axenic nematode-killed insects, 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old insects killed by the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, and freeze-killed, putrid insects that were up to 10 days old. The crickets only partially consumed 2- and 3-day-old insects killed by S. marcescens which differed significantly from the 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old killed insects by this bacterium. Ants fed only on 5% sucrose solution (control) and 1- to 3- day old cultures of P. luminescens containing 5% sucrose but not on older cultures of P. luminescens. Wasps did not feed on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant, whereas they fed on meat treated with Escherichia coli supernatant and control meat. Calliphorid flies did not oviposit on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant but did oviposit on untreated meat. Based on the response of these scavengers, the chemical compound(s) responsible for this deterrent activity should be called "scavenger deterrent factor

  5. Scavenger deterrent factor (SDF) from symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gulcu, Baris; Hazir, Selcuk; Kaya, Harry K

    2012-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are symbiotically associated with bacteria in the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively. The symbiotic bacteria produce a chemical compound(s) that deterred ants from feeding on nematode-killed insects (i.e., cadavers) and has been previously referred to as an Ant Deterrent Factor (ADF). We studied the response of different arthropod scavenger species which included the ant Lepisiota frauenfeldi, cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula sp., and calliphorid fly Chrysomya albiceps, to ADF. These scavengers (ants, crickets, and wasps) were exposed to cadavers with and without the nematode/bacterium complex or to Photorhabdus luminescens cultures of different ages on different substrates. The ant, cricket, and wasp species did not feed on nematode-killed insects containing the nematode/bacterium complex that were 2 days old and older but fed on 1-day-old nematode-killed and freeze -killed insects. Crickets consumed 2- to 7-day-old axenic nematode-killed insects, 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old insects killed by the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, and freeze-killed, putrid insects that were up to 10 days old. The crickets only partially consumed 2- and 3-day-old insects killed by S. marcescens which differed significantly from the 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old killed insects by this bacterium. Ants fed only on 5% sucrose solution (control) and 1- to 3- day old cultures of P. luminescens containing 5% sucrose but not on older cultures of P. luminescens. Wasps did not feed on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant, whereas they fed on meat treated with Escherichia coli supernatant and control meat. Calliphorid flies did not oviposit on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant but did oviposit on untreated meat. Based on the response of these scavengers, the chemical compound(s) responsible for this deterrent activity should be called "scavenger deterrent factor

  6. The environmental physiology of Antarctic terrestrial nematodes: a review.

    PubMed

    Wharton, D A

    2003-11-01

    The environmental physiology of terrestrial Antarctic nematodes is reviewed with an emphasis on their cold-tolerance strategies. These nematodes are living in one of the most extreme environments on Earth and face a variety of stresses, including low temperatures and desiccation. Their diversity is low and declines with latitude. They show resistance adaptation, surviving freezing and desiccation in a dormant state but reproducing when conditions are favourable. At high freezing rates in the surrounding medium the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi freezes by inoculative freezing but can survive intracellular freezing. At slow freezing rates this nematode does not freeze but undergoes cryoprotective dehydration. Cold tolerance may be aided by rapid freezing, the production of trehalose and by an ice-active protein that inhibits recrystallisation. P. davidi relies on slow rates of water loss from its habitat, and can survive in a state of anhydrobiosis, perhaps aided by the ability to synthesise trehalose. Teratocephalus tilbrooki and Ditylenchus parcevivens are fast-dehydration strategists. Little is known of the osmoregulatory mechanisms of Antarctic nematodes. Freezing rates are likely to vary with water content in Antarctic soils. Saturated soils may produce slow freezing rates and favour cryoprotective dehydration. As the soil dries freezing rates may become faster, favouring freezing tolerance. When the soil dries completely the nematodes survive anhydrobiotically. Terrestrial Antarctic nematodes thus have a variety of strategies that ensure their survival in a harsh and variable environment. We need to more fully understand the conditions to which they are exposed in Antarctic soils and to apply more natural rates of freezing and desiccation to our studies.

  7. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  8. [Biology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants].

    PubMed

    Manfredi, M T

    2006-09-01

    The development and survival of free-living stages of gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants are influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. Within the abiotic factors, most important are the environmental temperature and humidity. They regulate the development of larvae from eggs dispersed on the pasture by the animals faeces. Each parasite species that infect ruminants requires a different time to development, depending on temperature and humidity. Among trichostrongylids, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia and Nematodirus show a strong adaptation to low temperatures. Nematodirus larvae are able to survive to winter inside the egg shell. Temperature and humidity influence the distribution and survival of larvae on pasture. The larval third stage can migrate from faeces to pasture vegetation and they accumulate at the basis of vegetation where stay during the day or in the soil to avoid the desiccation. The forage species affects the migration of larvae on herbage too. Many biological factors contribute to disperse the larvae on the pasture. Dung burying beetles, coprophagous beetles and earthworms can greatly reduce the larvae of some trichostrongylids on pasture. They contribute to the spread of the faecal material on the pasture and allow the larval death as a consequence of drying. PMID:17176950

  9. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  10. BACTERIAL PREFERENCES OF THE BACTERIVOROUS SOIL NEMATODE CEPHALOBUS BREVICAUDA (CEPHALOBIDAE): EFFECT OF BACTERIAL TYPE AND SIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell size and type may affect availability of bacteria for consumption by bacterivorous nematodes in the soil and in culture. This study explored the bacterial preferences of the bacterivorous soil nematode Cephalobus brevicauda (Cephalobidae) by comparing bactgeria isolated dir...

  11. Substitution of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes for susceptible nematodes in grazing lambs.

    PubMed

    Moussavou-Boussougou, M-N; Silvestre, A; Cortet, J; Sauve, C; Cabaret, J

    2007-04-01

    Multi-drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematode parasite populations are becoming more and more prevalent. Since anthelmintic treatments are of limited effectiveness, one solution could be to replace the anthelmintic-resistant population by a susceptible population, in order to re-establish the possibility of drug-based anthelmintic control. We investigated this substitution strategy in 4 paddocks of 0.7 ha, each of which was seeded with a benzimidazole-resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta population. The proportion of benzimidazole-resistant worms in these paddocks ranged from 20% to 89%. A 2-step replacement was performed: first, the paddocks were not grazed for 6 months (from December to July), and then the grass was cut to eliminate any residual infective larvae, before contaminating each of the paddocks with 10 seeder lambs experimentally infected with a benzimidazole-susceptible strain of T. circumcincta (from July to November). At the end of the experiment, all the populations on the 4 paddocks were phenotypically benzimidazole-susceptible, but genotyping indicated that 2 populations harboured 1% and 3% resistant worms respectively. This study demonstrates that nematode replacement is feasible in temperate areas, using semi-intensive stock management, even when the initial levels of benzimidazole-resistance are very high. Further research should next assess replacing the whole community to cope with the species diversity observed under field conditions. PMID:17096872

  12. The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-02-01

    To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes.

  13. In vitro proteolysis of nematode FLPs by preparations from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the la...

  14. Variation in the susceptibility of Drosophila to different entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peña, Jennifer M; Carrillo, Mayra A; Hallem, Elissa A

    2015-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are lethal parasites of insects that are of interest as models for understanding parasite-host interactions and as biocontrol agents for insect pests. EPNs harbor a bacterial endosymbiont in their gut that assists in insect killing. EPNs are capable of infecting and killing a wide range of insects, yet how the nematodes and their bacterial endosymbionts interact with the insect immune system is poorly understood. Here, we develop a versatile model system for understanding the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection that consists of seven species of EPNs as model parasites and five species of Drosophila fruit flies as model hosts. We show that the EPN Steinernema carpocapsae, which is widely used for insect control, is capable of infecting and killing D. melanogaster larvae. S. carpocapsae is associated with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and we show that X. nematophila induces expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide genes and suppresses the melanization response to the nematode. We further show that EPNs vary in their virulence toward D. melanogaster and that Drosophila species vary in their susceptibilities to EPN infection. Differences in virulence among different EPN-host combinations result from differences in both rates of infection and rates of postinfection survival. Our results establish a powerful model system for understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection.

