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Sample records for canine kidney cells

  1. Safety assessment of Madin Darby canine kidney cells as vaccine substrate.

    PubMed

    Medema, J K; Meijer, J; Kersten, A J; Horton, R

    2006-01-01

    Conventional influenza vaccines are manufactured using embryonated chicken eggs, a substrate with little flexibility and vulnerable to extraneous agents. Solvay Pharmaceuticals developed a production technology based on the continuous cell line Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) as vaccine cell substrate. A risk-based safety assessment of MDCK, with respect to tumorigenicity of intact cells and oncogenicity of cellular components, cellular DNA and adventitious agents, shows that this substrate is as safe as other substrates and therefore without increased risk to the vaccine recipient.

  2. Ca(2+) movement and apoptosis induced by deltamethrin in Madin-Darby canine kidney canine renal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Jin; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Cheng, Jin Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Kuo, Soong-Yu; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Shieh, Pochuen; Chang, Fang-Rong; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effect of deltamethrin, a pesticide, on free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)]i, viability, and apoptosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) canine renal tubular cells. Deltamethrin at concentrations between 10μM and 40μM evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and SKF96365. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) in a Ca(2+)-free medium abolished deltamethrin-induced [Ca(2+)]i rise. Treatment with deltamethrin also abolished BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)]i rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) activity with U73122 abolished deltamethrin-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Deltamethrin killed cells at 30-60μM in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of deltamethrin was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with the acetoxymethyl ester of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that 30-50μM deltamethrin induced apoptosis. Together, in MDCK renal tubular cells, deltamethrin induced [Ca(2+)]i rises that involved Ca(2+) entry through protein kinase C-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) channels, and PLC-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deltamethrin also induced Ca(2+)-independent cell death that might involve apoptosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of cholesterol and sphingolipids within a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, Ashley N.; Weber, Peter K.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2016-01-08

    Metabolic stable isotope incorporation and secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS) depth profiling performed on a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 were used to image the 18O-cholesterol and 15N-sphingolipid distributions within a portion of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell. Three-dimensional representations of the component-specific isotope distributions show clearly defined regions of 18O-cholesterol and 15N-sphingolipid enrichment that seem to be separate subcellular compartments. Furthermore, the low levels of nitrogen-containing secondary ions detected at the 18O-enriched regions suggest that these 18O-cholesterol-rich structures may be lipiddroplets, which have a core consisting of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerides.

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of cholesterol and sphingolipids within a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell

    DOE PAGES

    Yeager, Ashley N.; Weber, Peter K.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2016-01-08

    Metabolic stable isotope incorporation and secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS) depth profiling performed on a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 were used to image the 18O-cholesterol and 15N-sphingolipid distributions within a portion of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell. Three-dimensional representations of the component-specific isotope distributions show clearly defined regions of 18O-cholesterol and 15N-sphingolipid enrichment that seem to be separate subcellular compartments. Furthermore, the low levels of nitrogen-containing secondary ions detected at the 18O-enriched regions suggest that these 18O-cholesterol-rich structures may be lipiddroplets, which have a core consisting of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerides.

  5. Changes in ceramide metabolism are essential in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pescio, Lucila Gisele; Santacreu, Bruno Jaime; Lopez, Vanina Gisela; Paván, Carlos Humberto; Romero, Daniela Judith; Favale, Nicolás Octavio; Sterin-Speziale, Norma Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    Ceramides (Cers) and complex sphingolipids with defined acyl chain lengths play important roles in numerous cell processes. Six Cer synthase (CerS) isoenzymes (CerS1-6) are the key enzymes responsible for the production of the diversity of molecular species. In this study, we investigated the changes in sphingolipid metabolism during the differentiation of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. By MALDI TOF TOF MS, we analyzed the molecular species of Cer, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), and SM in nondifferentiated and differentiated cells (cultured under hypertonicity). The molecular species detected were the same, but cells subjected to hypertonicity presented higher levels of C24:1 Cer, C24:1 GlcCer, C24:1 SM, and C16:0 LacCer. Consistently with the molecular species, MDCK cells expressed CerS2, CerS4, and CerS6, but with no differences during cell differentiation. We next evaluated the different synthesis pathways with sphingolipid inhibitors and found that cells subjected to hypertonicity in the presence of amitriptyline, an inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase, showed decreased radiolabeled incorporation in LacCer and cells did not develop a mature apical membrane. These results suggest that hypertonicity induces the endolysosomal degradation of SM, generating the Cer used as substrate for the synthesis of specific molecular species of glycosphingolipids that are essential for MDCK cell differentiation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Regulated synthesis and functions of laminin 5 in polarized madin-darby canine kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mak, Grace Z; Kavanaugh, Gina M; Buschmann, Mary M; Stickley, Shaun M; Koch, Manuel; Goss, Kathleen Heppner; Waechter, Holly; Zuk, Anna; Matlin, Karl S

    2006-08-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells synthesize laminin (LN)5 during regeneration of the epithelium after ischemic injury. LN5 is a truncated laminin isoform of particular importance in the epidermis, but it is also constitutively expressed in a number of other epithelia. To investigate the role of LN5 in morphogenesis of a simple renal epithelium, we examined the synthesis and function of LN5 in the spreading, proliferation, wound-edge migration, and apical-basal polarization of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. MDCK cells synthesize LN5 only when subconfluent, and they degrade the existing LN5 matrix when confluent. Through the use of small-interfering RNA to knockdown the LN5 alpha3 subunit, we were able to demonstrate that LN5 is necessary for cell proliferation and efficient wound-edge migration, but not apical-basal polarization. Surprisingly, suppression of LN5 production caused cells to spread much more extensively than normal on uncoated surfaces, and exogenous keratinocyte LN5 was unable to rescue this phenotype. MDCK cells also synthesized laminin alpha5, a component of LN10, that independent studies suggest may form an assembled basal lamina important for polarization. Overall, our findings indicate that LN5 is likely to play an important role in regulating cell spreading, migration, and proliferation during reconstitution of a continuous epithelium.

  7. Regulated Synthesis and Functions of Laminin 5 in Polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Grace Z.; Kavanaugh, Gina M.; Buschmann, Mary M.; Stickley, Shaun M.; Koch, Manuel; Goss, Kathleen Heppner; Waechter, Holly; Zuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells synthesize laminin (LN)5 during regeneration of the epithelium after ischemic injury. LN5 is a truncated laminin isoform of particular importance in the epidermis, but it is also constitutively expressed in a number of other epithelia. To investigate the role of LN5 in morphogenesis of a simple renal epithelium, we examined the synthesis and function of LN5 in the spreading, proliferation, wound-edge migration, and apical–basal polarization of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. MDCK cells synthesize LN5 only when subconfluent, and they degrade the existing LN5 matrix when confluent. Through the use of small-interfering RNA to knockdown the LN5 α3 subunit, we were able to demonstrate that LN5 is necessary for cell proliferation and efficient wound-edge migration, but not apical–basal polarization. Surprisingly, suppression of LN5 production caused cells to spread much more extensively than normal on uncoated surfaces, and exogenous keratinocyte LN5 was unable to rescue this phenotype. MDCK cells also synthesized laminin α5, a component of LN10, that independent studies suggest may form an assembled basal lamina important for polarization. Overall, our findings indicate that LN5 is likely to play an important role in regulating cell spreading, migration, and proliferation during reconstitution of a continuous epithelium. PMID:16775009

  8. Age effect of type I collagen on morphogenesis of Mardin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S T; Liao, K K; Liao, M C; Tang, M J

    2000-04-01

    Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells cultured in hydrated collagen gels develop simple epithelial cysts or branching tubules, depending on the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Constituents of extracellular matrix can modulate the morphogenesis of MDCK cells. Collagen is one of the few well-defined structural entities that display gross structural changes with aging. This study was conducted to delineate the effects of age-induced changes of collagen on the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in collagen gel. We employed Y224 and MDCK clone II 3B5 cells to study cystogenesis and branching tubulogenesis, respectively. Cells were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels prepared from 1-, 4-, 8-, and 16-month-old rat tail tendons, and their capacity to develop cysts or branching tubules was assessed. We also analyzed the compositions and physical structures of collagen of various ages. Y224 cells developed generally larger spherical cysts in collagen gels prepared from rats that were more than four months old. The ratio of apoptosis of cells cultured in one-month-old collagen gel was markedly higher than in the gel of older ages. The results were consistent with the observations that collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis of Y224 cells in one-month-old collagen was higher than that in older collagen. On the other hand, 3B5 cells exhibited a remarkable scattering morphology when cultured in one- or four-month-old collagen gel with HGF. In contrast, 3B5 cells exhibited more intercellular adhesion and were organized into branching tubule structures only in the collagen gel that was more than eight months old. The differences in morphogenesis could be explained by the observations that collagen of younger ages exerted markedly higher HGF-triggered migration capability than collagen of older ages. Age-related alterations in collagen influence epithelial cell morphogenesis via regulation of cell apoptosis, proliferation, and/or motility.

  9. Iterative sorting of apical and basolateral cargo in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Pujato, Mario; Pechuan, Ximo; Müsch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) was considered the most distal stop and hence the ultimate protein-sorting station for distinct apical and basolateral transport carriers that reach their respective surface domains in the direct trafficking pathway. However, recent reports of apical and basolateral cargoes traversing post-Golgi compartments accessible to endocytic ligands before their arrival at the cell surface and the post-TGN breakup of large pleomorphic membrane fragments that exit the Golgi region toward the surface raised the possibility that compartments distal to the TGN mediate or contribute to biosynthetic sorting. Here we describe the development of a novel assay that quantitatively distinguishes different cargo pairs by their degree of colocalization at the TGN and by the evolution of colocalization during their TGN-to-surface transport. Keys to the high resolution of our approach are 1) conversion of perinuclear organelle clustering into a two-dimensional microsomal spread and 2) identification of TGN and post-TGN cargo without the need for a TGN marker that universally cosegregates with all cargo. Using our assay, we provide the first evidence that apical NTRp75 and basolateral VSVG in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells still undergo progressive sorting after they exit the TGN toward the cell surface. PMID:27226480

  10. Anti-influenza virus activity of Myrica rubra leaf ethanol extract evaluated using Madino-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Kyo

    2008-11-01

    Myrica rubra leaf ethanol extract was added to culture medium of Madino-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells inoculated with influenza virus, and the inhibition of influenza virus replication was measured. Myrica rubra leaf ethanol extract showed anti-influenza virus activity irrespective of the hemagglutinin antigen type in the influenza virus type A (H1N1), its subtype (H3N2), and type B.

  11. Transport pathways of solid lipid nanoparticles across Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Chai, Gui-Hong; Hu, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Jihong; Du, Yong-Zhong; You, Jian; Yuan, Hong

    2014-10-06

    An understanding of drug delivery system transport across epithelial cell monolayer is very important for improving the absorption and bioavailability of the drug payload. The mechanisms of epithelial cell monolayer transport for various nanocarriers may differ significantly due to their variable components, surface properties, or diameter. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), conventionally formed by lipid materials, have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their excellent biocompatibility and high oral bioavailability. However, there have been few reports about the mechanisms of SLNs transport across epithelial cell monolayer. In this study, the molecular mechanisms utilized by SLNs of approximately 100 nm in diameter crossing intestinal epithelial monolayer were carefully studied using a simulative intestinal epithelial monolayer formed by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. The results demonstrated that SLNs transportation did not induce a significant change on tight junction structure. We found that the endocytosis of SLNs into the epithelial cells was energy-dependent and was significantly greater than nanoparticle exocytosis. The endocytosis of SLNs was found to be rarely mediated via macropinocytosis, as confirmed by the addition of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA) as an inhibitory agent, and mainly depended on lipid raft/caveolae- and clathrin-mediated pathways. After SLNs was internalized into MDCK cells, lysosome was one of the main destinations for these nanoparticles. The exocytosis study indicated that the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and microtubules played important roles in the transport of SLNs out of MDCK cells. The transcytosis study indicated that only approximately 2.5% of the total SLNs was transported from the apical side to the basolateral side. For SLNs transportation in MDCK cell monolayer, greater transport (approximately 4-fold) was observed to the apical side than to the basolateral side. Our

  12. Investigation of transport mechanism of exendin-4 across Madin Darby canine kidney cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengshu; Sun, Bingxue; Feng, Jiao; Zhang, Haihong; Liu, Bin; Li, Chun; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport mechanism of exendin-4 using Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer as an in vitro model of the human intestinal barrier. The roles of active and passive mechanisms of exendin-4 in the cell models were well studied and the corresponding contributions of the transcelluar and paracellular pathway to exendin-4 transport were also evaluated. Moreover, the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) values of exendin-4 were determined in the presence of chitosan, sodium decanoate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to further confirm the relative transport mechanism and to evaluate their potential utility in future formulation design. The results revealed the low transport capacity of exendin-4 (P(app), 0.10±0.06×10(-6) cm/s). And exendin-4 transport across the cell models was time and concentration-dependence, direction and energy-independence, and similar to the passive transport marker. Drug efflux and active transport were not observed. In the presence of absorption enhancers, the P(app) value significantly increased up to 2.2-11.9 folds without apparent cytotoxicity, which is comparable to that of the paracellular transport marker. And the order of enhancement was to the effect of chitosan>EDTA>sodium decanoate, and the order of safety was sodium decanoate≈chitosan>EDTA. These findings demonstrated that exendin-4 transport across MDCK cell monolayer mainly by passive paracellular pathway, which agrees with the result of confocal laser scanning microscopy. And these absorption enhancers can be used as potential safe ingredients to improve oral efficacy of exendin-4.

  13. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  14. Aging in the Canine Kidney.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, R E; Benali, S L; Aresu, L

    2016-03-01

    Given the irreversible nature of nephron loss, aging of the kidney is of special interest to diagnostic and toxicologic pathologists. There are many similarities among histologic lesions in aged human and canine kidneys, including increased frequency of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. Unfortunately, there are few studies in which renal tissue from aged healthy dogs was adequately examined with advanced diagnostics-namely, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence-so age-associated changes in canine podocytes and glomerular basement membranes are poorly characterized. An age-associated decrease in the glomerular filtration rate in humans and dogs (specifically small breed dogs) has been documented. Although lesions in aged rats and mice differ somewhat from those of aged dogs and humans, the knowledge gained from rodent models is still vital to elucidating the pathogenesis of age-associated renal disease. Many novel molecules implicated in renal aging have been identified through genetically modified rodent models and transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human kidneys. These molecules represent intriguing therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Likewise, influencing critical pathways of cellular aging, such as telomere shortening, cellular senescence, and autophagy, could improve renal function in the elderly. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Absorption mechanism of oxymatrine in cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Li-Hua; Zhong, Yun-Ming; Cheng, Xuan-Ge; Cen, Mei-Feng; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Zang, Lin-Quan; Wang, Su-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Context Oxymatrine (OMT) is beneficial to human health by exerting various biological effects. Objective To investigate the absorption mechanism of OMT and discover absorption enhancers using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers. Materials and methods Concentration effects on the transport of OMT were measured in the range of 1.0 × 10(-5)-1.0 × 10(-3) M in 2 h. Then, the effect of time, direction, temperature and pH on the transport of OMT at 10(-4) M was studied. Moreover, Papp of OMT was determined in the absence/presence of cyclosporine and surfactants at 100 μM to further confirm the relative transport mechanism. Results The Papp AP→BL ranged from (3.040 ± 0.23) × 10(-6) to (3.697 ± 0.19) × 10(-6 )cm/s as the concentration varied from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. OMT showed similar Papp at 4 and 37 °C (p > 0.05). Increasing the apical pH 7.4 and 8.0 resulted in Papp versus pH 5.0 (p < 0.01). Furthermore, in the presence of cyclosporine and surfactants including sodium citrate, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and deoxysodium cholate, Papp was (0.318 ± 0.033) × 10(-5), (0.464 ± 0.048) × 10(-5), (0.897 ± 0.115) × 10(-5) and (1.341 ± 0.122) × 10(-5 )cm/s, respectively. In the presence of surfactants, Papp significantly increased up to 1.5-4.3-fold (p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion OMT transport across MDCK cell monolayers was by passive diffusion. Sodium citrate, SDS and deoxysodium cholate serve as excellent absorption enhancers which are useful for the related research improving the oral bioavailability of OMT.

  16. Epithelial Sheet Folding Induces Lumen Formation by Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells in a Collagen Gel

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Sumire; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ogata, Genki; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Lumen formation is important for morphogenesis; however, an unanswered question is whether it involves the collective migration of epithelial cells. Here, using a collagen gel overlay culture method, we show that Madin-Darby canine kidney cells migrated collectively and formed a luminal structure in a collagen gel. Immediately after the collagen gel overlay, an epithelial sheet folded from the periphery, migrated inwardly, and formed a luminal structure. The inhibition of integrin-β1 or Rac1 activity decreased the migration rate of the peripheral cells after the sheets folded. Moreover, lumen formation was perturbed by disruption of apical-basolateral polarity induced by transforming growth factor-β1. These results indicate that cell migration and cell polarity play an important role in folding. To further explore epithelial sheet folding, we developed a computer-simulated mechanical model based on the rigidity of the extracellular matrix. It indicated a soft substrate is required for the folding movement. PMID:25170757

  17. Epithelial sheet folding induces lumen formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in a collagen gel.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Sumire; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ogata, Genki; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Lumen formation is important for morphogenesis; however, an unanswered question is whether it involves the collective migration of epithelial cells. Here, using a collagen gel overlay culture method, we show that Madin-Darby canine kidney cells migrated collectively and formed a luminal structure in a collagen gel. Immediately after the collagen gel overlay, an epithelial sheet folded from the periphery, migrated inwardly, and formed a luminal structure. The inhibition of integrin-β1 or Rac1 activity decreased the migration rate of the peripheral cells after the sheets folded. Moreover, lumen formation was perturbed by disruption of apical-basolateral polarity induced by transforming growth factor-β1. These results indicate that cell migration and cell polarity play an important role in folding. To further explore epithelial sheet folding, we developed a computer-simulated mechanical model based on the rigidity of the extracellular matrix. It indicated a soft substrate is required for the folding movement.

  18. [Adherent and single-cell suspension culture of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in serum-free medium].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ding; Zhao, Liang; Tan, Wensong

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, there are tremendous economic and social losses across the world because of virus-related diseases. It is well known that Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are easily handled, quickly amplified and efficiently infected with influenza virus. Therefore, they are considered as one of the most important cell lines for the production of influenza vaccine. In this work, we first developed a serum-free adherent culture process for MDCK cells with an in-house prepared serum-free medium MDCK-SFM. Next, we derived a cell line named ssf-MDCK, which was amenable for single-cell suspension culture in the serum-free medium. We found that during serum-free batch culture of MDCK cells, the peak viable cell density and maximum specific growth rate were 3.81 x 10(6) cells/mL and 0.056 h(-1), respectively; 3.6- and 1.6-fold increase compared with those in serum-containing adherent batch culture. In addition, we compared growth and metabolic characteristics of MDCK cells in serum-containing adherent culture, serum-free adherent culture and serum-free single-cell suspension culture. We found that less metabolic by-products were produced in both serum-free cultures. In serum-free single-cell suspension batch culture, the viable cell density was highest. These results are critical for establishing large-scale suspension culture of MDCK cells as subsequent well as large-scale influenza vaccine production.

  19. Analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic profiles demonstrates improved Madin-Darby canine kidney cell function in a renal microfluidic biochip.

    PubMed

    Snouber, Leila Choucha; Letourneur, Franck; Chafey, Philippe; Broussard, Cedric; Monge, Matthieu; Legallais, Cécile; Leclerc, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the influence of the microfluidic environment on renal cell functionality. For that purpose, we performed a time lapse transcriptomic and proteomic analysis in which we compared gene and protein expressions of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells after 24 h and 96 h of culture in both microfluidic biochips and plates. The transcriptomic and proteomic integration revealed that the ion transporters involved in calcium, phosphate, and sodium homoeostasis and several genes involved in H(+) transporters and pH regulation were up-regulated in microfluidic biochips. Concerning drug metabolism, we found Phase I (CYP P450), Phase II enzymes (GST), various multidrug resistance genes (MRP), and Phase III transporters (SLC) were also up-regulated in the biochips. Furthermore, the study shows that those inductions were correlated with the induction of the Ahr and Nrf-2 dependent pathways, which results in a global cytoprotective response induced by the microenvironment. However, there was no apoptosis situation or cell death in the biochips. Microfluidic biochips may thus provide an important insight into exploring xenobiotic injury and transport modifications in this type of bioartificial microfluidic kidney. Finally, the investigation demonstrated that combining the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses obtained from a cell "on chip" culture would provide a pertinent new tool in the mechanistic interpretation of cellular mechanisms for predicting kidney cell toxicity and renal clearance in vitro. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. Influence of passage number on glycosylation of alkyl lactosides by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Yumiko; Suzuki, Junya; Kasuya, Maria Carmelita Zulueta; Matsuoka, Koji; Hatanaka, Kenichi

    2012-11-01

    The cell function on saccharide biosynthesis can be evaluated by employing the saccharide primer method. This study demonstrated that the characteristics of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells changed in relation with passage number when 12-azidododecyl β-lactoside (Lac-12N(3) primer) was incorporated into MDCK cells and afforded GM3-, GD3-, sialylparagloboside (SPG), and NeuAc-Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-GlcNAc-Lac-type oligosaccharides. By measuring the amount of glycosylated products from relatively early to late passage numbers, results showed that there was an appropriate passage number that optimized oligosaccharide production and that the higher passage number resulted to a decrease in oligosaccharide production. Moreover, results suggested that aside from sialyltransferase, the activity of several kinds of enzymes that control the amount of saccharide production was presumably affected depending upon the biological senescence. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intracellular sorting and basolateral appearance of the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The polarity of the surface distribution of viral glycoproteins during virus infection has been studied in the Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cell line on nitrocellulose filters. Using a surface radioimmunoassay on Madin-Darby canine kidney strain I cells that had been infected with vesicular stomatitis virus or with avian influenza fowl plague virus, we found that the surface G protein was 97% basolateral, whereas the fowl plague virus hemagglutinin was 88% apical. Newly synthesized, pulse-labeled vesicular stomatitis virus appeared first on the basolateral plasma membrane as measured by an immunoprecipitation assay in which the anti-G protein antibody was applied to the monolayer either from the apical or the basolateral side. Labeled G protein could be accumulated inside the cell at a late stage of transport by decreasing the temperature to 20 degrees C during the chase. Reversal to 37 degrees C led to its rapid and synchronous transport to the basolateral surface at an initial rate 61-fold greater than that of transport to the apical side. These results demonstrate that the newly synthesized G protein is transported directly to the basolateral membrane and does not pass over the apical membrane en route. Since a previous study of the surface appearance of influenza virus hemagglutinins showed that the newly synthesized hemagglutinins were inserted directly from an intracellular site into the apical membrane (Matlin, K., and K. Simons, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:2131- 2139), we conclude that the divergence of the transport pathway for the apical and basolateral viral glycoproteins has to occur intracellularly, i.e., before reaching the cell surface. PMID:2991300

  2. The effects of parathyroid hormone and estradiol on cadmium accumulation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the toxic metal cadmium causes osteomalacia, osteoporosis, increased serum parathyroid hormone, renal stone formation, hypercalciuria and renal tubular dysfunction, reflecting one or more disturbances of calcium homeostasis. Since renal cadmium (Cd[sup 2+]) transport proceeds in both proximal and distal tubules and parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium reabsorption at distal nephron sites, it was postulated that PTH may also stimulate Cd[sup 2+] transport in distal tubules. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which express a distal phenotype including PTH-sensitive adenylate cyclase and calcium transport, were used as the cell model for the present study. Cadmium uptake was measured using [[sup 109]Cd[sup 2+

  3. High Yield Production of Influenza Virus in Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells with Stable Knockdown of IRF7

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Itsuki; Takaku, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Masato; Yamamoto, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a serious public health problem that causes a contagious respiratory disease. Vaccination is the most effective strategy to reduce transmission and prevent influenza. In recent years, cell-based vaccines have been developed with continuous cell lines such as Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero. However, wild-type influenza and egg-based vaccine seed viruses will not grow efficiently in these cell lines. Therefore, improvement of virus growth is strongly required for development of vaccine seed viruses and cell-based influenza vaccine production. The aim of our research is to develop novel MDCK cells supporting highly efficient propagation of influenza virus in order to expand the capacity of vaccine production. In this study, we screened a human siRNA library that involves 78 target molecules relating to three major type I interferon (IFN) pathways to identify genes that when knocked down by siRNA lead to enhanced production of influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 in A549 cells. The siRNAs targeting 23 candidate genes were selected to undergo a second screening pass in MDCK cells. We examined the effects of knockdown of target genes on the viral production using newly designed siRNAs based on sequence analyses. Knockdown of the expression of a canine gene corresponding to human IRF7 by siRNA increased the efficiency of viral production in MDCK cells through an unknown process that includes the mechanisms other than inhibition of IFN-α/β induction. Furthermore, the viral yield greatly increased in MDCK cells stably transduced with the lentiviral vector for expression of short hairpin RNA against IRF7 compared with that in control MDCK cells. Therefore, we propose that modified MDCK cells with lower expression level of IRF7 could be useful not only for increasing the capacity of vaccine production but also facilitating the process of seed virus isolation from clinical specimens for manufacturing of vaccines. PMID:23555825

  4. Laminin 511 partners with laminin 332 to mediate directional migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Greciano, Patricia G; Moyano, Jose V; Buschmann, Mary M; Tang, Jun; Lu, Yue; Rudnicki, Jean; Manninen, Aki; Matlin, Karl S

    2012-01-01

    Sustained directional migration of epithelial cells is essential for regeneration of injured epithelia. Front-rear polarity of migrating cells is determined by local activation of a signaling network involving Cdc42 and other factors in response to spatial cues from the environment, the nature of which are obscure. We examined the roles of laminin (LM)-511 and LM-332, two structurally different laminin isoforms, in the migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by suppressing expression of their α subunits using RNA interference. We determined that knockdown of LM-511 inhibits directional migration and destabilizes cell-cell contacts, in part by disturbing the localization and activity of the polarization machinery. Suppression of integrin α3, a laminin receptor subunit, in cells synthesizing normal amounts of both laminins has a similar effect as knockdown of LM-511. Surprisingly, simultaneous suppression of both laminin α5 and laminin α3 restores directional migration and cell-cell contact stability, suggesting that cells recognize a haptotactic gradient formed by a combination of laminins.

  5. Differential Sensitivity of Madin-darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells to Epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, P; Nagajyothi, P C; Chandrasekaran, M; Enkhtaivan, G; Venkitasamy, B; Kim, D H; Cho, M; Shim, J

    2016-01-01

    Catecholamines regulate a variety of cellular functions in the mammalian kidney. The present study was aimed to investigate the differential sensitivity of Madin-Darby Kidney Cells (MDCK cells) to epinephrine in a dose-dependent manner. The loss of adhesion and altered cell shape were observed in MDCK cells. The presence of apoptosis and necrosis were studied by the fluorescence microscope and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis showed several surface microvilli, and cells were rounded having ruffled and crenated surface. Agarose gel electrophoresis study showed the presence of smearing, which further confirms the occurrence of necrosis. The fluorescence staining study showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Up-regulation of p53, bax, and caspase 3 mRNA expressions was evidenced by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Caspase 3 activity was also increased in epinephrine treated cells. Our experimental results do not imply that the epinephrine should not be used in the clinical treatments. However, our results add a research note of caution on the possible cytotoxic effect of maximal doses of epinephrine over a prolonged time.

  6. Laminin 511 partners with laminin 332 to mediate directional migration of Madin–Darby canine kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Greciano, Patricia G.; Moyano, Jose V.; Buschmann, Mary M.; Tang, Jun; Lu, Yue; Rudnicki, Jean; Manninen, Aki; Matlin, Karl S.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained directional migration of epithelial cells is essential for regeneration of injured epithelia. Front–rear polarity of migrating cells is determined by local activation of a signaling network involving Cdc42 and other factors in response to spatial cues from the environment, the nature of which are obscure. We examined the roles of laminin (LM)-511 and LM-332, two structurally different laminin isoforms, in the migration of Madin–Darby canine kidney cells by suppressing expression of their α subunits using RNA interference. We determined that knockdown of LM-511 inhibits directional migration and destabilizes cell–cell contacts, in part by disturbing the localization and activity of the polarization machinery. Suppression of integrin α3, a laminin receptor subunit, in cells synthesizing normal amounts of both laminins has a similar effect as knockdown of LM-511. Surprisingly, simultaneous suppression of both laminin α5 and laminin α3 restores directional migration and cell–cell contact stability, suggesting that cells recognize a haptotactic gradient formed by a combination of laminins. PMID:22031290

  7. Sphingolipid metabolism is a crucial determinant of cellular fate in nonstimulated proliferating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Francisco Leocata; Pescio, Lucila G; Favale, Nicolás O; Adamo, Ana M; Sterin-Speziale, Norma B

    2008-09-12

    The present report was addressed to study the influence of sphingolipid metabolism in determining cellular fate. In nonstimulated proliferating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, sphingolipid de novo synthesis is branched mainly to a production of sphingomyelin and ceramide, with a minor production of sphingosylphosphocholine, ceramide 1-phosphate, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. Experiments with (32)P as a radioactive precursor showed that sphingosine 1-phosphate is produced mainly by a de novo independent pathway. Enzymatic inhibition of the de novo pathway and ceramide synthesis affected cell number and viability only slightly, without changing sphingosine 1-phosphate production. By contrast, inhibition of sphingosine kinase-1 activity provoked a significant reduction in both cell number and viability in a dose-dependent manner. When sphingolipid metabolism was studied, an increase in de novo formed ceramide was found, which correlated with the concentration of enzyme inhibitor and the reduction in cell number and viability. Knockdown of sphingosine kinase-1 expression also induced an accumulation of de novo synthesized ceramide, provoking a slight reduction in cell number and viability similar to that induced by a low concentration of the sphingosine kinase inhibitor. Taken together, our results indicate that the level of de novo formed ceramide is controlled by the synthesis of sphingosine 1-phosphate, which appears to occur through a de novo synthesis-independent pathway, most probably the salvage pathway, that is responsible for the MDCK cell fate, suggesting that under proliferating conditions, a dynamic interplay exists between the de novo synthesis and the salvage pathway.

  8. Effects of different concentrations of artemisinin and artemisinin-iron combination treatment on Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Payman; Mohammadpour, Hemn; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquitrepenelactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is a naturally occurring substance from Artemisia species plants. Artemisia species have been used in oriental medicine for centuries to treat malaria, gastrointestinal helminthosia, diarrhea, and as an antipyretic and sedative agent. Antileishmanial activity of the plants has been announced a few years ago. Dogs are the most important reservoir of leishmaniasis in some parts of the world. To use it as an antileishmanial drug in dogs, its side effects on different organs, among them the kidney as the organ of elimination have to be elucidated. Artemisinin with different concentrations (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 μg/ml) was added to the culture of MDCK (Madin darby canine kidney) cells with and without iron (86 μg/dl). All the changes were controlled and photographed every 12 hours using an invert microscope. After 60 hours, supernatants and cell extracts were examined for LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) concentration and total protein. Also TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was performed on cell extracts. Some microscopic slides were prepared from the cells and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic exams. Biochemical parameters showed cellular reaction and injury in a concentration dependent manner. Cell injury was more severe in the iron-added groups. Microscopic exams showed cell and nuclear swelling, granular degeneration, vacuole and vesicle formation, cellular detachment, piknosis, karyorrhexis, cellular necrosis and inhibition of new mitosis. On using the drug for leishmaniasis treatment in the dog, it should be done with caution and supervision. PMID:22783147

  9. Failure-to-Thrive Syndrome Associated with Tumor Formation by Madin–Darby Canine Kidney Cells in Newborn Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 107 Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 102.8 to 107.5); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor–derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases. PMID:24209967

  10. Control of microtubule nucleation and stability in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells: the occurrence of noncentrosomal, stable detyrosinated microtubules

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The microtubule-nucleating activity of centrosomes was analyzed in fibroblastic (Vero) and in epithelial cells (PtK2, Madin-Darby canine kidney [MDCK]) by double-immunofluorescence labeling with anti- centrosome and antitubulin antibodies. Most of the microtubules emanated from the centrosomes in Vero cells, whereas the microtubule network of MDCK cells appeared to be noncentrosome nucleated and randomly organized. The pattern of microtubule organization in PtK2 cells was intermediate to the patterns observed in the typical fibroblastic and epithelial cells. The two centriole cylinders were tightly associated and located close to the nucleus in Vero and PtK2 cells. In MDCK cells, however, they were clearly separated and electron microscopy revealed that they nucleated only a few microtubules. The stability of centrosomal and noncentrosomal microtubules was examined by treatment of these different cell lines with various concentrations of nocodazole. 1.6 microM nocodazole induced an almost complete depolymerization of microtubules in Vero cells; some centrosome nucleated microtubules remained in PtK2 cells, while many noncentrosomal microtubules resisted that treatment in MDCK cells. Centrosomal and noncentrosomal microtubules regrew in MDCK cells with similar kinetics after release from complete disassembly by high concentrations of nocodazole (33 microM). During regrowth, centrosomal microtubules became resistant to 1.6 microM nocodazole before the noncentrosomal ones, although the latter eventually predominate. We suggest that in MDCK cells, microtubules grow and shrink as proposed by the dynamic instability model but the presence of factors prevents them from complete depolymerization. This creates seeds for reelongation that compete with nucleation off the centrosome. By using specific antibodies, we have shown that the abundant subset of nocodazole- resistant microtubules in MDCK cells contained detyrosinated alpha- tubulin (glu tubulin). On the other hand

  11. Percolation analysis in electrical conductivity of Madin-Darby canine kidney and Caco-2 cells by permeation-enhancing agents.

    PubMed

    Washiyama, Makiko; Koizumi, Naoya; Fujii, Makiko; Kondoh, Masuo; Yagi, Kiyohito; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2013-01-01

    The control of permeability through the paracellular route has been paid great attention to for enhanced bioavailability of macromolecular and hydrophilic drugs. The paracellular permeability is controlled by tight junctions (TJ), and claudins are the major constituents of TJ. Despite numerous studies on TJ modulation, the dynamics is not well understood, although it could be crucial for clinical applications. Here, we studied the time (t) course of electrical conductivity (Σ) in a monolayer of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 cells upon treatment with modulators, the C-terminus fragments of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) and sodium caprate (C10). For C-CPE treatment, Σ remains approximately constant, then starts increasing at t=tc (percolation threshold). For C10, on the other hand, Σ increases to 1.6-2.0 fold of the initial value, stays constant, and then starts increasing again for both MDCK and Caco-2 cells at t=tc. We find that this behavior can be explained within a framework of percolation, where Σ shows a logarithmic dependence on t-tc with the power of μ; μ denotes the critical exponent. We obtain μ=1.1-1.2 regardless of cell type or modulator. Notably, μ depends only on the dimensionality (d) of the system, and these values correspond to those for d=2. Percolation is thus the operative mechanism for the increase in Σ through TJ modulation. The findings provide fundamental knowledge, not only on controlled drug delivery, but also on bio-nanotechnologies including the fabrication of biological devices.

  12. The subcellular organization of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells during the formation of a polarized epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the developing trophectoderm in the mouse embryo have shown that extensive cellular remodeling occurs during epithelial formation. In this investigation, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy is used to examine the three-dimensional changes in cellular architecture that take place during the polarization of a terminally differentiated epithelial cell line. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were plated at a low density on permeable filter supports. Antibodies that specifically recognize components of the tight junction, adherens junction, microtubules, centrosomes, and the Golgi complex were used to study the spatial remodeling of the cytoarchitecture during the formation of the polarized cell layer. The immunofluorescence data were correlated with establishment of functional tight junctions as measured by transepithelial resistance and back-exchange of the cell surface, labeled with metabolites of the fluorescent lipid analogue N-(7-[4- nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole]) aminocaproyl sphingosine. 1 d after plating, single cells had microtubules, radiating from a broad region, that contained the centrosomes and the Golgi complex. 2 d after plating, the cells had grown to confluence and had formed functional tight junctions close to the substratum. The centrioles had split and no longer organized the microtubules which were running above and below the nucleus. The Golgi complex had spread around the nucleus. By the fifth day after plating, the final polarized state had been achieved. The junctional complex had moved greater than 10 microns upward from its basal location. The centrioles were together below the apical membrane, and the Golgi complex formed a ribbon-like convoluted structure located in the apical region above the nucleus. The microtubules were organized in an apical web and in longitudinal microtubule bundles in the apical-basal axis of the columnar cell. The longitudinal microtubules were arranged with their minus ends spread over the apical

  13. Regulation of transepithelial ion transport by two different purinoceptors in the apical membrane of canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zegarra-Moran, O; Romeo, G; Galietta, L J

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of extracellular nucleotides on the transepithelial ion transport of Madin Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) was investigated. Cells were grown up to confluency on permeable supports and the short circuit current (ISC) was measured with an Ussing chamber-like mini-perfusion system. 2. Apical ATP stimulated a biphasic ISC increase consisting of a first rapid and transient peak followed by a broader one. 3. The first peak evoked by ATP was reversibly blocked by basilen blue (BB) in a concentration-dependent fashion, with an EC50 of 7.5 microM. 4. The P2 gamma receptor agonist, 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP) caused a single transient ISC increase that was completely blocked by pretreatment with BB. On the contrary, the P2x agonist, alpha, beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-meATP) was almost completely ineffective on ISC. UTP essentially induced a monophasic response the time-course of which resembled that of the second peak stimulated by ATP. The agonist potency order was 2-MeSATP > or = ATP >> UTP, alpha, beta-meATP for the first peak and UTP > or = ATP > 2-MeSATP > alpha, beta-meATP for the second peak. 5. Monolayer incubation with the membrane permeable calcium chelator [bis-o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N',-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoximethyl)-ester] (BAPTA/AM) inhibited the ATP-evoked first peak. 6. The non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue, adenosine-5'-O-(3-thio)-trisphosphate (ATP-gamma-S) elicited a biphasic response similar to that of ATP. The P1 receptor agonist, 2-chloroadenosine and CGS-21680, were almost unable to induce an ISC increase.2+ increase. The second induces prostaglandin synthesis probably through a P2U receptor activation. PMID:7540092

  14. Subcellular localisation of retromer in post-endocytic pathways of polarised Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Maravillas; Cuartero, Yasmina; Brugada, Ramon; Verges, Marcel

    2014-11-01

    Retromer is required for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), allowing delivery of hydrolases into lysosomes. It is constituted by a conserved heterotrimer formed by vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) gene products Vps26, Vps35 and Vps29, which is in charge of cargo selection, and a dimer of phosphoinositide-binding sorting nexins (SNXs), which has a structural role. Retromer has been implicated in sorting of additional cargo. Thus, retromer also promotes polymeric immunoglobulin A (pIgA) transcytosis by the pIgA receptor (pIgR) in polarised cells, and considerable evidence implicates retromer in controlling epithelial cell polarity. However, the precise localisation of retromer along the endocytic pathway of polarised cells has not been studied in detail. Our biochemical analysis using rat liver endosome fractions suggests a distinct distribution pattern. Although subunits of the cargo-selective complex were enriched in early endosomes (EEs), levels of SNX2 were greater in sorting endosomes. We then immunolocalised the retromer subunits in polarised Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by confocal microscopy. An estimated 25% of total Vps26 and SNX2 localised to EEs, with negligible portions in recycling endosomes as well as in late endosomes and lysosomes. Although Vps26 was in structures of more heterogeneous size and shape than SNX2, these markedly overlapped. In consequence, the two retromer subcomplexes mostly colocalised. When we analysed retromer overlap with its cargo, we found that structures retromer and pIgA(+) are independent of those structures retromer and CI-MPR(+) . Remarkably, retromer localised preferentially at the transcytotic pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase affected the co-distribution of retromer with pIgA and the CI-MPR, delaying pIgA progress to the apical surface. In polarised MDCK cells, we found retromer associated with certain specialised EE

  15. PAR1b Promotes Cell–Cell Adhesion and Inhibits Dishevelled-mediated Transformation of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Elbert, Maya; Cohen, David

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian Par1 is a family of serine/threonine kinases comprised of four homologous isoforms that have been associated with tumor suppression and differentiation of epithelial and neuronal cells, yet little is known about their cellular functions. In polarizing kidney epithelial (Madin-Darby canine kidney [MDCK]) cells, the Par1 isoform Par1b/MARK2/EMK1 promotes the E-cadherin–dependent compaction, columnarization, and cytoskeletal organization characteristic of differentiated columnar epithelia. Here, we identify two functions of Par1b that likely contribute to its role as a tumor suppressor in epithelial cells. 1) The kinase promotes cell–cell adhesion and resistance of E-cadherin to extraction by nonionic detergents, a measure for the association of the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain with the actin cytoskeleton, which is critical for E-cadherin function. 2) Par1b attenuates the effect of Dishevelled (Dvl) expression, an inducer of wnt signaling that causes transformation of epithelial cells. Although Dvl is a known Par1 substrate in vitro, we determined, after mapping the PAR1b-phosphorylation sites in Dvl, that PAR1b did not antagonize Dvl signaling by phosphorylating the wnt-signaling molecule. Instead, our data suggest that both proteins function antagonistically to regulate the assembly of functional E-cadherin–dependent adhesion complexes. PMID:16707567

  16. Apical sorting of ADAMTS13 in vascular endothelial cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells depends on the CUB domains and their association with lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Dezhi; Zheng, X. Wu; Niiya, Masami; Zheng, X. Long

    2006-01-01

    ADAMTS13 biosynthesis appeared to occur mainly in hepatic stellate cells, but detection of ADAMTS13 mRNA in many other tissues suggests that vascular endothelium may also produce ADAMTS13. We showed that ADAMTS13 mRNA and protein were detectable in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, aortic endothelial cells, and endothelium-derived cell line (ECV304). ADAMTS13 in cell lysate or serum-free conditioned medium cleaved von Willebrand factor (VWF) specifically. ADAMTS13 and VWF were localized to the distinct compartments of endothelial cells. Moreover, ADAMTS13 was preferentially sorted into apical domain of ECV304 and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Apical sorting of ADAMTS13 depended on the CUB domains and their association with lipid rafts. A mutation in the second CUB domain of ADAMTS13 (4143-4144insA), naturally occurring in patients with inherited thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, resulted in a significant reduction of ADAMTS13 secretion and a reversal of its polarity in MDCK cells. These data demonstrated that ADAMTS13 is synthesized and secreted from endothelial cells; the apically secreted ADAMTS13 from endothelial cells may contribute significantly to plasma ADAMTS13 proteases. The data also suggest a critical role of the CUB domains and a novel cargo-selective mechanism for apical sorting of a soluble ADAMTS protease in polarized cells. PMID:16597588

  17. Modulation of the expression of an apical plasma membrane protein of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells: cell-cell interactions control the appearance of a novel intracellular storage compartment

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Experimental conditions that abolish or reduce to a minimum intercellular contacts between Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells result in the appearance of an intracellular storage compartment for apical membrane proteins. Subconfluent culture, incubation in 1-5 microM Ca++, or inclusion of dissociated cells within agarose or collagen gels all caused the intracellular accumulation of a 184-kD apical membrane protein within large (0.5-5 micron) vacuoles, rich in microvilli. Influenza virus hemagglutinin, an apically targeted viral glycoprotein, is concentrated within these structures but the basolateral glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus and a cellular basolateral 63-kD membrane protein of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were excluded. This novel epithelial organelle (VAC), which we designate the vacuolar apical compartment, may play an as yet unrecognized role in the biogenesis of the apical plasma membrane during the differentiation of normal epithelia. PMID:3553208

  18. Influvac: a safe Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell culture-based influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Brands, R; Visser, J; Medema, J; Palache, A M; van Scharrenburg, G J

    1999-01-01

    Influenza vaccine production technology based on large scale cell culture technology has been developed. From the characterization of the continuous cell line MDCK as well as drug safety studies we conclude that this cell line and the cell culture system are suitable for biological production. The Down Stream Process (DSP) of the virus-containing harvest fluids guarantees sufficient inactivation of influenza viruses and adequate removal or inactivation of putative adventitious or endogenous viruses, mycoplasma or bacteria. Our data indicate that the tissue culture-based production technology is feasible.

  19. The garlic ingredient diallyl sulfide induces Ca(2+) mobilization in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Hsein; Su, Shu-Jem; Chang, Kee-Lung; Huang, Mei-Wen; Kuo, Soong-Yu

    2009-09-01

    Diallyl sulfide (DAS), one of the major organosulfur compounds (OSCs) of garlic, is recognized as a group of potential chemoproventive compounds. In this study, we examines the early signaling effects of DAS on renal cells loaded with Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fura-2. It was found that DAS caused an immediate and sustained rise of [Ca(2+)](i) in a concentration-dependent manner (EC(50)=2.32 mM). DAS also induced a [Ca(2+)](i) elevation when extracellular Ca(2+) was removed, but the magnitude was reduced by 45%. Depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores with CCCP, a mitochondrial uncoupler, did not affect DAS's effect. In Ca(2+)-free medium, the DAS-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise was abolished by depleting stored Ca(2+) with thapsigargin (an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor). DAS-caused [Ca(2+)](i) rise in Ca(2+)-containing medium was not affected by modulation of protein kinase C activity. The DAS-induced Ca(2+) influx was blocked by nicardipine. U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, abolished ATP (but not DAS)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Additionally, pretreatment with DAS for 24 h decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DAS-induced cell death involved apoptotic events. These findings suggest that diallyl sulfide induced a significant rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in MDCK renal tubular cells by stimulating both extracellular Ca(2+) influx and thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) release via as yet unidentified mechanisms.

  20. Cloning and heterologous expression of the ovine (Ovis aries) P-glycoprotein (Mdr1) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Zahner, D; Alber, J; Petzinger, E

    2010-06-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a crucial role in the multidrug resistance of pathogenic helminths in sheep (Ovis aries) as well as in antiparasitic drug pharmacokinetics in the host. We cloned sheep P-gp cDNA and expressed it stably in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The open reading frame consists of 3858 nucleotides coding for a 1285 amino acids containing protein. The sequence shows high homology to the orthologs of other mammalian species, especially cattle. Both ruminant DNA sequences show a 9 bp insertion that is lacking in all other investigated sequences. Expressed in MDCK cells, the protein displays a size of 170 kDa on Western analysis. Transfection of MDCK cells with sheep P-gp resulted in 10- to 50-fold resistance to the cytotoxic P-gp substrates colchicin and daunorubicin, and in reduced digoxin accumulation.

  1. Isolation, characterization, and expansion methods for defined primary renal cell populations from rodent, canine, and human normal and diseased kidneys.

    PubMed

    Presnell, Sharon C; Bruce, Andrew T; Wallace, Shay M; Choudhury, Sumana; Genheimer, Christopher W; Cox, Bryan; Guthrie, Kelly; Werdin, Eric S; Tatsumi-Ficht, Patricia; Ilagan, Roger M; Kelley, Russell W; Rivera, Elias A; Ludlow, John W; Wagner, Belinda J; Jayo, Manuel J; Bertram, Timothy A

    2011-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem; the growing gap between the number of patients awaiting transplant and organs actually transplanted highlights the need for new treatments to restore renal function. Regenerative medicine is a promising approach from which treatments for organ-level disorders (e.g., neurogenic bladder) have emerged and translated to clinics. Regenerative templates, composed of biodegradable material and autologous cells, isolated and expanded ex vivo, stimulate native-like organ tissue regeneration after implantation. A critical step for extending this strategy from bladder to kidney is the ability to isolate, characterize, and expand functional renal cells with therapeutic potential from diseased tissue. In this study, we developed methods that yield distinct subpopulations of primary kidney cells that are compatible with process development and scale-up. These methods were translated to rodent, large mammal, and human kidneys, and then to rodent and human tissues with advanced CKD. Comparative in vitro studies demonstrated that phenotype and key functional attributes were retained consistently in ex vivo cultures regardless of species or disease state, suggesting that autologous sourcing of cells that contribute to in situ kidney regeneration after injury is feasible, even with biopsies from patients with advanced CKD.

  2. Exposure of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to oxalate and calcium oxalate crystals activates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aslam; Byer, Karen; Khan, Saeed R

    2014-02-01

    To investigate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the production of reactive oxygen species on exposure to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. Monolayers of confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were exposed to 100, 300, 500 μmol, 1 mmol Ox or 33, 66, 132 μg/cm(2) CaOx crystals for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, or 3 hours. After specified periods of exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals, lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue exclusion, activation of NADPH oxidase, and superoxide production were determined using standard procedures. The production of Nox4, a membrane associated subunit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme, was determined by western blot analysis. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals leads to time- and concentration-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase. Western blot analysis showed an increase in the production of Nox4. The production of superoxide also changed in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximum increases after 30-minute exposure to the highest concentrations of Ox and CaOx crystals. Longer exposures did not change the results or resulted in decreased activities. Exposure to higher concentrations also caused increased lactate dehydrogenase release and trypan blue exclusion indicating cell damage. Results indicate that cells of the distal tubular origin are equipped with NADPH oxidase that is activated by exposures to Ox and CaOx crystals. Higher concentrations of both lead to cell injury, most probably through the increased reactive oxygen species production by the exposed cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The ether lipid ET-18-OCH3 increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in Madin Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Jan, C R; Wu, S N; Tseng, C J

    1999-07-01

    The effect of the ether lipid 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (ET-18-OCH3) on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was studied using fura-2 as the Ca2+ probe. In Ca2+ medium, ET-18-OCH3 induced a significant rise in [Ca2+]i at concentrations between 10-100 microM with a concentration-dependent delay of 45-175 s. The [Ca2+]i signal was composed of a gradual rise and a sustained plateau. In Ca2+-free medium, ET-18-OCH3 (10-100 microM) induced a Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores with a concentration-dependent delay of 45-175 s. This discharge of internal Ca2+ triggered capacitative Ca2+ entry in a concentration-dependent manner. This capacitative Ca2+ entry was not inhibited by econazole (25 microM), 1-[beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (SKF96365; 50 microM), nifedipine (10 microM), verapamil (10 microM), diltiazem (10 microM) and cadmium (0.5 microM). Methyl 2-(phenylthio)ethyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylat e (PCA-4248), a platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, inhibited 25 microM ET-18-OCH3-induced [Ca2+]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner between 1-20 microM, with 20 microM exerting a complete block. The [Ca2+]i rise induced by ET-18-OCH3 (25 microM) was not altered when the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was suppressed by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (2 microM), but was partly inhibited by the phospholipase D inhibitor propranolol (0.1 mM) or the phospholipase A2 inhibitor aristolochic acid (20-40 microM). In Ca2+-free medium, pretreatment with 25 microM ET-18-OCH3 completely depleted the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ store. In contrast, pretreatment with thapsigargin abolished 0.1 mM ATP-induced [Ca2+]i rise without altering the ET-18-OCH3-induced [Ca2+]i rise. This suggests that ET-18-OCH3 depleted thapsigargin

  4. Apical sorting of a voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel alpha -subunit in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells is independent of N-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Zehnder, M; Orio, P; Norambuena, A; Wallner, M; Meera, P; Toro, L; Latorre, R; González, A

    2000-11-21

    The voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(V,Ca)) channel is expressed in a variety of polarized epithelial cells seemingly displaying a tissue-dependent apical-to-basolateral regionalization, as revealed by electrophysiology. Using domain-specific biotinylation and immunofluorescence we show that the human channel K(V,Ca) alpha-subunit (human Slowpoke channel, hSlo) is predominantly found in the apical plasma membrane domain of permanently transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Both the wild-type and a mutant hSlo protein lacking its only potential N-glycosylation site were efficiently transported to the cell surface and concentrated in the apical domain even when they were overexpressed to levels 200- to 300-fold higher than the density of intrinsic Slo channels. Furthermore, tunicamycin treatment did not prevent apical segregation of hSlo, indicating that endogenous glycosylated proteins (e.g., K(V,Ca) beta-subunits) were not required. hSlo seems to display properties for lipid-raft targeting, as judged by its buoyant distribution in sucrose gradients after extraction with either detergent or sodium carbonate. The evidence indicates that the hSlo protein possesses intrinsic information for transport to the apical cell surface through a mechanism that may involve association with lipid rafts and that is independent of glycosylation of the channel itself or an associated protein. Thus, this particular polytopic model protein shows that glycosylation-independent apical pathways exist for endogenous membrane proteins in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

  5. Novel MAPK-dependent and -independent tubulogenes identified via microarray analysis of 3D-cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Heszele, Maria F.; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Hellman, Nathan E.; McKenna, Sarah; Choi, Soo Young; Huang, Liwei; Tobias, John W.; Park, Kwon Moo

    2014-01-01

    Cystogenesis and tubulogenesis are basic building blocks for many epithelial organs, including the kidney. Most researchers have used two-dimensional (2D) cell culture to investigate signaling pathways downstream of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We hypothesize that three-dimensional (3D) collagen-grown Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which form cysts and then tubulate in response to HGF, are a much more in vivo-like system for the identification of novel tubulogenes. With the use of a canine microarray containing over 20,000 genes, 2,417 genes were identified as potential tubulogenes that were differentially regulated, exclusively in 3D-grown MDCK cells. Among these, 840 were dependent on MAPK signaling. Importantly, this work shows that many putative tubulogenes, previously identified via microarray analysis of 2D cultures, including by us, do not change in 3D culture and vice versa. The use of a 3D-culture system allowed for the identification of novel MAPK-dependent and -independent genes that regulate early renal tubulogenesis in vitro, e.g., matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Knockdown of MMP1 led to defects in cystogenesis and tubulogenesis in 3D-grown MDCK cells, most likely due to problems establishing normal polarity. We suggest that data obtained from 2D cultures, even those using MDCK cells treated with HGF, should not be automatically extrapolated to factors important for cystogenesis and tubulogenesis. Instead, 3D culture, which more closely replicates the biological environment and is therefore a more accurate model for identifying tubulogenes, is preferred. Results from the present analysis will be used to build a more accurate model of the signaling pathways that control cystogenesis and tubulogenesis. PMID:24573390

  6. Novel MAPK-dependent and -independent tubulogenes identified via microarray analysis of 3D-cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Hellman, Nathan E; McKenna, Sarah; Choi, Soo Young; Huang, Liwei; Tobias, John W; Park, Kwon Moo; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2014-05-01

    Cystogenesis and tubulogenesis are basic building blocks for many epithelial organs, including the kidney. Most researchers have used two-dimensional (2D) cell culture to investigate signaling pathways downstream of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We hypothesize that three-dimensional (3D) collagen-grown Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which form cysts and then tubulate in response to HGF, are a much more in vivo-like system for the identification of novel tubulogenes. With the use of a canine microarray containing over 20,000 genes, 2,417 genes were identified as potential tubulogenes that were differentially regulated, exclusively in 3D-grown MDCK cells. Among these, 840 were dependent on MAPK signaling. Importantly, this work shows that many putative tubulogenes, previously identified via microarray analysis of 2D cultures, including by us, do not change in 3D culture and vice versa. The use of a 3D-culture system allowed for the identification of novel MAPK-dependent and -independent genes that regulate early renal tubulogenesis in vitro, e.g., matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Knockdown of MMP1 led to defects in cystogenesis and tubulogenesis in 3D-grown MDCK cells, most likely due to problems establishing normal polarity. We suggest that data obtained from 2D cultures, even those using MDCK cells treated with HGF, should not be automatically extrapolated to factors important for cystogenesis and tubulogenesis. Instead, 3D culture, which more closely replicates the biological environment and is therefore a more accurate model for identifying tubulogenes, is preferred. Results from the present analysis will be used to build a more accurate model of the signaling pathways that control cystogenesis and tubulogenesis.

  7. Two-dimensional manipulation of differentiated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell sheets: the noninvasive harvest from temperature-responsive culture dishes and transfer to other surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kushida, A; Yamato, M; Kikuchi, A; Okano, T

    2001-01-01

    A renal epithelial cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, adheres, spreads, and proliferates to confluency on our developed temperature-responsive culture dishes grafted with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) at 37 degrees C. In addition to other cell types, including hepatocytes and endothelial cells, MDCK cell sheets noninvasively were harvested from PIPAAm-grafted dishes merely by reducing the temperature. However, during the early stage of culture (up to 3 weeks), confluent MDCK cell detachment is greatly repressed. In the present study, we succeeded in the rapid harvest of confluent MDCK cell sheets and intact transfer to other culture dishes by utilizing hydrophilically modified poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) membranes as supporting materials. Immunocytochemistry with anti-beta-catenin antibody revealed that the functional cell-cell junctions were well organized in the transferred MDCK cell sheets. The viability assay showed that the transferred cells were not damaged during the two-dimensional cell-sheet manipulation. By transmission electron microscopy it was confirmed that the harvested MDCK cells retained differentiated phenotypes and had many microvilli and tight junctions at the apical and lateral plasma membranes, respectively. This two-dimensional cell-sheet manipulation technique promises to be useful in tissue engineering as well as in the investigation of epithelial cell sheets. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Myosin-1c regulates the dynamic stability of E-cadherin–based cell–cell contacts in polarized Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Tokuo, Hiroshi; Coluccio, Lynne M.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cadherins and the actin cytoskeleton controls the formation and maintenance of cell–cell adhesions in epithelia. We find that the molecular motor protein myosin-1c (Myo1c) regulates the dynamic stability of E-cadherin–based cell–cell contacts. In Myo1c-depleted Madin–Darby canine kidney cells, E-cadherin localization was dis­organized and lateral membranes appeared less vertical with convoluted edges versus control cells. In polarized monolayers, Myo1c-knockdown (KD) cells were more sensitive to reduced calcium concentration. Myo1c separated in the same plasma membrane fractions as E-cadherin, and Myo1c KD caused a significant reduction in the amount of E-cadherin recovered in one peak fraction. Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)–Myo1c mutants revealed that the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate–binding site is necessary for its localization to cell–cell adhesions, and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays with GFP-Myo1c mutants revealed that motor function was important for Myo1c dynamics at these sites. At 18°C, which inhibits vesicle recycling, Myo1c-KD cells accumulated more E-cadherin–positive vesicles in their cytoplasm, suggesting that Myo1c affects E-cadherin endocytosis. Studies with photoactivatable GFP–E-cadherin showed that Myo1c KD reduced the stability of E-cadherin at cell–cell adhesions. We conclude that Myo1c stabilizes E-cadherin at adherens junctions in polarized epithelial cells and that the motor function and ability of Myo1c to bind membrane are critical. PMID:23864705

  9. Expression Profile of Drug and Nutrient Absorption Related Genes in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells Grown under Differentiation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Yong; Jin, Yisheng; Faria, Teresa N.; Tilford, Charles A.; He, Aiqing; Wall, Doris A.; Smith, Ronald L.; Vig, Balvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    The expression levels of genes involved in drug and nutrient absorption were evaluated in the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) in vitro drug absorption model. MDCK cells were grown on plastic surfaces (for 3 days) or on Transwell® membranes (for 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). The expression profile of genes including ABC transporters, SLC transporters, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was determined using the Affymetrix® Canine GeneChip®. Expression of genes whose probe sets passed a stringent confirmation process was examined. Expression of a few transporter (MDR1, PEPT1 and PEPT2) genes in MDCK cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall gene expression profile was strongly influenced by the type of support the cells were grown on. After 3 days of growth, expression of 28% of the genes was statistically different (1.5-fold cutoff, p < 0.05) between the cells grown on plastic and Transwell® membranes. When cells were differentiated on Transwell® membranes, large changes in gene expression profile were observed during the early stages, which then stabilized after 5–7 days. Only a small number of genes encoding drug absorption related SLC, ABC, and CYP were detected in MDCK cells, and most of them exhibited low hybridization signals. Results from this study provide valuable reference information on endogenous gene expression in MDCK cells that could assist in design of drug-transporter and/or drug-enzyme interaction studies, and help interpret the contributions of various transporters and metabolic enzymes in studies with MDCK cells. PMID:24300234

  10. Similar uptake but different trafficking and escape routes of reovirus virions and infectious subvirion particles imaged in polarized Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Boulant, Steeve; Stanifer, Megan; Kural, Comert; Cureton, David K.; Massol, Ramiro; Nibert, Max L.; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells that line the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts form a barrier that many viruses must breach to infect their hosts. Current understanding of cell entry by mammalian reovirus (MRV) virions and infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs), generated from MRV virions by extracellular proteolysis in the digestive tract, are mostly derived from in vitro studies with nonpolarized cells. Recent live-cell imaging advances allow us for the first time to visualize events at the apical surface of polarized cells. In this study, we used spinning-disk confocal fluorescence microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution to follow the uptake and trafficking dynamics of single MRV virions and ISVPs at the apical surface of live polarized Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. Both types of particles were internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but virions and ISVPs exhibited strikingly different trafficking after uptake. While virions reached early and late endosomes, ISVPs did not and instead escaped the endocytic pathway from an earlier location. This study highlights the broad advantages of using live-cell imaging combined with single-particle tracking for identifying key steps in cell entry by viruses. PMID:23427267

  11. ToF-SIMS and laser-SNMS analysis of Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells with silver nanoparticles using an argon cluster ion beam.

