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Sample records for canine leishmaniasis transmission

  1. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  2. Xenodiagnosis on dogs with visceral leishmaniasis: Canine and sand fly aspects related to the parasite transmission.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Junior, Jairo Torres; Mota, Tiago Feitosa; Porfirio-Passos, Gabriela; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2016-06-15

    One of the main limitations for the effective control of canine leishmaniasis in endemic areas is the difficulty in identifying infectious dogs. The objective of this study was to determine factors, related to dogs and to parasite detection in sand flies, which are associated with the positive xenodiagnosis of Leishmania infantum using the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. The xenodiagnosis was performed in 50 owned dogs residing in endemic areas, which were divided into three different groups: G1-26 dogs proved to be infected and classified by severity of VL clinical signs on physical examination; G2-15 dogs proved to be infected and classified by severity of clinical signs and intensity of laboratory abnormalities; G3-nine dogs that were seropositive for anti-Leishmania IgG in ELISA tests. Parasite search in the sand flies after having fed on dogs in the xenodiagnosis was performed by both methodologies, PCR and dissection followed by microscopy. In G1, 58% (15/26) of dogs were able to transmit Leishmania to the vector, when parasite detection in sand flies were performed by PCR technique, 5 days after blood meal, whereas in G2, 53% (8/15) transmitted the parasite to the vector, however, confirmation was performed by direct observation of parasite through optical miscroscopy held 10 days after blood meal. Rate of infectiousness of dogs to sand flies was positively associated to severity of disease (p=0.042 and p=0.040), regardless the method used for clinical classification or for parasite detection in sand flies after xenodiagnosis. In G1 30% (3/10) of dogs with subclinical infection were infectious to the vector, while 80% (12/16) of dogs with clinical disease were also infectious. Even more, 17% (1/6) of dogs that had moderate disease were infectious to the sand flies, while 78% (7/9) of dogs with severe disease were infectious in G2. Still in G2, the proportion of sand flies infected (grade of infectiousness) was significantly lower (p=0.0098) when they fed on

  3. Xenodiagnosis on dogs with visceral leishmaniasis: Canine and sand fly aspects related to the parasite transmission.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Junior, Jairo Torres; Mota, Tiago Feitosa; Porfirio-Passos, Gabriela; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2016-06-15

    One of the main limitations for the effective control of canine leishmaniasis in endemic areas is the difficulty in identifying infectious dogs. The objective of this study was to determine factors, related to dogs and to parasite detection in sand flies, which are associated with the positive xenodiagnosis of Leishmania infantum using the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. The xenodiagnosis was performed in 50 owned dogs residing in endemic areas, which were divided into three different groups: G1-26 dogs proved to be infected and classified by severity of VL clinical signs on physical examination; G2-15 dogs proved to be infected and classified by severity of clinical signs and intensity of laboratory abnormalities; G3-nine dogs that were seropositive for anti-Leishmania IgG in ELISA tests. Parasite search in the sand flies after having fed on dogs in the xenodiagnosis was performed by both methodologies, PCR and dissection followed by microscopy. In G1, 58% (15/26) of dogs were able to transmit Leishmania to the vector, when parasite detection in sand flies were performed by PCR technique, 5 days after blood meal, whereas in G2, 53% (8/15) transmitted the parasite to the vector, however, confirmation was performed by direct observation of parasite through optical miscroscopy held 10 days after blood meal. Rate of infectiousness of dogs to sand flies was positively associated to severity of disease (p=0.042 and p=0.040), regardless the method used for clinical classification or for parasite detection in sand flies after xenodiagnosis. In G1 30% (3/10) of dogs with subclinical infection were infectious to the vector, while 80% (12/16) of dogs with clinical disease were also infectious. Even more, 17% (1/6) of dogs that had moderate disease were infectious to the sand flies, while 78% (7/9) of dogs with severe disease were infectious in G2. Still in G2, the proportion of sand flies infected (grade of infectiousness) was significantly lower (p=0.0098) when they fed on

  4. Evaluation of the vectorial capacity of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Paz, Gustavo Fontes; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano; França-Silva, João Carlos; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2010-01-01

    The vectorial capacity of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis has been evaluated through a laboratory-controlled experiment. One healthy Leishmania-free dog and two dogs naturally infected with Leishmania were infested with R. sanguineus in various stages of development. Engorged larvae, unfed nymphs, engorged nymphs, unfed adults, engorged female adults and fed male adults were collected from the experimental animals and examined for Leishmania infection by optical microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and parasite culture. Leishmania forms were not detected in any of the 433 smears prepared from engorged colonies nor in any of the 118 smears prepared from unfed colonies. However, one flagellate structure was identified in one of the smears. All pools of R. sanguineus that had fed on the infected dogs tested PCR-positive for Leishmania DNA, with the single exception of the pool of engorged larvae. In contrast, all pools of ticks that had fed on the Leishmania-free dog were PCR-negative. Leishmania growth was not observed in any of the tick colonies following incubation on culture medium. Considering that no Leishmania forms were identified in any of the meticulously analysed smears derived from engorged colonies of R. sanguineus, it appears somewhat unlikely that the maintenance and multiplication of Leishmania occurs within the tick.

  5. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

  6. Canine visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J

    2000-01-01

    The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated. PMID:11132371

  7. Canine visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J

    2000-01-01

    The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated.

  8. Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal: risk of emergence in humans?

    PubMed

    Faye, B; Bañuls, A L; Bucheton, B; Dione, M M; Bassanganam, O; Hide, M; Dereure, J; Choisy, M; Ndiaye, J L; Konaté, O; Claire, M; Senghor, M W; Faye, M N; Sy, I; Niang, A A; Molez, J F; Victoir, K; Marty, P; Delaunay, P; Knecht, R; Mellul, S; Diedhiou, S; Gaye, O

    2010-12-01

    In the context of global warming and the risk of spreading arthropod-borne diseases, the emergence and reemergence of leishmaniasis should not be neglected. In Senegal, over the past few years, cases of canine leishmaniasis have been observed. We aim to improve the understanding of the transmission cycle of this zoonosis, to determine the responsible species and to evaluate the risk for human health. An epidemiological and serological study on canine and human populations in the community of Mont Rolland (Thiès area) was conducted. The data showed a high seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis (>40%) and more than 30% seropositive people. The dogs' seroprevalence was confirmed by PCR data (concordance > 0.85, Kappa > 0.7). The statistical analysis showed strong statistical associations between the health status of dogs and seropositivity, the number of positive PCRs, clinical signs and the number of Leishmania isolates. For the first time, the discriminative PCRs performed on canine Leishmania strains clearly evidenced that the pathogenic agent is Leishmania infantum. The results obtained show that transmission of this species is well established in this area. That the high incidence of seropositivity in humans may be a consequence of infection with this species is discussed.

  9. Recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase NTPDase-2 as a new antigen in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Dos Santos, Yaro Luciolo; de Souza Vasconcellos, Raphael; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important public health concern. In the epidemiological context of human visceral leishmaniasis, dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania parasites; therefore, dogs must be epidemiologically monitored constantly in endemic areas. Furthermore, dog to human transmission has been correlated with emerging urbanization and increasing rates of leishmaniasis infection worldwide. Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (L. chagasi) is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. In this work, a new L. (L.) infantum (L. chagasi) recombinant antigen, named ATP diphosphohydrolase (rLic-NTPDase-2), intended for use in the immunodiagnosis of CVL was produced and validated. The extracellular domain of ATP diphosphohydrolase was cloned and expressed in the pET21b-Escherichia coli expression system. Indirect ELISA assays were used to detect the purified rLic-NTPDase-2 antigen using a standard canine sera library. This library contained CVL-positive samples, leishmaniasis-negative samples and samples from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs. The results show a high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI=92.60-100.0%) and a high specificity of 100% (95% CI=86.77-100.0%), with a high degree of confidence (k=1). These findings demonstrate the potential use of this recombinant protein in immune diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and open the possibility of its application to other diagnostic approaches, such as immunochromatography fast lateral flow assays and human leishmaniasis diagnosis. PMID:23022017

  10. Current status on prevention and treatment of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Rosa M; Morán, Miguel; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; García-Estrada, Carlos; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2016-08-30

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a parasite-borne disease mainly induced by Leishmania infantum in the Old World and Leishmania chagasi (infantum) in the New World. CanL is a zoonosis transmitted by the bite of infected Phlebotominae flies that act as vectors. CanL is a very serious disease that usually produces death when remains untreated and can be a focus of transmission to other dogs or humans. Infected dogs and other domestic and wild animals act as reservoirs and are a real threat to uninfected/healthy dogs and humans in endemic areas where the sand flies are present. Prevention of new infections in dogs can help to stop the current increase of the disease in humans, reinforcing the concept of "One Health" approach. The management of CanL is being performed using prophylactic measures in healthy dogs - insecticides impregnated in collars or immunostimulants applied by spot-on devices - and chemotherapy in animals that suffer from the disease. Antimonials as first-line monotherapy have proven efficacy in reducing most of the clinical signs of CanL, but they need to be administered during several days, and no complete parasite clearance is achieved, favouring the presence of relapses among treated dogs. Therefore, new drugs, such as miltefosine, or combinations of this drug or antimonials with allopurinol are in the pipeline of clinical treatment of CanL. Recently, there has been an emergence of protective - prophylactic - and curative - autogenous vaccines - immunotherapy tools to face CanL, whose results are still under study. This review highlights the current use of preventive and eradicative weapons to fight against this disease, which is a scourge for dogs and a continuous threat to human beings. PMID:27523945

  11. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: incidence and risk factors for infection in a cohort study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-11-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by Leishmania infantum parasites and is transmitted by sand flies of the Phlebotominae family. Dogs are the main urban reservoirs and represent the major source of contagion for the vectors. Studies have shown that most infected dogs are polymerase chain reaction-positive months before seroconversion. Herein, we describe a cohort study designed to identify the incidence of and risk factors for L. infantum infection as detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. To determine the risk factors for infection, we conducted a baseline canine survey (n=1443) from which dogs were selected for the cohort study (n=282) involving three evaluations over the course of a 26-month follow-up period. Serology, molecular tests, and a structured questionnaire were used. The risk factors for infection were identified by means of the Cox regression model. The overall infection incidence was 5.8 per 100 dog-months (95% confidence interval 5.1-6.5). Increased risk of infection was associated with the presence of previous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the domiciles (hazard ratio [HR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.8) and unplastered house walls (HR 3.6; 95% CI 1.6-8.1). These risk factors suggest that insecticide spraying in cracks and crevices in unplastered walls can reduce biting rates within and around homes. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program should adopt environmental management measures in homes with previous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, because these homes are more likely to maintain the transmission cycle.

  12. [Canine leishmaniasis in Campania: new and old foci].

    PubMed

    Baldi, L; Mizzoni, V; Guarino, A

    2004-06-01

    Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in Campania Region (Italy) and is strictly related to Human Visceral Leishmaniasis. Past and present reports of the prevalence in the Region show that exist places were CanL has been known for a century (Vesuvius and Ischia Foci) and other localities where the disease appears to be recent (Caserta and Salerno provinces); moreover, the zoonosis is seen not only in endemic foci (autochthonous), but also in non-endemic areas (imported cases), for example in the Benevento and Avellino provinces. Two zymodemes have been identified in human and canine population and also in sandflies: MON 1 and MON 72. Endemic or stable CanL foci correspond with Vesuvius Area, Ischia island, Maddaloni and neighbouring Commons, other foci in the Salerno province. These foci are associated with optimal ecological condition, abundance of reservoirs and hosts, abundance of phlebotomine vectors, prevalence in canine population around 10-40%, incidence in canine population 5%, risk for human population 0.002%. Instable foci occur at the border of the stable foci: they may be the result of changes in climate with the occasional introduction of infected dogs in the areas; in the foci are registered low presence of phlebotomine vectors, prevalence around 0.5-3%, sporadic human cases. Today, in Campania region CanL undoubtedly has an increased incidence and a wider geographic distribution than before: new cases are now reported in areas that were previously non-endemic. Ecological, demographic and environmental changes, large population movements, urbanization have led to an increased incidence and to importation into suburbs with high densities of people and sand-flies. These changes include "global warming", increased number of stray dogs, dogs and population movements, changes in human population (increased number of immune-depressed and old people). Nowadays, the most important focus of CanL and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis of the Mediterranean area is

  13. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Amanda Codeço de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area.

  14. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Amanda Codeço; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; SANTOS, Fernanda Nunes; de SOUZA, Marcos Barbosa; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; PÉRISSÉ, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area. PMID:26422157

  15. A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina). This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110) of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110) of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110). A total of 63 dogs (57.3%) were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases. PMID:21122107

  16. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  17. Leishmania spp. Epidemiology of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Yucatan Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    López-Céspedes, A.; Longoni, S. S.; Sauri-Arceo, C. H.; Sánchez-Moreno, M.; Rodríguez-Vivas, R. I.; Escobedo-Ortegón, F. J.; Barrera-Pérez, M. A.; Bolio-González, M. E.; Marín, C.

    2012-01-01

    Canine Leishmaniasis is widespread in various Mexican states, where different species of Leishmania have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, we describe the detection of L. braziliensis, L. infantum, and L. mexicana in serum of dogs from the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). A total of 412 sera were analyzed by ELISA using the total extract of the parasite and the iron superoxide dismutase excreted by different trypanosomatids as antigens. We found the prevalence of L. braziliensis to be 7.52%, L. infantum to be 6.07%, and L. mexicana to be 20.63%, in the dog population studied. The results obtained with ELISA using iron superoxide dismutase as the antigen were confirmed by western blot analysis with its greater sensitivity, and the agreement between the two techniques was very high. PMID:22927792

  18. Characterization of widespread canine leishmaniasis among wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Ferroglio, E; Oleaga, A; Romano, A; Millan, J; Revilla, M; Arnal, M C; Trisciuoglio, A; Gortázar, C

    2008-08-17

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum in Mediterranean countries, with sand flies (Phlebotomus spp.) as vectors and dogs as the main domestic reservoir. The role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis is still controversial. In order to determine the prevalence of natural infection with L. infantum in wild carnivores from Spain, we analyzed 217 samples by PCR and western blotting and used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to compare the patterns present in wild carnivores with those of domestic dogs from the same areas. DNA of the parasite was detected in spleen or blood samples from 35 (16.12%) analyzed wild carnivores, including 8 of 39 (20.5%) wolves (Canis lupus), 23 of 162 (14.1%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 2 of 7 (28.6%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 1 of 4 genets (Geneta geneta), and 1 of 4 Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus). No significant sex or age differences in prevalence were observed in wolves and foxes (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference among regions in foxes (P<0.05). A total of 12 PCR-RFLP patterns were found in foxes, 6 in wolves, 4 in dogs, 2 in Egyptian mongooses and 1 in lynx and genet. RFLP patterns differed between dogs and foxes in the two areas where they could be compared. This is the first study of canine leishmaniasis in wild canids and other carnivores from different regions of Spain by PCR. The prevalence of infection indicates the existence of natural infection in apparently healthy wild carnivore populations, and our results are suggestive of a sylvatic cycle independent of dogs.

  19. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  20. Environmental Factors and Ecosystems Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; de Carvalho Araújo, Andreina; da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli; Tonhosolo, Renata; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-12-01

    Environment influences the composition, distribution, and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, the urbanization process and canine cases of VL are indicators for local health authorities. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Maranhão State, Brazil. Blood samples collected from 960 dogs from six municipalities and six different ecosystems (Baixada Maranhense, Mangue, Mata dos Cocais, Amazônia, Cerrado, and Restinga) to serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect fluorescence antibody test [IFAT], and chromatographic immunoassay methods [Dual Path Platform technology, DPP(®)]) and parasitological diagnosis. From serological tests, 11.14% (107) of the dogs were positive for CVL, with 59.16% (568), 14.5% (148), and 131% (126) positives to ELISA, DPP, and IFAT tests, respectively. Only seven animals (0.73%) were positive in a parasitological test. We also performed parasite isolation and phylogenetic characterization. All isolates of dogs obtained from Maranhão were grouped in a single branch with Leishmania infantum chagasi from Brazil. The ecosystem Amazonia presented the highest positivity rates to CVL in serological and parasitological tests. Brazilian biomes/ecosystems suffer large degradation and may favor, depending on climatic conditions, the installation of new diseases. In the case of VL, dogs are reservoirs of parasites and sentinels for human infection.

  1. Preventing Zoonotic Canine Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil: Pet Attachment and Adoption of Community Leishmania Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.; Pontes, Nubia N.; Arruda, Paulo; O'Connor, Annette; Morais, Lorena; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Petersen, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi (L.i. chagasi syn. infantum) in northeastern Brazil, was responsible for 51,000 new VL cases from 1980 to 2003. Household presence of L. infantum-infected dogs is a major risk factor for human infection. Despite culling of dogs based on seropositivity, canine L. infantum seroprevalence remains near 20%, suggesting that dog culling is ineffective for preventing VL spread. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 224 households within 300 m of the homes of VL human patients diagnosed within the last year. The goal was to develop a model for voluntary preventative use based on characteristics and motivations of dog owners. We identified that owner knowledge deficiencies regarding canine transmission of L. infantum associated with increased risk of dog infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.681, confidence interval [CI] = 1.223, 11.08). Higher owner education was associated with decreased levels of dog seropositivity (OR = 0.40, CI = 0.20, 0.81). Pet attachment (P = 0.036) and perception of risk/disease knowledge (P = 0.040) were significantly associated with willingness to voluntarily purchase canine VL prevention. These results highlight the importance of owner attachment to their pet in implementing reservoir-targeted zoonotic VL prevention. PMID:22987654

  2. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in urban and rural areas of Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Paula V S; Monteiro, Glória R G; Macedo, Virgínia P S; Rocha, Maria A C; Batista, Leopoldina M M; Queiroz, José W; Jerônimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria F F M

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory profiles of canine leishmaniasis in two distinct areas. Dogs from urban and rural areas were examined. The population studied in the metropolitan area included 54 dogs. Of these, 20 (37%) animals did not present with any signs suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Among these, only eight were confirmed negative by ELISA (rK39 and CE) and 12 dogs, clinically negative for leishmaniasis, were seropositive by ELISA (rK39 and CE). Thinness, conjunctivitis and onychogryphosis were the most frequent clinical signs in the urban areas, followed by crusty lesions, alopecia, ulcerated lesions, hyperkeratosis and exfoliation. In the metropolitan area human VL cases occurred mainly in 1991, 1992, 1999 and 2000. In the rural areas the ELISA rK39 test detected a seroprevalence of 11.3% and ELISA CE (Leishmania crude extract) of 20.6%. Thirty-nine dogs were examined 6 months after the first visit. Serological exams using rK39 antigen showed seroconversion of only one dog, whereas Leishmania CE showed seroconversion of 13 (33.4%) dogs. In this rural environment 83.3% of the positive dogs were asymptomatic. Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. longipalpis were the most predominant sandfly vector species. Amastigotes were identified in spleen and liver fragments of symptomatic necropsied animals. PCR amplification of DNA isolated from promastigote culture indicated that the species was Leishmania chagasi. This finding suggests that delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sandflies and subsequently to humans. PMID:18804826

  3. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    Kala-azar; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Visceral leishmaniasis; Old world leishmaniasis; New world leishmaniasis ... Leishmaniasis is caused by a tiny parasite called leishmania protozoa. Protozoa are one-celled organisms. There are ...

  4. Lutzomyia longipalpis in Uruguay: the first report and the potential of visceral leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Basmajdian, Yester; Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad

    2011-05-01

    Phlebotomine captures were performed in February 2010 in Salto (Salto department) and Bella Unión-Cuarein (Artigas department), Uruguay. Bella Unión is located across the Paraná River from Monte Caseros, Argentina, where a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was reported in 2009. No VL cases have ever been recorded in Uruguay and the last reported capture of Phlebotominae was in 1932 (Lutzomyia cortelezzii and Lutzomyia gaminarai). Light traps were placed in peridomestic environments, and Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis, was found in Salto and Bella Unión. This is a first report of an area of potential VL transmission in Uruguay. Active and coordinated surveillance is required immediately the Uruguay-Argentina-Brazil border area.

  5. Lutzomyia longipalpis in Uruguay: the first report and the potential of visceral leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Basmajdian, Yester; Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad

    2011-05-01

    Phlebotomine captures were performed in February 2010 in Salto (Salto department) and Bella Unión-Cuarein (Artigas department), Uruguay. Bella Unión is located across the Paraná River from Monte Caseros, Argentina, where a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was reported in 2009. No VL cases have ever been recorded in Uruguay and the last reported capture of Phlebotominae was in 1932 (Lutzomyia cortelezzii and Lutzomyia gaminarai). Light traps were placed in peridomestic environments, and Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis, was found in Salto and Bella Unión. This is a first report of an area of potential VL transmission in Uruguay. Active and coordinated surveillance is required immediately the Uruguay-Argentina-Brazil border area. PMID:21655832

  6. First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Dereure, Jacques; Ready, Paul D

    2011-07-01

    Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47 °N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur. PMID:21254904

  7. First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Dereure, Jacques; Ready, Paul D

    2011-07-01

    Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47 °N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur.

  8. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinário, Estefânia Conceição; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araújo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992 dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

  9. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city.