  15. The FMRFamide-Like Peptide Family in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Peymen, Katleen; Watteyne, Jan; Frooninckx, Lotte; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp-genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory neurons, and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes. PMID:24982652

  16. Enzymology of the nematode cuticle: A potential drug target?

    PubMed

    Page, Antony P; Stepek, Gillian; Winter, Alan D; Pertab, David

    2014-08-01

    All nematodes possess an external structure known as the cuticle, which is crucial for their development and survival. This structure is composed primarily of collagen, which is secreted from the underlying hypodermal cells. Extensive studies using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate that formation of the cuticle requires the activity of an extensive range of enzymes. Enzymes are required both pre-secretion, for synthesis of component proteins such as collagen, and post-secretion, for removal of the previous developmental stage cuticle, in a process known as moulting or exsheathment. The excretion/secretion products of numerous parasitic nematodes contain metallo-, serine and cysteine proteases, and these proteases are conserved across the nematode phylum and many are involved in the moulting/exsheathment process. This review highlights the enzymes required for cuticle formation, with a focus on the post-secretion moulting events. Where orthologues of the C. elegans enzymes have been identified in parasitic nematodes these may represent novel candidate targets for future drug/vaccine development. PMID:25057463

  17. Nucleic acid transfection and transgenesis in parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lok, James B

    2012-04-01

    Transgenesis is an essential tool for assessing gene function in any organism, and it is especially crucial for parasitic nematodes given the dwindling armamentarium of effective anthelmintics and the consequent need to validate essential molecular targets for new drugs and vaccines. Two of the major routes of gene delivery evaluated to date in parasitic nematodes, bombardment with DNA-coated microparticles and intragonadal microinjection of DNA constructs, draw upon experience with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bombardment has been used to transiently transfect Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi and Litomosoides sigmodontis with both RNA and DNA. Microinjection has been used to achieve heritable transgenesis in Strongyloides stercoralis, S. ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and for additional transient expression studies in B. malayi. A third route of gene delivery revisits a classic method involving DNA transfer facilitated by calcium-mediated permeabilization of recipient cells in developing B. malayi larvae and results in transgene inheritance through host and vector passage. Assembly of microinjected transgenes into multi-copy episomal arrays likely results in their transcriptional silencing in some parasitic nematodes. Methods such as transposon-mediated transgenesis that favour low-copy number chromosomal integration may remedy this impediment to establishing stable transgenic lines. In the future, stable transgenesis in parasitic nematodes could enable loss-of-function approaches by insertional mutagenesis, in situ expression of inhibitory double-stranded RNA or boosting RNAi susceptibility through heterologous expression of dsRNA processing and transport proteins. PMID:21880161

  18. Signatures of adaptation to plant parasitism in nematode genomes.

    PubMed

    Bird, David McK; Jones, John T; Opperman, Charles H; Kikuchi, Taisei; Danchin, Etienne G J

    2015-02-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to global agriculture. The ability to parasitize plants is a derived character that appears to have independently emerged several times in the phylum Nematoda. Morphological convergence to feeding style has been observed, but whether this is emergent from molecular convergence is less obvious. To address this, we assess whether genomic signatures can be associated with plant parasitism by nematodes. In this review, we report genomic features and characteristics that appear to be common in plant-parasitic nematodes while absent or rare in animal parasites, predators or free-living species. Candidate horizontal acquisitions of parasitism genes have systematically been found in all plant-parasitic species investigated at the sequence level. Presence of peptides that mimic plant hormones also appears to be a trait of plant-parasitic species. Annotations of the few genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes available to date have revealed a set of apparently species-specific genes on every occasion. Effector genes, important for parasitism are frequently found among those species-specific genes, indicating poor overlap. Overall, nematodes appear to have developed convergent genomic solutions to adapt to plant parasitism. PMID:25656361

  19. Trehalose metabolism genes in Caenorhabditis elegans and filarial nematodes.

    PubMed

    Pellerone, F I; Archer, S K; Behm, C A; Grant, W N; Lacey, M J; Somerville, A C

    2003-09-30

    The sugar trehalose is claimed to be important in the physiology of nematodes where it may function in sugar transport, energy storage and protection against environmental stresses. In this study we investigated the role of trehalose metabolism in nematodes, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, and also identified complementary DNA clones putatively encoding genes involved in trehalose pathways in filarial nematodes. In C. elegans two putative trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (tps) genes encode the enzymes that catalyse trehalose synthesis and five putative trehalase (tre) genes encode enzymes catalysing hydrolysis of the sugar. We showed by RT-PCR or Northern analysis that each of these genes is expressed as mRNA at all stages of the C. elegans life cycle. Database searches and sequencing of expressed sequence tag clones revealed that at least one tps gene and two tre genes are expressed in the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, while one tps gene and at least one tre gene were identified for Onchocerca volvulus. We used the feeding method of RNA interference in C. elegans to knock down temporarily the expression of each of the tps and tre genes. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that expression of each gene was silenced by RNA interference. We did not observe an obvious phenotype for any of the genes silenced individually but gas-chromatographic analysis showed >90% decline in trehalose levels when both tps genes were targeted simultaneously. This decline in trehalose content did not affect viability or development of the nematodes.

  20. Experimental Studies with Nematodes in Ecotoxicology: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Hägerbäumer, Arne; Höss, Sebastian; Heininger, Peter; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    With respect to their high abundances, their role as intermediaries between microorganisms and higher trophic levels, and their ubiquitous occurrence in all habitats, nematodes are of strong potential interest as environmental indicators. Ecotoxicological methods to evaluate the risk of anthropogenic pollutants on ecosystems require both in vitro and in vivo toxicity tests to investigate either mechanisms or pathways of toxicity and to set accurate toxicity thresholds. For this, the interest in nematodes as model organisms in ecotoxicology increased over the past few decades and existing appropriate experimental methods are reviewed in this manuscript. An overview of the various existing ecotoxicological tools for nematodes, ranging from molecular laboratory methods to experimental model ecosystem approaches, and their role as indicator organisms is given. The reviewed studies, approaches that range from species-based to community-based methods, reveal exciting possibilities for the future use of nematodes in ecotoxicological studies. Suitable ecotoxicological tools and ecological indices for nematodes should be integrated in weight-of-evidence approaches for assessing the ecological risk of contamination. PMID:25861113

  1. Nematode Chemotaxis: Gradual Turns, Sharp Turns, and Modulated Turn Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amar; Padmanabhan, Venkat; Rumbaugh, Kendra; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-03-01

    We examine strategies used by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans for chemotaxis in complex environments. The proposed description is based on our recently developed piecewise-harmonic-curvature model of nematode locomotion [PLoS ONE, 7(7) e40121 (2012)], where random harmonic-curvature modes represent elementary locomotory movements. We show that the previously described gradual-turn and sharp-turn chemotaxis strategies can be unified in our model. The gradual-turn mechanism relies on crawling amplitude changes commensurate with the undulation frequency. The sharp-turn mechanism consists in modulation of the frequency of jumps to large-amplitude modes. We hypothesize that there exists a third strategy, where the nematode adjusts the variance of the amplitude distribution. Such adjustments result in a modulation of the magnitude of random turns, with smaller turns performed when the nematode moves toward the increasing chemoatractant concentration. Experiments are proposed to determine if the third strategy is present in the nematode behavior. This work was supported by NSF grant No. CBET 1059745.