    PubMed

    Nees, Ricarda; Pelster, Andreas; Körsgen, Martin; Jungnickel, Harald; Luch, Andreas; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2015-06-15

    The use of nanoparticles is one of the fastest expanding fields in industrial as well as in medical applications, owing to their remarkable characteristics. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most-commercialized nanoparticles because of their antibacterial effects. Laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (laser-SNMS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry in combination with argon cluster ion sputtering was used for the first time to investigate the effects of AgNPs on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells. Depth profiles and high-resolution three dimensional (3D) images of nanoparticles and organic compounds from cells were obtained using an Ar cluster ion beam for sputtering and Bi3 (+) primary ions for the analysis. The 3D distribution of AgNPs and other organic compounds in MDCK II cells could be readily detected with very high efficiency, sensitivity, and submicron lateral resolution. The argon cluster ion beam is well suited for the sputtering of biological samples. It enables a high sample removal rate along with low molecular degradation. The outer membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nuclei of the cells could be clearly visualized using the signals PO(+) and C3H8N(+) or CN(+) and C3H8N(+). The laser-SNMS images showed unambiguously that AgNPs are incorporated by MDCK II cells and often form silver aggregates with a diameter of a few micrometers, mainly close to the outside of the cell nuclei.

  12. Mutant p53 Cooperates with Knockdown of Endogenous Wild-Type p53 to Disrupt Tubulogenesis in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanhong; Yan, Wensheng; Chen, Xinbin

    2013-01-01

    Mutation of the p53 gene is the most common genetic alteration in human malignances and associated clinically with tumor progression and metastasis. To determine the effect of mutant p53 on epithelial differentiation, we developed three-dimensional culture (3-D) of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We found that parental MDCK cells undergo a series of morphological changes and form polarized and growth-arrested cysts with hollow lumen, which resembles branching tubules in vitro. We also found that upon knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 (p53-KD), MDCK cells still form normal cysts in 3-D culture, indicating that p53-KD alone is not sufficient to disrupt cysts formation. However, we found that ectopic expression of mutant R163H (human equivalent R175H) or R261H (human equivalent R273H) in MDCK cells leads to disruption of cyst polarity and formation of invasive aggregates, which is further compounded by knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53. Consistently, we found that expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcription factors (Snail-1, Slug and Twist) is altered by mutant p53, which is also compounded by knockdown of wild-type p53. Moreover, the expression level of c-Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and a key regulator of kidney cell tubulogenesis, is enhanced by combined knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 and ectopic expression of mutant R163H or R261H but not by each individually. Together, our data suggest that upon inactivating mutation of the p53 gene, mutant p53 acquires its gain of function by altering morphogenesis and promoting cell migration and invasion in part by upregulating EMT and c-Met. PMID:24386484

  13. A novel sorting motif in the glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 directs its targeting in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chialin; Glover, Greta; Banker, Gary; Amara, Susan G

    2002-12-15

    The glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) is polarized to the apical surface in epithelial cells and localized to the dendritic compartment in hippocampal neurons, where it is clustered adjacent to postsynaptic sites. In this study, we analyzed the sequences in EAAT3 that are responsible for its polarized localization in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and neurons. Confocal microscopy and cell surface biotinylation assays demonstrated that deletion of the EAAT3 C terminus or replacement of the C terminus of EAAT3 with the analogous region in EAAT1 eliminated apical localization in MDCK cells. The C terminus of EAAT3 was sufficient to redirect the basolateral-preferring EAAT1 and the nonpolarized EAAT2 to the apical surface. Using alanine substitution mutants, we identified a short peptide motif in the cytoplasmic C-terminal region of EAAT3 that directs its apical localization in MDCK cells. Mutation of this sequence also impairs dendritic targeting of EAAT3 in hippocampal neurons but does not interfere with the clustering of EAAT3 on dendritic spines and filopodia. These data provide the first evidence that an identical cytoplasmic motif can direct apical targeting in epithelia and somatodendritic targeting in neurons. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the two fundamental features of the localization of EAAT3 in neurons, its restriction to the somatodendritic domain and its clustering near postsynaptic sites, are mediated by distinct molecular mechanisms.

  14. Microtubule perturbation inhibits intracellular transport of an apical membrane glycoprotein in a substrate-dependent manner in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    van Zeijl, M J; Matlin, K S

    1990-01-01

    The effects of microtubule perturbation on the transport of two different viral glycoproteins were examined in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown on both permeable and solid substrata. Quantitative biochemical analysis showed that the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole inhibited arrival of influenza hemagglutinin on the apical plasma membrane in MDCK cells grown on both substrata. In contrast, the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol inhibited apical appearance of hemagglutinin only when MDCK cells were grown on permeable substrata. On the basis of hemagglutinin mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels and its sensitivity to endo H, it was evident that nocodazole and taxol arrested hemagglutinin at different intracellular sites. Neither drug caused a significant increase in the amount of hemagglutinin detected on the basolateral plasma membrane domain. In addition, neither drug had any noticeable effect on the transport of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G protein to the basolateral surface. These results shed light on previous conflicting reports using this model system and support the hypothesis that microtubules play a role in the delivery of membrane glycoproteins to the apical, but not the basolateral, domain of epithelial cells. Images PMID:1983109

  15. Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-I; Chen, Kuan-Sheng; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming

    2016-04-01

    To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. 12 client-owned dogs (in vivo experiment) and 6 client-owned dogs (in vitro experiment). 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n = 6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells. None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration. Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.

  16. ErbB4 isoforms selectively regulate growth factor induced Madin-Darby canine kidney cell tubulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fenghua; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Singh, Amar B; Zent, Roy; Harris, Raymond C

    2007-11-01

    ErbB4, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family that can be activated by heregulin beta1 and heparin binding (HB)-EGF, is expressed as alternatively spliced isoforms characterized by variant extracellular juxtamembrane (JM) and intracellular cytoplasmic (CYT) domains. ErbB4 plays a critical role in cardiac and neural development. We demonstrated that ErbB4 is expressed in the ureteric buds and developing tubules of embryonic rat kidney and in collecting ducts in adult. The predominant isoforms expressed in kidney are JM-a and CYT-2. In ErbB4-transfected MDCK II cells, basal cell proliferation and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced tubule formation were decreased by all four isoforms. Only JM-a/CYT-2 cells formed tubules upon HB-EGF stimulation. ErbB4 was activated by both HRG-beta1 and HB-EGF stimulation; however, compared with HRG-beta1, HB-EGF induced phosphorylation of the 80-kDa cytoplasmic cleavage fragment of the JM-a/CYT-2 isoform. HB-EGF also induced early activation of ERK1/2 in JM-a/CYT-2 cells and promoted nuclear translocation of the JM-a/CYT-2 cytoplasmic tail. In summary, our data indicate that JM-a/CYT-2, the ErbB4 isoform that is proteinase cleavable but does not contain a PI3K-binding domain in its cytoplasmic tail, mediates important functions in renal epithelial cells in response to HB-EGF.

  17. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 control claudin-2 expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney strain I and II cells.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Joshua H; Li, Shixiong; Arisco, Amy; Balkovetz, Daniel F

    2005-02-04

    The tight junction of the epithelial cell determines the characteristics of paracellular permeability across epithelium. Recent work points toward the claudin family of tight junction proteins as leading candidates for the molecular components that regulate paracellular permeability properties in epithelial tissues. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) strain I and II cells are models for the study of tight junctions and based on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) contain "tight" and "leaky" tight junctions, respectively. Overexpression studies suggest that tight junction leakiness in these two strains of MDCK cells is conferred by expression of the tight junction protein claudin-2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation by hepatocyte growth factor treatment of MDCK strain II cells inhibited claudin-2 expression and transiently increased TER. This process was blocked by the ERK 1/2 inhibitor U0126. Transfection of constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase into MDCK strain II cells also inhibited claudin-2 expression and increased TER. MDCK strain I cells have higher levels of active ERK 1/2 than do MDCK strain II cells. U0126 treatment of MDCK strain I cells decreased active ERK 1/2 levels, induced expression of claudin-2 protein, and decreased TER by approximately 20-fold. U0126 treatment also induced claudin-2 expression and decreased TER in a high resistance mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (94D). These data show for the first time that the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway negatively controls claudin-2 expression in mammalian renal epithelial cells and provide evidence for regulation of tight junction paracellular transport by alterations in claudin composition within tight junction complexes.

  18. Intracellular processing and transport of influenza-virus envelope proteins in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Effects of the carboxylic ionophores monensin and nigericin.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, P U; Edwardson, J M

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of the carboxylic ionophores monensin and nigericin on the intracellular processing and transport of the influenza-virus envelope proteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase in Madin-Darby-canine-kidney-cell monolayers. In the presence of either ionophore, haemagglutinin acquires resistance to the enzyme endoglycosidase H more slowly than it does in untreated cells. In addition, the ionophores cause a block in oligosaccharide-processing events that are believed to occur normally in the trans elements of the Golgi complex. This block is not overcome even at long chase times. Finally, the ionophores cause a substantial slowing of the delivery of both haemagglutinin and neuraminidase to the plasma membrane. We conclude that the ionophores cause delays in the intracellular transport of these proteins both early and late in the pathway, that is, before and after passage through the trans-Golgi, and perturb the processing functions of this compartment. The possible significance of these observations with regard to the intracellular transport of newly synthesized plasma-membrane proteins in epithelial cells is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. PMID:3421918

  19. Intracellular processing and transport of influenza-virus envelope proteins in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Effects of the carboxylic ionophores monensin and nigericin.

    PubMed

    Daniels, P U; Edwardson, J M

    1988-06-15

    We have investigated the effects of the carboxylic ionophores monensin and nigericin on the intracellular processing and transport of the influenza-virus envelope proteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase in Madin-Darby-canine-kidney-cell monolayers. In the presence of either ionophore, haemagglutinin acquires resistance to the enzyme endoglycosidase H more slowly than it does in untreated cells. In addition, the ionophores cause a block in oligosaccharide-processing events that are believed to occur normally in the trans elements of the Golgi complex. This block is not overcome even at long chase times. Finally, the ionophores cause a substantial slowing of the delivery of both haemagglutinin and neuraminidase to the plasma membrane. We conclude that the ionophores cause delays in the intracellular transport of these proteins both early and late in the pathway, that is, before and after passage through the trans-Golgi, and perturb the processing functions of this compartment. The possible significance of these observations with regard to the intracellular transport of newly synthesized plasma-membrane proteins in epithelial cells is discussed.

  20. Expression of the sodium–myo-inositol cotransporter SMIT2 at the apical membrane of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Pierre; Coady, Michael J; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2004-01-01

    Myo-inositol is a compatible osmolyte used by cells which are challenged by variations in extracellular osmolarity, as in the renal medulla. In order to accumulate large quantities of this polyol, cells rely on Na+-dependent transporters such as SMIT1. We have recently identified a second Na+–myo-inositol cotransporter, SMIT2, which presents transport characteristics corresponding to those recently described for the apical membrane of renal proximal tubules. In order to further characterize this transport system, we transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with rabbit SMIT2 cDNA and selected a stable clone with a high expression level. The accumulation of radiolabelled myo-inositol by this cell line is 20-fold larger than that seen in native MDCK cells. The affinity for myo-inositol of MDCK cells transfected with SMIT2 is slightly lower (Km = 334 μm) than that found in voltage-clamped Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing SMIT2 (Km = 120 μm). Transport studies performed using semipermeable filters showed complete apical targeting of the SMIT2 transporter. This apical localization of SMIT2 was confirmed by transport studies on purified rabbit renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs). Using a purified antibody against SMIT2, we were also able to detect the SMIT2 protein (molecular mass = 66 kDa) in Western blots of BBMVs purified from SMIT2-transfected MDCK cells. SMIT2 activity was also shown to be stimulated 5-fold when submitted to 24 h hypertonic treatment (+200 mosmol l−1). The SMIT2-MDCK cell line thus appears to be a promising model for studying SMIT2 biochemistry and regulation. PMID:15181167

  1. Effects of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin treatment on secretion profile of interferon-beta and zonula occuludin-1 architecture in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masato; Ishida, Kayo; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2009-05-01

    The interferon (IFN) is a paradigm of secretory protein. However, it has been poorly understood how its secretion is regulated in polarized epithelial cells. Recently, we had shown that exogenous IFNs transiently expressed in polarized monolayers were predominantly secreted to the side on which gene transfection had been performed, while stably expressed IFNs were secreted almost equally to the both cell sides. Since those modes of secretion did not affect each other, epithelial cell layers seemed to have at least two protein sorting/secretion pathways, one for transient expression and the other for stable expression, for identical secretory proteins. Furthermore, this dual secretion profile seemed to be mediated by distinct post-trans Golgi network vesicles, suggesting the involvement of lipid rafts in the sorting multiplicity. To address this issue, here we studied the effects of cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) on the secretion profile of IFN-beta exogenously expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The MbetaCD-treatment, however, did not affect the profile in either transient or stable expression, although the architecture of zonula occuludin-1, which links to the tight junction, was substantially disrupted by the treatment. Further analysis of Triton X-100-insoluble cell extracts by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that IFN-beta was not apparently associated with lipid rafts in either transient or stable expression. These results suggest that lipid rafts may not be crucially involved in the regulation of secretion polarity of IFN-beta in the epithelial cells.

  2. Perfusion characteristics of preserved canine kidneys subjected to warm ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Modgill, V K; Wiggins, P A; Giles, G R

    1978-02-01

    Canine kidneys were subjected to 0, 15 or 30 min of warm ischaemia followed by 24 hours preservation by perfusion. Changes in perfusate concentration of acid radicles, lactate, free fatty acid and lactice dehydrogenase were assessed at 1 hour and 24 hours. With the exception of LDH concentration at 1 hour, no single parameter was capable of detecting kidneys which were so damaged as to be non-life supporting.

  3. Definition of distinct compartments in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells for membrane-volume sorting, polarized sorting and apical recycling.

    PubMed

    Brown, P S; Wang, E; Aroeti, B; Chapin, S J; Mostov, K E; Dunn, K W

    2000-02-01

    Previous studies of fibroblasts have demonstrated that recycling of endocytic receptors occurs through a default mechanism of membrane-volume sorting. Epithelial cells require an additional level of polar membrane sorting, but there are conflicting models of polar sorting, some suggesting that it occurs in early endosomes, others suggesting it occurs in a specialized apical recycling endosome (ARE). The relationship between endocytic sorting to the lysosomal, recycling and transcytotic pathways in polarized cells was addressed by characterizing the endocytic itineraries of LDL, transferrin (Tf) and IgA, respectively, in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Quantitative analyses of 3-dimensional images of living and fixed polarized cells demonstrate that endocytic sorting occurs sequentially. Initially internalized into lateral sorting endosomes, Tf and IgA are jointly sorted from LDL into apical and medical recycling endosomes, in a manner consistent with default sorting of membrane from volume. While Tf is recycled to the basolateral membrane from recycling endosomes, IgA is sorted to the ARE prior to apical delivery. Quantifications of the efficiency of sorting of IgA from Tf between the recycling endosomes and the ARE match biochemical measurements of transepithelial protein transport, indicating that all polar sorting occurs in this step. Unlike fibroblasts, rab11 is not associated with Tf recycling compartments in either polarized or glass-grown MDCK cells, rather it is associated with the compartments to which IgA is directed after sorting from Tf. These results complicate a suggested homology between the ARE and the fibroblast perinuclear recycling compartment and provide a framework that justifies previous conflicting models of polarized sorting.

  4. Selective Alterations in Biosynthetic and Endocytic Protein Traffic in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells Expressing Mutants of the Small GTPase Rac1

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Tzuu-Shuh; Leung, Som-Ming; Fung, Linette M.; Ruiz, Wily G.; Nelson, W. James; Apodaca, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1V12) accumulate a large central aggregate of membranes beneath the apical membrane that contains filamentous actin, Rac1V12, rab11, and the resident apical membrane protein GP-135. To examine the roles of Rac1 in membrane traffic and the formation of this aggregate, we analyzed endocytic and biosynthetic trafficking pathways in MDCK cells expressing Rac1V12 and dominant inactive Rac1 (Rac1N17). Rac1V12 expression decreased the rates of apical and basolateral endocytosis, whereas Rac1N17 expression increased those rates from both membrane domains. Basolateral-to-apical transcytosis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) (a ligand for the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor [pIgR]), apical recycling of pIgR-IgA, and accumulation of newly synthesized GP-135 at the apical plasma membrane were all decreased in cells expressing Rac1V12. These effects of Rac1V12 on trafficking pathways to the apical membrane were the result of the delivery and trapping of these proteins in the central aggregate. In contrast to abnormalities in apical trafficking events, basolateral recycling of transferrin, degradation of EGF internalized from the basolateral membrane, and delivery of newly synthesized pIgR from the Golgi to the basolateral membrane were all relatively unaffected by Rac1V12 expression. Rac1N17 expression had little or no effect on these postendocytic or biosynthetic trafficking pathways. These results show that in polarized MDCK cells activated Rac1 may regulate the rate of endocytosis from both membrane domains and that expression of dominant active Rac1V12 specifically alters postendocytic and biosynthetic membrane traffic directed to the apical, but not the basolateral, membrane. PMID:10637309

  5. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  6. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  7. Oncogenic H-Ras Reprograms Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cell-derived Exosomal Proteins Following Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Tauro, Bow J.; Mathias, Rommel A.; Greening, David W.; Gopal, Shashi K.; Ji, Hong; Kapp, Eugene A.; Coleman, Bradley M.; Hill, Andrew F.; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Hallows, Janice L.; Shteynberg, David; Moritz, Robert L.; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved morphogenic process defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is associated with increased aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastatic potential in carcinoma cells. To assess the contribution of extracellular vesicles following EMT, we conducted a proteomic analysis of exosomes released from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and MDCK cells transformed with oncogenic H-Ras (21D1 cells). Exosomes are 40–100 nm membranous vesicles originating from the inward budding of late endosomes and multivesicular bodies and are released from cells on fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes from MDCK cells (MDCK-Exos) and 21D1 cells (21D1-Exos) were purified from cell culture media using density gradient centrifugation (OptiPrep™), and protein content identified by GeLC-MS/MS proteomic profiling. Both MDCK- and 21D1-Exos populations were morphologically similar by cryo-electron microscopy and contained stereotypical exosome marker proteins such as TSG101, Alix, and CD63. In this study we show that the expression levels of typical EMT hallmark proteins seen in whole cells correlate with those observed in MDCK- and 21D1-Exos, i.e. reduction of characteristic inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1, and epithelial markers E-cadherin, and EpCAM, with a concomitant up-regulation of mesenchymal makers such as vimentin. Further, we reveal that 21D1-Exos are enriched with several proteases (e.g. MMP-1, -14, -19, ADAM-10, and ADAMTS1), and integrins (e.g. ITGB1, ITGA3, and ITGA6) that have been recently implicated in regulating the tumor microenvironment to promote metastatic progression. A salient finding of this study was the unique presence of key transcriptional regulators (e.g. the master transcriptional regulator YBX1) and core splicing complex components (e.g. SF3B1, SF3B3, and SFRS1) in mesenchymal 21D1-Exos. Taken

  8. Bumetanide hyperpolarizes Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and enhances cellular gentamicin uptake via elevating cytosolic Ca2+ thus facilitating intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Yang, Yu-qin; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Wang, Qi; Phillips, Amanda; Guan, Bing-Cai; Ma, Ke-Tao; Jiang, Meiyan; Xie, Ding-Hua; Steyger, Peter S.; Jiang, Zhi-Gen

    2012-01-01

    Loop diuretics such as bumetanide and furosemide enhance aminoglycoside ototoxicity when co-administered to patients and animal models. The underlying mechanism(s) is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of these diuretics on cellular uptake of aminoglycosides, using Texas Red-tagged gentamicin (GTTR), and intracellular/whole-cell recordings of Madin-Darby Canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We found that bumetanide and furosemide concentration-dependently enhanced cytoplasmic GTTR fluorescence by ~60%. This enhancement was suppressed by La3+, a non-selective cation channel (NSCC) blocker, and by K+ channel blockers Ba2+ and clotrimazole, but not by tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or glipizide, nor by Cl− channel blockers diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid (DPC), niflumic acid (NFA), and CFTRinh-172. Bumetanide and furosemide hyperpolarized MDCK cells by ~14 mV, increased whole-cell I/V slope conductance; the bumetanide-induced net current I/V showed a reversal potential (Vr) ~−80 mV. Bumetanide-induced hyperpolarization and I/V change was suppressed by Ba2+ or clotrimazole, and absent in elevated [Ca2+]i, but not affected by apamin, 4-AP, TEA, glipizide, DPC, NFA or CFTRinh-172. Bumetanide and furosemide stimulated a surge of Fluo-4-indicated cytosolic Ca2+. Ba2+ and clotrimazole alone depolarized cells by ~18 mV and reduced I/V slope with a net current Vr near −85 mV, and reduced GTTR uptake by ~20%. La3+ alone hyperpolarized the cells by ~−14 mV, reduced the I/V slope with a net current Vr near −10 mV, and inhibited GTTR uptake by ~50%. In the presence of La3+, bumetanide caused negligible potential or I/V change. We conclude that NSCCs constitute a major cell entry pathway for cationic aminoglycosides; bumetanide enhances aminoglycoside uptake by hyperpolarizing cells that increases cation influx driving force; and bumetanide-induced hyperpolarization is caused by elevating the intracellular Ca2+ and thus a facilitation of the

  9. Polarized delivery of viral glycoproteins to the apical and basolateral plasma membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with temperature-sensitive viruses

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular route followed by viral envelope glycoproteins in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was studied by using temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and influenza, in which, at the nonpermissive temperature (39.5 degrees C), the newly synthesized glycoproteins (G proteins) and hemagglutinin (HA), respectively, are not transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum. After infection with VSV and incubation at 39.5 degrees C for 4-5 h, synchronous transfer of G protein to the plasma membrane was initiated by shifting to the permissive temperature (32.5 degrees C). Immunoelectron microscopy showed that under these conditions the protein moved to the Golgi apparatus and from there directly to a region of the lateral plasma membrane near this organelle. G protein then seemed to diffuse progressively to basal regions of the cell surface and, only after it had accumulated in the basolateral domain, it began to appear on the apical surface near the intercellular junctions. The results of these experiments indicate that the VSV G protein must be sorted before its arrival at the cell surface, and suggest that passage to the apical domain occurs only late in infection when tight junctions are no longer an effective barrier. In complementary experiments, using the temperature-sensitive mutant of influenza, cultures were first shifted from the nonpermissive temperature (39.5 degrees C) to 18.5 degrees C, to allow entrance of the glycoprotein into the Golgi apparatus (see Matlin, K.S., and K. Simons, 1983, Cell, 34:233-243). Under these conditions HA accumulated in Golgi stacks and vesicles but did not reach the plasma membrane. When the temperature was subsequently shifted to 32.5 degrees C, HA rapidly appeared in discrete regions of the apical surface near, and often directly above, the Golgi elements, and later diffused throughout this surface. To ensure that the anti-HA antibodies had access to lateral domains, monolayers were

  10. Differential targeting of glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide analogues after synthesis but not during transcytosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    A short-chain analogue of galactosylceramide (6-NBD-amino-hexanoyl- galactosylceramide, C6-NBD-GalCer) was inserted into the apical or the basolateral surface of MDCK cells and transcytosis was monitored by depleting the opposite cell surface of the analogue with serum albumin. In MDCK I cells 32% of the analogue from the apical surface and 9% of the analogue from the basolateral surface transcytosed to the opposite surface per hour. These numbers were very similar to the flow of membrane as calculated from published data on the rate of fluid-phase transcytosis in these cells, demonstrating that C6-NBD-GalCer acted as a marker of bulk membrane flow. It was calculated that in MDCK I cells 155 microns membrane transcytosed per cell per hour in each direction. The fourfold higher percentage transported from the apical surface is explained by the apical to basolateral surface area ratio of 1:4. In MDCK II cells, with an apical to basolateral surface ratio of 1:1, transcytosis of C6-NBD-GalCer was 25% per hour in both directions. Similar numbers were obtained from measuring the fraction of endocytosed C6-NBD-GalCer that subsequently transcytosed. Under these conditions lipid leakage across the tight junction could be excluded, and the vesicular nature of lipid transcytosis was confirmed by the observation that the process was blocked at 17 degrees C. After insertion into one surface of MDCK II cells, the glucosylceramide analogue C6-NBD-GlcCer randomly equilibrated over the two surfaces in 8 h. C6-NBD-GalCer and -GlcCer transcytosed with identical kinetics. Thus no lipid selectivity in transcytosis was observed. Whereas the mechanism by which MDCK cells maintain the different lipid compositions of the two surface domains in the absence of lipid sorting along the transcytotic pathway is unclear, newly synthesized C6-NBD-GlcCer was preferentially delivered to the apical surface of MDCK II cells as compared with C6-NBD-GalCer. PMID:7593186

  11. Compartmentalization of prostaglandins in the canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan-Boyd, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The kidney has been shown to synthesize all of the naturally occurring major prostaglandins which may be restricted to a discrete part of the kidney where their actions are physiologically important, such as the vascular compartment and the tubular compartment. In order to examine this concept of compartmentalization, the authors conducted a series of experiments to determine whether PGl/sub 2/, measured as 6-keto-pGF/sub 1..cap alpha../, produced in the kidney is restricted to the renal vascular compartment or whether it also has access to the tubular compartment. Experiments were performed in the pentobarbital-anesthetized dog. Increasing pre-glomerular levels of 6-keto-PFG/sub 1..cap alpha../ caused marked increases in both the urinary excretion and the renal venous outflow to 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../. When /sup 3/H-6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was co-infused with inulin into the renal artery, 33% of the radioactivity and 23% of the inulin was recovered on first pass. With infusion of /sup 3/H-PGl/sub 2/ and inulin, 20% of the radioactivity and 28% of the inulin reached the urine on first pass. Radioactive PGl/sub 2/ appeared to be less filterable at the glomeruli than either /sup 3/H-6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ or inulin. In the final set of experiments, in which dogs were prepared for a ureteral stopped-flow study, the PGE/sub 2//U/P/sub In/ ratio a peak was observed proximal to the Na/sup +/ plateau but distal to the Na+ nadir. In light of the results from the stopped-flow study and the intrarenal infusion studies, they conclude that PGE/sub 2/ synthesized in the kidney enters both the renal and tubular compartments. In contrast, they find that 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ of renal origin enters only the renal origin enters only the renal vascular compartment and not the tubular compartment.

  12. Successful five-day perfusion preservation of the canine kidney.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, J F; Ploeg, R J; Southard, J H; Belzer, F O

    1989-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, successful 3-day-perfusion preservation of canine kidneys was obtained. Since then, consistent 5-day preservation has not been reported. In this study, we investigated how the perfusate calcium concentration affected both mitochondrial function and posttransplant viability in dog kidneys preserved for 5 days. Dog kidneys were preserved by machine perfusion (5 degrees C) using a hydroxyethyl starch-gluconate solution that contained either 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, or 5.0 mM calcium. Mitochondria isolated from preserved kidneys has a loss of respiratory control when either 0.0, 1.5, or 5.0 mM calcium were present. However, the use of a perfusate with 0.5 mM calcium preserved the mitochondrial function at levels equivalent to controls for 5 days. Transplantation of kidneys preserved for 5 days with 0.0 or 1.5 mM calcium yielded poor survival (0% and 17%, respectively). The use of a 0.5-mM calcium perfusate increased posttransplant survival to 63% (5 of 8 transplanted). Donor pretreatment of kidneys with chlorpromazine (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) did not improve the function of mitochondria isolated from preserved kidneys but did increase survival in the 1.5-mM calcium group to 67% (4 of 6 transplanted) and in the 0.5 mM calcium group to 100% (7 of 7 transplanted). This is the first report to document consistently successful 5-day preservation of canine kidneys and clearly shows the importance of the perfusate calcium concentration in long-term kidney preservation. The specific mechanism by which calcium or chlorpromazine exert their effect is not known, but it is apparent that excessively high or low concentrations of calcium are damaging to the preserved organ, and an optimal calcium concentration combined with metabolic inhibition of calcium-dependent pathways can significantly improve the function of organs preserved for extended time periods.

  13. Cell-permeable ceramides preferentially inhibit coated vesicle formation and exocytosis in Chinese hamster ovary compared with Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by preventing the membrane association of ADP-ribosylation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Hobman, Tom C; Dewald, Jay; Garbutt, Michael; Brindley, David N

    2002-01-01

    Differential effects of acetyl(C2-) ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine) were studied on coated vesicle formation from Golgi-enriched membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C2-ceramide blocked the translocation of ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF-1) and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) to the membranes from CHO cells, but not those of MDCK cells. Consequently, C2-ceramide blocked the stimulation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) by the cytosol and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in membranes from CHO cells. Basal specific activity of PLD1 and the concentration of ARF-1 were 3-4 times higher in Golgi-enriched membranes from MDCK cells compared with CHO cells. Moreover, PLD1 activity in MDCK cells was stimulated less by cytosol and GTP[S]. PLD2 was not detectable in the Golgi-enriched membranes. Incubation of intact CHO cells or their Golgi-enriched membranes with C2-ceramide also inhibited COP1 vesicle formation by membranes from CHO, but not MDCK, cells. Specificity was demonstrated, since dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect on ARF-1 translocation, PLD1 activation or vesicle formation in membranes from both cell types. C2-ceramide also decreased the secretion of virus-like particles to a greater extent in CHO compared with MDCK cells, whereas dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect. The results demonstrate a biological effect of C2-ceramide in CHO cells by decreasing ARF-1 and PKC-alpha binding to Golgi-enriched membranes, thereby preventing COP1 vesicle formation. PMID:11802796

  14. Thermographic studies of phantom and canine kidneys thawed by microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmehl, M.K.; Graham, E.F.; Kilkowski, S.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Whole organs, such as kidneys, must be thawed quickly and uniformly to prevent damage during thawing due to excessive heating. Electromagnetic heating with microwaves thaws the kidneys quickly but frequently produces hot spots with heat damage. To study heat damage, phantom gelatin kidneys with different dielectric constants and canine kidneys perfused with 12.5% glycerol, ethylene glycol, or dimethyl sulfoxide before freezing were microwave thawed, and the interior temperature was measured by thermography. Phantom kidneys were thawed free standing and canine kidneys were either free standing or packed in a gel mixture. Both phantom and canine kidneys were split symmetrically and separated with a sheet of Styrofoam to facilitate immediate separation and evaluation of the halves after thawing (approximately 3 sec). All the phantoms, regardless of dielectric properties, had areas less than 0 degrees C or greater than 37 degrees C after thawing. The free-standing canine kidneys and the gel-packed ethylene glycol-perfused kidneys had frozen areas (less than 0 degrees C) and hot spots (greater than 37 degrees C). However, glycerol- and dimethyl sulfoxide-perfused kidneys packed in gel before thawing had no areas less than 0 degrees C or greater than 37 degrees C. Altering the geometry from a kidney shape to a cylindrical shape with increased volume improved the uniformity of thawing and was more effective than altering the dielectric constant over the range evaluated.

  15. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  16. P73 tumor suppressor and its targets, p21 and PUMA, are required for madin-darby canine kidney cell morphogenesis by maintaining an appropriate level of epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanhong; Young, Ashley; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    P73, a member of p53 tumor suppressor family, plays a crucial role in tumor suppression and neural development. Due to the usage of two promoters, p73 is expressed as two isoforms, TAp73 and ΔNp73, with opposing functions. Here, we investigated the potential role of p73 in epithelial polarity and morphogenesis by using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as a model system. We found that knockdown of TAp73 enhances, whereas knockdown of ΔNp73 inhibits, MDCK cell proliferation and migration in two-dimensional (2-D) culture. We also found that knockdown of TAp73, but not ΔNp73, disrupts cyst formation of MDCK cells in three-dimensional (3-D) culture. Interestingly, we found that p21 and PUMA, both of which are induced by TAp73 but repressed by ΔNp73, are required for suppressing cell proliferation and migration in 2-D culture and for MDCK ce ll morphogenesis in 3-D culture. Finally, we showed knockdown of TAp73, p21 or PUMA induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) with a decrease in E-cadherin and an increase in EMT transcription factors. Together, our data suggest that TAp73, p21 and PUMA play a critical role in modulating MDCK cell morphogenesis by maintaining an appropriate level of the EMT. PMID:26101856

  17. Autocrine transforming growth factor-{beta}1 activation mediated by integrin {alpha}V{beta}3 regulates transcriptional expression of laminin-332 in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Jose V; Greciano, Patricia G; Buschmann, Mary M; Koch, Manuel; Matlin, Karl S

    2010-11-01

    Laminin (LM)-332 is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a structural role in normal tissues and is also important in facilitating recovery of epithelia from injury. We have shown that expression of LM-332 is up-regulated during renal epithelial regeneration after ischemic injury, but the molecular signals that control expression are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells LM-332 expression occurs only in subconfluent cultures and is turned-off after a polarized epithelium has formed. Addition of active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to confluent MDCK monolayers is sufficient to induce transcription of the LM α3 gene and LM-332 protein expression via the TGF-β type I receptor (TβR-I) and the Smad2-Smad4 complex. Significantly, we show that expression of LM-332 in MDCK cells is an autocrine response to endogenous TGF-β1 secretion and activation mediated by integrin αVβ3 because neutralizing antibodies block LM-332 production in subconfluent cells. In confluent cells, latent TGF-β1 is secreted apically, whereas TβR-I and integrin αVβ3 are localized basolaterally. Disruption of the epithelial barrier by mechanical injury activates TGF-β1, leading to LM-332 expression. Together, our data suggest a novel mechanism for triggering the production of LM-332 after epithelial injury.

  18. Autocrine Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Activation Mediated by Integrin αVβ3 Regulates Transcriptional Expression of Laminin-332 in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Greciano, Patricia G.; Buschmann, Mary M.; Koch, Manuel; Matlin, Karl S.

    2010-01-01

    Laminin (LM)-332 is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a structural role in normal tissues and is also important in facilitating recovery of epithelia from injury. We have shown that expression of LM-332 is up-regulated during renal epithelial regeneration after ischemic injury, but the molecular signals that control expression are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells LM-332 expression occurs only in subconfluent cultures and is turned-off after a polarized epithelium has formed. Addition of active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to confluent MDCK monolayers is sufficient to induce transcription of the LM α3 gene and LM-332 protein expression via the TGF-β type I receptor (TβR-I) and the Smad2–Smad4 complex. Significantly, we show that expression of LM-332 in MDCK cells is an autocrine response to endogenous TGF-β1 secretion and activation mediated by integrin αVβ3 because neutralizing antibodies block LM-332 production in subconfluent cells. In confluent cells, latent TGF-β1 is secreted apically, whereas TβR-I and integrin αVβ3 are localized basolaterally. Disruption of the epithelial barrier by mechanical injury activates TGF-β1, leading to LM-332 expression. Together, our data suggest a novel mechanism for triggering the production of LM-332 after epithelial injury. PMID:20844080

  19. Effect of deoxyspergualin on vascular rejection in canine kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, K; Takahashi, K; Nemoto, K; Okada, M; Yasuo, M; Hayasaka, Y; Toma, H; Ota, K

    1994-08-01

    Deoxyspergualin (DSG), an analogue of spergualin produced by Bacillus laterosporus, has a strong immunosuppressive effect in various transplantation models. In this study, we investigated the effect of DSG on vascular rejection in canine kidney transplantation. To enhance vascular rejection, donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) was carried out on days 28, 21 and 14 preceding kidney transplantation. After DST, the donor kidney was transplanted to the recipient iliac fossa. The recipient animals were divided into five groups: namely, Group 1 (n = 7), no treatment; Group 2 (n = 6), DST only; Group 3 (n = 5), DSG only (treated with DSG intravenously at 1.2 mg./kg./day for the first 3 days after transplantation, 1.0 mg./kg./day for the following 3 days and 0.8 mg./kg./day for the following 8 days); Group 4 (n = 6), DST and DSG treatment (same protocol as Group 3); and Group 5 (n = 5), DST and cyclosporine (CsA) (treated with CsA orally at 10 mg./kg./day for 14 days after transplantation). In Group 2, DST treatment significantly reduced kidney graft survival time (8.6 +/- 2.2 days) compared with Group 1 (14.1 +/- 5.5 days). Despite DST, DSG treatment (Group 4) significantly prolonged graft survival time (29.5 +/- 2.6 days), whereas treatment with CsA (Group 5) did not prolong survival time (14.1 +/- 5.5 days) (Group 4 versus 5, p < 0.01). The onset of rejection was significantly delayed in Group 4 (22.1 +/- 2.7 days) compared with Groups 2 (5.7 +/- 2.4 days) and 5 (13.0 +/- 5.7 days) (p < 0.01). In contrast, the interval between rejection onset and animal death was significantly reduced in Groups 2 (3.0 +/- 0.6 days) and 5 (2.4 +/- 1.0 days) compared with Group 4 (7.3 +/- 1.7 days) (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that DSG successfully prevented humoral-type (accelerated acute-type) rejections. Histologically, nonDST groups (Groups 1 and 3) showed minimum vascular rejection. In contrast, all recipients in Group 2 showed severe vascular rejection, as did 80% of Cs

  20. Canine pancreas and kidney transplantation following total-lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.; Allen, R.D.; Deane, S.A.; Ekberg, H.; Grierson, J.M.; Hawthorne, W.J.; Mears, D.C.; Tiver, K.; Little, J.M.; Stewart, G.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of total-lymphoid irradiation on survival of canine pancreas and kidney allografts was studied. TLI had a marked immunosuppressive effect as measured by in vitro immune responses and reduced circulating leukocytes. Despite the changes, median graft survival times for animals treated with 800 cGy (9 days) or 1800 cGy (9.5 days) were not significantly different from untreated control animals (7 days). The addition of low-dose antithymocyte globulin (10 mg/kg/day) on post-transplant days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 had no measurable synergistic effect. Similarly, median segmental pancreas allograft survival times after 1700-2200 cGy of TLI treatment (16.5 days) were only marginally longer than those of untreated controls (9 days). The only animal to maintain a graft for greater than 200 days was matched to the donor in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). This animal was able to reject a third-party skin graft after 8 days while a graft from the original donor was still surviving after 21 days when the pancreas graft failed from a chronic-type rejection. These results indicate that TLI alone or in combination with ATG will not be predictably effective as a method of prolonging allograft survival. The role of matching major histocompatibility complex antigens in TLI treatment requires clarification.

  1. The N-terminal segment of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1b contains a di-leucine motif that can redirect neprilysin to an intracellular compartment in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Cailler, F; Zappulla, J P; Boileau, G; Crine, P

    1999-07-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1 is a membrane-bound metallopeptidase of the neprilysin (NEP) family. ECE-1 is responsible for the conversion of inactive big-endothelins into active endothelins. Three different isoforms of human ECE-1 (ECE-1a, ECE-1b and ECE-1c) have been identified. They differ in their N-terminal cytosolic regions, have distinct tissue distribution and intracellular localization. ECE-1a and ECE-1c are both located at the cell surface whereas ECE-1b is targeted to an intracellular compartment. To better understand the nature of the signal responsible for the targeting of ECE-1b to the intracellular compartment, we have constructed several ECE/NEP chimaeric proteins and expressed them by transfection into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. This allowed us to identify a nine amino acid segment in the cytosolic tail of ECE-1b that is sufficient to relocate NEP from the cell surface to an intracellular compartment. Site-directed mutagenesis on these chimaeras led to the identification of two leucine residues as part of the intracellular retention signal.

  2. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  3. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  5. The effect of intracrystalline and surface-bound osteopontin on the attachment of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in ultrafiltered human urine.

    PubMed

    Thurgood, Lauren A; Sørensen, Esben S; Ryall, Rosemary L

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effects of intracrystalline (IC), surface-bound (SB) and combined IC + SB osteopontin (OPN) on the binding of urinary calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells in ultrafiltered (UF) human urine. (14)C-oxalic acid-labelled urinary COD crystals containing IC OPN were generated in pooled UF human urine containing human milk OPN at concentrations of 0, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L. Additional labelled crystals were nucleated from a separate sample of the same pooled UF urine, to which were later added the same amounts of protein to produce crystals with SB OPN. COD crystals with IC+SB OPN were prepared using a combination of both techniques. Control crystals were prepared in the absence of OPN. Crystals were incubated with MDCK-II cells for up to 180 min in UF urine adjusted to 8 mm Ca(2+). Binding values for individual concentrations at specific time points and overall differences between binding curves were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Crystal morphology and attachment to the cells were confirmed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The sizes of crystals precipitated from UF urine in the presence of 0, 1 and 5 mg/L OPN were 21.9 µm, 19.3 µm and 16.5 µm, indicating that OPN had inhibited crystal growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Binding curves for control crystals were smooth, while those of the IC and IC+SB COD crystals associated with 1 and 5 mg/L OPN were bimodal, as were those of the 1 mg/L SB crystals. This suggests that OPN induces or potentiates a transient response that enables MDCK-II cells to release COD crystals after they have attached. Although OPN generally reduced the binding of urinary COD crystals to MDCK-II cells, at times it also appeared to mediate adhesion. It is possible therefore that OPN can reduce or increase crystal binding, and that our data represent the net effect of its opposing inhibitory or promotory properties. In UF urine, OPN inhibits the growth of

  6. Raf-1 kinase possesses distinct binding domains for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid regulates the translocation of Raf-1 in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Strum, J C; Sciorra, V A; Daniel, L; Bell, R M

    1996-04-05

    Previous studies demonstrated that the cysteine-rich amino-terminal domain of Raf-1 kinase interacts selectively with phosphatidylserine (Ghosh, S., Xie, W. Q., Quest, A. F. G., Mabrouk, G. M., Strum, J. C., and Bell, R. M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10000-10007). Further analysis showed that full-length Raf-1 bound to both phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid (PA). Specifically, a carboxyl-terminal domain of Raf-1 kinase (RafC; residues 295 648 of human Raf-1) interacted strongly with phosphatidic acid. The binding of RafC to PA displayed positive cooperativity with Hill numbers between 3.3 and 6.2; the apparent Kd ranged from 4.9 +/- 0.6 to 7.8 +/- 0.9 mol % PA. The interaction of RafC with PA displayed a pH dependence distinct from the interaction between the cysteine-rich domain of Raf-1 and PA. Also, the RafC-PA interaction was unaffected at high ionic strength. Of all the lipids tested, only PA and cardiolipin exhibited high affinity binding; other acidic lipids were either ineffective or weakly effective. By deletion mutagenesis, the PA binding site within RafC was narrowed down to a 35-amino acid segment between residues 389 and 423. RafC did not bind phosphatidyl alcohols; also, inhibition of PA formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by treatment with 1% ethanol significantly reduced the translocation of Raf-1 from the cytosol to the membrane following stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. These results suggest a potential role of the lipid second messenger, PA, in the regulation of translocation and subsequent activation of Raf-1 in vivo.

  7. Growth hormone activates phospholipase C in proximal tubular basolateral membranes from canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.A.; Hammerman, M.R. )

    1989-08-01

    To delineate pathways for signal transduction by growth hormone (GH) in proximal tubule, the authors incubated basolateral membranes isolated from canine kidney with human growth hormone (hGH) or human prolactin (hPrl) and measured levels of inositol trisphosphate (InsP{sub 3}) in suspensions and of diacylglycerol extractable from the membranes. Incubation with hGH, but not hPrl, increased levels of InsP{sub 3} and diacylglycerol in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal effects occurred between 0.1 and 1 nM hGH. Increased levels of InsP{sub 3} were measured after as little as 5 sec of incubation with 1 nM hGH, and increase was maximal after 15 sec. Increases were no longer detectable after 60 sec because of dephosphorylation of InsP{sub 3} in membrane suspensions. hGH did not affect rates of dephosphorylation. hGH-stimulated increases in InsP{sub 3} were detectable in membranes suspended in 0, 0.1, and 0.2 {mu}M calcium but not in 0.3 or 1.0 {mu}M calcium. {sup 125}I-labeled hGH-receptor complexes with M{sub r} values of 66,000 and 140,000 were identified in isolated basolateral membranes. The findings establish that GH activates phospholipase C in isolated canine renal proximal tubular basolateral membranes, potentially after binding to a specific receptor. This process could mediate signal transmission by GH across the plasma membrane of the proximal tubular cell and elsewhere.

  8. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: relationships between oxidative stress, liver and kidney variables, trace elements, and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, M; Soltani, S; Mohri, M; Khoshnegah, J

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the pathology of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). We therefore studied the relationships between oxidative stress markers, liver and kidney variables, trace elements, and clinical status in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Two groups of Leishmania-infected dogs [asymptomatic (AD, n = 14) and symptomatic (SD, n = 16)] were assessed and compared with a group of non-infected control dogs (CD, n = 30). A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in serum total antioxidant status (TAS) and albumin concentration (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations (p < 0.001), in the SD group, were observed when compared to CD and AD groups. Dogs of the AD group presented a significant decrease in copper (p < 0.01) and zinc (p < 0.001) concentrations, when compared to CD group, while the SD group presented a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in copper and zinc concentrations, when compared to CD and AD groups. Oxidative stress markers (MDA and TAS) showed significant correlations (p < 0.001) with trace elements (copper and zinc) and liver (alanine aminotransferase) and kidney (BUN and creatinine) variables. The results of the present study revealed that symptomatic dogs showed more severe oxidative stress than asymptomatic and non-infected dogs and enhanced lipid peroxidation may be linked to liver and kidney damage in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  9. Functional and morphologic damage in the neonatally irradiated canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Peneyra, R.S.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1985-11-01

    Perinatal irradiation of the developing kidney results in progressive glomerulosclerosis (PGS) and renal failure. This syndrome may result from direct radiation damage to mature deep cortical nephrons and/or nephron functional adaptations resulting from outer cortical nephron ablation. Beagle dogs received single, whole-body exposures (330 R) to /sup 60/Co gamma radiation at 4 days of age (IR4) to study the combined effects of direct radiation damage and nephron loss, or at 30 days of age (IR30) to study the effects of renal irradiation alone. To study the effects of nephron loss alone, dogs underwent unilateral nephrectomy (UN4) or superficial hyperthermic renal ablation (HY4) at 4 days of age. Nephron loss due to irradiation (IR4) and partial renal ablation (UN4 and HY4) was associated with compensatory nephron hypertrophy and increased single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR), while irradiation at 30 days resulted in transitory decreased SNGFR. Similar degrees of PGS occurred in IR4 dogs which experienced both irradiation and loss of nephrons and UN4 and HY4 dogs which experienced only loss of nephrons. PGS of lesser severity also occurred in IR30 dogs. These findings indicate that PGS associated with perinatal renal irradiation results from direct radiation damage to deep cortical nephrons and compensatory functional changes occurring in response to loss of renal mass.

  10. Canine mammary tumour cell lines established in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hellmén, E

    1993-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common tumours in the female dog. The tumours have a complex histology and exist in epithelial, mixed and mesenchymal forms. To study the biology of canine mammary tumours, five cell lines have been established and characterized. The results indicate that canine mammary tumours might be derived from mammary stem cells and that the tumour growth is independent of oestrogens. The established canine mammary tumour cell lines will be valuable tools in further studies of the histogenesis and pathogenesis of these tumours.

  11. Gastrin receptors on isolated canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soll, A.H.; Amirian, D.A.; Thomas, L.P.; Reedy, T.J.; Elashoff, J.D.

    1984-05-01

    The receptors in the fundic mucosa that mediate gastrin stimulation of acid secretion have been studied. Synthetic human gastrin-17-I (G17) with a leucine substitution in the 15th position ((Leu15)-G17) was iodinated by chloramine T; high saturable binding was found to enzyme-dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells. /sup 127/I-(Leu15)-G17, but not /sup 127/I-G17, retained binding potency and biological activity comparable with uniodinated G17. Fundic mucosal cells were separated by size by using an elutriator rotor, and specific /sup 125/I-(Leu-15)-G17 binding in the larger cell fractions was highly correlated with the distribution of parietal cells. There was, however, specific gastrin binding in the small cell fractions, not accounted for by parietal cells. Using sequential elutriation and stepwise density gradients, highly enriched parietal and chief cell fractions were prepared; /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding correlated positively with the parietal cell (r . 0.98) and negatively with chief cell content (r . -0.96). In fractions enriched to 45-65% parietal cells, specific /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding was rapid, reaching a steady state at 37 degrees C within 30 min. Dissociation was also rapid, with the rate similar after 100-fold dilution or dilution plus excess pentagastrin. At a tracer concentration from 10 to 30 pM, saturable binding was 7.8 +/- 0.8% per 10(6) cells (mean +/- SE) and binding in the presence of excess pentagastrin accounted for 11% of total binding. G17 and carboxyl terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (26-33) were equipotent in displacing tracer binding and in stimulating parietal cell function ((/sup 14/C)aminopyrine accumulation), whereas the tetrapeptide of gastrin (14-17) had a much lower potency. Proglumide inhibited gastrin binding and selectively inhibited gastrin stimulation of parietal cell function.

  12. Survivin expression in canine epidermis and in canine and human cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Laura; Colombi, Isabella; Fortunato, Carmine; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2009-10-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is ubiquitously expressed during tissue development, undetectable in most normal tissues, but re-expressed in most cancers, including skin malignancies. Expression of survivin was evaluated retrospectively in 19 canine cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; one in situ; 16 well differentiated; one invasive, one lymph node metastasis) and 19 well differentiated SCCs from human beings. Seven specimens of normal canine skin were included. Immunohistochemical expression of full-length survivin was determined using a commercially available antibody. In addition, apoptotic rate [Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labelling index (TUNEL) index] and mitotic index (MI), counting mitoses in 10 high power fields (HPF), were determined. Scattered survivin positive nuclei were identified in the epidermal basal cell layer of normal canine skin. Nuclear survivin expression was identified in 18 of 19 human and in all canine SCCs, mainly along the base of the tumour cell population. Cytoplasmic survivin expression was rarely observed in human SCCs and in 84.2% of canine SCCs. The TUNEL index ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 in human beings and from 7.5 to 69.4 in dogs, while MIs ranged from 0 to 4 in human beings and dogs. No correlation was found between survivin expression and apoptotic or mitotic rates. Canine and human tumours showed similar nuclear survivin expression, indicating similar functions of the molecule. We demonstrated survivin expression in normal adult canine epidermis. Increased nuclear survivin expression in pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions demonstrates a possible association of survivin with development of SCCs in human beings and dogs.

  13. Gastrin biosynthesis in canine G cells.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Vinzenz; Sugano, Kentaro; Yamada, Tadataka; Park, Jung; Dickinson, Chris J

    2002-05-01

    Gastrin requires extensive posttranslational processing for full biological activity. It is presumed that progastrin is cleaved at pairs of basic amino acids by a prohormone convertase to form a glycine-extended intermediate (G-Gly) that serves as a substrate for peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), resulting in COOH-terminally amidated gastrin. To confirm the nature of progastrin processing in a primary cell line, we performed [(35)S]methionine-labeled pulse-chase biosynthetic experiments in canine antral G cells. Radiolabeled progastrin reached a peak earlier than observed for G-Gly or amidated gastrin. G-Gly radioactivity accumulated in G cells and preceded the appearance of radioactivity in amidated gastrin. The conversion of G-Gly to amidated gastrin was enhanced by the PAM cofactor ascorbic acid. To determine whether one member of the prohormone convertase family (PC2) was responsible for progastrin cleavage, G cells were incubated with PC2 antisense oligonucleotide probes. Cells treated with antisense probes had reduced PC2 expression, an accumulation of radiolabeled progastrin, and a delay in the formation of amidated gastrin. Progastrin in antral G cells is cleaved via PC2 to form G-Gly that is converted to amidated gastrin via the actions of PAM.

  14. Analysis of cytokine production in a newly developed canine tracheal epithelial cell line infected with H3N2 canine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Song, Young-Jo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo

    2015-06-01

    The Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line is typically used to analyze pathological features after canine influenza virus (CIV) infection. However, MDCK cells are not the ideal cell type, because they are kidney epithelial cells. Therefore, we generated an immortalized canine tracheal epithelial cell line, KU-CBE, to more reliably study immune responses to CIV infection in the respiratory tract. KU-CBE cells expressed the influenza virus receptor, α-2,3-sialic acid (SA), but not α-2,6-SA. KU-CBE and MDCK cells infected with H3N2 CIV demonstrated comparable virus growth kinetics. Gene expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-β were estimated in both KU-CBE and MDCK cells infected with CIV by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of these cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-β mRNAs were detected in both cell lines. Gene expression of IL-4, IL-10, and TNF-α was not significantly different in the two cell lines. However, MDCK cells exhibited a significantly higher level of IFN-β mRNA than KU-CBE cells at 18 h post infection. Additionally, the protein concentrations of these four cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using cell culture supernatants obtained from the two CIV-infected cell lines. MDCK cells produced significantly higher amounts of IL-4 and IFN-β than KU-CBE cells. However, KU-CBE cells produced a significantly higher amount of TNF-α than MDCK cells. These data indicated that the newly developed canine tracheal epithelial cells exhibited different cytokine production patterns compared to MDCK cells when infected with CIV. Inflammation of the respiratory tract of dogs induced by CIV infection may be attributed to the elevated expression level of TNF-α in canine tracheal epithelial cells.

  15. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  16. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine.

    PubMed

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-08-09

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.

  17. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  18. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Afinitor (Everolimus) Aldesleukin Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  19. Efficient generation of canine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Isotani, Mayu; Katsuma, Kensuke; Tamura, Kyoichi; Yamada, Misato; Yagihara, Hiroko; Azakami, Daigo; Ono, Kenichiro; Washizu, Tsukimi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Because of their unsurpassed potency in presenting antigens to naive T cells, dendritic cells are considered to be an important candidate in the development of immunotherapeutic strategies. Despite the high potential of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy, as a so-called dendritic cell vaccination, few clinical approaches using dendritic cell vaccination have been performed in the dog because of very limited information regarding the generation of canine dendritic cells and their functional properties. We therefore established a protocol for the efficient generation of dendritic cells from canine bone marrow cells using recombinant feline granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and canine interleukin-4. Dendritic cells were generated efficiently: a yield of 1-9 x 10(6) cells per approximately 0.5 ml of canine bone marrow aspiration was achieved. These dendritic cells showed features shared with mouse and human dendritic cells: dendrite morphology, expression of surface markers MHC class II and CD11c, and up-regulation of molecules related to antigen presentation (MHC class II, B7-1, and B7-2) by activation with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, the dendritic cells demonstrated phagocytic activity, processing activity of pinocytosed proteins, and activation of allogeneic T cells far more potent than that by macrophages. Our findings suggest that the bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functional for the capturing and processing of antigens and the initiation of T cell responses.

  20. Improvement of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure.

    PubMed

    Jang, G; Oh, H J; Kim, M K; Fibrianto, Y H; Hossein, M S; Kim, H J; Kim, J J; Hong, S G; Park, J E; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of the present study on canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was to evaluate the effects of fusion strength, type of activation, culture media and site of transfer on developmental potential of SCNT embryos. We also examined the potential of enucleated bovine oocytes to serve as cytoplast recipients of canine somatic cells. Firstly, we evaluated the morphological characteristics of in vivo-matured canine oocytes collected by retrograde flushing of the oviducts 72 h after ovulation. Secondly, the effectiveness of three electrical strengths (1.8, 2.3 and 3.3 kV/cm), used twice for 20 micros, on fusion of canine cytoplasts with somatic cells were compared. Then, we compared: (1) chemical versus electrical activation (a) after parthenogenetic activation or (b) after reconstruction of canine oocytes with somatic cells; (2) culture of resulting intergeneric (IG) embryos in either (a) mSOF or (b) TCM-199. The exposure time to 6-DMAP was standardized by using bovine oocytes reconstructed with canine somatic cells. Bovine oocytes were used for SCNT after a 22 h in vitro maturation interval. The fusion rate was significantly higher in the 3.3 kV/cm group than in the 1.8 and 2.3 kV/cm treatment groups. After parthenogenesis or SCNT with chemical activation, 3.4 and 5.8%, respectively, of the embryos developed to the morula stage, as compared to none of the embryos produced using electrical activation. Later developmental stages (8-16 cells) were transferred to the uterine horn of eight recipients, but no pregnancy was detected. However, IG cloned embryos (bovine cytoplast/canine somatic cell) were capable of in vitro blastocyst development. In vitro developmental competence of IG cloned embryos was improved after exposure to 6-DMAP for 4 h as compared to 0, 2 or 6h exposure, although the increase was not significantly different among culture media. In summary, for production of canine SCNT embryos, we recommend fusion at 3.3 kV/cm, chemical activation

  1. Canine osteosarcoma cells exhibit resistance to aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, C M; Pozniak, J; Scott, M C; Ito, D; Gorden, B H; Graef, A J; Modiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human leukaemia and canine lymphoma cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not because of failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate that canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted.

  2. Canine kidney preservation: comparison of "intracellular", "extracellular," and high molecular weight dextran flushing solutions.

    PubMed

    Wintch, R; James, P M; Turner, C; Vargish, T; Anderson, B; Meredith, J H

    1977-12-01

    The effects of modified Collins-2 solution, adjusted lactated Ringer's solution, and a solution containing dextran 70 on kidney preservation and red blood cell (RBC) washout in dogs were evaluated. Excised kidneys were stored on ice for 24 hours and then reimplanted, at which time the contralateral kidney was removed. RBC washout from the preserved kidneys was measured at the time of initial cold flush. For 20 days after transplantation, serial measurements were made of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, serum and urine osmolality, blood pH, and dog weight. No one solution cleared RBCs from the kidneys better than the other solutions. Renal function was significantly better in transplanted kidneys flushed and preserved with the Collins-2 solution than that in kidneys flushed and preserved with the other two solutions. There was generally no significant difference in function between kidneys preserved with dextran and those preserved with lactated Ringer's solution. Our findings suggest that the electrolyte composition of the flush solution may be more important than maintaining a high osmolality in the flush solution in the preservation of renal function during 24 hours' cold storage.

  3. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions.

  4. Hedgehog signaling is activated in canine transitional cell carcinoma and contributes to cell proliferation and survival.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, T L; Kitchell, B E; Biller, B

    2017-03-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most commonly diagnosed tumor of the canine urinary system. Hedgehog (HH) signaling represents one possible novel therapeutic target, based on its recently identified central role in human urothelial carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine if HH mediators are expressed in canine TCC and the effect of inhibition of this pathway on cell growth and survival. HH pathway mediators were found to be expressed in five canine TCC cell lines. Indian HH was expressed in tumor cells in five canine bladder tumor tissues, but not in normal canine bladder tissue. Inhibition of HH signaling with cyclopamine and GANT61 led to significantly decreased cell proliferation but had a smaller effect on apoptosis. These results support future investigation of inhibitors of HH signaling in the treatment of canine TCC.

  5. Stem cell growth factor receptor in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Wolfesberger, Birgitt; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Hlavaty, Juraj; Meyer, Florian R.; Hofer, Martin; Steinborn, Ralf; Gebhard, Christiane; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is considered the most common bone cancer in cats and dogs, with cats having a much better prognosis than dogs, since the great majority of dogs with osteosarcoma develop distant metastases. In search of a factor possibly contributing to this disparity, the stem cell growth factor receptor KIT was targeted, and the messenger (m)RNA and protein expression levels of KIT were compared in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas, as well as in normal bone. The mRNA expression of KIT was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and was observed to be significantly higher in canine (n=14) than in feline (n=5) osteosarcoma samples (P<0.001). KIT protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, which revealed that 21% of canine osteosarcoma samples did not exhibit KIT staining in their neoplastic cells, while in 14% of samples, a score of 1 (<10% positive tumour cells) was observed, and in 50% and 14% of samples, a score of 2 (10–50% positivity) and 3 (>50% positivity), respectively, was observed. By contrast, the cancer cells of all the feline bone tumour samples analysed were entirely negative for KIT. Notably, canine and feline osteocytes of healthy bone tissue lacked any KIT expression. These results could be the first evidence that KIT may be involved in the higher aggressiveness of canine osteosarcoma compared with feline osteosarcoma. PMID:27698817

  6. Stem cells in kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Soler, María José; José Tomas, Ortiz-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Circulating bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seem to play a crucial role in both vasculogenesis and vascular homeostasis. Chronic kidney disease is a state of endothelial dysfunction, accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular risk. As a consequence, cardiovascular disorders are the main cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It has been shown that patients with advanced renal failure have decreased number of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and impaired EPCs function. Moreover, in kidney transplant patients, renal graft function significantly correlated with EPC number. The reduced number of EPCs in patients with ESRD has been ascribed to the uremia. Therefore, therapies that improve the uremic status in dialysis patients such as nocturnal hemodialysis are associated with restoration of impaired EPCs number and migratory function. In fact, some of the common treatments for patients with chronic kidney disease such as erythropoietin, statins and angiotensin II receptor antagonist increase the number of EPCs. Nowadays, there is growing evidence indicating that, under pathophysiological conditions, stem cells (SCs) derived from bone marrow are able to migrate in the injured kidney, and they seem to play a role in glomerular and tubular regeneration. After acute tubular renal injury, surviving tubular epithelial cells and putative renal stem cells proliferate and differentiate into tubular epithelial cells to promote structural and functional repair. Moreover, bone marrow stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells can also participate in the repair process by proliferation and differentiation into renal lineages. For instance, mesenchymal SCs have been shown to decrease inflammation and enhance renal regeneration. The administration of ex vivo expanded bone marrow-derived mesenchymal SCs have been proved to be beneficial in various experimental models of acute

  7. Kidney cell electrophoresis, continuing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated to provide ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. Cells were prepared in suspension prior to flight in electrophoresis buffer and 10% calf serum. Electrophoretic separation proceeded in electrophoresis buffer without serum in the Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator, and fractions were collected into sample bags containing culture medium and concentrated serum. Fractions that yielded enough progeny cells were analyzed for morphology and electrophoretic mobility distributions. It is noted that the lowest mobility fraction studied produced higher mobility progeny while the other fractions produced progeny cells with mobilities related to the fractions from which they were collected.