  10. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city. PMID:27384080

  11. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city. PMID:27384080

  12. Antiactin and antitubulin antibodies in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Pateraki, E; Portocala, R; Labrousse, H; Guesdon, J L

    1983-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, a chronic and often fatal disease, is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Both specific and nonspecific antibodies are produced in the course of the disease, and autoantibodies may be involved in pathogenesis. Tubulin and actin have been found to be associated with L. donovani. To learn whether antiactin and antitubulin antibodies are present in visceral leishmaniasis, we tested sera from 263 infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to the antigens L. donovani, actin, and tubulin. All samples reacted positively with L. donovani, and a high percentage reacted positively with all three antigens. Sera from 202 uninfected dogs were also tested, none reacted with L. donovani antigen, although positive reactions were observed for 8 of the samples with actin or tubulin. It was found that the antibody-antigen reaction occurred at the Fab portion of the immunoglobulin molecule. Competitive enzyme immunoassays showed that the reaction was inhibited if the positive serum was first incubated with L. donovani antigen, actin, or tubulin and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that antiactin and antitubulin antibodies are present in the sera of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:6642639

  13. Performance of Alere™ immunochromathographic test for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Souza Filho, Job Alves de; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes, Artur Augusto Velho; Silva, Shara Regina da; Coelho, George Luiz Lins Machado; Marcelino, Andreza Pain

    2016-07-30

    The diagnosis and control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has fundamental importance in the control of human visceral leishmaniasis. In this context, the immunochromathographic test (ICT) has emerged as a valuable diagnostic tool. Currently, in Brazil, the algorithm for the diagnosis of CVL uses Dual Path Platform (DPP) ICT as a screening test and ELISA as a confirmatory test. However, the DPP(®) ICT has been facing a problem of insufficient production to meet the national demand. Here, the Alere™ canine visceral leishmaniasis ICT was tested with serum samples from 159 dogs, including symptomatic, asymptomatic and healthy dogs, characterized by DPP(®) ICT and ELISA (panel A), or ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) (panel B), and parasitological examination as gold standard. In this study, the Alere™ ICT obtained 0.974 sensitivity for panel A and 0.854 sensitivity for panel B. The specificity was 1.0 for both panels. Thus, the Alere™ ICT has potential to be used for the serological diagnosis of CVL. PMID:27369585

  14. Evaluation of a Novel Herbal Immunomodulator Drug (IMOD) in Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Malmasi, Abdolali; Ziaie Ardestani, Bijan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Ziaie, Shadi; Masoudifard, Majid; Khorram Khorshid, Hamidreza; Nasiri, Mehdi; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Delrobai, Moin; Siavashi, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity and drug resistance against pentavalent antimonials, medications of choice in treatment of leishmaniasis for more than 5 decades, have become important subjects globally. This study was a randomized, open labeled trial that was designed to determine efficacy and safety of IMOD as a novel herbal immunomodulator drug for treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Twenty healthy mongrel dogs were infected with Iranian strain of L. Infantum amastigotes and randomly divided to 5 groups with four animals for each included on: I: negative control (non-infected) II: Glucantime® III: Glucantime® plus IMOD (immune-chemotherapy) IV: IMOD and V: positive control (non-treated). Physical examination, hematological, biochemical, serological, parasitological, pathological and imaging evaluations were performed pre-/post- interventions every month for 3 months. Comparing with control groups (I&V), immune-chemotherapy group (Glucantime® plus IMOD) showed significantly higher efficacy in resolving the clinical signs and hematobiochemistry factors. Based on our results, using IMOD in combination with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) has significantly improved CVL than the latter drug alone. So, it seems this new herbal medicine is useful as adjuvant therapy for canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25587325

  15. Genetic and clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Paola A; Nevot, M Cecilia; Hoyos, Carlos L; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Lauthier, Juan J; Ruybal, Paula; Cardozo, Rubén M; Russo, Pablo D; Vassiliades, Carola N; Mora, María C; Estévez, J Octavio; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Korenaga, Masataka; Basombrío, Miguel A; Marco, Jorge D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniases comprise zoonotic diseases caused by protozoan flagellates of the Leishmania genus. They are endemic to South America, and the visceral form has been recently reported in Argentina. Dogs can play different roles in the Leishmania transmission cycles, depending mainly on the species of parasite involved. Here we focused on the clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Northeast Argentina and on the molecular typing of its etiological agent. The nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the Leishmania cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was performed on DNA templates purified from lymph nodes, bone marrow or spleen aspirates obtained from 48 dogs previously diagnosed by the observation of Leishmania amastigotes on smears from these aspirates. Their clinical and epidemiological data were also recorded. Systemic abnormalities were observed in 46 subjects (95.8%), most frequently lymphadenopathy, and emaciation (89.6 and 75%). Furthermore, 87% also presented tegumentary abnormalities, such as alopecia (54.2%) or secondary skin lesions (47.9%), among others. Twenty three dogs were positive for cyt b amplification. The sequence analysis showed the presence of two genotypes, LiA1 and LiA2, assigned to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, with 99.9 and 100% homology with the reference strain MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 respectively. LiA1 was identified in 18 cases (78.3%) and LiA2 in five (21.7%). Two cyt b variants of L. (L.) infantum were incriminated as the causative agents of CanL cases from three cities: Posadas, Garupá, and Ituzaingó. All three cities are located in the northeastern area of the country, where these parasites seem to be spreading in urban areas.

  16. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis: a comparative serological study of dogs and foxes in Amazon Brazil.

    PubMed

    Courtenay, O; Macdonald, D W; Lainson, R; Shaw, J J; Dye, C

    1994-09-01

    The paper describes a longitudinal field study of canine leishmaniasis in sympatric domestic dog and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) populations. Dogs were studied in house-to-house surveys, and foxes were studied by live-trapping and radio-telemetry. Because serological tests (IFAT in this case) for leishmaniasis are often of uncertain sensitivity and specificity, we draw conclusions comparatively. Both cross-sectional (age-prevalence) and longitudinal analyses indicate that incidence in dogs was highest in the dry season. Seasonal changes in the age-prevalence relationship for dogs suggest that serological conversion and recovery rates decline with prior exposure to infection, where 'recovery' may be due to loss of a positive antibody titre or death from leishmaniasis. The mean incidence in dogs was higher in the rural than in the urban population and higher in hunting dogs than pet dogs. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of fox serological data suggest that foxes remain positive for longer than dogs on average, either because detectable antibody is more persistent or because they experience a lower mortality rate due to leishmaniasis. PMID:7970884

  17. Variations in seroprevalences of canine leishmaniasis: Could it be a consequence of the population structure?

    PubMed

    Muniesa, Ana; Peris, Ana; Castillo, Juan Antonio; de Blas, Ignacio

    2016-08-15

    Canine leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum and is transmitted by Phlebotominae vectors. Despite numerous publications on the subject, some essential aspects of the epidemiology are not yet sufficiently clear. We proposed a stochastic model with the aim of identifying some important gaps in the current knowledge of leishmaniasis, such as the frequency of vector infection or a dog's life expectancy depending on their purpose and their health status. We only found that the purpose was a significant factor. Furthermore, we detected relationships among age, gender and habitat with the dogs' purposes that can affect the calculation of the overall seroprevalence of the analysed sample. The development of this model will allow us to discard potential confounding factors as gender, age, purpose or habitat. PMID:27514874

  18. Hair parasite load as a new biomarker for monitoring treatment response in canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Corpas-López, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Acedo-Sánchez, C; Díaz-Sáez, V; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2016-06-15

    Canine leishmaniasis treatment focuses on the reduction of parasite load, the clinical improvement of the animal, and the avoidance of relapses, in a scenario where the definitive parasite clearance is not achievable. Therefore, monitoring is crucial during the treatment of this disease. Quantitative PCR has been shown as an ideal tool for the treatment monitoring when quantifying parasite load in target organs such as lymph node or bone marrow, tissues that are too invasive for regular evaluation. This study aims to prove the potential of hair parasite load in the treatment monitoring of canine leishmaniasis. Six dogs were treated with meglumine antimoniate and monitored up to four months after the end of the treatment. Parasite loads in bone marrow, blood, lymph node and hair were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibody titres were analysed by immunofluorescent assay and a clinical assessment was carried out. Treatment consisted of two 28-day courses of meglumine antimoniate (100mg/kg/day) separated by an one-month interval. Analyses were performed before (day 0), during (day 60) and after treatment (day 120), and at the end of a follow-up period (day 210, four months after the end of treatment). Hair parasite load turned out to be strongly correlated with bone marrow, lymph node and blood parasite loads and with the clinical score and the IgG1 antibody titre. The evolution of this biomarker reflects the evolution of the parasitological, immunological and clinical state of the dog, highlighting its potential as a non-invasive marker for the treatment monitoring in canine leishmaniasis. PMID:27198771

  19. Integrated Mapping of Establishment Risk for Emerging Vector-Borne Infections: A Case Study of Canine Leishmaniasis in Southwest France

    PubMed Central

    Hartemink, Nienke; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.; Heesterbeek, Hans; Rogers, David; Morley, David; Pesson, Bernard; Mahamdallie, Shazia; Ready, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the northeast Pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus. Methods Sandflies were sampled in 2005 using sticky traps placed uniformly over an area of approximately 100 by 150 km. High- and low-resolution satellite data for the area were combined to construct a model of the sandfly data, which was then used to predict sandfly abundance throughout the area on a pixel by pixel basis (resolution of c. 1 km). Using literature- and expert-derived estimates of other variables and parameters, a spatially explicit R0 map for leishmaniasis was constructed within a Geographical Information System. R0 is a measure of the risk of establishment of a disease in an area, and it also correlates with the amount of control needed to stop transmission. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that combines a vector abundance prediction model, based on remotely-sensed variables measured at different levels of spatial resolution, with a fully mechanistic process-based temperature-dependent R0 model. The resulting maps should be considered as proofs-of-principle rather than as ready-to-use risk maps, since validation is currently not possible. The described approach, based on integrating several modeling methods, provides a useful new set of tools for the study of the risk of outbreaks of vector-borne diseases. PMID:21857899

  20. Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Mimotope Peptides Selected from Phage Displayed Combinatorial Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Machado, Christina Monerat; Machado de Avila, Ricardo Andrez; NGuyen, Christophe; Granier, Claude; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Carneiro, Rubens Antonio; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    ELISA and RIFI are currently used for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The accuracy of these tests is controversial in endemic areas where canine infections by Trypanosoma cruzi may occur. We evaluated the usefulness of synthetic peptides that were selected through phage display technique in the serodiagnosis of CVL. Peptides were chosen based on their ability to bind to IgGs purified from infected dogs pooled sera. We selected three phage clones that reacted only with those IgGs. Peptides were synthesized, polymerized with glutaraldehyde, and used as antigens in ELISA assays. Each individual peptide or a mix of them was reactive with infected dogs serum. The assay was highly sensitive and specific when compared to soluble Leishmania antigen that showed cross-reactivity with anti-T. cruzi IgGs. Our results demonstrate that phage display technique is useful for selection of peptides that may represent valuable synthetic antigens for an improved serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:25710003

  1. Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, E.; Ahmed, S.; Goldsmith-Pestana, K.; Nieto, J.; Osorio, Y.; Travi, B.; Moreno, J.; McMahon-Pratt, D.

    2007-01-01

    The P-8 proteoglycolipid complex (P-8 PGLC), an amastigote antigen of L. pifanoi, has been demonstrated to induce protection in mouse models, as well as to induce Tc1/Th1-like cellular responses in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Because the immunization with P-8 PGLC in the murine model does not appear to be genetically restricted, we have studied the reactivity of the P-8 PGLC in L. infantum infected dogs. In this study, it is shown that PBMC from experimentally infected dogs (asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic) significantly proliferated in response to soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) or the P-8 PGLC. Further, quantification of the gene expression induced by the stimulation with P-8 in asymptomatically infected dogs showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ and TNF-α, which were three to four-fold higher than that induced by soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA). While no measurable induction of IL-10 was observed, low levels of IL-4 mRNA were observed in response to both P-8 and SLA antigens. Thus, our studies establish that P-8 is recognized by infected canines and elicits a potentially curative/protective Th1-like immune response. The identification of Leishmania antigens that elicit appropriate immune responses across different host species (humans, canine) and disease manifestations (cutaneous or visceral) could be an advantage in generating a general vaccine for leishmaniasis. PMID:17178178

  2. Slc11a1 (formerly Nramp1) and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Robert, Elisenda; Altet, Laura; Utzet-Sadurni, Mireia; Giger, Urs; Sanchez, Armand; Francino, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most important zoonosis in Europe and it is caused by Leishmania infantum, a protozoan intracellular parasite. Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and South America, and is emerging within non endemic areas such as the United Kingdom and North America. We have analyzed 24 polymorphisms in the canine Slc11a1 (formerly NRAMP1) gene: 19 new polymorphisms characterized by direct sequencing from 40 dogs of different breeds and five polymorphisms previously described. Data analysis in a case-control study including 164 dogs of 19 different breeds revealed that two of the 24 polymorphisms were associated with increased risk for CVL: one intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A4549G in intron 6: odds ratio (OR) = 6.78, P = 0.001) and one silent SNP in exon 8 (C4859T: OR = 13.44, P = 0.004). In silico analysis of the significant SNP revealed that SNP in the promoter region affect putative transcription binding sites and SNP C4859T in exon 8 disrupts a putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE). These results corroborate that Slc11a1 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for CVL. PMID:18307968

  3. Immunological changes in canine peripheral blood leukocytes triggered by immunization with first or second generation vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; de Andrade, Renata Aline; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Magalhães, Camila Paula; Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Campolina, Sabrina Sidney; Mello, Maria Norma; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Mayrink, Wilson; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Rocha, Luciana Morais; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2011-05-15

    In this study, we summarized the major phenotypic/functional aspects of circulating leukocytes following canine immunization with Leishvaccine and Leishmune®. Our findings showed that Leishvaccine triggered early changes in the innate immunity (neutrophils and eosinophils) with late alterations on monocytes. Conversely, Leishmune(®) induced early phenotypic changes in both, neutrophils and monocytes. Moreover, Leishvaccine triggered mixed activation-related phenotypic changes on T-cells (CD4+ and CD8+ and B-lymphocytes, whereas Leishmune(®) promoted a selective response, mainly associated with CD8+ T-cell activation. Mixed cytokine profile (IFN-γ/IL-4) was observed in Leishvaccine immunized dogs whereas a selective pro-inflammatory pattern (IFN-γ/NO) was induced by Leishmune® vaccination. The distinct immunological profile triggered by Leishvaccine and Leishmune® may be a direct consequence of the distinct biochemical composition of these immunobiological, i.e. complex versus purified Leishmania antigen along with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) versus saponin adjuvant. Both immunobiologicals are able to activate phagocytes and CD8+ T-cells and therefore could be considered as a putative vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).

  4. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of marbofloxacin, meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate.

    PubMed

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Rougier, Sandrine; Dugas, Bernard; Pino, Paco; Mazier, Dominique; Woehrlé, Frédérique

    2006-01-30

    The control of canine leishmaniasis largely depends on the success of treatment. Drugs currently available to treat this disease are toxic and partially effective. The curative effect of marbofloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed for veterinarian individual treatment, was evaluated in vitro in the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and dog-monocyte-derived macrophages; meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate were used as comparative treatments. We observed that the killing of Leishmania promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes by marbofloxacin was dose-dependent. We demonstrated that successful treatment of canine infected macrophages for 48 h was possible with 500 microg/ml of marbofloxacin. Leishmanicidal activity acted through a TNF-alpha and nitric oxide pathway and correlated with the generation of nitric oxide (NO(2)) production by monocytes derived macrophages from infected (23+/-5 microM) or healthy (21+/-6 microM) dogs, in comparison with NO(2) concentration in infected/non-treated macrophages (< 3 microM, P<0.01). This significant induced parasiticidal effect correlated with extensive elimination of amastigotes by macrophages derived from infected (11+/-5) and healthy dogs (6+/-2), when compared to infected/non-treated macrophages (530+/-105 and 472+/-86 amastigotes, respectively, P< 0.01). Marbofloxacin was shown to be non-toxic at 500 microg/ml in vitro and no cell apoptosis was observed. The molecule was able to induce a parasitic process after significant elimination of amastigotes in leishmania-infected dog macrophages. We propose that marbofloxacin, compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate), could be an effective and pragmatic oral route alternative to treat canine leishmaniasis.

  5. The distribution pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the peridomiciles of a sector with canine and human visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Dracena, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Osias; Sampaio, Susy Mary Perpetuo; Ciaravolo, Ricardo Mario de Carvalho; Holcman, Marcia Moreira

    2012-03-01

    The specimen distribution pattern of a species can be used to characterise a population of interest and also provides area-specific guidance for pest management and control. In the municipality of Dracena, in the state of São Paulo, we analysed 5,889 Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens collected from the peridomiciles of 14 houses in a sector where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is transmitted to humans and dogs. The goal was to analyse the dispersion and a theoretical fitting of the species occurrence probability. From January-December 2005, samples were collected once per week using CDC light traps that operated for 12-h periods. Each collection was considered a sub-sample and was evaluated monthly. The standardised Morisita index was used as a measure of dispersion. Adherence tests were performed for the log-series distribution. The number of traps was used to adjust the octave plots. The quantity of Lu. longipalpis in the sector was highly aggregated for each month of the year, adhering to a log-series distribution for 11 of the 12 months analysed. A sex-stratified analysis demonstrated a pattern of aggregated dispersion adjusted for each month of the year. The classes and frequencies of the traps in octaves can be employed as indicators for entomological surveillance and AVL control.

  6. An Integrated Approach Using Spatial Analysis to Study the Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in Area of Recent Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Júlia Alves; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Andrade-Filho, José Dilermando; de Sousa, Alessandra Mara; Morais, Mayron Henrique Gomes; Rocha, Ana Maria Sampaio; Machado-Coelho, George Luis Lins; Lima, Fernanda Pinheiro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Garcia, Tânia Cristina; Freitas, Christian Resende; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Margonari, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of Formiga, Brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. Those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. Sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. The most captured species included Lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and Lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). A significant correlation between sand fly densities and climatic conditions was detected. Serological diagnosis (DPP and ELISA) was performed in 570 dogs indicating a prevalence of 5.8%. After sequencing the main species circulating in the area were Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Spatial analysis demonstrated that vegetation and hydrography may be related to sand fly distribution and infected dogs. The municipality of Formiga has proven leishmaniasis vectors and infected dogs indicating the circulation of the parasite in the city. Correlation of those data with environmental and human cases has identified the critical areas for control interventions (south, northeast, and northwest). In conclusion, there is current transmission of visceral and canine human cases and the city is on the risk for the appearance of cutaneous cases. PMID:26229961

  7. The prevention of canine leishmaniasis and its impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2013-07-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease of great veterinary and medical significance. Prevention of CanL requires a combined approach including measures focused on dogs and the environment where the vectors perpetuate. Over past decades, considerable effort has been put towards developing novel and cost-effective strategies against CanL. Vaccination is considered among the most promising tools for controlling CanL, and synthetic pyrethroids are useful and cost-effective in reducing risk of L. infantum infection in dogs. The effectiveness of the use of vaccines plus repellents in preventing L. infantum infection and subsequent disease development should be assessed by means of large-scale, randomized controlled field trials because this combined strategy may become the next frontier in the control of CanL.

  8. Phlebotominae distribution in Janaúba, an area of transmission for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; França-Silva, João Carlos; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Lara e Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Loureiro, Angélica Marciano Fernandes; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-02-01

    In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by Leishmania chagasi parasites that are transmitted to man through the bites of infected females of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. In order to evaluate transmission risk and to clarify the epidemiology of this tropical disease, studies focused on the vector and favorable environmental conditions are of fundamental importance. In this work, we surveyed the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Janaúba, a Brazilian municipality that is endemic for VL. During a two-year period, entomological captures were performed monthly in 15 districts with high, moderate and low profiles of VL transmission. A total of 14,591 phlebotomine sand flies were captured (92% L. longipalpis), with a predominance of males. Most specimens were captured in the peri-domicile setting, although the number of specimens captured in the intra-domicile setting emphasises the anthropophilic behaviour of this insect. The population density of L. longipalpis was modulated by climate variations, particularly with clear increases immediately after the rainy season. However, the pattern of distribution did not coincide with the occurrence of human or canine cases of VL. This suggests that the eco-epidemiology of VL is particular to each area of transmission and must be taken into account during the design of public health control actions.

  9. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  10. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-06-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  11. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-01-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  12. Circulating Biomarkers of Immune Activation, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Characterize Severe Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Solcà, Manuela S; Andrade, Bruno B; Abbehusen, Melissa Moura Costa; Teixeira, Clarissa R; Khouri, Ricardo; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Borges, Valeria Matos; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Brodskyn, Claudia Ida

    2016-09-06

    Clinical manifestations in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have not been clearly associated with immunological status or disease progression. We simultaneously assessed biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, oxidative stress, and anti-sand fly saliva IgG concentrations in dog sera with different clinical manifestations to characterize a biosignature associated with CVL severity. In a cross-sectional exploratory study, a random population of 70 dogs from an endemic area in Brazil was classified according to CVL clinical severity and parasitological evaluation. A panel of biomarkers and anti-sand fly saliva IgG were measured in canine sera. Assessment of protein expression of profile biomarkers identified a distinct biosignature that could cluster separately animal groups with different clinical scores. Increasing severity scores were associated with a gradual decrease of LTB4 and PGE2, and a gradual increase in CXCL1 and CCL2. Discriminant analyses revealed that combined assessment of LTB4, PGE2 and CXCL1 was able to distinguish dogs with different clinical scores. Dogs with the highest clinical score values also exhibited high parasite loads and higher concentrations of anti-saliva antibodies. Our findings suggest CVL clinical severity is tightly associated with a distinct inflammatory profile hallmarked by a differential expression of circulating eicosanoids and chemokines.