  2. Proteomic Investigation of Photorhabdus Bacteria for Nematode-Host Specificity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ram; Kushwah, Jyoti; Ganguly, Sudershan; Garg, Veena; Somvanshi, Vishal S

    2016-09-01

    Majority of animals form symbiotic relationships with bacteria. Based on the number of bacterial species associating with an animal, these symbiotic associations can be mono-specific, relatively simple (2-25 bacterial species/animal) or highly complex (>10(2)-10(3) bacterial species/animal). Photorhabdus (family-Enterobacteriaceae) forms a mono-specific symbiotic relationship with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis. This system provides a tractable genetic model for animal-microbe symbiosis studies. Here, we investigated the bacterial factors that may be responsible for governing host specificity between nematode and their symbiont bacteria using proteomics approach. Total protein profiles of P. luminescens ssp. laumondii (host nematode- H. bacteriophora) and P. luminescens ssp. akhurstii (host nematode- H. indica) were compared using 2-D gel electrophoresis, followed by identification of differentially expressed proteins by MALDI-TOF MS. Thirty-nine unique protein spots were identified - 24 from P. luminescens ssp. laumondii and 15 from P. luminescens ssp. akhurstii. These included proteins that might be involved in determining host specificity directly (for e.g. pilin FimA, outer membrane protein A), indirectly through effect on bacterial secondary metabolism (for e.g. malate dehydrogenase Mdh, Pyruvate formate-lyase PflA, flavo protein WrbA), or in a yet unknown manner (for e.g. hypothetical proteins, transcription regulators). Further functional validation is needed to establish the role of these bacterial proteins in nematode-host specificity. PMID:27407301

  3. Heme acquisition in the parasitic filarial nematode Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Ashley N.; Yuan, Xiaojing; Voronin, Denis; Slatko, Barton E.; Hamza, Iqbal; Foster, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Nematodes lack a heme biosynthetic pathway and must acquire heme from exogenous sources. Given the indispensable role of heme, this auxotrophy may be exploited to develop drugs that interfere with heme uptake in parasites. Although multiple heme-responsive genes (HRGs) have been characterized within the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we have undertaken the first study of heme transport in Brugia malayi, a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis. Through functional assays in yeast, as well as heme analog, RNAi, and transcriptomic experiments, we have shown that the heme transporter B. malayi HRG-1 (BmHRG-1) is indeed functional in B. malayi. In addition, BmHRG-1 localizes both to the endocytic compartments and cell membrane when expressed in yeast cells. Transcriptomic sequencing revealed that BmHRG-1, BmHRG-2, and BmMRP-5 (all orthologs of HRGs in C. elegans) are down-regulated in heme-treated B. malayi, as compared to non–heme-treated control worms. Likely because of short gene lengths, multiple exons, other HRGs in B. malayi (BmHRG-3–6) remain unidentified. Although the precise mechanisms of heme homeostasis in a nematode with the ability to acquire heme remains unknown, this study clearly demonstrates that the filarial nematode B. malayi is capable of transporting exogenous heme.—Luck, A. N., Yuan, X., Voronin, D., Slatko, B. E., Hamza, I., Foster, J. M. Heme acquisition in the parasitic filarial nematode Brugia malayi. PMID:27363426

  4. Nematode infection in fish from Cartagena Bay, North of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Verbel, Jesús Olivero; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara

    2011-04-19

    Parasitic nematode infection indices were recorded in different fish species collected at Cartagena Bay, North of Colombia. Among 19 studied species, the Mugil genus presented the highest prevalence (83.9-100%), although Sciades herzbergii, Caranx hippos and Centropomus undecimalis were also found infected with nematodes. Parasites were found in the liver, intestinal mesenteries and encysted near the intervertebral joints, with an average parasite abundance of 4.0 ± 0.3 nematodes per fish. Morphological analysis allowed the identification of these nematodes as Contracaecum sp. A small, but positive correlation was found between parasite abundance and length (R=0.294, P<0.001) and weight (R=0.244, P<0.001). In contrast, the correlation between parasite abundance and condition factor was negative (R=-0.191, P<0.001). These results are the first describing the presence of nematodes in several fish species of this ecosystem, and it highlights the need for monitoring parasitism in Mugil species in order to avoid parasite ingestion during fish consumption.

  5. Enzymology of the nematode cuticle: A potential drug target?

    PubMed Central

    Page, Antony P.; Stepek, Gillian; Winter, Alan D.; Pertab, David

    2014-01-01

    All nematodes possess an external structure known as the cuticle, which is crucial for their development and survival. This structure is composed primarily of collagen, which is secreted from the underlying hypodermal cells. Extensive studies using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate that formation of the cuticle requires the activity of an extensive range of enzymes. Enzymes are required both pre-secretion, for synthesis of component proteins such as collagen, and post-secretion, for removal of the previous developmental stage cuticle, in a process known as moulting or exsheathment. The excretion/secretion products of numerous parasitic nematodes contain metallo-, serine and cysteine proteases, and these proteases are conserved across the nematode phylum and many are involved in the moulting/exsheathment process. This review highlights the enzymes required for cuticle formation, with a focus on the post-secretion moulting events. Where orthologues of the C. elegans enzymes have been identified in parasitic nematodes these may represent novel candidate targets for future drug/vaccine development. PMID:25057463

  6. Occurence of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants in Northern Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes in Egypt is very important for agricultural production. A nematode survey was conducted in northern Egypt to identify the genera and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants. A total of 240...

  7. Chemical ecology and isolation of biologically active compounds from parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) are possibly the economically most important and best-studied species of plant parasitic nematodes. However, for Meloidogyne spp and the intensely studied nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, very little is known about signaling within and in-between species. It h...

  8. A SNARE-like protein and biotin are implicated in soybean cyst nematode virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some phytoparasitic nematodes have the ability to infect and reproduce on plants that are normally considered resistant to nematode infection. Such nematodes are referred to as virulent and the mechanisms they use to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here, we report the ...

  9. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  10. First report of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus on wheat in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) are important nematode pests that invade roots of plants and restrict productivity of wheat. In August 2015, a soil sample was collected from a harvested wheat field in Walsh County, ND and was found to contain 1,044 root-lesion nematodes per kg of soil usin...

  11. Regulatory interplay between soybean root and soybean cyst nematode during a resistant and susceptible reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are obligate parasites that feed on the roots of living host plants. Often, these nematodes can lay hundreds of eggs, each capable of surviving in the soil for as long as 12 years. When it comes to wreaking havoc on agricultural yield, few nematodes can c...

  12. RNA interference in nematodes and the chance that favored Sydney Brenner

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Marie-Anne

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of RNA interference varies between different organisms, even among nematodes. A recent report of successful RNA interference in the nematode Panagrolaimus superbus in BMC Molecular Biology has implications for the comparative study of the functional genomics of nematode species, and prompts reflections on the choice of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. PMID:19014674

  13. The Use of Glass Microbeads in Ecological Experiments with Bacteriophagic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R. V.; Coleman, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A system that uses microbeads for the culture of bacteriophgic nematodes is described. Glass-bead culture was found to simulate a soil microcosm more closely than did agar culture i n terms of CO₂ production , number of nematodes produced, and nematode size. PMID:19305615

  14. New germplasm lines with high yield and fiber quality combined with nematode resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lines BAR-8, -11, -13, -25, -33, -41, and -48 were developed to have both resistance to nematodes and superior yield and quality. All have resistance to reniform nematodes derived from G. barbadense GB 713 and several carry the DNA marker for Mi1, the gene for resistance to root-knot nematodes....

  15. Prevalence of Pasteuria SP. on Renfirom Nematode in a Georgia Cotton Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasteuria species are bacterial parasites of nematodes and have been associated with suppression of root-knot, sting, and cyst nematode populations. Little is known about the Pasteuria sp. infecting the reniform nematode. While sampling a cotton field study near Cochran, GA, we found Pasteuria spo...

  16. A Treadmill to Localize, Exercise, and Measure the Propulsive Power of Nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Chuan, Han-Sheng; Gnatt, Michael; Raizen, David; Bau, Haim

    2011-11-01

    The nematodes C. elegans is often used as model biological system to study the genetic basis of behavior, disease-progression, and aging, as well as to develop new therapies and screen drugs. On occasion, it is desirable to quantify the nematode's muscle power. Here, we present a kind of nematode treadmill. The device consists of a tapered conduit filled with aqueous solution. The conduit is subjected to a DC electric field and to pressure-driven flow directed from the narrow end. The nematode is inserted at the conduit's wide end. Directed by the electric field (through electrotaxis), the nematode swims deliberately upstream toward the negative pole. As the conduit narrows, the average fluid velocity and the drag force on the nematode increase. Eventually, the nematode arrives at an equilibrium position, at which its propulsive power balances the viscous drag force. The nematode's propulsive power is estimated with direct numerical simulations of the flow field around the nematode. The calculations utilize the experimentally imaged gait as a boundary condition. The device is useful to retain the nematode at a nearly fixed position for prolonged observations under a microscope, to keep the nematode exercising, and to estimate the nematode's power based on the conduit's width at the equilibrium position.