  8. Kidney cell electrophoresis, continuing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated to provide ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. Cells were prepared in suspension prior to flight in electrophoresis buffer and 10% calf serum. Electrophoretic separation proceeded in electrophoresis buffer without serum in the Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator, and fractions were collected into sample bags containing culture medium and concentrated serum. Fractions that yielded enough progeny cells were analyzed for morphology and electrophoretic mobility distributions. It is noted that the lowest mobility fraction studied produced higher mobility progeny while the other fractions produced progeny cells with mobilities related to the fractions from which they were collected.

  9. Cultivation and characterization of canine skin-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Shinpei; Masuda, Kenichi; Ohmori, Keitaro; Matsuura, Shinobu; Yasuda, Nobutaka; Nagata, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2010-02-01

    It is essential to develop a technique to culture purified skin-derived mast cells (SMCs) to facilitate immunological research on allergic diseases in dogs. This study was performed to develop an efficient culture system for canine SMCs and to characterize the cells in comparison to canine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Enzymatically digested skin biopsy samples were cultivated in serum-free AIM-V medium supplemented with recombinant canine stem cell factor. Three to five weeks after the initiation of culture, mast cells were collected by a magnetic activated cell separation system using anti-c-Kit antibody. The collected cells were composed of a uniform population showing morphological characteristics of mast cells with a round or oval nucleus and abundant toluidine blue-positive metachromatic granules in the cytoplasm. The results of flow cytometric analysis for the presence of cell membrane c-Kit and Fc epsilon receptor I (FcepsilonRI) indicated that approximately 90% of the cells were mast cells. The cytoplasmic granules were positive for both tryptase and chymase. Apparent dose-dependent degranulation was induced by antibody-mediated cross-linking of immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to the cells. These cytological and immunological characteristics observed in SMCs were mostly similar to those observed in BMMCs; however, IgE-mediated degranulation was significantly lower in SMCs than BMMCs. The culture system for canine SMCs developed in this study would be useful in understanding the pathophysiology and developing anti-allergic therapeutics in canine allergic dermatitis.

  10. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  11. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Canine Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Helen; Ito, Daisuke; McCullar, Valarie; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2014-01-01

    NK cells are non-T, non-B lymphocytes that kill target cells without previous activation. The immunophenotype and function of these cells in humans and mice are well defined, but canine NK cells remain incompletely characterized. Our objectives were to isolate and culture canine peripheral blood NK cells, and to define their immunophenotype and killing capability. PBMC were obtained from healthy dogs and T cells were depleted by immunomagnetic separation. The residual cells were cultured in media supplemented with IL-2, IL-15 or both, or with mouse embryonic liver (EL) feeder cells. Non-T, non-B lymphocytes survived and expanded in these cultures. IL-2 was necessary and sufficient for survival; the addition of IL-15 was necessary for expansion, but IL-15 alone did not support survival. Culture with EL cells and IL-2 also fostered survival and expansion. The non-T, non-B lymphocytes uniformly expressed CD45, MHC I, and showed significant cytotoxic activity against CTAC targets. Expression of MHC II, and of CD11/18 was restricted to subsets of these cells. The data show that cells meeting the criteria for NK cells in other species, i.e., non-T, non-B lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity, can be expanded from canine PBMC by T-cell depletion and culture with cytokines or feeder cells. PMID:23876304

  13. Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Lo Re, Daniele; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Homa, Agata; Pawłowski, Karol; Motyl, Tomasz; Murphy, Paul V.; Król, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6) on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. Results Our results showed that two of six fully synthetic analogues of migrastatin: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6) disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. Conclusion Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6) were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs. However, further in

  14. Short-term efficiency and safety of gene delivery into canine kidneys.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, V; Klonjkowski, B; Lefebvre, H P; Desvaux, D; Laroute, V; Rosenberg, D; Maurey, C; Crespeau, F; Adam, M; Adnot, S; Eloit, M; Pouchelon, J L

    2001-03-01

    Gene delivery of biologically active molecules to the kidney may have potential therapeutic applications in renal and cardiovascular diseases. Recombinant adenovirus is one of the most efficient vectors for in vivo gene delivery. However, in vivo toxicity at the site of administration has to be evaluated for the successful use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. The aim of this study was to document precisely the short-term safety of different routes of intra-renal adenoviral administration and to compare their transduction efficiency. Dog puppies were injected with an adenoviral vector expressing the beta-galactosidase reporter gene in both kidneys via three different routes, i.e. intra-renal-ureteral route (IU) and intra-renal-arterial route with (IAC) or without (IA) clamping of the renal vein. Toxicity of viral administration was assayed on day 4 at both physiological and histological levels. Renal samples were monitored for the presence of nuclear beta-galactosidase-expressing cells. All renal physiological parameters (glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, and electrolyte excretion fractions) remained stable whatever the route of viral administration. No histological lesion was detected in any of the haematoxylin-eosin-stained kidney sections, and there was no evidence of ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the kidneys subjected to venous clamping. Efficient transgene expression was obtained in dog kidneys following IAC and IU injection of adenoviral vectors. Gene transfer via the IAC route induced gene expression predominantly in the cortical interstitial cells. Retrograde IU adenoviral injection resulted in reduced transduction efficiency compared with the IAC route, with transgene expression occurring mainly in the distal tubular and pyelic epithelial cells. The two major findings of this study were (i) the absence of acute histological and functional renal alteration following intra-arterial and intra-ureteral injections of adenoviral

  15. Generation of functional platelets from canine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Hatoya, Shingo; Kanegi, Ryoji; Sugiura, Kikuya; Wijewardana, Viskam; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Miyuu; Yamate, Jyoji; Izawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Inaba, Toshio

    2013-07-15

    Thrombocytopenia (TTP) is a blood disease common to canines and human beings. Currently, there is no valid therapy for this disease except blood transfusion. In this study, we report the generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) from canine embryonic fibroblasts, and a novel protocol for creating mature megakaryocytes (MKs) and functional platelets from ciPSCs. The ciPSCs were generated using lentiviral vectors, and differentiated into MKs and platelets on OP9 stromal cells supplemented with growth factors. Our ciPSCs presented in a tightly domed shape and showed expression of a critical pluripotency marker, REX1, and normal karyotype. Additionally, ciPSCs differentiated into cells derived from three germ layers via the formation of an embryoid body. The MKs derived from ciPSCs had hyperploidy and transformed into proplatelets. The proplatelets released platelets early on that expressed specific MK and platelet marker CD41/61. Interestingly, these platelets, when activated with adenosine diphosphate or thrombin, bind to fibrinogen. Moreover, electron microscopy showed that the platelets had the same ultrastructure as peripheral platelets. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time the generation of ciPSCs that are capable of differentiating into MKs and release functional platelets in vitro. Our system for differentiating ciPSCs into MKs and platelets promises a critical therapy for canine TTP and appears to be extensible in principle to resolve human TTP.

  16. T cells and autoimmune kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Fueyo, Abel; Bradley, Sean J; Klatzmann, David; Tsokos, George C

    2017-03-13

    Glomerulonephritis is traditionally considered to result from the invasion of the kidney by autoantibodies and immune complexes from the circulation or following their formation in situ, and by cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system. The inflammatory response leads to the proliferation and dysfunction of cells of the glomerulus, and invasion of the interstitial space with immune cells, resulting in tubular cell malfunction and fibrosis. T cells are critical drivers of autoimmunity and related organ damage, by supporting B-cell differentiation and antibody production or by directly promoting inflammation and cytotoxicity against kidney resident cells. T cells might become activated by autoantigens in the periphery and become polarized to secrete inflammatory cytokines before entering the kidney where they have the opportunity to expand owing to the presence of costimulatory molecules and activating cytokines. Alternatively, naive T cells could enter the kidney where they become activated after encountering autoantigen and expand locally. As not all individuals with a peripheral autoimmune response to kidney antigens develop glomerulonephritis, the contribution of local kidney factors expressed or produced by kidney cells is probably of crucial importance. Improved understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of T cells in patients with glomerulonephritis offers unique opportunities for the recognition of treatment targets for autoimmune kidney disease.

  17. Expression and subcellular targeting of canine parvovirus capsid proteins in baculovirus-transduced NLFK cells.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Leona; Välilehto, Outi; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Tikka, Päivi J; Mellett, Mark; Käpylä, Pirjo; Oker-Blom, Christian; Vuento, Matti

    2005-01-17

    A mammalian baculovirus delivery system was developed to study targeting in Norden Laboratories feline kidney (NLFK) cells of the capsid proteins of canine parvovirus (CPV), VP1 and VP2, or corresponding counterparts fused to EGFP. VP1 and VP2, when expressed alone, both had equal nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution. However, assembled form of VP2 had a predominantly cytoplasmic localization. When VP1 and VP2 were simultaneously present in cells, their nuclear localization increased. Thus, confocal immunofluorescence analysis of cells transduced with the different baculovirus constructs or combinations thereof in the absence or presence of infecting CPV revealed that the VP1 protein is a prerequisite for efficient targeting of VP2 to the nucleus. The baculovirus vectors were functional and the genes of interest efficiently introduced to this CPV susceptible mammalian cell line. Thus, we show evidence that the system could be utilized to study targeting of the CPV capsid proteins.

  18. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters effect alkalinization of canine renal proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mellas, J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-03-01

    We have demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for tumor-promoting phorbol esters in the plasma membrane of the canine renal proximal tubular cell. These compounds affect proximal tubular metabolism in vitro. For example, we have shown that they inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown to effect alkalinization of non-renal cells, by enhancing Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange across the plasma membrane. To determine whether the actions of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in proximal tubular segments might be mediated by a similar process, we incubated suspensions of segments from dog kidney with these compounds and measured changes in intracellular pH using (/sup 14/C)-5,5-dimethoxazoladine-2-4-dione (DMO) and flow dialysis. Incubation of segments with phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, but not inactive phorbol ester, 4 ..gamma.. phorbol, effected alkalinization of cells within the segments in a concentration-dependent manner. Alkalinization was dependent upon the presence of extracellular (Na/sup +/) > intracellular (Na/sup +/), was prevented by amiloride and was demonstrable in the presence of SITS. Our findings suggest that tumor-promoting esters stimulate the Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchanger known to be present in the brush border membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. It is possible that the stimulation reflects a mechanism by which phorbol esters affect metabolic processes in these cells.

  19. Identification of the hepatic efflux transporters of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, OATP1B1/multidrug resistance 1, and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Soichiro; Maeda, Kazuya; Kondo, Chihiro; Hirano, Masaru; Sasaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2005-09-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that the transport of various organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane was mainly mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2). However, a number of new reports have shown that some organic anions are also substrates of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), implying MDR1 and BCRP could also be involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions in humans. In the present study, we constructed new double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells expressing organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/MDR1 and OATP1B1/BCRP, and we investigated the transcellular transport of four kinds of organic anions, estradiol-17beta-d-glucuronide (EG), estrone-3-sulfate (ES), pravastatin (PRA), and cerivastatin (CER), to identify which efflux transporters mediate the biliary excretion of compounds using double-transfected cells. We observed the vectorial transport of EG and ES in all the double transfectants. MRP2 showed the highest efflux clearance of EG among these efflux transporters, whereas BCRP-mediated clearance of ES was the highest in these double transfectants. In addition, two kinds of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, CER and PRA, were also substrates of all these efflux transporters. The rank order of the efflux clearance of PRA mediated by each transporter was the same as that of EG, whereas the contribution of MDR1 to the efflux of CER was relatively greater than for PRA. This experimental system is very useful for identifying which transporters are involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions that cannot easily penetrate the plasma membrane.

  20. Molecular cloning of the canine fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene and Fhit protein expression in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Hiroko; Minami, Koji; Kaneko, Naoki; Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru

    2009-05-01

    A fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene has been studied as a tumor-associated gene in humans. The aberrant FHIT gene and its protein expression have been reported in many types of human cancers. The present study explored the canine FHIT gene structure and its protein expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy dogs by RT-PCR, RACE and immunoblot analysis. The obtained canine FHIT gene contained nine small exons and was located on canine chromosome 20. Furthermore, we identified an alternative splicing form of the FHIT transcript. The deduced amino acid sequence was well conserved between species, and anti-human Fhit antibody could be used to detect the canine Fhit protein. These findings will be useful for future research.

  1. Benidipine dilates both pre- and post-glomerular arteriole in the canine kidney.

    PubMed

    Yue, W; Kimura, S; Fujisawa, Y; Tian, R; Li, F; Rahman, M; Nishiyama, A; Fukui, T; Abe, Y

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of benidipine on renal function and whether benidipine may dilate the efferent arteriole as well as the afferent arteriole of the canine kidney. The effects of benidipine on the renal segmental vascular resistance were estimated using Gomez's formula with some modification. The renal hemodynamic action of benidipine was also compared with that of amlodipine. Intrarenal arterial injection of benidipine at a dose of 3 microg/kg resulted in a significant increase in renal blood flow (RBF), urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, but not in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Amlodipine at a dose of 300 microg/kg also increased RBF, urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium to a significant degree equivalent to that by benidipine. However, in contrast to benidipine, amlodipine significantly increased GFR. After the administration of benidipine, autoregulation of RBF and GFR was relatively maintained and the renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-RBF relation shifted upward; that is, RBFs at 75 and 50 mmHg were maintained at a higher level than those of the control. In contrast to benidipine, amlodipine diminished the autoregulation of RBF and GFR. RBFs at 75 and 50 mmHg were not different from those of the control. The afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance (Ra and Re) were calculated based on the RPP-RBF and RPP-GFR relations. Benidipine reduced both Ra and Re, but amlodipine selectively reduced Ra. Benidipine increased RBF but not GFR via the dilation of both afferent and efferent arterioles. Thus, benidipine has unique renal hemodynamic actions which differ from those by most calcium antagonists.

  2. De Novo Kidney Regeneration with Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Shinya; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Yokoo, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reported on techniques to mobilize and activate endogenous stem-cells in injured kidneys or to introduce exogenous stem cells for tissue repair. Despite many recent advantages in renal regenerative therapy, chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the number of CKD patients has been increasing. When the sophisticated structure of the kidneys is totally disrupted by end stage renal disease (ESRD), traditional stem cell-based therapy is unable to completely regenerate the damaged tissue. This suggests that whole organ regeneration may be a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate patients with uncured CKD. We summarize here the potential of stem-cell-based therapy for injured tissue repair and de novo whole kidney regeneration. In addition, we describe the hurdles that must be overcome and possible applications of this approach in kidney regeneration. PMID:23251079

  3. Mast cells in canine cutaneous hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, Moges; Rajeev, Sreekumari

    2010-02-01

    Mast cell count (MCC) in 45 dogs with cutaneous hemangioma (HA, n = 12), hemangiosarcoma (HSA, n = 12), mammary adenoma (AD, n = 9) and mammary adenocarcinoma (AC, n = 12) was made using Toluidine blue stained sections. Antibodies against endothelial cell markers, Factor VIII and VEGF were used to visualize and determine the hot spot micro-vessel density (MVD). Total MCC and MCC along the invasive edges were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in canine mammary AC than in AD. The total MCC did not significantly differ (p > 0.05), in HSAs (8.6 +/- 3.3) than in HAs (5.5 +/- 2.8). There is a positive correlation (r = 0.14) between the hot spot MCC and MVD in mammary AC, although not significant (p = 0.3172), indicating that mast cells are associated with angiogenesis in canine mammary AC. This study suggests that mast cells may play an important role in neovascularization of canine cutaneous vascular and mammary neoplasms. Detailed studies encompassing correlation of MCC and MVD with clinical outcomes and prognosis in these neoplasms are recommended.

  4. In vivo reflectance measurement of optical properties, blood oxygenation and motexafin lutetium uptake in canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates.

    PubMed

    Solonenko, Michael; Cheung, Rex; Busch, Theresa M; Kachur, Alex; Griffin, Gregory M; Vulcan, Theodore; Zhu, Timothy C; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Hahn, Stephen M; Yodh, A G

    2002-03-21

    Motexafin lutetium (MLu) is a second-generation photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. We have developed and applied a diffuse optical reflectance spectrometer for in vivo measurement of MLu uptake, optical properties, haemoglobin concentration and haemoglobin oxygen saturation in normal canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates. The probe consists of a broadband fibre-optic-coupled light source and detector fibres placed at various distances from the source fibre to collect reflected light. An analysis based on the diffusion approximation of the photon transport equation was used to recover tissue optical properties from the reflectance measurements. The instrumentation and analysis methods were validated using measurements from homogeneous, highly scattering phantoms with known MLu concentrations. The same techniques were then used to estimate chromophore concentrations of normal canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates. We estimated (mean (standard deviation)) total haemoglobin concentrations of 119 (25), 340 (92) and 51 (11) microM in the large bowels, kidneys and prostates of four dogs, respectively; tissue blood oxygen saturations in these same organs were 75 (15), 76 (21) and 74 (16) per cent, respectively. Tissue MLu concentrations (mg l(-1)) were estimated from data taken 3.5 h after injection of a 2 mg kg(-1) injected dose; data from three dogs gave concentrations of 2.4 (0.4) in large bowels, 6.8 (1.3) in kidneys and 2.2 (1.1) in prostates. The reduced scattering coefficients, mu's, estimated for large bowels, kidneys and prostates at 730 nm were, respectively: 10.1 (1.3), 19.6 (4.0) and 12.7 (0.6) cm(-1). We observed significant variability in MLu uptake, tissue scattering and haemoglobin concentration between organs and even between the same organ in different dogs. This class of in situ optical property measurement may be desirable to individualize PDT drug and light delivery.

  5. Electrogene therapy with interleukin-12 in canine mast cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Cör, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor; Pogacnik, Azra; Tozon, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Background Mast cell tumors (MCT) are the most common malignant cutaneous tumors in dogs with extremely variable biological behaviour. Different treatment approaches can be used in canine cutaneous MCT, with surgical excision being the treatment of choice. In this study, electrogene therapy (EGT) as a new therapeutic approach to canine MCTs, was established. Materials and methods. Eight dogs with a total of eleven cutaneous MCTs were treated with intratumoral EGT using DNA plasmid encoding human interleukin-12 (IL-12). The local response to the therapy was evaluated by repeated measurements of tumor size and histological examination of treated tumors. A possible systemic response was assessed by determination of IL-12 and interferon- γ (IFN-γ) in patients’ sera. The occurence of side effects was monitored with weekly clinical examinations of treated animals and by performing basic bloodwork, consisting of the complete bloodcount and determination of selected biochemistry parameters. Results Intratumoral EGT with IL-12 elicits significant reduction of treated tumors’ size, ranging from 13% to 83% (median 50%) of the initial tumor volume. Additionally, a change in the histological structure of treated nodules was seen. There was a reduction in number of malignant mast cells and inflammatory cell infiltration of treated tumors. Systemic release of IL-12 in four patients was detected, without any noticeable local or systemic side effects. Conclusions These data suggest that intratumoral EGT with plasmid encoding IL-12 may be useful in the treatment of canine MCTs, exerting a local antitumor effect. PMID:22933932

  6. VAMP7 Modulates Ciliary Biogenesis in Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szalinski, Christina M.; Labilloy, Anatália; Bruns, Jennifer R.; Weisz, Ora A.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells elaborate specialized domains that have distinct protein and lipid compositions, including the apical and basolateral surfaces and primary cilia. Maintaining the identity of these domains is required for proper cell function, and requires the efficient and selective SNARE-mediated fusion of vesicles containing newly synthesized and recycling proteins with the proper target membrane. Multiple pathways exist to deliver newly synthesized proteins to the apical surface of kidney cells, and the post-Golgi SNAREs, or VAMPs, involved in these distinct pathways have not been identified. VAMP7 has been implicated in apical protein delivery in other cell types, and we hypothesized that this SNARE would have differential effects on the trafficking of apical proteins known to take distinct routes to the apical surface in kidney cells. VAMP7 expressed in polarized Madin Darby canine kidney cells colocalized primarily with LAMP2-positive compartments, and siRNA-mediated knockdown modulated lysosome size, consistent with the known function of VAMP7 in lysosomal delivery. Surprisingly, VAMP7 knockdown had no effect on apical delivery of numerous cargoes tested, but did decrease the length and frequency of primary cilia. Additionally, VAMP7 knockdown disrupted cystogenesis in cells grown in a three-dimensional basement membrane matrix. The effects of VAMP7 depletion on ciliogenesis and cystogenesis are not directly linked to the disruption of lysosomal function, as cilia lengths and cyst morphology were unaffected in an MDCK lysosomal storage disorder model. Together, our data suggest that VAMP7 plays an essential role in ciliogenesis and lumen formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study implicating an R-SNARE in ciliogenesis and cystogenesis. PMID:24466086

  7. Rapid communications: antiperspirant induced DNA damage in canine cells by comet assay.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Millions of people around the world use antiperspirants to decrease or eliminate body odors. Most antiperspirants contain aluminum zirconium or another form of aluminum as its active ingredient. The present investigation applied Comet assay to detect if Secret Platinum for women, Old Spice for men, or Crystal Natural produced DNA damage in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII). This study has shown that antiperspirants cause DNA damage on a single-cell level. Additionally, our data showed us that in general, Secret Platinum for women and Old Spice for men, produced equivalent damage. Crystal Natural, marketed as being safer or less damaging, induced the most extensive damage of all three antiperspirants tested.

  8. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of 2'- and 4'-aminochalcones against tumor canine cells.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mariana B; Pinhanelli, Vitor C; Garcia, Mayara A R; Silva, Gabriel; Baek, Seung J; França, Suzelei C; Fachin, Ana L; Marins, Mozart; Regasini, Luis O

    2017-09-29

    In the present study, a series of 2'- and 4'-aminochalcones were synthesized and their antiproliferative activity against a canine malignant histiocytic cell line (DH82) was evaluated. Particularly aminochalcones with a hydrophobic substituent on ring B proved to be potent antiproliferative agents. Among these compounds, aminochalcones 3, 4 and 11 inhibited the growth of DH82 cells, with IC50 values of 34.4, 31.4 and 38.2 μM, respectively, and were three times more potent than etoposide (IC50 = 95.5 μM). The selected chalcones induced death through apoptosis rather than necrosis in DH82 and non-tumorigenic Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). Further experiments suggested that the aminochalcones interfere with the regulation of oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes. Aminochalcone 11 inhibited transcription of the TOPOIIα and TP53 genes and aminochalcone 4 down-regulated Sp1 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Planar cell polarity of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Ulrike; Carroll, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) or tissue polarity refers to the polarization of tissues perpendicular to the apical-basal axis. Most epithelia, including the vertebrate kidney, show signs of planar polarity. In the kidney, defects in planar polarity are attributed to several disease states including multiple forms of cystic kidney disease. Indeed, planar cell polarity has been shown to be essential for several cellular processes that appear to be necessary for establishing and maintaining tubule diameter. However, uncovering the genetic mechanisms underlying PCP in the kidney has been complicated as the roles of many of the main players are not conserved in flies and vice versa. Here, we review a number of cellular and molecular processes that can affect PCP of the kidney with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms that do not appear to be conserved in flies or that are not part of canonical determinants.

  10. NCR1 Expression Identifies Canine Natural Killer Cell Subsets with Phenotypic Similarity to Human Natural Killer Cells.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Jennifer A; Somanchi, Srinivas S; Yang, Yanwen; Aquino-Lopez, Arianexys; Bishop, Erin E; Lee, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Canines spontaneously develop many cancers similar to humans - including osteosarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma - offering the opportunity to study immune therapies in a genetically heterogeneous and immunocompetent environment. However, a lack of antibodies recognizing canine NK cell markers has resulted in suboptimal characterization and unknown purity of NK cell products, hindering the development of canine models of NK cell adoptive immunotherapy. To this end, we generated a novel antibody to canine NCR1 (NKp46), the putative species-wide marker of NK cells, enabling purification of NK cells for further characterization. We demonstrate that CD3(-)/NKp46(+) cells in healthy and osteosarcoma-bearing canines have phenotypic similarity to human CD3(-)/NKp46(+) NK cells, expressing mRNA for CD16 and the natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp30, NKp44, and NKp80. Functionally, we demonstrate with the calcein release assay that canine CD3(-)/NKp46(+) cells kill canine tumor cell lines without prior sensitization and secrete IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as measured by Luminex. Similar to human NK cells, CD3(-)/NKp46(+) cells expand rapidly on feeder cells expressing 4-1BBL and membrane-bound IL-21 (median = 20,283-fold in 21 days). Furthermore, we identify a minor Null population (CD3(-)/CD21(-)/CD14(-)/NKp46(-)) with reduced cytotoxicity against osteosarcoma cells, but similar cytokine secretion as CD3(-)/NKp46(+) cells. Null cells in canines and humans have reduced expression of NKG2D, NKp44, and CD16 compared to NKp46(+) NK cells and can be induced to express NKp46 with further expansion on feeder cells. In conclusion, we have identified and characterized canine NK cells, including an NKp46(-) subset of canine and human NK cells, using a novel anti-canine NKp46 antibody, and report robust ex vivo expansion of canine NK cells sufficient for adoptive immunotherapy.

  11. Planar cell polarity and the kidney.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Helen

    2009-10-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a form of spatial organization in tissue that was first described in Drosophila melanogaster. PCP plays a critical conserved role in several aspects of mammalian development. Exciting data implicate PCP in normal kidney development and suggest the loss of oriented cell division and convergent extension downstream of defective PCP signaling lead to cystic kidney disease in mouse models. In this review, I first cover the current knowledge of PCP signaling in invertebrate and vertebrate models and then explore how loss of PCP might underlie some forms of cystic kidney disease.

  12. Directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, Albert Q; Freedman, Benjamin S; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-07-01

    Regenerative medicine affords a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Nephron progenitor cell populations exist only during embryonic kidney development. Understanding the mechanisms by which these populations arise and differentiate is integral to the challenge of generating new nephrons for therapeutic purposes. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), comprising embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from adults, have the potential to generate functional kidney cells and tissue. Studies in mouse and human PSCs have identified specific approaches to the addition of growth factors, including Wnt and fibroblast growth factor, that can induce PSC differentiation into cells with phenotypic characteristics of nephron progenitor populations with the capacity to form kidney-like structures. Although significant progress has been made, further studies are necessary to confirm the production of functional kidney cells and to promote their three-dimensional organization into bona fide kidney tissue. Human PSCs have been generated from patients with kidney diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and Wilms tumor, and may be used to better understand phenotypic consequences of naturally occurring genetic mutations and to conduct "clinical trials in a dish". The capability to generate human kidney cells from PSCs has significant translational applications, including the bioengineering of functional kidney tissue, use in drug development to test compounds for efficacy and toxicity, and in vitro disease modeling.

  13. Molecular cloning of canine Wilms' tumor 1 for immunohistochemical analysis in canine tissues.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Osamu; Sakurai, Masashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Kubo, Masahito; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2017-07-28

    Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) expression has been investigated in various human cancers as a target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, few studies have focused on WT1 expression in dogs. Firstly, cDNA of canine WT1 (cWT1) was molecularly cloned from normal canine kidney. The cross-reactivity of the anti-human WT1 monoclonal antibody (6F-H2) with cWT1 was confirmed via Western blotting using cells overexpressing cWT1. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cWT1 expression was detected in all canine lymphoma tissues and in some normal canine tissues, including the kidney and lymph node. cWT1 is a potential immunotherapy target against canine cancers.

  14. An autologous dendritic cell canine mammary tumor hybrid-cell fusion vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bird, R Curtis; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Church Bird, Allison E; van Ginkel, Frederik W; Lindquist, Joni; Smith, Bruce F

    2011-01-01

    Mammary cancer is among the most prevalent canine tumors and frequently resulting in death due to metastatic disease that is highly homologous to human breast cancer. Most canine tumors fail to raise effective immune reactions yet, some spontaneous remissions do occur. Hybrid canine dendritic cell-tumor cell fusion vaccines were designed to enhance antigen presentation and tumor immune recognition. Peripheral blood-derived autologous dendritic cell enriched populations were isolated from dogs based on CD11c(+) expression and fused with canine mammary tumor (CMT) cells for vaccination of laboratory Beagles. These hybrid cells were injected into popliteal lymph nodes of normal dogs, guided by ultrasound, and included CpG-oligonucleotide adjuvants. Three rounds of vaccination were delivered. Significant IgG responses were observed in all vaccinated dogs compared to vehicle-injected controls. Canine IgG antibodies recognized shared CMT antigens as was demonstrated by IgG-recognition of three unrelated/independently derived CMT cell lines, and recognition of freshly isolated, unrelated, primary biopsy-derived CMT cells. A bias toward an IgG2 isotype response was observed after two vaccinations in most dogs. Neither significant cytotoxic T cell responses were detected, nor adverse or side-effects due to vaccination or due to the induced immune responses noted. These data provide proof-of-principle for this cancer vaccine strategy and demonstrate the presence of shared CMT antigens that promote immune recognition of mammary cancer.

  15. Proteomics profiling of Madin-Darby canine kidney plasma membranes reveals Wnt-5a involvement during oncogenic H-Ras/TGF-beta-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Shou; Mathias, Rommel A; Mathivanan, Suresh; Kapp, Eugene A; Moritz, Robert L; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J

    2011-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes a process whereby polarized epithelial cells with restricted migration transform into elongated spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells with enhanced motility and invasiveness. Although there are some molecular markers for this process, including the down-regulation of E-cadherin, our understanding of plasma membrane (PM) and associated proteins involved in EMT is limited. To specifically explore molecular alterations occurring at the PM, we used the cationic colloidal silica isolation technique to purify PM fractions from epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney cells during Ras/TGF-β-mediated EMT. Proteins in the isolated membrane fractions were separated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and subjected to nano-LC-MS/MS-based protein identification. In this study, the first membrane protein analysis of an EMT model, we identified 805 proteins and determined their differential expression using label-free spectral counting. These data reveal that Madin-Darby canine kidney cells switch from cadherin-mediated to integrin-mediated adhesion following Ras/TGF-β-mediated EMT. Thus, during the EMT process, E-cadherin, claudin 4, desmoplakin, desmoglein-2, and junctional adhesion molecule A were down-regulated, whereas integrins α6β1, α3β1, α2β1, α5β1, αVβ1, and αVβ3 along with their extracellular ligands collagens I and V and fibronectin had increased expression levels. Conspicuously, Wnt-5a expression was elevated in cells undergoing EMT, and transient Wnt-5a siRNA silencing attenuated both cell migration and invasion in these cells. Furthermore, Wnt-5a expression suppressed canonical Wnt signaling induced by Wnt-3a. Wnt-5a may act through the planar cell polarity pathway of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway as several of the components and modulators (Wnt-5a, -5b, frizzled 6, collagen triple helix repeat-containing protein 1, tyrosine-protein kinase 7, RhoA, Rac, and JNK) were found to be up-regulated during Ras

  16. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What Is Kidney Cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  17. Naproxen-induced Ca2+ movement and death in MDCK canine renal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H-H; Chou, C-T; Sun, T-K; Liang, W-Z; Cheng, J-S; Chang, H-T; Tseng, H-W; Kuo, C-C; Chen, F-A; Kuo, D-H; Shieh, P; Jan, C-R

    2015-11-01

    Naproxen is an anti-inflammatory drug that affects cellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and viability in different cells. This study explored the effect of naproxen on [Ca(2+)](i) and viability in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) canine renal tubular cells. At concentrations between 50 μM and 300 μM, naproxen induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca(2+) signal was reduced partly when extracellular Ca(2+) was removed. The Ca(2+) signal was inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine but not by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (econazole and SKF96365), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and a PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone or thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pumps, partly inhibited naproxen-induced Ca(2+) signal. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 did not alter naproxen-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) rises. At concentrations between 15 μM and 30 μM, naproxen killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with the acetoxymethyl ester of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that naproxen induced apoptosis. Together, in MDCK renal tubular cells, naproxen induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises by inducing Ca(2+) release from multiple stores that included the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via nifedipine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels. Naproxen induced cell death that involved apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Nuclear morphometry in canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Martano, M; Damiano, S; Restucci, B; Paciello, O; Russo, V; Maiolino, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether morphometrical analysis can be of diagnostic value for canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. We calculated, by means of an automated image analyser, some morphometric nuclear parameters, in particular: mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), maximum and minimum diameters (MDx and MDm) coefficient of variation of the nuclear area (NACV), largest to smallest dimension ratio (LS ratio), and form factor (FF), in 8 canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas, and we compared these morphometric data to those of 13 squamous cell carcinomas of canine gingiva. The results indicated a progressive increase of the MNA, NACV, MNP and MDm proceeding from acanthomatous ameloblastomas (MNA: 42.11+/-8.74; NACV: 28,36+/-7,23; MNP: 24.18+/- 2.68; MDm: 5.69+/-0.49) to squamous cell carcinomas (MNA:49,69+/-9,10; NACV: 30,89+/-7,75; MNP: 25.63+/-2.54; MDm: 6.64+/-0.73). On the contrary, the LS ratio and the FF resulted greater in acanthomatous ameloblastomas (LS ratio: 1,63+/-0,12; FF: 1,13+/-0,002) than in SCCs (LS ratio: 1,40+/-0,12; FF:0.91+/-0.38). Moreover, the MNA, MNP,MDx and MDm resulted similar (MNA: p=0.89; MNP: p=0,65; MDm: p=0,16; MDx: p=0,13) in a subset of four acanthomatous ameloblastomas with cellular atypia (MNA:49,01+/-6,88; MNP: 26,28+/-1,99; MDm: 6.08+/-0.41; MDx: 10.18+/-0.88) and in squamous cell carcinomas (MNA:49.69+/-9,10; MNP: 25.63+/-2.54; MDm: 6.64+/-0.73; MDx: 9.26+/-1.05). While the NACV values resulted higher in typical acanthomatous ameloblastoma (29,99+/-6,06) than in atypical acanthomatous ameloblastoma (26,74+/-8,84) and similar to those of the SCCs (30,89+/-7,75). These results seem to confirm that acanthomatous ameloblastoma is a malignant or potentially malignant lesion and emphasizes that nuclear morphometry analysis can be an useful diagnostic and prognostic method in canine oral pathology.

  19. Planar cell polarity and the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Papakrivopoulou, Eugenia; Dean, Charlotte H.; Copp, Andrew J.; Long, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the uniform orientation and alignment of a group of cells orthogonal to the apical–basal axis within a tissue. Originally described in insects, it is now known that PCP is required for many processes in vertebrates, including directional cell movement, polarized cell division, ciliary orientation, neural tube closure, heart development and lung branching. In this review, we outline the evidence implicating PCP in kidney development and disease focusing initially on the function of PCP in ureteric bud branching and elongation. We then describe how defects in PCP may lead to polycystic kidney disease and discuss a newly identified role for PCP in the kidney filtration barrier. PMID:24293657

  20. Canine cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) is a proliferative disorder of CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P. F.; Olivry, T.; Naydan, D.

    1994-01-01

    Canine epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides [MF]) is a spontaneous neoplasm of skin and mucous membranes that occurs in old dogs (mean age 11 years) and has no breed predilection. The lesions evolve from a patch-plaque stage with prominent epitheliotropism into a tumor stage in which distant metastasis is observed. Unlike human MF, epitheliotropism of the lymphoid infiltrate is still prominent in tumor stage lesions. Tropism of the lymphoid infiltrate for adnexal structures, especially hair follicles and apocrine sweat glands, was marked in all clinical stages of canine MF. Twenty-three cases of MF were subjected to extensive immunophenotypic analysis in which reagents specific for canine leukocyte antigens and fresh frozen tissue sections of the canine lesions were used. Canine MF proved to be a T cell lymphoma in which the epitheliotropic lymphocytes consistently expressed CD3 (22 cases) and CD8 (19 cases); CD3+CD4-CD8- lymphocytes predominated in the remaining 4 cases. In this regard, canine MF clearly differed from human MF in which a CD4 immunophenotype predominates in the T cell infiltrate. Lack of expression of CD45RA by epitheliotropic T cells and intense expression of a beta 1 integrin (VLA-4-like) suggested that T cells in canine MF belonged to the memory subpopulation, as has been suggested for T cells in human MF. Pan-T cell antigen loss or discordant expression also proved useful as phenotypic indicators of neoplasia in canine MF. Loss of CD5 was observed in epitheliotropic T cells in 63% of cases. Discordance of neoplastic T cell Thy-1 expression was frequently observed between epithelial and dermal or submucosal compartments. We conclude that canine MF still represents a useful spontaneous animal disease model of human cutaneous T cell lymphoma, despite the immunophenotypic differences, which may reflect operational differences between human and canine skin-associated lymphoid tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure

  1. Four cases of cell cannibalism in highly malignant feline and canine tumors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernando Costa; Soares, Maria João; Carvalho, Sandra; Borralho, Liliana; Vicente, Gonçalo; Branco, Sandra; Correia, Jorge; Peleteiro, Maria Conceição

    2015-11-02

    Four cases of tumors in which cell internalization was frequently visualized are reported: one feline mammary carcinoma, one feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, one canine pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and one canine pleural mesothelioma. Cell internalization was observed by cytology in two of these cases (the feline mammary tumour and the pleural effusion in the canine mesothelioma) and by histopathology in all but the canine mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin was positive for both internalized and host cells, while E-cadherin expression was frequently absent, although internalized cells occasionally stained positive. This cell-to-cell interaction seems to be associated with tumors displaying a strong epithelial-mesenchymal transitional phenotype, in which cancer cells become engulfed by other cancer cells. Such event could be regarded as an important hallmark of very high malignancy.

  2. Foamy virus–mediated gene transfer to canine repopulating cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiem, Hans-Peter; Allen, James; Trobridge, Grant; Olson, Erik; Keyser, Kirsten; Peterson, Laura; Russell, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Foamy virus (FV) vectors are particularly attractive gene-transfer vectors for stem-cell gene therapy because they form a stable transduction intermediate in quiescent cells and can efficiently transduce hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we studied the use of FV vectors to transduce long-term hematopoietic repopulating cells in the dog, a clinically relevant large animal model. Mobilized canine peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells were transduced with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)–expressing FV vector in an 18-hour transduction protocol. All 3 dogs studied had rapid neutrophil engraftment to greater than 500/μL with a median of 10 days. Transgene expression was detected in all cell lineages (B cells, T cells, granulocytes, red blood cells, and platelets), indicating multilineage engraftment of transduced cells. Up to 19% of blood cells were EGFP+, and this was confirmed at the DNA level by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis. These transduction rates were higher than the best results we obtained previously with lentiviral vectors in a similar transduction protocol. Integration site analysis also demonstrated polyclonal repopulation and the transduction of multipotential hematopoietic repopulating cells. These data suggest that FV vectors should be useful for stem-cell gene therapy, particularly for applications in which short transduction protocols are critical. PMID:16968897

  3. Purification of kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, R W; Böhlen, P; Fava, R; Baldwin, J H; Kleeman, G; Armour, R

    1980-01-01

    Two high molecular weight growth inhibitors have been isolated from the culture medium of BSC-1 cells, epithelial cells of African green monkey kidney. The purified kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors, at ng/ml concentrations, reversibly arrest the growth of BSC-1 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Their action is selective; they are most active on BSC-1 cells, are less active as inhibitors of the growth of rat lung and human breast epithelial cells, and do not inhibit the growth of 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts ad human skin fibroblasts in culture. Their growth inhibitory action on BSC-1 cell cultures is counteracted by epidermal growth factor or calf serum. PMID:6969400

  4. Canine distemper virus causes apoptosis of Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, A; Lu, C

    2000-04-01

    Apoptosis of Vero cells infected with two canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strains was detected using TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL), flow cytometric analysis, agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy (EM). By TUNEL, apoptotic cells were found in CDV-Onderstepoort (CDV-Ond)-infected cells. DNA fragments isolated from infected cells were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and a 'ladder' pattern appeared. EM observations demonstrated that the cells undergoing cytopathic effect (CPE) possessed morphological characteristics of apoptotic cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that CDV could induce apoptosis of Vero cells, but the percentages of the apoptotic cells were correlated with the CPE types. The strain showing the cell-rounding type of CPE produced a much higher percentage of apoptotic cells than CDV-Ond with the syncytium type of CPE (P < 0.01). It was concluded that CDV vaccine strains could induce apoptosis of Vero cells and the apoptosis was virus strain-dependent and cell-dependent. The mechanism remains to be studied.

  5. Cloning of the canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA, mutation identification in canine MPS VII, and retroviral vector-mediated correction of MPS VII cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, J; Bouvet, A; DeSanto, C; Fyfe, J C; Xu, D; Wolfe, J H; Aguirre, G D; Patterson, D F; Haskins, M E; Henthorn, P S

    1998-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is an inherited disease resulting from deficient activity of the lysosomal acid hydrolase beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) and has been reported in humans, mice, cats, and dogs. To characterize canine MPS VII, we have isolated and sequenced the canine GUSB cDNA from normal and affected animals. A single nucleotide substitution was detected in the GUSB cDNA derived from MPS VII dogs. This guanosine to adenine base change at nucleotide position 559 in the canine cDNA sequence causes an arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid position 166. Introduction of the G to A substitution at position 559 in a mammalian expression vector containing the normal canine GUSB cDNA nearly eliminated the GUSB enzymatic activity, demonstrating that this mutation is the cause of canine MPS VII. A retroviral vector expressing the full-length canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA corrected the deficiency in MPS VII cells.

  6. p21-Activated kinase 2 (PAK2) inhibits TGF-β signaling in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells by interfering with the receptor-Smad interaction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaohua; Zhang, Junyu; Sun, Qinyu; Tuazon, Polygena T; Wu, Xiaoping; Traugh, Jolinda A; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2012-04-20

    TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) plays a variety of cellular functions mainly through the Smad pathway. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl SXS motif in R-Smads (Smad2 and Smad3) by the type I receptor TβRI is a key step for their activation. It has been reported that the serine/threonine kinase PAK2 (p21-activated kinase 2) can mediate TGF-β signaling in mesenchymal cells. Here, we report that PAK2 restricts TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 activation and transcriptional responsiveness in MDCK epithelial cells. Mechanistically, PAK2 associates with Smad2 and Smad3 in a kinase activity-dependent manner and blocks their activation. PAK2 phosphorylates Smad2 at Ser-417, which is adjacent to the L3 loop that contributes to the TβRI-R-Smad association. Consistently, substitution of Ser-417 with glutamic acid attenuates the interaction of Smad2 with TβRI. Together, our results indicate that PAK2 negatively modulate TGF-β signaling by attenuating the receptor-Smad interaction and thus Smad activation.

  7. p21-activated Kinase 2 (PAK2) Inhibits TGF-β Signaling in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Epithelial Cells by Interfering with the Receptor-Smad Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaohua; Zhang, Junyu; Sun, Qinyu; Tuazon, Polygena T.; Wu, Xiaoping; Traugh, Jolinda A.; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2012-01-01

    TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) plays a variety of cellular functions mainly through the Smad pathway. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl SXS motif in R-Smads (Smad2 and Smad3) by the type I receptor TβRI is a key step for their activation. It has been reported that the serine/threonine kinase PAK2 (p21-activated kinase 2) can mediate TGF-β signaling in mesenchymal cells. Here, we report that PAK2 restricts TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 activation and transcriptional responsiveness in MDCK epithelial cells. Mechanistically, PAK2 associates with Smad2 and Smad3 in a kinase activity-dependent manner and blocks their activation. PAK2 phosphorylates Smad2 at Ser-417, which is adjacent to the L3 loop that contributes to the TβRI-R-Smad association. Consistently, substitution of Ser-417 with glutamic acid attenuates the interaction of Smad2 with TβRI. Together, our results indicate that PAK2 negatively modulate TGF-β signaling by attenuating the receptor-Smad interaction and thus Smad activation. PMID:22393057

  8. Isolation of canine mammary cells with stem cell properties and tumour-initiating potential.

    PubMed

    Cocola, C; Anastasi, P; Astigiano, S; Piscitelli, E; Pelucchi, P; Vilardo, L; Bertoli, G; Beccaglia, M; Veronesi, M C; Sanzone, S; Barbieri, O; Reinbold, R A; Luvoni, G C; Zucchi, I

    2009-07-01

    Recent data suggest that mammary carcinogenesis may be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) derived from mutated adult stem cells, which have acquired aberrant cell self-renewal or by progenitor cells that have acquired the capacity for cell self-renewal. Spontaneous mammary cancers in cats and dogs are important models for the understanding of human breast cancer and may represent alternative species model systems that can significantly contribute to the study of human oncogenesis. With the goal of identifying markers for isolating human breast CSCs, we have generated a canine model system to isolate and characterize normal and CSCs from dog mammary gland. Insight into the hierarchical organization of canine tumours may contribute to the development of universal concepts in oncogenesis by CSCs. Cells with stem cell properties were isolated from normal and tumoural canine breast tissue and propagated as mammospheres and tumourspheres in long-term non-adherent culture conditions. We showed that cells obtained from spheres that display self-renewing properties, have multi-lineage differentiation potential, could generate complex branched tubular structures in vitro and form tumours in NOD/SCID mice. We analysed these cells for the expression of human stem and CSC markers and are currently investigating the tumour-initiating properties of these cells and the hierarchical organization of normal and neoplastic canine mammary tissue.

  9. Immunophenotype and gene expression profile of mesenchymal stem cells derived from canine adipose tissue and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Screven, Rudell; Kenyon, Elizabeth; Myers, Michael J; Yancy, Haile F; Skasko, Mark; Boxer, Lynne; Bigley, Elmer C; Borjesson, Dori L; Zhu, Min

    2014-09-15

    Veterinary adult stem cell therapy is an emerging area of basic and clinical research. Like their human counterparts, veterinary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer many potential therapeutic benefits. The characterization of canine-derived MSCs, however, is poorly defined compared to human MSCs. Furthermore, little consensus exists regarding the expression of canine MSC cell surface markers. To address this issue, this study investigated characteristics of cultured canine MSCs derived from both adipose tissue and bone marrow. The canine MSCs were obtained from donors of various breeds and ages. A panel of cell surface markers for canine MSCs was selected based on current human and canine literature and the availability of canine-reactive antibodies. Using flow cytometry, canine MSCs were defined to be CD90(+)CD44(+)MHC I(+)CD14(-)CD29(-)CD34(-)MHC II(-). Canine MSCs were further characterized using real-time RT-PCR as CD105(+)CD73(+)CD14(+)CD29(+)MHC II(+)CD45(-) at the mRNA level. Among these markers, canine MSCs differed from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by the absence of CD45 expression at the mRNA level. A novel high-throughput canine-specific PCR array was developed and used to identify changes in the gene expression profiles of canine MSCs. Genes including PTPRC, TNF, β2M, TGFβ1, and PDGFRβ, were identified as unique to canine MSCs as compared to canine PBMCs. Our findings will facilitate characterization of canine MSCs for use in research and clinical trials. Moreover, the high-throughput PCR array is a novel tool for characterizing canine MSCs isolated from different tissues and potentially from different laboratories. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Extreme Beta-Cell Deficiency in Pancreata of Dogs with Canine Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shields, Emily J; Lam, Carol J; Cox, Aaron R; Rankin, Matthew M; Van Winkle, Thomas J; Hess, Rebecka S; Kushner, Jake A

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of canine diabetes remains poorly understood, in part due to enigmatic clinical features and the lack of detailed histopathology studies. Canine diabetes, similar to human type 1 diabetes, is frequently associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at onset or after insulin omission. However, notable differences exist. Whereas human type 1 diabetes often occurs in children, canine diabetes is typically described in middle age to elderly dogs. Many competing theories have been proposed regarding the underlying cause of canine diabetes, from pancreatic atrophy to chronic pancreatitis to autoimmune mediated β-cell destruction. It remains unclear to what extent β-cell loss contributes to canine diabetes, as precise quantifications of islet morphometry have not been performed. We used high-throughput microscopy and automated image processing to characterize islet histology in a large collection of pancreata of diabetic dogs. Diabetic pancreata displayed a profound reduction in β-cells and islet endocrine cells. Unlike humans, canine non-diabetic islets are largely comprised of β-cells. Very few β-cells remained in islets of diabetic dogs, even in pancreata from new onset cases. Similarly, total islet endocrine cell number was sharply reduced in diabetic dogs. No compensatory proliferation or lymphocyte infiltration was detected. The majority of pancreata had no evidence of pancreatitis. Thus, canine diabetes is associated with extreme β-cell deficiency in both new and longstanding disease. The β-cell predominant composition of canine islets and the near-total absence of β-cells in new onset elderly diabetic dogs strongly implies that similar to human type 1 diabetes, β-cell loss underlies the pathophysiology of canine diabetes.

  11. Extreme Beta-Cell Deficiency in Pancreata of Dogs with Canine Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Emily J.; Lam, Carol J.; Cox, Aaron R.; Rankin, Matthew M.; Van Winkle, Thomas J.; Hess, Rebecka S.; Kushner, Jake A.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of canine diabetes remains poorly understood, in part due to enigmatic clinical features and the lack of detailed histopathology studies. Canine diabetes, similar to human type 1 diabetes, is frequently associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at onset or after insulin omission. However, notable differences exist. Whereas human type 1 diabetes often occurs in children, canine diabetes is typically described in middle age to elderly dogs. Many competing theories have been proposed regarding the underlying cause of canine diabetes, from pancreatic atrophy to chronic pancreatitis to autoimmune mediated β-cell destruction. It remains unclear to what extent β-cell loss contributes to canine diabetes, as precise quantifications of islet morphometry have not been performed. We used high-throughput microscopy and automated image processing to characterize islet histology in a large collection of pancreata of diabetic dogs. Diabetic pancreata displayed a profound reduction in β-cells and islet endocrine cells. Unlike humans, canine non-diabetic islets are largely comprised of β-cells. Very few β-cells remained in islets of diabetic dogs, even in pancreata from new onset cases. Similarly, total islet endocrine cell number was sharply reduced in diabetic dogs. No compensatory proliferation or lymphocyte infiltration was detected. The majority of pancreata had no evidence of pancreatitis. Thus, canine diabetes is associated with extreme β-cell deficiency in both new and longstanding disease. The β-cell predominant composition of canine islets and the near-total absence of β-cells in new onset elderly diabetic dogs strongly implies that similar to human type 1 diabetes, β-cell loss underlies the pathophysiology of canine diabetes. PMID:26057531

  12. Characterization of Progenitor Cells during Canine Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Ávila-García, Mallely; García-Sánchez, Gustavo; Lira-Romero, Esmeralda; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2012-01-01

    We identify the presence of progenitor cells during retinal development in the dog, as this species represents a natural model for studying several breed-specific degenerative retinal disorders. Antibodies to detected progenitor cells (Pax6, C-kit, and nestin) and ganglion cells (BDNF, Brn3a, and Thy1) were used in combination with H3 for the purpose of identifying proliferating cells. Pax6, nestin, C-kit, and H3 were localized mainly in the neuroblastic layer of the retina during the embryonic stage. During the fetal stage, proteins were expressed in the inner neuroblastic layer (INL) as well as in the outer neuroblastic layer; BDNF, Thy1, and Brn3a were also expressed in the INL. During the neonatal stage only C-kit was not expressed. Proliferating cells were present in both undifferentiated and differentiated retina. These results suggest that, during canine retinogenesis, progenitor cells are distributed along the retina and some of these cells remain as progenitor cells of the ganglion cells during the first postnatal days. PMID:22567026

  13. A functional comparison of canine and murine bone marrow derived cultured mast cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; London, Cheryl A

    2006-12-15

    Disorders involving mast cells are extremely common in dogs, ranging from allergic diseases to neoplastic transformation resulting in malignant mast cell tumors. Relatively little is known regarding the basic biologic properties of normal canine mast cells, largely due to the difficulty in reliably purifying large numbers from canine skin. In vitro generated bone marrow derived cultured mast cells (BMCMCs) are routinely used in both human and murine studies as a ready source of material for in vitro and in vivo studies. We previously developed a technique to generate canine BMCMCs from bone marrow derived CD34+ cells and demonstrated that these cells exhibit the phenotypic properties characteristic of mast cells and release histamine in response to IgE cross-linking. The purpose of the following study was to characterize the functional properties of these canine BMCMCs and contrast these with the functional properties of murine BMCMCs. Our work demonstrates that both IL-4 and IL-10 promote canine BMCMC proliferation, possibly through upregulation of Kit expression, while TGFbeta inhibits proliferation. The canine BMCMCs produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines in response to IgE cross-linking and chemical stimulation including IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, GM-CSF, RANTES, and MIP1alpha. Interestingly, the canine BMCMCs released significantly larger amounts of MCP-1 and tryptase and significantly smaller amounts of IL-6 following chemical stimulation and IgE cross-linking when compared to murine BMCMCs. Lastly, the canine BMCMCs produced larger amounts of active MMP9 than their murine counterparts. In summary, canine BMCMCs exhibit unique functional properties that distinguish them from murine BMCMCs and provide insight into the contribution of these cells to mast cell disorders in the dog.

  14. Isolation and characterization of canine perivascular stem/stromal cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Zhang, Xinli; Crisan, Mihaela; Hardy, Winters R; Liang, Pei; Meyers, Carolyn A; Lobo, Sonja; Lagishetty, Venu; Childers, Martin K; Asatrian, Greg; Ding, Catherine; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Zou, Erin; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Soo, Chia

    2017-01-01

    For over 15 years, human subcutaneous adipose tissue has been recognized as a rich source of tissue resident mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). The isolation of perivascular progenitor cells from human adipose tissue by a cell sorting strategy was first published in 2008. Since this time, the interest in using pericytes and related perivascular stem/stromal cell (PSC) populations for tissue engineering has significantly increased. Here, we describe a set of experiments identifying, isolating and characterizing PSC from canine tissue (N = 12 canine adipose tissue samples). Results showed that the same antibodies used for human PSC identification and isolation are cross-reactive with canine tissue (CD45, CD146, CD34). Like their human correlate, canine PSC demonstrate characteristics of MSC including cell surface marker expression, colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) inclusion, and osteogenic differentiation potential. As well, canine PSC respond to osteoinductive signals in a similar fashion as do human PSC, such as the secreted differentiation factor NEL-Like Molecule-1 (NELL-1). Nevertheless, important differences exist between human and canine PSC, including differences in baseline osteogenic potential. In summary, canine PSC represent a multipotent mesenchymogenic cell source for future translational efforts in tissue engineering.

  15. Isolation and characterization of canine perivascular stem/stromal cells for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Winters R.; Liang, Pei; Meyers, Carolyn A.; Lobo, Sonja; Lagishetty, Venu; Childers, Martin K.; Asatrian, Greg; Ding, Catherine; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Zou, Erin; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Soo, Chia

    2017-01-01

    For over 15 years, human subcutaneous adipose tissue has been recognized as a rich source of tissue resident mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). The isolation of perivascular progenitor cells from human adipose tissue by a cell sorting strategy was first published in 2008. Since this time, the interest in using pericytes and related perivascular stem/stromal cell (PSC) populations for tissue engineering has significantly increased. Here, we describe a set of experiments identifying, isolating and characterizing PSC from canine tissue (N = 12 canine adipose tissue samples). Results showed that the same antibodies used for human PSC identification and isolation are cross-reactive with canine tissue (CD45, CD146, CD34). Like their human correlate, canine PSC demonstrate characteristics of MSC including cell surface marker expression, colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) inclusion, and osteogenic differentiation potential. As well, canine PSC respond to osteoinductive signals in a similar fashion as do human PSC, such as the secreted differentiation factor NEL-Like Molecule-1 (NELL-1). Nevertheless, important differences exist between human and canine PSC, including differences in baseline osteogenic potential. In summary, canine PSC represent a multipotent mesenchymogenic cell source for future translational efforts in tissue engineering. PMID:28489940

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-β. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST) cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs) and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP) stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry. Results We evaluated the regenerative potential of in vitro treatment with rhBMP-2 and found that both osteogenic induction and tumor regression occur in stem cells from canine bone marrow. rhBMP-2 inhibits the proliferation capacity of OST cells by mechanisms of apoptosis and tumor suppression mediated by p53. Conclusion We

  17. Concise Review: Kidney Generation with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Morizane, Ryuji; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2017-09-04

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a world-wide healthcare problem, resulting in increased cardiovascular mortality and often leading to end-stage kidney disease, where patients require kidney replacement therapies such as hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. Loss of functional nephrons contributes to the progression of CKD, which can be attenuated but not reversed due to inability to generate new nephrons in human adult kidneys. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), by virtue of their unlimited self-renewal and ability to differentiate into cells of all three embryonic germ layers, are attractive sources for kidney regenerative therapies. Recent advances in stem cell biology have identified key signals necessary to maintain stemness of human nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro, and led to establishment of protocols to generate NPCs and nephron epithelial cells from human fetal kidneys and hPSCs. Effective production of large amounts of human NPCs and kidney organoids will facilitate elucidation of developmental and pathobiological pathways, kidney disease modeling and drug screening as well as kidney regenerative therapies. We summarize the recent studies to induce NPCs and kidney cells from hPSCs, studies of NPC expansion from mouse and human embryonic kidneys, and discuss possible approaches in vivo to regenerate kidneys with cell therapies and the development of bioengineered kidneys. Stem Cells 2017. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Canine osteosarcoma cell lines contain stem-like cancer cells: biological and pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Monica; Wurth, Roberto; Vito, Guendalina; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Thellung, Stefano; Maniscalco, Lorella; De Maria, Raffaella; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Bajetto, Adriana; Ratto, Alessandra; Ferrari, Angelo; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor formation and progression, drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasization. CSCs have been identified in many human tumors including osteosarcoma (OSA). CSC distinctive properties are the expression of stem cell markers, sustained growth, self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Here we report the isolation of stem-like cells from two canine OSA cultures, characterized by self-renewal, evaluated by sphere formation ability, differential marker expression, and in vitro proliferation when cultured in a medium containing EGF and bFGF. Current therapies for OSA increased survival time, but prognosis remains poor, due to the development of drug resistance and metastases. Chemotherapy shrinks the tumor mass but CSCs remain unaffected, leading to tumor recurrence. Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, has been shown to possess antitumor properties affecting CSC survival in different human and animal cancers. Here we show that metformin has a significant antiproliferative effect on canine OSA stem-like cells, validating this in vitro model for further pre-clinical drug evaluations. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining CSC-enriched cultures from primary canine OSA cells as a promising model for biological and pharmacological studies of canine and human OSAs.

  19. Kidney abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    López Revuelta, K; Ricard Andrés, M P

    2011-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease exhibits numerous kidney structural and functional abnormalities, changes that are seen along the entire length of the nephron. Changes are most marked in patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia, but are also seen in those with compound heterozygous states and the sickle cell trait. The renal features of sickle cell disease include some of the most common reasons for referral to nephrologists, such as hematuria, proteinuria, tubular disturbances and chronic kidney disease. Therapy of these conditions requires specialized knowledge of their distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Spanish Haemathology and Hemotherapy Association has recently publicated their Clinical Practice Guidelines of SCD management. Renal chapter is reproduced in this article for Nefrología difussion.

  20. Long-Term Tolerance to Kidney Allografts after Induced Rejection of Donor Hematopoietic Chimerism in a Preclinical Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Scott S.; Mathes, David W.; Georges, George E.; Kuhr, Christian S.; Chang, Jeff; Butts, Tiffany M.; Storb, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation provides a reliable method for inducing tolerance towards solid organ grafts. However, this procedure can result in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) thereby limiting its application. Here we test the hypothesis that mixed chimerism can be intentionally reverted to host hematopoiesis without rejection of a kidney graft. Methods Recipient dogs were given 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) before and a short course of immunosuppression after marrow infusion from dog leukocyte antigen-identical littermates. All dogs achieved stable mixed chimerism. After a mean of 20 weeks, one cohort of dogs received kidney transplants from their respective marrow donors. Subsequently, recipients were reconditioned with 2 Gy TBI and given autologous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilized leukocytes (recipient leukocyte infusion) that had been collected before marrow transplant. Results Dogs receiving a second TBI and recipient leukocyte infusion without a kidney transplant rejected their donor hematopoietic graft within 3 weeks. Dogs that received kidney grafts, followed by a second TBI and recipient leukocyte infusion, rejected their marrow graft without rejecting their transplanted kidneys for periods greater than one year. Conclusion Mixed chimerism may be clinically reverted to 100% recipient without rejection of a kidney allograft. This finding may have application towards minimizing the risk of GVHD in solid organ transplant patients given hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA-identical donors. PMID:22929594

  1. Profiling of Host Cell Response to Successive Canine Parvovirus Infection Based on Kinetic Proteomic Change Identification

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Lin, Peng; Yi, Li; Sun, Yaru; Ren, Jingqiang; Tong, Mingwei; Cao, Zhigang; Li, Jiawei; Deng, Jinliang; Cheng, Shipeng

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) reproduces by co-opting the resources of host cells, inevitably causing cytotoxic effects to the host cells. Feline kidney F81 cells are sensitive to CPV infection and show disparate growing statuses at different time points post-infection. This study analysed the response of F81 cells to CPV infection at successive infection time points by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) during 60 h of infection and at selected time points post-infection were identified by an analysis of variance test and a two-tailed unpaired t test, respectively. DEPs with similar quantitative changes were clustered by hierarchical clustering and analysed by gene ontology enrichment, revealing that 12 h and 60 h post-infection were the optimal times to analyse the autonomous parvovirus replication and apoptosis processes, respectively. Using the MetacoreTM database, 29 DEPs were enriched in a network involved in p53 regulation. Besides, a significantly enriched pathway suggests that the CPV-induced cytopathic effect was probably due to the deficiency of functional CFTR caused by CPV infection. This study uncovered the systemic changes in key cellular factors involved in CPV infection and help to understand the molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of CPV and the cytopathic effects induced by CPV infection. PMID:27406444

  2. Gene expression alterations during HGF-induced dedifferentiation of a renal tubular epithelial cell line (MDCK) using a novel canine DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Balkovetz, Daniel F; Gerrard, Edward R; Li, Shixiong; Johnson, David; Lee, James; Tobias, John W; Rogers, Katherine K; Snyder, Richard W; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2004-04-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) elicits a broad spectrum of biological activities, including epithelial cell dedifferentiation. One of the most widely used and best-studied polarized epithelial cell lines is the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Here, we describe and validate the early response of polarized monolayers of MDCK cells stimulated with recombinant HGF using a novel canine DNA microarray designed to query 12,473 gene sequences. In our survey, eight genes previously implicated in the HGF signaling pathway were differentially regulated, demonstrating that the system was responsive to HGF. Also identified were 117 genes not previously known to be involved in the HGF pathway. The results were confirmed by real-time PCR or Western blot analysis for 38 genes. Of particular interest were the large number of differentially regulated genes encoding small GTPases, proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum translation, proteins involved in the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and the hematopoietic and prostaglandin systems.