  13. Circulating Biomarkers of Immune Activation, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Characterize Severe Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Solcà, Manuela S; Andrade, Bruno B; Abbehusen, Melissa Moura Costa; Teixeira, Clarissa R; Khouri, Ricardo; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Borges, Valeria Matos; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Brodskyn, Claudia Ida

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have not been clearly associated with immunological status or disease progression. We simultaneously assessed biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, oxidative stress, and anti-sand fly saliva IgG concentrations in dog sera with different clinical manifestations to characterize a biosignature associated with CVL severity. In a cross-sectional exploratory study, a random population of 70 dogs from an endemic area in Brazil was classified according to CVL clinical severity and parasitological evaluation. A panel of biomarkers and anti-sand fly saliva IgG were measured in canine sera. Assessment of protein expression of profile biomarkers identified a distinct biosignature that could cluster separately animal groups with different clinical scores. Increasing severity scores were associated with a gradual decrease of LTB4 and PGE2, and a gradual increase in CXCL1 and CCL2. Discriminant analyses revealed that combined assessment of LTB4, PGE2 and CXCL1 was able to distinguish dogs with different clinical scores. Dogs with the highest clinical score values also exhibited high parasite loads and higher concentrations of anti-saliva antibodies. Our findings suggest CVL clinical severity is tightly associated with a distinct inflammatory profile hallmarked by a differential expression of circulating eicosanoids and chemokines. PMID:27595802

  14. Circulating Biomarkers of Immune Activation, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Characterize Severe Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Solcà, Manuela S.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Abbehusen, Melissa Moura Costa; Teixeira, Clarissa R.; Khouri, Ricardo; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Borges, Valeria Matos; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Brodskyn, Claudia Ida

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have not been clearly associated with immunological status or disease progression. We simultaneously assessed biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, oxidative stress, and anti-sand fly saliva IgG concentrations in dog sera with different clinical manifestations to characterize a biosignature associated with CVL severity. In a cross-sectional exploratory study, a random population of 70 dogs from an endemic area in Brazil was classified according to CVL clinical severity and parasitological evaluation. A panel of biomarkers and anti–sand fly saliva IgG were measured in canine sera. Assessment of protein expression of profile biomarkers identified a distinct biosignature that could cluster separately animal groups with different clinical scores. Increasing severity scores were associated with a gradual decrease of LTB4 and PGE2, and a gradual increase in CXCL1 and CCL2. Discriminant analyses revealed that combined assessment of LTB4, PGE2 and CXCL1 was able to distinguish dogs with different clinical scores. Dogs with the highest clinical score values also exhibited high parasite loads and higher concentrations of anti-saliva antibodies. Our findings suggest CVL clinical severity is tightly associated with a distinct inflammatory profile hallmarked by a differential expression of circulating eicosanoids and chemokines. PMID:27595802

  15. Circulating Biomarkers of Immune Activation, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Characterize Severe Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solcà, Manuela S.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Abbehusen, Melissa Moura Costa; Teixeira, Clarissa R.; Khouri, Ricardo; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Borges, Valeria Matos; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Brodskyn, Claudia Ida

    2016-09-01

    Clinical manifestations in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have not been clearly associated with immunological status or disease progression. We simultaneously assessed biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, oxidative stress, and anti-sand fly saliva IgG concentrations in dog sera with different clinical manifestations to characterize a biosignature associated with CVL severity. In a cross-sectional exploratory study, a random population of 70 dogs from an endemic area in Brazil was classified according to CVL clinical severity and parasitological evaluation. A panel of biomarkers and anti–sand fly saliva IgG were measured in canine sera. Assessment of protein expression of profile biomarkers identified a distinct biosignature that could cluster separately animal groups with different clinical scores. Increasing severity scores were associated with a gradual decrease of LTB4 and PGE2, and a gradual increase in CXCL1 and CCL2. Discriminant analyses revealed that combined assessment of LTB4, PGE2 and CXCL1 was able to distinguish dogs with different clinical scores. Dogs with the highest clinical score values also exhibited high parasite loads and higher concentrations of anti-saliva antibodies. Our findings suggest CVL clinical severity is tightly associated with a distinct inflammatory profile hallmarked by a differential expression of circulating eicosanoids and chemokines.

  16. The potential effects of global warming on changes in canine leishmaniasis in a focus outside the classical area of the disease in southern France.

    PubMed

    Dereure, Jacques; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Malé, Pierre; Martinez, Susana; Pratlong, Francine; Balard, Yves; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-12-01

    In 1994, an ecoepidemiologic study was carried out in the mid-Ariège valley (French Pyrenees) where autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniasis had been previously reported. Serologic samples were collected from 336 dogs in two groups of villages. The seroprevalences were 11.67% in the valley villages and only 1.43% in the foothill villages. Five lymph node biopsies were taken from serologically positive dogs, and resultant isolates were identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Phlebotomine sandflies were collected in five locations by CDC light traps. Both of the known French vectors, Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, were identified. Bioclimatic and floristic studies showed that this area is an enclave of the supra-Mediterranean climatic zone, containing a typically xerothermophilic Mediterranean flora. The Pyrenees Mountains are usually considered to be outside of the endemic range of leishmaniasis in southern France, and so our demonstration of a microfocus of canine leishmaniasis in the northern foothills is noteworthy. A second serologic survey carried out in 2007 (216 dogs) showed an inversion of the seropositive rates between the two groups of villages compared with those of 1994: only 2.72% in the valley villages and 11.32% in the foothills villages. The decrease of seroprevalence in the first area (valley villages) can be related to a considerable use of deltamethrin collars during the transmission season. The increase of seroprevalence of the foothill villages could be related to climatic conditions, since there was an increase of about 1 degrees C in the mean annual temperature.

  17. Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using Leishmania major or L. infantum Antigens for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Cardoso, Fernanda Alvarenga; Hiamamoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina Macksoud; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2013-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. Methods A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. Results The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. Interpretation ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:23922884

  18. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The ... prevent the disease is to protect yourself from sand fly bites: Stay indoors from dusk to dawn, when ...

  19. Evidence for an impact on the incidence of canine leishmaniasis by the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Mizzon, V; Siragusa, C; D'Oorazi, A; Gradoni, L

    2001-12-01

    Dogs are the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the agent of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis. In southern Europe, where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread due to L. infantum, killing seropositive dogs is considered unacceptable and drug treatment has low efficacy in preventing transmission. We made a field evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin dog collars in a CanL focus of southern Italy, Mount Vesuvius area of Campania region, where the vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus Newstead (Diptera: Psychodidae), by assessing their impact on the incidence of CanL in an intervention town, compared to that in dogs of control towns where no collars were fitted. During two consecutive transmission seasons, collars were fitted to 350 (1998) and 354 (1999) dogs from San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (70% of the canine population). Control dogs (371 and 264 in the 2 years, respectively) were from four towns of the same area. Before each transmission season, the CanL seroprevalence in the intervention and control towns was evaluated by cross-sectional surveys and found to be similar (about 15% in 1998 and 10% in 1999, respectively). After each transmission period, incidence rates of seroconversions were determined in adult dogs that were serologically negative before the season under evaluation, and in puppies. After the 1998 season, 2.7% of the dogs in the intervention town seroconverted compared to 5.4% in the control towns (50% protection, P = 0.15). After the 1999 season, 3.5% of collared dogs seroconverted compared to 25.8% of control dogs (86% protection, P < 0.001). The increase in seroconversion rates recorded in control dogs suggests an increase in the Leishmania force of infection in the canine reservoir during the 1999 sandfly season, as supported by the concomitant increase of human cases in control towns and in the whole Campania region. Our results suggest that the impact of mass use of deltamethrin

  20. Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis in urban households as risk factor of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Elisa Neves; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; de Almeida, Andréa Sobral; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2016-01-01

    Urban occurrence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is linked to households with characteristics conducive to the presence of sand flies. This study proposes an ad hoc classification of households according to the environmental characteristics of receptivity to phlebotominae and an entomological study to validate the proposal. Here we describe the phlebotominae population found in intra- and peridomiciliary environments and analyse the spatiotemporal distribution of the VL vector Lutzomyia longipalpis of households receptive to VL. In the region, 153 households were classified into levels of receptivity to VL followed by entomological surveys in 40 of those properties. Kruskal-Wallis verified the relationship between the households’ classification and sand fly abundance and Kernel analysis evaluated L. longipalpis spatial distribution: of the 740 sand flies were captured, 91% were L. longipalpis; 82% were found peridomiciliary whilst the remaining 18% were found intradomiciliary. No statistically significant association was found between sandflies and households levels. L. longipalpis counts were concentrated in areas of high vulnerability and some specific households were responsible for the persistence of the infestation. L. longipalpis prevails over other sand fly species for urban VL transmission. The entomological study may help target the surveillance and vector control strategies to domiciles initiating and/or maintaining VL outbreaks. PMID:27223866

  1. Antibody responses induced by Leish-Tec®, an A2-based vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis, in a heterogeneous canine population.

    PubMed

    Testasicca, Miriam C de Souza; dos Santos, Mariana Silva; Machado, Leopoldo Marques; Serufo, Angela Vieira; Doro, Daniel; Avelar, Daniel; Tibúrcio, Ana Maria Leonardi; Abrantes, Christiane de Freitas; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2014-08-29

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread disease, and dogs are the main reservoirs for human parasite transmission. Hence, development of an effective vaccine that prevents disease and reduces the transmission of VL is required. As euthanasia of seropositive dogs is recommended in Brazil for VL epidemiological control, to include anti-VL canine vaccines as a mass control measure it is necessary to characterize the humoral responses induced by vaccination and if they interfere with the reactivity of vaccinated dogs in serological diagnostic tests. Leish-Tec(®) is an amastigote-specific A2 recombinant protein vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) that is commercially available in Brazil. Here, we tested the immunogenicity of Leish-Tec(®) in a heterogeneous dog population by measuring A2-specific antibody responses. Healthy dogs (n=140) of various breeds were allocated to two groups: one group received Leish-Tec(®) (n=70), and the other group received a placebo (n=70). Anti-A2 or anti-Leishmania promastigote antigen (LPA) antibody levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples collected before and after vaccination. An immunochromatographic test (DPP) based on the recombinant K28 antigen was also used for serodiagnosis of CVL. Vaccinated animals, except one, remained seronegative for anti-LPA total IgG and anti-K28 antibodies. Conversely, seropositivity for anti-A2 total IgG antibodies was found in 98% of animals after vaccination. This value decreased to 81.13% at 6 months before rising again (98%), after the vaccination boost. Anti-A2 IgG2 and IgG1 titers were also increased in vaccinated animals relative to control animals. These data indicate that Leish-Tec(®) is immunogenic for dogs of different genetic backgrounds and that humoral responses induced by vaccination can be detected by A2-ELISA, but do not interfere with the LPA-ELISA and DPP diagnostic tests for CVL. PMID:24863572

  2. Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Piscopo, T V; Mallia, A C

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease is compared with other infections, climate change and its possible effect on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests that are helping better diagnosis, especially in resource‐poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral treatment to change the way this disease is managed; leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and the development of an effective vaccine. PMID:17068275

  3. Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Piscopo, Tonio V

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiology, disease patterns, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis are described. Various issues relating to leishmaniasis are highlighted: the relative lack of importance given to this disease compared with other infections, climate change and its possible impact on extension of endemicity of this infection, and new diagnostic tests which are improving diagnosis, especially in resource poor areas. Other important aspects discussed include the potential for newer oral therapy to change the way this disease is managed; Leishmania–HIV coinfection and groups at risk; and development of an effective vaccine. PMID:17396274

  4. Cellular immunophenotypic profile in the splenic compartment during canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Nicolato, Roney de Carvalho; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo de Assis

    2014-02-15

    To determine the role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we analyzed cellular immunophenotypic profiles of 52 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum, clinically classified as follows: asymptomatic dogs-I (AD-I), seronegative/PCR+; asymptomatic dogs-II (AD-II), seropositive/PCR+; oligosymptomatic dogs (OD) and symptomatic dogs (SD). Seven non-infected dogs (CD) were included as a control group. AD-II presented higher levels of CD8+ T splenocytes and lower TCD4+/TCD8+ ratio in comparison with CD. OD and SD showed lower percentages of CD21+ as compared with AD-II. All seropositive dogs presented lower levels of CD45RA+ than CD. Regardless of the stimuli used, the proliferation index from splenocytes in vitro was inversely correlated with clinical status. After LSA stimulation, there was a higher percentage of specific CD8+ T in AD-II than CD and non-stimulated culture. In contrast, splenocytes from SD under in vitro LSA stimulation induced decreased MHC-II+ expression in comparison with all groups, and non-stimulated culture. In conclusion, the role of CD8+ T splenocytes seems to be important for an effective immunological response, a hallmark of asymptomatic CVL, whereas the pronounced loss of MHC-II expression upon LSA stimulation is a biomarker of symptomatic CVL.

  5. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malmasi, Abdolali; Janitabar, Saeedeh; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Maazi, Nadi; Aramoon, Mehdi; Khorrami, Narges; Seifi, Hesam A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A two year seroepidemiological study was designed to find out the seroprevalence and risk factors of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) among stray and owned dogs in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran. Methods: Blood samples of 602 dogs living in 11 counties of Tehran and Alborz Provinces were taken by venipuncture in 2008–2010. After separation of blood sera, anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT). Results: Overall, of the 408 and 194 serum samples collected randomly from dogs in 11 localities in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, 18/408 (4.41%) and 12/194 (6.18%) respectively were found positive. Among the localities, Shemiran in Tehran Province and Karaj In Alborz Province had the highest prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found between sex and living place but there was significant difference between living status (owned or stray) and CVL infection of dogs in Alborz Province (P= 0.018). The highest seroprevalence (7.5%) was found in dogs aged 3 to 5 years old. Only 20% of the seropositive dogs were symptomatic. Conclusion: Concerning possible human infections in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, both symptomatic and asymptomatic seropositive dogs should be considered as a risk. PMID:26114126

  6. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  7. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum excreted-secreted antigens for detection of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Kesper, Norival; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of tests with L. (L.) infantum excreted-secreted antigens (ESA) to detect canine leishmaniasis (CanL) was evaluated using immunoblotting (ESA-blot), ELISA (ESA-ELISA) and ELISA with alkaline extract from promastigotes (PAE). Of one hundred fifty-five domestic dogs tested, 100 were suspected of CanL, 23 had other diseases and 32 were healthy. Sera from the dogs suspected of CanL were tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and 54% were confirmed to be infected by L. (L.) infantum (38 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic). Of these, 100% were positive by ESA-blot, ESA-ELISA and PAE-ELISA. In the ESA-blot their sera recognized polypeptides in the 26.5-31.5kDa region. Of the 46% of dogs with negative IHC, 44-53% tested positive in all three tests irrespective of clinical status. The twenty-three dogs with other diseases were negative by ESA-blot, but sera from 9% and 26% of them reacted with ESA-ELISA and PAE-ELISA, respectively. The 32 healthy dogs were negative in all the tests. ESA-blot showed good correlation with IHC in the detection of CanL and a high specificity index. PMID:27212707

  8. PD-1 function in apoptosis of T lymphocytes in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chiku, Vanessa Marim; Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Almeida, Breno Fernando Martins; Venturin, Gabriela Lovizutto; Leal, Aline Aparecida Correa; de Martini, Cleber Costa; de Rezende Eugênio, Flavia; Dos Santos, Paulo Sergio Patto; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix

    2016-08-01

    Dogs infected with Leishmania infantum have a reduced number of T lymphocytes. PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) a new member of the B7-CD28 family that is expressed by immune cells, and its binding to PD-L1 (CD274) or PD-L2 (CD273) induces the deactivation or apoptosis of T cells. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of PD-1 and its ligands, as well as blocking in the induction of apoptosis in T lymphocytes, TNF-α, IL-4 and nitric oxide production by leucokocytes from PBMC and spleen and the parasite load in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Our results showed that the expression of PD1 and its ligands was increased in CD3(+) T cells and CD21(+) B lymphocytes within the peripheral blood and splenic mononuclear cells of dogs with VL. In peripheral blood monocytes, only PD-1 ligands exhibited increased expression; however, in spleen macrophages, increased expression of both PD-1 and its ligands was observed. Levels of apoptosis in peripheral blood and splenic T lymphocytes were higher in dogs with VL compared to healthy dogs. Blocking monoclonal antibodies to PD-1 and its ligands in the culture of mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood and spleen decreased the amount of CD3(+) T lymphocyte apoptosis. The concentration of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-4 increased in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with a blocking monoclonal antibody against PD-1. The TNF-α concentration increased in the culture supernatants of splenic cells following all treatments with antibodies blocking PD-1 and its ligands; however, the amount of IL-4 increased only in the presence of a PD-1 blocking agent. Treatment with a PD-1 blocking monoclonal antibody in the mononuclear peripheral blood of dogs with VL reduced the parasite burden while increased TNF-α. We conclude that in canine visceral leishmaniasis, PD-1 and its ligands are involved in the induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis and in regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF

  9. PD-1 function in apoptosis of T lymphocytes in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chiku, Vanessa Marim; Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Almeida, Breno Fernando Martins; Venturin, Gabriela Lovizutto; Leal, Aline Aparecida Correa; de Martini, Cleber Costa; de Rezende Eugênio, Flavia; Dos Santos, Paulo Sergio Patto; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix

    2016-08-01

    Dogs infected with Leishmania infantum have a reduced number of T lymphocytes. PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) a new member of the B7-CD28 family that is expressed by immune cells, and its binding to PD-L1 (CD274) or PD-L2 (CD273) induces the deactivation or apoptosis of T cells. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of PD-1 and its ligands, as well as blocking in the induction of apoptosis in T lymphocytes, TNF-α, IL-4 and nitric oxide production by leucokocytes from PBMC and spleen and the parasite load in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Our results showed that the expression of PD1 and its ligands was increased in CD3(+) T cells and CD21(+) B lymphocytes within the peripheral blood and splenic mononuclear cells of dogs with VL. In peripheral blood monocytes, only PD-1 ligands exhibited increased expression; however, in spleen macrophages, increased expression of both PD-1 and its ligands was observed. Levels of apoptosis in peripheral blood and splenic T lymphocytes were higher in dogs with VL compared to healthy dogs. Blocking monoclonal antibodies to PD-1 and its ligands in the culture of mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood and spleen decreased the amount of CD3(+) T lymphocyte apoptosis. The concentration of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-4 increased in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with a blocking monoclonal antibody against PD-1. The TNF-α concentration increased in the culture supernatants of splenic cells following all treatments with antibodies blocking PD-1 and its ligands; however, the amount of IL-4 increased only in the presence of a PD-1 blocking agent. Treatment with a PD-1 blocking monoclonal antibody in the mononuclear peripheral blood of dogs with VL reduced the parasite burden while increased TNF-α. We conclude that in canine visceral leishmaniasis, PD-1 and its ligands are involved in the induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis and in regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF

  10. Improving Serodiagnosis of Human and Canine Leishmaniasis with Recombinant Leishmania braziliensis Cathepsin L-like Protein and a Synthetic Peptide Containing Its Linear B-cell Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Background The early and correct diagnosis of human leishmaniasis is essential for disease treatment. Another important step in the control of visceral leishmaniasis is the identification of infected dogs, which are the main domestic reservoir of L. infantum. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides based on Leishmania genes have emerged as valuable targets for serodiagnosis due to their increased sensitivity, specificity and potential for standardization. Cathepsin L-like genes are surface antigens that are secreted by amastigotes and have little similarity to host proteins, factors that enable this protein as a good target for serodiagnosis of the leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We mapped a linear B-cell epitope within the Cathepsin L-like protein from L. braziliensis. A synthetic peptide containing the epitope and the recombinant protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of human tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant protein performed best for human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis, with 96.30% and 89.33% accuracy, respectively. The synthetic peptide was the best to discriminate human visceral leishmaniasis, with 97.14% specificity, 94.55% sensitivity and 96.00% accuracy. Comparison with T. cruzi-infected humans and dogs suggests that the identified epitope is specific to Leishmania parasites, which minimizes the likelihood of cross-reactions. PMID:25569432

  11. Treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis by the vaccine Leish-111f+MPL-SE.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Joelma; Abbehusen, Melissa; Netto, Eduardo M; Nakatani, Maria; Pedral-Sampaio, Geraldo; de Jesus, Robson Silva; Goto, Yasuyuki; Guderian, Jeffrey; Howard, Randall F; Reed, Steven G

    2010-04-26

    Immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide an alternative to both marginally effective chemotherapy and undesired euthanasia of infected dogs and could have a great impact not only on animal welfare, but also on control of human disease. Therefore, we examined the potential immunotherapeutic efficacy of the subunit vaccine Leish-111f+MPL-SE, which has undergone rigorous preclinical testing and been demonstrated safe in human clinical trials. Two separate trials were performed in Salvador, Brazil, to evaluate the vaccine for therapeutic efficacy against CVL caused by natural infection: an Open Trial and a Blinded Trial. In the Open Trial 59 dogs with clinically active CVL were sequentially allocated to four groups: group 1 received Leish-111f+MPL-SE; group 2 was treated with Glucantime; group 3 received a combination of the vaccine and Glucantime; and group 4 was given no treatment. At the 6-month assessment, the 13 non-treated dogs had either died or showed no clinical improvement. In contrast, most dogs in groups 1-3 showed initial improvement (100%, 80%, and 92%, respectively). Upon evaluation for a mean of 36 months after therapy, the following cure rates were observed: 75% for group 1 dogs (exact 95% confidence interval [CI] 43-95%), 64% for group 2 dogs (exact 95% CI 31-89%), and 50% for group 3 dogs (exact 95% CI 19-81%). Therapeutic efficacy of the Leish-111f+MPL-SE vaccine was reconfirmed in a subsequent Blinded Trial. The vaccine was effective for mild cases of CVL and was compromised in dogs with severe disease. Although further studies are required to understand mechanisms of action, the Leish-111f+MPL-SE vaccine is a promising tool to control VL in both dogs and humans.