  17. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  18. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  19. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  20. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  1. Molecular and morphological characterization of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae was first detected in India, where it has wide distribution. This nematode has also been reported from Pakistan, Egypt, Thailand, Nepal, the United States, and Portugal. There is limited information regarding nematodes attacking cereals in Greece, and thus far ...

  2. Mechanisms of molecular mimicry of plant CLE peptide ligands by the parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes that parasitize plant roots cause huge economic losses and have few mechanisms for control. Many parasitic nematodes infect plants by reprogramming root development to drive the formation of feeding structures. How nematodes take control of plant development is largely unknown. The CLE ...

  3. Discovery and virulence-screening of native nematodes in Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three newly discovered entomopathogenic nematodes have been recovered from wild Wisconsin cranberry marshes. All three nematode strains have been shown to attack Sparganothis Fruitworm (SFW), and all seem similar in their virulence (ability to kill the host). Only one nematode line, however, has bee...

  4. Ups and downs of RNA interference in parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Britton, Collette; Samarasinghe, Buddhini; Knox, David P

    2012-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used in Caenorhabiditis elegans to identify essential gene function. In parasitic nematodes RNAi has been reported to result in transcript knockdown of some target genes, but not others, thus limiting its use as a potential functional genomics tool. We recently extended work in Haemonchus contortus to examine why only some genes seem to be susceptible to RNAi and to test RNAi effects in vivo. Here we review our findings, which suggest that site of gene expression influences silencing. This most likely reflects limited uptake of dsRNA from the environment, a phenomenon also observed in other free-living nematodes. We discuss new technologies to improve dsRNA delivery, such as nanoparticles being developed for therapeutic siRNA delivery, and methods to monitor RNAi effects. Alternative approaches will be important in progressing the application of RNAi to identify essential gene function in parasitic nematodes. PMID:21854774

  5. Report on anisakid nematodes in polar regions - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzido, Joanna; Kijewska, Agnieszka; Rokicka, Magdalena; Świątalska-Koseda, Agnieszka; Rokicki, Jerzy

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the distribution of anisakid nematode parasites in Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. We examined vertebrate (fish) taxa characteristic of the faunas in both polar regions for the presence of parasitic nematodes. The material was collected from Svalbard (Arctic) between July and August 2008 and from King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula) between November 2007 and January 2008. In addition, faecal, bird, and invertebrate samples were collected and examined for the presence of anisakid nematodes or eggs. Anisakis simplex s.s. was found in the body cavity of Arctic cod, and Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova sp. were found in Antarctic notothenioids. Eggs of Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum sp. were recovered from the faeces of Mirounga leonina. We present the first record of the occurrence of A. simplex C in the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps and Notothenia rossii.

  6. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before. PMID:27296146

  7. Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Maine Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, W N.; Francl, L. J.; Henn, A.; Bourgoin, T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with agricultural crops in nine Maine counties, 744 soil samples from 26 potential host plants were analyzed between November 1987 and January 1989. The most commonly encountered nematode genus was Pratylenchus, occurring in 85% of the samples from most crops, except blueberries and onions. Pratylenchus penetrans and P. crenatus were found commonly as species mixtures, with P. penetrans composing 40-80% of the mixture. Meloidogyne hapla was encountered in 16% of the samples in four counties, generally in potato rotations. Other nematodes encountered were Aphelenchoides spp., Criconemella curvature, Ditylenchus spp., Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, H. digonicus, Heterodera trifolii, Paratylenchus projectus, Trichodorus spp., Tylenchorhynchus maximus, and Xiphinema americanum. Potato fields were the most heavily sampled and thus weighted the statewide results. PMID:19287791

  8. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before.

  9. Orthologs of macrophage migration inhibitory factor from parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jon J.; Cho, Yoonsang; Lolis, Elias; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic helminth infections are associated with modulation of host cellular immune responses, presumably to prolong parasite survival within the mammalian host. This phenomenon is attributed, at least in part, to the elaboration of parasite molecules, including orthologs of host cytokines and receptors, at the host–parasite interface. This review describes recent progress in the characterization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) orthologs from parasitic nematodes. The roles of these molecules in parasite developmental biology and pathogenesis are discussed. Further knowledge of the species-specific activities and three-dimensional structures of human and parasitic nematode MIF molecules should make them ideal targets for drug- and/or vaccine-based strategies aimed at nematode disease control. PMID:18603473

  10. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  11. Nematode Spatial and Ecological Patterns from Tropical and Temperate Rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Porazinska, Dorota L.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Powers, Thomas O.; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates), but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes). Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy) of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1) nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2) nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3) total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4) 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5) more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats) and large (rainforests) spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota. PMID:22984536

  12. Nematicidal Bacteria Associated to Pinewood Nematode Produce Extracellular Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Romeu; Verissimo, Paula; Santos, Susana S.; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M. O.; Morais, Paula V.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pathogen of trees and the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD) may play a role in the disease. In order to evaluate their role (positive or negative to the tree), strains isolated from the track of nematodes from infected Pinus pinaster trees were screened, in vitro, for their nematicidal potential. The bacterial products, from strains more active in killing nematodes, were screened in order to identify and characterize the nematicidal agent. Forty-seven strains were tested and, of these, 21 strains showed capacity to produce extracellular products with nematicidal activity. All Burkholderia strains were non-toxic. In contrast, all Serratia strains except one exhibited high toxicity. Nematodes incubated with Serratia strains showed, by SEM observation, deposits of bacteria on the nematode cuticle. The most nematicidal strain, Serratia sp. A88copa13, produced proteases in the supernatant. The use of selective inhibitors revealed that a serine protease with 70 kDa was majorly responsible for the toxicity of the supernatant. This extracellular serine protease is different phylogenetically, in size and biochemically from previously described proteases. Nematicidal assays revealed differences in nematicidal activity of the proteases to different species of Bursaphelenchus, suggesting its usefulness in a primary screen of the nematodes. This study offers the basis for further investigation of PWD and brings new insights on the role bacteria play in the defense of pine trees against B. xylophilus. Understanding all the factors involved is important in order to develop strategies to control B. xylophilus dispersion. PMID:24244546

  13. Gastrointestinal nematodes of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Eslami, A; Meydani, M; Maleki, S; Zargarzadeh, A

    1979-04-01

    A total of 250 wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) from different national parks and protected regions of Iran were examined for gastrointestinal nematodes at necropsy. Twenty five species of nematodes were found. Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia spp; Nematodirus spp; and Skrjabinema ovis were the most prevalent. Although all the species found are recorded from wild sheep for the first time in Iran, 88% were reported previously from domestic sheep. New host and distribution records for Nematodirus davtiani, N. gazellae and Nematodirella longissimespiculata were established during the present study.

  14. New records of nematodes of passerine migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Parasitological examination of three passerine bird species: the Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio, Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus and Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava, revealed the presence of the nematodes Acuaria subula, Diplotriaena ozouxi, Viguiera euryoptera and Microtetrameres inermis. All the birds were obtained in the spring (April-May); the nematodes found were mature, which indicates infection in the hosts' wintering grounds. The gizzard worm Acuaria subula is a new record from Motacilla flava in Europe. Viguiera euryoptera and Diplotriaena ozouxi are new to the Polish fauna. PMID:24881284

  15. New records of nematodes of passerine migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Parasitological examination of three passerine bird species: the Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio, Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus and Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava, revealed the presence of the nematodes Acuaria subula, Diplotriaena ozouxi, Viguiera euryoptera and Microtetrameres inermis. All the birds were obtained in the spring (April-May); the nematodes found were mature, which indicates infection in the hosts' wintering grounds. The gizzard worm Acuaria subula is a new record from Motacilla flava in Europe. Viguiera euryoptera and Diplotriaena ozouxi are new to the Polish fauna.

  16. Commercial Development and Future Prospects for Entomogenous Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, J. J.; Cupello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Although entomogenous nenmtodes generally have many of the attributes of the ideal biocontrol agent, many of these attributes make the nematodes less than desirable for commercial production. Environmental limitations, lack of patent protection, "shelf life," shipping problems, and the need for users to receive specialized training are factors that have discouraged the involvement of larger companies. The future of these nematodes as commercially available biocontrol products appears to lie with the smaller "cottage industries" or with government-subsidized production. Problems encountered with attempts to produce commercially the mosquito parasite Romanomermis culicivorax are discussed. PMID:19300763

  17. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.