  3. Angiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumour necrosis factor-α and hypoxia inducible factor-1α in canine renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yhee, J Y; Yu, C H; Kim, J H; Im, K S; Kim, N H; Brodersen, B W; Doster, A R; Sur, J-H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution and characteristics of microvessels in various histological types of canine renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study compared microvessel density (MVD) and distribution of blood vessels according to histological type and evaluated the presence of angiogenesis-related proteins. Nine archival samples of canine RCC were studied. MVD was calculated as the mean number of blood vessels per mm(2). The diameter of blood vessels was calculated by determining either the length of the long axis of blood vessels (diameter(max)) or the mean distance from the centre of each blood vessel to the tunica adventia (diameter(mean)). A significant difference in MVD was evident between RCCs and normal kidneys (46.6 ± 28.0 versus 8.4 ± 2.2 microvessels/mm(2)). Diameter(max) in canine RCCs (34.1 ± 14.7 μm) was also significantly different from normal canine kidney (23.2 ± 3.4 μm). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was expressed by tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was observed in vascular endothelial cells in both neoplastic and normal kidney. Although VEGF is involved in angiogenesis and correlates with tumour stage of development, no correlation was found between VEGF expression and MVD. Tumour-associated macrophages expressing TNF-α and hypoxia inducible factor 1α were identified in peritumoural tissue and may play an important role in angiogenesis.

  4. Renal denervation decreases susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation in a canine model of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaotie; Shi, Lang; Cui, Xuebin; Yu, Yang; Qi, Ting; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Xianglei

    2017-08-21

    Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to have therapeutic values in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to investigate whether RDN could decrease susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation in a canine model of CKD. Twenty-one dogs were included in this study. CKD was produced by subtotal nephrectomy in sixteen dogs with RDN treatment (CKD + RDN group, N = 8) or sham RDN (CKD group, N = 8). Another 5 dogs underwent sham operation and sham RDN to serve as controls (CTR group). Parameters of renal function, blood pressure, echocardiography, electrocardiogram, norepinephrine and inflammation were measured at baseline and 6 weeks after the surgical procedure. The ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was determined at the end of study. Subtotal nephrectomy successfully induced a canine CKD model. When compared to CTR group, subtotal nephrectomy in CKD group significantly elevated blood pressure; increased the left ventricular mass, the end-diastolic left ventricular internal dimension, the left ventricular end-diastolic posterior wall thickness, the end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness; prolonged the intervals of QT, corrected QT, Tpeak to Tend (Tp-e), corrected Tp-e, and increased the QT dispersion and the Tp-e/QT ratio; decreased the VFT; increased the serum levels of norepinephrine, C reactive protein, and interleukin 6. However, RDN significantly attenuated these changes induced by CKD. The present study demonstrated that RDN could decrease susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation in this CKD model. Improvement of left ventricular hypertrophy, sympathetic activation, and inflammation by RDN may be responsible for its beneficial effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. NCR1 Expression Identifies Canine Natural Killer Cell Subsets with Phenotypic Similarity to Human Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Jennifer A.; Somanchi, Srinivas S.; Yang, Yanwen; Aquino-Lopez, Arianexys; Bishop, Erin E.; Lee, Dean A.

    2016-01-01

    Canines spontaneously develop many cancers similar to humans – including osteosarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma – offering the opportunity to study immune therapies in a genetically heterogeneous and immunocompetent environment. However, a lack of antibodies recognizing canine NK cell markers has resulted in suboptimal characterization and unknown purity of NK cell products, hindering the development of canine models of NK cell adoptive immunotherapy. To this end, we generated a novel antibody to canine NCR1 (NKp46), the putative species-wide marker of NK cells, enabling purification of NK cells for further characterization. We demonstrate that CD3−/NKp46+ cells in healthy and osteosarcoma-bearing canines have phenotypic similarity to human CD3−/NKp46+ NK cells, expressing mRNA for CD16 and the natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp30, NKp44, and NKp80. Functionally, we demonstrate with the calcein release assay that canine CD3−/NKp46+ cells kill canine tumor cell lines without prior sensitization and secrete IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as measured by Luminex. Similar to human NK cells, CD3−/NKp46+ cells expand rapidly on feeder cells expressing 4-1BBL and membrane-bound IL-21 (median = 20,283-fold in 21 days). Furthermore, we identify a minor Null population (CD3−/CD21−/CD14−/NKp46−) with reduced cytotoxicity against osteosarcoma cells, but similar cytokine secretion as CD3−/NKp46+ cells. Null cells in canines and humans have reduced expression of NKG2D, NKp44, and CD16 compared to NKp46+ NK cells and can be induced to express NKp46 with further expansion on feeder cells. In conclusion, we have identified and characterized canine NK cells, including an NKp46− subset of canine and human NK cells, using a novel anti-canine NKp46 antibody, and report robust ex vivo expansion of canine NK cells sufficient for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27933061

  6. Expression of CD61 (beta3 integrin subunit) on canine cells.

    PubMed

    Arce, C; Moreno, A; Pérez de la Lastra, J M; Garrido, J J; Barbancho, M; De Andrés, D F; Morera, L; Llanes, D

    2001-03-01

    A monoclonal antibody (JM2E5) specific for the integrin beta3 chain, or CD61 or GPIIIa subunit, has been employed to determine the expression of the canine homologue CD41/CD61 or CD51/CD61 complex on different canine cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, platelets, erythrocytes, lymph-node cells, spleen cells and breast tumour cells). The canine homologue CD41/CD61 or CD51/61 was present on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, breast tumour cells and spleen cells as well as on platelets and it was absent from erythrocytes and lymph-node cells. An antigen with components of molecular masses of 25/100/120 kDa (under reducing conditions) was immunoprecipitated from canine peripheral lymphocytes and platelets, but not from granulocytes or monocytes. Expression on canine lymphocytes of the canine homologue of the human beta3 integrin chain was unexpected, based on the expression pattern of this molecule in human tissue.

  7. Efficient isolation of wild strains of canine distemper virus in Vero cells expressing canine SLAM (CD150) and their adaptability to marmoset B95a cells.

    PubMed

    Seki, Fumio; Ono, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2003-09-01

    We have previously shown that canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; also known as CD150) acts as a cellular receptor for canine distemper virus (CDV). In this study, we established Vero cells stably expressing canine SLAM (Vero.DogSLAMtag cells). Viruses were isolated in Vero.DogSLAMtag cells one day after inoculation with spleen samples from five out of seven dogs with distemper. By contrast, virus isolation with reportedly sensitive marmoset B95a cells was only successful from three diseased animals at 7 to 10 days after inoculation, and no virus was recovered from any dogs when Vero cells were used for isolation. The CDV strain isolated in Vero.DogSLAMtag cells did not cause cytopathic effects in B95a and human SLAM-expressing Vero cells, whereas the strain isolated in B95a cells from the same dog did so in canine or human SLAM-expressing Vero cells as well as B95a cells. There were two amino acid differences in the hemagglutinin sequence between these strains. Cell fusion analysis after expression of envelope proteins and vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype assay showed that their hemagglutinins were responsible for the difference in cell tropism between them. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that glutamic acid to lysine substitution at position 530 of the hemagglutinin was required for the adaptation to the usage of marmoset SLAM. Our results indicate that Vero cells stably expressing canine SLAM are highly sensitive to CDV in clinical specimens and that only a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin can allow the virus to adapt to marmoset SLAM.

  8. Identification of a candidate therapeutic antibody for treatment of canine B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rue, Sarah M; Eckelman, Brendan P; Efe, Jem A; Bloink, Kristin; Deveraux, Quinn L; Lowery, David; Nasoff, Marc

    2015-04-15

    B-cell lymphoma is one of the most frequently observed non-cutaneous neoplasms in dogs. For both human and canine BCL, the standard of care treatment typically involves a combination chemotherapy, e.g. "CHOP" therapy. Treatment for human lymphoma greatly benefited from the addition of anti-CD20 targeted biological therapeutics to these chemotherapy protocols; this type of therapeutic has not been available to the veterinary oncologist. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a rituximab-like anti-CD20 antibody intended as a candidate treatment for canine B-cell lymphoma. A panel of anti-canine CD20 monoclonal antibodies was generated using a mouse hybridoma approach. Mouse monoclonal antibody 1E4 was selected for construction of a canine chimeric molecule based on its rank ordering in a flow cytometry-based affinity assay. 1E4 binds to approximately the same location in the extracellular domain of CD20 as rituximab, and 1E4-based chimeric antibodies co-stain canine B cells in flow cytometric analysis of canine leukocytes using an anti-canine CD21 antibody. We show that two of the four reported canine IgG subclasses (cIgGB and cIgGC) can bind to canine CD16a, a receptor involved in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Chimeric monoclonal antibodies were assembled using canine heavy chain constant regions that incorporated the appropriate effector function along with the mouse monoclonal 1E4 anti-canine CD20 variable regions, and expressed in CHO cells. We observed that 1E4-cIgGB and 1E4-cIgGC significantly deplete B-cell levels in healthy beagle dogs. The in vivo half-life of 1E4-cIgGB in a healthy dog was ∼14 days. The antibody 1E4-cIgGB has been selected for further testing and development as an agent for the treatment of canine B-cell lymphoma.

  9. Cell senescence in the aging kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haichun; Fogo, Agnes B

    2010-09-01

    Pedigree genetics and environment modulate the biological process of aging. The permanent and irreversible growth arrest of cell senescence is a central paradigm of aging. Various pathophysiologic pressures such as oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury can also induce senescence. Senescent cells secrete altered levels of growth factors, show increased susceptibility to apoptosis, and associate with delayed repair and regeneration in the aging kidney. Here we discuss new progress in understanding renal aging, focusing on mechanisms of cell senescence and possible interventions to modulate age-related organ damage.

  10. Canine heat shock protein 27 promotes proliferation, migration, and doxorubicin resistance in the canine cell line DTK-F.

    PubMed

    Lin, An-Ci; Liao, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Sui-Wen; Huang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, Yu-Shen

    2015-08-01

    Canine mammary tumors (CMTs) are the most common type of tumors in female dogs. Heat shock proteins are highly expressed in many cancers and are involved in tumor progression and chemoresistance in CMTs; however, the biological role of canine heat shock protein 27 (cHSP27) in CMTs has not been thoroughly characterized. This study investigated the roles of cHSP27 in cell growth, migration, anchorage, and resistance to doxorubicin (DOX) using DTK-F cells, a CMT cell line that does not express cHSP27. DTK-F cells were transfected with cHSP27 and stable overexpression was established. A mouse monoclonal antibody against cHSP27 was also produced. The biological functions of cHSP27 in DTK-F cells were then evaluated using a variety of assays. Overexpression of cHSP27 was associated with increased cell proliferation, clone formation, migration, and decreased DOX sensitivity. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that cHSP27 overexpression can promote anchorage-independent growth, migration, and increased DOX resistance in CMT cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiming; Modiano, Jaime F; Ito, Daisuke

    2017-03-30

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1(-) and SSEA-1(+) cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines.

  12. [Activities of enzymes from canine kidney plasma membranes under effects of polyene antibiotics in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Glubokovskaia, O I; Kravchenko, L S

    1979-01-01

    The effects of amphotericin B drug containing sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and those of DOC and nistatin on the activities of Na+, K+-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase of canine kidney plasma membranes were studied. It was found that the activities of Na+, K+-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase were markedly inhibited only after intravenous injection of amphotericin B, whereas the other agents tested caused no changes in the enzyme activities. Similar results were obtained in vitro. In the presence of amphotericin B the activity of Na+, K+-ATPase was noticeably inhibited already at the antibiotic concentration of 0,1 mkg per mg of membrane protein. It was found that the injection of amphotericin B, DOC and nistatin did not qualitatively or quantitatively affect the phospholipid composition of the plasma membranes. This is indicative of the lack of correlation between the enzyme activities and changes in the phospholipid composition of the plasma membranes under effects of amphotericin B. The pyrimidine derivative--amygluracyl--markedly removes the inhibiting effect of amphotericin B on the enzyme activity of plasma membranes.

  13. Mechanisms of kidney cell injury from metals.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, B A

    1993-01-01

    The most environmentally abundant toxic metals/metalloids (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) are each known to produce cell injury in the kidney but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are now being elucidated. It is clear that the nephrotoxicity of these agents is due, in part, to the fact that urinary elimination is a major route of excretion from the body. The role(s) of molecular factors such as metal-binding proteins, inclusion bodies, and cell-specific receptorlike proteins that appear to influence renal tubule cell expression, have attracted increased interest as determinants that modulate cell populations as special risk for toxicity and renal cancer. The future of mechanistic toxicology studies with regard to how and why only certain renal cell populations become targets for toxicity from these metals/metalloids and other less common inorganic nephrotoxicants must focus on the molecular handling of these agents by target cell populations. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. PMID:8354182

  14. Mechanisms of kidney cell injury from metals

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The most environmentally abundant toxic metals/metalloids (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) are each known to produce cell injury in the kidney but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are now being elucidated. It is clear that the nephrotoxicity of these agents is due, in part, to the fact that urinary elimination is a major route of excretion from the body. The role(s) of molecular factors such as metal-binding proteins, inclusion bodies, and cell-specific receptorlike proteins that appear to influence renal tubule cell expression, have attracted increased interest as determinants that modulate cell populations as special risk for toxicity and renal cancer. The future of mechanistic toxicology studies with regard to how and why only certain renal cell populations become targets for toxicity from these metals/metalloids and other less common inorganic nephrotoxicants must focus on the molecular handling of these agents by target cell populations. 90 refs.

  15. Fine mapping of canine parvovirus B cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Ranz, A; García, J; Sanz, A; Vela, C; Casal, J I

    1991-10-01

    In this report we describe the topological mapping of neutralizing domains of canine parvovirus (CPV). We obtained 11 CPV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), six of which are neutralizing. The reactivities were as determined by ELISA and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. VP2, the most abundant protein of the CPV capsid, seemed to contain all the neutralization sites. Also, an almost full-length genomic clone of CPV was constructed in the bacterial plasmid pUC18 to enable expression of CPV proteins. All the neutralizing MAbs recognized recombinant VP2 when it was expressed as a free protein in Escherichia coli but not when expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase. When two large fragments containing about 85% and 67% of the C terminus of VP2 were expressed, no neutralization sites were detected. When fusion proteins containing the N terminus were expressed, two linear determinants were mapped, one between residues 1 to 10 of VP2, and the other between amino acids 11 and 23. The peptide 11 GQPAVRNERATGS 23, recognized by MAb 3C9, was synthesized chemically and checked for immunogenicity, not being able to induce neutralizing activity. Although the antibody response in rabbits to all the fusion proteins was uniformly high, the anti-CPV response was very variable. Protein from pCPVEx11, which contains a T cell epitope (peptide PKIFINLAKKKKAG) present in the VP1-specific region as well as the B cell epitopes, seemed to be the most effective in inducing virus neutralization.

  16. Detection of novel papillomaviruses in canine mucosal, cutaneous and in situ squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, N; Nespeca, G; Hauser, B; Ackermann, M; Favrot, C

    2005-10-01

    Papillomavirus (PV) DNA is frequently uncovered in samples of human skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). However, the role of these viruses in the development of such cancers in canine species remains controversial. While approximately 100 human PVs are known, only one single canine oral PV (COPV) has been identified and studied extensively. Therefore, we applied a narrow-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suitable for the detection of classical canine and feline PVs, as well as a broad-range PCR, which has been used for the detection of various novel PVs in humans, in order to analyse 42 paraffin-embedded samples, representing three different forms of canine SCCs. Ten samples of skin tissues with various non-neoplastic conditions served as controls. While none of the negative controls reacted positively, PV DNA was discovered in 21% of the tested SCC samples. Interestingly, the classical COPV was amplified from only one sample, while the other positive cases were associated with a variety of thus far unknown PVs. This study suggests that a fraction of canine SCC is infected with PVs and that a genetic variety of canine PVs exists. Therefore, these results will facilitate the future study of the role of PVs in the development of canine skin cancers.

  17. Human Kidney-Derived Cells Ameliorate Acute Kidney Injury Without Engrafting into Renal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Santeramo, Ilaria; Herrera Perez, Zeneida; Illera, Ana; Taylor, Arthur; Kenny, Simon; Murray, Patricia; Wilm, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert

    2017-04-04

    Previous studies have suggested that CD133(+) cells isolated from human kidney biopsies have the potential to ameliorate injury following intravenous (IV) administration in rodent models of kidney disease by integrating into damaged renal tissue and generating specialized renal cells. However, whether renal engraftment of CD133(+) cells is a prerequisite for ameliorating injury has not yet been unequivocally resolved. Here, we have established a cisplatin-induced nephropathy model in immunodeficient rats to assess the efficacy of CD133(+) human kidney cells in restoring renal health, and to determine the fate of these cells after systemic administration. Specifically, following IV administration, we evaluated the impact of the CD133(+) cells on renal function by undertaking longitudinal measurements of the glomerular filtration rate using a novel transcutaneous device. Using histological assays, we assessed whether the human kidney cells could promote renal regeneration, and if this was related to their ability to integrate into the damaged kidneys. Our results show that both CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells improve renal function and promote renal regeneration to a similar degree. However, this was not associated with engraftment of the cells into the kidneys. Instead, after IV administration, both cell types were exclusively located in the lungs, and had disappeared by 24 hours. Our data therefore indicate that renal repair is not mediated by CD133(+) cells homing to the kidneys and generating specialized renal cells. Instead, renal repair is likely to be mediated by paracrine or endocrine factors. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  18. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Carol F.; Ratliff, Michelle L.; Powell, Rebecca; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  19. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joshua D; Kiupel, Matti; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    Background Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors. Methods In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16–20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations. Results No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16–20 of any of the MCTs examined. Conclusion In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs. PMID:16579858

  20. Generation of kidney tubular organoids from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Morizane, Ryuji; Homma, Koichiro; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Sayuri; Fujii, Shizuka; Koda, Muneaki; Hiratsuka, Ken; Yamashita, Maho; Yoshida, Tadashi; Wakino, Shu; Hayashi, Koichi; Sasaki, Junichi; Hori, Shingo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cell research have resulted in methods to generate kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which contain cells of multiple lineages including nephron epithelial cells. Methods to purify specific types of cells from differentiated hPSCs, however, have not been established well. For bioengineering, cell transplantation, and disease modeling, it would be useful to establish those methods to obtain pure populations of specific types of kidney cells. Here, we report a simple two-step differentiation protocol to generate kidney tubular organoids from hPSCs with direct purification of KSP (kidney specific protein)-positive cells using anti-KSP antibody. We first differentiated hPSCs into mesoderm cells using a glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor for 3 days, then cultured cells in renal epithelial growth medium to induce KSP+ cells. We purified KSP+ cells using flow cytometry with anti-KSP antibody, which exhibited characteristics of all segments of kidney tubular cells and cultured KSP+ cells in 3D Matrigel, which formed tubular organoids in vitro. The formation of tubular organoids by KSP+ cells induced the acquisition of functional kidney tubules. KSP+ cells also allowed for the generation of chimeric kidney cultures in which human cells self-assembled into 3D tubular structures in combination with mouse embryonic kidney cells. PMID:27982115

  1. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo- Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lisa Y; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W; Argyle, David J

    2011-03-30

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  2. Characterization of foamy epithelial surface cells in the canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Bartel, C; Tichy, A; Walter, I

    2014-06-01

    In mature bitches, endometrial epithelial surface cells modify function and corresponding morphology during the oestrous cycle. During late metoestrous, endometrial epithelial surface cells frequently accumulate fat and thereby adopt a foamy morphology. This cyclic appearance of foamy endometrial epithelial cells (fEECs) seems to be physiological in the dog, whereas in other species, it indicates pathological changes. Function of these fEECs has not been identified until now. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize the fEECs by means of transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Different manifestations of fEECs were observed and analysed with regard to proliferative activity and presence of different epithelial adhesion molecules including PLEKHA7, β-catenin and E-cadherin. PLEKHA7 was restricted to the apical regions of the fEECs, whereas E-cadherin and β-catenin were demonstrated basolateral. The immunohistochemical detection of steroid hormone receptors demonstrated the responsiveness of the fEECs to steroid hormones. Intense progesterone receptor expression was observed in the fEECs indicating a high responsiveness to this hormone. Considering a potential function of the fEECs, we hypothesized that leptin, a hormone produced by other lipid-accumulating cells and described to be involved in reproduction, in particular during implantation, might also originate from the fEECs which was confirmed by immunohistochemical methods. Moreover, leptin receptor was found in fEECs indicating the fEECs as both, source and target for leptin. Therefore, we conclude that fEECs in the canine uterus have a potential role in early pregnancy events and that the different observed manifestations might simply reflect the variations of signs of pseudopregnancy among bitches.

  3. Use of RNA-seq to determine variation in canine cytochrome P450 mRNA expression between blood, liver, lung, kidney and duodenum in healthy beagles.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Weber, K; Rincon, G; Merritt, D

    2017-03-19

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful tool for the evaluation and quantification of transcriptomes and expression patterns in animals, tissues, or pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA transcripts in whole blood, kidney, duodenum, liver, and lung in healthy, adult male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) beagles via RNA-seq. mRNA expression was above background (transcripts per million) for 45 canine CYPs, with liver, duodenum, and lung expressing a high number of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs, while prominent endogenous metabolizing CYP expression was present in blood and kidney. The relative expression pattern of CYP2A13, 2B11, 2C21, 2D15, 2E1, 3A12, and 27A1 in liver, lung, and duodenum was verified through qPCR. This is the first global profiling of physiologic CYP mRNA expression in multiple canine tissues, providing a platform for further studies characterizing canine CYPs and changes in gene expression in disease states.

  4. Microglial cell activation in demyelinating canine distemper lesions.

    PubMed

    Stein, Veronika M; Czub, Markus; Schreiner, Nicole; Moore, Peter F; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Tipold, Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Microglia cells are the principal immune effector elements of the brain responding to any pathological event. To elucidate the possible role of microglia in initial non-inflammatory demyelination in canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, microglia from experimentally CDV infected dogs were isolated ex vivo by density gradient centrifugation and characterized immunophenotypically and functionally using flow cytometry. Results from dogs with demyelinating lesions were compared to results from recovered dogs and two healthy controls. CDV antigen could be detected in microglia of dogs with histopathologically confirmed demyelination. Microglia of these dogs showed marked upregulation of the surface molecules CD18, CD11b, CD11c, CD1c, MHC class I and MHC class II and a tendency for increased expression intensity of ICAM-1 (CD54), B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), whereas no increased expression was found for CD44 and CD45. Functionally, microglia exhibited distinctly enhanced phagocytosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was concluded that in CDV infection, there is a clear association between microglial activation and demyelination. This strongly suggests that microglia contribute to acute myelin destruction in distemper.

  5. Methotrexate induces high level of apoptosis in canine lymphoma/leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Aleksandra; Kutkowska, Justyna; Obmińska-Mrukowicz, Bożena; Rapak, Andrzej

    2017-09-28

    Methotrexate is an antimetabolite used in the treatment of cancer and non-malignant diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and graft vs. host disease. Combination therapy with methotrexate was successful in the treatment of canine lymphoma, mammary tumor and invasive urinary bladder cancer. Lymphoma, the most common hematopoietic cancer in dogs, and leukemia are sensitive to chemotherapy, which is why methotrexate may be an important treatment option for these diseases. Although methotrexate is already used in veterinary oncology its effects on canine cancer cells has not been tested. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time methotrexate concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and its capability of inducing apoptosis in selected canine lymphoma/leukemia cell lines: CLBL-1, GL-1 and CL-1 as a first step before the in vitro development of new therapeutic options with the use of methotrexate. Methotrexate exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on proliferation of all the examined cell lines with different degree of apoptosis induction. The most methotrexate sensitive cells belonged to CL-1 cell line derived from T cell neoplasia and previously characterized by high resistance to the majority of anticancer drugs used in the therapy of lymphoma/leukemia in dogs. Canine lymphoma and leukemia cell lines are sensitive to methotrexate, and this drug may be useful in effective treatment of canine neoplasms and especially of T-type leukemia/lymphoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Decellularized Human Kidney Cortex Hydrogels Enhance Kidney Microvascular Endothelial Cell Maturation and Quiescence.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Ryan J; Xu, Jin; Luo, Ping; Xue, Jun; Wang, Yi; Kotha, Surya; Zeng, Wen; Fu, Xiaoyun; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Zheng, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The kidney peritubular microvasculature is highly susceptible to injury from drugs and toxins, often resulting in acute kidney injury and progressive chronic kidney disease. Little is known about the process of injury and regeneration of human kidney microvasculature, resulting from the lack of appropriate kidney microvascular models that can incorporate the proper cells, extracellular matrices (ECMs), and architectures needed to understand the response and contribution of individual vascular components in these processes. In this study, we present methods to recreate the human kidney ECM (kECM) microenvironment by fabricating kECM hydrogels derived from decellularized human kidney cortex. The majority of native matrix proteins, such as collagen-IV, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and their isoforms were preserved in similar proportions as found in normal kidneys. Human kidney peritubular microvascular endothelial cells (HKMECs) became more quiescent when cultured on this kECM gel compared with culture on collagen-I-assessed using phenotypic, genotypic, and functional assays; whereas human umbilical vein endothelial cells became stimulated on kECM gels. We demonstrate for the first time that human kidney cortex can form a hydrogel suitable for use in flow-directed microphysiological systems. Our findings strongly suggest that selecting the proper ECM is a critical consideration in the development of vascularized organs on a chip and carries important implications for tissue engineering of all vascularized organs.

  7. The expression of calretinin and cytokeratins in canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fulton, A; Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma (CAA) represent two epithelium-derived neoplasms that affect the oral cavity of dogs. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) and calretinin has been previously established in the canine tooth bud and odontogenic tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the CK and calretinin expression profile of OSCC in comparison to CAA and canine tooth bud tissues. Samples from 15 OSCC and 15 CAA cases, as well as 6 tooth buds and 2 normal gingival tissues were examined. OSCC CK expression was consistent with the CK expression profile of CAA and canine tooth bud tissue. Calretinin was positively expressed in 10 of 15 OSCC cases, with 5 cases demonstrating high staining intensity. Only 2 of 15 CAA cases demonstrated mild-moderate staining intensity. The statistically significant difference in staining pattern and intensity of calretinin in OSCC and CAA can help distinguish between these two tumour types. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  9. Extracellular calcium and cholinergic stimulation of isolated canine parietal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Soll, A H

    1981-01-01

    The role of calcium gating in cholinergic stimulation of the function of parietal cells was studied using cells isolated from canine fundic mucosa by treatment with collagenase and EDTA and enriched by velocity separation in an elutriator rotor. Monitoring the accumulation of [14C[ aminopyrine as an index of parietal cell response, stimulation by carbachol, but not by histamine, was highly dependent upon the concentration of extracellular calcium. Incubation of parietal cells in 0-.1 mM calcium, rather than the usual 1.8 mM concentration, reduced the response to 100 microM carbachol by 92 +/- 2%, whereas histamine stimulation was impaired by 28 +/- 5%. A similar reduction in extracellular calcium suppressed the response to gastrin (100 nM) by 67 +/- 7%. The impairment of cholinergic stimulation found at low extracellular calcium concentrations was rapidly reversed with the readdition of calcium. Lanthanum, which blocks calcium movement across membranes, caused a similar pattern of effects on secretagogue stimulation of aminopyrine accumulation, with 100 microM lanthanum suppressing carbachol stimulation by 83 +/- 2%. This concentration of lanthanum suppressed gastrin stimulation by 40 +/- 7% and histamine stimulation by only 12 +/- 9%. Carbachol, but not histamine nor gastrin, stimulated 45Ca++ uptake. The magnitude of carbachol-stimulated calcium uptake correlated with the parietal cell content of the fractions examined (r = 0.88), and was dose responsive over carbachol concentrations from 1 microM to 1 mM. Atropine (100 nM) caused surmountable inhibition, and these effects of carbachol and atropine on calcium uptake correlated with their effects on oxygen consumption (r = 0.93) and [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation (r = 0.90). Cells preloaded with 45Ca++ lost cellular calcium in a time-dependent fashion; however, this rate of egress was not accelerated by treatment with histamine, gastrin, or carbachol, thus failing to implicate mobilization of intracellular calcium

  10. CD86 molecule is a specific marker for canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bonnefont-Rebeix, Catherine; de Carvalho, Camila Miranda; Bernaud, Janine; Chabanne, Luc; Marchal, Thierry; Rigal, Dominique

    2006-01-15

    In this study, canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (cMo-DC) were produced in presence of canine GM-CSF (cGM-CSF) and canine IL-4 (cIL-4), and they were characterized by their dendritic morphology, MLR functionality and phenotype. We noticed that cMo-DC were labelled with three anti-human CD86 (FUN-1, BU63 and IT2.2 clones), whereas resting and activated lymphocytes or monocytes were not stained. CD86 expression was induced by cIL-4 and was up-regulated during the differentiation of the cMo-DC, with a maximum at day 7. Furthermore, cMo-DC were very potent even in low numbers as stimulator cells in allogeneic MLR, and BU63 mAb was able to completely block the cMo-DC-induced proliferation in MLR. We also observed that cMo-DC highly expressed MHC Class II and CD32, but we failed to determine their maturation state since the lack of commercially available canine markers. Moreover, cMo-DC contained cytoplasmic periodic microstructures, potentially new ultrastructural markers of canine DC recently described. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that the CD86 costimulatory marker is now usable for a better characterization of in vitro canine DC.

  11. Optimization of canine interleukin-12 production using a baculovirus insect cell expression system.

    PubMed

    de Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo; Pedrosa, Mayara de Oliveira; Teixeira, Naiara Carvalho; Ano Bom, Ana Paula Dinis; van Oers, Monique M; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2016-01-22

    Interleukin-12 is an important cytokine in mediating cellular immune responses. Recombinant single-chain canine IL-12 was produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system with the aim of conducting further studies on modulation of immune responses in dogs. To optimize the production of recombinant canine IL-12, a classical baculovirus and a modified vector (chitinase A and v-cathepsin knockout) were used containing a native or an optimized insert of canine IL-12. The optimized IL-12 construct contained the GP64 signal peptide and was synthesized with optimized codons for expression in Trichoplusia ni cells. Dot-blot and Western blot analysis showed the highest production levels of recombinant IL-12 protein by the use of the modified baculovirus vector containing the optimized insert, at a multiplicity of infection of five and at 48 h after infection. The recombinant cytokine was successfully purified and showed a good degree of purity, integrity, folding, and yield, with very little endotoxin contamination. Recombinant canine IL-12 induced IFN-γ in canine lymphocytes, indicating that it was biologically active. Therefore, this study describes an efficient method to produce adequate amounts of biologically active canine IL-12, useful for immunomodulation studies in dogs.

  12. Polycystin-1 and Gα12 regulate the cleavage of E-cadherin in kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jen X; Lu, Tzong-Shi; Li, Suyan; Wu, Yong; Ding, Lai; Denker, Bradley M; Bonventre, Joseph V; Kong, Tianqing

    2015-02-01

    Interaction of polycystin-1 (PC1) and Gα12 is important for development of kidney cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The integrity of cell polarity and cell-cell adhesions (mainly E-cadherin-mediated adherens junction) is altered in the renal epithelial cells of ADPKD. However, the key signaling pathway for this alteration is not fully understood. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells maintain the normal integrity of epithelial cell polarity and adherens junctions. Here, we found that deletion of Pkd1 increased activation of Gα12, which then promoted the cystogenesis of MDCK cells. The morphology of these cells was altered after the activation of Gα12. By using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found several proteins that could be related this change in the extracellular milieu. E-cadherin was one of the most abundant peptides after active Gα12 was induced. Gα12 activation or Pkd1 deletion increased the shedding of E-cadherin, which was mediated via increased ADAM10 activity. The increased shedding of E-cadherin was blocked by knockdown of ADAM10 or specific ADAM10 inhibitor GI254023X. Pkd1 deletion or Gα12 activation also changed the distribution of E-cadherin in kidney epithelial cells and caused β-catenin to shift from cell membrane to nucleus. Finally, ADAM10 inhibitor, GI254023X, blocked the cystogenesis induced by PC1 knockdown or Gα12 activation in renal epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that the E-cadherin/β-catenin signaling pathway is regulated by PC1 and Gα12 via ADAM10. Specific inhibition of this pathway, especially ADAM10 activity, could be a novel therapeutic regimen for ADPKD.

  13. Polycystin-1 and Gα12 regulate the cleavage of E-cadherin in kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jen X.; Lu, Tzong-Shi; Li, Suyan; Wu, Yong; Ding, Lai; Denker, Bradley M.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of polycystin-1 (PC1) and Gα12 is important for development of kidney cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The integrity of cell polarity and cell-cell adhesions (mainly E-cadherin-mediated adherens junction) is altered in the renal epithelial cells of ADPKD. However, the key signaling pathway for this alteration is not fully understood. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells maintain the normal integrity of epithelial cell polarity and adherens junctions. Here, we found that deletion of Pkd1 increased activation of Gα12, which then promoted the cystogenesis of MDCK cells. The morphology of these cells was altered after the activation of Gα12. By using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found several proteins that could be related this change in the extracellular milieu. E-cadherin was one of the most abundant peptides after active Gα12 was induced. Gα12 activation or Pkd1 deletion increased the shedding of E-cadherin, which was mediated via increased ADAM10 activity. The increased shedding of E-cadherin was blocked by knockdown of ADAM10 or specific ADAM10 inhibitor GI254023X. Pkd1 deletion or Gα12 activation also changed the distribution of E-cadherin in kidney epithelial cells and caused β-catenin to shift from cell membrane to nucleus. Finally, ADAM10 inhibitor, GI254023X, blocked the cystogenesis induced by PC1 knockdown or Gα12 activation in renal epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that the E-cadherin/β-catenin signaling pathway is regulated by PC1 and Gα12 via ADAM10. Specific inhibition of this pathway, especially ADAM10 activity, could be a novel therapeutic regimen for ADPKD. PMID:25492927

  14. Ultrastructural localization of stem cell factor in canine marrow-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Huss, R; Hong, D S; Beckham, C; Kimball, L; Myerson, D H; Storb, R; Deeg, H J

    1995-01-01

    Stromal cell lines derived from canine long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) were characterized regarding the expression of growth factors and especially the localization of stem cell factor (SCF) (c-kit ligand). One cell line (DO64) was immortalized by transformation with a retroviral vector containing the open reading frames (ORFs) E6 and E7 of the human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16). Transfection did not change cellular characteristics but rendered the cell line more independent from culture conditions. The transformed line DO64 consisted mainly of fibroblast-like cells. In addition, some cells showed endothelial and some smooth-muscle cell features. Stromal cells expressed a broad spectrum of surface markers, including low levels of major histocompatibility-complex (MHC) class-II antigens. A new murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), RG7.6 (IgG1), specific for canine SCF, recognized the majority of fibroblast-like stromal cells. The staining pattern for SCF showed perinuclear and intracytoplasmic dense areas. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the localization of SCF in secretory vesicles, the perivesicular cytoplasm, and bound to the cytoplasmatic membrane. RNA analysis showed that stromal cells transcribed, in addition to SCF, messages for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-monocyte CSF (GM-CSF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). In summary, we have established and characterized canine marrow-derived stromal cell lines, and using the new MAb RG7.6, we have localized SCF to cytoplasmatic vesicles as well as the membrane of stromal cells.

  15. Production of transgenic canine embryos using interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Hong, So Gun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Koo, Ok Jae; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2012-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry 'foreign' DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic cell lines using bovine in vitro matured oocytes. Canine fetal fibroblasts were transfected with constructs containing the GFP and puromycin resistance genes using FuGENE 6®. Viability levels of these cells were determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos from normal or transfected cells were produced and cultured in vitro. The MTT measurement of GFP-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.25) was not significantly different from non-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.35). There was no difference between transgenic iSCNT versus non-transgenic iSCNT embryos in terms of fusion rates (73.1% and 75.7%, respectively), cleavage rates (69.7% vs. 73.8%) and development to the 8-16-cell stage (40.1% vs. 42.7%). Embryos derived from the transfected cells completely expressed GFP at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8-16-cell stages without mosaicism. In summary, our results demonstrated that

  16. Pathological correlations between podocyte injuries and renal functions in canine and feline chronic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Ichii, O; Yabuki, A; Sasaki, N; Otsuka, S; Ohta, H; Yamasaki, M; Takiguchi, M; Namiki, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Endoh, D; Kon, Y

    2011-10-01

    Podocytes cover the glomerulus and their adjacent foot processes form a principal barrier called the slit diaphragm. Podocyte dysfunctions, including podocyte loss and slit diaphragm disruptions, induce chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In this study, we analyzed the correlations between podocyte injuries and renal dysfunctions in domestic carnivores. Dogs and cats were divided into normal and CKD groups according to renal histopathology and plasma creatinine values. Immunostaining results showed that linear reactions of slit diaphragm molecules, e.g., nephrin, podocin, and ACTN4, were parallel to glomerular capillaries in all animals. However, in dogs, reactions of nephrin and ACTN4 were changed to a granular pattern in the CKD group, and their intensities significantly decreased with the number of podocytes in the glomerulus. Moreover, the expression of nephrin and ACTN4 negatively correlated with creatinine. Real-time PCR analysis showed that nephrin mRNA expression in the kidneys of CKD dogs was significantly lower than that in normal animals, and negatively correlated with creatinine. Although no significant correlation between renal dysfunction and podocyte injury was detected in cats, histoplanimetric scores of tubulointerstitial lesions in CKD cats were higher than those in both normal cats and diseased dogs. Furthermore, mRNAs of WT1 and SD molecules were detected in urine from CKD animals. In conclusion, podocyte injuries such as podocytopenia and decreased expression of nephrin and ACTN4 in the glomerulus were more strongly correlated with renal dysfunction in dogs than in cats. These findings suggest that the CKD pathogenesis, especially susceptibilities to podocyte injuries, differed between dogs and cats.

  17. Expression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase causes lomustine resistance in canine lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kambayashi, Satoshi; Minami, Kouji; Ogawa, Yuka; Hamaji, Takehiro; Hwang, Chung Chew; Igase, Masaya; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Miyama, Takako Shimokawa; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Baba, Kenji; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    The DNA repair protein O (6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) causes resistance to nitrosoureas in various human cancers. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between canine lymphomas and MGMT in vitro. Two of five canine lymphoma cell lines required higher concentrations of lomustine to inhibit cell growth by 50%, but their sensitivity to the drug increased when they were cultured with an MGMT inhibitor. Fluorometric oligonucleotide assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction of these cell lines revealed MGMT activity and high MGMT mRNA expression, respectively. We analyzed the methylation status of the CpG islands of the canine MGMT gene by the bisulfite-sequencing method. Unlike human cells, the canine lymphoma cell lines did not show significant correlation between methylation status and MGMT suppression levels. Our results suggest that in canine lymphoma MGMT activity may influence sensitivity to nitrosoureas; thus, inhibition of MGMT activity would benefit nitrosourea-resistant patients. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of regulation of MGMT expression.

  18. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in cancer stem cells from canine mammary carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Michishita, M; Akiyoshi, R; Suemizu, H; Nakagawa, T; Sasaki, N; Takemitsu, H; Arai, T; Takahashi, K

    2012-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that diverse solid tumours arise from a small population of cells known as cancer stem cells or tumour-initiating cells. Cancer stem cells in several solid tumours are enriched for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. High levels of ALDH activity (ALDH(high)) were detected in four cell lines derived from canine mammary carcinomas. ALDH(high) cells were enriched in a CD44(+)CD24(-) population having self-renewal capacity. Xenotransplantation into immunodeficient mice demonstrated that 1×10(4) ALDH(high) cells were sufficient for tumour formation in all injected mice, whereas 1×10(4) ALDH(low) cells failed to initiate any tumours. ALDH(high)-derived tumours contained both ALDH(+) and ALDH(-) cells, indicating that these cells had cancer stem cell-like properties.

  19. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibition on radiation response in canine osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Fernanda B; Morrison, Jodi A; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-05-31

    Radiation therapy is a palliative treatment modality for canine osteosarcoma, with transient improvement in analgesia observed in many cases. However there is room for improvement in outcome for these patients. It is possible that the addition of sensitizing agents may increase tumor response to radiation therapy and prolong quality of life. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression has been documented in canine osteosarcoma and higher EGFR levels have been correlated to a worse prognosis. However, effects of EGFR inhibition on radiation responsiveness in canine osteosarcoma have not been previously characterized. This study examined the effects of the small molecule EGFR inhibitor erlotinib on canine osteosarcoma radiation responses, target and downstream protein expression in vitro. Additionally, to assess the potential impact of treatment on tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in conditioned media were measured. Erlotinib as a single agent reduced clonogenic survival in two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and enhanced the impact of radiation in one out of three cell lines investigated. In cell viability assays, erlotinib enhanced radiation effects and demonstrated single agent effects. Erlotinib did not alter total levels of EGFR, nor inhibit downstream protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation. On the contrary, erlotinib treatment increased phosphorylated Akt in these osteosarcoma cell lines. VEGF levels in conditioned media increased after erlotinib treatment as a single agent and in combination with radiation in two out of three cell lines investigated. However, VEGF levels decreased with erlotinib treatment in the third cell line. Erlotinib treatment promoted modest enhancement of radiation effects in canine osteosarcoma cells, and possessed activity as a single agent in some cell lines, indicating a potential role for EGFR inhibition in the treatment of a subset of osteosarcoma patients. The relative radioresistance of

  20. Characterization of the novel indolylmaleimides' PDA-66 and PDA-377 effect on canine lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura C.; Roolf, Catrin; Pews-Davtyan, Anahit; Rütgen, Barbara C.; Hammer, Sabine; Willenbrock, Saskia; Sekora, Anett; Rolfs, Arndt; Beller, Matthias; Brenig, Bertram; Nolte, Ingo; Junghanss, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors are widely used in chemotherapeutic cancer regimens. Maleimide derivatives such as SB-216763 act as GSK-3 inhibitor targeting cell proliferation, cell death and cell cycle progression. Herein, the two arylindolylmaleimide derivatives PDA-66 and PDA-377 were evaluated as potential chemotherapeutic agents on canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Canine lymphoma represents a naturally occurring model closely resembling the human high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). PDA-66 showed more pronounced effects on both cell lines. Application of 2.5μM PDA-66 resulted in a significant induction of apoptosis (approx. 11 %), decrease of the metabolic activity (approx. 95 %), anti-proliferative effect (approx. 85 %) and cell death within 48h. Agent induced mode of action was characterized by whole transcriptome sequencing, 12 h and 24 h post-agent exposure. Key PDA-66-modulated pathways identified were cell cycle, DNA replication and p53 signaling. Expression analyses indicated that the drug acting mechanism is mediated through DNA replication and cycle arrest involving the spindle assembly checkpoint. In conclusion, both PDA derivatives displayed strong anti-proliferation activity in canine B-cell lymphoma cells. The cell and molecular PDA-induced effect characterization and the molecular characterization of the agent acting mechanism provides the basis for further evaluation of a potential drug for canine lymphoma serving as model for human NHL. PMID:27177088

  1. p16 Immunostaining of Canine Squamous Cell Carcinomas Is Not Associated with Papillomaviral DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sabattini, Silvia; Savini, Federica; Gallina, Laura; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Bassi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    While papillomavirus (PVs) are an established cause of human cancer, few reports have supported a relationship between PV and canine squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Human oncogenic PVs lead to an increased expression of the p16 tumor suppressor protein, and the latter can be demonstrated immunohistochemically to support a likely causal relationship between tumor and PV infection. In the present study, archive samples of canine SCC from different anatomical locations were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of PV DNA and by p16 immunohistochemistry. The aims were to investigate the relationship between p16 expression and presence of PV DNA, in order to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a biomarker of PV infection in canine SCC. A total of 52 SCCs were included. Nine cases (17.3%) showed moderate p16 immunoreactivity, with no association with tumor degree of differentiation, histotype or mitotic activity. The canPVf/FAP64 primers amplified Canis familiaris PV-1 DNA from 3 out of 52 tumors (5.8%), one cutaneous, one oral and one tonsillar SCC. There was no association between PV presence and p16 immunostaining. These results do not support a significant role of PVs in the development of canine SCCs. Additionally, PV infection was apparently not the cause of the p16 immunostaining observed in a subset of canine SCCs. A better awareness of p16 level of expression and cellular function in canine cancer may help to define its diagnostic and prognostic role. PMID:27441555

  2. Cell cycle synchronization of canine ear fibroblasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok Jae; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Hong, So Gun; Martinez-Conejero, Jose A; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2009-02-01

    Cycle synchronization of donor cells in the G0/G1 stage is a crucial step for successful somatic cell nuclear transfer. In the present report, we evaluated the effects of contact inhibition, serum starvation and the reagents - dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), roscovitine and cycloheximide (CHX) - on synchronization of canine fibroblasts at the G0/G1 stage. Ear fibroblast cells were collected from a beagle dog, placed into culture and used for analysis at passages three to eight. The population doubling time was 36.5 h. The proportion of G0/G1 cells was significantly increased by contact inhibition (77.1%) as compared with cycling cells (70.1%); however, extending the duration of culture did not induce further synchronization. After 24 h of serum starvation, cells were effectively synchronized at G0/G1 (77.1%). Although synchronization was further increased gradually after 24 h and even showed significant difference after 72 h (82.8%) of starvation, the proportion of dead cells also significantly increased after 24 h. The percentage of cells at the G0/G1 phase was increased (as compared with controls) after 72 h treatment with DMSO (76.1%) and after 48 h treatment with CHX (73.0%) or roscovitine (72.5%). However, the rate of cell death was increased after 24 and 72 h of treatment with DMSO and CHX, respectively. Thus, we recommend the use of roscovitine for cell cycle synchronization of canine ear fibroblasts as a preparatory step for SCNT.

  3. Characterization of spheres derived from canine mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Michishita, Masaki; Akiyoshi, Rui; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Katsumoto, Takuo; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sasaki, Nobuo; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2011-10-01

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells in several solid tumors, and these cancer stem cells have a potential role in tumor initiation, aggression, and recurrence. The stem cell-like properties of spheres derived from canine mammary tumors remain largely elusive. We attempted to induce sphere formation using four cell lines of canine mammary adenocarcinoma, and characterized the spheres derived from a CHMp line in vitro and in vivo. The CHMp-derived spheres showed predominantly CD44+CD24- population, higher expression of stem cell-related genes, such as CD133, Notch3 and MDR, and higher resistance to doxorubicin compared with the CHMp-derived adherent cells. Xenograft transplantations in nude mice demonstrated that only 1 × 10(4)sphere cells were sufficient for tumor formation. Use of the sphere assay on these sphere-derived tumors showed that sphere-forming cells were present in the tumors, and were maintained in serial transplantation. We propose that spheres derived from canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines possess a potential characteristic of cancer stem cells. Spheres derived from canine mammary tumors could be a powerful tool with which to investigate novel therapeutic drugs and to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie tumorigenesis.

  4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase enhances superoxide activity in canine kidney.

    PubMed

    Majid, Dewan S A; Nishiyama, Akira; Jackson, Keith E; Castillo, Alexander

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the role of a potential interaction between superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (NO) in regulating kidney function, we examined the renal responses to intra-arterial infusion of a superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol (0.5 mg.kg(-1).min(-1)), in anesthetized dogs treated with or without NO synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (NLA; 50 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)). In one group of dogs (n = 10), tempol infusion alone for 30 min before NLA infusion did not cause any significant changes in renal blood flow (RBF; 5.2 +/- 0.4 to 5.0 +/- 0.4 ml.min(-1).g(-1)), glomerular filtration rate (GFR; 0.79 +/- 0.04 to 0.77 +/- 0.04 ml.min(-1).g(-1)), urine flow (V; 13.6 +/- 2.1 to 13.9 +/- 2.5 microl.min(-1).g(-1)), or sodium excretion (U(Na)V; 2.4 +/- 0.3 to 2.2 +/- 0.3 micromol.min(-1).g(-1)). Interestingly, when tempol was infused in another group of dogs (n = 12) pretreated with NLA, it caused increases in V (4.4 +/- 0.4 to 9.7 +/- 1.4 microl.min(-1).g(-1)) and in U(Na)V (0.7 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.2 micromol.min(-1).g(-1)) without affecting RBF or GFR. Although NO inhibition caused usual qualitative responses in both groups of dogs, the antidiuretic (47 +/- 5 vs. 26 +/- 4%) and antinatriuretic (67 +/- 4 vs. 45 +/- 11%) responses to NLA were seen much less in dogs pretreated with tempol. NLA infusion alone increased urinary excretion of 8-isoprostane (13.9 +/- 2.7 to 22.8 +/- 3.6 pg.min(-1).g(-1); n = 7), which returned to the control levels (11.6 +/- 3.4 pg.min(-1).g(-1)) during coadministration of tempol. These data suggest that NO synthase inhibition causes enhancement of endogenous O(2)(-) levels and support the hypothesis that NO plays a protective role against the actions of O(2)(-) in the kidney.

  5. Increased release of norepinephrine and dopamine from canine kidney during bilateral carotid occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, T.; Hjemdahl, P.; DiBona, G.F.

    1987-02-01

    The renal overflow of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) to plasma from the innervated kidney was studied at rest and during sympathetic nervous system activation by bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCO) in vagotomized dogs under barbiturate or barbiturate/nitrous oxide anesthesia. BCO elevated arterial pressure and the arterial plasma concentration of NE, DA, and epinephrine (Epi). Renal vascular resistance (renal arterial pressure kept constant) increased by 15 +/- 7% and the net renal venous outflows (renal veno-arterial concentration difference x renal plasma flow) of NE and DA were enhanced. To obtain more correct estimates of the renal contribution to the renal venous catecholamine outflow, they corrected for the renal extraction of arterial catecholamines, assessed as the extractions of (/sup 3/H)NE, (/sup 3/H)DA, or endogenous Epi. The (/sup 3/H)NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma increased from 144 +/- 40 to 243 +/- 64 pmol-min/sup -1/ during BCO, which, when compared with a previous study of the (/sup 3/H)NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma evoked by electrical renal nerve stimulation, corresponds to a 40% increase in nerve impulse frequency from approx. 0.6 Hz. If the renal catecholamine extraction was not taken into account the effect of BCO was underestimated. The renal DA overflow to plasma was about one-fifth of the NE overflow both at rest and during BCO, indicating that there was no preferential activation of noradrenergic or putative dopaminergic nerves by BCO.

  6. Stem cells: potential and challenges for kidney repair

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Renal damage resulting from acute and chronic kidney injury poses an important problem to public health. Currently, patients with end-stage renal disease rely solely on kidney transplantation or dialysis for survival. Emerging therapies aiming to prevent and reverse kidney damage are thus in urgent need. Although the kidney was initially thought to lack the capacity for self-repair, several studies have indicated that this might not be the case; progenitor and stem cells appear to play important roles in kidney repair under various pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the role of progenitor/stem cells on kidney repair as well as discuss their potential as a therapeutic approach for kidney diseases. PMID:24197069

  7. Proliferation of canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on different nanomaterial based thin film scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Das, Kinsuk; Mili, Bhabesh; A P, Madhusoodan; Saxena, Abhishek Chandra; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Praveen; Verma, Med Ram; Sarkar, Mihir; Bag, Sadhan

    2017-04-01

    Stem cell niche research uses nanotechnologies to mimic the extra-cellular microenvironment to promote proliferation and differentiation. The aim of designing different scaffolds is to simulate the best structural and environmental pattern for extracellular matrix. This experiment was designed to study the proliferative behaviour of canine bone marrow deriver mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on different nanomaterial based thin film scaffolds of carbon nanotubes (CNT), chitosan and poly ε-caprolactone. Similar number of cells was seeded on the scaffolds and standard cell culture flask, taken as control. Cells were maintained on DMEM media and relative number of metabolically active cells was determined by MTT assay up to day six of culture. Cells proliferated on control and all the scaffolds as the days progressed. Although proliferation rate was slow but no decline of cell number was noticed on the scaffolds during the study period. Initially, the cell proliferation was lower on CNT but as time progressed no significant difference was observed compared to control. The result indicated that nanomaterial based scaffolds reduce the proliferation rate of canine MSCs. However, canine MSCs adapted and proliferated better on CNT substrate in vitro and may be used as a scaffold component in canine tissue engineering in future.

  8. Flow cytometric techniques for detection of candidate cancer stem cell subpopulations in canine tumour models.

    PubMed

    Blacking, T M; Waterfall, M; Samuel, K; Argyle, D J

    2012-12-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that tumour growth is maintained by a distinct subpopulation of 'CSC'. This study applied flow cytometric methods, reported to detect CSC in both primary and cultured cancer cells of other species, to identify candidate canine subpopulations. Cell lines representing diverse canine malignancies, and cells derived from spontaneous canine tumours, were evaluated for expression of stem cell-associated surface markers (CD34, CD44, CD117 and CD133) and functional properties [Hoecsht 33342 efflux, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity]. No discrete marker-defined subsets were identified within established cell lines; cells derived directly from spontaneous tumours demonstrated more heterogeneity, although this diminished upon in vitro culture. Functional assays produced variable results, suggesting context-dependency. Flow cytometric methods may be adopted to identify putative canine CSC. Whilst cell lines are valuable in assay development, primary cells may provide a more rewarding model for studying tumour heterogeneity in the context of CSC. However, it will be essential to fully characterize any candidate subpopulations to ensure that they meet CSC criteria.

  9. Identification and characterization of cancer stem cells in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, Agata; Król, Magdalena

    2016-12-19

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a small subpopulation of cells in malignant tumors that possess the unique ability to self-renew, differentiate and resist chemo- and radiotherapy. These cells have been postulated to be the basis for some of the difficulties in treating cancer, and therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to specifically target and eliminate CSC in diverse types of cancer, including breast cancer. Spontaneously occurring mammary tumors in canines share clinical and molecular similarities with the human counterpart, making the dog a potentially powerful model for the study of human breast cancer and clinical trials. Studies focused on canine mammary CSC might therefore enhance our understanding of the biology and possible treatment of the disease in both dogs and humans. In this review, we discuss various approaches currently in use to isolate and characterize canine mammary CSC.

  10. Origin and fate of the regenerating cells of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eymael, Jennifer; Smeets, Bart

    2016-11-05

    The kidney has the capacity to regenerate itself provided that the damage is limited and the structure of the kidney remains intact. Nevertheless, in disease conditions this potential may be compromised, leading to progression to chronic kidney disease. For development of new therapeutic strategies it is a prerequisite to understand the origin and regulation of the kidney regenerating cells and the processes that underlie maladaptive repair. Because of the complexity of the kidney consisting of a high number of different cell types, it is a complex task to unravel the origin and fate of cells responsible for regeneration. This review summarises the recent and most important advances in identifying regenerating cell populations of the kidney, and highlights the existing controversies.

  11. Adult Human CD133/1+ Kidney Cells Isolated from Papilla Integrate into Developing Kidney Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather H.; Romero, Elsa; Welford, Angela; Pickett, Gavin; Bacallao, Robert; Gattone, Vincent H.; Ness, Scott A.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Roitbak, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 60,000 patients in the US are waiting for a kidney transplant due to genetic, immunologic and environmentally caused kidney failure. Adult human renal stem cells could offer opportunities for autologous transplant and repair of damaged organs. Current data suggest that there are multiple progenitor types in the kidney with distinct localizations. In the present study, we characterize cells derived from human kidney papilla and show their capacity for tubulogenesis. In situ, nestin+ and CD133/1+ cells were found extensively intercalated between tubular epithelia in the loops of Henle of renal papilla, but not of the cortex. Populations of primary cells from the renal cortex and renal papilla were isolated by enzymatic digestion from human kidneys unsuited for transplant and immuno-enriched for CD133/1+ cells. Isolated CD133/1+ papillary cells were positive for nestin, as well as several human embryonic stem cell markers (SSEA4, Nanog, SOX2, and OCT4/POU5F1) and could be triggered to adopt tubular epithelial and neuronal like phenotypes. Isolated papillary cells exhibited morphologic plasticity upon modulation of culture conditions and inhibition of asymmetric cell division. Labeled papillary cells readily associated with cortical tubular epithelia in co-culture and 3-dimensional collagen gel cultures. Heterologous organ culture demonstrated that CD133/1+ progenitors from the papilla and cortex, became integrated into developing kidney tubules. Tubular epithelia did not participate in tubulogenesis. Human renal papilla harbor cells with the hallmarks of adult kidney stem/progenitor cells that can be amplified and phenotypically modulated in culture while retaining the capacity to form new kidney tubules. PMID:21255643

  12. Genomic characterisation of canine papillomavirus type 17, a possible rare cause of canine oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Dunowska, Magda; Laurie, Rebecca E; Hills, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the second most common cancer of the canine oral cavity resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently a dog with multiple oral SCCs that contained a novel papillomavirus (PV) was reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the genome of this novel PV. To do this a short section of PV DNA was amplified from an oral SCC and 'back-to-back' primers were designed. Due to the circular nature of PV DNA, these primers were then used to amplify the remainder of the genome by inverse PCR. The PCR product was sequenced using next generation sequencing and the full genome of the PV, consisting of 8007 bp, was assembled and analysed. As this is the seventeenth PV identified from the domestic dog, the novel PV was designated Canis familiaris papillomavirus (CPV) type 17. Similar to other CPV types, the putative coding regions of CPV-17 were predicted to produce 5 early and 2 late proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF L1 revealed greater than 70% similarity to CPV-2 and CPV-7 and we propose that CPV-17 also be classified as a Taupapillomavirus 1. While it appears CPV-17 is only rarely present in canine oral SCCs, evidence suggests that this PV could influence the development of oral SCCs in this species.

  13. BMI1 Is Expressed in Canine Osteosarcoma and Contributes to Cell Growth and Chemotherapy Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Withers, Sita S.; Holt, Roseline; Rebhun, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    BMI1, a stem cell factor and member of the polycomb group of genes, has been shown to contribute to growth and chemoresistance of several human malignancies including primary osteosarcoma (OSA). Naturally occurring OSA in the dog represents a large animal model of human OSA, however the potential role of BMI1 in canine primary and metastatic OSA has not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining of canine primary and metastatic OSA tumors revealed strong nuclear expression of BMI1. An identical staining pattern was found in both primary and metastatic human OSA tissues. Canine OSA cell lines (Abrams, Moresco, and D17) expressed high levels of BMI1 compared with canine osteoblasts and knockdown or inhibition of BMI1 by siRNA or by small molecule BMI1-inhibitor PTC-209 demonstrated a role for BMI1 in canine OSA cell growth and resistance to carboplatin and doxorubicin chemotherapy. These findings suggest that inhibition of BMI1 in primary or metastatic OSA may improve response to chemotherapy and that the dog may serve as a large animal model to evaluate such therapy. PMID:26110620

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies 13A4 and AC133 Do Not Recognize the Canine Ortholog of Mouse and Human Stem Cell Antigen Prominin-1 (CD133)

    PubMed Central

    Thamm, Kristina; Graupner, Sylvi; Werner, Carsten; Huttner, Wieland B.; Corbeil, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein prominin-1 (CD133) is widely used in medicine as a cell surface marker of stem and cancer stem cells. It has opened new avenues in stem cell-based regenerative therapy and oncology. This molecule is largely used with human samples or the mouse model, and consequently most biological tools including antibodies are directed against human and murine prominin-1. Although the general structure of prominin-1 including its membrane topology is conserved throughout the animal kingdom, its primary sequence is poorly conserved. Thus, it is unclear if anti-human and -mouse prominin-1 antibodies cross-react with their orthologs in other species, especially dog. Answering this issue is imperative in light of the growing number of studies using canine prominin-1 as an antigenic marker. Here, we address this issue by cloning the canine prominin-1 and use its overexpression as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine its immunoreactivity with antibodies against human or mouse prominin-1. We used immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and immunoblotting techniques and surprisingly found no cross-species immunoreactivity. These results raise some caution in data interpretation when anti-prominin-1 antibodies are used in interspecies studies. PMID:27701459

  15. Canine and feline host ranges of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus: distinct host cell tropisms of each virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Truyen, U; Parrish, C R

    1992-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as an apparently new virus during the mid-1970s. The origin of CPV is unknown, but a variation from feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) or another closely related parvovirus is suspected. Here we examine the in vitro and in vivo canine and feline host ranges of CPV and FPV. Examination of three canine and six feline cell lines and mitogen-stimulated canine and feline peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that CPV replicates in both canine and feline cells, whereas FPV replicates efficiently only in feline cells. The in vivo host ranges were unexpectedly complex and distinct from the in vitro host ranges. Inoculation of dogs with FPV revealed efficient replication in the thymus and, to some degree, in the bone marrow, as shown by virus isolation, viral DNA recovery, and Southern blotting and by strand-specific in situ hybridization. FPV replication could not be demonstrated in mesenteric lymph nodes or in the small intestine, which are important target tissues in CPV infection. Although CPV replicated well in all the feline cells tested in vitro, it did not replicate in any tissue of cats after intramuscular or intravenous inoculation. These results indicate that these viruses have complex and overlapping host ranges and that distinct tissue tropisms exist in the homologous and heterologous hosts. Images PMID:1323703

  16. Intravenous Renal Cell Transplantation for Polycystic Kidney Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    to measure serum creatinine. 5b. urine collection twice each month for measurements of protein and creatinine ratios Task 6. Intravital imaging ...information on the renal function, GFR and blood flow. In addition static CT images were obtained to measure kidney and cyst volumes. The CT scans were... images from kidneys stained for SAA (red) show GFP+ cells in kidneys from rats that received control (A) cells. SAA co-localizes with GFP (resulting

  17. Hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 decreased survival rate of canine lymphoma cells under hypoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Lai, Yu-Chang; Tateno, Morihiro; Setoguchi, Asuka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that hypoxic stimulation enhances growth potentials of canine lymphoma cells by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug (TH-302) inhibits growth potentials in the cells. We investigated how hypoxic culture affects the growth rate, chemoresistance, and invasiveness of canine lymphoma cells and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant lymphoma cells, and influences of TH-302 on survival rate of the cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic culture upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin, and enhanced the growth rate, DOX resistance, and invasiveness of the cells. Additionally, TH-302 decreased the survival rate of the cells under hypoxic condition. Our studies suggest that hypoxic stimulation may advance the tumorigenicity of canine lymphoma cells, favoring malignant transformation. Therefore, the data presented may contribute to the development of TH-302-based hypoxia-targeting therapies for canine lymphoma.