  12. [Epidemiological aspects of canine American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brazil].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, G M; Marzochi, M C; Massard, C L; Lima, G P; Confort, E M

    1999-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the highest incidence observed in the municipalities along the Southern coast. A total of 169 human cases were reported from 1993 to 1995 in the municipality of Paraty, representing 15% of all case reports in the State of Rio de Janeiro during that period. From March to December, 1996, a survey was conducted in endemic american tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) areas (Praia Grande, Taquari, Várzea do Machado, and Graúna) in Paraty. 326 households with 215 pet dogs were surveyed. The initial study consisted of taking venous blood samples to perform RIFI and ELISA tests. The canine skin test was performed during the same visit and was positive in 8.8% of dogs. Of the 215 dogs, 5 presented lesions suspected of ATL; biopsies and the vacuum aspiration technique were performed on these cases. Correlating the study areas with the results obtained, some dogs presented sub-clinical infection, highly relevant to studies on canine ATL infection in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  13. [Epidemiological aspects of canine American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brazil].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, G M; Marzochi, M C; Massard, C L; Lima, G P; Confort, E M

    1999-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the highest incidence observed in the municipalities along the Southern coast. A total of 169 human cases were reported from 1993 to 1995 in the municipality of Paraty, representing 15% of all case reports in the State of Rio de Janeiro during that period. From March to December, 1996, a survey was conducted in endemic american tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) areas (Praia Grande, Taquari, Várzea do Machado, and Graúna) in Paraty. 326 households with 215 pet dogs were surveyed. The initial study consisted of taking venous blood samples to perform RIFI and ELISA tests. The canine skin test was performed during the same visit and was positive in 8.8% of dogs. Of the 215 dogs, 5 presented lesions suspected of ATL; biopsies and the vacuum aspiration technique were performed on these cases. Correlating the study areas with the results obtained, some dogs presented sub-clinical infection, highly relevant to studies on canine ATL infection in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:10502161

  14. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Cássia Regina; Parpinelli, Ana Cláudia; de Lima, Romeika Reis; Dias, Luis Gustavo Gosuen Gonçalves; Pereira, Lucas de Freitas; Dias, Fernanda Gosuen Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi), which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological). It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification.

  15. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs.

  16. Use of a Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi for the Immunotherapy of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Background A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (rLdccys1) was previously shown to induce protective immune responses against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis. These findings encouraged us to use rLdccys1 in the immunotherapy of naturally infected dogs from Teresina, Piauí, a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty naturally infected mongrel dogs displaying clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis were randomly divided in three groups: one group received three doses of rLdccys1 in combination with the adjuvant Propionibacterium acnes at one month interval between each dose; a second group received three doses of P. acnes alone; a third group received saline. The main findings were: 1) dogs that received rLdccys1 with P. acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-γ and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-γ levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. acnes alone died within 3 to 7 months. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the potential use of rLdccys1 as an additional tool for the immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis and support further studies designed to improve the efficacy of this recombinant

  17. Evaluation of two recombinant Leishmania proteins identified by an immunoproteomic approach as tools for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral and human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Garde, Esther; de Jesus Pereira, Nathália Cristina; Lopes, Eliane Gonçalves Paiva; Borges, Luiz Felipe Nunes Menezes; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira

    2016-01-15

    Serological diagnostic tests for canine and human leishmaniasis present problems related with their sensitivity and/or specificity. Recently, an immunoproteomic approach performed with Leishmania infantum proteins identified new parasite antigens. In the present study, the diagnostic properties of two of these proteins, cytochrome c oxidase and IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor, were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral (CVL) and human tegumentary (HTL) leishmaniasis. For the CVL diagnosis, sera samples from non-infected dogs living in an endemic or non-endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from asymptomatic or symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, from Leish-Tec(®)-vaccinated dogs, and sera from animals experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or Ehrlichia canis were used. For the HTL diagnosis, sera from non-infected subjects living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from active cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis patients, as well as those from T. cruzi-infected patients were employed. ELISA assays using the recombinant proteins showed both sensitivity and specificity values of 100% for the serodiagnosis of both forms of disease, with high positive and negative predictive values, showing better diagnostic properties than the parasite recombinant A2 protein or a soluble Leishmania antigen extract. In this context, the two new recombinant proteins could be considered to be used in the serodiagnosis of CVL and HTL. PMID:26790739

  18. Canine leishmaniasis in Southern Italy: a role for nitric oxide released from activated macrophages in asymptomatic infection?

    PubMed Central

    Panaro, Maria A; Brandonisio, Olga; de Caprariis, Donato; Cavallo, Pasqua; Cianciulli, Antonia; Mitolo, Vincenzo; Otranto, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Background Human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Italy, with a high percentage of infected asymptomatic animals. However, the immune response mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation of CanL have not been fully investigated. Among leishmanicidal molecules produced by activated macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) produced by an inducible NO synthase seems to play an important protective role, but no conclusive data are available. Therefore, NO released by cultured macrophages from dogs with natural Leishmania infection living in an endemic area for CanL was evaluated. Methods On the basis of one year's clinical and laboratory follow-up, 22 dogs infected by Leishmania infantum were identified and grouped as: asymptomatic dogs (n = 13) and dogs with symptoms of leishmaniasis (n = 9). Each animal was bled twice at 4-month intervals and macrophage and lymphocyte cultures were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Supernatants of L. infantum-infected macrophage cultures, with or without addition of autologous lymphocytes, were assayed for NO production by Griess reaction for nitrites. Results In the first months of the infection the levels of NO in supernatants of Leishmania-infected macrophages were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs, but they were significantly increased in the latter group eight months after the diagnosis of infection. Furthermore, NO release significantly decreased in the presence of autologous lymphocytes in both groups of animals. Conclusion These results suggest that NO may be involved in the long-term protection of dogs against natural Leishmania infection and in the clinical presentation of canine leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean area. PMID:18471289

  19. The Use of Spatial Analysis to Estimate the Prevalence of Canine Leishmaniasis in Greece and Cyprus to Predict Its Future Variation and Relate It to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sifaki-Pistola, Dimitra; Ntais, Pantelis; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Mazeris, Apostolos; Antoniou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Climatic, environmental, and demographic changes favor the emergence of neglected vector-borne diseases like leishmaniasis, which is spreading through dogs, the principle host of the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Surveillance of the disease in dogs is important, because the number of infected animals in an area determines the local risk of human infection. However, dog epidemiological studies are costly. Our aim was to evaluate the Emerging Diseases in a Changing European Environment (EDEN) veterinary questionnaire as a cost-effective tool in providing reliable, spatially explicit indicators of canine leishmaniasis prevalence. For this purpose, the data from the questionnaire were compared with data from two epidemiological studies on leishmaniasis carried out in Greece and Cyprus at the same time using statistical methods and spatial statistics. Although the questionnaire data cannot provide a quantitative measure of leishmaniasis in an area, it indicates the dynamic of the disease; information is obtained in a short period of time at low cost. PMID:24957543

  20. Evaluating the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing for canine visceral leishmaniasis using latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Bordoni, Marcelo; Borja, Lairton Souza; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; da Silva Estrela Tuy, Pétala Gardênia; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Nascimento, Eliane Gomes; de Sá Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno; dos-Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR) in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4-100) in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68-90.3) in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5-90.1) in skin; 75% (CI 63.1-86.9) in blood; 50% (CI 30-70) in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2-50.8) in left-eye; and 29.2% (CI 16.7-41.6) in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n = 800), collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7-79.6) for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5-96.5) that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing.

  1. Canine-Based Strategies for Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sevá, Anaiá P; Ovallos, Fredy G; Amaku, Marcus; Carrillo, Eugenia; Moreno, Javier; Galati, Eunice A B; Lopes, Estela G; Soares, Rodrigo M; Ferreira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis found worldwide. Its incidence has increased in Brazil in recent years, representing a serious public and animal health problem. The strategies applied in Brazil are questionable and are not sufficient to control the disease. Thus, we have compared the efficacy of some of the currently available strategies focused on dogs to prevent and control zoonotic VL in endemic areas by optimizing a mathematical model. The simulations showed that the elimination of seropositive dogs, the use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars, and the vaccination of dogs significantly contribute to reducing the prevalence of infection in both canines and humans. The use of insecticide-impregnated collars presented the highest level of efficacy mainly because it directly affected the force of infection and vector-dog contact. In addition, when used at a coverage rate of 90%, insecticide-impregnated collar was able to decrease the prevalence of seropositive dogs and humans to zero; moreover, because of the easy application and acceptance by the targeted population, these collars may be considered the most feasible for inclusion in public policies among the three simulated measures. Vaccination and euthanasia were efficacious, but the latter method is strongly criticized on ethical grounds, and both methods present difficulties for inclusion in public policies. When we compared the use of euthanasia and vaccination at coverages of 70 and 90%, respectively, the proportion of infected populations were similar. However, on evaluating the implications of both of these methods, particularly the negative aspects of culling dogs and the proportion of animals protected by vaccination, the latter measure appears to be the better option if the total cost is not significantly higher. The comparison of complications and advantages of different control strategies allows us to analyze the optimal measure and offer strategies to veterinary and public health

  2. Canine-Based Strategies for Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ovallos, Fredy G.; Amaku, Marcus; Carrillo, Eugenia; Moreno, Javier; Galati, Eunice A. B.; Lopes, Estela G.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Ferreira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis found worldwide. Its incidence has increased in Brazil in recent years, representing a serious public and animal health problem. The strategies applied in Brazil are questionable and are not sufficient to control the disease. Thus, we have compared the efficacy of some of the currently available strategies focused on dogs to prevent and control zoonotic VL in endemic areas by optimizing a mathematical model. The simulations showed that the elimination of seropositive dogs, the use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars, and the vaccination of dogs significantly contribute to reducing the prevalence of infection in both canines and humans. The use of insecticide-impregnated collars presented the highest level of efficacy mainly because it directly affected the force of infection and vector-dog contact. In addition, when used at a coverage rate of 90%, insecticide-impregnated collar was able to decrease the prevalence of seropositive dogs and humans to zero; moreover, because of the easy application and acceptance by the targeted population, these collars may be considered the most feasible for inclusion in public policies among the three simulated measures. Vaccination and euthanasia were efficacious, but the latter method is strongly criticized on ethical grounds, and both methods present difficulties for inclusion in public policies. When we compared the use of euthanasia and vaccination at coverages of 70 and 90%, respectively, the proportion of infected populations were similar. However, on evaluating the implications of both of these methods, particularly the negative aspects of culling dogs and the proportion of animals protected by vaccination, the latter measure appears to be the better option if the total cost is not significantly higher. The comparison of complications and advantages of different control strategies allows us to analyze the optimal measure and offer strategies to veterinary and public health

  3. Evaluating the Accuracy of Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Bordoni, Marcelo; Borja, Lairton Souza; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; da Silva Estrela Tuy, Pétala Gardênia; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Nascimento, Eliane Gomes; de Sá Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno; dos-Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR) in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4–100) in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68–90.3) in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5–90.1) in skin; 75% (CI 63.1–86.9) in blood; 50% (CI 30–70) in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2–50.8) in left-eye; and 29.2% (CI 16.7–41.6) in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n = 800), collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7–79.6) for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5–96.5) that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing. PMID:25076494

  4. A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Edward; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Oliveira, Diana; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis.

  5. Prevalence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Dogs Living in an Area of Canine Leishmaniasis Endemicity Using PCR on Several Tissues and Serology

    PubMed Central

    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Morell, Pere; Arboix, Margarita; Alberola, Jordi; Ferrer, Lluis

    2001-01-01

    We studied and compared the prevalence of Leishmania infection and the seroprevalence and the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic. One hundred dogs living on the island of Mallorca (Spain) were studied. In this study, we clinically examined each dog for the presence of symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis, determined the titer of anti-Leishmania antibodies, and investigated the presence of Leishmania DNA by PCR in skin, conjunctiva, and bone marrow samples of each dog. The prevalence of the disease and the seroprevalence were 13 and 26%, respectively. In 63% of the dogs, Leishmania DNA could be detected by PCR in at least one of the tissues studied. The results of positive PCR in the bone marrow, the conjunctiva, and the skin were 17.8, 32, and 51%, respectively. The prevalence of the infection, 67%, was calculated using all animals that were seropositive and/or positive by PCR with any tissue. The results showed that the majority of dogs living in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic are infected by Leishmania and that the prevalence of infection is much greater than the prevalence of overt Leishmania-related disease. PMID:11158106

  6. Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States

    PubMed Central

    Schaut, Robert G.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Esch, Kevin J.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by predominantly vectorborne Leishmania spp. In the United States, canine visceral leishmaniasis is common among hounds, and L. infantum vertical transmission among hounds has been confirmed. We found that L. infantum from hounds remains infective in sandflies, underscoring the risk for human exposure by vectorborne transmission. PMID:26583260

  7. Transmission Dynamics and Prospects for the Elimination of Canine Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Katie; Dushoff, Jonathan; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Kaare, Magai; Packer, Craig; Dobson, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology, which explains important epidemiological features, including the level of variation in epidemic trajectories. We found that the basic reproductive number for rabies, R0, is very low in our study area in rural Africa (∼1.2) and throughout its historic global range (<2). This finding provides strong support for the feasibility of controlling endemic canine rabies by vaccination, even near wildlife areas with large wild carnivore populations. However, we show that rapid turnover of domestic dog populations has been a major obstacle to successful control in developing countries, thus regular pulse vaccinations will be required to maintain population-level immunity between campaigns. Nonetheless our analyses suggest that with sustained, international commitment, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:19278295

  8. The potential of canine sentinels for reemerging Trypanosoma cruzi transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Chu, Lily Chou; Quispe-Machaca, Victor; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Mazuelos, Milagros Bastos; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, a vector-borne disease transmitted by triatomine bugs and caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people in the Americas. In Arequipa, Peru, indoor residual insecticide spraying campaigns are routinely conducted to eliminate Triatoma infestans, the only vector in this area. Following insecticide spraying, there is risk of vector return and reinitiation of parasite transmission. Dogs are important reservoirs of T. cruzi and may play a role in reinitiating transmission in previously sprayed areas. Dogs may also serve as indicators of reemerging transmission. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional serological screening to detect T. cruzi antibodies in dogs, in conjunction with an entomological vector collection survey at the household level, in a disease endemic area that had been treated with insecticide 13 years prior. Spatial clustering of infected animals and vectors was assessed using Ripley’s K statistic, and the odds of being seropositive for dogs proximate to infected colonies was estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 106 triatomine-infested houses (41.1%), and 45 houses infested with T. cruzi-infected triatomine insects (17.4%). Canine seroprevalence in the area was 12.3% (n=154); all seropositive dogs were 9 months old or older. We observed clustering of vectors carrying the parasite, but no clustering of seropositive dogs. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio between seropositivity to T. cruzi and proximity to an infected triatomine (≤50m) was 5.67 (95% CI: 1.12 – 28.74; p=0.036). Conclusions Targeted control of reemerging transmission can be achieved by improved understanding of T. cruzi in canine populations. Our results suggest that dogs may be useful sentinels to detect re-initiation of transmission following insecticide treatment. Integration of canine T. cruzi blood sampling into existing interventions for zoonotic disease control (e.g. rabies vaccination programs

  9. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:25545936

  10. Disruption of Splenic Lymphoid Tissue and Plasmacytosis in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Changes in Homing and Survival of Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva-O’Hare, Joselli; de Oliveira, Isabela Silva; Klevorn, Thaís; Almeida, Valter A.; Oliveira, Geraldo G. S.; Atta, Ajax M.; de Freitas, Luiz Antonio R.; dos-Santos, Washington L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum, which is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Dogs are the main urban reservoir of this parasite and the disease presents similar characteristics in both humans and dogs. In this paper, we investigated the potential pathways involved in plasma cell replacement of normal cell populations in the spleen, with respect to disease severity in dogs from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. To this end, canine spleen samples were grouped into three categories: TYPE1SC- (non-infected dogs or without active infection with organized white pulp), TYPE1SC+ (infected dogs with organized white pulp) or TYPE3SC+ (infected animals with disorganized white pulp). We analyzed the distribution of different plasma cell isotypes (IgA, IgG and IgM) in the spleen. The expression of cytokines and chemokines involved in plasma cell homing and survival were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia were also evaluated. The proportion of animals with moderate or intense plasmacytosis was higher in the TYPE3SC+ group than in the other groups (Fisher test, P<0.05). This was mainly due to a higher density of IgG+ plasma cells in the red pulp of this group. The albumin/globulin ratio was lower in the TYPE3SC+ animals than in the TYPE1SC- or TYPE1SC+ animals, which evidences VL-associated dysproteinemia. Interestingly, TYPE3SC+ animals showed increased expression of the BAFF and APRIL cytokines, as well as chemokine CXCL12. Aberrant expression of BAFF, APRIL and CXCL12, together with amplified extrafollicular B cell activation, lead to plasma cell homing and the extended survival of these cells in the splenic red pulp compartment. These changes in the distribution of immunocompetent cells in the spleen may contribute to the progression of VL, and impair the spleen’s ability to protect against blood borne pathogens. PMID:27243459

  11. Linear B-cell epitope mapping of MAPK3 and MAPK4 from Leishmania braziliensis: implications for the serodiagnosis of human and canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; de Araújo Leão, Ana Carolina; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2015-02-01

    The correct and early identification of humans and dogs infected with Leishmania are key steps in the control of leishmaniasis. Additionally, a method with high sensitivity and specificity at low cost that allows the screening of a large number of samples would be extremely valuable. In this study, we analyzed the potential of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAPK4) proteins from Leishmania braziliensis to serve as antigen candidates for the serodiagnosis of human visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral disease. Moreover, we mapped linear B-cell epitopes in these proteins and selected those epitopes with sequences that were divergent in the corresponding orthologs in Homo sapiens, in Canis familiaris, and in Trypanosoma cruzi. We compared the performance of these peptides with the recombinant protein using ELISA. Both MAPK3 and MAPK4 recombinant proteins showed better specificity in the immunodiagnosis of human and canine leishmaniasis than soluble parasite antigens and the EIE-leishmaniose-visceral-canina-bio-manguinhos (EIE-LVC) kit. Furthermore, the performance of this serodiagnosis assay was improved using synthetic peptides corresponding to B-cell epitopes derived from both proteins.

  12. An rK28-Based Immunoenzymatic Assay for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Marta Alicia; Maidana, Cristina Graciela; Frias, Victoria Fragueiro; Romagosa, Carlo M; Negri, Vanesa; Benedetti, Ruben; Sinagra, Angel J; Luna, Concepcion; Tartaglino, Lilian; Laucella, Susana; Reed, Steven G; Riarte, Adelina R

    2016-07-01

    Direct observation of Leishmania parasites in tissue aspirates has shown low sensitivity for the detection of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Therefore in the last quarter century immunoenzymatic tests have been developed to improve diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to develop a fast recombinant K28 antigen, naked-eye qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (VL Ql-ELISA) and a quantitative version (VL Qt-ELISA), and to display it in a kit format, whose cutoff value (0.156) was selected as the most adequate one to differentiate reactive from nonreactive samples. Considering 167 cases and 300 controls, sensitivity was 91% for both assays and specificity was 100% and 98.7% in Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively. Positive predictive values were 100% and 97.4% for Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively, and negative predictive values were 95.2% for both ELISAs. Reagent stability, reliability studies, including periodic repetitions and retest of samples, cutoff selection, and comparison of rK28 ELISAs with rK39 immunochromatographic test, were the international criteria that supported the quality in both kits. The performance of both ELISA kits in this work confirmed their validity and emphasized their usefulness for low-to-medium complexity laboratories. PMID:27162270

  13. The fucose-mannose ligand-ELISA in the diagnosis and prognosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G P; Da Silva, V O; Da Costa, R T; Reis, A B; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B

    1999-08-01

    The fucose-mannose ligand (FML)-ELISA assay showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) (kala-azar) in sera from naturally infected dogs from São Gonçalo do Amaranto, Rio Grande de Norte, Brazil. The overall prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania in the endemic area was 23% (79 of 343). Seroreactivity detected by a Leishmania chagasi immunofluorescent (IF) assay was much lower (2.9%) and similar to the percentage of dogs with kala-azar symptoms (2.6%). Twenty-one of 21 asymptomatic, FML-seropositive animals died of kala-azar in a period ranging from 0 to 6 months after diagnosis. The predictive value was 100% for the FML-ELISA, 43% for an L. mexicana ELISA, and 24% for the L. mexicana and L. chagasi IF assays, respectively. In experimentally infected dogs, all assays detected seropositivity between 90 and 120 days after infection. Since the current strategy for control of CVL is based on detection and destruction of infected dogs, the highly predictive, sensitive, and specific FML-ELISA represents a useful tool for field control of the disease.