  18. ORGANIC VS CONVENTIONAL: SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    PubMed

    Kapp, C; Storey, S G; Malan, A P

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in human population are creating an ever-greater need for food production. Poor soil management practices have degraded soil to such an extent that rapidly improved management practices is the only way to ensure future food demands. In South Africa, deciduous fruit producers are realising the need for soil health, and for an increased understanding of the benefits of soil ecology, to ensure sustainable fruit production. This depends heavily on improved orchard management. Conventional farming relies on the addition of artificial fertilizers, and the application of chemicals, to prevent or minimise, the effects of the soil stages of pest insects, and of plant-parasitic nematodes. Currently, there is resistance toward conventional farming practices, which, it is believed, diminishes biodiversity within the soil. The study aimed to establish the soil nematode community structure and function in organically, and conventionally, managed deciduous fruit orchards. This was done by determining the abundance, the diversity, and the functionality of the naturally occurring free-living, and plant-parasitic, nematodes in deciduous fruit orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to form the basis for the use of nematodes as future indicators of soil health in deciduous fruit orchards. Orchards from neighbouring organic, and conventional, apricot farms, and from an organic apple orchard, were studied. All the nematodes were quantified, and identified, to family level. The five nematode-classified trophic groups were found at each site, while 14 families were identified in each orchard, respectively. Herbivores were dominant in all the orchards surveyed. Organic apples had the fewest herbivores and fungivores, with the highest number of carnivores. When comparing organic with conventional apricot orchards, higher numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes were found in the organic apricot orchards. The Maturity Index (MI

  19. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100

  20. [Effect of the soil contamination with a potato cyst-forming nematode on the community structure of soil-inhabiting nematodes].

    PubMed

    Gruzdeva, L I; Suzhchuk, A A

    2008-01-01

    Nematode community structure of the potato fields with different infection levels of potato cyst-forming nematode (PCN) such as 10, 30 and 214 cysts per 100 g of soil has been investigated. The influence of specialized parasite on nematode fauna and dominance character of different ecological-trophic groups were described. Parasitic nematode genera in natural meadow biocenosis and agrocenoses without PCN are Paratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and Helicotylenchus. It is established, that Paratylenchus nanus was the prevalent species among plant parasites at low infection level. Larvae of Globodera prevailed in the soil with middle and high infection levels and substituted individuals of other genera of parasitic nematodes. The fact of increase in number of hyphal-feeding nematode Aphelenchus avenae was revealed. PMID:19198175

  1. A Simple Method to Measure Nematodes' Propulsive Thrust and the Nematode Ratchet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bau, Haim; Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David

    2015-11-01

    Since the propulsive thrust of micro organisms provides a more sensitive indicator of the animal's health and response to drugs than motility, a simple, high throughput, direct measurement of the thrust is desired. Taking advantage of the nematode C. elegans being heavier than water, we devised a simple method to determine the propulsive thrust of the animals by monitoring their velocity when swimming along an inclined plane. We find that the swimming velocity is a linear function of the sin of the inclination angle. This method allows us to determine, among other things, the animas' propulsive thrust as a function of genotype, drugs, and age. Furthermore, taking advantage of the animals' inability to swim over a stiff incline, we constructed a sawteeth ratchet-like track that restricts the animals to swim in a predetermined direction. This research was supported, in part, by NIH NIA Grant 5R03AG042690-02.

  2. Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Willesen, Jakob L; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Monrad, Jesper

    2010-09-20

    Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within European zoos was conducted in 2008. Faecal samples from 115 pandas originating from 54 zoos were collected on 3 consecutive days. Using Baermann technique, 40 animals (35%) from 20 zoos (37%) were found to shed metastrongyloid first stage larvae (L(1)). Based on their morphology and size, the L(1) observed could be divided into three morphologically distinct types: (1) a Crenosoma sp. type (n=5, overall prevalence: 4.3%), (2) an A. vasorum type (n=3, 2.6%), and (3) an unidentified metastrongyloid species, similar to, but morphologically distinct from A. vasorum (n=32, 27.8%). Further confirmation of species identification was provided by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, which confirmed three different species. The novel Crenosoma species was most genetically analogous to Crenosoma mephitidis and the unidentified metastrongyloid species was most similar to Stenurus minor and Torynurus convulutus. Routine and quarantine health care of red pandas in captivity should take account of the risk of Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma infection in endemic areas, but should also be cognisant of the widespread presence of an apparently less pathogenic species of lungworm. The identity of the two potentially novel species is subject to further work.

  3. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  4. The Ditylenchus destructor genome provides new insights into the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2016-07-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants.

  5. Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kagira, John Maina; Kanyari, Paul Njuki; Githigia, Samuel Maina; Maingi, Ndicho; Ng'ang'a, James Chege; Gachohi, John Mwangi

    2012-03-01

    Nematode infections are a serious constraint to pig production, especially where free range pig keeping is practiced. This study investigated the epidemiology of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs from 135 farms were sampled for faeces that were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces using the McMaster technique. The nematode eggs were also identified to genus and species based on morphology. A questionnaire on risk factors was also administered to the pig owners. The overall prevalence and mean nematode EPG were 84.2% and 2,355, respectively. The nematode eggs were identified as those belonging to Oesophagostomum spp. (75%), Strongyloides ransomi (37%), Ascaris suum (18%), Metastrongylus spp. (11%), Trichuris suis (7%) and Physocephalus sexalatus (3%). The prevalence of nematodes was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the amount of rainfall in the division of the pigs' origin (all nematodes except S. ransomi). The prevalence of nematodes was also associated with the age of the pigs. A lower burden of nematodes was associated (p < 0.05) with a history of deworming (A. suum) and the provision of night housing (S. ransomi and Metastrongylus spp.). In conclusion, this study has provided information on nematode infections and the associated risk factors for free range pigs in Busia District, which can be used when implementing integrated control measures.

  6. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground.

  7. Infection Behavior and Overwintering Survival of Foliar Nematodes, Aphelenchoides fragariae, on Hosta

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the pathogenicity and overwintering survival of the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae, infecting Hosta spp. Nematodes applied to either lower or upper sides of noninjured and injured hosta leaves were able to infect and produce typical symptoms on nine cultivars. Leaves of only four cultivars (Borschi, Fragrant Blue, Patomic Pride, and Olive Bailey Langdon) showed no symptoms of nematode infection. The nematodes overwintered as juveniles and adults in soil, dry leaves, and dormant buds, but not in roots. Nematode winter survival was higher in dormant buds and soil from the polyhouse than in an open home garden. Of the nematodes found in the dormant buds, 35% to 79% were located between the first two outside layers of the buds. The nematodes tolerated 8 hr exposure to 40°C and −80°C in leaf tissues. Relative humidity influenced nematode migration from soil to leaves. The presence of nematodes only on the outer surface of foliage (leaves and petioles) confirmed the migration of A. fragariae on the surface of the plants. Of the total number of nematodes found on the foliage, 25% to 46% and 66% to 77% were alive at 90% and 100% relative humidity, respectively, suggesting that high moisture is required for the survival and upward movement of nematodes. We conclude that A. fragariae can overwinter in soil, infected dry leaves, and dormant buds and migrate in films of water on the outer surface of the plant during spring to leaves to initiate infection. PMID:19259438

  8. The Ditylenchus destructor genome provides new insights into the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2016-07-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants. PMID:27466450

  9. Nematode community structure and diversity pattern in sandy beaches of Qingdao, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Er; Mu, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhinan; Yang, Shichao; Zhang, Ting; Li, Jia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and structure of free-living marine nematode communities at three sandy beaches representing typical intertidal environments of a temperate zone in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Average nematode abundance ranged from 1006 to 2170 ind. 10 cm-2, and a total of 34 nematode genera were recorded, of which only 8 were common in all the studied beaches. Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were the lowest at the second beach where nematode abundance was the highest. The highest species diversity index coincided with the lowest nematode abundance at Shilaoren beach. Sediment median grain size, sorting coefficient, and chlorophyll-a content were essential for differentiation in nematode abundance and species diversity, whereas taxonomic diversity of nematode was homogeneous across the three beaches. In 0-20 cm sediment profile, nematode abundance declined abruptly with depth, whereas nematode diversity changed gently with obvious difference in 16-20 cm layer. Sediment granulometry and chlorophyll- a content were the two foremost factors which influenced the vertical distribution pattern of nematode generic diversity. Non-selective deposit feeders constituted the most dominant trophic group, followed by epistratum feeders. Bathylaimus (family: Tripyloididae) dominated at the second and Yangkou beach, while Theristus (family: Xyalidae) prevailed at Shilaoren beach. Omnivores and predators became important at Shilaoren beach because of the high proportion of Enoplolaimus. Even though, nematode community of the studied beaches did not differ significantly from each other.