  18. Mechanism of insulin production in canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Zhao, Dongwei; Ishikawa, Shingo; Michishita, Masaki; Arai, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Insulin is a critical hormone in the regulation of blood glucose levels and is produced exclusively by pancreatic islet beta-cells. Insulin deficiency due to reduced pancreatic islet beta-cell number underlies the progression of diabetes mellitus, prompting efforts to develop beta-cell replacement therapies. However, precise information on beta-cell replacement and differentiation in canines is limited. In this study, we established insulin-producing cells from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells transiently expressing canine pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), beta cell transactivator 2 (Beta2) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (Mafa) using a gene transfer technique. Real-time PCR analysis revealed an increase in insulin mRNA expression of transfected cells. And ELISA revealed that insulin protein expressed was detected in cytoplasmic fraction. Insulin immunostaining analysis was performed and observed in cytoplasmic fraction. These results suggest that co-transfection of Pdx1, Beta2 and Mafa induce insulin production in canine BMSCs. Our findings provide a clue to basic research into the mechanisms underlying insulin production in the canines.

  19. Developmental and radiobiologic characteristics of canine multinucleated, osteoclast-like cells generated in vitro from canine bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Domann, F.; Niiro, G.K.; LeBuis, D.A.

    1988-09-01

    We report here our initial observations on the growth and morphology, and developmental radiosensitivity of giant, multinucleated, osteoclast-like cells (MN-OS) generated through in vitro cultivation of hematopoietic progenitor-enriched canine bone marrow samples. Maximum cell densities of 5.5 x 10(3) to 6.5 x 10(3) MN-OS per cm2 of growth area were achieved following 10 to 14 days of culture at 37 degrees C. Acute gamma irradiation of the initial marrow inocula resulted in significant, dose-dependent perturbations of MN-OS formation, growth, and development. Attempts to estimate radiosensitivity of MN-OS progenitors from canine marrow yielded a range of Do values from a low of 212 cGy measured at six days of culture to higher values of 405 to 542 cGy following 10 to 22 days of culture. At the intermediate times of culture (10 to 14 days), the radiation-induced responses were clearly biphasic, reflecting either (a) the presence of multiple subpopulations of MN-OS progenitors with varying degrees of radiosensitivity or (b) the inherent biphasic nature of MN-OS development involving early progenitor cell proliferation followed by maturation and subsequent fusion. Morphologically, MN-OS generated from irradiated marrow inocula appeared only marginally altered, with alterations expressed largely in a biphasic, dose-dependent fashion in terms of smaller cell size, reduced number of nuclei, increased expression of both surface microprojections, and a unique set of crystalloid cytoplasmic inclusions. Functionally, MN-OS appeared to be impaired by irradiation of marrow progenitors, as evidenced by failure to initiate resorptive attachments to devitalized bone spicules in vitro.

  20. Comparison of the canine corneal epithelial cell sheets cultivated from limbal stem cells on canine amniotic membrane, atelocollagen gel, and temperature-responsive culture dish.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eunryel; Fujita, Naoki; Morita, Maresuke; Tsuzuki, Keiko; Lin, Hsing Yi; Chung, Cheng Shu; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2015-07-01

    The current study compared canine corneal epithelial cell sheets cultivated from limbal stem cells on amniotic membrane, atelocollagen gel, and temperature-responsive culture dish. We collected limbal epithelial cells from the intact eyes of beagles and cultivated the cells on denuded canine amniotic membranes, temperature-responsive cell culture labware, and collagen gel with 3T3 feeder cells. Immunofluorescence staining for Ki-67 was used to analyze the capacity of cell proliferation in the sheets. Immunofluorescence staining was also performed for the corneal epithelium-specific marker cytokeratin 3 and putative stem cell markers ABCG2 and p63. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect ABCG2 and p63. The growth rates of the cultivated cells, or the times it took them to reach confluency, were different for the three scaffolds. The cultivated sheet on the temperature-responsive dish consisted of 2-3 layers, while those on the collagen gel and on the amniotic membrane consisted of 5-8 layers. The basal layer cells grown on all three scaffolds expressed putative stem cell markers. In real-time RT-PCR analysis, the highest level of p63 was observed in the sheets grown on collagen gel. In this study, the cells cultured on the collagen gel demonstrated a capacity for cell proliferation, and the expressions of stem cells in the sheets suggested that collagen gel is the most suitable carrier for clinical use. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of AKT Protein Activation in Canine Mast Cell Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, S.; Fadlalla, K.; Graham, T.; Tameru, B.; Fermin, C. D.; Samuel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The pathogenesis of canine mast cell tumour (MCT) remains unknown. Moreover, therapeutic options are limited and resistance to targeted drugs and recurrences are common, necessitating the identification of additional cellular targets for therapy. In this study we investigated the expression of phosphorylated AKT protein in 25 archival canine MCT samples by immunohistochemistry and examined the correlation between the immunohistochemical scores and histopathological tumour grades. AKT protein was detected in all of the samples and 24 of the 25 samples expressed the phosphorylated form of the protein, albeit with variable intensity. However, when the immunohistochemical scores of weak, intermediate and strong labelling were compared with the histopathological grades of I to III, there was no strong correlation. This study suggests that canine MCT cells have activated AKT and indicates the need for further research on the role of the AKT protein and the possibility of targeting the AKT signalling pathway in MCTs. PMID:22289273

  2. Kidney stem cells in development, regeneration and cancer.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Klaudyna; Pleniceanu, Oren; Dekel, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    The generation of nephrons during development depends on differentiation via a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) of self-renewing, tissue-specific stem cells confined to a specific anatomic niche of the nephrogenic cortex. These cells may transform to generate oncogenic stem cells and drive pediatric renal cancer. Once nephron epithelia are formed the view of post-MET tissue renal growth and maintenance by adult tissue-specific epithelial stem cells becomes controversial. Recently, genetic lineage tracing that followed clonal evolution of single kidney cells showed that the need for new cells is constantly driven by fate-restricted unipotent clonal expansions in varying kidney segments arguing against a multipotent adult stem cell model. Lineage-restriction was similarly maintained in kidney organoids grown in culture. Importantly, kidney cells in which Wnt was activated were traced to give significant clonal progeny indicating a clonogenic hierarchy. In vivo nephron epithelia may be endowed with the capacity akin to that of unipotent epithelial stem/progenitor such that under specific stimuli can clonally expand/self renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. Finding ways to ex vivo preserve and expand the observed in vivo kidney-forming capacity inherent to both the fetal and adult kidneys is crucial for taking renal regenerative medicine forward. Some of the strategies used to achieve this are sorting human fetal nephron stem/progenitor cells, growing adult nephrospheres or reprogramming differentiated kidney cells toward expandable renal progenitors.

  3. Nestin(+) kidney resident mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute kidney ischemia injury.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei Hua; Li, Guilan; Liu, Junfeng; Liu, Longshan; Wu, Bingyuan; Huang, Weijun; He, Wen; Deng, Chunhua; Wang, Dong; Li, Chunling; Lahn, Bruce T; Shi, Chenggang; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2015-05-01

    Renal resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of kidney homeostasis, repair or regeneration. However, natural distribution and the starting population properties of these cells remain elusive because of the lack of specific markers. Here, we identified post-natal kidney derived Nestin(+) cells that fulfilled all of the criteria as a mesenchymal stem cell. These isolated Nestin(+) cells expressed the typical cell-surface marker of MSC, including Sca-1, CD44, CD106, NG2 and PDGFR-α. They were capable of self-renewal, possessed high clonogenic potential and extensive proliferation for more than 30 passages. Under appropriate differentiation conditions, these cells could differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes and podocytes. After intravenous injection into acute kidney injury mice, Nestin(+) cells contributed to functional improvement by significantly decreasing the peak level of serum creatinine and BUN, and reducing the damaged cell apoptosis. Furthermore, conditioned medium from Nestin(+) cells could protect against ischemic acute renal failure partially through paracrine factor VEGF. Taken together, our findings indicate that renal resident Nestin(+) MSCs can be derived, propagated, differentiated, and repair the acute kidney injury, which may shed new light on understanding MSCs biology and developing cell replacement therapies for kidney disease.

  4. Potential Use of Stem Cells for Kidney Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kei; Yokote, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in stem cell research over the past decade. A number of nonhematopoietic sources of stem cells (or progenitor cells) have been identified, including endothelial stem cells and neural stem cells. These discoveries have been a major step toward the use of stem cells for potential clinical applications of organ regeneration. Accordingly, kidney regeneration is currently gaining considerable attention to replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, due to anatomic complications, the kidney is believed to be the hardest organ to regenerate; it is virtually impossible to imagine such a complicated organ being completely rebuilt from pluripotent stem cells by gene or chemical manipulation. Nevertheless, several groups are taking on this big challenge. In this manuscript, current advances in renal stem cell research are reviewed and their usefulness for kidney regeneration discussed. We also reviewed the current knowledge of the emerging field of renal stem cell biology. PMID:21603103

  5. Expression of PD-L1 on Canine Tumor Cells and Enhancement of IFN-γ Production from Tumor-Infiltrating Cells by PD-L1 Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Adachi, Mami; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), its ligand, together induce the “exhausted” status in antigen-specific lymphocytes and are thus involved in the immune evasion of tumor cells. In this study, canine PD-1 and PD-L1 were molecularly characterized, and their potential as therapeutic targets for canine tumors was discussed. The canine PD-1 and PD-L1 genes were conserved among canine breeds. Based on the sequence information obtained, the recombinant canine PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins were constructed; they were confirmed to bind each other. Antibovine PD-L1 monoclonal antibody effectively blocked the binding of recombinant PD-1 with PD-L1–expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. Canine melanoma, mastocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, and other types of tumors examined expressed PD-L1, whereas some did not. Interestingly, anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment enhanced IFN-γ production from tumor-infiltrating cells. These results showed that the canine PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is also associated with T-cell exhaustion in canine tumors and that its blockade with antibody could be a new therapeutic strategy for canine tumors. Further investigations are needed to confirm the ability of anti-PD-L1 antibody to reactivate canine antitumor immunity in vivo, and its therapeutic potential has to be further discussed. PMID:24915569

  6. Expression of PD-L1 on canine tumor cells and enhancement of IFN-γ production from tumor-infiltrating cells by PD-L1 blockade.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Adachi, Mami; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), its ligand, together induce the "exhausted" status in antigen-specific lymphocytes and are thus involved in the immune evasion of tumor cells. In this study, canine PD-1 and PD-L1 were molecularly characterized, and their potential as therapeutic targets for canine tumors was discussed. The canine PD-1 and PD-L1 genes were conserved among canine breeds. Based on the sequence information obtained, the recombinant canine PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins were constructed; they were confirmed to bind each other. Antibovine PD-L1 monoclonal antibody effectively blocked the binding of recombinant PD-1 with PD-L1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. Canine melanoma, mastocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, and other types of tumors examined expressed PD-L1, whereas some did not. Interestingly, anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment enhanced IFN-γ production from tumor-infiltrating cells. These results showed that the canine PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is also associated with T-cell exhaustion in canine tumors and that its blockade with antibody could be a new therapeutic strategy for canine tumors. Further investigations are needed to confirm the ability of anti-PD-L1 antibody to reactivate canine antitumor immunity in vivo, and its therapeutic potential has to be further discussed.

  7. Towards immunotherapy with redirected T cells in a large animal model: Ex vivo activation, expansion, and genetic modification of canine T cells

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Vera, Juan; Gerken, Claudia; Rooney, Cliona M.; Miller, Tasha; Pfent, Catherine; Wang, Lisa L.; Wilson-Robles, Heather M.; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising anti-tumor activity in early phase clinical studies, especially for hematological malignancies. However, most preclinical models do not reliably mimic human disease. We reasoned that developing an adoptive T-cell therapy approach for spontaneous osteosarcoma (OS) occurring in dogs would more closely reproduce the condition in human cancer. To generate CAR-expressing canine T cells we developed expansion and transduction protocols that allow for the generation of sufficient numbers of CAR-expressing canine T cells for future clinical studies in dogs within 2 weeks of ex vivo culture. To evaluate the functionality of CAR-expressing canine T cells we targeted HER2-positive OS. We demonstrate that canine OS is positive for HER2, and that canine T cells expressing a HER2-specific CAR with human-derived transmembrane and CD28.ζ signaling domains recognize and kill HER2-positive canine OS cell lines in an antigen-dependent manner. To reduce the potential immunogenicity of the CAR we evaluated a CAR with canine-derived transmembrane and signaling domains, and found no functional difference between human and canine CARs. Hence, we have successfully developed a strategy to generate CAR-expressing canine T cells for future preclinical studies in dogs. Testing T-cell therapies in an immunocompetent, outbred animal model may improve our ability to predict their safety and efficacy prior to conducting studies in humans. PMID:25198528

  8. Toward immunotherapy with redirected T cells in a large animal model: ex vivo activation, expansion, and genetic modification of canine T cells.

    PubMed

    Mata, Melinda; Vera, Juan F; Gerken, Claudia; Rooney, Cliona M; Miller, Tasha; Pfent, Catherine; Wang, Lisa L; Wilson-Robles, Heather M; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising antitumor activity in early phase clinical studies, especially for hematological malignancies. However, most preclinical models do not reliably mimic human disease. We reasoned that developing an adoptive T-cell therapy approach for spontaneous osteosarcoma (OS) occurring in dogs would more closely reproduce the condition in human cancer. To generate CAR-expressing canine T cells, we developed expansion and transduction protocols that allow for the generation of sufficient numbers of CAR-expressing canine T cells for future clinical studies in dogs within 2 weeks of ex vivo culture. To evaluate the functionality of CAR-expressing canine T cells, we targeted HER2(+) OS. We demonstrate that canine OS is positive for HER2, and that canine T cells expressing a HER2-specific CAR with human-derived transmembrane and CD28.ζ signaling domains recognize and kill HER2(+) canine OS cell lines in an antigen-dependent manner. To reduce the potential immunogenicity of the CAR, we evaluated a CAR with canine-derived transmembrane and signaling domains, and found no functional difference between human and canine CARs. Hence, we have successfully developed a strategy to generate CAR-expressing canine T cells for future preclinical studies in dogs. Testing T-cell therapies in an immunocompetent, outbred animal model may improve our ability to predict their safety and efficacy before conducting studies in humans.

  9. Interactions between CXCR4 and CXCL12 promote cell migration and invasion of canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Im, K S; Graef, A J; Breen, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; Modiano, J F; Kim, J-H

    2017-06-01

    The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in cell locomotion and metastasis in many cancers. In this study, we hypothesized that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis promotes migration and invasion of canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells. Transcriptomic analysis across 12 HSA cell lines and 58 HSA whole tumour tissues identified heterogeneous expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12, which was associated with cell movement. In vitro, CXCL12 promoted calcium mobilization, cell migration and invasion that were directly proportional to surface expression of CXCR4; furthermore, these responses proved sensitive to the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, in HSA cell lines. These results indicate that CXCL12 potentiates migration and invasion of canine HSA cells through CXCR4 signalling. The direct relationship between these responses in HSA cells suggests that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis contributes to HSA progression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells Adhering to Adipocytes in Canine Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsing-Yi; Fujita, Naoki; Endo, Kentaro; Morita, Maresuke; Takeda, Tae; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2017-03-15

    The ceiling culture method has been used to isolate mature adipocytes from adipose tissue that can be dedifferentiated into fibroblastic cells, also known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells that self-renew and are multipotent, with much higher homogeneity and colony-forming efficiency than those of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We cultured adipocytes from canine bone marrow using this technique, with the expectation of obtaining DFAT cells. However, contrary to our expectations, continuous monitoring of ceiling cultures by time-lapse microscopy revealed many small cells adhering to adipocytes that proliferated rapidly into cells with a fibroblastic morphology and without any dedifferentiation from adipocytes. We named these cells bone marrow peri-adipocyte cells (BM-PACs) and demonstrated the multipotent properties of BM-PACs compared to that of conventionally cultured canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). BM-PACs showed significantly greater clonogenicity and proliferation ability than BMMSCs. An in vitro trilineage differentiation assay revealed that BM-PACs possess adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic capacities superior to those of BMMSCs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the expression of CD73, which plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation, was significantly higher in BM-PACs than in BMMSCs. These results indicate that canine BM-PACs have stem cell characteristics that are superior to those of BMMSCs, and that these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear to be a feasible source for cell-based therapies in dogs.

  11. A role of ghrelin in canine mammary carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis and migration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). They are often co-expressed in multiple human tumors and related cancer cell lines what can indicate that the ghrelin/GHS-R axis may have an important role in tumor growth and progression. However, a role of ghrelin in canine tumors remains unknown. Thus, the aim of our study was two-fold: (1) to assess expression of ghrelin and its receptor in canine mammary cancer and (2) to examine the effect of ghrelin on carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The expression of ghrelin and its receptor in canine mammary cancer tissues and cell lines (isolated from primary tumors and their metastases) was examined using Real-time qPCR and immunohistochemistry. For apoptosis analysis the Annexin V and propidium iodide dual staining was applied whereas cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and BrdU incorporation test. The influence of ghrelin on cancer cells migration and invasion was assessed using Boyden chamber assays and wound healing assay. Results The highest expression of ghrelin was observed in metastatic cancers whereas the lowest expression of ghrelin receptor was detected in tumors of the 3rd grade of malignancy. Higher expression of ghrelin and its receptor was detected in cancer cell lines isolated from metastases than in cell lines isolated from primary tumors. In vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to low doses of ghrelin stimulates cellular proliferation, inhibits apoptosis and promotes motility and invasion of canine mammary cancer cells. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor inhibitor ([D-Lys3]-GHRP6) as well as RNA interference enhances early apoptosis. Conclusion The presence of ghrelin and GHS-R in all of the examined canine mammary tumors may indicate their biological role in cancer growth and development. Our experiments conducted in vitro confirmed that ghrelin promotes cancer development and metastasis. PMID:22999388

  12. CD117 immunoexpression in canine mast cell tumours: correlations with pathological variables and proliferation markers

    PubMed Central

    Gil da Costa, Rui M; Matos, Eduarda; Rema, Alexandra; Lopes, Célia; Pires, Maria A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2007-01-01

    Background Cutaneous mast cell tumours are one of the most common neoplasms in dogs and show a highly variable biologic behaviour. Several prognosis tools have been proposed for canine mast cell tumours, including histological grading and cell proliferation markers. CD117 is a receptor tyrosine kinase thought to play a key role in human and canine mast cell neoplasms. Normal (membrane-associated) and aberrant (cytoplasmic, focal or diffuse) CD117 immunoexpression patterns have been identified in canine mast cell tumours. Cytoplasmic CD117 expression has been found to correlate with higher histological grade and with a worsened post-surgical prognosis. This study addresses the role of CD117 in canine mast cell tumours by studying the correlations between CD117 immunoexpression patterns, two proliferation markers (Ki67 and AgNORs) histological grade, and several other pathological variables. Results Highly significant (p < 0,001) correlations were found between CD117 immunostaining patterns and histological grade, cell proliferation markers (Ki67, AgNORs) and tumoral necrosis. Highly significant (p < 0,001) correlations were also established between the two cellular proliferation markers and histological grade, tumour necrosis and epidermal ulceration. A significant correlation (p = 0.035) was observed between CD117 expression patterns and epidermal ulceration. No differences were observed between focal and diffuse cytoplasmic CD117 staining patterns concerning any of the variables studied. Conclusion These findings highlight the key role of CD117 in the biopathology of canine MCTs and confirm the relationship between aberrant CD117 expression and increased cell proliferation and higher histological grade. Further studies are needed to unravel the cellular mechanisms underlying focal and diffuse cytoplasmic CD117 staining patterns, and their respective biopathologic relevance. PMID:17711582

  13. CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR 7 (CCR7)-EXPRESSION AND IFNγ PRODUCTION DEFINE VACCINE-SPECIFIC CANINE T CELL SUBSETS

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Ashley N.; Tarleton, Rick L.

    2015-01-01

    Canines suffer from and serve as strong translational animals models for many immunological disorders and infectious diseases. Routine vaccination has been a mainstay of protecting dogs through the stimulation of robust antibody responses and expansion of memory T cell populations. Commercially available reagents and described techniques are limited for identifying and characterizing canine T cell subsets and evaluating T cell-specific effector function. To define reagents for delineating naïve versus activated T cells and identify antigen-specific T cells, we tested anti-human and anti-bovine T-cell specific cell surface marker reagents for cross-reactivity with canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy canine donors showed reactivity to CCL19-Ig, a CCR7 ligand, and coexpression with CD62L. An in vitro stimulation with concanavalin A validated downregulation of CCR7 and CD62L expression on stimulated healthy control PBMCs, consistent with an activated T cell phenotype. Anti-IFNγ antibodies identified antigen-specific IFNγ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon in vitro vaccine antigen PBMC stimulation. PBMC isolation within 24 hours of sample collection allowed for efficient cell recovery and accurate T cell effector function characterization. These data provide a reagent and techniques platform via flow cytometry for identifying canine T cell subsets and characterizing circulating antigen-specific canine T cells for potential use in diagnostic and field settings. PMID:25758065

  14. CD146(+) cells are essential for kidney vasculature development.

    PubMed

    Halt, Kimmo J; Pärssinen, Heikki E; Junttila, Sanna M; Saarela, Ulla; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Koivunen, Peppi; Myllyharju, Johanna; Quaggin, Susan; Skovorodkin, Ilya N; Vainio, Seppo J

    2016-08-01

    The kidney vasculature is critical for renal function, but its developmental assembly mechanisms remain poorly understood and models for studying its assembly dynamics are limited. Here, we tested whether the embryonic kidney contains endothelial cells (ECs) that are heterogeneous with respect to VEGFR2/Flk1/KDR, CD31/PECAM, and CD146/MCAM markers. Tie1Cre;R26R(YFP)-based fate mapping with a time-lapse in embryonic kidney organ culture successfully depicted the dynamics of kidney vasculature development and the correlation of the process with the CD31(+) EC network. Depletion of Tie1(+) or CD31(+) ECs from embryonic kidneys, with either Tie1Cre-induced diphtheria toxin susceptibility or cell surface marker-based sorting in a novel dissociation and reaggregation technology, illustrated substantial EC network regeneration. Depletion of the CD146(+) cells abolished this EC regeneration. Fate mapping of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked CD146(+)/CD31(-) cells indicated that they became CD31(+) cells, which took part in EC structures with CD31(+) wild-type ECs. EC network development depends on VEGF signaling, and VEGF and erythropoietin are expressed in the embryonic kidney even in the absence of any external hypoxic stimulus. Thus, the ex vivo embryonic kidney culture models adopted here provided novel ways for targeting renal EC development and demonstrated that CD146(+) cells are critical for kidney vasculature development. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.

  15. Canine epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: an investigation of T-cell receptor immunophenotype, lesion topography and molecular clonality.

    PubMed

    Moore, Peter F; Affolter, Verena K; Graham, Petra S; Hirt, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Canine epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a spontaneous neoplasm of the skin and mucous membranes of aged dogs. The WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues in human beings recognizes three forms of cutaneous epitheliotropic CTCL: mycosis fungoides (MF), Sézary syndrome and pagetoid reticulosis. In this series of dogs (n = 56), there were 39 cases of MF, 16 cases of pagetoid reticulosis and a single case of Sézary syndrome. Epitheliotropic T cells in CTCL lesions expressed CD8 in 44 of 55 dogs (80%) assessed; neither CD4 nor CD8 was expressed in the remainder. This contrasts with human MF in which alphabeta T-cell receptors (TCR) and CD4 are dominantly expressed. Molecular clonality assessment of canine epitheliotropic CTCL utilizing PCR primers specific for canine TCR gamma (TCRG) was performed. Of the 45 canine cases assessed, TCRG monoclonality was detected in 36 cases (80%). TCR typing of canine epitheliotropic CTCL revealed that TCRgammadelta was expressed in 60% of cases, including all cases of canine pagetoid reticulosis assessed. Either muco-cutaneous junctions or tissues of the oral cavity were the sites of lesions in 32 dogs (57%) with epitheliotropic CTCL. Analysis of the topography of lesions revealed an association with TCR type. If epitheliotropic CTCL lesions occurred in both locations, T cells were more likely to express TCRgammadelta (gammadelta : alphabeta = 2.0). These data establish that canine skin trafficking T cells have a far wider range than previously thought; this includes tongue, gingival, buccal and palatine mucosae.

  16. The Role of c-KIT in Tumorigenesis: Evaluation in Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joshua D; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Kaneene, John B; Miller, RoseAnn; Resau, James H; Kiupel, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The c-KIT proto-oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Cutaneous MCTs are common neoplasms in dogs and have a variable biologic behavior. The goal of this study was to define the prognostic significance of c-KIT mutations identified in canine MCTs and the associations between c-KIT mutations, KIT localization, and KIT expression levels. Microdissection and polymerase chain reaction were performed on 60 MCTs to identify c-KIT mutations. Anti-KIT antibodies were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of KIT localization. Forty-two MCTs were included in a tissue microarray, and KIT expression was quantified using immunofluorescence. Canine MCTs with c-KIT mutations were significantly associated with an increased incidence of recurrent disease and death. c-KIT mutations were also significantly associated with aberrant protein localization; however, the level of KIT expression did not correlate with either c-KIT mutations or changes in protein localization. Considering the high prevalence of canine MCTs and the central role of c-KIT in the tumorigenesis of certain tumors, canine MCTs are an excellent model for characterizing the role of c-KIT in neoplastic diseases and is a potential target for novel therapeutic agents in clinical trials. PMID:16611403

  17. The role of c-KIT in tumorigenesis: evaluation in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Webster, Joshua D; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Kaneene, John B; Miller, RoseAnn; Resau, James H; Kiupel, Matti

    2006-02-01

    The c-KIT proto-oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Cutaneous MCTs are common neoplasms in dogs and have a variable biologic behavior. The goal of this study was to define the prognostic significance of c-KIT mutations identified in canine MCTs and the associations between c-KIT mutations, KIT localization, and KIT expression levels. Microdissection and polymerase chain reaction were performed on 60 MCTs to identify c-KIT mutations. Anti-KIT antibodies were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of KIT localization. Forty-two MCTs were included in a tissue microarray, and KIT expression was quantified using immunofluorescence. Canine MCTs with c-KIT mutations were significantly associated with an increased incidence of recurrent disease and death. c-KIT mutations were also significantly associated with aberrant protein localization; however, the level of KIT expression did not correlate with either c-KIT mutations or changes in protein localization. Considering the high prevalence of canine MCTs and the central role of c-KIT in the tumorigenesis of certain tumors, canine MCTs are an excellent model for characterizing the role of c-KIT in neoplastic diseases and is a potential target for novel therapeutic agents in clinical trials.

  18. Canine Distemper Viral Inclusions in Blood Cells of Four Vaccinated Dogs

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Bruce G.; Adams, Pamela S.; Cornell, William D.; Elkins, A. Darrel

    1985-01-01

    Four cases of canine distemper were detected by the presence of numerous cytoplasmic inclusions in various circulating blood cells. Fluorescent antibody techniques and electron microscopy confirmed the identity of the viral inclusions. The cases occurred in the same geographic area and within a short time span. All four dogs had been vaccinated against canine distemper, but stress or other factors may have compromised their immune status. The possibility of an unusually virulent virus strain was also considered. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422596

  19. Expression of SART-1 mRNA in canine squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Yumi; Yoshida, Yukari; Nakagaki, Kazuhide; Fujita, Michio; Taniguchi, Akiko; Orima, Hiromitsu

    2008-12-01

    SART-1, a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, has been useful in human cancer therapy. The SART-1(259) peptide is a potential candidate for vaccine. The present study examined an orthologue of the mRNA coding this peptide in canine SCCs. Specimens were obtained from seven canine patients with SCC, and the mRNA was isolated from the samples. The SART-1 and beta-actin genes were amplified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, using the isolated mRNA as a template. Canine SART-1 was amplified in six of the seven specimens, while beta-actin was detected in all the samples. In dogs, carcinomas expressing SART-1 could be a target for cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated immunotherapy.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells in kidney inflammation and repair.

    PubMed

    Wise, Andrea F; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are a heterogeneous population of fibroblast-like stromal cells that have been isolated from the bone marrow and a number of organs and tissues including the kidney. They have multipotent and self-renewing properties and can differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage. Following their administration in vivo, mesenchymal stem cells migrate to damaged kidney tissue where they produce an array of anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that can alter the course of injury. Mesenchymal stem cells are thought to elicit repair through paracrine and/or endocrine mechanisms that modulate the immune response resulting in tissue repair and cellular replacement. This review will discuss the features of mesenchymal stem cells and the factors they release that protect against kidney injury; the mechanisms of homing and engraftment to sites of inflammation; and further elucidate the immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells and their ability to alter macrophage phenotype in a setting of kidney damage and repair.

  1. Electrophoretic separation of kidney and pituitary cells on STS-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Barlow, G. H.; Cleveland, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Farrington, M. A.; Hatfield, J. M.; Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Lewis, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Specific secretory cells were separated from suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic cells and rat pituitary cells in microgravity conditions, with an objective of isolating the subfractions of kidney cells that produce the largest amount of urakinase, and the subfractions of rat pituitary cells that secrete growth hormones (GH), prolactin (PRL), and other hormones. It is inferred from the experimental observations that the surface charge distributions of the GH-containing cells differ from those of the PRL-containing cells, which is explained by the presence of secretory products on the surface of pituitary cells. For kidney cells, the electrophoretic mobility distributions in flight experiments were spread more than the ground controls.

  2. Anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate induces canine mammary cancer cell aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Santos, Ana L; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness.

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of COX-2 in feline and canine actinic keratoses and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardagí, M; Fondevila, D; Ferrer, L

    2012-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression and its causal role in epidermal carcinogenesis have been demonstrated in human actinic keratoses (AK) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aim of this study was to determine immunohistochemically the level of expression of COX-2 in feline and canine AK (n=18), SCC (n=36) and inflammatory dermatoses (n=24). COX-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all feline and canine SCC. In all specimens, labelled basal and suprabasal neoplastic keratinocytes were localized within and below areas of superficial erosion or ulceration and only scattered deeper tumour cells were positively labelled. In most cases, positive immunoreactivity of keratinocytes was associated with the presence of granulocytes. COX-2 expression was detected in 3/9 canine and 4/9 feline cases of AK and in only one case was associated with inflammation. Inflammatory dermatoses were characterized by positively labelled epidermal and follicular basal and suprabasal keratinocytes that were always associated with granulocyte exocytosis. These results indicate that further study of the effect of using COX-2 inhibitors in the management and prevention of feline and canine cutaneous SCC is warranted. The association between inflammatory cells and COX-2 expressing epidermal cells opens a new line of research regarding the role of COX-2 in SCC oncogenesis. Moreover, further studies should investigate the role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis and management of AK in animals.

  4. Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate Induces Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Joana T.; Santos, Ana L.; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  5. Acute kidney injury and bilateral symmetrical enlargement of the kidneys as first presentation of B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Su-fang; Zhou, Fu-de; Zou, Wan-zhong; Wang, Hai-yan

    2012-12-01

    Lymphoblastic lymphoma is an uncommon subtype of lymphoid neoplasm in adults. Acute kidney injury at initial presentation due to lymphoblastic lymphoma infiltration of the kidneys has rarely been described. We report a 19-year-old woman who presented with acute kidney injury due to massive lymphomatous infiltration of the kidneys. The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma was established by immunohistochemical study of the biopsied kidney. The patient had an excellent response to the VDCLP protocol (vincristine, daunomycin, cyclophosphamide, asparaginase, and dexamethasone) with sustained remission. We recommend that lymphomatous infiltration be considered in patients presenting with unexplained acute kidney injury and enlarged kidneys.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Canine Amniotic Membrane-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that amniotic membrane tissue is a rich source of stem cells in humans. In clinical applications, the amniotic membrane tissue had therapeutic effects on wound healing and corneal surface reconstruction. Here, we successfully isolated and identified multipotent stem cells (MSCs) from canine amniotic membrane tissue. We cultured the canine amniotic membrane-derived multipotent stem cells (cAM-MSCs) in low glucose DMEM medium. cAM-MSCs have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic. We characterized the immunophenotype of cAM-MSCs by flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by the cumulative population doubling level (CPDL). We performed differentiation studies for the detection of trilineage multipotent ability, under the appropriate culture conditions. Taken together, our results show that cAM-MSCs could be a rich source of stem cells in dogs. Furthermore, cAM-MSCs may be useful as a cell therapy application for veterinary regenerative medicine. PMID:23024756

  7. Reconstruction of stratum corneum in organotypically cultured canine keratinocyte-derived CPEK cells.

    PubMed

    Yagihara, Hiroko; Okumura, Toshiki; Shiomi, Eri; Shinozaki, Nao; Kuroki, Shiori; Sasaki, Yu; Ito, Keita; Ono, Kenichiro; Washizu, Tsukimi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2011-10-01

    The stratum corneum of epidermis is an essential barrier against the external environment and water loss. This study aimed to develop an organotypic culture model that targets the reconstruction of the stratum corneum using canine keratinocyte-derived CPEK cells. The CPEK cells cultured at the air-liquid interface became stratified and formed a stratum corneum-like layer on stratum spinosum- and stratum granulosum-like layers. The CPEK cells in the stratum granulosum-like layer expressed the cornified cell envelope (CCE)-related proteins loricrin and keratinocyte differentiation-associated protein. Organotypically cultured CPEK cells were considered to form a CCE at the stratum granulosum-like layer, allowing the formation of a stratum corneum-like layer. The organotypic culture of CPEK cells could be useful for studying the barrier function of canine stratum corneum.

  8. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1− and SSEA-1+ cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines. PMID:27456773

  9. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) inhibits anti-CD32 antibody binding to canine DH82 cells and canine monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Taryn A; Miller, Michelle M; Fogle, Jonathan E

    2013-02-15

    The IgG receptors CD16 and CD32 (Fc(γ)RIII and Fc(γ)RII) link the humoral immune response to effector cell immune responses by binding immune complexes. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) consisting of immunoglobulin from pooled donors is reported to block Fc(γ)Rs and has been used to treat a variety of canine autoimmune disorders. Fc(γ)Rs have been poorly described for canine monocytes; therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) identify canine monocyte/macrophage Fc(γ)R (CD16 and CD32) expression and (2) demonstrate in vitro hIVIG binding to these receptors. The canine monocyte/macrophage-like cell line (DH82) and monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy dogs were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) for CD16 and CD32 expression using commercially available anti-CD16 and anti-CD32 antibodies directed against the human isoforms. The mean percentage of cells expressing CD16 was 55% of DH82 cells and 13% of blood monocytes and the mean percentage of cells expressing CD32 was 85% of DH82 cells and 73% of blood monocytes. Immunoprecipitation of canine DH82 cells lysate using the same anti-CD16 or anti-CD32 antibodies suggested that these anti-human antibodies recognize the canine homologues. To demonstrate Fc(γ)R blockade, cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of hIVIG and then incubated with anti-CD16 or anti-CD32 antibodies. The percentage of CD32 expression decreased in a concentration dependent fashion in DH82 cells and blood monocytes after incubation with increasing concentrations of IVIG, suggesting that hIVIG was binding to CD32 and inhibiting anti-CD32 antibody binding. The same results were not demonstrated with anti-CD16 antibody. We believe this is the first report to demonstrate Fc(γ) receptors CD16 and CD32 expression on canine monocytes and in vitro CD32 binding by human IgG, which may represent one of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of hIVIG.

  10. Regenerative medicine for the kidney: stem cell prospects & challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The kidney has key roles in maintaining human health. There is an escalating medical crisis in nephrology as growing numbers of patients suffer from kidney diseases that culminate in organ failure. While dialysis and transplantation provide life-saving treatments, these therapies are rife with limitations and place significant burdens on patients and healthcare systems. It has become imperative to find alternative ways to treat existing kidney conditions and preemptive means to stave off renal dysfunction. The creation of innovative medical approaches that utilize stem cells has received growing research attention. In this review, we discuss the regenerative and maladaptive cellular responses that occur during acute and chronic kidney disease, the emerging evidence about renal stem cells, and some of the issues that lie ahead in bridging the gap between basic stem cell biology and regenerative medicine for the kidney. PMID:23688352

  11. Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Cartwright, Ian M.; Haskins, Jeremy S.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujimori, Akira; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams. Clonogenic survival was examined using colony-forming as says, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values were calculated relative to gamma-rays using the D10 value, which is determined as the dose (Gy) resulting in 10% survival. For proton irradiation, the RBE values for all four cell lines were 1.0–1.1. For all four cell lines, exposure to carbon ions yielded a decreased cell survival compared with gamma-rays, with the RBE values ranging from 1.56–2.10. Iron ions yielded the lowest cell survival among tested radiation types, with RBE values ranging from 3.51–3.69 observed in the three radioresistant cell lines. The radiosensitive cell line investigated demonstrated similar cell survival for carbon and iron ion irradiation. The results of the present study suggest that heavy ions are more effective for killing radioresistant canine OSA cells when compared with gamma-rays and protons. This markedly increased efficiency of cell killing is an attractive reason for utilizing heavy ions for radioresistant canine OSA. PMID:27446477

  12. Adhesion of Malassezia pachydermatis of different growth type to canine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Florek, M; Król, J; Staroniewicz, Z; Bazanów, B

    2014-01-01

    A total of 100 Malassezia pachydermatis strains recovered from skin and mucosal membranes of dogs were evaluated for their adhesive properties. Two types of growth, related to colony morphology on Sabouraud agar, were observed (type I and II). The mean number of fungal cells attaching to canine buccal epithelial cells was found to be 17. The number of adhered cells was greater (statistically significant at the level of p < 0.01) in strains belonging to the type I.

  13. In vitro anti-tubulin effects of mebendazole and fenbendazole on canine glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, S R; Castello, S A; Robinson, A C; Koehler, J W

    2017-01-12

    Benzimidazole anthelmintics have reported anti-neoplastic effects both in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro chemosensitivity of three canine glioma cell lines to mebendazole and fenbendazole. The mean inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) (±SD) obtained from performing the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay after treating J3T, G06-A, and SDT-3G cells for 72 h with mebendazole were 0.030 ± 0.003, 0.080 ± 0.015 and 0.030 ± 0.006 μM respectively, while those for fenbendazole were 0.550  ± 0.015, 1.530 ± 0.159 and 0.690 ± 0.095 μM; treatment of primary canine fibroblasts for 72 h at IC50 showed no significant effect. Immunofluorescence studies showed disruption of tubulin after treatment. Mebendazole and fenbendazole are cytotoxic in canine glioma cell lines in vitro and may be good candidates for treatment of canine gliomas. Further in vivo studies are required.

  14. Global gene expression profiles of canine macrophages and canine mammary cancer cells grown as a co-culture in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Solid tumours comprise various cells, including cancer cells, resident stromal cells, migratory haemopoietic cells and other. These cells regulate tumour growth and metastasis. Macrophages constitute probably the most important element of all interactions within the tumour microenvironment. However, the molecular mechanism, that guides tumour environment, still remains unknown. Exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms that orchestrate these phenomena has been the aim of our study. A co-culture of canine mammary cancer cells and macrophages was established and maintained for 72 hrs. Having sorted the cells, gene expression in cancer cells and macrophages, using DNA microarrays, was examined. The results were confirmed using real-time qPCR and confocal microscopy. Moreover, their ability for migration and invasion has been assessed. Results Microarray analysis showed that the up-regulated genes in the cancer cell lines are involved in 15 highly over-manifested pathways. The pathways that drew our diligent attention included: the inflammation pathway mediated by chemokine and cytokine, the Toll receptor signalling pathway and the B cell activation. The up-regulated genes in the macrophages were involved in only 18 significantly over-manifested pathways: the angiogenesis, the p53 pathway feedback loops2 and the Wnt signalling pathway. The microarray analysis revealed that co-culturing of cancer cells with macrophages initiated the myeloid-specific antigen expression in cancer cells, as well as cytokine/chemokine genes expression. This finding was confirmed at mRNA and protein level. Moreover, we showed that macrophages increase cancer migration and invasion. Conclusions The presence of macrophages in the cancer environment induces acquisition of the macrophage phenotype (specific antigens and chemokines/cytokines expression) in cancer cells. We presumed that cancer cells also acquire other myeloid features, such as: capabilities of cell rolling

  15. Distribution of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in canines after intracerebroventricular injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Eon; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Na Kyung; Lee, Jeongmin; Hyung, Brian; Myeong, Su Hyeon; Kim, Hyeong Seop; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lee, Jung-Il; Cho, Kyung Rae; Kim, Do Hyung; Choi, Soo Jin; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) administered via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in a canine model. Ten beagles (11-13 kg per beagle) each received an injection of 1 × 10(6) cells into the right lateral ventricle and were sacrificed 7 days after administration. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, hUCB-MSCs were observed in the brain parenchyma, especially along the lateral ventricular walls. Detected as far as 3.5 mm from the cortical surface, these cells migrated from the lateral ventricle toward the cortex. We also observed hUCB-MSCs in the hippocampus and the cervical spinal cord. According to real-time polymerase chain reaction results, most of the hUCB-MSCs were found distributed in the brain and the cervical spinal cord but not in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, and liver. ICV administered hUCB-MSCs also enhanced the endogenous neural stem cell population in the subventricular zone. These results highlighted the ICV delivery route as an optimal route to be performed in stem cell-based clinical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. A CRISPR-Cas9 Generated MDCK Cell Line Expressing Human MDR1 Without Endogenous Canine MDR1 (cABCB1): An Improved Tool for Drug Efflux Studies.

    PubMed

    Karlgren, Maria; Simoff, Ivailo; Backlund, Maria; Wegler, Christine; Keiser, Markus; Handin, Niklas; Müller, Janett; Lundquist, Patrik; Jareborg, Anne-Christine; Oswald, Stefan; Artursson, Per

    2017-09-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably transfected with transport proteins are commonly used models for drug transport studies. However, endogenous expression of especially canine MDR1 (cMDR1) confounds the interpretation of such studies. Here we have established an MDCK cell line stably overexpressing the human MDR1 transporter (hMDR1; P-glycoprotein), and used CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to knockout the endogenous cMDR1. Genomic screening revealed the generation of a clonal cell line homozygous for a 4-nucleotide deletion in the canine ABCB1 gene leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon. Knockout of cMDR1 expression was verified by quantitative protein analysis and functional studies showing retained activity of the human MDR1 transporter. Application of this cell line allowed unbiased reclassification of drugs previously defined as both substrates and non-substrates in different studies using commonly used MDCK-MDR1 clones. Our new MDCK-hMDR1 cell line, together with a previously developed control cell line, both with identical deletions in the canine ABCB1 gene and lack of cMDR1 expression represent excellent in vitro tools for use in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Generation of LIF-independent induced pluripotent stem cells from canine fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, N J N; Bressan, F F; Roballo, K C S; Meirelles, F V; Xavier, P L P; Fukumasu, H; Williams, C; Breen, M; Koh, S; Sper, R; Piedrahita, J; Ambrósio, C E

    2017-04-01

    Takahashi and Yamanaka established the first technique in which transcription factors related to pluripotency are incorporated into the genome of somatic cells to enable reprogramming of these cells. The expression of these transcription factors enables a differentiated somatic cell to reverse its phenotype to an embryonic state, generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs from canine fetal fibroblasts were produced through lentiviral polycistronic human and mouse vectors (hOSKM/mOSKM), aiming to obtain pluripotent stem cells with similar features to embryonic stem cells (ESC) in this animal model. The cell lines obtained in this study were independent of LIF or any other supplemental inhibitors, resistant to enzymatic procedure (TrypLE Express Enzyme), and dependent on bFGF. Clonal lines were obtained from slightly different protocols with maximum reprogramming efficiency of 0.001%. All colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase, embryoid body formation, and spontaneous differentiation and expressed high levels of endogenous OCT4 and SOX2. Canine iPSCs developed tumors at 120 days post-injection in vivo. Preliminary chromosomal evaluations were performed by FISH hybridization, revealing no chromosomal abnormality. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the ability to reprogram canine somatic cells via lentiviral vectors without supplementation and with resistance to enzymatic action, thereby demonstrating the pluripotency of these cell lines.

  18. Adoptive T-cell therapy improves treatment of canine non–Hodgkin lymphoma post chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Colleen M.; Sheppard, Sabina; Hartline, Cassie A.; Huls, Helen; Johnson, Mark; Palla, Shana L.; Maiti, Sourindra; Ma, Wencai; Davis, R. Eric; Craig, Suzanne; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard; Wilson, Heather; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical observations reveal that an augmented pace of T-cell recovery after chemotherapy correlates with improved tumor-free survival, suggesting the add-back of T cells after chemotherapy may improve outcomes. To evaluate adoptive immunotherapy treatment for B-lineage non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we expanded T cells from client-owned canines diagnosed with NHL on artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of human interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21. Graded doses of autologous T cells were infused after CHOP chemotherapy and persisted for 49 days, homed to tumor, and significantly improved survival. Serum thymidine kinase changes predicted T-cell engraftment, while anti-tumor effects correlated with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and granzyme B expression in manufactured T cells. Therefore, chemotherapy can be used to modulate infused T-cell responses to enhance anti-tumor effects. The companion canine model has translational implications for human immunotherapy which can be readily exploited since clinical-grade canine and human T cells are propagated using identical approaches. PMID:22355761

  19. Enrofloxacin enhances the effects of chemotherapy in canine osteosarcoma cells with mutant and wild-type p53.

    PubMed

    York, D; Withers, S S; Watson, K D; Seo, K W; Rebhun, R B

    2017-09-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival time in dogs receiving adequate local control for appendicular osteosarcoma, but most dogs ultimately succumb to metastatic disease. The fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin has been shown to inhibit survival and proliferation of canine osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Others have reported that fluoroquinolones may modulate cellular responses to DNA damaging agents and that these effects may be differentially mediated by p53 activity. We therefore determined p53 status and activity in three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and examined the effects of enrofloxacin when used alone or in combination with doxorubicin or carboplatin chemotherapy. Moresco and Abrams canine osteosarcoma cell lines contained mutations in p53, while no mutations were identified in the D17 cells or in a normal canine osteoblast cell line. The addition of enrofloxacin to either doxorubicin or carboplatin resulted in further reductions in osteosarcoma cell viability; this effect was apparent regardless of p53 mutational status or downstream activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Insights into kidney stem cell development and regeneration using zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Bridgette E; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Kidney disease is an escalating global health problem, for which the formulation of therapeutic approaches using stem cells has received increasing research attention. The complexity of kidney anatomy and function, which includes the diversity of renal cell types, poses formidable challenges in the identification of methods to generate replacement structures. Recent work using the zebrafish has revealed their high capacity to regenerate the integral working units of the kidney, known as nephrons, following acute injury. Here, we discuss these findings and explore the ways that zebrafish can be further utilized to gain a deeper molecular appreciation of renal stem cell biology, which may uncover important clues for regenerative medicine. PMID:26981168

  1. Activation of liver X receptors reduces CFTR-mediated Cl(-) transport in kidney collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Raksaseri, Promporn; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

    2013-08-15

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor super family, which act as regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism. However, LXRs have been shown to regulate the function of transporters in the kidney, including the Na-Pi cotransporter, organic anion transporter, and epithelial Na(+) channel. In this report, we demonstrated the ability of LXR ligands, both endogenous [22 (R)-hydroxycholesterol] and synthetic (T0901317 and GW3965), to reduce CFTR-mediated Cl(-) secretion in a type I Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and in murine primary inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, based on measurements of [Arg(8)]-vasopressin-induced Cl(-) current. However, treatment of MDCK cell monolayers with 5 μM T0901317 for 24 h did not alter ouabain-senstive current or Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-α protein content. Furthermore, basolateral membranes permeabilization of MDCK cell monolayers still resulted in a decrease in apical Cl(-) current stimulated by both [Arg(8)]-vasopressin and 8-cholorophenyl-thio-cAMP, indicating that the factor(s) encoded by the target gene(s) of agonist-activated LXRs might be located at the apical membrane. Western blot analysis revealed that inhibition of Cl(-) secretion occurred via a decrease in CFTR protein, which was not due to downregulation of its mRNA expression. In addition, both synthetic LXR agonists significantly retarded the growth of forskolin-induced cysts formed in MDCK cells cultured in collagen gel. This is the first evidence showing that ligand-activated LXRs are capable of downregulating CFTR-mediated Cl(-) secretion of kidney cells and of retarding cyst growth in a MDCK cell model.

  2. Embryonic stem cell gene expression signatures in the canine mammary tumor: a bioinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    Canine breast cancer was considered as an ideal model of comparative oncology for the human breast cancer, as there is significant overlap between biological and clinical characteristics of the human and canine breast cancer. We attempt to clarify expression profile of the embryonic stem cell (ES) gene signatures in canine breast cancer. Using microarray datasets (GSE22516 and GSE20718), expression of the three major ES gene signatures (modules or gene-sets), including Myc, ESC-like, and PRC modules, was primarily analyzed through Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) method in tumor and healthy datasets. For confirmation of the primary results, an additional 13 ES gene-sets which were categorized into four groups including ES expressed (ES exp1 and ES exp2), NOS targets (Nanog targets, Oct4 targets, Sox2 targets, NOS targets, and NOS TFs), Polycomb targets (Suz12 targets, Eed targets, H3K27 bound, and PRC2 targets), and Myc targets (Myc targets1, and Myc targets2) were tested in the tumor and healthy datasets. Our results revealed that there is a valuable overlap between canine and human breast cancer ES gene-sets expression profile, where Myc and ESC-like modules were up-regulated and PRC module was down-regulated in metastatic canine mammary gland tumors. Further analysis of the secondary gene-sets indicated overexpression of the ES expressed, NOS targets (Nanog targets, Oct4 targets, Sox2 targets, and NOS targets), and Myc targets and underexpression of the Polycomb targets in metastatic canine breast cancer.

  3. Antiproliferative effect of berberine on canine mammary gland cancer cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sefidabi, Reyhaneh; Mortazavi, Pejman; Hosseini, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Canine mammary gland tumors are the most frequent cause of cancer in female dogs. Numerous studies using cancer cell lines and clinical trials have indicated that various natural products and antioxidants reduce or possibly prevent the development of cancer. Berberine (BBR), the most important alkaloid in the Berberidaceae, which exerts a wide range of pharmacological and biochemical effects, has drawn much attention due to its particularly high antitumor activity in vitro and in animal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effect of BBR against a canine mammary gland carcinoma cell line (CF41.Mg) in vitro. CF41.Mg cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% heat inactived fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 100 mg/ml peniciline-streptomycin. Subsequently the cells were treated with different concentrations of BBR chloride (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) at a density of 12,000 cells/well in 96-well plates. Following treatment, the MTT assay was used to detect cell viability after 24-, 48- and 72-h incubations at 37°C with 5% CO2. The results indicated that BBR inhibited proliferation of canine mammary gland carcinoma cells, as treatment with 100 µM BBR for 24 h resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability (P<0.005). As the present study demonstrated that BBR (10-200 µM) induced cancer cell death, it is proposed that BBR may serve as a candidate agent against canine mammary tumor cells via its antiproliferative activity.

  4. Intercalated clear cells or pale cells in the sinus node of canine hearts? An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Stoletzki, S; Schmiedl, A; Richter, J

    2000-09-01

    Two types of sinus nodal cells were responsible for the main differences in the literature concerning the ultrastructure of the sinuatrial node: the intercalated clear cells and pale cells. Canine hearts were arrested by (1) aortic cross clamping, (2) coronary perfusion with the cardioplegic solution St. Thomas, and (3) coronary perfusion with the cardioplegic solution HTK (Custodiol(R)). After fixation by immersion or perfusion the sinus node tissue was prepared for electron microscopy. Following cardioplegic arrest and perfusion fixation, three nodal cell types in the non-ischemic sinuatrial node were observed: typical nodal cells, transitional cells, and intercalated clear cells. Less than 1% of the non-ischemic sinuatrial cells were intercalated clear cells, surrounded by typical nodal cells or transitional cells. The contractile apparatus of the intercalated clear cells was extremely poorly developed. Great structural variations in the mitochondria were observed in intercalated clear cells, variations that would not appear under conditions of ischemia. In contrast, after 15-25 min of ischemia at 25 degrees C the appearance of the sinus nodal cells was strikingly different from that of the non-ischemic sinuatrial cells. More than 10% of the nodal cells showed typical ischemic alterations, e.g., mitochondrial swelling, clumping of nuclear chromatin, loss of glycogen particles, and cell swelling in varying degrees. Because they look very pale, these nodal cells have been described as pale cells in the literature. Intercalated clear cells appear mainly in non-ischemic nodal tissue. Pale cells are ischemically damaged sinus nodal cells. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Characterization of HOX gene expression in canine mammary tumour cell lines from spontaneous tumours.

    PubMed

    DeInnocentes, P; Perry, A L; Graff, E C; Lutful Kabir, F M; Curtis Bird, R

    2015-09-01

    Spatial/temporal controls of development are regulated by the homeotic (HOX) gene complex and require integration with oncogenes and tumour suppressors regulating cell cycle exit. Spontaneously derived neoplastic canine mammary carcinoma cell models were investigated to determine if HOX expression profiles were associated with neoplasia as HOX genes promote neoplastic potential in human cancers. Comparative assessment of human and canine breast cancer expression profiles revealed remarkable similarity for all four paralogous HOX gene clusters and several unlinked HOX genes. Five canine HOX genes were overexpressed with expression profiles consistent with oncogene-like character (HOXA1, HOXA13, HOXD4, HOXD9 and SIX1) and three HOX genes with underexpressed profiles (HOXA11, HOXC8 and HOXC9) were also identified as was an apparent nonsense mutation in HOXC6. This data, as well as a comparative analysis of similar data from human breast cancers suggested expression of selected HOX genes in canine mammary carcinoma could be contributing to the neoplastic phenotype.

  6. Comparison of primer sets for T-cell clonality testing in canine intestinal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, Masamine; Kagawa, Yumiko

    2015-09-01

    Clonality testing based on polymerase chain reaction is an important tool for diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases. Many primers have been designed and used for canine clonality testing. Canine intestinal lymphoma is usually diagnosed pathologically by examination of excised intestinal or endoscopic biopsy tissues, and clonality testing is sometimes used to support the pathological diagnosis if this examination is inconclusive. In the present study, the sensitivity of each previously published primer set for clonality testing was examined by using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 39 cases pathologically diagnosed as canine intestinal lymphoma (large-cell type). All 39 cases were immunohistochemically positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)3. Thirty-two out of the 39 cases showed clonality in the T-cell receptor gamma (TRG) with at least 1 of the tested primers. The primer set with the highest sensitivity detected all 32 cases with TRG clonality, with a sensitivity of 82.1%. These results provide useful evidence for the selection of primer sets for clonality testing of canine intestinal lymphoma. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Immunohistochemical study of expression of immunoglobulins in canine B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, J; Micuń, J; Zabielska, K; Malicka, E; Lechowski, R

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen canine lymphomas were included in this study. Tumors were classified according to the updated Kiel classification adapted for canine lymphomas by Fournel-Fleury et al. Immunoglobulin light chains (kappa and lambda) and IgM and IgG expression were determined by immunohistochemical method. In all examined cases neoplastic cells were positive for one of the immunoglobulin light chains. Expression of lambda light chains and kappa light chains was observed in 18/19 and 1/19 tumors, respectively. In the majority of neoplastic cells in each examined specimen this reaction had a membranous pattern (skappa/slambda). In all examined cases the presence of immunoglobulin light chains was also observed in the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells (ckappa/clambda). These cells were usally rare and never constituted a dominant population. The expression of immunoglobulin was found in 13/19 cases. Most lymphomas were sIgM positive (11/13 cases). In one case expression of IgG was found, and in another lymphoma two populations of neoplastic cells with different expression of examined immunoglobulins (cells with IgM+ and IgG+ phenotypes) were observed. The reaction also had a membranous pattern. The cells containing cytoplasmic immunoglobulins were rare, and in most cases were of the same type as the surface immunoglobulins. Our study has confirmed that canine lymphomas are a monoclonal proliferation of B-cells usually expressing immunoglobulin lambda light chains and that the vast majority of tumors deriving from B-cells express IgM. Our study also indicates a possibility of occurence of biclonal lymphomas in canine species.

  8. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Enio; Gobbi, Helenice; Saraiva, Bruna S; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-02-23

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34betaE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34betaE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  9. Inhibition of Survivin Influences the Biological Activities of Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Yuki; Hosoya, Kenji; Okumura, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Canine histiocytic sarcoma (CHS) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm that originates from histiocytic lineage cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages, and is characterized by progressive local infiltration and a very high metastatic potential. Survivin is as an apoptotic inhibitory factor that has major functions in cell proliferation, including inhibition of apoptosis and regulation of cell division, and is expressed in most types of human and canine malignant neoplasms, including melanoma and osteosarcoma. To investigate whether survivin was expressed at high levels in CHS and whether its expression was correlated with the aggressive biological behavior of CHS, we assessed relation between survivin expression and CHS progression, as well as the effects of survivin inhibition on the biological activities of CHS cells. We comparatively analyzed the expression of 6 selected anti-apoptotic genes, including survivin, in specimens from 30 dogs with histiocytic sarcoma and performed annexin V staining to evaluate apoptosis, methylthiazole tetrazolium assays to assess cell viability and chemosensitivity, and latex bead assays to measure changes in phagocytic activities in 4 CHS cell lines and normal canine fibroblasts transfected with survivin siRNA. Survivin gene expression levels in 30 specimens were significantly higher than those of the other 6 genes. After transfection with survivin siRNA, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, enhanced chemosensitivity, and weakened phagocytic activities were observed in all CHS cell lines. In contrast, normal canine fibroblasts were not significantly affected by survivin knockdown. These results suggested that survivin expression may mediate the aggressive biological activities of CHS and that survivin may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of CHS. PMID:24260303

  10. Masitinib as a chemosensitizer of canine tumor cell lines: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Thamm, D H; Rose, B; Kow, K; Humbert, M; Mansfield, C D; Moussy, A; Hermine, O; Dubreuil, P

    2012-01-01

    Masitinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has previously been shown to enhance the antiproliferative effects of gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer, demonstrating potential as a chemosensitizer. This exploratory study investigated the ability of masitinib to sensitize various canine cancer cell lines to doxorubicin, vinblastine, and gemcitabine. Masitinib strongly sensitized histiocytic sarcoma cells to vinblastine (>70-fold reduction in IC(50) at 5 μM masitinib), as well as osteosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cells to gemcitabine (>70-fold reduction at 5-10 μM). In addition, several cell lines were sensitized to doxorubicin (2-10-fold reduction at 10 μM). These data establish proof-of-concept that masitinib in combination with chemotherapeutic agents can generate synergistic growth inhibition in various canine cancers, possibly through chemosensitization. The findings justify further investigation into those combinations that may potentially yield therapeutic benefit.

  11. Dog nectin-4 is an epithelial cell receptor for canine distemper virus that facilitates virus entry and syncytia formation.

    PubMed

    Noyce, Ryan S; Delpeut, Sebastien; Richardson, Christopher D

    2013-02-05

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) was shown to use dog nectin-4 as a receptor to gain entry into epithelial cells. RNA from dog placenta or MDCK kidney cells was isolated and cDNAs were prepared. Two splice variants of dog nectin-4 were identified. A deletion of 25 amino acids was found in the cytoplasmic domain of dog nectin-4 from MDCK cells, corresponding to a splice variant that is also seen in murine nectin-4, and did not affect its role as a receptor. Both dog nectin-4 and human nectin-4 could function as an entry factor for CDV containing an EGFP reporter gene. Inhibition of dog nectin-4 expression by RNAi or nectin-4 antibodies decreased CDV titers and EGFP fluorescence. Finally, dog nectin-4 also promotes syncytia formation, which could be inhibited by siRNA treatment. These data confirm that dog nectin-4 can be used by CDV to gain entry into epithelial cells, and facilitate virus spread.