  14. Prevalence of Dermatological Presentations of Canine Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Study of 100 Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Spada, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study determined the prevalence of dermatological lesions associated with canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a nonendemic area in Italy. The medical records of 131 dogs with CanL were reviewed and, of these, 115/131 dogs (88%) had dermatological manifestations of which 100/131 dogs (76%) met the inclusion criteria. Sixty-two percent of dogs were male and 38% were female and the mean age was 6.4 years. Thirty-two percent of dogs were mixed breeds; the remainder represented a variety of pure breeds. In 79% of dogs dermatological signs occurred in association with systemic signs of CanL, whilst 21% of dogs had only dermatological manifestations. The most common dermatological manifestation was exfoliative dermatitis (74%), followed by ulcerative (18%) and nodular (11%) lesions. In 51% of dogs the lesions were localized mainly on the pinnae, head, and pressure points; in the remaining 49% lesions were generalized. The only statistically significant association was between Retriever breed and animals with only dermatological signs (P = 0.0034, OD 5.97, CI 0.996–37.933). In this study dermatological manifestations of CanL were very commonly reported, and their prevalence is similar to previous studies in endemic areas despite the fact that dogs living in nonendemic areas are not exposed to repeated infectious bites and continuous stimulation of the dermal immune system. PMID:24660088

  15. Immunization with H1, HASPB1 and MML Leishmania proteins in a vaccine trial against experimental canine leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, J.; Nieto, J.; Masina, S.; Cañavate, C.; Cruz, I.; Chicharro, C.; Carrillo, E.; Napp, S.; Reymond, C.; Kaye, P.M.; Smith, D.F.; Fasel, N.; Alvar, J.

    2007-01-01

    The protective capabilities of three Leishmania recombinant proteins – histone 1 (H1) and hydrophilic acylated surface protein B1 (HASPB1) immunized singly, or together as a protein cocktail vaccine with Montanide™, and the polyprotein MML immunized with MPL®-SE adjuvant – were assessed in beagle dogs. Clinical examination of the dogs was carried out periodically under blinded conditions and the condition of the dogs defined as asymptomatic or symptomatic. At the end of the trial, we were able to confirm that following infection with L. infantum promastigotes, five out of eight dogs immunized with H1 Montanide™, and four out of eight dogs immunized with either the combination of HASPB1 with Montanide™ or the combination of H1 + HASPB1 with Montanide™, remained free of clinical signs, compared with two out of seven dogs immunized with the polyprotein MML and adjuvant MPL®-SE, and two out of eight dogs in the control group. The results demonstrate that HASPB1 and H1 antigens in combination with Montanide™ were able to induce partial protection against canine leishmaniasis, even under extreme experimental challenge conditions. PMID:17576026

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    PubMed Central

    ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; da SILVA, Denise Amaro; PERIÉ, Carolina dos Santos F. S.; V. MENDES, Artur Augusto; MENEZES, Rodrigo Caldas; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  17. An rK28-Based Immunoenzymatic Assay for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Marta Alicia; Maidana, Cristina Graciela; Frias, Victoria Fragueiro; Romagosa, Carlo M; Negri, Vanesa; Benedetti, Ruben; Sinagra, Angel J; Luna, Concepcion; Tartaglino, Lilian; Laucella, Susana; Reed, Steven G; Riarte, Adelina R

    2016-07-01

    Direct observation of Leishmania parasites in tissue aspirates has shown low sensitivity for the detection of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Therefore in the last quarter century immunoenzymatic tests have been developed to improve diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to develop a fast recombinant K28 antigen, naked-eye qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (VL Ql-ELISA) and a quantitative version (VL Qt-ELISA), and to display it in a kit format, whose cutoff value (0.156) was selected as the most adequate one to differentiate reactive from nonreactive samples. Considering 167 cases and 300 controls, sensitivity was 91% for both assays and specificity was 100% and 98.7% in Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively. Positive predictive values were 100% and 97.4% for Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively, and negative predictive values were 95.2% for both ELISAs. Reagent stability, reliability studies, including periodic repetitions and retest of samples, cutoff selection, and comparison of rK28 ELISAs with rK39 immunochromatographic test, were the international criteria that supported the quality in both kits. The performance of both ELISA kits in this work confirmed their validity and emphasized their usefulness for low-to-medium complexity laboratories.

  18. The fucose-mannose ligand-ELISA in the diagnosis and prognosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G P; Da Silva, V O; Da Costa, R T; Reis, A B; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B

    1999-08-01

    The fucose-mannose ligand (FML)-ELISA assay showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) (kala-azar) in sera from naturally infected dogs from São Gonçalo do Amaranto, Rio Grande de Norte, Brazil. The overall prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania in the endemic area was 23% (79 of 343). Seroreactivity detected by a Leishmania chagasi immunofluorescent (IF) assay was much lower (2.9%) and similar to the percentage of dogs with kala-azar symptoms (2.6%). Twenty-one of 21 asymptomatic, FML-seropositive animals died of kala-azar in a period ranging from 0 to 6 months after diagnosis. The predictive value was 100% for the FML-ELISA, 43% for an L. mexicana ELISA, and 24% for the L. mexicana and L. chagasi IF assays, respectively. In experimentally infected dogs, all assays detected seropositivity between 90 and 120 days after infection. Since the current strategy for control of CVL is based on detection and destruction of infected dogs, the highly predictive, sensitive, and specific FML-ELISA represents a useful tool for field control of the disease. PMID:10463683

  19. A Novel Molecular Test to Diagnose Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Saldarriaga, Omar A; Tartaglino, Lilian; Gacek, Rosana; Temple, Elissa; Sparks, Hayley; Melby, Peter C; Travi, Bruno L

    2015-11-01

    Dogs are the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but current serological methods are not sensitive enough to detect all subclinically infected animals, which is crucial to VL control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have greater sensitivity but require expensive equipment and trained personnel, impairing its implementation in endemic areas. We developed a diagnostic test that uses isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to detect Leishmania infantum. This method was coupled with lateral flow (LF) reading with the naked eye to be adapted as a point-of-care test. The L. infantum RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity similar to real time-PCR, detecting DNA of 0.1 parasites spiked in dog blood, which was equivalent to 40 parasites/mL. There was no cross amplification with dog or human DNA or with Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, or Trypanosoma cruzi. The test also amplified Leishmania donovani strains (N = 7). In a group of clinically normal dogs (N = 30), RPA-LF detected more subclinical infections than rK39 strip test, a standard serological method (50% versus 13.3% positivity, respectively; P = 0.005). Also, RPA-LF detected L. infantum in noninvasive mucosal samples of dogs with a sensitivity comparable to blood samples. This novel molecular test may have a positive impact in leishmaniasis control programs.

  20. A Novel Molecular Test to Diagnose Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Saldarriaga, Omar A; Tartaglino, Lilian; Gacek, Rosana; Temple, Elissa; Sparks, Hayley; Melby, Peter C; Travi, Bruno L

    2015-11-01

    Dogs are the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but current serological methods are not sensitive enough to detect all subclinically infected animals, which is crucial to VL control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have greater sensitivity but require expensive equipment and trained personnel, impairing its implementation in endemic areas. We developed a diagnostic test that uses isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to detect Leishmania infantum. This method was coupled with lateral flow (LF) reading with the naked eye to be adapted as a point-of-care test. The L. infantum RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity similar to real time-PCR, detecting DNA of 0.1 parasites spiked in dog blood, which was equivalent to 40 parasites/mL. There was no cross amplification with dog or human DNA or with Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, or Trypanosoma cruzi. The test also amplified Leishmania donovani strains (N = 7). In a group of clinically normal dogs (N = 30), RPA-LF detected more subclinical infections than rK39 strip test, a standard serological method (50% versus 13.3% positivity, respectively; P = 0.005). Also, RPA-LF detected L. infantum in noninvasive mucosal samples of dogs with a sensitivity comparable to blood samples. This novel molecular test may have a positive impact in leishmaniasis control programs. PMID:26240156

  1. A Novel Molecular Test to Diagnose Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis at the Point of Care

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Saldarriaga, Omar A.; Tartaglino, Lilian; Gacek, Rosana; Temple, Elissa; Sparks, Hayley; Melby, Peter C.; Travi, Bruno L.

    2015-01-01

    Dogs are the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but current serological methods are not sensitive enough to detect all subclinically infected animals, which is crucial to VL control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have greater sensitivity but require expensive equipment and trained personnel, impairing its implementation in endemic areas. We developed a diagnostic test that uses isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to detect Leishmania infantum. This method was coupled with lateral flow (LF) reading with the naked eye to be adapted as a point-of-care test. The L. infantum RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity similar to real time-PCR, detecting DNA of 0.1 parasites spiked in dog blood, which was equivalent to 40 parasites/mL. There was no cross amplification with dog or human DNA or with Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, or Trypanosoma cruzi. The test also amplified Leishmania donovani strains (N = 7). In a group of clinically normal dogs (N = 30), RPA-LF detected more subclinical infections than rK39 strip test, a standard serological method (50% versus 13.3% positivity, respectively; P = 0.005). Also, RPA-LF detected L. infantum in noninvasive mucosal samples of dogs with a sensitivity comparable to blood samples. This novel molecular test may have a positive impact in leishmaniasis control programs. PMID:26240156

  2. An iron-superoxide dismutase antigen-based serological screening of dogs indicates their potential role in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Longoni, Silvia S; Marín, Clotilde; Sauri-Arceo, Carlos H; López-Cespedes, Angeles; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I; Villegas, Noelia; Escobedo-Ortegón, Javier; Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel E; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    An increasing number of studies have reported high infection rates for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, which have thus been proposed as the reservoir host. Canine leishmaniasis is widespread in different states in Mexico, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, the detection of different Leishmania species is described in stray dogs from two localities, namely Tulum and Celestún on the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). The use of iron-superoxide dismutase excreted by the parasites as the antigen fraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot tests allowed us to confirm the presence of at least three species of Leishmania (Le. mexicana, Le. braziliensis, and Le. panamensis), some of which are reported for the first time in this species. In addition to a high prevalence of Le. mexicana and Le. braziliensis, and to a lesser degree, Le. panamensis, there is a significant prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi, suggesting that the dog may be a source of transmission of trypanosomiasis. However, a more thorough epidemiological study on the dog population, both wild as well as urban, of the Yucatan Peninsula will be required to design a control strategy for these diseases, paying particular attention to the population affected and even broadening the study to other Mexican states as well as neighboring countries. These results again confirm that iron-superoxide dismutase excreted by the different trypanosomatid species constitutes a good source of antigen for serodiagnosis in epidemiological studies.

  3. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baum, Maurício; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Baura, Walter; Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara

    2015-03-01

    The feeding behavior of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector/host interactions and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of sand flies in endemic areas of leishmaniasis in Paraná State through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a prepronociceptin (PNOC) gene fragment and its subsequent DNA sequencing. Moreover, molecular assays were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the PNOC gene amplification. Besides that, a time-course digestion test of the blood using sand flies that fed artificially on BALB/c mice was performed. Of 1263 female sand flies collected in the field, 93 (3.6%) specimens were engorged and 27 allowed efficient amplification of the PNOC gene. These flies had fed on equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa) and canine (Canis lupus familiaris) species. The results also showed that the identification of the blood meal sources of the sand flies using the molecular method was directly linked to the level of digestion of the blood (time-course) and not to the amount of blood that had been ingested or to the presence of inhibitors in the blood.

  4. Public Knowledge about and Detection of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Urban Divinópolis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Margonari, Carina; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Maia, Kamila Nunes; Éder de Oliveira, Michael; Luisa Fonseca, Amanda; Furtado de Sousa, Fabrizio; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniases are diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms. Many factors may affect their occurrence and expansion including environmental, geographic, and social conditions. In the past two decades, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has exhibited the potential for a disease outbreak, with the appearance of CL, and VL cases (human and canine). Hence, this study was initiated to monitor public knowledge of the disease. Questionnaires were administered in four neighborhoods (Jardim Belvedere, Esplanada, Danilo Passos I and II) where most of the human and canine cases have been reported. The analyses demonstrated that public knowledge of the disease is sparse and fragmented. A strong perception of the dog as the main reservoir was observed. Five veterinary clinics were evaluated for the presence of canine VL using serological (RIFI and ELISA) and molecular (PCR-RFLP) techniques. This is the first study demonstrating the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in Divinópolis, suggesting a possible urbanization of VL. PMID:22991521

  5. Congenital Transmission of Experimental Leishmaniasis in a Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Yaneth; Rodriguez, Luz D.; Bonilla, Diana L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Henao, Hector; Saldarriaga, Omar; Travi, Bruno L.

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on transplacental transmission of Leishmania spp. We determined the frequency and impact of congenital infection caused by Leishmania panamensis or L. donovani in experimentally infected hamsters. A polymerase chain reaction showed that congenital transmission occurred in 25.8% (24 of 93) of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and 14.6% (11 of 75) offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters. Mortality during lactation was higher in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters than controls, and lymphoproliferation to Leishmania was more frequent in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters (17.4%, 11 of 63) than in offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters (8.5%, 3 of 35). After weaning, only offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters had lower weight gain (P < 0.001) and hematocrit levels (P = 0.0045) than controls. Challenge of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters with L. panamensis showed no differences in lesion evolution, and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters were more susceptible to L. donovani challenge than controls. Consequently, prenatal exposure of hamsters to L. donovani significantly increased the mortality risk and susceptibility to secondary homologous infection. PMID:22556079

  6. GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION OF Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND CANINE BIOPSIES WITH AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    FERREIRA, Lasaro Teixeira; GOMES, Aparecida Helena de Souza; PEREIRA-CHIOCCOLA, Vera Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can be caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex. The evolution of ATL initially results in lesions and can develop into disseminated or diffuse forms. The genetic diversity of L. (V.) braziliensis in some endemic areas of Brazil has been poorly studied, such as in the state of São Paulo. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of L. (V.) braziliensis isolates collected from patients and dogs with LTA from the state of São Paulo. Methods: Leishmaniasis diagnosis was determined by PCR. The 132 biopsies were collected in different regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil (36 municipalities). The genetic characterization of L. (V.) braziliensis isolates was tested by RFLP-PCR using DNA extracted from biopsies. The primer set amplified a specific region of Leishmania internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA locus. Results: Of the 132 samples, 52 (40%) were completely genotyped by RFLP-PCR (44 from human patients and eight from dogs). The results showed nine distinct patterns. The majority of the genotyped samples were from Sorocaba (30), and the others were distributed among 14 other municipalities. The first pattern was more frequent (29 samples), followed by pattern 2 (nine samples) and pattern 3 (three samples). Patterns 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were composed of two samples each and pattern 5 of one sample. Conclusion: These results suggest that polymorphic strains of L. (V.) braziliensis circulate in the state of São Paulo. These data agree with studies from other regions of Brazil, showing great variability among the natural populations of endemic foci. PMID:26200968

  7. Clinical forms of canine visceral Leishmaniasis in naturally Leishmania infantum-infected dogs and related myelogram and hemogram changes.

    PubMed

    Nicolato, Roney de Carvalho; de Abreu, Raquel Trópia; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bouillet, Leoneide Erica Maduro; Lemos, Denise Silveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum-infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+), asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive), oligosymptomatic (OD), and symptomatic (SD). Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID). The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia), that contribute to CVL prognosis.

  8. Clinical Forms of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Naturally Leishmania infantum–Infected Dogs and Related Myelogram and Hemogram Changes

    PubMed Central

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bouillet, Leoneide Erica Maduro; Lemos, Denise Silveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum–infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum–infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+), asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive), oligosymptomatic (OD), and symptomatic (SD). Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID). The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia), that contribute to CVL prognosis. PMID:24376612

  9. Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

  10. [Canine visceral leishmaniasis in dog from Caldas Novas, Goiás].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Elisa M R; Linhares, Guido F C; Duarte, Sabrina C; Jayme, Valéria D S; Oliveira, Helton F; Oliveira, Vilma F

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to describe a visceral case of leishmaniasis in a dog from Caldas Novas, GO, region until then considered as a disease free area. The animal, attended in the Veterinarian Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás, presented loss of weight, alopecic area of irregular format at the nasal back, onicogrifosis, atrophy of the heads muscles and failure of the right popliteus lymphonode. For the laboratorial diagnosis, samples were collected by biopsy from the complete skin of the auricular region, by punsion from the popliteus lymphonode for preparation of Giemsa stained blades and 5 mL of the blood were also collected for serum diagnosis. The direct microscopy revealed, from the evaluation of the imprint obtained from the skin fragment and from the squash of the inhaled lymphonode, great amount of amastigoste forms of Leishmania in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Based on the clinical presentation, on the parasitologic and on the serology examination of the samples, we concluded the exams with the diagnosis of calazar disease.

  11. [Canine visceral leishmaniasis in dog from Caldas Novas, Goiás].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Elisa M R; Linhares, Guido F C; Duarte, Sabrina C; Jayme, Valéria D S; Oliveira, Helton F; Oliveira, Vilma F

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to describe a visceral case of leishmaniasis in a dog from Caldas Novas, GO, region until then considered as a disease free area. The animal, attended in the Veterinarian Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás, presented loss of weight, alopecic area of irregular format at the nasal back, onicogrifosis, atrophy of the heads muscles and failure of the right popliteus lymphonode. For the laboratorial diagnosis, samples were collected by biopsy from the complete skin of the auricular region, by punsion from the popliteus lymphonode for preparation of Giemsa stained blades and 5 mL of the blood were also collected for serum diagnosis. The direct microscopy revealed, from the evaluation of the imprint obtained from the skin fragment and from the squash of the inhaled lymphonode, great amount of amastigoste forms of Leishmania in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Based on the clinical presentation, on the parasitologic and on the serology examination of the samples, we concluded the exams with the diagnosis of calazar disease. PMID:20059874

  12. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case

  13. Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and follow up of CanL is difficult since the range of clinical signs is varied and seroprevalence is high in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring. Findings This study included 710 dogs living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis. Forty percent (285/710) exhibited clinical signs consistent with CanL. Infection was detected in 36.3% (258/710) of the dogs of which 4.5% (32/710) were detected by qPCR, 16.2% (115/710) detected by ELISA and 15.6% (111/710) tested positive for both tests. Only 17.9% (127/710) of the dogs were classified sick (affected) with CanL. All symptomatic dogs with medium or high ELISA titers were qPCR-positive in blood samples. All dogs with inconclusive or low ELISA results with high or medium qPCR parasitemia values developed the disease. Seventy one percent of asymptomatic ELISA-positive dogs confirmed by qPCR (medium to high parasitemia) developed the disease. Bone marrow or lymph node aspirate should be selected to ensure the absence of the parasite in asymptomatic dogs: 100-1,000 parasites/ml in bone marrow are detectable in blood, whereas lower parasite loads are usually negative. Almost 10% of negative samples in blood were positive in conjunctival swabs. Conclusions Because qPCR allows parasite quantification, it is an effective tool to confirm a diagnosis of CanL in (i) cases of inconclusive ELISA results, (ii) when the dog has not yet seroconverted, or (iii) for treatment monitoring. PMID:21489253

  14. Sandflies in an urban area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cristaldo, Geucira; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião Costa; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment.