  10. Comparative genetics and genomics of nematodes: genome structure, development, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ralf J; Streit, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes are found in virtually all habitats on earth. Many of them are parasites of plants and animals, including humans. The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, is one of the genetically best-studied model organisms and was the first metazoan whose genome was fully sequenced. In recent years, the draft genome sequences of another six nematodes representing four of the five major clades of nematodes were published. Compared to mammalian genomes, all these genomes are very small. Nevertheless, they contain almost the same number of genes as the human genome. Nematodes are therefore a very attractive system for comparative genetic and genomic studies, with C. elegans as an excellent baseline. Here, we review the efforts that were made to extend genetic analysis to nematodes other than C. elegans, and we compare the seven available nematode genomes. One of the most striking findings is the unexpectedly high incidence of gene acquisition through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). PMID:21721943

  11. Global Overview of the Functional Roles of Soil-living Nematodes in Terrestrial Communities and Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Dennis L. C.

    1990-01-01

    The role of soil-living nematodes in different ecosystems can be largely predicted by the intensity of nonbiotic stresses imposed by different temperature and moisture regimes. Assuming that tropical lowland rain forest experiences the most biologically equitable climate, increasing climate-related stress occurs as one proceeds through intervening biomes to low latitude lowland desert, high latitude desert, and alpine desert. Soil nematodes, being mostly relative generalists, show only moderate diversity and low densities in tropical lowland rain forests because of competition from many other more specialized organisms. On the other hand, nematode diversity and densities increase and remain relatively high as one proceeds to the most extreme ecosystems because nematodes show greater adaptability than do many other taxa to climate-induced stress. However, cold allows nematodes greater "ecological release" than does drought because nematodes, being essentially aquatic organisms, require moisture for activity. Thus, cold ecosystems have the greatest nematode diversities and densities. PMID:19287681

  12. The Pumping Mechanism of the Nematode Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J. Richard; Burr, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    The radial orientation of the myofilaments in the nematode esophagus raises interesting questions as to how such a structure can function as a pump. A physical model of the esophagus of Ascaris lumbricoides was developed and the membrane theory of shells applied in order to relate the observed dimensional changes to myofilament force, pressure stresses, and membrane elastic constants. By stressing the excised esophagus passively with osmotic pressure, the esophagus was shown to be elastically anisotropic with the ratio of circumferential to longitudinal elastic constants, Eψ/El ≃ 2.74. When this value was incorporated, the model predicted the ratio of the respective strains, εψ/εl, to be 0.52 during an equilibrium contraction of the esophagus. This agreed with the experimental value, 0.46 ± 0.10, measured during occasional, prolonged muscle contractions. When measured during normal pumping, on the other hand, the value of εψ/εl was 0 ± 0.10. This indicated that a nonequilibrium condition normally occurs in which a greater myofilament force per unit area of lumen membrane is not balanced by internal pressure and therefore acceleration of the lumen contents and negative intraluminal pressure occurs. The pumping action of esophagi dissected from Ascaris was observed to be normally peristaltic and periodic. Contraction was initiated by a spontaneous depolarization that propagated at 4.0 ± 0.20 cm/s along the esophageal membrane. A wave of localized increases in the internal pressure of the muscle and localized changes in external dimensions was observed. A subsequent spontaneous repolarization, which propagated at 5.8 ± 0.23 cm/s, triggered relaxation of the muscle during which the localized pressure and dimensional changes returned to resting values. A mechanism was deduced in which fluid is drawn into and moved along the lumen by the wave of contraction. During the wave of relaxation, the lumen contents are pressurized and injected into the intestine by

  13. Mercury Content in Organs and Tissues of Indigenous (Vulpes vulpes L.) and Invasive (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray.) Species of Canids from Areas Near Cherepovets (North-Western Industrial Region, Russia).

    PubMed

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Gremyachikh, V A; Poddubnaya, N Y

    2016-10-01

    Trophic and spatial components of ecological niches of two canids native Vulpes vulpes and introduced Nyctereutes procyonoides are overlapping partially in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of mercury in predatory mammals of Canidae family from surroundings of Cherepovets have been determined in liver and kidneys (over 0.50 mg/kg wet weight), with minimal concentrations in brain (<0.2 mg/kg wet weight). The amount of mercury in the same organs of the red fox and raccoon dog is not significantly different. These levels of mercury content are noticeably higher than those in the predators of Canidae family that inhabit territories of Europe lacking the local sources of mercury. At the same time, absolute values of metal quantity are commensurable with the levels registered in predators from the mercury polluted regions of Spain and Poland. PMID:27437948

  14. Multifaceted effects of host plants on entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of parasites can be impacted by multi-trophic interactions. Here we investigate aspects of multi-trophic interactions in a system involving an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), its insect host, and host plant. Novel issues investigated include the impact of tritrophic interactions on nema...

  15. SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE REPRODUCTION RELATED TO TILLAGE AND RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in tillage may affect soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, (SCN) reproduction. Plots of no-tillage and tilled soybeans were established in 1979 in a randomized complete block design and individual plots were split in half in 2002 with conversion of tillage treatments to compare th...

  16. Managing Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Established Red Raspberry Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy and phytotoxicity of post-plant treatments to control root lesion [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb), Chitwood & Otiefa] and dagger (Xiphinema bakeri Williams) nematodes in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) were evaluated in four field studies conducted over three years. Spring spray applicat...

  17. Natural variation in chemosensation: lessons from an island nematode.

    PubMed

    McGaughran, Angela; Morgan, Katy; Sommer, Ralf J

    2013-12-01

    All organisms must interact with their environment, responding in behavioral, chemical, and other ways to various stimuli throughout their life cycles. Characterizing traits that directly represent an organism's ability to sense and react to their environment provides useful insight into the evolution of life-history strategies. One such trait for the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, chemosensation, is involved in navigation to beetle hosts. Essential for the survival of the nematode, chemosensory behavior may be subject to variation as nematodes discriminate among chemical cues to complete their life cycle. We examine this hypothesis using natural isolates of P. pacificus from La Réunion Island. We select strains from a variety of La Réunion beetle hosts and geographic locations and examine their chemoattraction response toward organic compounds, beetle washes, and live beetles. We find that nematodes show significant differences in their response to various chemicals and are able to chemotax to live beetles in a novel assay. Further, strains can discriminate among different cues, showing more similar responses toward beetle washes than to organic compounds in cluster analyses. However, we find that variance in chemoattraction response is not significantly associated with temperature, location, or beetle host. Rather, strains show a more concerted response toward compounds they most likely directly encounter in the wild. We suggest that divergence in odor-guided behavior in P. pacificus may therefore have an important ecological component. PMID:24455150

  18. Rooting out Defense Mechanisms in Wheat against Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) are soil borne pathogens of many important agricultural crops including wheat. Pratylenchus invade root cells and feed using a stylet, resulting in cell death. Common signs of Pratylenchus damage are root lesions, girdling, and lack of lateral branching. ...

  19. Radiation Effects on Nematodes: Results from IML-1 Esperiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, G. A.; Schubert, W. W.; Kazarians, G. A.; Righards, G. F.; Benton, E. V; Benton, E. R.; Henke, R.

    1993-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to natural space radiation using the ESA Biorack facility aboard Spacelab on International Microgravity Laboratory 1, STS-42. For the major experimental objective dormant animals were suspended in buffer or on agar or immobilized next to CR-39 plactic nuclear track detectors to correlate fluence of HZE particles with genetic events.