  12. The antiprogestins mifepristone and onapristone reduce cell proliferation in the canine mammary carcinoma cell line CMT-U27.

    PubMed

    Guil-Luna, Silvia; Hellmén, Eva; Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Martín de las Mulas, Juana

    2014-07-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) represent nearly half of all tumours in female dogs and some 50% have malignant behaviour. Simple epithelial carcinomas have shorter disease free periods after surgery and a higher reduction of the proliferation index reduction after antiprogestin aglepristone treatment in vivo related to the expression of progesterone receptors (PR). These findings make simple carcinomas good candidates for endocrine therapy. To further explore this possibility, the effects of the antiprogestins mifepristone (RU486) and onapristone (ZK299) on cell viability and PR expression of the canine mammary carcinoma cell line isolated from a simple epithelial carcinoma CMT-U27 were studied. Twenty five percent of CMT-U27 control cells expressed PR. RU486 (p<0.05) and ZK299 (p<0.05) reduced the number of viable cells (WST-8 test) at 24h but only the latter treatment reduced significantly PR expression in viable tumour cells at 24h of incubation. The results suggest that both RU486 and ZK299 induce a decrease in the number of viable CMT-U27 tumour cells with different effects on PR expression. The canine mammary carcinoma cell line CMT-U27 is sensitive to the effects of antiprogestins and may serve to further explore the role of these drugs in canine mammary carcinomas.

  13. Effects of osteogenic inducers on cultures of canine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Volk, Susan W; Diefenderfer, David L; Christopher, Scott A; Haskins, Mark E; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2005-10-01

    To examine age-related efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, ascorbate, and dexamethasone as osteogenic inducers in canine marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs). Samples of femoral bone marrow obtained from 15 skeletally immature (< 1 year old) and 4 skeletally mature (> 1.5 years old) dogs. First-passage canine MSC cultures were treated with 100 microg of ascorbate phosphate/mL, 10(-7)M dexamethasone, 100 ng of BMP-2/mL, or a combination of these osteoinducers. On day 6, cultures were harvested for quantitation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and isolation of RNA to prepare cDNA for real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of osteoblast markers. Early markers of osteogenesis were induced in canine MSCs by BMP-2 but not dexamethasone. In young dogs, the combination of BMP-2 and ascorbate yielded the highest ALP mRNA concentrations and activity. This combination also induced significant increases in mRNA for osteopontin and runt-domain transcription factor 2. In comparison to MSCs from immature dogs, those from mature dogs had diminished ALP activity in response to BMP and ascorbate. Results for cultures treated with 3,4-dehydroproline suggested that ascorbate-induced production of extracellular matrix was important for maximal BMP-2 response in canine MSCs. BMP-2 was capable of inducing markers of osteogenesis in short-term cultures of canine MSCs. In MSCs obtained from skeletally immature dogs, ascorbate was required for maximal effects of BMP These results define optimal conditions for stem cell osteogenesis in dogs and will facilitate development of stem cell-based treatments for dogs with fractures.

  14. Regulatory T cells in kidney disease and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Wang, Yuan Min; Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Geoff Y; Zheng, Guoping; Yi, Shounan; O'Connell, Philip J; Harris, David C H; Alexander, Stephen I

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be important in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune disease, including autoimmune kidney disease. It is also likely that they play a role in limiting kidney transplant rejection and potentially in promoting transplant tolerance. Although other subsets of Tregs exist, the most potent and well-defined Tregs are the Foxp3 expressing CD4(+) Tregs derived from the thymus or generated peripherally. These CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs limit autoimmune renal disease in animal models, especially chronic kidney disease, and kidney transplantation. Furthermore, other subsets of Tregs, including CD8 Tregs, may play a role in immunosuppression in kidney disease. The development and protective mechanisms of Tregs in kidney disease and kidney transplantation involve multiple mechanisms of suppression. Here we review the development and function of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs. We discuss the specific application of Tregs as a therapeutic strategy to prevent kidney disease and to limit kidney transplant rejection and detail clinical trials in this area of transplantation.

  15. Rearrangement patterns of the canine TCRγ locus in a distinct group of T cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stefan M; Moore, Peter F

    2012-01-15

    The T cell antigen receptor chains are assembled through a rearrangement process that combines variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) region genes. Recently, the entire canine T cell receptor γ (TRG) locus was described. It is arranged in 8 cassettes with up to 3 V genes, 2 J genes and 1 C gene each. However, no data is available beyond the level of sequence analysis. The objective of this study was to identify rearranged genes of the canine TRG locus through experimental analysis and to assess gene usage and patterns of rearrangement in a series of canine T cell lymphomas. Rearranged genes were identified through computational analysis of recombination signal sequences (RSSs), a gene's potential to generate a polyclonal smear, and through sequencing of clonal rearrangements in a series of T cell lymphomas. Out of a total of 32 Vγ and Jγ genes, 21 genes were found to rearrange, 8 genes were considered not rearranged and 3 genes were suspected to rearrange but their status could not be determined definitely. Rearrangements of the canine TRG locus were assessed in a group of canine T cell lymphomas as well as 3 neoplastic T cell lines. An average of 4.6 rearrangements per lymphoma was found suggesting that canine T cells routinely rearrange multiple cassettes per allele. The most commonly rearranged Vγ genes belonged to subgroups Vγ2, Vγ3, and Vγ7. Genes in cassettes 2 and 3 preferentially rearranged within their respective cassettes, while Vγ genes in cassette 7 rearranged to a Jγ gene in cassette 8. There was a strong preference for Vγ2 genes to rearrange to a 3' Jγ gene and for Vγ3 and Vγ7 genes to rearrange to a 5' Jγ gene. This rearrangement pattern coincided with the conservation of the spacer sequence between V and J gene subgroups rather than the topologic location of genes. These data show that highly divergent spacer sequences allow for equally efficient recombination and suggest that spacer sequences can mediate compatibility between V

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), regulated by the MAPK pathway, are both necessary for Madin-Darby canine kidney tubulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Nathan E; Spector, June; Robinson, Jonathan; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Tobias, John W; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2008-02-15

    A classic model of tubulogenesis utilizes Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. MDCK cells form monoclonal cysts in three-dimensional collagen and tubulate in response to hepatocyte growth factor, which activates multiple signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It was shown previously that MAPK activation is necessary and sufficient to induce the first stage of tubulogenesis, the partial epithelial to mesenchymal transition (p-EMT), whereas matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are necessary for the second redifferentiation stage. To identify specific MMP genes, their regulators, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and the molecular pathways by which they are activated, we used two distinct MAPK inhibitors and a technique we have termed subtraction pathway microarray analysis. Of the 19 MMPs and 3 TIMPs present on the Canine Genome 2.0 Array, MMP13 and TIMP1 were up-regulated 198- and 169-fold, respectively, via the MAPK pathway. This was confirmed by two-dimensional and three-dimensional real time PCR, as well as in MDCK cells inducible for the MAPK gene Raf. Knockdown of MMP13 using short hairpin RNA prevented progression past the initial phase of p-EMT. Knockdown of TIMP1 prevented normal cystogenesis, although the initial phase of p-EMT did occasionally occur. The MMP13 knockdown phenotype is likely because of decreased collagenase activity, whereas the TIMP1 knockdown phenotype appears due to increased apoptosis. These data suggest a model, which may also be important for development of other branched organs, whereby the MAPK pathway controls both MDCK p-EMT and redifferentiation, in part by activating MMP13 and TIMP1.

  17. Neurogenesis and precursor cell differences in the dorsal and ventral adult canine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Aileen; Dalton, Marshall; Sidhu, Kuldip; Sachdev, Perminder; Reynolds, Brent; Valenzuela, Michael

    2015-04-23

    During evolution a unique anterior-posterior flexure posited the canine dentate gyrus in two distinct dorsal and ventral positions. We therefore sought to explore neurogenesis and neurogenic cell-related difference along the canine hippocampal dorsal-ventral axis. Post mortem histological analysis revealed 49.1% greater doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and a 158.5% greater percentage of double labeled DCX-positive/neuronal nuclei (NeuN) positive cells in the dorsal subgranular zone compared to the ventral. We then show neural precursor cells isolated from fresh hippocampal tissue are capable of proliferating long term, and after differentiation, express neuronal and glial markers. Dorsal hippocampal isolates produced a 120.0% higher frequency of sphere-forming neural precursor cells compared to ventral hippocampal tissue. Histological DCX and neurosphere assay results were highly correlated. Overall, we provide the first evidence that the dorsal canine hippocampus has a markedly higher rate of adult neurogenesis than the ventral hippocampus, possibly related to a greater frequency of contributory neural precursor cells.

  18. Development of a Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Vaccine Regimen in the Canine Model of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosinski, Steven Lawrence; Stone, Brad; Graves, Scott S; Fuller, Deborah H; De Rosa, Stephen C; Spies, Gregory A; Mize, Gregory J; Fuller, James T; Storb, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Minor histocompatibility antigen (miHA) vaccines have the potential to augment graft-versus-tumor effects without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We used mixed hematopoietic chimerism in the canine model of major histocompatibility complex-matched allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation as a platform to develop a miHA vaccination regimen. We engineered DNA plasmids and replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 constructs encoding large sections of canine SMCY and the entire canine SRY gene. Priming with replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 constructs and boosting with ex vivo plasmid-transfected dendritic cells and cutaneous delivery of plasmids with a particle-mediated epidermal delivery device (PMED) in 2 female dogs induced antigen-specific T-cell responses. Similar responses were observed after a prime-boost vaccine regimen in three female hematopoietic cell transplantation donors. Subsequent donor lymphocyte infusion resulted in a significant change of chimerism in 1 of 3 male recipients without any signs of graft-versus-host disease. The change in chimerism in the recipient occurred in association with the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to the same peptide pools detected in the donor. These studies describe the first in vivo response to miHA vaccination in a large, outbred animal model without using recipient cells to sensitize the donor. This model provides a platform for ongoing experiments designed to define optimal miHA targets and develop protocols to directly vaccinate the recipient.

  19. Characterization and Comparison of Canine Multipotent Stromal Cells Derived from Liver and Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Malagola, Ermanno; Teunissen, Michelle; van der Laan, Luc J.W.; Verstegen, Monique M.A.; Schotanus, Baukje A.; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Penning, Louis C.; van Wolferen, Monique E.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.

    2016-01-01

    Liver-derived multipotent stromal cells (L-MSCs) may prove preferable for treatment strategies of liver diseases, in comparison to the widely studied bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). Canines are a large animal model, in which the pathologies of liver diseases are similar to man. This study further promotes the implementation of canine models in MSC-based treatments of liver diseases. L-MSCs were characterized and compared to BM-MSCs from the same individual. Both cell types demonstrated a spindle-shaped fibroblast-like morphology, possessed the same growth potential, and demonstrated similar immunomodulation gene expression of CD274, PTGS-1, and PTGS-2. Marked differences in cell surface markers, CD105 and CD146, distinguished these two cell populations, and L-MSCs retained a liver-specific imprinting, observed by expression of CK18 and CK19. Finally, both populations differentiated toward the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage; however, L-MSCs failed to differentiate into the chondrogenic lineage. In conclusion, characterization of canine L-MSCs and BM-MSCs demonstrated that the two cell type populations are highly comparable. Although it is still unclear which cell source is preferred for clinical application in liver treatment strategies, this study provides a foundation for future controlled studies with MSC therapy in various liver diseases in dogs before their application in man. PMID:26462417

  20. Simvastatin exhibits antiproliferative effects on spheres derived from canine mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian G; Olivares, Araceli; Stoore, Caroll

    2015-05-01

    Mammary cancer is the most frequent type of tumor in the female canine. Treatments are mainly limited to surgery and chemotherapy; however, these tumors may develop clinical recurrence, metastasis and chemoresistance. The existence of a subpopulation of cancer cells with stemness features called cancer stem-like cells, may explain in part these characteristics of tumor progression. The statins, potent blockers of cholesterol synthesis, have also shown antitumor effects on cancer mammary cells, changes mediated by a decrease in the isoprenylation of specific proteins. Few studies have shown that simvastatin, a lipophilic statin, sensitizes cancer stem-like cells eliminating drug resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on spheres derived from CF41.Mg canine mammary tumor cells, which were characterized by phenotypic and functional analyses. Spheres exhibited characteristics of stemness, primarily expressing a CD44⁺/CD24⁻/low phenotype, displaying auto-renewal and relative chemoresistance. Exposure to simvastatin induced a decrease in the sphere-forming capacity and cell viability, accompanied by a concentration- and time-dependent increase in caspase-3/7 activity. In addition, modulation of β-catenin and p53 expression was observed. Simvastatin triggered a synergistic effect with doxorubicin, sensitizing the spheres to the cytotoxic effect exerted by the drug. Invasiveness of spheres was decreased in response to simvastatin and this effect was counteracted by the presence of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Our results suggest that simvastatin targets canine mammary cancer stem-like cells, supporting its therapeutical application as a novel agent to treat canine mammary cancer.

  1. Development of a Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Vaccine Regimen in the Canine Model of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rosinski, Steven L.; Stone, Brad; Graves, Scott S.; Fuller, Deborah H.; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Spies, Gregory A.; Mize, Gregory J.; Fuller, James T.; Storb, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Background Minor histocompatibility (miHA) antigen vaccines have the potential to augment graft-versus-tumor effects without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We used mixed hematopoietic chimerism in the canine model of MHC-matched allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as a platform to develop a miHA vaccination regimen. Methods We engineered DNA plasmids and replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) constructs encoding large sections of canine SMCY and the entire canine SRY gene. Results Priming with rAd5 constructs and boosting with ex vivo plasmid-transfected dendritic cells and cutaneous delivery of plasmids with a particle-mediated epidermal delivery device (PMED) in two female dogs induced antigen-specific T cell responses. Similar responses were observed following a prime-boost vaccine regimen in three female HCT donors. Subsequent donor lymphocyte infusion resulted in a significant change of chimerism in 1 of 3 male recipients without any signs of GVHD. The change in chimerism in the recipient occurred in association with the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to the same peptide pools detected in the donor. Conclusions These studies describe the first in vivo response to miHA vaccination in a large, outbred animal model without using recipient cells to sensitize the donor. This model provides a platform for ongoing experiments designed to define optimal miHA targets, and develop protocols to directly vaccinate the recipient. PMID:25965411

  2. Density gradient electrophoresis of cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Giranda, V.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ground based confirmation of the electrophoretic heterogeneity of human embryonic kidney cell cultures, the general characterization of their electrophoretic migration, and observations on the general properties of cultures derived from electrophoretic subpopulations were studied. Cell migration in a density gradient electrophoresis column and cell electrophoretic mobility was determined. The mobility and heterogeneity of cultured human embryonic kidney cells with those of fixed rat erythrocytes as model test particle was compared. Electrophoretically separated cell subpopulations with respect to size, viability, and culture characteristics were examined.

  3. Nectin4 Is an Epithelial Cell Receptor for Canine Distemper Virus and Involved in Neurovirulence

    PubMed Central

    Pratakpiriya, Watanyoo; Seki, Fumio; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Sakai, Kouji; Fukuhara, Hideo; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hirai, Takuya; Maenaka, Katsumi; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Takeda, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) uses signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), expressed on immune cells, as a receptor. However, epithelial and neural cells are also affected by CDV in vivo. Wild-type CDV strains showed efficient replication with syncytia in Vero cells expressing dog nectin4, and the infection was blocked by an anti-nectin4 antibody. In dogs with distemper, CDV antigen was preferentially detected in nectin4-positive neurons and epithelial cells, suggesting that nectin4 is an epithelial cell receptor for CDV and also involved in its neurovirulence. PMID:22761370

  4. Nectin4 is an epithelial cell receptor for canine distemper virus and involved in neurovirulence.

    PubMed

    Pratakpiriya, Watanyoo; Seki, Fumio; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Sakai, Kouji; Fukuhara, Hideo; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hirai, Takuya; Maenaka, Katsumi; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Takeda, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2012-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) uses signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), expressed on immune cells, as a receptor. However, epithelial and neural cells are also affected by CDV in vivo. Wild-type CDV strains showed efficient replication with syncytia in Vero cells expressing dog nectin4, and the infection was blocked by an anti-nectin4 antibody. In dogs with distemper, CDV antigen was preferentially detected in nectin4-positive neurons and epithelial cells, suggesting that nectin4 is an epithelial cell receptor for CDV and also involved in its neurovirulence.

  5. Efficient lentiviral gene transfer to canine repopulating cells using an overnight transduction protocol.

    PubMed

    Horn, Peter A; Keyser, Kirsten A; Peterson, Laura J; Neff, Tobias; Thomasson, Bobbie M; Thompson, Jesse; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2004-05-15

    The use of lentiviral vectors for the transduction of hematopoietic stem cells has evoked much interest owing to their ability to stably integrate into the genome of nondividing cells. However, published large animal studies have reported highly variable gene transfer rates of typically less than 1%. Here we report the use of lentiviral vectors for the transduction of canine CD34(+) hematopoietic repopulating cells using a very short, 18-hour transduction protocol. We compared lentiviral transduction of hematopoietic repopulating cells from either stem cell factor (SCF)- and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed marrow or mobilized peripheral blood in a competitive repopulation assay in 3 dogs. All dogs engrafted rapidly within 9 days. Transgene expression was detected in all lineages (B cells, T cells, granulocytes, and red blood cells as well as platelets) indicating multilineage engraftment of transduced cells, with overall long-term marking levels of up to 12%. Gene transfer levels in mobilized peripheral blood cells were slightly higher than in primed marrow cells. In conclusion, we show efficient lentiviral transduction of canine repopulating cells using an overnight transduction protocol. These results have important implications for the design of stem cell gene therapy protocols, especially for those diseases in which the maintenance of stem cells in culture is a major limitation.

  6. In vitro regeneration of kidney from pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Osafune, Kenji

    2010-10-01

    Although renal transplantation has proved a successful treatment for the patients with end-stage renal failure, the therapy is hampered by the problem of serious shortage of donor organs. Regenerative medicine using stem cells, including cell transplantation therapy, needs to be developed to solve the problem. We previously identified the multipotent progenitor cells in the embryonic mouse kidney that can give rise to several kinds of epithelial cells found in adult kidney, such as glomerular podocytes and renal tubular epithelia. Establishing the method to generate the progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells that have the capacity to indefinitely proliferate in vitro is required for the development of kidney regeneration strategy. We review the current status of the research on the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into renal lineages and describe cues to promote this research field.

  7. Regulation of P-selectin expression by inflammatory mediators in canine jugular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Doré, M; Sirois, J

    1996-11-01

    Canine endothelial cells express the adhesion molecule P-selectin to mediate the initial attachment of leukocytes to the vessel wall. Although it is known that agents like histamine and thrombin stimulate the surface expression of P-selectin, the effect of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on canine P-selectin expression has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the regulation of P-selectin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein by these cytokines in canine endothelial cells isolated from jugular veins. Analyses of cytoplasmic RNA by Northern blotting showed that stimulation of culture endothelial cells with either LPS (100 ng/ml) or recombinant human TNF-alpha (30 U/ml) for 3 or 6 hours significantly increased (P < 0.05) steady-state levels of mRNA for P-selectin (3.8- +/- 1.0- and 3.0- +/- 0.4-fold increase for LPS at 3 and 6 hours, respectively, and 2.5- +/- 0.8- and 2.7- +/- 0.9-fold increase for TNF-alpha at 3 and 6 hours, respectively). P-selectin mRNA had decreased by 48 hours to levels found in unstimulated cells. In contrast, human IL-1 beta had no effect on P-selectin mRNA. Increased levels of mRNA with LPS stimulation were associated with the synthesis of new protein, as demonstrated by the positive staining in LPS-stimulated cells using immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against canine P-selectin (MD3). These results reveal that important inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as LPS and TNF-alpha induce the synthesis of new P-selectin and suggest that this process could represent a means of sustaining local leukocyte recruitment for several hours during an acute inflammatory reaction.

  8. Characterization of canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells with phenotypic and functional differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Shan; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Liu, Cheng-Chi; Cheng, Chiao-Lei; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chu, Rea-Min

    2007-07-01

    For therapeutic purposes, large numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) are essential. In this study, we used 2% autologous canine plasma, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in generating monocyte-derived DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs. The plasma enriched the population of CD14-positive monocytes by greatly enhancing the efficiency of monocyte adherence, the proportion of adherent cells increasing from 6.6% with 10% fetal bovine serum to 15.3% with 2% autologous canine plasma. Culturing the adherent monocytes for 6 d with human GM-CSF, canine IL-4, and human Flt3L significantly increased the yield of DCs, more than 90% of which were CD14-negative. Because, in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), monocytes that were CD14-positive expressed tumor necrosis factor ac much more than DCs with low levels of CD14, it is important to decrease the numbers of CD14-positive cells in generating monocyte-derived DCs. With flow cytometry and real-time reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction assays, we found that in canine immature DCs (iDCs) the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, and CD86 was high and the expression of CD80, CD83, and CD14 either low or negative. During maturation (stimulated by LPS), the expression of CDla, CD40, CD83, and CD80 was upregulated. However, the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD11c, and CD86 was not increased in mature DCs. Incubating the iDCs with LPS decreased antigen uptake and increased the cells' immunostimulatory capacity (assessed by the allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reaction), indicating that LPS accelerates the functional maturation of DCs. This protocol may facilitate the use of DCs in cellular immunotherapy.

  9. 6-Bromoindirubin-3′oxime (BIO) decreases proliferation and migration of canine melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Esther; Flanagan, Brandi; de Sá Rodrigues, Lucas Campos; Piskun, Caroline; Stein, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor in dogs and is associated with a poor outcome. Novel, targeted agents are necessary to improve survival. In this study, 6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO), a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor with reported specificity for glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) inhibition, was evaluated in vitro in three canine melanoma cell lines (CML-10C2, UCDK9M2, and UCDK9M3) for β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, Axin2 gene and protein expression levels, cell proliferation, chemotoxicity, migration and invasion assays. BIO treatment of canine malignant melanoma cell lines at 5 µM for 72 h enhanced β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, suggesting GSK-3β inhibition, and reduced cell proliferation and migration. There were no significant effects on invasion, chemotoxicity, or apoptosis. The results suggest that serine/ threonine kinases may be viable therapeutic targets for the treatment of canine malignant melanoma. PMID:25130776

  10. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell

  11. Isolation, Genetic Manipulation, and Transplantation of Canine Spermatogonial Stem Cells: Progress Toward Transgenesis Through the Male Germ Line

    PubMed Central

    Harkey, Michael A.; Asano, Atsushi; Zoulas, Mary Ellen; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The dog is recognized as a highly predictive model for pre-clinical research. Its size, life span, physiology and genetics more closely match human parameters than do those of the mouse model. Investigations of the genetic basis of disease and of new regenerative treatments have frequently taken advantage of canine models. However, full utility of this model hasn’t been realized because of the lack of easy transgenesis. Blastocyst-mediated transgenic technology developed in mice has been very slow to translate to larger animals, and somatic cell nuclear transfer remains technically challenging, expensive, and low yield. Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation, which does not involve manipulation of ova or blastocysts, has proven to be an effective alternative approach for generating transgenic offspring in rodents, and in some large animals. Our recent demonstration that canine testis cells can engraft in a host testis, and generate donor-derived sperm, suggests that SSC transplantation may offer a similar avenue to transgenesis in the canine model. Here, we explore the potential of SSC transplantation in dogs as a means of generating canine transgenic models for pre-clinical models of genetic diseases. Specifically, we 1) established markers for identification and tracking canine spermatogonial cells; 2) established methods for enrichment and genetic manipulation of these cells; 3) described their behavior in culture; and 4) demonstrated engraftment of genetically manipulated SSC, and production of transgenic sperm. These findings help set the stage for generation of transgenic canine models via SSC transplantation. PMID:23690628

  12. Isolation, genetic manipulation, and transplantation of canine spermatogonial stem cells: progress toward transgenesis through the male germ-line.

    PubMed

    Harkey, Michael A; Asano, Atsushi; Zoulas, Mary Ellen; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The dog is recognized as a highly predictive model for preclinical research. Its size, life span, physiology, and genetics more closely match human parameters than do those of the mouse model. Investigations of the genetic basis of disease and of new regenerative treatments have frequently taken advantage of canine models. However, full utility of this model has not been realized because of the lack of easy transgenesis. Blastocyst-mediated transgenic technology developed in mice has been very slow to translate to larger animals, and somatic cell nuclear transfer remains technically challenging, expensive, and low yield. Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation, which does not involve manipulation of ova or blastocysts, has proven to be an effective alternative approach for generating transgenic offspring in rodents and in some large animals. Our recent demonstration that canine testis cells can engraft in a host testis, and generate donor-derived sperm, suggests that SSC transplantation may offer a similar avenue to transgenesis in the canine model. Here, we explore the potential of SSC transplantation in dogs as a means of generating canine transgenic models for preclinical models of genetic diseases. Specifically, we i) established markers for identification and tracking canine spermatogonial cells; ii) established methods for enrichment and genetic manipulation of these cells; iii) described their behavior in culture; and iv) demonstrated engraftment of genetically manipulated SSC and production of transgenic sperm. These findings help to set the stage for generation of transgenic canine models via SSC transplantation.

  13. Characterization of canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells with phenotypic and functional differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Shan; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Liu, Cheng-Chi; Cheng, Chiao-Lei; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chu, Rea-Min

    2007-01-01

    For therapeutic purposes, large numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) are essential. In this study, we used 2% autologous canine plasma, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in generating monocyte-derived DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs. The plasma enriched the population of CD14-positive monocytes by greatly enhancing the efficiency of monocyte adherence, the proportion of adherent cells increasing from 6.6% with 10% fetal bovine serum to 15.3% with 2% autologous canine plasma. Culturing the adherent monocytes for 6 d with human GM-CSF, canine IL-4, and human Flt3L significantly increased the yield of DCs, more than 90% of which were CD14-negative. Because, in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), monocytes that were CD14-positive expressed tumor necrosis factor α much more than DCs with low levels of CD14, it is important to decrease the numbers of CD14-positive cells in generating monocyte-derived DCs. With flow cytometry and real-time reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction assays, we found that in canine immature DCs (iDCs) the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, and CD86 was high and the expression of CD80, CD83, and CD14 either low or negative. During maturation (stimulated by LPS), the expression of CD1a, CD40, CD83, and CD80 was upregulated. However, the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD11c, and CD86 was not increased in mature DCs. Incubating the iDCs with LPS decreased antigen uptake and increased the cells’ immunostimulatory capacity (assessed by the allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reaction), indicating that LPS accelerates the functional maturation of DCs. This protocol may facilitate the use of DCs in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:17695590

  14. Invasive Front Grading and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Canine Oral and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, E; Hirayama, K; Matsuda, K; Okamoto, M; Ohmachi, T; Uchida, K; Kadosawa, T; Taniyama, H

    2017-09-01

    Oral and cutaneous tissues are the most frequent origin in canine squamous cell carcinoma (SSC). In SCC, changes in adhesion molecule expression and transition from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype are thought to be important in development of invasive behavior of neoplastic cells at the leading front of the tumor. We therefore investigated histological invasive front grading and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both oral SCCs and cutaneous SCCs. EMT was assessed by evaluating immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, desmoglein, vimentin, and N-cadherin. Regardless of the anatomic location, invasive front grading resulted in higher histological grades than grading of the surface. Most oral SCCs were of significantly higher histologic grade than cutaneous SCCs ( P < .01). Expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and desmoglein was significantly lower in oral SCC compared with cutaneous SCC ( P < .01). A significant association was found between invasive front grading and loss of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and desmoglein ( P < .01). Also, vimentin-positive neoplastic cells had low immunoreactivity of these adhesion molecules, and a few of these neoplastic cells were positive for N-cadherin. These results suggest not only E-cadherin and β-catenin but also desmoglein as markers for predicting biological behavior of canine SCC. Depending on their primary sites, EMT correlates with biological behavior and therefore histological grade of canine SCC. We suggest that combining invasive front grading with assessment of immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and desmoglein may allow more accurate prediction of biological behavior of canine SCCs.

  15. Enhanced in vitro maturation of canine oocytes by oviduct epithelial cell co-culture.

    PubMed

    No, Jingu; Zhao, Minghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Ock, Sun A; Nam, Yoonseok; Hur, Tai-Young

    2017-09-06

    Canine-assisted reproductive techniques have been successful for several years; however, the lack of an oocyte in vitro maturation system has limited their application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of canine oviduct epithelial cells (cOECs) on canine oocyte maturation in vitro. Specifically, the method used for isolation of cOECs did not affect the expression of epithelial markers, E-cadherin and cytokeratin, on fresh, cultured and cryopreserved cells. Moreover, BrdU analysis showed that cOECs cultured in Medium 171 supplemented with mammary epithelial growth supplement were more proliferative than counterparts in advanced Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium or Medium 199. Maturation rate of canine oocytes collected from bitches at diestrus was significantly increased when oocytes were co-cultured with either fresh, cultured or frozen/thawed cOECs (13.23 ± 1.15%, 10.38 ± 4.89%, or 10.54 ± 2.96%, respectively) than that of control oocytes cultured without cOECs (2.48 ± 2.16%, p < 0.05). Additionally, the number of oocytes collected from bitches at estrus the reached metaphase II was increased ∼4 fold in co-culture with fresh, cultured, or frozen/thawed cOECs (47.2 ± 3.82%, 45.4 ± 7.34%, and 46.9 ± 1.51%, respectively) as compared with oocytes cultured without cOECs (11.9 ± 3.18%, p < 0.05). Nuclear maturation was further confirmed by assessing the formation of normal metaphase-II spindles, whereas cytoplasmic maturation was confirmed by inducing parthenogenetic oocyte activation. Embryonic development to the 8-cell stage was similar between in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes. These results suggested that co-culturing immature canine oocytes with cOECs facilitated canine oocyte maturation and early stages of embryonic development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Del Puerto, Helen L; Martins, Almir S; Milsted, Amy; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Braz, Gissandra F; Hissa, Barbara; Andrade, Luciana O; Alves, Fabiana; Rajão, Daniela S; Leite, Rômulo C; Vasconcelos, Anilton C

    2011-06-30

    Apoptosis can be induced or inhibited by viral proteins, it can form part of the host defense against virus infection, or it can be a mechanism for viral spread to neighboring cells. Canine distemper virus (CDV) induces apoptotic cells in lymphoid tissues and in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected. CDV also produces a cytopathologic effect, leading to apoptosis in Vero cells in tissue culture. We tested canine distemper virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, for the ability to trigger apoptosis in HeLa cells, derived from cervical cancer cells resistant to apoptosis. To study the effect of CDV infection in HeLa cells, we examined apoptotic markers 24 h post infection (pi), by flow cytometry assay for DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR assay for caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA expression, and by caspase-3 and -8 immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry showed that DNA fragmentation was induced in HeLa cells infected by CDV, and immunocytochemistry revealed a significant increase in the levels of the cleaved active form of caspase-3 protein, but did not show any difference in expression of caspase-8, indicating an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Confirming this observation, expression of caspase-3 mRNA was higher in CDV infected HeLa cells than control cells; however, there was no statistically significant change in caspase-8 mRNA expression profile. Our data suggest that canine distemper virus induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, triggering apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway, with no participation of the initiator caspase -8 from the extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, the cellular stress caused by CDV infection of HeLa cells, leading to apoptosis, can be used as a tool in future research for cervical cancer treatment and control.

  17. Electrophoretic separation of kidney and pituitary cells on STS-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D. R.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Barlow, G. H.; Cleveland, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Farrington, M. A.; Hatfield, J. M.; Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Wilfinger, W.; Grindeland, R.; Lewis, M. L.

    A Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) was used on Space Shuttle flight STS-8 to separate specific secretory cells from suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic kidney cells and rat pituitary cells. The objectives were to isolate the subfractions of kidney cells that produce the largest amounts of urokinase (plasminogen activator), and to isolate the subfractions of rat pituitary cells that secrete growth hormone, prolactin, and other hormones. Kidney cells were separated into more than 32 fractions in each of two electrophoretic runs. Electrophoretic mobility distributions in flight experiments were spread more than the ground controls. Multiple assay methods confirmed that all cultured kidney cell fractions produced some urokinase, and five to six fractions produced significantly more urokinase than the other fractions. Several fractions also produced tissue plasminogen activator. The pituitary cells were separated into 48 fractions in each of the two electrophoretic runs, and the amounts of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) released into the medium for each cell fraction were determined. Cell fractions were grouped into eight mobility classes and immunocytochemically assayed for the presence of GH, PRL, ACTH, LH, TSH, and FSH. The patterns of hormone distribution indicate that the specialized cells producing GH and PRL are isolatable due to the differences in electrophoretic mobilities.

  18. Regenerative medicine for the kidney: renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Akito; Nakasatomi, Masao; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    The kidney has the capacity for regeneration and repair after a variety of insults. Over the past few decades, factors that promote repair of the injured kidney have been extensively investigated. By using kidney injury animal models, the role of intrinsic and extrinsic growth factors, transcription factors, and extracellular matrix in this process has been examined. The identification of renal stem cells in the adult kidney as well as in the embryonic kidney is an active area of research. Cell populations expressing putative stem cell markers or possessing stem cell properties have been found in the tubules, interstitium, and glomeruli of the normal kidney. Cell therapies with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have been highly effective for the treatment of acute or chronic renal failure in animals. Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are also utilized for the construction of artificial kidneys or renal components. In this review, we highlight the advances in regenerative medicine for the kidney from the perspective of renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapies and discuss the issues to be solved to realize regenerative therapy for kidney diseases in humans.

  19. Neuronal cell differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells originating from canine amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Yu, Jung; Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Keun Jung; Han, Kil-Woo; Park, Kang-Sun; Lee, Dong-Soo; Kim, Min Kyu

    2014-04-01

    The amniotic fluid contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and can be readily available for tissue engineering. Regenerative treatments such as tissue engineering, cell therapy, and transplantation show potential in clinical trials of degenerative diseases. Disease presentation and clinical responses in the Canis familiaris not only are physiologically similar to human compared with other traditional mammalian models but is also a suitable model for human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether canine amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAF-MSCs) can differentiate into neural precursor cells in vitro when exposed to neural induction reagent. During neural differentiation, cAF-MSCs progressively acquire neuron-like morphology. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of neural-specific genes, such as NEFL, NSE, and TUBB3 (βIII-tubulin) dramatically increased in the differentiated cAF-MSCs after induction. In addition, protein expression levels of nestin, βIII-tubulin, and tyrosine hydroxylase remarkably increased in differentiated cAF-MSCs. This study demonstrates that cAF-MSCs have great potential for neural precursor differentiation in vitro. Therefore, amniotic fluid may be a suitable alternative source of stem cells and can be applied to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-05-23

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms.

  1. Heat shock proteins expression in canine intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romanucci, Mariarita; Bongiovanni, Laura; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Marà, Marino; di Guardo, Giovanni; Preziosi, Rosario; della Salda, Leonardo

    2005-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are strongly implicated in the control of cell growth, differentiation and biological behaviour of many human cutaneous neoplasms. To our knowledge, no data have been published in the veterinary literature concerning either normal or neoplastic skin. In this study, the immunohistochemical expression of Hsp27, Hsp72 and Hsp73 was evaluated in normal canine skin, 14 intracutaneous cornifying epitheliomas (ICE), 10 well-differentiated and 5 moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Expression was correlated with the histological degree of keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation, and investigated as to its usefulness in the differential diagnosis of these canine tumours. In normal epidermis, Hsp27 exhibited cytoplasmic labelling in the spinous and granular layers, whereas in neoplastic tissues it was detected particularly in those areas showing squamous differentiation. Hsp72 immunoreactivity was more intense in ICE and well-differentiated SCC than in normal skin; however, reduced immunolabelling was observed in moderately differentiated SCC. Unlike Hsp72, Hsp73 showed less intense labelling in ICE and well-differentiated SCC than in normal epithelium and an increased positivity in moderately differentiated SCC. These results indicate that HSP immunoreactivity differs between normal and neoplastic canine skin. Hsp27 expression seems to correlate directly with cellular differentiation; by contrast, the involvement of Hsp72/73 in proliferation and differentiation of tumour cells remains controversial. The pattern and intensity of immunolabelling of each investigated HSP did not show, however, significant differences between ICE and SCC; therefore, they do not seem to be useful in the differential diagnosis of these two canine tumours.

  2. Effect of IL-12 on canine dendritic cell maturation following differentiation induced by granulocyte-macrophage CSF and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Kikuya; Wijewardana, Viskam; Fujimoto, Mariko; Akazawa, Takashi; Yahata, Mana; Mito, Kai; Hatoya, Shingo; Inoue, Norimitsu; Inaba, Toshio

    2010-10-15

    IL-12 is a cytokine produced by dendritic cells (DC) and activates cytotoxic T cells and NK cells against tumors. We investigated the effect of IL-12 on DC. When peripheral blood monocytes were incubated with canine granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF and IL-4, expression of MHC class II, CD1a, CD80 and CD86 was significantly elevated, but the cell morphology was that of immature DC. By adding canine IL-12 to the DC-inducing culture, expression of CD80 and CD1a was significantly enhanced, and the cell morphology shifted to that of mature DC. T cell stimulation by cultured cells was also significantly enhanced by the presence of IL-12. These results show that IL-12 significantly promotes the maturation and activation of canine DC following the induction of differentiation by GM-CSF and IL-4. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Kidney dendritic cells in acute and chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Hochheiser, Katharina; Tittel, André; Kurts, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Dendritic cells are not only the master regulators of adaptive immunity, but also participate profoundly in innate immune responses. Much has been learned about their basic immunological functions and their roles in various diseases. Comparatively little is still known about their role in renal disease, despite their obvious potential to affect immune responses in the kidney, and immune responses that are directed against renal components. Kidney dendritic cells form an abundant network in the renal tubulointerstitium and constantly survey the environment for signs of injury or infection, in order to alert the immune system to the need to initiate defensive action. Recent studies have identified a role for dendritic cells in several murine models of acute renal injury and chronic nephritis. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of kidney dendritic cells that has been obtained from the study of murine models of renal disease. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Synaptically-competent neurons derived from canine embryonic stem cells by lineage selection with EGF and Noggin.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jared T; Lai, Jonathan K Y; Semple, Esther; Brisson, Brigitte A; Gartley, Cathy; Armstrong, John N; Betts, Dean H

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell lines have been generated in several domestic animal species; however, these lines traditionally show poor self-renewal and differentiation. Using canine embryonic stem cell (cESC) lines previously shown to have sufficient self-renewal capacity and potency, we generated and compared canine neural stem cell (cNSC) lines derived by lineage selection with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or Noggin along the neural default differentiation pathway, or by directed differentiation with retinoic acid (RA)-induced floating sphere assay. Lineage selection produced large populations of SOX2+ neural stem/progenitor cell populations and neuronal derivatives while directed differentiation produced few and improper neuronal derivatives. Primary canine neural lines were generated from fetal tissue and used as a positive control for differentiation and electrophysiology. Differentiation of EGF- and Noggin-directed cNSC lines in N2B27 with low-dose growth factors (BDNF/NT-3 or PDGFαα) produced phenotypes equivalent to primary canine neural cells including 3CB2+ radial progenitors, MOSP+ glia restricted precursors, VIM+/GFAP+ astrocytes, and TUBB3+/MAP2+/NFH+/SYN+ neurons. Conversely, induction with RA and neuronal differentiation produced inadequate putative neurons for further study, even though appropriate neuronal gene expression profiles were observed by RT-PCR (including Nestin, TUBB3, PSD95, STX1A, SYNPR, MAP2). Co-culture of cESC-derived neurons with primary canine fetal cells on canine astrocytes was used to test functional maturity of putative neurons. Canine ESC-derived neurons received functional GABA(A)- and AMPA-receptor mediated synaptic input, but only when co-cultured with primary neurons. This study presents established neural stem/progenitor cell populations and functional neural derivatives in the dog, providing the proof-of-concept required to translate stem cell transplantation strategies into a clinically relevant animal model.

  5. Synaptically-Competent Neurons Derived from Canine Embryonic Stem Cells by Lineage Selection with EGF and Noggin

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Jared T.; Lai, Jonathan K. Y.; Semple, Esther; Brisson, Brigitte A.; Gartley, Cathy; Armstrong, John N.; Betts, Dean H.

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell lines have been generated in several domestic animal species; however, these lines traditionally show poor self-renewal and differentiation. Using canine embryonic stem cell (cESC) lines previously shown to have sufficient self-renewal capacity and potency, we generated and compared canine neural stem cell (cNSC) lines derived by lineage selection with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or Noggin along the neural default differentiation pathway, or by directed differentiation with retinoic acid (RA)-induced floating sphere assay. Lineage selection produced large populations of SOX2+ neural stem/progenitor cell populations and neuronal derivatives while directed differentiation produced few and improper neuronal derivatives. Primary canine neural lines were generated from fetal tissue and used as a positive control for differentiation and electrophysiology. Differentiation of EGF- and Noggin-directed cNSC lines in N2B27 with low-dose growth factors (BDNF/NT-3 or PDGFαα) produced phenotypes equivalent to primary canine neural cells including 3CB2+ radial progenitors, MOSP+ glia restricted precursors, VIM+/GFAP+ astrocytes, and TUBB3+/MAP2+/NFH+/SYN+ neurons. Conversely, induction with RA and neuronal differentiation produced inadequate putative neurons for further study, even though appropriate neuronal gene expression profiles were observed by RT-PCR (including Nestin, TUBB3, PSD95, STX1A, SYNPR, MAP2). Co-culture of cESC-derived neurons with primary canine fetal cells on canine astrocytes was used to test functional maturity of putative neurons. Canine ESC-derived neurons received functional GABAA- and AMPA-receptor mediated synaptic input, but only when co-cultured with primary neurons. This study presents established neural stem/progenitor cell populations and functional neural derivatives in the dog, providing the proof-of-concept required to translate stem cell transplantation strategies into a clinically relevant animal model. PMID:21611190

  6. Transitional cell carcinoma involving graft kidney in a kidney transplant recipient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu Ah; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Sul, Hae Joung; Kim, Suk Young; Chang, Yoon Kyung

    2017-09-21

    Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment option for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) to prolong survival and improve quality of life. Although the use of potent immunosuppressive agents increases graft survival in kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs), it may lead to the development of malignancy, including transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). TCC developing in the pelvis of graft kidney is very rare in KTRs. A 40-year-old male visited hospital with complaints of nausea, vomiting and gross hematuria. Eleven years ago, he was diagnosed ESRD of unknown origin, and received a living related KT from his father 1 year later. Radiologic findings showed a huge polypoid mass in the pelvis of graft kidney with pelvo-calyceal dilation and a 3.3 cm-sized nodule in aortocaval chain and a 2.5 cm-sized nodule in right iliac chain as TCC stage IV. Sonography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of pelvis mass in the graft kidney revealed a low grade urothelial cell carcinoma. Radical graft nephroureterectomy was performed and histopathological diagnosis confirmed as a low grade urothelial carcinoma of graft pelvis and ureter lumen, which invaded to perirenal fat and renal parenchyma with lymphovascular presence (T3Nx). The patient started with adjuvant concurrent chemo-radiation therapy and returned to regular hemodialysis. We report a rare case of TCC in the pelvis of graft kidney with already advanced disease at diagnosis in a young KTR. For the early diagnosis of TCC in KTRs, exposure history to Chinese herb or analgesics should be investigated before KT and high risk population in KTRs should be tightly performed regular postoperative surveillance for TCC and considered of less calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressant protocol.

  7. CD44+/CD24- Cancer Stem Cells Are Associated With Higher Grade of Canine Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Im, K S; Jang, Y G; Shin, J I; Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Lee, S M; Kim, J H; Sur, J H

    2015-11-01

    The CD44+/CD24- phenotype identifies cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in canine mammary carcinoma (MC); however, the histopathological features associated with this phenotype remain to be elucidated. Here, we determined whether the CD44+/CD24- phenotype was associated with hormonal receptor (HR; estrogen receptor [ER] and/or progesterone receptor [PR]) status and/or triple (ER, PR, and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2)-negative (TN) subtype; conventional histological evaluation was also performed. We found that, as single markers, both CD44+ and CD24+ were associated with less aggressive histological types, low grade, and a non-TN subtype; both markers were associated with HR positivity. On the other hand, a CD44+/CD24- phenotype was associated with higher grade of carcinoma. Therefore, our results suggest that immunohistochemical phenotyping for CD44/CD24 is useful for the evaluation of tumor behavior as well as CSC-like properties in canine MCs.

  8. Control of renin secretion from kidneys with renin cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Birgül; Karger, Christian; Wagner, Charlotte; Kurtz, Armin

    2014-02-01

    In states of loss-of-function mutations of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, kidneys develop a strong hyperplasia of renin-producing cells. Those additional renin cells are located outside the classic juxtaglomerular areas, mainly in the walls of preglomerular vessels and most prominently in multilayers surrounding afferent arterioles. Since the functional behavior of those ectopic renin cells is yet unknown, we aimed to characterize the control of renin secretion from kidneys with renin cell hyperplasia. As a model, we used kidneys from mice lacking aldosterone synthase (AS⁻/⁻ mice), which displayed 10-fold elevations of renin mRNA and plasma renin concentrations. On the absolute level, renin secretion from isolated AS⁻/⁻ kidneys was more than 10-fold increased over wild-type kidneys. On the relative level, the stimulation of renin secretion by the β-adrenergic activator isoproterenol or by lowering of the concentration of extracellular Ca²⁺ was very similar between the two genotypes. In addition, the inhibitory effects of ANG II and of perfusion pressure were similar between the two genotypes. Deletion of connexin40 blunted the pressure dependency of renin secretion and the stimulatory effect of low extracellular Ca²⁺ on renin secretion in the same manner in kidneys of AS⁻/⁻ mice as in wild-type mice. Our findings suggest a high degree of functional similarity between renin cells originating during development and located at different positions in the adult kidney. They also suggest a high similarity in the expression of membrane proteins relevant for the control of renin secretion, such as β₁-adrenergic receptors, ANG II type 1 receptors, and connexin40.

  9. Effect of serum-derived albumin scaffold and canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on osteogenesis in canine segmental bone defect model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Daeyoung; Kang, Byung-Jae; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Rhew, Daeun; Kim, Wan Hee; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Composite biological and synthetic grafts with progenitor cells offer an alternative approach to auto- or allografts for fracture repair. This study was conducted to evaluate osteogenesis of autologous serum-derived albumin (ASA) scaffolds seeded with canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) in a canine segmental bone defect model. ASA scaffold was prepared with canine serum using cross-linking and freeze-drying procedures. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was mixed at the cross-linking stage. Ad-MSCs were seeded into the scaffold and incubated for one day before implantation. After 16 weeks, the grafts were harvested for histological analysis. The dogs were divided into five groups: control, ASA scaffolds with and without Ad-MSCs, and ASA scaffolds including β-TCP with and without Ad-MSCs. ASA scaffolds with Ad-MSCs had a significantly larger area of increased opacity at the proximal and distal host cortex-implant interfaces in radiographs 16 weeks after implantation compared to the groups with β-TCP (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric analysis showed that ASA scaffolds with Ad-MSCs had significantly greater new bone formation than other groups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Ad-MSCs seeded into ASA scaffolds enhanced osteogenesis in the bone defect model, but that β-TCP in the ASA scaffold might prevent penetration of the cells required for bone healing.

  10. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P < .05) than in the control (3.4 ± 0.6). Although not significant (P > .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  11. Canine distemper virus epithelial cell infection is required for clinical disease but not for immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Hinkelmann, Sarah; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2012-04-01

    To characterize the importance of infection of epithelial cells for morbillivirus pathogenesis, we took advantage of the severe disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) in ferrets. To obtain a CDV that was unable to enter epithelial cells but retained the ability to enter immune cells, we transferred to its attachment (H) protein two mutations shown to interfere with the interaction of measles virus H with its epithelial receptor, human nectin-4. As expected for an epithelial receptor (EpR)-blind CDV, this virus infected dog and ferret epithelial cells inefficiently and did not cause cell fusion or syncytium formation. On the other hand, the EpR-blind CDV replicated in cells expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), the morbillivirus immune cell receptor, with similar kinetics to those of wild-type CDV. While ferrets infected with wild-type CDV died within 12 days after infection, after developing severe rash and fever, animals infected with the EpR-blind virus showed no clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, both viruses spread rapidly and efficiently in immune cells, causing similar levels of leukopenia and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation activity, two indicators of morbillivirus immunosuppression. Infection was documented for airway epithelia of ferrets infected with wild-type CDV but not for those of animals infected with the EpR-blind virus, and only animals infected with wild-type CDV shed virus. Thus, epithelial cell infection is necessary for clinical disease and efficient virus shedding but not for immunosuppression.

  12. Analysis of Contractility and Invasion Potential of Two Canine Mammary Tumor Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Rajakylä, Kaisa; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Tojkander, Sari

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are surrounded by a mechanically and biochemically distinct microenvironment that undergoes dynamic changes throughout the neoplastic progression. During this progression, some cancer cells acquire abnormal characteristics that potentiate their escape from the primary tumor site, to establish secondary tumors in distant organs. Recent studies with several human cancer cell lines have shown that the altered physical properties of tumor cells, such as their ability to apply high traction forces to the surroundings, are directly linked with their potential to invade and metastasize. To test the hypothetical interconnection between actomyosin-mediated traction forces and invasion potential within 3D-microenvironment, we utilized two canine mammary tumor cell lines with different contractile properties. These cell lines, canine mammary tumor (CMT)-U27 and CMT-U309, were found to have distinct expression patterns of lineage-specific markers and organization of actin-based structures. In particular, CMT-U309 carcinoma cells were typified by thick contractile actomyosin bundles that exerted high forces to their environment, as measured by traction force microscopy. These high contractile forces also correlated with the prominent invasiveness of the CMT-U309 cell line. Furthermore, we found high contractility and 3D-invasion potential to be dependent on the activity of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as blocking AMPK signaling was found to reverse both of these features. Taken together, our findings implicate that actomyosin forces correlate with the invasion potential of the studied cell lines.

  13. Analysis of Contractility and Invasion Potential of Two Canine Mammary Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Rajakylä, Kaisa; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Tojkander, Sari

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are surrounded by a mechanically and biochemically distinct microenvironment that undergoes dynamic changes throughout the neoplastic progression. During this progression, some cancer cells acquire abnormal characteristics that potentiate their escape from the primary tumor site, to establish secondary tumors in distant organs. Recent studies with several human cancer cell lines have shown that the altered physical properties of tumor cells, such as their ability to apply high traction forces to the surroundings, are directly linked with their potential to invade and metastasize. To test the hypothetical interconnection between actomyosin-mediated traction forces and invasion potential within 3D-microenvironment, we utilized two canine mammary tumor cell lines with different contractile properties. These cell lines, canine mammary tumor (CMT)-U27 and CMT-U309, were found to have distinct expression patterns of lineage-specific markers and organization of actin-based structures. In particular, CMT-U309 carcinoma cells were typified by thick contractile actomyosin bundles that exerted high forces to their environment, as measured by traction force microscopy. These high contractile forces also correlated with the prominent invasiveness of the CMT-U309 cell line. Furthermore, we found high contractility and 3D-invasion potential to be dependent on the activity of 5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as blocking AMPK signaling was found to reverse both of these features. Taken together, our findings implicate that actomyosin forces correlate with the invasion potential of the studied cell lines. PMID:28955712

  14. Transplantation of a cell line derived from a canine benign mixed mammary tumour into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Priosoeryanto, B P; Tateyama, S; Yamaguchi, R; Uchida, K

    1995-11-01

    The MCM-B2 canine mammary cell line was serially transplanted into nude mice. The tumour masses consisted of elongated pleomorphic cells of varying size in the first to third passages; oval cells, becoming rounder, in the sixth to eighth passages; and cord-like, glandular and duct-like structures with compact radiating projections in the ninth and tenth passages. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination of round cells confirmed their epithelial cell nature, but the morphology of the elongated and oval cells was identical with that of the original cell line. The findings suggest that the MCM-B2 cell line is a multipotential stem cell or is derived from glandular differentiation of mammary gland.

  15. Ligand-Independent Canonical Wnt Activity in Canine Mammary Tumor Cell Lines Associated with Aberrant LEF1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    van Wolferen, Monique E.; Rao, Nagesha A. S.; Grizelj, Juraj; Vince, Silvijo; Hellmen, Eva; Mol, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Pet dogs very frequently develop spontaneous mammary tumors and have been suggested as a good model organism for breast cancer research. In order to obtain an insight into underlying signaling mechanisms during canine mammary tumorigenesis, in this study we assessed the incidence and the mechanism of canonical Wnt activation in a panel of 12 canine mammary tumor cell lines. We show that a subset of canine mammary cell lines exhibit a moderate canonical Wnt activity that is dependent on Wnt ligands, similar to what has been described in human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, three of the tested canine mammary cell lines have a high canonical Wnt activity that is not responsive to inhibitors of Wnt ligand secretion. Tumor cell lines with highly active canonical Wnt signaling often carry mutations in key members of the Wnt signaling cascade. These cell lines, however, carry no mutations in the coding regions of intracellular Wnt pathway components (APC, β-catenin, GSK3β, CK1α and Axin1) and have a functional β-catenin destruction complex. Interestingly, however, the cell lines with high canonical Wnt activity specifically overexpress LEF1 mRNA and the knock-down of LEF1 significantly inhibits TCF-reporter activity. In addition, LEF1 is overexpressed in a subset of canine mammary carcinomas, implicating LEF1 in ligand-independent activation of canonical Wnt signaling in canine mammary tumors. We conclude that canonical Wnt activation may be a frequent event in canine mammary tumors both through Wnt ligand-dependent and novel ligand–independent mechanisms. PMID:24887235

  16. Current Cell-Based Strategies for Whole Kidney Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Poornejad, Nafiseh; Schaumann, Lara B; Buckmiller, Evan M; Roeder, Beverly L; Cook, Alonzo D

    2016-10-01

    Chronic kidney diseases affect thousands of people worldwide. Although hemodialysis alleviates the situation by filtering the patient's blood, it does not replace other kidney functions such as hormone release or homeostasis regulation. Consequently, orthotopic transplantation of donor organs is the ultimate treatment for patients suffering from end-stage renal failure. Unfortunately, the number of patients on the waiting list far exceeds the number of donors. In addition, recipients must remain on immunosuppressive medications for the remainder of their lives, which increases the risk of morbidity due to their weakened immune system. Despite recent advancements in whole organ transplantation, 40% of recipients will face rejection of implanted organs with a life expectancy of only 10 years. Bioengineered patient-specific kidneys could be an inexhaustible source of healthy kidneys without the risk of immune rejection. The purpose of this article is to review the pros and cons of several bioengineering strategies used in recent years and their unresolved issues. These strategies include repopulation of natural scaffolds with a patient's cells, de-novo generation of kidneys using patient-induced pluripotent stem cells combined with stepwise differentiation, and the creation of a patient's kidney in the embryos of other mammalian species.

  17. Dendritic Cells and Macrophages: Sentinels in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Weisheit, Christina K.; Engel, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells and macrophages) are closely related immune cells with central roles in anti-infectious defense and maintenance of organ integrity. The canonical function of dendritic cells is the activation of T cells, whereas macrophages remove apoptotic cells and microbes by phagocytosis. In the kidney, these cell types form an intricate system of mononuclear phagocytes that surveys against injury and infection and contributes to organ homeostasis and tissue repair but may also promote progression of CKD. This review summarizes the general functions and classification of dendritic cells and macrophages in the immune system and recapitulates why overlapping definitions and historically separate research have created controversy about their tasks. Their roles in acute kidney disease, CKD, and renal transplantation are described, and therapeutic strategy to modify these cells for therapeutic purposes is discussed. PMID:25568218

  18. Preclinical Evaluation of the Novel BTK Inhibitor Acalabrutinib in Canine Models of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Heather L.; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Rothbaum, Wayne; Coombes, Kevin R.; Covey, Todd; Kaptein, Allard; Gulrajani, Michael; Van Lith, Bart; Krejsa, Cecile; Coss, Christopher C.; Russell, Duncan S.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Urie, Bridget K.; London, Cheryl A.; Byrd, John C.; Johnson, Amy J.; Kisseberth, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Acalabrutinib (ACP-196) is a second-generation inhibitor of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) with increased target selectivity and potency compared to ibrutinib. In this study, we evaluated acalabrutinib in spontaneously occurring canine lymphoma, a model of B-cell malignancy similar to human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). First, we demonstrated that acalabrutinib potently inhibited BTK activity and downstream effectors in CLBL1, a canine B-cell lymphoma cell line, and primary canine lymphoma cells. Acalabrutinib also inhibited proliferation in CLBL1 cells. Twenty dogs were enrolled in the clinical trial and treated with acalabrutinib at dosages of 2.5 to 20mg/kg every 12 or 24 hours. Acalabrutinib was generally well tolerated, with adverse events consisting primarily of grade 1 or 2 anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and lethargy. Overall response rate (ORR) was 25% (5/20) with a median progression free survival (PFS) of 22.5 days. Clinical benefit was observed in 30% (6/20) of dogs. These findings suggest that acalabrutinib is safe and exhibits activity in canine B-cell lymphoma patients and support the use of canine lymphoma as a relevant model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). PMID:27434128

  19. Preclinical Evaluation of the Novel BTK Inhibitor Acalabrutinib in Canine Models of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Bonnie K; Gardner, Heather L; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Rothbaum, Wayne; Coombes, Kevin R; Covey, Todd; Kaptein, Allard; Gulrajani, Michael; Van Lith, Bart; Krejsa, Cecile; Coss, Christopher C; Russell, Duncan S; Zhang, Xiaoli; Urie, Bridget K; London, Cheryl A; Byrd, John C; Johnson, Amy J; Kisseberth, William C

    2016-01-01

    Acalabrutinib (ACP-196) is a second-generation inhibitor of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) with increased target selectivity and potency compared to ibrutinib. In this study, we evaluated acalabrutinib in spontaneously occurring canine lymphoma, a model of B-cell malignancy similar to human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). First, we demonstrated that acalabrutinib potently inhibited BTK activity and downstream effectors in CLBL1, a canine B-cell lymphoma cell line, and primary canine lymphoma cells. Acalabrutinib also inhibited proliferation in CLBL1 cells. Twenty dogs were enrolled in the clinical trial and treated with acalabrutinib at dosages of 2.5 to 20mg/kg every 12 or 24 hours. Acalabrutinib was generally well tolerated, with adverse events consisting primarily of grade 1 or 2 anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and lethargy. Overall response rate (ORR) was 25% (5/20) with a median progression free survival (PFS) of 22.5 days. Clinical benefit was observed in 30% (6/20) of dogs. These findings suggest that acalabrutinib is safe and exhibits activity in canine B-cell lymphoma patients and support the use of canine lymphoma as a relevant model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

  20. Effect of serum starvation and chemical inhibitors on cell cycle synchronization of canine dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Khammanit, R; Chantakru, S; Kitiyanant, Y; Saikhun, J

    2008-07-01

    The cell cycle stage of donor cells and the method of cell cycle synchronization are important factors influencing the success of somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we examined the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluence, and treatment with chemical inhibitors (roscovitine, aphidicolin, and colchicine) on cell cycle characteristics of canine dermal fibroblast cells. The effect of the various methods of cell cycle synchronization was determined by flow cytometry. Short periods of serum starvation (24-72 h) increased (P<0.05) the proportion of cells at the G0/G1 phase (88.4-90.9%) as compared to the control group (73.6%). A similar increase in the percentage of G0/G1 (P<0.05) cells were obtained in the culture to confluency group (91.8%). Treatment with various concentrations of roscovitine did not increase the proportion of G0/G1 cells; conversely, at concentrations of 30 and 45 microM, it increased (P<0.05) the percentage of cells that underwent apoptosis. The use of aphidicolin led to increase percentages of cells at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, without increasing apoptosis. Colchicine, at a concentration of 0.1 microg/mL, increased the proportion of cells at the G2/M phase (38.5%, P<0.05); conversely, it decreased the proportions of G0/G1 cells (51.4%, P<0.05). Concentrations of colchicines >0.1 microg/mL did not increase the percentage of G2/M phase cells. The effects of chemical inhibitors were fully reversible; their removal led to a rapid progression in the cell cycle. In conclusion, canine dermal fibroblasts were effectively synchronized at various stages of the cell cycle, which could have benefits for somatic cell nuclear transfer in this species.

  1. Citrate and celecoxib induce apoptosis and decrease necrosis in synergistic manner in canine mammary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Vahidi, R; Safi, S; Farsinejad, A; Panahi, N

    2015-10-16

    Celecoxib and citrate have been shown to possess antitumor activity in a variety of cancer cells. However, the antitumor activities of these agents in canine mammary tumors have not been well demonstrated. The aim of our study was to investigate the apoptotic and antiproliferative effects of citrate and celecoxib, individually and in combination, on canine mammary tumor cell line CF41—Mg. MTT assay was performed to determine cell viability, and Annexin—PI test was performed to evaluate apoptosis induction. MTT assay results revealed that compared with the control groups, treatment groups, as both single and combined treatments, showed significant inhibition of tumor growth in a dose—dependent manner. IC50 concentrations of citrate and celecoxib were defined 26mM and 22μM, respectively. In another set of experiment, significant increase in cell apoptosis was observed at IC50 concentrations of citrate and celecoxib after 48h incubation. In spite of that, simultaneous treatment of cells with citrate and celecoxib eventuated with meaningful toxicity augmentation and induction of apoptosis at lower concentrations. Also necrotic cells were decreased by coadministration of the two agents. In conclusion, the present study indicates significant cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of citrate and celecoxib coadministration on CF41—Mg cells, and proposes new strategies for counteracting cancer cells proliferation and overcoming chemo resistance.