  15. Sandflies in an urban area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cristaldo, Geucira; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião Costa; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment. PMID:27593433

  16. Sandflies in an urban area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cristaldo, Geucira; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião Costa; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment. PMID:27593433

  17. Transmission Dynamics of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Boelaert, Marleen; Matlashewski, Greg; Mondal, Dinesh; Arana, Byron; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Background As Bangladesh, India and Nepal progress towards visceral leishmaniasis (VL) elimination, it is important to understand the role of asymptomatic Leishmania infection (ALI), VL treatment relapse and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in transmission. Methodology/ Principal Finding We reviewed evidence systematically on ALI, relapse and PKDL. We searched multiple databases to include studies on burden, risk factors, biomarkers, natural history, and infectiveness of ALI, PKDL and relapse. After screening 292 papers, 98 were included covering the years 1942 through 2016. ALI, PKDL and relapse studies lacked a reference standard and appropriate biomarker. The prevalence of ALI was 4–17-fold that of VL. The risk of ALI was higher in VL case contacts. Most infections remained asymptomatic or resolved spontaneously. The proportion of ALI that progressed to VL disease within a year was 1.5–23%, and was higher amongst those with high antibody titres. The natural history of PKDL showed variability; 3.8–28.6% had no past history of VL treatment. The infectiveness of PKDL was 32–53%. The risk of VL relapse was higher with HIV co-infection. Modelling studies predicted a range of scenarios. One model predicted VL elimination was unlikely in the long term with early diagnosis. Another model estimated that ALI contributed to 82% of the overall transmission, VL to 10% and PKDL to 8%. Another model predicted that VL cases were the main driver for transmission. Different models predicted VL elimination if the sandfly density was reduced by 67% by killing the sandfly or by 79% by reducing their breeding sites, or with 4–6y of optimal IRS or 10y of sub-optimal IRS and only in low endemic setting. Conclusion/ Significance There is a need for xenodiagnostic and longitudinal studies to understand the potential of ALI and PKDL as reservoirs of infection. PMID:27490264

  18. A multicentric evaluation of the recombinant Leishmania infantum antigen-based immunochromatographic assay for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health challenge in Brazil and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of the causative agent. The culling of animals to control VL in some countries makes the accurate diagnosis of canine VL (CVL) essential. Recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B were selected from a cDNA library of Leishmania infantum amastigotes due to their strong potential as candidates in diagnostic testing for CVL. The present multicentric study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of a prototype test using these antigens (DPP rLci1A/rLci2B) against 154 sera obtained from symptomatic dogs within three endemic areas of VL in Brazil. The specificity was evaluated using 40 serum samples from negative dogs and dogs infected with other pathogens. Sensitivity and specificity rates of DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype were compared to rates from other diagnostic tests currently in use by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, including DPP®LVC, EIE®LVC. Findings DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype offered similar performance to that offered by DPP®LVC rapid test, as follows: sensitivity of 87% (CI 81–91) and 88% (CI 82–93) and specificity of 100% (CI 91–100) and 97% (CI 87–100), respectively for DPP rLci1A/rLci2B and DPP®LVC. When results of these two tests were considered concomitantly, sensitivity increased to 93.5% (CI 89–96). Conclusions The recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B represent promising candidates for use in a multi-antigen rapid test for CVL. The inclusion of novel antigens to the DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype model could offer additionally enhanced sensitivity to detect animals infected by L. infantum. PMID:24684857

  19. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colla-Jacques, Fernanda Elisa; Casanova, Cláudio; Prado, Angelo Pires do

    2010-03-01

    Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  20. Efficacy of Combined Therapy with Liposome-Encapsulated Meglumine Antimoniate and Allopurinol in Treatment of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Sydnei M.; Amorim, Izabela F. G.; Ribeiro, Raul R.; Azevedo, Erly G.; Demicheli, Cynthia; Melo, Maria N.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; Gontijo, Nelder F.; Michalick, Marilene S. M.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate (LMA) was recently reported to promote both long-term parasite suppression and reduction of infectivity to sand flies in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. However, 5 months after treatment, parasites were still found in the bone marrow of all treated dogs. In order to improve treatment with LMA, the present study aimed to evaluate its efficacy in combination with allopurinol. Mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum were treated with six doses of LMA (6.5 mg Sb/kg of body weight/dose) given at 4-day intervals, plus allopurinol (20 mg/kg/24 h per os) for 140 days. Comparison was made with groups treated with LMA, allopurinol, empty liposomes plus allopurinol, empty liposomes, and saline. Dogs remained without treatment from day 140 to 200 after the start of treatment. The drug combination promoted both clinical improvement of dogs and significant reduction in the parasitic load in bone marrow and spleen on days 140 and 200 compared to these parameters in the pretreatment period. This is in contrast with the other protocols, which did not result in significant reduction of the bone marrow parasite load on day 200. Strikingly, the combined treatment, in contrast to the other regimens, induced negative quantitative PCR (qPCR) results in the liver of 100% of the dogs. Both xenodiagnosis and skin parasite determination by qPCR indicated that the drug combination was effective in blocking the transmission of skin parasites to sand flies. Based on all of the parasitological tests performed on day 200, 50% of the animals that received the combined treatment were considered cured. PMID:22411610

  1. A new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein and its non-described specific B cell conformational epitope applied in the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Lage, Daniela P; Martins, Vívian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Costa, Lourena E; Garde, Esther; Dimer, Laura M; Kursancew, Amanda C S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno M; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-04-01

    The serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presents problems related to its sensitivity and/or specificity. In the present study, a new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein, LiHyD, was produced as a recombinant protein (rLiHyD) and evaluated in ELISA experiments for the CVL serodiagnosis. LiHyD was characterized as antigenic in a recent immunoproteomic search performed with Leishmania infantum proteins and the sera of dogs developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Aiming to compare the efficacy between whole proteins and synthetic peptides, two linear and one conformational B cell epitopes of LiHyD were synthesized and also evaluated as diagnostic markers. The four antigens were recognized by the sera of dogs suffering VL. On the contrary, low reactivity was observed when they were assayed with sera from non-infected healthy dogs living in endemic or non-endemic areas of leishmaniasis. In addition, no reactivity was found against them using sera from dogs experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, or Ehrlichia canis, or sera from animals vaccinated with the Leish-Tec® vaccine, a prophylactic preparation commercially available for CVL prevention in Brazil. As comparative diagnostic tools, a recombinant version of the amastigote-specific A2 protein and a soluble crude Leishmania extract were studied. Both antigens presented lower sensitivity and/or specificity values than the LiHyD-based products. The rLiHyD presented better results for the CVL serodiagnosis than its linear epitopes, although the peptide recreating the conformational epitope resulted also appropriate as a diagnostic marker of CVL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the use of a conformational epitope derived from a Leishmania protein for serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:26782811

  2. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özbel, Yusuf; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Kalkan, Şaban Orçun; Töz, Seray

    2016-03-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported from 38 provinces of Turkey and dogs are accepted as main reservoir hosts. Kuşadası town, belonging to Aydın province and located in western part of Turkey, is endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum MON1 and MON98. In this study, phlebotomine survey was conducted to determine the vector sand fly species and to identify sand fly blood meal sources. In August and September 2012, 1027 sand fly specimens were caught using CDC light traps. Eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species with the dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi (61.34%) were detected. A total of 622 female sand flies (571 Phlebotomus; 51 Sergentomyia) were checked for Leishmania infection by direct dissection of the midgut. The half of the midgut content was inoculated into NNN culture for isolation of the parasite. Leishmania species-specific ITS1 real time PCR, conventional PCR assays of ITS1 and hsp70 genes and subsequent sequencing were performed from extracted DNAs. A region of cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of vertebrates based PCR was used to determine the source of blood meal of sand flies. In microscopical examinations, two female specimens (0.32%) were found naturally infected with high number and different stages of promastigotes. No growth was observed in NNN culture but Leishmania DNA was obtained from both specimens. First positive specimen was identified as P. tobbi and L. infantum DNA was detected. Second specimen was Sergentomyia dentata, but Leishmania DNA could not be identified on species level. A total of 16 blood-fed female P. tobbi specimens were used for blood meal analysis and eight, three and one specimens were positive for human, dog and mouse, respectively. This is the first detection of Leishmania promastigotes using microscopical examination in P. tobbi and S. dentata in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in western part of Turkey. Our results indicate that, (i) P. tobbi is

  3. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özbel, Yusuf; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Kalkan, Şaban Orçun; Töz, Seray

    2016-03-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported from 38 provinces of Turkey and dogs are accepted as main reservoir hosts. Kuşadası town, belonging to Aydın province and located in western part of Turkey, is endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum MON1 and MON98. In this study, phlebotomine survey was conducted to determine the vector sand fly species and to identify sand fly blood meal sources. In August and September 2012, 1027 sand fly specimens were caught using CDC light traps. Eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species with the dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi (61.34%) were detected. A total of 622 female sand flies (571 Phlebotomus; 51 Sergentomyia) were checked for Leishmania infection by direct dissection of the midgut. The half of the midgut content was inoculated into NNN culture for isolation of the parasite. Leishmania species-specific ITS1 real time PCR, conventional PCR assays of ITS1 and hsp70 genes and subsequent sequencing were performed from extracted DNAs. A region of cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of vertebrates based PCR was used to determine the source of blood meal of sand flies. In microscopical examinations, two female specimens (0.32%) were found naturally infected with high number and different stages of promastigotes. No growth was observed in NNN culture but Leishmania DNA was obtained from both specimens. First positive specimen was identified as P. tobbi and L. infantum DNA was detected. Second specimen was Sergentomyia dentata, but Leishmania DNA could not be identified on species level. A total of 16 blood-fed female P. tobbi specimens were used for blood meal analysis and eight, three and one specimens were positive for human, dog and mouse, respectively. This is the first detection of Leishmania promastigotes using microscopical examination in P. tobbi and S. dentata in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in western part of Turkey. Our results indicate that, (i) P. tobbi is

  4. Characterization of novel Leishmania infantum recombinant proteins encoded by genes from five families with distinct capacities for serodiagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Magalhães, Franklin B; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Pereira, Andrea M; Pinheiro, Cristiane G M; Santos, Lenita R; Nascimento, Marília B; Bedor, Cheila N G; Albuquerque, Alessandra L; dos-Santos, Washington L C; Gomes, Yara M; Moreira, Edson D; Brito, Maria E F; Pontes de Carvalho, Lain C; de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P

    2011-12-01

    To expand the available panel of recombinant proteins that can be useful for identifying Leishmania-infected dogs and for diagnosing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we selected recombinant antigens from L. infantum, cDNA, and genomic libraries by using pools of serum samples from infected dogs and humans. The selected DNA fragments encoded homologs of a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70, a kinesin, a polyubiquitin, and two novel hypothetical proteins. Histidine-tagged recombinant proteins were produced after subcloning these DNA fragments and evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with panels of canine and human serum samples. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different recombinant proteins had different sensitivities (67.4-93.0% and 36.4-97.2%) and specificities (76.1-100% and 90.4-97.3%) when tested with serum samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and human patients with VL. Overall, no single recombinant antigen was sufficient to serodiagnosis all canine or human VL cases. PMID:22144438

  5. Phlebotomine vector ecology in the domestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C; Trujillo, Jorge E; Rueda, Norma K; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ocampo, Clara B

    2011-11-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction-Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral.

  6. Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2011-01-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

  7. Phlebotomine vector ecology in the domestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C; Trujillo, Jorge E; Rueda, Norma K; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ocampo, Clara B

    2011-11-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction-Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

  8. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George’s University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT. PMID:24381345

  9. Evaluation of change in canine diagnosis protocol adopted by the visceral leishmaniasis control program in Brazil and a new proposal for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Leal, Gleisiane Gomes de Almeida; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Oliveira, Laser Antônio Machado; de Menezes Machado, Evandro Marques; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The techniques used for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil ELISA and IFAT have been extensively questioned because of the accuracy of these tests. A recent change in the diagnosis protocol excluded IFAT and included the Dual-Path Platform (DPP). We evaluated the prevalence and incidence rates of Leishmania spp. before and after the change in the protocol. In addition, based on our results, we propose a new alternative that is less expensive for the screening and confirmation of CVL. Plasma samples were obtained from a serobank from dogs evaluated in a cross-sectional study (1,226 dogs) and in a cohort study of susceptible animals (n = 447), followed for 26 months. Serology testing was performed using ELISA, IFAT, and DPP. The incidence and prevalence of CVL were determined by using the protocol of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program until 2012 (ELISA and IFAT using filter paper) and the protocol used after 2012 (DPP and ELISA using plasma). The prevalence was 6.2% and the incidence was 2.8 per 1,000 dog-months for the protocol used until 2012. For the new diagnosis protocol for CVL resulted in an incidence of 5.4 per 1,000 dog-months and a prevalence of 8.1%. Our results showed that the prevalence and incidence of infection were far greater than suggested by the previously used protocol and that the magnitude of infection in endemic areas has been underestimated. As tests are performed sequentially and euthanasia of dogs is carried out when the serological results are positive in both tests, the sequence does not affect the number of animals to be eliminated by the Control Program. Then we suggest to municipalities with a large demand of exams to use ELISA for screening and DPP for confirmation, since this allows easier performance and reduced cost.

  10. Longitudinal analysis of serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune®.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Mary; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; de Araújo, Maria de Fátima Lereno; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo; Vieira, Rafael F C; Biondo, Alexander W

    2013-11-01

    Development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. Moreover, anti-Leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" ELISA with three serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of CVL in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 18 mongrel dogs were submitted to a complete protocol of the vaccine, monitored and evaluated in 5 times (T0-T4) up to 180 days after T0. Twenty-one days after the first dose (T1), 50% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA and 5.5% by IFAT, while by the official ELISA and DPP(®) CVL rapid test all dogs tested negative. At time T2, 42 days after of the first dose, 100%, 83.3%, 11.1%, and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, IFAT, official ELISA kit and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Ninety days after the first dose (T3), 100%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 33.3% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, IFAT, and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Finally, at time T4, 88.8%, 33.3%, 11.1% and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, DPP(®) CVL rapid test and IFAT, respectively. In conclusion, dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) cross-react by an "in-house" ELISA and by the three official Brazilian serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis up to six months after the first vaccine dose, and may be mistakenly diagnosed and removed.

  11. Evaluation of conjunctival swab sampling in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis: A two-year follow-up study in Çukurova Plain, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Paşa, Serdar; Atasoy, Abidin; Arserim, Suha K; Ölgen, M Kirami; Alkan, M Ziya; Durrant, Caroline; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-12-15

    The diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs is a very important and problematic public health issue in Turkey. A longitudinal study was carried out on dogs in selected villages in the Çukurova Plain in Turkey, from July 2011 to June 2013, where cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis is endemic. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of CanL and to evaluate the early diagnostic performance of the non-invasive conjunctival swab nested PCR (CS n-PCR) test in comparison with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). The consecutive blood and CS samples from a representative number of dogs (80-100 dogs/each survey) were collected in a cohort of 6 villages located in the area. Clinical symptoms, demographic and physical features about each dog were noted and lymph node aspiration samples were obtained from selected dogs with lymphadenopathy. In four surveys during the period, a total of 338 sets (blood and CS) of samples from 206 dogs were obtained, such that 83 dogs were sampled more than once. In the cross-sectional analysis, the CanL prevalence was found to be 27.18% (between 7.14% and 39.13%) by IFAT and 41.74% (between 29.03% and 46.66%) by CS n-PCR. The isolated strains were identified as Leishmania infantum MON-1 (n=9) and MON-98 (n=2) by MLEE analysis. Genetic studies targeting the Hsp70 and ITS1 regions performed on 11 dog isolates also showed two clear separate groups. According to IFAT results, 24 of the 83 dogs sampled more than once showed seroconversion (n=19) or a four-fold increase in Ab titers (n=5), while 17 were positive in the initial screening. Forty-two dogs stayed negative during the whole period. The natural Leishmania exposure rate was detected as 31.14% in the study area. CS n-PCR only detected Leishmania infection earlier than IFAT in 8 dogs. No statistical difference was found after the analysis of demographical and physical data. The results indicated that (i) circulation of the dog

  12. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  13. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  14. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Sand Fly Vectors and Eco-Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; López, Marla; Fuya, Patricia; Lugo, Ligia; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; González, Camila

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania is transmitted by Phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector’s search for blood source. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (CL), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on the rearrangement of new transmission cycles. Our study aimed to update vector species distribution in the country and to analyze the relationship between vectors’ distribution, climate, land use and CL prevalence. Methods A database with geographic information was assembled, and ecological niche modeling was performed to explore the potential distribution of each of the 21 species of medical importance in Colombia, using thirteen bioclimatic variables, three topographic and three principal components derived from NDVI. Binary models for each species were obtained and related to both land use coverage, and a CL prevalence map with available epidemiological data. Finally, maps of species potential distribution were summed to define potential species richness in the country. Results In total, 673 single records were obtained with Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psychodopygus panamensis, Psathyromyia shannoni and Pintomyia evansi the species with the highest number of records. Eighteen species had significant models, considering the area under the curve and the jackknife results: L. gomezi and P. panamensis had the widest potential distribution. All sand fly species except for Nyssomyia antunesi are mainly distributed in regions with rates of prevalence between 0.33 to 101.35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and 76% of collection data points fall into transformed ecosystems. Discussion Distribution ranges of sand flies with medical importance in Colombia correspond

  16. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States. PMID:27759765

  17. TP53 Polymorphisms allow for genetic sub-grouping of the canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Servín, Abel; Córdova-Alarcon, Emilio; Fajardo, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    The canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is found mainly in dogs' sexual organs. Currently, it is widely accepted that all samples of CTVT show similar histopathological characteristics and share common genetic alterations. Despite the common genetic origin of CTVT, mutations in the P53 gene have been reported. In this study, we proposed that tumor samples can be genetically grouped using this gene. The presence of different subgroups of CTVT was determined in Mexican dogs using the TP53 gene sequence in CTVT samples. Four new polymorphisms were found and therefore, the CTVT samples were classified in five subgroups. PMID:19934603

  18. A two years study on vectors of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Evidence for sylvatic transmission cycle in the state of Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rebollar-Téllez, E A; Ramírez-Fraire, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F J

    1996-01-01

    Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche were studied in relation to the transmission cycle of Leishmania (Le.) mexicana. To determine how transmission of leishmaniasis occurs, we collected phlebotomine sand flies for two years. In the first year (October 1990 to November 1991) the collections were made with CDC light traps, Shannon traps and direct captures at natural shelters around the village (< 200 m) of La Libertad. In the second year (February 1993 to January 1994) the catches were performed at 8 km southeast of La Libertad in the forest. Female sand flies were examined for Leishmania. During the first year, 347 sand flies of nine species were collected, most of which were Lutzomyia deleoni (61.3%). When all nine species were considered, more females than males were captured. Low densities of anthropophillic species of sand flies around the village indicated that sylvatic transmission was taking place. For the second year. 1484 sand flies of 16 species were caught. The most common were L. olmeca olmeca (21.7%), L. cruciata (19.2%) and L. ovallesi (14.1%). Similarly, more females were caught than males. Thirty-five females of five species were found infected with flagellates believed to be Leishmania sp. The highest infection rate was found in L. olmeca olmeca (7.1%) followed by L. cruciata (4.5%) and L. ovallesi (1.1%). These data plus other evidence on the epidemiology of human cases and results from reservoir studies are discussed in relation to the sylvatic transmission cycle.

  19. Current knowledge of sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of northwestern Yemen and how it relates to leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    El Sawaf, Bahira M; Kassem, Hala A; Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first entomological survey of the sand fly fauna in northwestern Yemen. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper traps and CDC light traps from Hajjah governorate, a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus due to Leishmania tropica. Six Phlebotomus species: P. alexandri, P. arabicus. P. bergeroti, P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. sergenti and ten Sergentomyia species: S. africana, S. antennata, S. christophersi, S. dolichopa, S. dreyfussi, S. fallax, S. multidens, S. taizi, S. tiberiadis, S. yusafi were identified. P. alexandri was the most predominant Phlebotomus species and P. papatasi was a scarce species. S. fallax was the principal Sergentomyia species and S. dolichopa was the least species encountered. The diversity of the sand fly fauna within and among three altitudinal ranges using Simpson index and Jaccard's diversity coefficient respectively were measured. High species diversity was found in all altitude ranges. There seemed to be more association between sand fly fauna in higher altitudes with fauna from moderate altitudes. Sand fly seasonal activity showed a mono-modal trend in the lowland and a confluent bimodal trend in the highlands. Leishmania DNA could not be detected from 150 Phlebotomus females using PCR-RFLP. A possible zoonotic cutaneous transmission cycle due to Leishmania tropica in northwestern Yemen would involve P. arabicus as the sand fly vector and the rock hyrax as the reservoir host. The vector competence for P. alexandri as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Hajjah governorate is discussed. PMID:27282094

  20. Current knowledge of sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of northwestern Yemen and how it relates to leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    El Sawaf, Bahira M; Kassem, Hala A; Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first entomological survey of the sand fly fauna in northwestern Yemen. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper traps and CDC light traps from Hajjah governorate, a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus due to Leishmania tropica. Six Phlebotomus species: P. alexandri, P. arabicus. P. bergeroti, P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. sergenti and ten Sergentomyia species: S. africana, S. antennata, S. christophersi, S. dolichopa, S. dreyfussi, S. fallax, S. multidens, S. taizi, S. tiberiadis, S. yusafi were identified. P. alexandri was the most predominant Phlebotomus species and P. papatasi was a scarce species. S. fallax was the principal Sergentomyia species and S. dolichopa was the least species encountered. The diversity of the sand fly fauna within and among three altitudinal ranges using Simpson index and Jaccard's diversity coefficient respectively were measured. High species diversity was found in all altitude ranges. There seemed to be more association between sand fly fauna in higher altitudes with fauna from moderate altitudes. Sand fly seasonal activity showed a mono-modal trend in the lowland and a confluent bimodal trend in the highlands. Leishmania DNA could not be detected from 150 Phlebotomus females using PCR-RFLP. A possible zoonotic cutaneous transmission cycle due to Leishmania tropica in northwestern Yemen would involve P. arabicus as the sand fly vector and the rock hyrax as the reservoir host. The vector competence for P. alexandri as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Hajjah governorate is discussed.

  1. Mitochondrial genetic diversity, selection and recombination in a canine transmissible cancer.

    PubMed

    Strakova, Andrea; Ní Leathlobhair, Máire; Wang, Guo-Dong; Yin, Ting-Ting; Airikkala-Otter, Ilona; Allen, Janice L; Allum, Karen M; Bansse-Issa, Leontine; Bisson, Jocelyn L; Castillo Domracheva, Artemio; de Castro, Karina F; Corrigan, Anne M; Cran, Hugh R; Crawford, Jane T; Cutter, Stephen M; Delgadillo Keenan, Laura; Donelan, Edward M; Faramade, Ibikunle A; Flores Reynoso, Erika; Fotopoulou, Eleni; Fruean, Skye N; Gallardo-Arrieta, Fanny; Glebova, Olga; Häfelin Manrique, Rodrigo F; Henriques, Joaquim Jgp; Ignatenko, Natalia; Koenig, Debbie; Lanza-Perea, Marta; Lobetti, Remo; Lopez Quintana, Adriana M; Losfelt, Thibault; Marino, Gabriele; Martincorena, Inigo; Martínez Castañeda, Simón; Martínez-López, Mayra F; Meyer, Michael; Nakanwagi, Berna; De Nardi, Andrigo B; Neunzig, Winifred; Nixon, Sally J; Onsare, Marsden M; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Peleteiro, Maria C; Pye, Ruth J; Reece, John F; Rojas Gutierrez, Jose; Sadia, Haleema; Schmeling, Sheila K; Shamanova, Olga; Ssuna, Richard K; Steenland-Smit, Audrey E; Svitich, Alla; Thoya Ngoka, Ismail; Vițălaru, Bogdan A; de Vos, Anna P; de Vos, Johan P; Walkinton, Oliver; Wedge, David C; Wehrle-Martinez, Alvaro S; van der Wel, Mirjam G; Widdowson, Sophie Ae; Murchison, Elizabeth P

    2016-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a clonally transmissible cancer that originated approximately 11,000 years ago and affects dogs worldwide. Despite the clonal origin of the CTVT nuclear genome, CTVT mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) have been acquired by periodic capture from transient hosts. We sequenced 449 complete mtDNAs from a global population of CTVTs, and show that mtDNA horizontal transfer has occurred at least five times, delineating five tumour clades whose distributions track two millennia of dog global migration. Negative selection has operated to prevent accumulation of deleterious mutations in captured mtDNA, and recombination has caused occasional mtDNA re-assortment. These findings implicate functional mtDNA as a driver of CTVT global metastatic spread, further highlighting the important role of mtDNA in cancer evolution. PMID:27185408

  2. Mitochondrial genetic diversity, selection and recombination in a canine transmissible cancer.

    PubMed

    Strakova, Andrea; Ní Leathlobhair, Máire; Wang, Guo-Dong; Yin, Ting-Ting; Airikkala-Otter, Ilona; Allen, Janice L; Allum, Karen M; Bansse-Issa, Leontine; Bisson, Jocelyn L; Castillo Domracheva, Artemio; de Castro, Karina F; Corrigan, Anne M; Cran, Hugh R; Crawford, Jane T; Cutter, Stephen M; Delgadillo Keenan, Laura; Donelan, Edward M; Faramade, Ibikunle A; Flores Reynoso, Erika; Fotopoulou, Eleni; Fruean, Skye N; Gallardo-Arrieta, Fanny; Glebova, Olga; Häfelin Manrique, Rodrigo F; Henriques, Joaquim Jgp; Ignatenko, Natalia; Koenig, Debbie; Lanza-Perea, Marta; Lobetti, Remo; Lopez Quintana, Adriana M; Losfelt, Thibault; Marino, Gabriele; Martincorena, Inigo; Martínez Castañeda, Simón; Martínez-López, Mayra F; Meyer, Michael; Nakanwagi, Berna; De Nardi, Andrigo B; Neunzig, Winifred; Nixon, Sally J; Onsare, Marsden M; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Peleteiro, Maria C; Pye, Ruth J; Reece, John F; Rojas Gutierrez, Jose; Sadia, Haleema; Schmeling, Sheila K; Shamanova, Olga; Ssuna, Richard K; Steenland-Smit, Audrey E; Svitich, Alla; Thoya Ngoka, Ismail; Vițălaru, Bogdan A; de Vos, Anna P; de Vos, Johan P; Walkinton, Oliver; Wedge, David C; Wehrle-Martinez, Alvaro S; van der Wel, Mirjam G; Widdowson, Sophie Ae; Murchison, Elizabeth P

    2016-05-17

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a clonally transmissible cancer that originated approximately 11,000 years ago and affects dogs worldwide. Despite the clonal origin of the CTVT nuclear genome, CTVT mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) have been acquired by periodic capture from transient hosts. We sequenced 449 complete mtDNAs from a global population of CTVTs, and show that mtDNA horizontal transfer has occurred at least five times, delineating five tumour clades whose distributions track two millennia of dog global migration. Negative selection has operated to prevent accumulation of deleterious mutations in captured mtDNA, and recombination has caused occasional mtDNA re-assortment. These findings implicate functional mtDNA as a driver of CTVT global metastatic spread, further highlighting the important role of mtDNA in cancer evolution.