  20. Mermithid Nematodes: Physiological Relationships with their Insect Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Roger

    1981-01-01

    This paper assesses our state of knowledge of physiological processes involved in the relationships between insects and their mermithid nematode parasites. Three major components of the host-parasite relationship(s) are reviewed: effects of mermithids on host physiology, effects of host physiology on mermithids, and the physiology of the nematodes themselves. Mermithids induce an array of changes in host physiology, and the effects on host metabolism and endocrinology are discussed at some length. Few studies have been done to ascertain the effects of the host on the parasites from a physiological standpoint. Whereas host immunity mechanisms against mermithids have been described at the ultrastructural level, the physiological basis of such responses is not known. Mermithids are atypical nematodes, both structurally and physiologically. In the absence of a functional gut, nutrients are absorbed across the outer cuticle and stored in a trophosome. The transcuticular mode of feeding, storage within the trophosome, and metabolism of storage products are discussed. The usefulness of physiological information toward expediting in vitro culture of these nematodes is discussed, and problems that need to be addressed are defined. PMID:19300761

  1. 75 FR 11111 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...) 734-5038. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a..., eggplants, peppers, tomatillos, and some weeds. The PCN is thought to have originated in Peru and is now widely distributed in many potato-growing regions of the world. PCN infestations may be expressed...

  2. Putatively novel sources of resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) remains to be the most economically devastating endo-root parasite of soybean [Glycine max L. (Merrill)], in the USA and worldwide. Currently, two resistance loci, rhg1 and Rhg4 have been the main sources of resistance to SCN. Over 95% of soybean cultivars with SCN resist...

  3. Detecting Microbial Nucleic Acids within Nematode Bodies: A Photo Essay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a taxa-specific, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to localize microbial nucleic acids within nematode bodies. This technique involves hybridization of a nucleic acid probe to target microbial sequences. Hybridization is detected microscopically, as the probes have f...

  4. IN VITRO CULTURING OF THE PREDATORY SOIL NEMATODE CLARKUS PAPILLATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clarkus papillatus is a widely distributed predatory soil nematode and is of interest in the study of soil ecology, yet very little information exists on its in vitro culturing. In this investigation, an artificial environment was created to maintain C. papillatus for multi-gener...

  5. Molecular and biochemical characterization of nematode cofactor independent phosphoglycerate mutases.

    PubMed

    Raverdy, Sylvine; Zhang, Yinhua; Foster, Jeremy; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2007-12-01

    Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM, EC 5.4.2.1) catalyzes the isomerization of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Two distinct types of PGM exist in nature, one that requires 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate as a cofactor (dPGM) and another that does not (iPGM). The two enzymes are structurally distinct and possess different mechanisms of action. In any particular organism, one form may exist or both. Nematodes possess the iPGM form whereas mammals have dPGM. In the present study, we have cloned and expressed iPGM from Onchocerca volvulus and described the catalytic properties of O. volvulus, Brugia malayi and Caenorhabditis elegans iPGM enzymes. Temperature and pH optima were determined for each enzyme. Like other iPGM enzymes, the activities of the nematode iPGM enzymes were dependent on the presence of divalent ions. Inactivation by EDTA could be restored most effectively by magnesium and manganese ions. Kinetic parameters and specific activities of the various recombinant enzymes were determined. The high similarity in catalytic properties among the enzymes indicates that a single enzyme inhibitor would likely be effective against all nematode enzymes. Inhibition of iPGM activity in vivo may lead to lethality as indicated by RNAi studies in C. elegans. Our results support the development of iPGM as a promising drug target in parasitic nematodes.

  6. Nematode endoparasites do not codiversify with their stick insect hosts.

    PubMed

    Larose, Chloé; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    Host-parasite coevolution stems from reciprocal selection on host resistance and parasite infectivity, and can generate some of the strongest selective pressures known in nature. It is widely seen as a major driver of diversification, the most extreme case being parallel speciation in hosts and their associated parasites. Here, we report on endoparasitic nematodes, most likely members of the mermithid family, infecting different Timema stick insect species throughout California. The nematodes develop in the hemolymph of their insect host and kill it upon emergence, completely impeding host reproduction. Given the direct exposure of the endoparasites to the host's immune system in the hemolymph, and the consequences of infection on host fitness, we predicted that divergence among hosts may drive parallel divergence in the endoparasites. Our phylogenetic analyses suggested the presence of two differentiated endoparasite lineages. However, independently of whether the two lineages were considered separately or jointly, we found a complete lack of codivergence between the endoparasitic nematodes and their hosts in spite of extensive genetic variation among hosts and among parasites. Instead, there was strong isolation by distance among the endoparasitic nematodes, indicating that geography plays a more important role than host-related adaptations in driving parasite diversification in this system. The accumulating evidence for lack of codiversification between parasites and their hosts at macroevolutionary scales contrasts with the overwhelming evidence for coevolution within populations, and calls for studies linking micro- versus macroevolutionary dynamics in host-parasite interactions. PMID:27551395

  7. Fatal Human Meningoencephalitis due to Halicephalobus Nematodes, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Müllges, Wolfgang; Keppler, Marc; Brehm, Klaus; Ondrejka, Sarah L.; Muntau, Birgit; Tannich, Egbert; Müller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Tappe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Halicephalobus nematodes, causative agents of severe meningoencephalitis in horses, have rarely been reported in humans. In this study, the clinical, serological, cytokine, and histopathological findings of a rapidly progressive and eventually fatal meningoencephalitis in a previously healthy human are described. The helminth was finally diagnosed by specific polymerase chain reactions from post mortem tissue. PMID:26125032

  8. Overwintering of Bovine Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    Several steers, reared in isolation until approximately six months of age, were placed on a small isolated enclosed pasture from late spring to late fall of 1970, 1971 and 1972. The pasture was left vacant and unused during the winters and early springs. The pasture had been used in previous years by cattle, and in the late spring of 1970 was grazed by cattle know to be passing gastrointestinal nematode eggs in their feces. The steers were slaughtered periodically, and the prevalence of nematode species in the abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine, was determined from random samples of up to 100 adult male worms from each segment. The following nematodes were found in the steers in 1971 and 1972 and survived winters on pasture: Ostertagia ostertagi, O. lyrata, Cooperia oncophora, C. mcmasteri, Nematodirus helvetianus and Trichuris discolor. Two nematodes Cooperia punctata and Bunostomum phlebotomum known to be present on pasture in 1970, since they were recovered from the steers in that year, were not found in the steers in 1971 and 1972. PMID:4272963

  9. Mutualistic association of Photorhabdus asymbiotica with Japanese heterorhabditid entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi; Yoshida, Mutsuhiro; Kondo, Eizo

    2008-06-01

    Gram-negative bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens and P. temperata, form a mutualistic association with entomopathogenic heterorhabditid nematodes while P. asymbiotica is known as an opportunistic human pathogen that causes disseminated bacteremic spread on two continents, the United States and Australia. In the course of our phylogenetic study of Photorhabdus bacteria associated with Japanese Heterorhabditis nematodes, we found two Photorhabdus isolates (Photorhabdus sp. Cbkj163 and OnIr40) whose partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed high similarities to clinical isolates of this pathogen from Heterorhabditis indica. The phylogenetic study, based upon the gyrase subunit B gene sequences of the two isolates, revealed clustering with these clinical isolates of P. asymbiotica from both the United States and Australia but not with other Photorhabdus bacteria associated with nematodes. The two bacterial isolates were also found to share microbiological and biochemical characteristics with clinical and entomopathogenic Photorhabdus strains. Moreover, not only the two novel Photorhabdus isolates but also an Australian clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica formed mutualistic association with H. indica isolates. These data suggest that the bacteria isolated from H. indica CbKj163 and OnIr40 are a novel subspecies of P. asymbiotica, and that some clinical isolates of P. asymbiotica could have originated from bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:18538616

  10. Evolutionary history of nematodes associated with sweat bees.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Taylor, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Organisms that live in close association with other organisms make up a large part of the world's diversity. One driver of this diversity is the evolution of host-species specificity, which can occur via reproductive isolation following a host-switch or, given the correct circumstances, via cospeciation. In this study, we explored the diversity and evolutionary history of Acrostichus nematodes that are associated with halictid bees in North America. First, we conducted surveys of bees in Virginia, and found six halictid species that host Acrostichus. To test the hypothesis of cospeciation, we constructed phylogenetic hypotheses of Acrostichus based on three genes. We found Acrostichus puri and Acrostichus halicti to be species complexes comprising cryptic, host-specific species. Although several nodes in the host and symbiont phylogenies were congruent and tests for cospeciation were significant, the host's biogeography, the apparent patchiness of the association across the host's phylogeny, and the amount of evolution in the nematode sequence suggested a mixture of cospeciation, host switching, and extinction events instead of strict cospeciation. Cospeciation can explain the relationships between Ac. puri and its augochlorine hosts, but colonization of Halictus hosts is more likely than cospeciation. The nematodes are vertically transmitted, but sexual transmission is also likely. Both of these transmission modes may explain host-species specificity and congruent bee and nematode phylogenies. Additionally, all halictid hosts come from eusocial or socially polymorphic lineages, suggesting that sociality may be a factor in the suitability of hosts for Acrostichus.