  2. Frequency of IFNγ-producing T cells correlates with seroreactivity and activated T cells during canine Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines to prevent Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans or animals are not available, and in many settings, dogs are an important source of domestic infection for the insect vector. Identification of infected canines is crucial for evaluating peridomestic transmission dynamics and parasite control strategies. As immune control of T. cruzi infection is dependent on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, we aimed to define a serodiagnostic assay and T cell phenotypic markers for identifying infected dogs and studying the canine T. cruzi-specific immune response. Plasma samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from forty-two dogs living in a T. cruzi-endemic region. Twenty dogs were known to be seropositive and nine seronegative by conventional serologic tests two years prior to our study. To determine canine seroreactivity, we tested sera or plasma samples in a multiplex bead array against eleven recombinant T. cruzi proteins. Ninety-four percent (17/18) of dogs positive by multiplex serology were initially positive by conventional serology. The frequency of IFNγ-producing cells in PBMCs responding to T. cruzi correlated to serological status, identifying 95% of multiplex seropositive dogs. Intracellular staining identified CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations as the sources of T. cruzi lysate-induced IFNγ. Low expression of CCR7 and CD62L on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells suggested a predominance of effector/effector memory T cells in seropositive canines. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to correlate T. cruzi-specific antibody responses with T cell responses in naturally infected dogs and validate these methods for identifying dogs exposed to T. cruzi. PMID:24456537

  3. Expression of different phenotypes in cell lines from canine mammary spindle-cell tumours and osteosarcomas indicating a pluripotent mammary stem cell origin.

    PubMed

    Hellmén, E; Moller, M; Blankenstein, M A; Andersson, L; Westermark, B

    2000-06-01

    Mammary spindle-cell tumours and sarcomas seem to be restricted to dogs and humans. Two cell lines from spontaneous primary canine mammary spindle-cell tumours (CMT-U304 and CMT-U309) and two cell lines from spontaneous primary canine mammary osteosarcomas (CMT-U334 and CMT-U335) were established to study the mesenchymal phenotypes of mammary tumours in the female dog. The cells from the spindle-cell tumours expressed cytokeratin, vimentin and smooth muscle actin filaments. When these cells were inoculated subcutaneously into female and male nude mice they formed different types of mesenchymal tumours such as spindle-cell tumours, fibroma and rhabdomyoid tumours (n = 6/8). The cells from the osteosarcomas expressed vimentin filaments and also formed different types of mesenchymal tumours such as chondroid, rhabdomyoid, smooth muscle-like and spindle-cell tumours (n = 6/10). The cell lines CMT-U304, CMT-U309 and CMT-U335 had receptors for progesterone but none of the four cell lines had receptors for estrogen. All four cell lines and their corresponding primary tumours showed identical allelic patterns in microsatellite analysis. By in situ hybridization with genomic DNA we could verify that all formed tumours but one were of canine origin. Our results support the hypothesis that canine mammary tumours are derived from pluripotent stem cells.

  4. Zoonotic intestinal helminths interact with the canine immune system by modulating T cell responses and preventing dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Junginger, Johannes; Raue, Katharina; Wolf, Karola; Janecek, Elisabeth; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Günzel-Apel, Anne-Rose; Strube, Christina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2017-09-04

    Parasite co-evolution alongside the mammalian immune system gave rise to several modulatory strategies by which they prevent exaggerated pathology and facilitate a longer worm survival. As little is known about the immunoregulatory potential of the zoonotic canine parasites Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in the natural host, the present study aimed to investigate whether their larval excretory-secretory (ES) products can modulate the canine immune system. We demonstrated TcES to increase the frequency of CD4+ Foxp3(high) T cells, while both AcES and TcES were associated with elevated Helios expression in Foxp3(high) lymphocytes. ES products were further capable of inducing IL-10 production by lymphocytes, which was mainly attributed to CD8+ T cells. ES treatment of PBMCs prior to mitogen stimulation inhibited polyclonal proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, monocyte-derived ES-pulsed dendritic cells reduced upregulation of MHC-II and CD80 in response to lipopolysaccharide. The data showed that regulation of the canine immune system by A. caninum and T. canis larvae comprises the modification of antigen-specific and polyclonal T cell responses and dendritic cell maturation.

  5. Clinical-Grade Isolated Human Kidney Perivascular Stromal Cells as an Organotypic Cell Source for Kidney Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Leuning, Daniëlle G; Reinders, Marlies E J; Li, Joan; Peired, Anna J; Lievers, Ellen; de Boer, Hetty C; Fibbe, Willem E; Romagnani, Paola; van Kooten, Cees; Little, Melissa H; Engelse, Marten A; Rabelink, Ton J

    2017-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are immunomodulatory and tissue homeostatic cells that have shown beneficial effects in kidney diseases and transplantation. Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) identified within several different organs share characteristics of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). These PSCs may also possess tissue-specific properties and play a role in local tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that human kidney-derived PSCs (hkPSCs) would elicit improved kidney repair in comparison with BM-MSCs. Here we introduce a novel, clinical-grade isolation method of hkPSCs from cadaveric kidneys by enriching for the perivascular marker, NG2. hkPSCs show strong transcriptional similarities to BM-MSCs but also show organotypic expression signatures, including the HoxD10 and HoxD11 nephrogenic transcription factors. Comparable to BM-MSCs, hkPSCs showed immunosuppressive potential and, when cocultured with endothelial cells, vascular plexus formation was supported, which was specifically in the hkPSCs accompanied by an increased NG2 expression. hkPSCs did not undergo myofibroblast transformation after exposure to transforming growth factor-β, further corroborating their potential regulatory role in tissue homeostasis. This was further supported by the observation that hkPSCs induced accelerated repair in a tubular epithelial wound scratch assay, which was mediated through hepatocyte growth factor release. In vivo, in a neonatal kidney injection model, hkPSCs reintegrated and survived in the interstitial compartment, whereas BM-MSCs did not show this potential. Moreover, hkPSCs gave protection against the development of acute kidney injury in vivo in a model of rhabdomyolysis-mediated nephrotoxicity. Overall, this suggests a superior therapeutic potential for the use of hkPSCs and their secretome in the treatment of kidney diseases. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:405-418.

  6. Foam Cells and the Pathogenesis of Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Minseob; Hudkins, Kelly L.; Alpers, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Foam cells in human glomeruli can be encountered in various renal diseases including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy. Although foam cells are a key participant in atherosclerosis, surprisingly little is known about their pathogenicity in the kidney. We review our understanding (or lack thereof) of foam cells in the kidney as well as insights gained in studies of foam cells and macrophages involved in atherosclerosis, to suggest areas of investigation that will allow better characterization of the role of these cells in renal disease. Recent findings There is a general dearth of animal models of disease with renal foam cell accumulation, limiting progress in our understanding of the pathobiology of these cells. Recent genetic modifications of hyperlipidemic mice have resulted in some new disease models with renal foam cell accumulation. Recent studies have challenged older paradigms by findings that indicate many tissue macrophages are derived from cells permanently residing in the tissue from birth rather than circulating monocytes. Summary Renal foam cells remain an enigma. Extrapolating from studies of atherosclerosis suggests that therapeutics targeting mitochondrial ROS production or modulating cholesterol and lipoprotein uptake or egress from these cells may prove beneficial for kidney diseases in which foam cells are present. PMID:25887903

  7. Relationship between automated total nucleated cell count and enumeration of cells on direct smears of canine synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Dusick, Allison; Young, Karen M.; Muir, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Canine osteoarthritis is a common condition seen in veterinary clinical practice and causes considerable morbidity in dogs as they age. Synovial fluid analysis is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of canine joint disease and obtaining a total nucleated cell count (TNCC) is particularly important. The low volume of fluid obtained during arthrocentesis is often insufficient for obtaining an automated TNCC, thereby limiting sample interpretation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether estimation of TNCC in canine synovial fluid could be achieved by performing manual cell counts on direct smears of fluid. Fifty eight synovial fluid samples, taken by arthrocentesis from 48 dogs, were included in the study. Direct smears of synovial fluid were prepared, and hyaluronidase added before cell counts were obtained using a commercial laser-based instrument. A protocol was established to count nucleated cells in a specific region of the smear, using a serpentine counting pattern; mean number of nucleated cells/400× field was then calculated. There was a positive correlation between the automated TNCC and mean manual cell count, with more variability at higher TNCC. Regression analysis was performed to estimate TNCC from manual counts. By this method, 78% of the samples were correctly predicted to fall into one of three categories (within the reference interval, mildly to moderately elevated, or markedly elevated) relative to the automated TNCC. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was good to excellent. The results of the study suggest that interpretation of canine synovial fluid samples of low volume can be aided by manual cell counting of direct smears. PMID:25439439

  8. Specific immunotypes of canine T cell lymphoma are associated with different outcomes.

    PubMed

    Deravi, Nariman; Berke, Olaf; Woods, J Paul; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2017-09-01

    Canine lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with many different subtypes. Lymphoma of T cell type in particular is variable in outcome, and includes subtypes with non-progressive, slowly- and rapidly-progressive disease course. Association of immunotype with disease course is incompletely defined. Here, results of flow cytometric immunotyping of 127 canine T cell lymphomas were analyzed in relation to survival and progression free interval. Samples originated from 101 multicentric, 8 mediastinal, 6 cutaneous, 5 hepatosplenic, 5 gastrointestinal and 2 other anatomic subtypes of T cell lymphoma. Compared to multicentric T cell lymphoma, gastrointestinal lymphoma had shorter survival and progression free interval, and hepatosplenic lymphoma had shorter survival. Among dogs with multicentric T cell lymphoma, immunotypes of CD4(+)/CD8(-)/MHCII(+), CD4(-)/CD8(+)/MHCII(+) and CD4(-)/CD8(+)/MHCII(-) were associated with longer survival times than the immunotype of CD4(+)/CD8(-)/MHCII(-), and immunotypes of CD4(+)/CD8(-)/MHCII(+), CD4(-)/CD8(+)/MHCII(-), and CD4(-)/CD8(-)/MHCII(+) were associated with longer progression free intervals. Dogs with multicentric T cell lymphoma and concurrent leukemia had shorter survival but similar progression free interval compared to those without leukemia. Body weight, sex, hypercalcemia, cell size, expression of CD3 and use of combination or single agent chemotherapy did not significantly affect outcome of multicentric TCL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blocking Signaling at the Level of GLI Regulates Downstream Gene Expression and Inhibits Proliferation of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mehdi Hayat; Holt, Roseline; Rebhun, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    The Hedgehog-GLI signaling pathway is active in a variety of human malignancies and is known to contribute to the growth and survival of human osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we examined the expression and regulation of GLI transcription factors in multiple canine osteosarcoma cell lines and analyzed the effects of inhibiting GLI with GANT61, a GLI-specific inhibitor. Compared with normal canine osteoblasts, real-time PCR showed that GLI1 and GLI2 were highly expressed in two out of three cell lines and correlated with downstream target gene expression of PTCH1and PAX6. Treatment of canine osteosarcoma cells with GANT61 resulted in decreased expression of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and PAX6. Furthermore, GANT61 inhibited proliferation and colony formation in all three canine osteosarcoma cell lines. The finding that GLI signaling activity is present and active in canine osteosarcoma cells suggests that spontaneously arising osteosarcoma in dogs might serve as a good model for future preclinical testing of GLI inhibitors. PMID:24810746

  10. Effects of tacrolimus on action potential configuration and transmembrane ion currents in canine ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Szabó, László; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Pál, Balázs; Nánási, Péter P

    2013-03-01

    Tacrolimus is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent which causes cardiovascular complications, e.g., hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In spite of it, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus in larger mammals. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of tacrolimus on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Standard microelectrode, conventional whole cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques were applied in myocytes enzymatically dispersed from canine ventricular myocardium. Tacrolimus (3-30 μM) caused a concentration-dependent reduction of maximum velocity of depolarization and repolarization, action potential amplitude, phase-1 repolarization, action potential duration, and plateau potential, while no significant change in the resting membrane potential was observed. Conventional voltage clamp experiments revealed that tacrolimus concentrations ≥3 μM blocked a variety of ion currents, including I(Ca), I(to), I(K1), I(Kr), and I(Ks). Similar results were obtained under action potential voltage clamp conditions. These effects of tacrolimus developed rapidly and were fully reversible upon washout. The blockade of inward currents with the concomitant shortening of action potential duration in canine myocytes is the opposite of those observed previously with tacrolimus in small rodents. It is concluded that although tacrolimus blocks several ion channels at higher concentrations, there is no risk of direct interaction with cardiac ion channels when applying tacrolimus in therapeutic concentrations.

  11. Kinetic analysis of human and canine P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport in MDR1-MDCK cell model: approaches to reduce false-negative substrate classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibin; Wang, Ying; Hidalgo, Ismael J

    2013-09-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, MDR1-MDCK, are widely used as an in vitro model to classify compounds as human P-glycoprotein (hPgp) substrates or nonsubstrates. Because MDCK cells express endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp), which is prone to downregulation after transfection with hPgp, this situation could lead to false-negative classification of hPgp substrates. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that influence hPgp substrate classification in MDR1-MDCK model and to seek ways to reduce false classification. Three-compartment models were used to derive flux equations describing the drug transport processes; factors influencing hPgp substrate classification were evaluated by simulations. Pgp functionality was assessed by determining the bidirectional permeability of a series of test compounds. Expressions of hPgp and cPgp were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Kinetic model analysis revealed that the current net flux ratio calculation for hPgp substrate classification is influenced by endogenous cPgp expression as well as hPgp-cPgp expression ratio; the effect was more pronounced in low hPgp-cPgp region and diminished in high ratio region. On the basis of kinetic considerations, this study provides a rational experimental approach and appropriate mathematical corrections to minimize the potential occurrence of false-negative classification of new molecular entities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-10-20

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal's ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the "stepwise peristaltic ureter" (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney.

  13. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  14. Modeling Kidney Disease with iPS Cells.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are somatic cells that have been transcriptionally reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like state. iPSCs are a renewable source of diverse somatic cell types and tissues matching the original patient, including nephron-like kidney organoids. iPSCs have been derived representing several kidney disorders, such as ADPKD, ARPKD, Alport syndrome, and lupus nephritis, with the goals of generating replacement tissue and 'disease in a dish' laboratory models. Cellular defects in iPSCs and derived kidney organoids provide functional, personalized biomarkers, which can be correlated with genetic and clinical information. In proof of principle, disease-specific phenotypes have been described in iPSCs and ESCs with mutations linked to polycystic kidney disease or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In addition, these cells can be used to model nephrotoxic chemical injury. Recent advances in directed differentiation and CRISPR genome editing enable more specific iPSC models and present new possibilities for diagnostics, disease modeling, therapeutic screens, and tissue regeneration using human cells. This review outlines growth opportunities and design strategies for this rapidly expanding and evolving field.

  15. Modeling Kidney Disease with iPS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Benjamin S.

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are somatic cells that have been transcriptionally reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like state. iPSCs are a renewable source of diverse somatic cell types and tissues matching the original patient, including nephron-like kidney organoids. iPSCs have been derived representing several kidney disorders, such as ADPKD, ARPKD, Alport syndrome, and lupus nephritis, with the goals of generating replacement tissue and ‘disease in a dish’ laboratory models. Cellular defects in iPSCs and derived kidney organoids provide functional, personalized biomarkers, which can be correlated with genetic and clinical information. In proof of principle, disease-specific phenotypes have been described in iPSCs and ESCs with mutations linked to polycystic kidney disease or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In addition, these cells can be used to model nephrotoxic chemical injury. Recent advances in directed differentiation and CRISPR genome editing enable more specific iPSC models and present new possibilities for diagnostics, disease modeling, therapeutic screens, and tissue regeneration using human cells. This review outlines growth opportunities and design strategies for this rapidly expanding and evolving field. PMID:26740740

  16. Variations in cell morphology in the canine cruciate ligament complex.

    PubMed

    Smith, K D; Vaughan-Thomas, A; Spiller, D G; Clegg, P D; Innes, J F; Comerford, E J

    2012-08-01

    Cell morphology may reflect the mechanical environment of tissues and influence tissue physiology and response to injury. Normal cruciate ligaments (CLs) from disease-free stifle joints were harvested from dog breeds with a high (Labrador retriever) and low (Greyhound) risk of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Antibodies against the cytoskeletal components vimentin and alpha tubulin were used to analyse cell morphology; nuclei were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and images were collected using conventional and confocal microscopy. Both cranial and caudal CLs contained cells of heterogenous morphologies. Cells were arranged between collagen bundles and frequently had cytoplasmic processes. Some of these processes were long (type A cells), others were shorter, thicker and more branched (type B cells), and some had no processes (type C cells). Processes were frequently shown to contact other cells, extending longitudinally and transversely through the CLs. Cells with longer processes had fusiform nuclei, and those with no processes had rounded nuclei and were more frequent in the mid-substance of both CLs. Cells with long processes were more commonly noted in the CLs of the Greyhound. As contact between cells may facilitate direct communication, variances in cell morphology between breeds at a differing risk of CCL rupture may reflect differences in CL physiology.

  17. Kidney Transplantation From a Donor With Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Rossidis, A; Lim, M A; Palmer, M; Levine, M H; Naji, A; Bloom, R D; Abt, P L

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, >100 000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant. Given the paucity of organs available for transplant, expansion of eligibility criteria for deceased donation is of substantial interest. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is viewed as a contraindication to kidney donation, perhaps because SCD substantially alters renal structure and function and thus has the potential to adversely affect multiple physiological processes of the kidney. To our knowledge, transplantation from a donor with SCD has never been described in the literature. In this paper, we report the successful transplantation of two kidneys from a 37-year-old woman with SCD who died from an intracranial hemorrhage. Nearly 4 mo after transplant, both recipients are doing well and are off dialysis. The extent to which kidneys from donors with SCD can be safely transplanted with acceptable outcomes is unknown; however, this report should provide support for the careful expansion of kidneys from donors with SCD without evidence of renal dysfunction and with normal tissue architecture on preimplantation biopsies.

  18. Molecular cloning of canine interleukin-31 and its expression in various tissues.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takuya; Kanbayashi, Satoshi; Okawa, Takumi; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Okuda, Masaru

    2009-09-15

    The newly discovered cytokine, interleukin-31 (IL-31), belongs to the short-chain cytokine group. It was reported that transgenic expression of IL-31-induced pruritus, similar to atopic dermatitis, in mice, further, excessive amounts of IL-31 was also expressed in the skin from human patients with atopic dermatitis as compared to that from normal people. In this study, canine IL-31 was molecularly cloned from concanavalin A-stimulated canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Canine IL-31 contains 4 alpha-helix structures characteristic of the IL-31 family, and the amino acid identity of canine IL-31 with those of human or mouse is 54% and 28%, respectively. Furthermore, we detected low levels of canine IL-31 in the thymus, testis, spleen, and kidneys, but not in the skin of atopic dogs.

  19. Expression of cell adhesion molecules and doublecortin in canine anaplastic meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Ide, T; Uchida, K; Suzuki, K; Kagawa, Y; Nakayama, H

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion into the surrounding nervous tissue is one of the histologic hallmarks of anaplastic meningiomas. To identify other possible markers for aggression in canine meningiomas, the relationship between histologic features and the expression of molecules involved in cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and invasion was examined. Immunohistochemistry for epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), neural cadherin (N-cadherin), β-catenin, doublecortin (DCX), and Ki-67 was performed for 55 cases of canine meningioma. DCX was preferentially expressed in tumor cells invading the brain parenchyma (12 of 14 cases), suggesting its involvement in the invasion process. Regardless of the histologic type, E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression was observed in 31 of 55 and 44 of 55 cases, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between DCX and N-cadherin expression and a significant negative correlation between E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression, suggesting that decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin expression induce DCX expression. Typical membranous β-catenin expression was observed in 10 of 55 cases, whereas nuclear translocation was observed in 33 cases. Nuclear β-catenin expression was frequently found in anaplastic meningiomas (12 of 14 cases). The Ki-67 labeling indices were significantly higher in anaplastic meningiomas than in other types. These findings indicate that the expression of N-cadherin and DCX and the nuclear translocation of β-catenin are closely associated with the presence of invasion and anaplasia in canine meningiomas. Notably, granular cell meningiomas were negative for almost all the molecules examined, suggesting that they have a different tumor biology than other meningiomas.

  20. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis through caspase-3 and -8 activation in vero cells.

    PubMed

    Kajita, M; Katayama, H; Murata, T; Kai, C; Hori, M; Ozaki, H

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the signal-transduction pathway of canine distemper virus-Onderstepoort (CDV-Ond) vaccine strain-mediated apoptosis in Vero cells. Canine distemper virus-Onderstepoort at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 induced DNA fragmentation 48 h after infection. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that 57% +/- 4% of the CDV-N-protein-positive cells were terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive, and all TUNEL-positive cells were CDV-N-protein-positive, indicating that CDV-Ond induced apoptosis only in the infected cells. We also found that CDV-Ond infection induced activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. In the semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for apoptosis-related genes, the expression of mRNA of the death receptor, Fas, was also increased in CDV-Ond-infected cells. In contrast, the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax, regulators for intrinsic apoptotic signaling through the mitochondria, did not change. These results suggest that CDV-Ond induced apoptosis by activating caspase-3, possibly through caspase-8 signaling rather than through p53/Bax-mediated, mitochondrial signaling in the infected cells.

  1. Animal model of naturally occurring bladder cancer: Characterization of four new canine transitional cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development and further characterization of animal models for human cancers is important for the improvement of cancer detection and therapy. Canine bladder cancer closely resembles human bladder cancer in many aspects. In this study, we isolated and characterized four primary transitional cell carcinoma (K9TCC) cell lines to be used for future in vitro validation of novel therapeutic agents for bladder cancer. Methods Four K9TCC cell lines were established from naturally-occurring canine bladder cancers obtained from four dogs. Cell proliferation rates of K9TCC cells in vitro were characterized by doubling time. The expression profile of cell-cycle proteins, cytokeratin, E-cadherin, COX-2, PDGFR, VEGFR, and EGFR were evaluated by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and Western blotting (WB) analysis and compared with established human bladder TCC cell lines, T24 and UMUC-3. All tested K9TCC cell lines were assessed for tumorigenic behavior using athymic mice in vivo. Results Four established K9TCC cell lines: K9TCC#1Lillie, K9TCC#2Dakota, K9TCC#4Molly, and K9TCC#5Lilly were confirmed to have an epithelial-cell origin by morphology analysis, cytokeratin, and E-cadherin expressions. The tested K9TCC cells expressed UPIa (a specific marker of the urothelial cells), COX-2, PDGFR, and EGFR; however they lacked the expression of VEGFR. All tested K9TCC cell lines confirmed a tumorigenic behavior in athymic mice with 100% tumor incidence. Conclusions The established K9TCC cell lines (K9TCC#1Lillie, K9TCC#2Dakota, K9TCC#4Molly, and K9TCC#5Lilly) can be further utilized to assist in development of new target-specific imaging and therapeutic agents for canine and human bladder cancer. PMID:24964787

  2. SiRNA knockdown of the DEK nuclear protein mRNA enhances apoptosis and chemosensitivity of canine transitional cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Iwano, Tomomi; Otsuka, Saori; Kagawa, Yumiko; Hoshino, Yuki; Hosoya, Kenji; Okumura, Masahiro; Takagi, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in dogs is an aggressive malignant neoplasm, originating in the epithelium of the urinary bladder. The DEK nuclear protein is overexpressed in several types of human bladder cancer, where it is involved in chromatin reconstruction, gene transcription and apoptosis. Since DEK represents a potential therapeutic target for canine TCC, this study was designed to investigate DEK expression in canine TCC and to determine the effects of DEK mRNA silencing on TCC cells in vitro. The gene expression profiles of seven selected cancer-associated genes was assessed in four canine TCC cell lines and expression of DEK protein was evaluated in bladder tissue biopsies from healthy dogs and those affected with cystitis or TCC. After transfection of four canine TCC cell lines with DEK-specific or scrambled siRNA, annexin V staining was performed to evaluate apoptosis, and methylthiazole tetrazolium assays were performed to assess both cell viability and sensitivity to carboplatin. DEK mRNA expression was relatively high in canine TCC cells and expression of the DEK protein was significantly greater in TCC tumours compared with the other tissue samples. After transfection with DEK-specific siRNA, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, and enhanced sensitivity to carboplatin were observed in all TCC cells assessed. These research findings suggest that DEK could be a potential therapeutic target for canine TCC.

  3. Evolving technology: creating kidney organoids from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Bridgette E.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    The kidney is a complex organ whose excretory and regulatory functions are vital for maintaining homeostasis. Previous techniques used to study the kidney, including various animal models and 2D cell culture systems to investigate the mechanisms of renal development and regeneration have many benefits but also possess inherent shortcomings. Some of those limitations can be addressed using the emerging technology of 3D organoids. An organoid is a 3D cluster of differentiated cells that are developed ex vivo by addition of various growth factors that result in a miniature organ containing structures present in the tissue of origin. Here, we discuss renal organoids, their development, and how they can be employed to further understand kidney development and disease.

  4. Identification and isolation of kidney-derived stem cells from transgenic rats with diphtheria toxin-induced kidney damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Zhen; Chen, Xu-Dong; Liu, Gang; Guan, Guang-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells have been well characterized in numerous organs, with the exception of the kidneys. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify and isolate kidney-derived stem cells. A total of 12 Fischer 344 transgenic rats expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor in podocyte cells of the kidney, were used in the present study. The rats were administered 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in order to detect cellular proliferation. After 60 days, the rats were treated with the diphtheria toxin (DT), in order to induce kidney injury. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the number of BrdU-positive cells were increased following DT treatment. In addition, the expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), a stem cell marker, was detected and suggested that kidney-specific stem cells were present in the DT-treated tissue samples. Furthermore, tissue samples exhibited repair of the DT-induced injury. Further cellular culturing was conducted in order to isolate the kidney-specific stem cells. After 5 weeks of culture, the majority of the cells were non-viable, with the exception of certain specialized, unique cell types, which were monomorphic and spindle-shaped in appearance. The unique cells were isolated and subjected to immunostaining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses in order to reconfirm the expression of Oct-4 and to detect the expression of Paired box 2 (Pax-2), which is necessary for the formation of kidney structures. The unique cells were positive for Oct-4 and Pax-2; thus suggesting that the identified cells were kidney-derived stem cells. The results of the present study suggested that the unique cell type identified in the kidneys of the DT-treated rats were kidney-specific stem cells that may have been involved in the repair of DT-induced tissue injury. In addition, these cells may provide a useful cell line for studying the fundamental characteristics of kidney stem cells, as well as identifying

  5. Functionalized carbon nanotubes as suitable scaffold materials for proliferation and differentiation of canine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Kinsuk; Madhusoodan, A P; Mili, Bhabesh; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, A C; Kumar, Kuldeep; Sarkar, Mihir; Singh, Praveen; Srivastava, Sameer; Bag, Sadhan

    2017-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine, numerous potential applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be envisaged, due to their ability to differentiate into a range of tissues on the basis of the substrate on which they grow. With the advances in nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely explored for use as cell culture substrate in tissue engineering applications. In this study, canine bone marrow-derived MSCs were considered as the cellular model for an in vitro study to elucidate the collective cellular processes, using three different varieties of thin films of functionalized carbon nanotubes (COOH-single-walled CNTs [SWCNTs], COOH-multiwalled CNTs [MWCNTs] and polyethylene glycol [PEG]-SWCNTs), which were spray dried onto preheated cover slips. Cells spread out better on the CNT films, resulting in higher cell surface area and occurrence of filopodia, with parallel orientation of stress fiber bundles. Canine MSCs proliferated at a slower rate on all types of CNT substrates compared to the control, but no decline in cell number was noticed during the study period. Expression of apoptosis-associated genes decreased on the CNT substrates as time progressed. On flow cytometry after AnnexinV-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining, total number of apoptotic and necrotic cells remained lower in COOH-functionalized films compared to PEG-functionalized ones. Collectively, these results indicate that COOH-MWCNT substrate provided an environment of low cytotoxicity. Canine MSCs were further induced to differentiate along osteogenic, chondrogenic, and neuronal lineages by culturing under specific differentiation conditions. The cytochemical and immunocytochemical staining results, as well as the expression of the bone marker genes, led us to hypothesize that the COOH-MWCNT substrate acted as a better cue, accelerating the osteogenic differentiation process. However, while chondrogenesis was promoted by COOH-SWCNT, neuronal

  6. Functionalized carbon nanotubes as suitable scaffold materials for proliferation and differentiation of canine mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kinsuk; Madhusoodan, AP; Mili, Bhabesh; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, AC; Kumar, Kuldeep; Sarkar, Mihir; Singh, Praveen; Srivastava, Sameer; Bag, Sadhan

    2017-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine, numerous potential applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be envisaged, due to their ability to differentiate into a range of tissues on the basis of the substrate on which they grow. With the advances in nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely explored for use as cell culture substrate in tissue engineering applications. In this study, canine bone marrow-derived MSCs were considered as the cellular model for an in vitro study to elucidate the collective cellular processes, using three different varieties of thin films of functionalized carbon nanotubes (COOH-single-walled CNTs [SWCNTs], COOH-multiwalled CNTs [MWCNTs] and polyethylene glycol [PEG]-SWCNTs), which were spray dried onto preheated cover slips. Cells spread out better on the CNT films, resulting in higher cell surface area and occurrence of filopodia, with parallel orientation of stress fiber bundles. Canine MSCs proliferated at a slower rate on all types of CNT substrates compared to the control, but no decline in cell number was noticed during the study period. Expression of apoptosis-associated genes decreased on the CNT substrates as time progressed. On flow cytometry after AnnexinV-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining, total number of apoptotic and necrotic cells remained lower in COOH-functionalized films compared to PEG-functionalized ones. Collectively, these results indicate that COOH-MWCNT substrate provided an environment of low cytotoxicity. Canine MSCs were further induced to differentiate along osteogenic, chondrogenic, and neuronal lineages by culturing under specific differentiation conditions. The cytochemical and immunocytochemical staining results, as well as the expression of the bone marker genes, led us to hypothesize that the COOH-MWCNT substrate acted as a better cue, accelerating the osteogenic differentiation process. However, while chondrogenesis was promoted by COOH-SWCNT, neuronal

  7. Canine Platelet Lysate Is Inferior to Fetal Bovine Serum for the Isolation and Propagation of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Keith A.; Gibson, Thomas W. G.; Chong, Andrew; Co, Carmon; Koch, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are increasingly investigated for their clinical utility in dogs. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common culture supplement used for canine MSC expansion. However, FBS content is variable, its clinical use carries risk of an immune response, and its cost is increasing due to global demand. Platelet lysate (PL) has proven to be a suitable alternative to FBS for expansion of human MSC. Hypothesis and Objectives We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) MSC could be isolated and expanded equally in PL and FBS at conventionally-used concentrations with differentiation of these MSC unaffected by choice of supplement. Our objectives were to evaluate the use of canine PL in comparison with FBS at four stages: 1) isolation, 2) proliferation, 3) spontaneous differentiation, and 4) directed differentiation. Results 1) Medium with 10% PL was unable to isolate MSC. 2) MSC, initially isolated in FBS-supplemented media, followed a dose-dependent response with no significant difference between PL and FBS cultures at up to 20% (AT) or 30% (BM) enrichment. Beyond these respective peaks, proliferation fell in PL cultures only, while a continued dose-dependent proliferation response was noted in FBS cultures. 3) Further investigation indicated PL expansion culture was inducing spontaneous adipogenesis in concentrations as low as 10% and as early as 4 days in culture. 4) MSC isolated in FBS, but expanded in either FBS or PL, maintained ability to undergo directed adipogenesis and osteogenesis, but not chondrogenesis. Conclusions/Significance Canine PL did not support establishment of MSC colonies from AT and BM, nor expansion of MSC, which appear to undergo spontaneous adipogenesis in response to PL exposure. In vivo studies are warranted to determine if concurrent use of MSC with any platelet-derived products such as platelet-rich plasma are associated with synergistic, neutral or antagonistic effects. PMID:26353112

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in canine oral squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    MARTANO, MANUELA; RESTUCCI, BRUNELLA; CECCARELLI, DORA MARIA; LO MUZIO, LORENZO; MAIOLINO, PAOLA

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is crucial for the growth and metastasis of malignant tumours, and various proangiogenic factors promote this process. One of these factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which appears to play a key role in tumour angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to assess whether VEGF expression is associated with angiogenesis, disease progression and neoplastic proliferation in canine oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue. VEGF immunoreactivity was quantified by immunohistochemistry in 30 specimens, including normal oral mucosa and OSCC tissues graded as well, moderately or poorly differentiated. VEGF expression was correlated with tumour cell proliferation, as assessed using the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) marker and microvessel density (data already published). The present results revealed that VEGF and PCNA expression increased significantly between normal oral tissue and neoplastic tissue, and between well and moderately/poorly differentiated tumours. In addition, VEGF expression was strongly correlated with PCNA expression and microvessel density. It was concluded that VEGF may promote angiogenesis through a paracrine pathway, stimulating endothelial cell proliferation and, similarly, may induce tumour cell proliferation through an autocrine pathway. The present results suggest that the evaluation of VEGF may be a useful additional criterion for estimating malignancy and growth potential in canine OSCCs. PMID:26870224

  9. The natural antioxidants, pomegranate extract and soy isoflavones, favourably modulate canine endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Waldenberger, Ferdinand Rudolf; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Ginouvès-Guerdoux, Amandine; McGahie, David; Gatto, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, preceded by vascular endothelial dysfunction, is a prominent cause of death in dogs. L-carnitine and taurine, well known for their antioxidative capacity, beneficially affect cardiovascular disease as well as certain dog cardiomyopathies. It is well established that vascular endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and that "vasoprotective factors" (NO and antioxidants) prevent apoptosis, whereas "risk factors" such as oxidized LDL, hyperglycemia, and free fatty acids trigger it in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Whereas human vascular cell in vitro models are widely established and used for the characterisation of potential vasoprotective substances, such models are not available for canine endothelial cells. In the present study we therefore developed an in vitro model, which allows the testing of the effects of different substances on proliferation and apoptosis in canine aortic endothelial cells. This model was used to test L-carnitine, taurine, pomegranate extract, and Soy Isoflavones in comparison to reference substances (glutathione and pioglitazone) previously shown to modulate human endothelial cell function. L-carnitine and taurine neither exhibited antiproliferative nor antiapoptotic activities in the context of this study. However extracts from pomegranate and soy isoflavones dramatically reduced proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent fashion, being in line with a vasoprotective activity in dogs.

  10. The Natural Antioxidants, Pomegranate Extract and Soy Isoflavones, Favourably Modulate Canine Endothelial Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M.; Waldenberger, Ferdinand Rudolf; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Ginouvès-Guerdoux, Amandine; McGahie, David; Gatto, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, preceded by vascular endothelial dysfunction, is a prominent cause of death in dogs. L-carnitine and taurine, well known for their antioxidative capacity, beneficially affect cardiovascular disease as well as certain dog cardiomyopathies. It is well established that vascular endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and that “vasoprotective factors” (NO and antioxidants) prevent apoptosis, whereas “risk factors” such as oxidized LDL, hyperglycemia, and free fatty acids trigger it in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Whereas human vascular cell in vitro models are widely established and used for the characterisation of potential vasoprotective substances, such models are not available for canine endothelial cells. In the present study we therefore developed an in vitro model, which allows the testing of the effects of different substances on proliferation and apoptosis in canine aortic endothelial cells. This model was used to test L-carnitine, taurine, pomegranate extract, and Soy Isoflavones in comparison to reference substances (glutathione and pioglitazone) previously shown to modulate human endothelial cell function. L-carnitine and taurine neither exhibited antiproliferative nor antiapoptotic activities in the context of this study. However extracts from pomegranate and soy isoflavones dramatically reduced proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent fashion, being in line with a vasoprotective activity in dogs. PMID:23762588

  11. Nearby clusters of hemagglutinin residues sustain SLAM-dependent canine distemper virus entry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    von Messling, Veronika; Oezguen, Numan; Zheng, Qi; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Braun, Werner; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM, CD150) is the universal morbillivirus receptor. Based on the identification of measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) amino acids supporting human SLAM-dependent cell entry, we mutated canine distemper virus (CDV) H and identified residues necessary for efficient canine SLAM-dependent membrane fusion. These residues are located in two nearby clusters in a new CDV H structural model. To completely abolish SLAM-dependent fusion, combinations of mutations were necessary. We rescued a SLAM-blind recombinant CDV with six mutations that did not infect ferret peripheral blood mononuclear cells while retaining full infectivity in epithelial cells.

  12. Production of canine soluble CD40 ligand to induce maturation of monocyte derived dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wijewardana, Viskam; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yahata, Mana; Akazawa, Takashi; Wijesekera, Daluthgamage Patsy H; Imamoto, Shigeki; Hatoya, Shingo; Inoue, Norimitsu; Inaba, Toshio

    2013-11-15

    CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed by activated T cells is shown to induce maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and this maturation is a vital part in DC based tumor immunotherapy. We constructed an expression vector by cloning the extracellular domain of canine CD40L fused to the signal sequence of canine IL-12p40. When PBMCs were incubated with canine granulocyte-macrophage (GM) -CSF and IL-4, expression of CD86 was significantly elevated, but the majority of cells displayed the morphology of immature DCs. Following addition of the expressed canine soluble CD40L (csCD40L) to the DC-inducing culture, the cell morphology shifted to that of mature DCs, and expression of CD80, CD86, MHC class II and CD1a was significantly enhanced. This morphological change and enhancement of expression was observed even when the csCD40L was present only in the second half period of the culture. Furthermore, the csCD40L caused a significant increase in IL-12 production from DCs. These results show that the csCD40L significantly promotes the maturation and activation of canine monocyte derived DCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell-Surface Integrins and CAR Are Both Essential for Adenovirus Type 5 Transduction of Canine Cells of Lymphocytic Origin.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Payal; Gammon, Elizabeth A; Sajib, Abdul Mohin; Sandey, Maninder; Smith, Bruce F

    2017-01-01

    Adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in cancer gene therapy. Adenoviruses vectors are well characterized and are easily manipulated. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most commonly used human serotype. Ad5 internalization into host cells is a combined effect of binding of Ad5 fiber knob with the coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and binding of RGD motifs in viral penton to cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5). Ad5's wide range of host-cell transduction and lack of integration into the host genome have made it an excellent choice for cancer therapeutics. However, Ad5 has limited ability to transduce cells of hematopoietic origin. It has been previously reported that low or no expression of CAR is a potential obstacle to Ad5 infection in hematopoietic origin cells. In addition, we have previously reported that low levels of cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5) may inhibit Ad5 infection in canine lymphoma cell lines. In the current report we have examined the ability of an Ad5 vector to infect human (HEK293) and canine non-cancerous (NCF and PBMC), canine non-hematopoietic origin cancer (CMT28, CML7, and CML10), and canine hematopoietic origin cancer (DH82, 17-71, OSW, MPT-1, and BR) cells. In addition, we have quantified CAR, αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin transcript expression in these cells by using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (q-RT-PCR). Low levels of integrins were present in MPT1, 17-71, OSW, and PBMC cells in comparison to CMT28, DH82, and BR cells. CAR mRNA levels were comparatively higher in MPT1, 17-71, OSW, and PBMC cells. This report confirms and expands the finding that low or absent expression of cell surface integrins may be the primary reason for the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce cells of lymphocytic origin and some myeloid cells but this is not true for all hematopoietic origin cells. For efficient use of Ad5-based therapeutic vectors in cancers of lymphocytic origin, it is important to address the

  14. Cell-Surface Integrins and CAR Are Both Essential for Adenovirus Type 5 Transduction of Canine Cells of Lymphocytic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Elizabeth A.; Sajib, Abdul Mohin; Sandey, Maninder; Smith, Bruce F.

    2017-01-01

    Adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in cancer gene therapy. Adenoviruses vectors are well characterized and are easily manipulated. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most commonly used human serotype. Ad5 internalization into host cells is a combined effect of binding of Ad5 fiber knob with the coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and binding of RGD motifs in viral penton to cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5). Ad5’s wide range of host-cell transduction and lack of integration into the host genome have made it an excellent choice for cancer therapeutics. However, Ad5 has limited ability to transduce cells of hematopoietic origin. It has been previously reported that low or no expression of CAR is a potential obstacle to Ad5 infection in hematopoietic origin cells. In addition, we have previously reported that low levels of cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5) may inhibit Ad5 infection in canine lymphoma cell lines. In the current report we have examined the ability of an Ad5 vector to infect human (HEK293) and canine non-cancerous (NCF and PBMC), canine non-hematopoietic origin cancer (CMT28, CML7, and CML10), and canine hematopoietic origin cancer (DH82, 17–71, OSW, MPT-1, and BR) cells. In addition, we have quantified CAR, αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin transcript expression in these cells by using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (q-RT-PCR). Low levels of integrins were present in MPT1, 17–71, OSW, and PBMC cells in comparison to CMT28, DH82, and BR cells. CAR mRNA levels were comparatively higher in MPT1, 17–71, OSW, and PBMC cells. This report confirms and expands the finding that low or absent expression of cell surface integrins may be the primary reason for the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce cells of lymphocytic origin and some myeloid cells but this is not true for all hematopoietic origin cells. For efficient use of Ad5-based therapeutic vectors in cancers of lymphocytic origin, it is important to address

  15. Canine mammary tumors contain cancer stem-like cells and form spheroids with an embryonic stem cell signature.

    PubMed

    Ferletta, Maria; Grawé, Jan; Hellmén, Eva

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the presence of tentative stem-like cells in the canine mammary tumor cell line CMT-U229. This cell line is established from an atypical benign mixed mammary tumor, which has the property of forming duct-like structures in collagen gels. Stem cells in mammary glands are located in the epithelium; therefore we thought that the CMT-U229 cell line would be suitable for detection of tentative cancer stem-like cells. Side population (SP) analyses by flow cytometry were performed with cells that formed spheroids and with cells that did not. Flow cytometric, single sorted cells were expanded and re-cultured as spheroids. The spheroids were paraffin embedded and characterized by immunohistochemistry. SP analyses showed that spheroid forming cells (retenate) as well as single cells (filtrate) contained SP cells. Sca1 positive cells were single cell sorted and thereafter the SP population increased with repeated SP analyses. The SP cells were positively labeled with the cell surface-markers CD44 and CD49f (integrin alpha6); however the expression of CD24 was low or negative. The spheroids expressed the transcription factor and stem cell marker Sox2, as well as Oct4. Interestingly, only peripheral cells of the spheroids and single cells were positive for Oct4 expression. SP cells are suggested to correspond to stem cells and in this study, we have enriched for tentative tumor stem-like cells derived from a canine mammary tumor. All the used markers indicate that the studied CMT-U229 cell line contains SP cells, which in particular have cancer stem-like cell characteristics.

  16. Interleukin-21 induces proliferation and modulates receptor expression and effector function in canine natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Park, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ju-Sun; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Lee, Youn-Kyung; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-05-15

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is an important modulator of natural killer (NK) cell function. However, little is known about IL-21 function in canine NK cells because the phenotype of these cells remains undefined. In this study, we selectively expanded non-B and non-T large granular NK lymphocytes (CD3(-)CD21(-)CD5(-)CD4(-)TCRαβ(-)TCRγδ(-)) ex vivo from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy dogs using a combination of IL-2, IL-15, and IL-21 in the presence of 100 Gy-irradiated K562 cells. We investigated the effects of varying the duration and timing of IL-21 treatment on stimulation of proliferation, expression of NK-related receptors, anti-tumor activity and production of interferon (IFN)-γ. The expanded NK cells in each treatment group became enlarged and highly granular after 21 days in culture. NK cells proliferated rapidly in response to activation by IL-21 for 3 weeks, and IL-21 was able to induce changes in the mRNA expression of NK cell-related receptors and enhance the effector function of NK cells in perforin- and granzyme-B-dependent manners. The duration, frequency and timing of IL-21 stimulation during culture affected the rate of proliferation, patterns of receptor expression, cytokine production, and anti-tumor activity. The optimal conditions for maximizing the IL-21-induced proliferation and effector function of NK cells in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15 were seen in cells treated with IL-21 for the first 7 days of culture but without any further IL-21 stimulation other than an additional 2-day treatment prior to harvesting on day 21. The results of this study suggest that synergistic interactions of IL-21 with IL-2 and IL-15 play an important role in the proliferation, receptor expression, and effector function of canine NK cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, But Not Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Exert Regenerative Effects on Canine and Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells.

    PubMed

    Bach, Frances C; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; van Heel, Ferdi W M; Riemers, Frank M; Müller, Margot C M E; Creemers, Laura B; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A

    2017-03-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) on canine and human chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs) derived from the nucleus pulposus of degenerated IVDs were studied. Human and canine CLCs were cultured in 3D microaggregates in basal culture medium supplemented with/without TGF-β1 (10 ng/mL) or BMP2 (100 or 250 ng/mL). Both TGF-β1 and BMP2 increased proliferation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition of human and canine CLCs. TGF-β1 induced collagen type I deposition and fibrotic (re)differentiation, whereas BMP2 induced more collagen type II deposition. In dogs, TGF-β1 induced Smad1 and Smad2 signaling, whereas in humans, it only tended to induce Smad2 signaling. BMP2 supplementation increased Smad1 signaling in both species. This altogether indicates that Smad1 signaling was associated with collagen type II production, whereas Smad2 signaling was associated with fibrotic CLC (re)differentiation. As a step toward preclinical translation, treatment with BMP2 alone and combined with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was further investigated. Canine male CLCs were seeded in albumin-based hydrogels with/without female bone marrow-derived MSCs (50:50) in basal or 250 ng/mL BMP2-supplemented culture medium. Although the results indicate that a sufficient amount of MSCs survived the culture period, total GAG production was not increased and GAG production per cell was even decreased by the addition of MSCs, implying that MSCs did not exert additive regenerative effects on the CLCs.

  18. Polycystin-1, the product of the polycystic kidney disease 1 gene, co-localizes with desmosomes in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Scheffers, M S; van der Bent, P; Prins, F; Spruit, L; Breuning, M H; Litvinov, S V; de Heer, E; Peters, D J

    2000-11-01

    Polycystin-1 is a novel protein predicted to be a large membrane-spanning glycoprotein with an extracellular N-terminus and an intracellular C-terminus, harboring several structural motifs. To study the subcellular localization, antibodies raised against various domains of polycystin-1 and against specific adhesion complex proteins were used for two-color immunofluorescence staining. In Madine Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, polycystin-1 was detected in the cytoplasm as well as co-localizing with desmosomes, but not with tight or adherens junctions. Using confocal laser scanning and immunoelectron microscopy we confirmed the desmosomal localization. By performing a calcium switch experiment, we demonstrated the sequential reassembly of tight junctions, subsequently adherens junctions and finally desmosomes. Polycystin-1 only stained the membrane after incorporation of desmoplakin into the desmosomes, suggesting that membrane-bound polycystin-1 may be important for cellular signaling or cell adhesion, but not for the assembly of adhesion complexes.

  19. Minimal residual disease in canine lymphoma: An objective marker to assess tumour cell burden in remission.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Jumpei; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Setoguchi, Asuka; Takahashi, Masashi; Baba, Kenji; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2016-09-01

    Lymphoma is the most common haematopoietic malignancy in dogs. Since a high proportion of dogs with lymphoma achieve remission soon after initiation of chemotherapy, an objective marker assessing treatment efficacy is required. Following clinical remission, the residual population of tumour cells can be referred to as the minimal residual disease (MRD). MRD traditionally has been detected by cytology and flow cytometry; however, if the burden of malignant cells is low, these methods might not be sufficiently sensitive to detect MRD. As an extension of the development of PCR for antigen receptor gene rearrangements (PARR) in dogs, there has been recent progress in the application of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to canine lymphoma. With the RT-qPCR system, a very high sensitivity (1 cell per 10,000 cells) has been achieved by preparing allele-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes designed from neoplastic clones of each dog. A series of MRD diagnostics studies employing the RT-qPCR system has revealed its usefulness as a prognostic indicator, an objective marker of treatment efficacy and a predictor of relapse for dogs with lymphoma receiving chemotherapy. Introduction of the MRD monitoring system will provide an innovative scientific tool in the development of superior treatments and monitoring strategies for canine lymphoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization and therapeutic application of canine adipose mesenchymal stem cells to treat elbow osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kriston-Pál, Éva; Czibula, Ágnes; Gyuris, Zoltán; Balka, Gyula; Seregi, Antal; Sükösd, Farkas; Süth, Miklós; Kiss-Tóth, Endre; Haracska, Lajos; Uher, Ferenc; Monostori, Éva

    2017-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (AT) obtained from surgical waste during routine ovariectomies was used as a source for isolating canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). As determined by cytofluorimetry, passage 2 cells expressed MSC markers CD44 and CD90 and were negative for lineage-specific markers CD34 and CD45. The cells differentiated toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic directions. With therapeutic aims, 30 dogs (39 joints) suffering from elbow dysplasia (ED) and osteoarthritis (OA) were intra-articularly transplanted with allogeneic MSCs suspended in 0.5% hyaluronic acid (HA). A highly significant improvement was achieved without any medication as demonstrated by the degree of lameness during the follow-up period of 1 y. Control arthroscopy of 1 transplanted dog indicated that the cartilage had regenerated. Histological analysis of the cartilage biopsy confirmed that the regenerated cartilage was of hyaline type. These results demonstrate that transplantation of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) is a novel, noninvasive, and highly effective therapeutic tool in treating canine elbow dysplasia.

  1. [Growth and osteogenesis characteristics of cultured canine mesenchymal stem cells under osteogenic induction].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanjuan; Li, Yi; Chen, Huaiqing; Wu, Qiaofeng; Yin, Guangfu; Zhou, Dali

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the growth and osteogenesis characteristics of cultured canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) under osteogenic induction. We found the cMSCs were isolated from adult canine using density gradient separation method. The cMSCs attachment formed soon after seeding and grew into colonies with the appearance of fibroblastic cells. The osteogenic induction compound of Dexamethasone (Dex), beta-sodium glycerphosphate (beta-GP), ascorbic acid (AA) was added to passaged cMSCs and the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of them was studied. The morphology of cells was observed by light micrograph and transmission electron microscope. The proliferation and growth characteristics of cMSCs were observed during primary and passage cultures through MTT. The differentiation were assayed by alkaline phophatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). We found the cMSCs have an active proliferative ability in primary and passage culture, and cMSCs under osteogenic induction have the typical characteristic of a secretory cell; the osteogenic induction compound may induce cMSCs to differentiate to osteoblasts. There are higher expression of ALP and OCN in passage 3 cMSCs under osteogenic induction than that of the osteoblasts osteogenic induction condition. Our research suggest the cMSCs in our culture system are mainly undifferentiated osteoprogenitors and can differentiate to osteoblast under osteogenic induction.

  2. Two Canine Papillomaviruses Associated With Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Two Related Basenji Dogs.

    PubMed

    Luff, J; Rowland, P; Mader, M; Orr, C; Yuan, H

    2016-11-01

    Papillomaviruses (PV) are associated with benign mucosal and cutaneous epithelial proliferations. In dogs, PV-associated pigmented plaques and papillomas can undergo malignant transformation, but this is rare, and most cases of canine squamous cell carcinoma do not arise from PV-induced precursor lesions. We describe herein the progression of pigmented plaques to invasive and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma associated with 2 canine papillomaviruses (CPV) in 2 related Basenji dogs. Immunohistochemistry for PV antigen revealed strong nuclear immunoreactivity within keratinocytes from pigmented plaques from both dogs, consistent with a productive viral infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers for the L1 gene revealed PV DNA sequences from 2 different CPVs. In situ hybridization for CPV revealed strong hybridization signals within the pigmented plaques and neoplastic squamous epithelial cells from both dogs. We report here progression of PV-associated pigmented plaques to metastatic squamous cell carcinoma within 2 Basenji dogs associated with 2 different CPVs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Radiation-induced DNA damage in canine hemopoietic cells and stromal cells as measured by the comet assay

    SciTech Connect

    Kreja, L.; Selig, C.; Plappert, U.; Nothdurft, W.

    1996-12-31

    Stromal cell progenitors (fibroblastoid colony-forming unit; CFU-Fs) are representative of the progenitor cell population of the hemopoietic microenvironment in bone marrow (BM). Previous studies of the radiation dose-effect relationships for colony formation have shown that canine CFU-Fs are relatively radioresistant as characterized by a D{sub 0} value of about 2.4 Gy. In contrast, hemopoietic progenitors are particularly radiosensitive (D{sub 0} values = 0.12-0.60 Gy). In the present study, the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis technique for the in situ quantitation of DNA strand breaks and alkalilabile site was employed. Canine buffy coat cells from BM aspirates and cells harvested from CFU-F colonies or from mixed populations of adherent BM stromal cell (SC) layers were exposed to increasing doses of X-rays, embedded in agarose gel on slides, lysed with detergents, and placed in an electric field. DNA migrating from single cells in the gel was made visible as {open_quotes}comets{close_quotes} by ethidium bromide staining. Immediate DNA damage was much less in cultured stromal cells than in hemopoietic cells in BM aspirates. These results suggest that the observed differences in clonogenic survival could be partly due to differences in the type of the initial DNA damage between stromal cells and hemopoietic cells. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Epithelial cell extrusion during fluid transport in canine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S

    1977-04-01

    Epithelial cell extrusion during fluid transport was studied under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The rate of cell extrusion from the villus tips in vitro increased by about onefold in the villi with obstruction of lymph flow associated with the increase of lymph and tissue fluid pressure. When lymph pressure in the jejunal and ileal villi was increased to 6.4 +/- .2 and 12.3 +/- .5 mmHg, respectively, by injection of Ringer solution into the central lacteals, fluid leaked out of the villi and a shedding of epithelium occurred. Vigorous villus spasmodic contraction induced by cocaine or atropine also caused a shedding of epithelium. Cells always appeared in the lumen of intestine in vivo either during fluid absorption or secretion. A copious secretion of fluid, increase of cell loss, and congestion of blood in the villi occurred by the action of cholera toxin, MgSO4, and choline chloride. The rate of cell loss was highest during fluid secretion induced by an elevation of tissue fluid pressure such as at high venous pressure or during intra-arterial histamine infusion. It is thus concluded that elevated tissue fluid pressure is involved in epithelial cell extrusion during fluid transport.

  5. Bisphosphonates Significantly Increase the Activity of Doxorubicin or Vincristine Against Canine Malignant Histiocytosis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hafeman, S.D.; Varland, D.; Dow, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Canine malignant histiocytosis (MH) is an aggressive neoplasm of macrophages and dendritic cells. It carries a poor prognosis due to the development of widespread metastasis and poor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Thus, there is a large need for new treatments for MH. We hypothesized that bisphosphonates might be useful to increase the effectiveness of cytotoxic chemotherapy against MH. To address this question, we conducted in vitro screening studies using MH cell lines and a panel of 6 chemotherapy and 5 bisphosphonate drugs. The combination of clodronate with vincristine was found to elicit synergistic killing which was associated with a significant increase in cell cycle arrest. Second, zoledronate combined with doxorubicin also significantly increased cell killing. Zoledronate significantly increased the uptake of doxorubicin by MH cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that certain bisphosphonate drugs may increase the overall effectiveness of chemotherapy for MH in dogs. PMID:22236140

  6. Anti-proliferative effects of homeopathic medicines on human kidney, colon and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shagun; Aggarwal, Ayushi; Singla, Priyanka; Jyoti, Saras; Tandon, Simran

    2013-10-01

    Homeopathy is controversial, due to the claims made for very high dilutions. Although several theories are proposed to understand the mechanisms of action, none are scientifically verified. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the selected homeopathic medicines in specific in vitro cancer models. We assessed the cytotoxic activity of selected homeopathic medicines in mother tincture (MT), and ultramolecular dilution (30C, 200C, 1M and 10M) against cell lines deriving from tumors of particular organs, Sarsaparilla (Sars) on ACHN cells (human renal adenocarcinoma), Ruta graveolens (Ruta) on COLO-205 (human colorectal carcinoma), and Phytolacca decandra (Phyto) on MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma). Sars was also tested against Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells (a non-malignant cell line). Cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, anti-proliferative activity by trypan blue exclusion assay, apoptosis determined by dual staining the cells with ethidium bromide (EB) and acridine orange (AO) dyes. MTs and ultra-diluted preparations of the three homeopathic medicines had highly significant effects in the respective cancer cell lines, producing cytotoxicity and a decrease in cell proliferation. The effects were greatest with the MTs, but in all cases and persisted, although to a lesser degree in the ultra-diluted molecular preparations. Sars showed no effect on MDCK cells. In the homeopathic medicine treated cultures, hallmarks of apoptosis were evident including, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. This study provides preliminary laboratory evidence indicating the ability of homeopathic medicines as anticancer agents. Further studies of the action of these homeopathic remedies are warranted. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular cloning of canine excitatory amino acid transporter 5 and its detection in primary lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hideharu; Saito, Miyoko; Maruo, Takuya; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of canine excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 5 was determined in samples taken from the canine retina. The sequence was 2,467 bp long and was predicted to encode the 560 amino acid polypeptides. The deduced amino acid sequence of canine EAAT5 showed similarities of 91.8 and 92.7% to those of humans and rats, respectively. In canine, EAAT5 has a 49.4% identity with EAAT1, 43.7% with EAAT2, 46.4% with EAAT3, and 45.7% with EAAT4. RT-PCR analysis revealed EAAT5 expression in primary lens epithelial cell culture and the cerebellum, and Western blot analysis detected a single band of 60 kDa which confirmed EAAT5 protein expression in these cells. In addition, all subtypes of EAAT were detected in canine lens epithelial cells, indicating the pivotal role of EAATs in supplying glutamate, the precursor of antioxidant glutathione in the lens.

  8. Cell therapy in kidney disease: cautious optimism... but optimism nonetheless.

    PubMed

    Zenovich, Andrey G; Taylor, Doris A

    2007-06-01

    The recently discovered therapeutic potential of stem or progenitor cells has initiated development of novel treatments in a number of diseases-treatments that could not only improve patients' quality of life, but also halt or even prevent disease progression. Hypertension; fluctuations in glycemia, electrolytes, nutrient levels, and circulating volume; and frequent infections and the associated inflammation all greatly impair the endothelium in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. As our understanding of the regulatory function of the endothelium advances, focus is increasingly being placed on endothelial repair in acute and chronic renal failure and after renal transplantation. The potential of progenitor cells to repair damaged endothelium and to reduce inflammation in patients with renal failure remains unexamined; however, a successful cell therapy could reduce morbidity and mortality in kidney disease. Important contributions have been made in identifying progenitor cell populations in the kidney, and further investigations into the relationships of these cells with the pathophysiology of the disease are underway. As the kidney disease field prepares for the first human trials of progenitor cell therapies, we deemed it important to review representative original research, and to share our perspectives and lessons learned from clinical trials of progenitor cell-based therapies that have commenced in patients with cardiovascular disease.

  9. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response. PMID:7039811

  10. Urokinase production by electrophoretically separated cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, M. E.; Plank, L. D.; Giranda, V.; Sedor, K.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Urokinase is a plasminogen activator found in urine. Relatively pure preparations have been tested in Europe, Japan and the United States for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and other dangerous blood clots. Human embryonic kidney cell cultures have been found to produce urokinase at much higher concentrations, but less than 5% of the cells in typical cultures are producers. Since human diploid cells become senescent in culture the selection of clones derived from single cells will not provide enough material to be useful, so a bulk purification method is needed for the isolation of urokinase producing cell populations. Preparative cell electrophoresis was chosen as the method, since evidence exists that human embryonic cell cultures are richly heterogeneous with respect to electrophoretic mobility, and preliminary electrophoretic separations on the Apollo-Soyuz space flight produced cell populations that were rich in urokinase production. Similarly, erythropoietin is useful in the treatment of certain anemias and is a kidney cell duct, and electrophoretically enriched cell populations producing this product have been reported. Thus, there is a clear need for diploid human cells that produce these products, and there is evidence that such cells should be separable by free-flow cell electrophoresis.

  11. Urokinase production by electrophoretically separated cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, M. E.; Plank, L. D.; Giranda, V.; Sedor, K.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Urokinase is a plasminogen activator found in urine. Relatively pure preparations have been tested in Europe, Japan and the United States for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and other dangerous blood clots. Human embryonic kidney cell cultures have been found to produce urokinase at much higher concentrations, but less than 5% of the cells in typical cultures are producers. Since human diploid cells become senescent in culture the selection of clones derived from single cells will not provide enough material to be useful, so a bulk purification method is needed for the isolation of urokinase producing cell populations. Preparative cell electrophoresis was chosen as the method, since evidence exists that human embryonic cell cultures are richly heterogeneous with respect to electrophoretic mobility, and preliminary electrophoretic separations on the Apollo-Soyuz space flight produced cell populations that were rich in urokinase production. Similarly, erythropoietin is useful in the treatment of certain anemias and is a kidney cell duct, and electrophoretically enriched cell populations producing this product have been reported. Thus, there is a clear need for diploid human cells that produce these products, and there is evidence that such cells should be separable by free-flow cell electrophoresis.

  12. Congenital hepatic fibrosis, liver cell carcinoma and adult polycystic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Manes, J L; Kissane, J M; Valdes, A J

    1977-06-01

    In reviewing the literature, we found no liver cell carcinoma (LCC) or well-documented adult polycystic kidneys (APK) associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF). We report a 69-year-old man with CHF, LCC, APK, duplication cyst of distal portion of stomach, two calcified splenic artery aneurysms, myocardial fibrosis and muscular hypertrophy of esophagus. The LCC was grossly predunculated and microscopically showed prominent fibrosis and hyaline intracytoplasmic inclusions in the tumor cells.