  3. Mitochondrial genetic diversity, selection and recombination in a canine transmissible cancer

    PubMed Central

    Strakova, Andrea; Ní Leathlobhair, Máire; Wang, Guo-Dong; Yin, Ting-Ting; Airikkala-Otter, Ilona; Allen, Janice L; Allum, Karen M; Bansse-Issa, Leontine; Bisson, Jocelyn L; Castillo Domracheva, Artemio; de Castro, Karina F; Corrigan, Anne M; Cran, Hugh R; Crawford, Jane T; Cutter, Stephen M; Delgadillo Keenan, Laura; Donelan, Edward M; Faramade, Ibikunle A; Flores Reynoso, Erika; Fotopoulou, Eleni; Fruean, Skye N; Gallardo-Arrieta, Fanny; Glebova, Olga; Häfelin Manrique, Rodrigo F; Henriques, Joaquim JGP; Ignatenko, Natalia; Koenig, Debbie; Lanza-Perea, Marta; Lobetti, Remo; Lopez Quintana, Adriana M; Losfelt, Thibault; Marino, Gabriele; Martincorena, Inigo; Martínez Castañeda, Simón; Martínez-López, Mayra F; Meyer, Michael; Nakanwagi, Berna; De Nardi, Andrigo B; Neunzig, Winifred; Nixon, Sally J; Onsare, Marsden M; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Peleteiro, Maria C; Pye, Ruth J; Reece, John F; Rojas Gutierrez, Jose; Sadia, Haleema; Schmeling, Sheila K; Shamanova, Olga; Ssuna, Richard K; Steenland-Smit, Audrey E; Svitich, Alla; Thoya Ngoka, Ismail; Vițălaru, Bogdan A; de Vos, Anna P; de Vos, Johan P; Walkinton, Oliver; Wedge, David C; Wehrle-Martinez, Alvaro S; van der Wel, Mirjam G; Widdowson, Sophie AE; Murchison, Elizabeth P

    2016-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a clonally transmissible cancer that originated approximately 11,000 years ago and affects dogs worldwide. Despite the clonal origin of the CTVT nuclear genome, CTVT mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) have been acquired by periodic capture from transient hosts. We sequenced 449 complete mtDNAs from a global population of CTVTs, and show that mtDNA horizontal transfer has occurred at least five times, delineating five tumour clades whose distributions track two millennia of dog global migration. Negative selection has operated to prevent accumulation of deleterious mutations in captured mtDNA, and recombination has caused occasional mtDNA re-assortment. These findings implicate functional mtDNA as a driver of CTVT global metastatic spread, further highlighting the important role of mtDNA in cancer evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14552.001 PMID:27185408

  4. [Distribution of vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in the Province of Corrientes, 2008].

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar D; Ramos, Ladys K; Quintana, María Gabriela; Acardi, Soraya A; Santini, María Soledad; Schneider, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a relevant parasitic disease in public health, produced by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Since the urbanization and emergence in Southern Brazil and Paraguay, the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis in Formosa, 2004, and the first human visceral leishmaniasis case in Misiones, 2006, have been reported in Argentina. Due to the reports of canine VL, a search of the vector in the Province of Corrientes, contiguous to Misiones, was performed during December 2008. Standarized trapping detected 376 Lu. longipalpis in Ituzaingó, Virasoro, Santo Tomé, Garruchos, Riachuelo, Corrientes and Monte Caseros localities. The risk of autochtonous vectorial transmission was then confirmed in the Province of Corrientes. The distribution of vectors in populated urban areas, with intense transit of canine reservoirs from localities with high transmission, and the existence of infected reservoirs, also implies epidemic risk. PMID:20053601

  5. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J L; Diniega, B M; Small, J W; Miller, R N; Andujar, J M; Weina, P J; Lawyer, P G; Ballou, W R; Lovelace, J K

    1992-07-01

    An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 Puerto Rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the Panama Canal Area in July 1984. An epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in November and December 1984. Fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. Twelve cases yielded positive Leishmania cultures, identified as L. braziliensis panamensis by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Evaluation of different diagnostic techniques revealed that direct examination of tissues by Giemsa-stained histological examination was the most sensitive test (87% sensitivity), with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test being rather insensitive (67%). All but one of the confirmed cases operated in small units that trained and slept overnight at a mortar firing site for a period of three days, yielding a site-specific attack rate of 22% (14 of 64). This contrasted with a much lower attack rate of 0.2% (1 of 476), experienced by unit members who trained at other locations during the same time frame (P less than 0.001). The median incubation period calculated from day of arrival at the mortar firing site was 17 days (range 2-78) for the 15 confirmed cases. Available personal protection methods, such as the use of insect repellents, were not appropriately implemented by unit personnel and thus, were not found to effectively protect against Leishmania infection. This is the largest reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel associated with a single geographic focus of infection and contrasts with the usual sporadic disease experience in Panama. PMID:1636883

  6. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J L; Diniega, B M; Small, J W; Miller, R N; Andujar, J M; Weina, P J; Lawyer, P G; Ballou, W R; Lovelace, J K

    1992-07-01

    An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 Puerto Rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the Panama Canal Area in July 1984. An epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in November and December 1984. Fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. Twelve cases yielded positive Leishmania cultures, identified as L. braziliensis panamensis by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Evaluation of different diagnostic techniques revealed that direct examination of tissues by Giemsa-stained histological examination was the most sensitive test (87% sensitivity), with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test being rather insensitive (67%). All but one of the confirmed cases operated in small units that trained and slept overnight at a mortar firing site for a period of three days, yielding a site-specific attack rate of 22% (14 of 64). This contrasted with a much lower attack rate of 0.2% (1 of 476), experienced by unit members who trained at other locations during the same time frame (P less than 0.001). The median incubation period calculated from day of arrival at the mortar firing site was 17 days (range 2-78) for the 15 confirmed cases. Available personal protection methods, such as the use of insect repellents, were not appropriately implemented by unit personnel and thus, were not found to effectively protect against Leishmania infection. This is the largest reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel associated with a single geographic focus of infection and contrasts with the usual sporadic disease experience in Panama.

  7. Presence of the Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor in the Nasal Cavity of Dogs in the Area of Dakar (Senegal)

    PubMed Central

    Parent, R.; Teuscher, E.; Morin, M.; Buyschaert, A.

    1983-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumors were observed in the nasal passages of three dogs from Dakar, Senegal. Genital tumors were not present in these dogs. These observations, combined with those of few previous reports, stress the necessity to include this neoplasm in the differential diagnosis of nasal tumors in the dog. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422304

  8. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor.

    PubMed

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J; Chapman, Erica S; Trent, Jeffery M; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wayne, Robert K; Karyadi, Danielle M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2015-11-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world.

  9. Comparison against 186 canid whole-genome sequences reveals survival strategies of an ancient clonally transmissible canine tumor

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Brennan; Davis, Brian W.; Rimbault, Maud; Long, Adrienne H.; Karlins, Eric; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Reiman, Rebecca; Parker, Heidi G.; Drögemüller, Cord; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Chapman, Erica S.; Trent, Jeffery M.; Leeb, Tosso; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Wayne, Robert K.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a parasitic cancer clone that has propagated for thousands of years via sexual transfer of malignant cells. Little is understood about the mechanisms that converted an ancient tumor into the world's oldest known continuously propagating somatic cell lineage. We created the largest existing catalog of canine genome-wide variation and compared it against two CTVT genome sequences, thereby separating alleles derived from the founder's genome from somatic mutations that must drive clonal transmissibility. We show that CTVT has undergone continuous adaptation to its transmissible allograft niche, with overlapping mutations at every step of immunosurveillance, particularly self-antigen presentation and apoptosis. We also identified chronologically early somatic mutations in oncogenesis- and immune-related genes that may represent key initiators of clonal transmissibility. Thus, we provide the first insights into the specific genomic aberrations that underlie CTVT's dogged perseverance in canids around the world. PMID:26232412

  10. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

  11. One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J

    2011-10-10

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  12. Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N = 18) and control dogs (N = 45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (κ) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

  13. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. PMID:23369878

  14. The Development and Clinical Evaluation of Second-Generation Leishmaniasis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, Malcolm S.; Raman, Vanitha S.; Piazza, Franco M.; Reed, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. Control of Leishmania parasite transmission is extremely difficult due to the large number of vectors and potential reservoirs, and none of the current treatments are ideal. Vaccination could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates are briefly discussed. The variety of clinical trials conducted using the only current second generation vaccine approved for clinical use, LEISH-F1 + MPL-SE, are described. Given that epidemiological evidence suggests that reducing the canine reservoir also positively impacts human incidence, efforts at providing a vaccine for leishmaniasis in dogs are highlighted. Finally, potential refinements and surrogate markers that could expedite the introduction of a vaccine that can limit the severity and incidence of leishmaniasis are discussed. PMID:22085553

  15. The development and clinical evaluation of second-generation leishmaniasis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Raman, Vanitha S; Piazza, Franco M; Reed, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. Control of Leishmania parasite transmission is extremely difficult due to the large number of vectors and potential reservoirs, and none of the current treatments are ideal. Vaccination could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates are briefly discussed. The variety of clinical trials conducted using the only current second generation vaccine approved for clinical use, LEISH-F1+MPL-SE, are described. Given that epidemiological evidence suggests that reducing the canine reservoir also positively impacts human incidence, efforts at providing a vaccine for leishmaniasis in dogs are highlighted. Finally, potential refinements and surrogate markers that could expedite the introduction of a vaccine that can limit the severity and incidence of leishmaniasis are discussed.

  16. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, and L. (V.) naiffi also infect humans. Transmission occurs predominantly in the forested hinterland of the country. Information regarding the potential vectors of leishmaniasis in Suriname is limited. This study aims to broaden the knowledge about vectors involved in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. For this purpose, sand flies were characterized in various foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the country, the districts of Para, Brokopondo, and Sipaliwini. Methods Sand flies were collected in areas around mining plots and villages using CDC light traps in the period between February 2011 and March 2013. They were categorized by examination of the spermathecea (females) and the external genitalia (males). Results A total of 2,743 sand fly specimens belonging to 34 different species were captured, including four species (Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lu. ayrozai, Lu. damascenoi, and Lu. sordellii) that had never before been described for Suriname. Five percent of the catch comprised Lu. squamiventris sensu lato, one female of which was positive with L. (V.) braziliensis and was captured in a gold mining area in Brokopondo. Other sand fly species found positive for Leishmania parasites were Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis, comprising 32, 8, and 4%, respectively, of the catch. These were captured at gold mining areas in Brokopondo and Sipaliwini, but the Leishmania parasites they had ingested could not be identified due to insufficient amounts of DNA. Conclusions The sand fly fauna in Suriname is highly diverse and comprises Lutzomyia species capable of transmitting Leishmania parasites. Four new Lutzomyia species have been found

  17. Immunologic progression of canine leishmaniosis following vertical transmission in United States dogs.

    PubMed

    Vida, Blake; Toepp, Angela; Schaut, Robert G; Esch, Kevin J; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Shimak, Raeann M; Petersen, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, endemic in U.S. hunting dog populations. CanL has been found in dogs in 28 states and two Canadian provinces. Previous studies by our group, (Boggiatto et al., 2011), demonstrated that vertical transmission of Leishmania was the predominant means of transmission within U.S. dogs. Very little is known regarding how this alternative means of transmission, alters the long-term immunity and clinical presentation of leishmaniosis in dogs born to a positive bitch. This study follows the immunological progression of CanL in three pups after birth to an infected bitch. During the course of the study, these dogs were tested every six months over the course of six years. Both immunologic (IFN-γ, T cell proliferation, antibody production) and parasitological parameters (qPCR) of vertically-infected dogs were measured. Within the six years after birth to an L. infantum-infected, oligosymptomatic bitch, all dogs had at least one L. infantum PCR-positive test. Interestingly, despite living in the same location for their entire lives and being full siblings, these pups demonstrate three different disease progression patterns of L. infantum infection. One dog progressed to oligosymptomatic disease, maintaining a positive titer and had intermittent positive PCR results. One asymptomatic dog had positive serological titers and demonstrated a robust CD4(+) immune response to infection. The third dog had a negligible response to L. infantum antigen and was healthy. This work demonstrates the biologic variability associated with vertically-transmitted infection similar to the variety of presentations observed during vector-borne leishmaniosis.

  18. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Mary M; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Bern, Caryn; Boelaert, Marleen; den Boer, Margriet; Burza, Sakib; Chapman, Lloyd A C; Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Coleman, Michael; Courtenay, Orin; Croft, Simon; Das, Pradeep; Dilger, Erin; Foster, Geraldine; Garlapati, Rajesh; Haines, Lee; Harris, Angela; Hemingway, Janet; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Jervis, Sarah; Medley, Graham; Miles, Michael; Paine, Mark; Picado, Albert; Poché, Richard; Ready, Paul; Rogers, Matthew; Rowland, Mark; Sundar, Shyam; de Vlas, Sake J; Weetman, David

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination strategy consists of rapid case detection, treatment of VL cases and vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, to achieve sustained elimination of VL, an appropriate post elimination surveillance programme should be designed, and crucial knowledge gaps in vector bionomics, human infection and transmission need to be addressed. This review examines the outstanding knowledge gaps, specifically in the context of Bihar State, India.The knowledge gaps in vector bionomics that will be of immediate benefit to current control operations include better estimates of human biting rates and natural infection rates of P. argentipes, with L. donovani, and how these vary spatially, temporally and in response to IRS. The relative importance of indoor and outdoor transmission, and how P. argentipes disperse, are also unknown. With respect to human transmission it is important to use a range of diagnostic tools to distinguish individuals in endemic communities into those who: 1) are to going to progress to clinical VL, 2) are immune/refractory to infection and 3) have had past exposure to sand flies.It is crucial to keep in mind that close to elimination, and post-elimination, VL cases will become infrequent, so it is vital to define what the surveillance programme should target and how it should be designed to prevent resurgence. Therefore, a better understanding of the transmission dynamics of VL, in particular of how rates of infection in humans and sand flies vary as functions of each other, is required to guide VL elimination efforts and ensure sustained elimination in the Indian subcontinent. By collecting contemporary entomological and human data in the same geographical

  19. Inter‐ and intraspecies transmission of canine influenza virus (H3N2) in dogs, cats, and ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyekwon; Song, Daesub; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Yeom, Minjoo; Park, Seongjun; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Park, Bongkyun; Kim, Jeong‐Ki; Kang, Bokyu

    2012-01-01

    Background  The emergence of zoonotic viruses in domestic animals is a significant public health concern. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 is a virus that can infect companion animals and is, therefore, a potential public health concern. Objective  This study investigated the inter‐ and intraspecies transmission of CIV among dogs, cats, and ferrets, under laboratory conditions, to determine whether transmission of the virus was possible between as well as within these domestic animal species. Method  The transmission routes for inter‐ and intraspecies transmission were airborne and direct contact, respectively. Transmission was conducted through intranasal infection of dogs followed by exposure to either cats or ferrets and by comingling infected and naïve animals of the same species. Results  The interspecies transmission of CIV H3N2 via airborne was only observed from dogs to cats and not from dogs to ferrets. However, direct intranasal infection of either cats or ferrets with CIV could induce influenza‐like clinical signs, viral shedding, and serological responses. Additionally, naïve cats and ferrets could be infected by CIV via direct contact with infected animals of the same species. Conclusion  Cats appear to be another susceptible host of CIV H3N2, whereas ferrets are not likely natural hosts. The molecular‐based mechanism of interspecies and intraspecies transmission of CIV H3N2 should be further studied. PMID:22616918

  20. The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious cancer that is naturally transmitted between dogs by the allogeneic transfer of living cancer cells during coitus. CTVT first arose several thousand years ago and has been reported in dog populations worldwide; however, its precise distribution patterns and prevalence remain unclear. Results We analysed historical literature and obtained CTVT prevalence information from 645 veterinarians and animal health workers in 109 countries in order to estimate CTVT’s former and current global distribution and prevalence. This analysis confirmed that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide across all inhabited continents. CTVT is estimated to be present at a prevalence of one percent or more in dogs in at least 13 countries in South and Central America as well as in at least 11 countries in Africa and 8 countries in Asia. In the United States and Australia, CTVT was reported to be endemic only in remote indigenous communities. Comparison of current and historical reports of CTVT indicated that its prevalence has declined in Northern Europe, possibly due to changes in dog control laws during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analysis of factors influencing CTVT prevalence showed that presence of free-roaming dogs was associated with increased CTVT prevalence, while dog spaying and neutering were associated with reduced CTVT prevalence. Our analysis indicated no gender bias for CTVT and we found no evidence that animals with CTVT frequently harbour concurrent infectious diseases. Vincristine was widely reported to be the most effective therapy for CTVT. Conclusions Our results provide a survey of the current global distribution of CTVT, confirming that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide. Additionally, our analysis highlights factors that continue to modify CTVT’s prevalence around the world and implicates free-roaming dogs as a reservoir for the disease. Our analysis

  1. Multiple reassortment and interspecies transmission events contribute to the diversity of feline, canine and feline/canine-like human group A rotavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Matthijnssens, Jelle; De Grazia, Simona; Piessens, Jan; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Giammanco, Giovanni M; Bányai, Krisztián; Buonavoglia, Canio; Ciarlet, Max; Martella, Vito; Van Ranst, Marc

    2011-08-01

    RNA-RNA hybridization assays and complete genome sequence analyses have shown that feline rotavirus (FRV) and canine rotavirus (CRV) strains display at least two distinct genotype constellations (genogroups), represented by the FRV strain RVA/Cat-tc/AUS/Cat97/1984/G3P[3] and the human rotavirus (HRV) strain RVA/Human-tc/JPN/AU-1/1982/G3P3[9], respectively. G3P[3] and G3P[9] strains have been detected sporadically in humans. The complete genomes of two CRV strains (RVA/Dog-tc/ITA/RV198-95/1995/G3P[3] and RVA/Dog-tc/ITA/RV52-96/1996/G3P[3]) and an unusual HRV strain (RVA/Human-tc/ITA/PA260-97/1997/G3P[3]) were determined to further elucidate the complex relationships among FRV, CRV and HRV strains. The CRV strains RV198-95 and RV52-96 were shown to possess a Cat97-like genotype constellation. However, 3 and 5 genes of RV198-95 and RV52-96, respectively, were found in distinct subclusters of the same genotypes, suggesting the occurrence of reassortment events among strains belonging to this FRV/CRV/HRV genogroup. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the HRV strain PA260-97 showed that (i) 8 genome segments (VP3, VP4, VP6, VP7 and NSP2-5) clustered closely with RV198-95 and/or RV52-96; (ii) 2 genome segments (VP1 and VP2) were more closely related to HRV AU-1; and (iii) 1 genome segment (NSP1) was distantly related to any other established NSP1 genotypes and was ratified as a new NSP1 genotype, A15. These findings suggest that the human strain PA260-97 has a history of zoonotic transmission and is likely a reassortant among FRV/CRV strains from the Cat97 and AU-1-like genogroups. In addition, a potential third BA222-05-like genogroup of FRV and HRV strains should be recognized, consisting of rotavirus strains with a stable genetic genotype constellation of genes also partially related to bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine-like rotaviruses. The detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that three major genotype constellations exist among FRV, CRV and feline/canine-like HRV

  2. Canine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. TRANSMISSION OF SEROLOGIC ABNORMALITIES BY CELL-FREE FILTRATES

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robert M.; Andre-Schwartz, Janine; Harbis, Gerald S.; Hirsch, Martin S.; Black, Paul H.; Schwartz, Robert S.