  11. Herbal dewormer fails to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is the most important disease of small ruminants. Control is usually based on the use of chemical anthelmintics (dewormers); but these are prohibited from use in organic livestock, and the effectiveness of chemical anthelmintics in conventional operations ...

  12. Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S.; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M.; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    During August 2010–December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346

  13. Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

    2014-06-01

    During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346

  14. Phytoparasitic Nematodes Associated with Three Types of Blueberries in Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. R.; Robbins, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    Research and commercial blueberry plantings were sampled in October 1991 to determine the population densities and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei), southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.), and highbusb (V. corymbosum) blueberry cultivars and the sod middles between the blueberry rows. In the research planting at Clarksville, Arkansas, samples from the highbush cv. Bluecrop, the southern highbush cv. Cooper and Gulf Coast, and the sod middles had similar numbers of total vermiform phytoparasitic nematodes (125-451/250 cm³ soil), whereas the samples from rabbiteye cv. Climax and Tifblue had significantly lower numbers (4/250 cm³). The major nematode species associated with blueberries and sod was Xiphinema americanum. In a research planting at Bald Knob, Arkansas, which contained Bluecrop and rabbiteye cultivars only, samples from Bluecrop and the sod had similar numbers (288 and 334/250 cm³), and the rabbiteye samples had significantly lower numbers (6-14/250 cm³). Xiphinema americanum was the major species found in the blueberry samples, whereas Mesocriconema ornata was the major species in the sod. Nematode population densities and species distribution in commercial rabbiteye plantings in nine counties in central and southwestern Arkansas varied greatly. The average population density for rabbiteye samples was 129/250 cm³ and for sod was 577/250 cm³. Weed infestations in the blueberry rows in the commercial plantings probably increased the population size and species distribution. PMID:19279961

  15. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with three types of blueberries in arkansas.

    PubMed

    Clark, J R; Robbins, R T

    1994-12-01

    Research and commercial blueberry plantings were sampled in October 1991 to determine the population densities and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei), southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.), and highbusb (V. corymbosum) blueberry cultivars and the sod middles between the blueberry rows. In the research planting at Clarksville, Arkansas, samples from the highbush cv. Bluecrop, the southern highbush cv. Cooper and Gulf Coast, and the sod middles had similar numbers of total vermiform phytoparasitic nematodes (125-451/250 cm(3) soil), whereas the samples from rabbiteye cv. Climax and Tifblue had significantly lower numbers (4/250 cm(3)). The major nematode species associated with blueberries and sod was Xiphinema americanum. In a research planting at Bald Knob, Arkansas, which contained Bluecrop and rabbiteye cultivars only, samples from Bluecrop and the sod had similar numbers (288 and 334/250 cm(3)), and the rabbiteye samples had significantly lower numbers (6-14/250 cm(3)). Xiphinema americanum was the major species found in the blueberry samples, whereas Mesocriconema ornata was the major species in the sod. Nematode population densities and species distribution in commercial rabbiteye plantings in nine counties in central and southwestern Arkansas varied greatly. The average population density for rabbiteye samples was 129/250 cm(3) and for sod was 577/250 cm(3). Weed infestations in the blueberry rows in the commercial plantings probably increased the population size and species distribution.

  16. Limiting opportunities for cheating stabilizes virulence in insect parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Raymond, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether social cheating might explain unstable virulence in the nematode Heterorhabditis floridensis by manipulating relatedness via multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the scale of competition. Passage at high MOI, which should reduce relatedness, led to loss of fitness: virulence and reproductive rate declined together and all eight independent lines suffered premature extinction. As theory predicts, relatedness treatments had more impact under stronger global competition. In contrast, low MOI passage led to more stable virulence and increased reproduction. Moreover, low MOI lineages showed a trade-off between virulence and reproduction, particularly for lines under stronger between-host competition. Overall, this study indicates that evolution of virulence theory is valuable for the culture of biocontrol agents: effective nematodes can be improved and maintained if passage methods mitigate possible social conflicts. PMID:26989437

  17. 75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a major pest of potato crops in... some weeds. The PCN is thought to have originated in Peru and is now widely distributed in many potato-growing regions of the world. PCN infestations may be expressed as patches of poor growth. Affected...

  18. Limiting opportunities for cheating stabilizes virulence in insect parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Raymond, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether social cheating might explain unstable virulence in the nematode Heterorhabditis floridensis by manipulating relatedness via multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the scale of competition. Passage at high MOI, which should reduce relatedness, led to loss of fitness: virulence and reproductive rate declined together and all eight independent lines suffered premature extinction. As theory predicts, relatedness treatments had more impact under stronger global competition. In contrast, low MOI passage led to more stable virulence and increased reproduction. Moreover, low MOI lineages showed a trade-off between virulence and reproduction, particularly for lines under stronger between-host competition. Overall, this study indicates that evolution of virulence theory is valuable for the culture of biocontrol agents: effective nematodes can be improved and maintained if passage methods mitigate possible social conflicts.

  19. Evaluation of some Vulval Appendages in Nematode Taxonomy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of the nature and phylogenetic distribution of nematode vulval appendages revealed three major classes based on composition, position and orientation: membranes, flaps, and epiptygma. Minor classes included cuticular inflations, vulval tubes of extruded gonadal tissues, vulval ridges, and p...

  20. Yellow Pigment Aurovertins Mediate Interactions between the Pathogenic Fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and Its Nematode Host.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-li; Li, Lin-fang; Li, Dong-xian; Wang, Baile; Zhang, Keqin; Niu, Xuemei

    2015-07-29

    Nematophagous fungi are globally distributed soil fungi and well-known natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes. Pochonia chlamydosporia can be found in diverse nematode-suppressive soils as a parasite of nematode eggs and is one of the most studied potential biological control agents of nematodes. However, little is known about the functions of small molecules in the process of infection of nematodes by this parasitic fungus or about small-molecule-mediated interactions between the pathogenic fungus and its host. Our recent study demonstrated that a P. chlamydosporia strain isolated from root knots of tobacco infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita produced a class of yellow pigment metabolite aurovertins, which induced the death of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivevus. Here we report that nematicidal P. chlamydosporia strains obtained from the nematode worms tended to yield a total yellow pigment aurovertin production exceeding the inhibitory concentration shown in nematicidal bioassays. Aurovertin D was abundant in the pigment metabolites of P. chlamydosporia strains. Aurovertin D showed strong toxicity toward the root-knot nematode M. incognita and exerted profound and detrimental effects on the viability of Caenorhabditis elegans even at a subinhibitory concentration. Evaluation of the nematode mutation in the β subunit of F1-ATPase, together with the application of RNA interference in screening each subunit of F1FO-ATPase in the nematode worms, demonstrated that the β subunit of F1-ATPase might not be the specific target for aurovertins in nematodes. The resistance of C. elegans daf-2(e1370) and the hypersensitivity of C. elegans daf-16(mu86) to aurovertin D indicated that DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor in nematodes was triggered in response to the aurovertin attack. These findings advance our understanding of the roles of aurovertin production in the interactions between nematodes and the pathogen fungus P. chlamydosporia