  13. The fate of bone marrow-derived cells carrying a polycystic kidney disease mutation in the genetically normal kidney

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a genetic condition in which dedifferentiated and highly proliferative epithelial cells form renal cysts and is frequently treated by renal transplantation. Studies have reported that bone marrow-derived cells give rise to renal epithelial cells, particularly following renal injury as often occurs during transplantation. This raises the possibility that bone marrow-derived cells from a PKD-afflicted recipient could populate a transplanted kidney and express a disease phenotype. However, for reasons that are not clear the reoccurrence of PKD has not been reported in a genetically normal renal graft. We used a mouse model to examine whether PKD mutant bone marrow-derived cells are capable of expressing a disease phenotype in the kidney. Methods Wild type female mice were transplanted with bone marrow from male mice homozygous for a PKD-causing mutation and subjected to renal injury. Y chromosome positive, bone marrow-derived cells in the kidney were assessed for epithelial markers. Results Mutant bone marrow-derived cells were present in the kidney. Some mutant cells were within the bounds of the tubule or duct, but none demonstrated convincing evidence of an epithelial phenotype. Conclusions Bone marrow-derived cells appear incapable of giving rise to genuine epithelial cells and this is the most likely reason cysts do not reoccur in kidneys transplanted into PKD patients. PMID:22931547

  14. Canine Prostate Cancer Cell Line (Probasco) Produces Osteoblastic Metastases In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Jessica K.; Dirksen, Wessel P.; Hildreth, Blake E.; Dorr, Carlee; Williams, Christina; Thomas, Rachael; Breen, Matthew; Toribio, Ramiro E.; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2012, over 240,000 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and over 28,000 died from the disease. Animal models of prostate cancer are vital to understanding its pathogenesis and developing therapeutics. Canine models in particular are useful due to their similarities to late-stage, castration-resistant human disease with osteoblastic bone metastases. This study established and characterized a novel canine prostate cancer cell line that will contribute to the understanding of prostate cancer pathogenesis. METHODS A novel cell line (Probasco) was derived from a mixed breed dog that had spontaneous prostate cancer. Cell proliferation and motility were analyzed in vitro. Tumor growth in vivo was studied by subcutaneous, intratibial, and intracardiac injection of Probasco cells into nude mice. Tumors were evaluated by bioluminescent imaging, Faxitron radiography, µCT, and histology. RT-PCR and genome-wide DNA copy number profiling were used to characterize the cell line. RESULTS The Probasco cells grew in vitro (over 75 passages) and were tumorigenic in nude mice. Probasco cells expressed high levels of BMP2, CDH1, MYOF, FOLH1, RUNX2, and SMAD5 modest CXCL12, SLUG, and BMP, and no PTHrP mRNA. Following intracardiac injection, Probasco cells metastasized primarily to the appendicular skeleton, and both intratibial and intracardiac injections produced osteoblastic tumors in bone. Comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated numerous DNA copy number aberrations throughout the genome, including large losses and gains in multiple chromosomes. CONCLUSIONS The Probasco prostate cancer cell line will be a valuable model to investigate the mechanisms of prostate cancer pathogenesis and osteoblastic bone metastases. PMID:25043424

  15. Comparative proteomic investigation of metastatic and non-metastatic osteosarcoma cells of human and canine origin.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jahnabi; Wycislo, Kathryn L; Pondenis, Holly; Fan, Timothy M; Das, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in dogs and people. In order to improve clinical outcomes, it is necessary to identify proteins that are differentially expressed by metastatic cells. Membrane bound proteins are responsible for multiple pro-metastatic functions. Therefore characterizing the differential expression of membranous proteins between metastatic and non-metastatic clonal variants will allow the discovery of druggable targets and consequently improve treatment methodology. The objective of this investigation was to systemically identify the membrane-associated proteomics of metastatic and non-metastatic variants of human and canine origin. Two clonal variants of divergent in vivo metastatic potential from human and canine origins were used. The plasma membranes were isolated and peptide fingerprinting was used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Selected proteins were further validated using western blotting, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Over 500 proteins were identified for each cell line with nearly 40% of the proteins differentially regulated. Conserved between both species, metastatic variants demonstrated significant differences in expression of membrane proteins that are responsible for pro-metastatic functions. Additionally, CD147, CD44 and vimentin were validated using various biochemical techniques. Taken together, through a comparative proteomic approach we have identified several differentially expressed cell membrane proteins that will help in the development of future therapeutics.

  16. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BABOON (PAPIO DOGUERA) KIDNEY CELLS TO HUMAN ENTEROVIRUSES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Studies were made to learn if baboon kidney cells are as susceptible as monkey kidney cells to human enteroviruses . Since the baboon (Papio doguera...kidney cells showed high susceptibility to most human enteroviruses . Their usefulness is inhanced in that they indicated the presence of contaminating SV40 virus. (Author)

  17. Human hepatocyte and kidney cell metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene and comparison to the respective rat cells.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, R; Rudo, K

    1988-12-01

    The metabolism and mutagenic activation of 2-acetylaminofluorene by human and rat hepatocytes and kidney cells were measured. High performance liquid chromatography was used to separate the 2-acetylaminofluorene metabolites, and a cell-mediated Salmonella typhimurium mutagenesis assay was used to detect mutagenic intermediates. Rat and human differences were observed with cells from both organs and levels of metabolism and mutagenesis were higher in human cells. Within a species, liver and kidney cell differences were also evident, with levels of hepatocyte-mediated metabolism and mutagenesis being greater than kidney cells. Human inter-individual variation was apparent with cells from both organs, but the variation observed was significantly greater in hepatocytes than kidney cells. A knowledge of such differences, including an understanding that they may vary with the chemical being studied, should be useful in the extrapolation of rodent carcinogenesis data to humans.

  18. Influence of persistent canine distemper virus infection on expression of RECK, matrix-metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in a canine macrophage/monocytic tumour cell line (DH82).

    PubMed

    Puff, Christina; Krudewig, Christiane; Imbschweiler, Ilka; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Alldinger, Susanne

    2009-10-01

    A morbillivirus infection of tumour cells is known to exert oncolytic activity, but the mechanism of this inhibitory action has not been well defined. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes degrading the extracellular matrix and are often upregulated in malignant neoplasms. Recent studies have demonstrated that RECK may potently suppress MMP-2 and -9 activity, thus inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to determine the effect of persistent infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) infection on the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPS) in a canine macrophage/monocytic tumour cell line (DH82). The activity of proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 was also verified zymographically. Following CDV infection, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were down-regulated, while RECK was upregulated. These findings suggest that CDV infection restores RECK expression in tumour cells and may interfere with the intracellular processing of MMPs and TIMPs, thus possibly influencing tumour cell behaviour beneficially for the host. However, this needs to be verified in in vivo studies.

  19. Zebrafish kidney stromal cell lines support multilineage hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Stachura, David L.; Reyes, Jason R.; Bartunek, Petr; Paw, Barry H.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of zebrafish hematopoiesis have been largely performed using mutagenesis approaches and retrospective analyses based upon gene expression patterns in whole embryos. We previously developed transplantation assays to test the repopulation potentials of candidate hematopoietic progenitor cells. We have been impaired, however, in determining cellular differentiation potentials by a lack of short-term functional assays. To enable more precise analyses of hematopoietic progenitor cells, we have created zebrafish kidney stromal (ZKS) cell lines. Culture of adult whole kidney marrow with ZKS cells results in the maintenance and expansion of hematopoietic precursor cells. Hematopoietic growth is dependent upon ZKS cells, and we show that ZKS cells express many growth factors and ligands previously demonstrated to be important in maintaining mammalian hematopoietic cells. In the absence of exogenous growth factors, ZKS cells maintain early hematopoietic precursors and support differentiation of lymphoid and myeloid cells. With the addition of zebrafish erythropoietin, ZKS cells also support the differentiation of erythroid precursors. These conditions have enabled the ability to ascertain more precisely the points at which hematopoietic mutants are defective. The development of robust in vitro assays now provide the means to track defined, functional outcomes for prospectively isolated blood cell subsets in the zebrafish. PMID:19433857

  20. Propagation of Asian isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV) in hamster cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Serageldeen; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Ueda, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Maeda, Ken; Kai, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    Backgrounds The aim of this study was to confirm the propagation of various canine distemper viruses (CDV) in hamster cell lines of HmLu and BHK, since only a little is known about the possibility of propagation of CDV in rodent cells irrespective of their epidemiological importance. Methods The growth of CDV in hamster cell lines was monitored by titration using Vero.dogSLAMtag (Vero-DST) cells that had been proven to be susceptible to almost all field isolates of CDV, with the preparations of cell-free and cell-associated virus from the cultures infected with recent Asian isolates of CDV (13 strains) and by observing the development of cytopathic effect (CPE) in infected cultures of hamster cell lines. Results Eleven of 13 strains grew in HmLu cells, and 12 of 13 strains grew in BHK cells with apparent CPE of cell fusion in the late stage of infection. Two strains and a strain of Asia 1 group could not grow in HmLu cells and BHK cells, respectively. Conclusion The present study demonstrates at the first time that hamster cell lines can propagate the majority of Asian field isolates of CDV. The usage of two hamster cell lines suggested to be useful to characterize the field isolates biologically. PMID:19835588

  1. Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Filippo; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    A cytological grading for mast cell tumours (MCTs) would be highly desirable, allowing to select the most appropriate therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. This study evaluates the applicability on fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the novel Kiupel grading system, based on number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and presence of karyomegaly. Fifty consecutive cases with pre-operative cytological diagnosis were included. In cytological specimens, approximately 1000 cells were evaluated, and the histological grade was assessed on the corresponding resected specimens. On cytology, the above parameters were significantly different between histologically low-grade and high-grade tumours (P < 0.001). The cytograding correctly predicted the histological grade in 47 cases (accuracy, 94%; sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 97.3%). Two high-grade MCTs (4%) were not detected on cytology. The cytograding can provide helpful insights to assist clinical decisions in most cases. However, the risk of underestimation in a minority of patients represents a limit to the overall utility of the technique. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Antiviral and antiproliferative effects of canine interferon-λ1.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tomonori; Asano, Atsushi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Takeuchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshiaki

    2013-11-15

    Interferon (IFN)-λs, members of the type III IFN group, were recently identified in several vertebrates. Although IFN-λs have the potential to be utilized as antiviral and antitumor agents in veterinary medicine, the biological properties of IFN-λs have not yet been studied in companion animals. In this study, we analyzed the expression of canine IFN-λs and their receptors, produced a recombinant canine IFN-λ1 protein, and investigated its antiviral and antiproliferative activities using a canine kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK cells. MDCK cells were found to express type III IFN molecules, IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ3, and the receptors, IFNλR1 and IL10R2. IFN-λ1 was induced faster than IFN-λ3 by stimulation with poly (I:C). His-tagged IFN-λ1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli inhibited cytolytic plaque formation by influenza A virus infection, and induced the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, Mx1 and OAS1, in MDCK cells. In addition, recombinant IFN-λ1 inhibited the proliferation of MDCK cells slightly. These effects were observed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that canine IFN-λ1 has antiviral effect, and suggest the potential applicability of canine IFN-λ1 as a therapeutic agent.

  3. Increased numbers of peripheral blood CD34+ cells in dogs with canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bruet, Vincent; Lieubeau, Blandine; Herve, Julie; Roussel, Anne; Imparato, Laëtitia; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Bourdeau, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The bone marrow may be involved in human atopic diseases, as shown by the release of CD34+ cells into the peripheral blood. The aim was to determine the numbers of CD34+ cells in atopic dogs. The following three groups of dogs were studied: 27 dogs with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (NFICAD); 16 dogs with nonallergic inflammatory diseases; and 13 healthy control dogs. Dogs with NFICAD were selected after fulfilment of Favrot's criteria and exclusion of other pruritic dermatoses, including flea infestation and adverse reaction to foods. The Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for pruritus were used to quantify clinical signs. A phycoerythrin-conjugated anticanine CD34 antibody was used to stain peripheral blood CD34+ cells, and these were enumerated using a flow cytometer. The CD34+ cell counts were compared between groups and tested (in the NFICAD group) for correlation with the severity of clinical signs. The numbers of peripheral CD34+ cells in dogs with NFICAD (median 1.7) were statistically higher than in dogs with other nonallergic inflammatory diseases (median 1.0; P = 0.01) and healthy control dogs (median 0.9; P = 0.009). In dogs with NFICAD, there was no correlation between CD34+ cell numbers and CADESI-03 scores or owner-assessed pruritus (VAS score). The results of this study suggest the possible involvement of CD34+ cells in dogs with NFICAD. The role of CD34+ cells in the aetiopathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis remains to be determined. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Claudin-4 forms a paracellular barrier, revealing the interdependence of claudin expression in the loose epithelial cell culture model opossum kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Borovac, Jelena; Barker, Reid S; Rievaj, Juraj; Rasmussen, Andrew; Pan, Wanling; Wevrick, Rachel; Alexander, R Todd

    2012-12-15

    The effect of claudins on paracellular fluxes has been predominantly studied in either Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or LLCPK cells. Neither model system has a very low transepithelial resistance (TER) as observed in leaky epithelia. Moreover, results from one model system are not always consistent with another. Opossum kidney (OK) cells form tight junctions yet have a very low TER. We therefore set out to characterize the paracellular transport properties of this cell culture model. Ussing chamber dilution potential measurements revealed that OK cells exhibit a very low TER (11.7 ± 1.4 Ω·cm(2)), slight cation selectivity (P(Na)/P(Cl) = 1.10 ± 0.01), and the Eisenman permeability sequence IV; the permeability of monovalent cations ranking K(+) > Cs(+) > Rb(+) > Na(+) > Li(+). Quantitative real-time PCR studies found that OK cells endogenously express claudin-4 > -1 > -6 > -20 > -9 > -12 > -11 > -15. Overexpression of claudin-4 significantly increased TER, decreased Na(+) and Cl(-) permeability, and increased levels of claudin-1, -6, and -9 mRNA. Knockdown of claudin-4 in the overexpressing cells significantly decreased TER without altering claudin expression; thus claudin-4 forms a barrier in OK cells. Knockdown of endogenous claudin-4 decreased claudin-1, -9, and -12 expression without altering TER. Claudin-2 overexpression decreased TER, significantly increased Na(+) and Cl(-) permeability, and decreased claudin-12 and -6 expression. Together these results demonstrate that claudin expression is tightly coupled in OK cells.

  5. Proliferative lesions of intra-epidermal cytokeratin CAM5.2-positive cells in canine nipples.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, K; Nishiyama, S; Kobayashi, R; Yoshimura, H; Takahashi, K; Omachi, T; Kamiie, J; Shirota, K

    2014-01-01

    Non-keratinocyte cells with clear or vacuolated cytoplasm are frequently observed in the epidermis of canine nipples. Most of these cells express cytokeratin (CK) CAM5.2, a marker of luminal epithelial cells. The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of these clear cells were investigated. Nipple tissue from 36 dogs of both sexes was collected and labelled immunohistochemically for CAM5.2, CK7, CK14, CK18, CK20, α-smooth muscle actin, p63, melan-A, E-cadherin, epidermal growth factor receptor and oestrogen receptor (OR). The intra-epidermal CAM5.2(+) clear cells were present singly or as small clusters, mostly within the basal layer, in 22 dogs (61%). These cells also expressed CK7, CK18, E-cadherin and OR. Electron microscopy revealed that some of these cells had surface microvilli. Multifocal proliferative lesions consisting of these cells were observed in the nipples of four dogs. In these lesions, proliferating cells formed bilayered tubules with CAM5.2(+) inner and CK14/p63(+) outer cells. This is the first report describing intra-epidermal CAM5.2(+) clear cells, distinct from melanocytes and Merkel cells in dog nipples. These cells might arise from the luminal epithelium of the papillary duct.

  6. Expression of lumbosacral HOX genes, crucial in kidney organogenesis, is systematically deregulated in clear cell kidney cancers.

    PubMed

    Cantile, Monica; Schiavo, Giulia; Franco, Renato; Cindolo, Luca; Procino, Alfredo; D'Armiento, Maria; Facchini, Gaetano; Terracciano, Luigi; Botti, Gerardo; Cillo, Clemente

    2011-06-01

    Homeobox-containing genes are involved in different stages of kidney organogenesis, from the early events in intermediate mesoderm to terminal differentiation of glomerular and tubular epithelia. The HOX genes show a unique genomic network organization and regulate normal development. The targeted disruption of paralogous group 11 HOX genes (HOX A11, HOX C11 and HOX D11) results in a complete loss of metanephric kidney induction. Despite a large amount of data are related to the early events in the kidney development, not much is known about HOX genes in advanced kidney organogenesis and carcinogenesis. Here, we compare the expression of the whole HOX gene network in late-stage human foetal kidney development with the same patterns detected in 25 pairs of normal clear cell renal carcinomas (RCCs) and 15 isolated RCC biopsy samples. In the majority of RCCs tested, HOX C11 is upregulated, whereas HOX D11, after an early involvement becomes active again at the 23rd week of the foetal kidney development, is always expressed in normal adult kidneys and is deregulated, together with HOX A11 and lumbosacral locus D HOX genes. Thus, through its function of regulating phenotype cell identity, the HOX network plays an important role in kidney carcinogenesis. Lumbosacral HOX genes are involved in the molecular alterations associated with clear cell kidney cancers and represent, through their deregulation, a molecular mark of tubular epithelial dedifferentiation occurring along tumour evolution, with the restoration of genetic programs associated with kidney organogenesis. The deregulation of lumbosacral HOX genes in RCCs supports (i) the consideration of the HOX gene transcriptome as the potential prognostic tool in kidney carcinogenesis and (ii) the possibility to foresee clinical trials with the purpose of targeting these genes to achieve a therapeutic effect in RCC patients.

  7. Increased osmolarity and cell clustering preserve canine notochordal cell phenotype in culture.

    PubMed

    Spillekom, Sandra; Smolders, Lucas A; Grinwis, Guy C M; Arkesteijn, Irene T M; Ito, Keita; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A

    2014-08-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is associated with a loss of notochordal cells (NCs) from the nucleus pulposus (NP) and their replacement by chondrocyte-like cells. NCs are known to maintain extracellular matrix quality and stimulate the chondrocyte-like NP cells, making NCs attractive for designing new tissue engineering approaches for IVD regeneration. However, optimal conditions, such as osmolarity and other characteristics of the culture media, for long-term culture of NCs are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different culture media and osmolarity on the physiology of NCs in vitro. NC clusters isolated from canine IVDs were suspended in alginate beads and cultured at 37°C under normoxic conditions for 28 days. Three different culture conditions were investigated; (1) Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 (300 mOsm/L), (2) α-MEM (300 mOsm/L), and (3) α-MEM adjusted to 400 mOsm/L to mimic a hyperosmolar environment. NC morphology, expression of genes related to NC markers, matrix production and remodeling, and DNA- and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analyses were performed on 1, 7, 14, and 28 days in culture. Large, vesicle-containing cells organized in clusters, characterized as NCs, remained present during 28 days for all culture conditions. However, the proportion of the NC clusters decreased over time, whereas the proportion of spindle-shaped cells increased. Gene expression profiling at 7, 14, and 28 days in culture compared to day 1 indicated a initial loss of NC phenotype followed by some recovery of brachyury and aggrecan gene expression after 28 days of culture supporting a potential recovery of NC phenotype. NCs cultured in α-MEM adjusted to 400 mOsm/L showed the highest gene expression of brachyury, cytokeratin 18, and aggrecan, the highest GAG production, and the lowest collagen 1α1 gene expression. In conclusion, NCs cultured in alginate in native cell clusters, partially retained their

  8. Efficient decellularization of whole porcine kidneys improves reseeded cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Poornejad, Nafiseh; Momtahan, Nima; Salehi, Amin S M; Scott, Daniel R; Fronk, Cory A; Roeder, Beverly L; Reynolds, Paul R; Bundy, Bradley C; Cook, Alonzo D

    2016-03-10

    Combining patient-specific cells with the appropriate scaffold to create functional kidneys is a promising technology to provide immunocompatible kidneys for the 100,000+ patients on the organ waiting list. For proper recellularization to occur, the scaffold must possess the critical microstructure and an intact vascular network. Detergent perfusion through the vasculature of a kidney is the preferred method of decellularization; however, harsh detergents could be damaging to the microstructure of the renal tissue and may undesirably solubilize the endogenous growth and signaling factors. In this study, automated decellularization of whole porcine kidneys was performed using an improved method that combined physical and chemical steps to efficiently remove cellular materials while producing minimal damage to the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM). Freezing/thawing, incremental increases in flow rate under constant pressure, applying osmotic shock to the cellular membranes, and low concentrations of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were factors used to decrease SDS exposure time during the decellularization process from 36 to 5 h, which preserved the microstructure while still removing 99% of the DNA. The well-preserved glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen fibers enhanced cell-ECM interactions. Human renal cortical tubular epithelium (RCTE) cells grew more rapidly when cultured on the ECM obtained from the improved decellularization process and also demonstrated more in vivo-like gene expression patterns. The optimized, automated process that resulted from this work is now used routinely in our laboratory to rapidly decellularize porcine kidneys and could be adapted to other large organs (e.g. heart, liver, and lung).

  9. The role of the kidney in canine blood pressure control: direct assessment of the closed-loop gain.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, P B; Ehmke, H; Kirchheim, H R; Lempinen, M; Nafz, B

    1993-01-01

    1. The feedback control of arterial blood pressure by the kidney in the range of hours was investigated in resting, conscious foxhounds. 2. A servo-control device (connected to an aortic occlusive cuff implanted above both renal arteries) was used to maintain a constant pressure difference of 20 mmHg between aortic pressure measured proximal (mean arterial blood pressure: MAP) and distal (renal artery pressure: RAP) to the aortic cuff. 3. Protocol 1 (n = 6) served as a 4 h time control without intervention, protocol 2 (n = 6) consisted of three periods: after a control of 20 min duration, the servo-control device was activated for 180 min; this was followed by a recovery period of 40 min. Protocol 3 (n = 6) was as protocol 2, but during converting-enzyme inhibition. 4. Servo-control increased plasma renin activity (PRA) transiently from 0.5 ng angiotensin I (AI) ml-1 h-1 to a peak value of 2.4 ng AI ml-1 h-1, subsequently both RAP and MAP rose to reach a new steady state. During this increase in RAP, PRA declined to 1.4 ng AI ml-1 h-1. 5. On average, the compensation of the pressure decrease sensed by the kidney amounted to 63% of the error signal (closed-loop gain of 0.63 +/- 0.1). 6. Converting-enzyme inhibition reduced this closed-loop gain significantly (protocol 2 vs. protocol 3, 0.63 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.1; P < 0.05). 7. It is concluded, that the kidney plays an important role in medium-term blood pressure regulation, most probably via the renin-angiotensin system. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8229794

  10. P-glycoprotein expression in canine mammary gland tumours related with myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, N-H; Hwang, Y-H; Im, K-S; Kim, J-H; Chon, S-K; Kim, H-Y; Sur, J-H

    2012-12-01

    P-glycoprotein is influential in chemotherapy-resistance in numerous cancers and has been widely studied in human breast cancer research, but is less studied in canine mammary gland tumour (MGT). The study was to evaluate P-glycoprotein expression and its localisations related with prognostic factors with monoclonal antibody C219, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of 68 cases of canine malignant (n=54) and benign (n=14) MGT. Additional immunofluorescence (IF) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were also performed. There was a novel finding that P-glycoprotein expression with C219 localised at two different cell types: epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial localised tumours were 5 benign (35.5%) and 21 malignant (63.6%), while epithelial localised tumours were 12 cases, all malignant (36.5%). Unlike conventional belief, semi-quantitative evaluation of IHC intensity scores of C219 expression in malignant MGT was related with favourable histopathological parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peroxynitrite induces apoptosis in canine cerebral vascular muscle cells: possible relation to neurodegenerative diseases and strokes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Su, Jialin; Li, Wenyan; Liu, Weimin; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2003-10-30

    Considerable evidence is accumulating to suggest that in vivo formation of free radicals in the brain, such as peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and programmed cell death (i.e. apoptosis) play important roles in neurodegeneration and stroke. However, it is not known whether ONOO- can induce apoptosis in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs). The present study was designed to determine whether or not canine CVSMCs undergo apoptosis following treatment with ONOO-. Direct exposure of canine CVSMCs to ONOO- induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, as confirmed by means of fluorescence staining, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and comet assays. Peroxynitrite treatment resulted in an elevation of [Ca2+]i in the CVSMCs. Peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may thus be brought about by activation of Ca2+-dependent endonucleases. Although the precise mechanisms by which peroxynitrite induces apoptosis need to be further investigated, the present findings could be used to suggest that ONOO- formation in the brain may play important roles in neurodegenerative processes and strokes via detrimental actions on cerebral microvessels and blood flow.

  12. Intermittent single-agent doxorubicin for the treatment of canine B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Mary Lynn; McCaw, Dudley L; Roush, James K; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Wilkerson, Melinda J; Reeds, Kimberly; Burr, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Canine B-cell lymphoma is a highly treatable disease, but cost and logistical factors may hamper an owner's ability to pursue treatment of their pet with this disease. The authors evaluated the use of single-agent doxorubicin in an intermittent fashion for efficacy in the treatment of this disease. Morphologic and clinical data were analyzed for prognostic significance. Eighteen dogs with B-cell lymphoma, all with multicentric disease, were enrolled. The overall complete response (CR) rate was 78%, median total doxorubicin remission time (TDR) was 80.5 days, and median overall survival (OS) was 169.5 days. The median number of doxorubicin doses administered was 4.5. First remission times were significantly affected by clinical stage and substage of disease. Outcome for the dogs in this study were similar to those previously reported for single-agent doxorubicin treatment. Additionally, the intermittent nature of the treatments made the described protocol more feasible for the owners who enrolled their pets in this study. Intermittent single-agent doxorubicin is not a substitute for multiagent chemotherapy protocols in the treatment of canine lymphoma; however, it is a reasonable alternative if the cost and time commitments are limiting factors for an owner.

  13. Repair of orbital bone defects in canines using grafts of enriched autologous bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud Bone tissue engineering is a new approach for the repair of orbital defects. The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) that were rapidly isolated and concentrated from bone marrow (BM) by the red cell lysis method, then combined with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to create grafts used to restore orbital bone defects in canines. Methods In the experimental group, grafts were constructed using BMSCs obtained by red cell lysis from 20 ml bone marrow, combined with β-TCP and BM via the custom-made stem cell-scaffold device, then used to repair 10 mm diameter medial orbital wall bony defects in canines. Results were compared with those in groups grafted with BM/β-TCP or β-TCP alone, or with defects left untreated as controls. The enrichment of BMSCs and nucleated cells (NCs) in the graft was calculated from the number in untreated bone marrow and in suspensions after red cell lysis. Spiral computed tomography (CT) scans were performed 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after implantation in all groups. Gross examination, micro-CT and histological measurements were performed 24 weeks after surgery. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of bone repair. Results The number of NCs and of colony-forming units within the scaffolds were increased 54.8 times and 53.4 times, respectively, compared with untreated bone marrow. In the BMSC-BM/β-TCP group, CT examination revealed that the scaffolds were gradually absorbed and the bony defects were restored. Micro-CT and histological examination confirmed that the implantations led to good repair of the defects, with 6 out 8 orbital defects completely restored in the experimental group, while by contrast, the grafts in the control groups did not fully repair the bony defects, a difference which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions Tissue-engineered bone, constructed using BMSCs isolated by red cell

  14. Evaluation of prognostic markers for canine mast cell tumors treated with vinblastine and prednisone

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joshua D; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Thamm, Douglas H; Hamilton, Elizabeth; Kiupel, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Background Canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) is a common neoplastic disease associated with a variable biologic behavior. Surgery remains the primary treatment for canine MCT; however, radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy are commonly used to treat aggressive MCT. The goals of this study were to evaluate the prognostic utility of histologic grade, c-KIT mutations, KIT staining patterns, and the proliferation markers Ki67 and AgNORs in dogs postoperatively treated with vinblastine and prednisone +/- RT, and to compare the outcome of dogs treated with post-operative chemotherapy +/- RT to that of a prognostically matched group treated with surgery alone. Associations between prognostic markers and survival were evaluated. Disease-free intervals (DFI) and overall survival times (OS) of dogs with similar pretreatment prognostic indices postoperatively treated with chemotherapy were compared to dogs treated with surgery alone. Results Histologic grade 3 MCTs, MCTs with c-KIT mutations, MCTs with increased cytoplasmic KIT, and MCTs with increased Ki67 and AgNOR values were associated with decreased DFI and OS. Dogs with histologic grade 3 MCT had significantly increased DFI and OS when treated with chemotherapy vs. surgery alone. Although not statistically significant due to small sample sizes, MCTs with c-KIT mutations had increased DFI and OS when treated with chemotherapy vs. surgery alone. Conclusion and clinical importance This study confirms the prognostic value of histologic grade, c-KIT mutations, KIT staining patterns, and proliferation analyses for canine MCT. Additionally, the results of this study further define the benefit of postoperative vinblastine and prednisone for histologic grade 3 MCTs. PMID:18700956

  15. Tumour-associated macrophages influence canine mammary cancer stem-like cells enhancing their pro-angiogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, A; Eyileten, C; Taciak, B; Mucha, J; Majchrzak, K; Hellmen, E; Krol, M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer stem-like cells as cells with ability to self-renewal and potential to differentiate into various types of cells are known to be responsible for tumour initiation, recurrence and drug resistance. Hence a comprehensive research is concentrated on discovering cancer stem-like cells biology and interdependence between them and other cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of macrophages on cancer stem-like cells in canine mammary carcinomas. As recent studies indicated presence of macrophages in cancer environment stimulates cancer cells into more motile and invasive cells by acquisition of macrophage phenotypes. From two canine mammary tumour cell lines, CMT-U27 and P114 cancer stem-like cells were stained with Sca1, CD44 and EpCAM monoclonal antibodies and isolated. Those cells were next co-cultured with macrophages for 5 days and used for further experiments. Canine Gene Expression Microarray revealed 29 different expressed transcripts in cancer stem-like cells co-cultured with macrophages compared to those in mono-culture. Up-regulation of C-C motif chemokine 2 was considered as the most interesting for further investigation. Additionally, those cells showed overexpression of genes involved in non-canonical Wnt pathway. The results of 3D tubule formation in endothelial cells induced by cancer stem-like cells co-cultured with macrophages compared to cancer stem-like cells from mono-cultures and with addition of Recombinant Canine CCL2/MCP-1 revealed the same stimulating effect. Based on those results we can conclude that macrophages have an impact on cancer stem-like cells increasing secretion of pro-angiogenic factors.

  16. Comparative analysis of canine monocyte- and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ricklin Gutzwiller, Meret Elisabeth; Moulin, Hervé Raphaël; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Roosje, Petra; Summerfield, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent a heterogeneous cell family of major importance for innate immune responses against pathogens and antigen presentation during infection, cancer, allergy and autoimmunity. The aim of the present study was to characterize canine DC generated in vitro with respect to their phenotype, responsiveness to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and T-cell stimulatory capacity. DC were derived from monocytes (MoDC) and from bone marrow hematopoietic cells cultured with either Flt3-ligand (FL-BMDC) or with GM-CSF (GM-BMDC). All three methods generated cells with typical DC morphology that expressed CD1c, CD11c and CD14, similar to macrophages. However, CD40 was only found on DC, CD206 on MPhi and BMDC, but not on monocytes and MoDC. CD1c was not found on monocytes but on all in vitro differentiated cells. FL-BMDC and GM-BMDC were partially positive for CD4 and CD8. CD45RA was expressed on a subset of FL-BMDC but not on MoDC and GM-BMDC. MoDC and FL-DC responded well to TLR ligands including poly-IC (TLR2), Pam3Cys (TLR3), LPS (TLR4) and imiquimod (TLR7) by up-regulating MHC II and CD86. The generated DC and MPhi showed a stimulatory capacity for lymphocytes, which increased upon maturation with LPS. Taken together, our results are the basis for further characterization of canine DC subsets with respect to their role in inflammation and immune responses. Copyright (c) INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  17. Comparative analysis of canine monocyte- and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin Gutzwiller, Meret Elisabeth; Moulin, Hervé Raphaël; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Roosje, Petra; Summerfield, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent a heterogeneous cell family of major importance for innate immune responses against pathogens and antigen presentation during infection, cancer, allergy and autoimmunity. The aim of the present study was to characterize canine DC generated in vitro with respect to their phenotype, responsiveness to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and T-cell stimulatory capacity. DC were derived from monocytes (MoDC) and from bone marrow hematopoietic cells cultured with either Flt3-ligand (FL-BMDC) or with GM-CSF (GM-BMDC). All three methods generated cells with typical DC morphology that expressed CD1c, CD11c and CD14, similar to macrophages. However, CD40 was only found on DC, CD206 on MΦ and BMDC, but not on monocytes and MoDC. CD1c was not found on monocytes but on all in vitro differentiated cells. FL-BMDC and GM-BMDC were partially positive for CD4 and CD8. CD45RA was expressed on a subset of FL-BMDC but not on MoDC and GM-BMDC. MoDC and FL-DC responded well to TLR ligands including poly-IC (TLR2), Pam3Cys (TLR3), LPS (TLR4) and imiquimod (TLR7) by up-regulating MHC II and CD86. The generated DC and MΦ showed a stimulatory capacity for lymphocytes, which increased upon maturation with LPS. Taken together, our results are the basis for further characterization of canine DC subsets with respect to their role in inflammation and immune responses. PMID:20167201

  18. Canine Cranial Reconstruction Using Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mankani, Mahesh H.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Shannon, Brian; Nalla, Ravi K.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Qin, Yixian; Robey, Pamela Gehron

    2006-01-01

    Limited-sized transplants of culture-expanded autologous or allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) form cortico-cancellous bone in rodent models. Initiation of clinical studies using autologous BMSC transplantation requires effective bone formation among sizable transplants in a large animal model as well as noninvasive techniques for evaluating transplant success. Here, we obtained bone marrow from the femurs of six dogs and expanded BMSCs in tissue culture. Autologous BMSC-hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) transplants were introduced into critical-sized calvarial defects and contralateral control skull defects received HA/TCP vehicle alone. At intervals ranging from 2 to 20 months, transplants were biopsied or harvested for histological and mechanical analysis. Noninvasive studies, including quantitative computed tomography scans and ultrasound, were simultaneously obtained. In all animals, BMSC-containing transplants formed significantly more bone than their control counterparts. BMSC-associated bone possessed mechanical properties similar to the adjacent normal bone, confirmed by both ultrasound and ex vivo analysis. Evaluation by quantitative computed tomography confirmed that the extent of bone formation demonstrated by histology could be discerned through noninvasive means. These results show that autologous cultured BMSC transplantation is a feasible therapy in clinical-sized bone defects and that such transplants can be assessed noninvasively, suggesting that this technique has potential for use in patients with certain bone defects. PMID:16436668

  19. Studies on canine bone marrow long-term culture: effect of stem cell factor.

    PubMed

    Neuner, E; Schumm, M; Schneider, E M; Guenther, W; Kremmer, E; Vogl, C; Büttner, M; Thierfelder, S; Kolb, H J

    1998-02-16

    Long-term culture of canine marrow cells allows in vitro studies of the hematopoietic system of the dog and characterization of early progenitor cells. Colonies of fresh marrow cells grew equally good in both agar or methylcellulose supplemented with fetal calf serum, while colonies of long-term cultures required agar-based medium containing human serum. Optimum colony growth was obtained when stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were used as growth stimuli of colony forming units (CFU). Similar results were achieved with several cell culture media. Addition of hydrocortisone to long-term cultures improved clonogenic growth of cultured cells. Addition of 2-mercaptoethanol had no effect. Strong differences were observed in long-term culture with different horse serum lots and the addition of fetal calf serum to long-term culture suppressed CFU growth of cultured cells. Recharging of cultures with fresh marrow cells on day 7 of culture improved CFU growth only in the following week but had little effect on the outcome. Adding SCF to long-term cultures led to differentiation of more primitive cells and destruction of the stromal layer. Investigation of purified and cultured cell populations was possible when preestablished long-term cultures as stromal layers were used. Loss of long-term culture-initiating ability could be demonstrated in this system with lineage negative marrow cells expanded ex vivo with SCF and GM-CSF.

  20. Expression of claudin-5 in canine pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma - An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Gálfi, Péter; Halász, Judit; Kulka, Janina

    2011-03-01

    Claudin-5 is an endothelium-specific tight junction protein. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression pattern of this molecule in intact pancreatic tissues and in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas from dogs by the use of cross-reactive humanised anticlaudin-5 antibody. The necropsy samples taken from dogs included 10 nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues, 10 well-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 10 poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 5 intrahepatic metastases of well-differentiated and 5 intrahepatic metastases of poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinomas. A strong lateral membrane claudin-5 positivity was detected in exocrine cells in all intact pancreas samples. The endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans and the epithelial cells of the ducts were negative for claudin-5. The endothelial cells of vessels and lymphatic channels in the stroma of the intact pancreas showed strong membrane positivity for this claudin. All well-differentiated exocrine pancreas carcinomas and all poorly-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma samples showed a diffuse loss of claudin-5 expression. The claudin-5-positive peritumoural vessels and lymphatic channels facilitated the detection of vascular invasion of the claudin-5-negative cancer cells. In liver metastasis samples, the pancreatic carcinomas were negative for claudin-5. It seems that the loss of expression of claudin-5 may lead to carcinogenesis in canine exocrine pancreatic cells.

  1. Stem cells in the canine pituitary gland and in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Hanson, Jeanette M; Penning, Louis C; Meij, Björn P

    2013-12-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) or pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs, with an estimated prevalence of 1 or 2 in 1000 dogs per year. It is caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenoma in the pars distalis or pars intermedia of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located in the pituitary fossa. In the postnatal individual, the hypothalamus-pituitary axis plays a central role in maintaining homeostatic functions, like control of metabolism, reproduction, and growth. Stem cells are suggested to play a role in the homeostatic adaptations of the adult pituitary gland, such as the rapid specific cell-type expansion in response to pregnancy or lactation. Several cell populations have been suggested as pituitary stem cells, such as Side Population cells and cells expressing Sox2 or Nestin. These cell populations are discussed in this review. Also, stem and progenitor cells are thought to play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis, such as the development of pituitary adenomas in dogs. There are limited reports on the role of stem cells in pituitary adenomas, especially in dogs. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize this cell population and to develop specific cell targeting therapeutic strategies as a new way of treating canine CD.

  2. Cytoprotection of kidney epithelial cells by compounds that target amino acid gated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, M A; Weinberg, J M; Patel, Y; Saikumar, P; Dong, Z

    1996-02-01

    Glycine, strychnine and certain chloride channel blockers were reported to protect cells against lethal cell injury. These effects have been attributed to interactions with membrane proteins related to CNS glycine gated chloride channel receptors. We have investigated the pharmacology of these actions. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were depleted of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by incubation in glucose free medium containing a mitochondrial uncoupler. Medium Ca2+ was adjusted to 100 nM in the presence of an ionophore such that intracellular Ca2+ did not increase, and Ca(2+)-related injury mechanisms were inhibited. This permitted more sensitive quantitation of protection against cell injury attributable to glycine or other agents whose actions might be related to those of the amino acid. Two classes of compounds showed cytoprotective activity in this system: (1) ligands at chloride channel receptors, such as glycine, strychnine and avermectin B1a; (2) chloride channel blockers, including cyanotriphenylboron and niflumic acid, both of which are known to bind to channel domains of CNS glycine receptors. Morphological and functional studies showed that the compounds preserved plasma membrane integrity, but permitted cell swelling. Substitution of medium chloride by gluconate, or chloride salts by sucrose, did not substantially modify lethal damage or its prevention by glycine or other drugs. The compounds did not modify ATP declines. At least for some compounds, cytoprotection appeared to be specific to structural features on the molecules. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a plasma membrane protein related to glycine-gated chloride channel receptors plays a significant role in cell injury, but indicate that the mechanisms of injury and protection by compounds active in this system are not related to chloride fluxes.

  3. Tumourigenic canine osteosarcoma cell lines associated with frizzled-6 up-regulation and enhanced side population cell frequency.

    PubMed

    de Sá Rodrigues, L C; Holmes, K E; Thompson, V; Newton, M A; Stein, T J

    2017-03-01

    An increased serum alkaline phosphatase concentration is known to be associated with a negative prognosis in canine and human osteosarcoma. To expand upon previous studies regarding the biological relevance of increased serum alkaline phosphatase as a negative prognostic factor, xenogeneic heterotopic transplants were performed using six canine primary osteosarcoma cell lines generated from patients with differing serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations (three normal and three increased). Three of the six cell lines were capable of generating tumours and tumour formation was independent of the serum alkaline phosphatase status of the cell line. Microarray analysis identified 379 genes as being differentially expressed between the tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic cell lines. Frizzled-6 was upregulated to the greatest extent (7.78-fold) in tumourigenic cell lines compared with non-tumourigenic cell lines. Frizzled-6, a co-receptor for Wnt ligands has been associated with enhanced tumour-initiating cells and poor prognosis for other tumours. The increased expression of frizzled-6 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and Western blot analysis. Additionally, the tumourigenic cell lines also had an increase in the percentage of side population cells compared with non-tumourigenic cell lines (5.89% versus 1.58%, respectively). There were no differences in tumourigenicity, frizzled-6 or percentage of side population cells noted between osteosarcoma cell lines generated from patients of differing serum alkaline phosphatase concentration. However, to our knowledge this is the first study to identified frizzled-6 as a possible marker of osteosarcoma cell populations with enhanced tumourigenicity and side population cells. Future work will focus on defining the role of frizzled-6 in osteosarcoma tumourigenesis and tumour-initiating cells.

  4. Tumourigenic canine osteosarcoma cell lines associated with frizzled-6 up-regulation and enhanced side population cell frequency

    PubMed Central

    de Sá Rodrigues, L. C.; Holmes, K. E.; Thompson, V.; Newton, M. A.; Stein, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    An increased serum alkaline phosphatase concentration is known to be associated with a negative prognosis in canine and human osteosarcoma. To expand upon previous studies regarding the biological relevance of increased serum alkaline phosphatase as a negative prognostic factor, xenogeneic heterotopic transplants were performed using six canine primary osteosarcoma cell lines generated from patients with differing serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations (three normal and three increased). Three of the six cell lines were capable of generating tumours and tumour formation was independent of the serum alkaline phosphatase status of the cell line. Microarray analysis identified 379 genes as being differentially expressed between the tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic cell lines. Frizzled-6 was upregulated to the greatest extent (7.78-fold) in tumourigenic cell lines compared with non-tumourigenic cell lines. Frizzled-6, a co-receptor for Wnt ligands has been associated with enhanced tumour-initiating cells and poor prognosis for other tumours. The increased expression of frizzled-6 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and Western blot analysis. Additionally, the tumourigenic cell lines also had an increase in the percentage of side population cells compared with non-tumourigenic cell lines (5.89% versus 1.58%, respectively). There were no differences in tumourigenicity, frizzled-6 or percentage of side population cells noted between osteosarcoma cell lines generated from patients of differing serum alkaline phosphatase concentration. However, to our knowledge this is the first study to identified frizzled-6 as a possible marker of osteosarcoma cell populations with enhanced tumourigenicity and side population cells. Future work will focus on defining the role of frizzled-6 in osteosarcoma tumourigenesis and tumour-initiating cells. PMID:25689105

  5. Susceptibility of a minipig kidney cell line (MPK) to hog cholera virus.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, C; Falcone, E; Pestalozza, S; Iovane, G; Rivero, V B

    1988-07-01

    A comparitive study on the different susceptibility of MPK cells (Minipig Kidney cell line) and PK15 cells (Pig Kidney cell line) to the Hog Cholera Virus (HCV) was conducted. Higher HCV titres (3 log10) were reached on MPK cells compared with PK15 cells.

  6. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  7. Gene expression profiles of cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in canine oral tumors.

    PubMed

    Pisamai, Sirinun; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kalpravidh, Chanin; Suriyaphol, Gunnaporn

    2017-09-08

    Perturbation of cell adhesion can be essential for tumor cell invasion and metastasis, but the current knowledge on the gene expression of molecules that mediate cell adhesion in canine oral tumors is limited. The present study aimed to investigate changes in the gene expression of cell adhesion molecules (E-cadherin or CDH1, syndecan 1 or SDC1, NECTIN2 and NECTIN4), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), in canine oral tumors, including benign tumors, oral melanoma (OM) and non-tonsillar oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. When compared with the normal gingival controls, decreased CDH1, SDC1 and NECTIN4 expression levels were observed in OSCC and OM, reflecting a possible role as cell adhesion molecules and tumor suppressors in canine oral cancers in contrast to the upregulation of MMP2 expression. Downregulated MMP7 was specifically revealed in the OM group. In the late-stage OM, the positive correlation of MMP7 and CDH1 expression was noticed as well as that of SDC1 and NECTIN4. Enhanced TIMP1 expression was shown in all tumor groups with prominent expression in the benign tumors and the early-stage OM. MMP14 expression was notable in the early-stage OM. Higher MMP9 and TIMP1 expression was observed in the acanthomatous ameloblastoma. In conclusion, this study revealed that the altered expression of cell adhesion molecules, MMP7 and MMP2 was correlated with clinicopathologic features in canine oral cancers whereas TIMP1 and MMP14 expression was probably associated with early-stage tumors; therefore, these genes might serve as molecular markers for canine oral tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone.

  9. Molecular and immunohistochemical studies do not support a role for papillomaviruses in canine oral squamous cell carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; French, Adrienne; Harvey, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are common neoplasms of dogs and are of unknown cause. Whereas papillomaviruses (PVs) are an established cause of human OSCCs, few studies have investigated canine OSCCs for a PV aetiology. In humans, a PV aetiology can be determined by detecting PV DNA and PV-induced increased p16(CDKN2A) protein (p16) within the OSCC. In this study, PCR, using four different primer sets and p16 immunohistochemistry, was used to evaluate 28 canine OSCCs for a possible PV aetiology. None of the primers amplified PV DNA from any of the OSCCs although four neoplasms contained intense p16 immunostaining. Intense p16 immunostaining would indicate a PV aetiology in a human OSCC but the absence of PV DNA suggests that the increase in p16 was not due to PV infection. Overall the results indicated that PVs are not a significant cause of canine OSCCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cystine and dibasic amino acid uptake by opossum kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    States, B.; Segal, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The characteristics of the uptake of L-cystine by the continuous opossum kidney cell line, OK, were examined. Uptake of cystine is rapid and, in contrast to other continuous cultured cell lines, these cells retain the cystine/dibasic amino acid transport system which is found in vivo and in freshly isolated kidney tissue. Confluent monolayers of cells also fail to show the presence of the cystine/glutamate transport system present in LLC-PK1 cells, fibroblasts, and cultured hepatocytes. Uptake of cystine occurs via a high-affinity saturable process which is independent of medium sodium concentration. The predominant site of cystine transport is across the apical cell membrane. The intracellular concentration of GSH far exceeds that of cystine with a ratio greater than 100:1 for GSH:cysteine. Incubation of cells for 5 minutes with a physiological level of labelled cystine resulted in the labelling of 66% and 5% of the total intracellular cysteine and glutathione, respectively. The ability of these cells to reflect the shared cystine/dibasic amino acid transport system makes them a suitable model for investigation of the cystine carrier which is altered in human cystinuria.

  11. Prevalence of FoxP3(+) Cells in Canine Tumours and Lymph Nodes Correlates Positively with Glucose Transporter 1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, L; Relf, J; Chang, Y-M; Hibbert, A; Martineau, H M; Garden, O A

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in tumours are both known to be negative prognostic factors in cancer, and this study demonstrated a correlation between the two factors in canine neoplasia. Samples of 57 canine tumours and 29 canine lymph nodes categorized as tumour-draining, with or without metastasis, or reactive and not tumour-associated, were examined. Sequential sections were labelled by immunohistochemistry for glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and FoxP3 as markers of hypoxia and Tregs, respectively. Up to 21 regions of interest (ROI) were selected in each section in a representative pattern and were assigned a semiquantitative score based on Glut1 labelling. The number of FoxP3(+) cells within each ROI was counted. A generalized estimating equation with negative binomial log link function was used to determine an association between Glut1 expression and FoxP3(+) cell count. Higher Glut1 immunoreactivity was correlated with significantly higher numbers of FoxP3(+) cells in the total tumour sample pool and total lymph node sample pool. Analysis of various subcategories of tumours and lymph nodes showed that this correlation was also present within samples characterized as malignant, haemopoietic mesenchymal tumours, non-haemopoietic mesenchymal tumours, epithelial tumours, lymphoma, lymph nodes containing metastases and reactive lymph nodes. These results indicate that hypoxia in canine tumours may result in an increased infiltration by Tregs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PCNA and grade in 13 canine oral squamous cell carcinomas: association with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, L A; Faísca, P; Peleteiro, M C; Niza, M M R E

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the prognosis factors of age, tumour size, anatomic location, histological grade and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in 13 dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with bone invasion and without signs of lymph node or distant metastasis. All animals were treated with radical excision performed with at least 1 cm margin, based on computed tomography images. In the 2-year follow-up, median disease-free survival was 138 days for dogs with grade 3 tumours and was not reached for those with grade 2 tumours. Grade 3 tumours and PCNA labelling index ≥65% were related with a shorter disease-free survival time and consequently poor prognosis (p = 0.003 and p = 0.034, respectively). Mean PCNA labelling index was significantly higher in recurrent cases (p = 0.011). Histological grade and PCNA expression may be important prognosis factors in canine OSCC.

  13. Hepatic progenitor cells in canine and feline medicine: potential for regenerative strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    New curative therapies for severe liver disease are urgently needed in both the human and veterinary clinic. It is important to find new treatment modalities which aim to compensate for the loss of parenchymal tissue and to repopulate the liver with healthy hepatocytes. A prime focus in regenerative medicine of the liver is the use of adult liver stem cells, or hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), for functional recovery of liver disease. This review describes recent developments in HPC research in dog and cat and compares these findings to experimental rodent studies and human pathology. Specifically, the role of HPCs in liver regeneration, key components of the HPC niche, and HPC activation in specific types of canine and feline liver disease will be reviewed. Finally, the potential applications of HPCs in regenerative medicine of the liver are discussed and a potential role is suggested for dogs as first target species for HPC-based trials. PMID:24946932

  14. Characterization and Immunomodulatory Effects of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Keith A.; Chow, Natalie H. C.; Dukoff, David; Gibson, Thomas W. G.; LaMarre, Jonathan; Betts, Dean H.; Koch, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies. Hypothesis and Objectives We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) MSC (derived from the same dogs) will have similar differentiation and immune modulatory profiles. Our objectives were to evaluate progenitor and non-progenitor functions as well as other characteristics of AT- and BM-MSC including 1) proliferation rate, 2) cell surface marker expression, 3) DNA methylation levels, 4) potential for trilineage differentiation towards osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cell fates, and 5) immunomodulatory potency in vitro. Results 1) AT-MSC proliferated at more than double the rate of BM-MSC (population doubling times in days) for passage (P) 2, AT: 1.69, BM: 3.81; P3, AT: 1.80, BM: 4.06; P4, AT: 2.37, BM: 5.34; P5, AT: 3.20, BM: 7.21). 2) Canine MSC, regardless of source, strongly expressed cell surface markers MHC I, CD29, CD44, and CD90, and were negative for MHC II and CD45. They also showed moderate expression of CD8 and CD73 and mild expression of CD14. Minor differences were found in expression of CD4 and CD34. 3) Global DNA methylation levels were significantly lower in BM-MSC compared to AT-MSC. 4) Little difference was found between AT- and BM-MSC in their potential for adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Chondrogenesis was poor to absent for both sources in spite of adding varying levels of bone-morphogenic protein to our standard transforming growth factor (TGF-β3)-based induction medium. 5) Immunomodulatory capacity was equal

  15. Canine distemper virus utilizes different receptors to infect chicken embryo fibroblasts and vero cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Liang, Xiu; Chen, Pei-fu

    2011-04-01

    Inducing animal viruses to adapt to chicken embryos or chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) is a common method to develop attenuated live vaccines with full security. Canine distemper virus (CDV) also does this, but the mechanisms and particular receptors remain unclear. Virus overlay protein blot assays were carried out on CEF membrane proteins, which were extracted respectively with a Mem-PER™ kit, a radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer or a modified co-immunoprecipitation method, and revealed a common 57 kDa positive band that differed from the 42-kDa positive band in Vero cells and also from those receptors reported in lymphocytes and 293 cells, indicating a receptor diversity of CDV and the possibility of the 57-kDa protein acting as a receptor that is involved in adaptive infection of CDV Kunming strain to CEF.

  16. Canine distemper virus infects canine keratinocytes and immune cells by using overlapping and distinct regions located on one side of the attachment protein.

    PubMed

    Langedijk, Johannes P M; Janda, Jozef; Origgi, Francesco C; Örvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    The morbilliviruses measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) both rely on two surface glycoproteins, the attachment (H) and fusion proteins, to promote fusion activity for viral cell entry. Growing evidence suggests that morbilliviruses infect multiple cell types by binding to distinct host cell surface receptors. Currently, the only known in vivo receptor used by morbilliviruses is CD150/SLAM, a molecule expressed in certain immune cells. Here we investigated the usage of multiple receptors by the highly virulent and demyelinating CDV strain A75/17. We based our study on the assumption that CDV-H may interact with receptors similar to those for MeV, and we conducted systematic alanine-scanning mutagenesis on CDV-H throughout one side of the β-propeller documented in MeV-H to contain multiple receptor-binding sites. Functional and biochemical assays performed with SLAM-expressing cells and primary canine epithelial keratinocytes identified 11 residues mutation of which selectively abrogated fusion in keratinocytes. Among these, four were identical to amino acids identified in MeV-H as residues contacting a putative receptor expressed in polarized epithelial cells. Strikingly, when mapped on a CDV-H structural model, all residues clustered in or around a recessed groove located on one side of CDV-H. In contrast, reported CDV-H mutants with SLAM-dependent fusion deficiencies were characterized by additional impairments to the promotion of fusion in keratinocytes. Furthermore, upon transfer of residues that selectively impaired fusion induction in keratinocytes into the CDV-H of the vaccine strain, fusion remained largely unaltered. Taken together, our results suggest that a restricted region on one side of CDV-H contains distinct and overlapping sites that control functional interaction with multiple receptors.

  17. Canine Distemper Virus Infects Canine Keratinocytes and Immune Cells by Using Overlapping and Distinct Regions Located on One Side of the Attachment Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Langedijk, Johannes P. M.; Janda, Jozef; Origgi, Francesco C.; Örvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The morbilliviruses measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) both rely on two surface glycoproteins, the attachment (H) and fusion proteins, to promote fusion activity for viral cell entry. Growing evidence suggests that morbilliviruses infect multiple cell types by binding to distinct host cell surface receptors. Currently, the only known in vivo receptor used by morbilliviruses is CD150/SLAM, a molecule expressed in certain immune cells. Here we investigated the usage of multiple receptors by the highly virulent and demyelinating CDV strain A75/17. We based our study on the assumption that CDV-H may interact with receptors similar to those for MeV, and we conducted systematic alanine-scanning mutagenesis on CDV-H throughout one side of the β-propeller documented in MeV-H to contain multiple receptor-binding sites. Functional and biochemical assays performed with SLAM-expressing cells and primary canine epithelial keratinocytes identified 11 residues mutation of which selectively abrogated fusion in keratinocytes. Among these, four were identical to amino acids identified in MeV-H as residues contacting a putative receptor expressed in polarized epithelial cells. Strikingly, when mapped on a CDV-H structural model, all residues clustered in or around a recessed groove located on one side of CDV-H. In contrast, reported CDV-H mutants with SLAM-dependent fusion deficiencies were characterized by additional impairments to the promotion of fusion in keratinocytes. Furthermore, upon transfer of residues that selectively impaired fusion induction in keratinocytes into the CDV-H of the vaccine strain, fusion remained largely unaltered. Taken together, our results suggest that a restricted region on one side of CDV-H contains distinct and overlapping sites that control functional interaction with multiple receptors. PMID:21849439

  18. Establishment of primary mixed cell cultures from spontaneous canine mammary tumors: Characterization of classic and new cancer-associated molecules

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Luciana B.; Nagamine, Marcia K.; Biondi, Luiz R.; Sanches, Daniel S.; Toyota, Fábio; Giovani, Tatiane M.; de Jesus, Isis P.; da Fonseca, Ivone I. M.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Diaz, Bruno L.; Salles Gomes, Cristina de O. Massoco

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors which make canine cancer like cancer in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous mammary tumors in pet dogs, tumor genetics, molecular targets and exposure to the same environmental risk factors are among these factors. Therefore, the study of canine cancer can provide useful information to the oncology field. This study aimed to establish and characterize a panel of primary mixed cell cultures obtained from spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Eight established cell cultures obtained from one normal mammary gland, one complex adenoma, one mixed adenoma, two complex carcinomas and two mixed carcinomas were analyzed. The gene expression levels of classic molecular cancer players such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, breast cancer (BRCA) 1, BRCA2 and estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 were evaluated. For the first time, three orphan nuclear receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α, β and γ were studied in canine mammary cancer. The highest expression level of ERRα was observed in complex carcinoma-derived cell culture, while the highest levels of ERRβ and γ were observed in cells derived from a mixed carcinoma. Meanwhile, complex carcinomas presented the highest levels of expression of ESR1, BRCA1 and FGFR2 among all samples. BRCA2 was found exclusively in complex adenoma. The transcription factor GATA3 had its highest levels in mixed carcinoma samples and its lowest levels in complex adenoma. Proliferation assays were also performed to evaluate the mixed cell cultures response to ER ligands, genistein and DES, both in normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional studies of primary mixed cell cultures derived from spontaneous canine mammary tumors are possible and provide valuable tool for the study of various stages of mammary cancer development. PMID:28945747

  19. Establishment of primary mixed cell cultures from spontaneous canine mammary tumors: Characterization of classic and new cancer-associated molecules.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luciana B; Nagamine, Marcia K; Biondi, Luiz R; Sanches, Daniel S; Toyota, Fábio; Giovani, Tatiane M; de Jesus, Isis P; da Fonseca, Ivone I M; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Diaz, Bruno L; Salles Gomes, Cristina de O Massoco; Dagli, Maria Lucia Z

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors which make canine cancer like cancer in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous mammary tumors in pet dogs, tumor genetics, molecular targets and exposure to the same environmental risk factors are among these factors. Therefore, the study of canine cancer can provide useful information to the oncology field. This study aimed to establish and characterize a panel of primary mixed cell cultures obtained from spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Eight established cell cultures obtained from one normal mammary gland, one complex adenoma, one mixed adenoma, two complex carcinomas and two mixed carcinomas were analyzed. The gene expression levels of classic molecular cancer players such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, breast cancer (BRCA) 1, BRCA2 and estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 were evaluated. For the first time, three orphan nuclear receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α, β and γ were studied in canine mammary cancer. The highest expression level of ERRα was observed in complex carcinoma-derived cell culture, while the highest levels of ERRβ and γ were observed in cells derived from a mixed carcinoma. Meanwhile, complex carcinomas presented the highest levels of expression of ESR1, BRCA1 and FGFR2 among all samples. BRCA2 was found exclusively in complex adenoma. The transcription factor GATA3 had its highest levels in mixed carcinoma samples and its lowest levels in complex adenoma. Proliferation assays were also performed to evaluate the mixed cell cultures response to ER ligands, genistein and DES, both in normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional studies of primary mixed cell cultures derived from spontaneous canine mammary tumors are possible and provide valuable tool for the study of various stages of mammary cancer development.

  20. CD9, a tetraspan transmembrane protein, renders cells susceptible to canine distemper virus.

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, S; Lottspeich, F; Lanza, F; Azorsa, D O; ter Meulen, V; Schneider-Schaulies, J

    1997-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a lymphotropic and neurotropic negative-stranded RNA virus of the Morbillivirus genus, causes a life-threatening disease in several carnivores, including domestic dogs. To identify the cellular receptor(s) involved in the uptake of CDV by susceptible cells, we isolated a monoclonal antibody (MAb K41) which binds to the cell surface and inhibits the CDV infection of several cell lines from various species. Pretreatment of cells with MAb K41 reduces the number of infectious centers and the size of the syncytia. Using affinity chromatography with MAb K41, we purified from HeLa and Vero cell extracts a 26-kDa protein which contained the amino acid sequence TKDEPQRETLK of human CD9, a member of the tetraspan transmembrane or transmembrane 4 superfamily of cell surface proteins. Transfection of NIH 3T3 or MDBK cells with a CD9 expression plasmid rendered these cells permissive for viral infection and raised virus production by a factor of 10 to 100. The mechanism involved is still unclear, since we were unable to detect direct binding of CDV to CD9 by using immunoprecipitation and a virus overlay protein binding assay. These findings indicate that human CD9 and its homologs in other species are necessary factors for the uptake of CDV by target cells, the formation of syncytia, and the production of progeny virus. PMID:8985321

  1. A novel clonality assay for the assessment of canine T cell proliferations.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stefan M; Moore, Peter F

    2012-01-15

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based clonality assays are an important tool to differentiate neoplastic from reactive lymphocyte populations. A recent description of the canine T cell receptor γ locus identified a large number of formerly unknown genes, and determined the locus topology consisting of 8 casse