    1973-01-01

    The presence of viruses was sought in a colony of dogs bred from parents with systemic lupus crythematosus (SLE). Cell-free filtrates prepared from the spleens of these animals were injected into newborn dogs, mice, and rats. The canine recipients developed antinuclear antibody (ANA) and positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell tests: ANA and, in some cases, antinative DNA antibodies were produced by the murine recipients: no abnormalities were detected in the rats. Serial passage of spleen cells or cell-free filtrates of spleen tissue in syngeneic mice reduced the time required for appearance of ANA from 9 to 4 mo. Some murine recipients of the canine filtrate developed malignant lymphomas. Murine leukemia viruses were identified in these tumors by electron microscopic, virologic, and serologic technics. These neoplasms, but not other tumors known to contain murine leukemia viruses, were associated with the production of ANA. Puppies inoculated with the canine filtrate-induced mouse lymphoma developed ANA and positive LE cell tests within 4 mo. The results were interpreted to indicate the presence in canine SLE of a virus capable of: (a) inducing the serologic abnormalities of SLE in normal dogs and mice: (b) activating latent murine leukemia viruses: and (c) spreading by both horizonal and vertical routes. Images PMID:4124208

  3. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida; Förster, Christine; Aue, Angelika; Wittstatt, Ulrich; Wibbelt, Gudrun; König, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 74 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from four raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the "Europe" lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe.

  4. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  5. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... leishmaniasis. (Credit: B. Arana, MERTU, Guatemala) Marked splenomegaly (enlargement/swelling of the spleen) in a patient in ... bite. Affected people usually have fever, weight loss, enlargement (swelling) of the spleen and liver, and low ...

  6. Epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Regina-Silva, Shara; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Silva, Maiara Alves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; da Costa, Ailton Junior Antunes; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-08-01

    About 97% of the human cases of the American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in Brazil. In the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control VL spreading. Our two-year study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, the sixth most populous city in Brazil, which is endemic for VL. We focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and submitted to minor surveillance and control actions. Our aim was to draw an epidemiological profile of the local situation concerning Lutzomyia vector, Leishmania parasites, and the main domestic reservoirs (dogs). Lutzomyia longipalpis comprised 96.5% of the total phlebotomine sand flies captured and displayed an expressive minimal infection rate by Leishmania infantum (16.7%). Positive correlations were found between the population densities of L. longipalpis, rainfall and temperature. L. infantum was also detected in the cortelezzii complex and, for the first time, in Lutzomyia lloydi. Leishmania braziliensis, an etiological agent of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, was also identified in L. longipalpis. Among the 1408 dogs serologically tested by standard enzyme-linked and fluorescence immune assays (ELISA/IFA) 3.6% were positive for VL. L. infantum DNA and Leishmania parasites were identified in 100% and 72.5% of the seropositive dogs, respectively. The co-positivity of other diagnostic tests for VL-Leishmania-nested PCR, imprint and myeloculture-was compared to the standard serology. Both symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs displayed an equal average number of positive diagnostic tests for VL. The districts studied display favorable conditions for the rapid spreading of human infection, in terms of L. longipalpis population density, and presence of L. infantum in both vector and main reservoir.

  7. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Pacheco, Luciano Vasconcellos; Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results.

  8. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results. PMID:26731098

  9. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P.; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n = 670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n = 50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5–9, 15–24 and 25–59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

  10. Knowledge of the Population about Visceral Leishmaniasis Transmission in Endemic Areas near the Banks of the Mossoró River in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Amorim, Camila Fernandes; Santos Albano Amóra, Sthenia; Aparecida Kazimoto, Thaís; de Lima Costa, Kalídia Felipe; Fernandes Silva, Luanna; de Sousa, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo; Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Yannara; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Carneiro Feijó, Francisco Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the population’s knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p < 0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p < 0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p < 0.05). The association between education and knowledge about the transmission of VL and preferred vector locations was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lack of knowledge in the population about VL and the residential environment indicates a risk of maintaining sand fly habitats and hence disease transmission. PMID:25809514

  11. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Tabue N.; Roland, Madgan E.; Françoise, Kenfack M. M.; Francis, Zeukeng; Livo, Esemu F.; Clovis, Seumen T. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (χ 2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05). Conclusion Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district. PMID:25595689

  12. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.

  13. Evaluation of Immunofluorescence Antibody Test Used for the Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean Basin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Adel, Amel; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bianchini, Juana; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    With an expected sensitivity (Se) of 96% and specificity (Sp) of 98%, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) is frequently used as a reference test to validate new diagnostic methods and estimate the canine leihmaniasis (CanL) true prevalence in the Mediterranean basin. To review the diagnostic accuracy of IFAT to diagnose CanL in this area with reference to its Se and Sp and elucidate the potential causes of their variations, a systematic review was conducted (31 studies for the 26-year period). Three IFAT validation methods stood out: the classical contingency table method, methods based on statistical models and those based on experimental studies. A variation in the IFAT Se and Sp values and cut-off values was observed. For the classical validation method based on a meta-analysis, the Se of IFAT was estimated in this area as 89.86% and 31.25% in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs, respectively. The Sp of IFAT was estimated in non-endemic and endemic areas as 98.12% and 96.57%, respectively. IFAT can be considered as a good standard test in non-endemic areas for CanL, but its accuracy declines in endemic areas due to the complexity of the disease. Indeed, the accuracy of IFAT is due to the negative results obtained in non-infected dogs from non-endemic areas and to the positive results obtained in sera of symptomatic dogs living in endemic areas. But IFAT results are not unequivocal when it comes to determining CanL infection on asymptomatic dogs living in endemic areas. Statistical methods might be a solution to overcome the lack of gold standard, to better categorize groups of animals investigated, to assess optimal cut-off values and to allow a better estimate of the true prevalence aiming information on preventive/control measures for CanL. PMID:27537405

  14. Evaluation of Immunofluorescence Antibody Test Used for the Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean Basin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bianchini, Juana; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    With an expected sensitivity (Se) of 96% and specificity (Sp) of 98%, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) is frequently used as a reference test to validate new diagnostic methods and estimate the canine leihmaniasis (CanL) true prevalence in the Mediterranean basin. To review the diagnostic accuracy of IFAT to diagnose CanL in this area with reference to its Se and Sp and elucidate the potential causes of their variations, a systematic review was conducted (31 studies for the 26-year period). Three IFAT validation methods stood out: the classical contingency table method, methods based on statistical models and those based on experimental studies. A variation in the IFAT Se and Sp values and cut-off values was observed. For the classical validation method based on a meta-analysis, the Se of IFAT was estimated in this area as 89.86% and 31.25% in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs, respectively. The Sp of IFAT was estimated in non-endemic and endemic areas as 98.12% and 96.57%, respectively. IFAT can be considered as a good standard test in non-endemic areas for CanL, but its accuracy declines in endemic areas due to the complexity of the disease. Indeed, the accuracy of IFAT is due to the negative results obtained in non-infected dogs from non-endemic areas and to the positive results obtained in sera of symptomatic dogs living in endemic areas. But IFAT results are not unequivocal when it comes to determining CanL infection on asymptomatic dogs living in endemic areas. Statistical methods might be a solution to overcome the lack of gold standard, to better categorize groups of animals investigated, to assess optimal cut-off values and to allow a better estimate of the true prevalence aiming information on preventive/control measures for CanL. PMID:27537405

  15. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  16. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002–2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the “Floresta Nacional do Tapajós”, Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B45 medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. PMID:27235194

  17. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002-2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the "Floresta Nacional do Tapajós", Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B(45) medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi.

  18. Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) and urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Oliveira, Orcy; de Oliveira, Gilliard Rezende; Espindola, Italo Alexander Cabello; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2006-12-01

    The outspread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, lead us to undertake the present study over diversity and abundance of sand flies in the urban area to compare with previous search carried out during 1999/2000, before the identification of the disease in the human population. The captures were carried out with automatic light traps, weekly, from February 2004 to February 2005 on three sites including a forested area (Zé Pereira), two peridomicilies (shelters of domestic animals and cultivation areas), and intradomicilie. In the present study 110 collections were obtained during 13 months for 1320 h of collections, resulting in 5004 specimens, 3649 males and 1355 females belonging to the 20 following species: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia sp., Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia lenti, E. termitophila, E. cortelezzii, E. borrouli, Lutzomyia sp., L. longipalpis, Micropygomyia quinquefer, N. antunesi, N. whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Pi. damascenoi, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Ps. campograndensis, Ps. hermanlenti, Ps. shannoni, Pychodopygus claustrei, and Sciopemyia sordellii. L. longipalpis was the most abundant species in the anthropic environment with 92.22% of the captures. This shows an increase of sixty times in the density of L. longipalpis compared to the last sand fly evaluation in 1999/2000. The high density of L. longipalpis in Campo Grande is the main factor of risk in transmission of the disease to human in the urban area. The capture of N. antunesi, typical specie from Amazonian region, in Mato Grosso do Sul is reported for the first time.

  19. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  20. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future. PMID:25858230

  1. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Antimicrobial Peptides against Naturally Acquired Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Alberola, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Francino, O.; Roura, X.; Rivas, L.; Andreu, D.

    2004-01-01

    Leishmaniases, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and dogs, are extremely difficult to treat. Antimicrobial peptides are rarely used as alternative treatments for naturally acquired parasitic diseases. Here we report that the acylated synthetic antimicrobial peptide Oct-CA(1-7)M(2-9) is safe and effective for treating naturally acquired canine leishmaniasis. PMID:14742227

  3. A randomised, double-blind, controlled efficacy trial of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine in naïve dogs exposed to two leishmania infantum transmission seasons.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Gaetano; Nieto, Javier; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Cappiello, Silvia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Moreno, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Carrillo, Eugenia; Butaud, Therese; Guegand, Laurie; Martin, Virginie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cañavate, Carmen; Gradoni, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with Leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. Effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. In this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish, Virbac, France) was assessed by exposing 90 naïve dogs to natural L. infantum infection during 2 consecutive transmission seasons, in two highly endemic areas of the Mediterranean basin. Regular PCR, culture, serological and clinical examinations were performed, and the infection/disease status of the dogs was classified at each examination. The vaccine was well-tolerated, and provided a significant reduction in the risk of progressing to uncontrolled active infection (p = 0.025) or symptomatic disease (p = 0.046), with an efficacy of 68.4% and a protection rate of 92.7%. The probability of becoming PCR positive was similar between groups, but the probability of returning to a PCR negative condition was higher in the vaccinated group (p = 0.04). In conclusion, we confirmed the interest of using this vaccine as part of a comprehensive control program for canine leishmaniasis, and validated the use of a protocol based on regular in-depth assessments over time to assess the efficacy of a canine leishmaniasis vaccine.

  4. The transmission of canine ehrlichiosis to the Wild Dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and Black-backed Jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J

    1979-12-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to three Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus and three Black-backed Jackals Canis mesomelas. Wild Dogs showed symptoms of anorexia and depression as well as anaemia, leucopaenia and mild thrombocytopaenia. Black-backed Jackals were asymptomatic. Morulae of Ehrlichicia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from Black-backed Jackal to the domestic dog.

  5. The transmission of canine ehrlichiosis to the Wild Dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and Black-backed Jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J

    1979-12-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to three Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus and three Black-backed Jackals Canis mesomelas. Wild Dogs showed symptoms of anorexia and depression as well as anaemia, leucopaenia and mild thrombocytopaenia. Black-backed Jackals were asymptomatic. Morulae of Ehrlichicia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from Black-backed Jackal to the domestic dog. PMID:553960

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Duarte, Geraldo; El-Beitune, Patrícia; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Maia, Tamara Lemos

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to close the gap in the approach to pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) by providing up-to-date information to obstetricians about physiopathology, epidemiology, vertical transmission, drugs and treatment during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Infection with Leishmania chagasi during pregnancy is rare and deserves special attention since little information is available regarding the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis during gestational period and the real possibility of vertical transmission of this disease. Because specific areas in the world are endemic for the disease and considering the continuous growth of the population, cases of pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis are becoming more frequent. Unfortunately, textbooks on infectious diseases do not include this specific group of patients, and studies in the literature on aspects related to pregnancy and visceral leishmaniasis are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is possible and the institution of treatment is imperative in cases of pregnant women with kala-azar. Amphotericin B is strongly recommended as the first choice drug due to its fewer maternal-fetal adverse effects. PMID:15460194

  7. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  8. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of health information. Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. ...

  9. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Piao, Daqing

    2009-05-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography was performed concurrently with, albeit reconstructed without spatial a prior of, trans-rectal ultrasound (US) on transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) developed as a model in the canine pelvic canal. Studies were taken longitudinally at prior to, 14 days after, and 35 days after the TVT injection. As the tumor grew, the nodules became increasingly hyperabsorptive and moderately hyperscattering on NIR. The regions of strong NIR contrast, especially on absorption images, correlated well with those of US hypoechoic masses indicative of tumors. Combining the information of trans-rectal NIR and US detected the tumor more accurately than did the US alone at 14 days postinjection.

  10. Long-term spinal cord stimulation modifies canine intrinsic cardiac neuronal properties and ganglionic transmission during high-frequency repetitive activation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank M; Vermeulen, Michel; Cardinal, René

    2016-07-01

    Long-term spinal cord stimulation (SCS) applied to cranial thoracic SC segments exerts antiarrhythmic and cardioprotective actions in the canine heart in situ. We hypothesized that remodeling of intrinsic cardiac neuronal and synaptic properties occur in canines subjected to long-term SCS, specifically that synaptic efficacy may be preferentially facilitated at high presynaptic nerve stimulation frequencies. Animals subjected to continuous SCS for 5-8 weeks (long-term SCS: n = 17) or for 1 h (acute SCS: n = 4) were compared with corresponding control animals (long-term: n = 15, acute: n = 4). At termination, animals were anesthetized, the heart was excised and neurones from the right atrial ganglionated plexus were identified and studied in vitro using standard intracellular microelectrode technique. Main findings were as follows: (1) a significant reduction in whole cell membrane input resistance and acceleration of the course of AHP decay identified among phasic neurones from long-term SCS compared with controls, (2) significantly more robust synaptic transmission to rundown in long-term SCS during high-frequency (10-40 Hz) presynaptic nerve stimulation while recording from either phasic or accommodating postsynaptic neurones; this was associated with significantly greater posttrain excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) numbers in long-term SCS than control, and (3) synaptic efficacy was significantly decreased by atropine in both groups. Such changes did not occur in acute SCS In conclusion, modification of intrinsic cardiac neuronal properties and facilitation of synaptic transmission at high stimulation frequency in long-term SCS could improve physiologically modulated vagal inputs to the heart. PMID:27401459

  11. Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum in Salta, Argentina: Possible Reservoirs and Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Paola A.; Marco, Jorge D.; Locatelli, Fabricio M.; Cardozo, Rubén M.; Hoyos, Carlos L.; Mora, María C.; García Bustos, María F.; López-Quiroga, Inés; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gentile, Alberto G.; Barrio, Alejandra B.; Korenaga, Masataka; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisha; Basombrío, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) were not recorded until recently in the Chaco region of northwestern Argentina. Dogs were surveyed at the sites of infection of two HVL index cases in the Chaco region of Salta province. Canine cases (CanL) were diagnosed by two parasitological methods, two molecular methods targeting mini- and maxicircle DNA, and immunochromatographic dipstick. Among 77 dogs studied, 10 (13%) were found infected with Leishmania spp. In seven dogs and two humans, the infecting species was typed as Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. The same genotype was detected in the human and two of the CanL. Although several diagnostic methods displayed weak or moderate agreement, the concordance values for serology versus maxicircle PCR were very good (Kappa index = 0.84). Sandflies captured in the area were identified as Lutzomyia migonei and Lu. cortelezzii/Lu. sallesi (cortelezzii complex). The focal appearance of leishmaniasis in dogs and humans in a sylvatic region and its relatively low prevalence of infection suggests that L. (L.) infantum transmission to dogs and humans may, in this region, stem from sylvatic reservoirs. PMID:26055744

  12. Whole genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses reveal human rotavirus G3P[3] strains Ro1845 and HCR3A are examples of direct virion transmission of canine/feline rotaviruses to humans.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Takeshi; Hoshino, Yasutaka

    2008-10-25

    Rotaviruses, the major causative agents of infantile diarrhea worldwide, are, in general, highly species-specific. Interspecies virus transmission is thought to be one of the important contributors involved in the evolution and diversity of rotaviruses in nature. Human rotavirus (HRV) G3P[3] strains Ro1845 and HCR3A have been reported to be closely related genetically to certain canine and feline rotaviruses (RVs). Whole genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses of each of these 2 HRVs as well as 3 canine RVs (CU-1, K9 and A79-10, each with G3P[3] specificity) and 2 feline RVs (Cat97 with G3P[3] specificity and Cat2 with G3P[9] specificity) revealed that (i) each of 11 genes of the Ro1845 and HCR3A was of canine/feline origin; (ii) canine and feline rotaviruses with G3P[3] specificity bore highly conserved species-specific genomes; and (iii) the Cat2 strain may have evolved via multiple reassortment events involving canine, feline, human and bovine rotaviruses. PMID:18789808

  13. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region.

  14. Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.

    PubMed

    Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:21854702

  15. Laryngeal leishmaniasis in Malta.

    PubMed

    Fsadni, C; Fsadni, P; Piscopo, T; Mallia Azzopardi, C

    2007-02-01

    The localization of Leishmania spp. in the larynx is rare especially when not associated with immunosuppression or with visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis, the first of its kind documented in Malta and infrequently reported from the Mediterranean basin.

  16. Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected by Leishmania (L.) chagasi in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Missawa, Nanci A; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Santos Dias, Edelberto

    2010-12-01

    The American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania (Trypanosomatidae) and is transmitted to humans through the bite of certain species of infected phlebotomine sand flies. In this study, we investigated the natural infection ratio of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector species of AVL in Brazil, in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State. Between July 2004 and June 2006, phlebotomine sand flies were captured in peridomestic areas using CDC light-traps. Four hundred and twenty (420) specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured. 42 pools, containing 10 specimens of Lu. longipalpis each, were used for genomic DNA extraction and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected in three out of the 42 pools tested, resulting in a minimal infection ratio of 0.71%. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis indicated that Leishmania (L.) chagasi was the infective agent in the positive pools.

  17. The sand fly fauna (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Pontes, Michelle C de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Rodrigues, Andressa A Fuzari; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

    2011-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, is sporadic in many rural and suburban areas of Rio de Janeiro State. An investigation was carried out during 2008/9 in the Municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in order to identify the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. More than 2,100 sand flies were collected in peridomestic areas in two chicken coops using CDC light traps. Nine species of phlebotomine sand flies were identified: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia (P.) pessoai, Pintomyia (P.) fischeri, Pintomyia (P.) bianchigalatiae, Migonemyia (M.) migonei, Lutzomyia (L.) longipalpis, Brumptomyia cunhai and Brumptomyia guimaraesi. Based on the results of this study together with related studies in other CL foci in Rio de Janeiro, both Nissomyia intermedia and Migonemyia migonei can be considered suspect vectors of the disease in the region. The potential risk of VL due to the presence of its proven vector L. longipalpis is discussed.

  18. Entomological studies of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in relation to cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Al Rabta, North West of Libya.

    PubMed

    Dokhan, Mostafa Ramahdan; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin; Doha, Said Abdallah; El-Hosary, Shabaan Said; Shaibi, Taher; Annajar, Badereddin Bashir

    2016-02-01

    Al Rabta in the North-West of Libya is a rural area where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic for long time. Few reports are available on sand flies in this area which is an important focus of CL. Therefore, this study aimed at updating the species composition, and monthly fluctuation of sand flies in this area. Sand flies were biweekly collected by CDC light traps from June to November 2012 and April to November 2013 in two villages, Al Rabta East (RE) and Al Rabta West (RW). Nine species (6 Phlebotomus and 3 Sergentomyia) were reported in the two villages. A total of 5605 and 5446 flies were collected of which Phlebotomus represented 59.30 and 56.63% in RE and RW, respectively. Sergentomyia minuta and Phlebotomus papatasi were the abundant species. Generally, more males were collected than females for all species. The overall ratios (males: females) for most of species were not deviated from the expected 1:1 ratio (Chi-squared, P>0.05). Sand fly abundance (fly/trap) is directly related to the temperature and RH (P<0. 01) while it inversely related to wind velocity (P>0.05). Flies were active from April to November with increased activity from June to October. Prominent peaks were in September and June. The abundance of P. papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti, vectors of CL (August-October) coincided with the reported higher numbers of CL cases (August- November). The obtained results could be important for the successful planning and implementation of leishmaniasis control programs.

  19. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  20. Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

    2013-11-01

    In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities.

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in border areas: clustered distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in Clorinda, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar D; Quintana, María G; Bruno, Mario R; Quiriconi, Ricardo V; Cabral, Viviana

    2009-08-01

    Three years after the first report of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Clorinda, Argentina, a border city near Asunción, Paraguay, the city was surveyed again. Lu. longipalpis was found clustered in the same neighbourhoods in 2007 as in 2004, even though the scattered distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis was more related to the traffic of dogs through the border.

  2. [Penile sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, A; Boudaya, S; Bouzid, L; Frigui, F; Meziou, T J; Akrout, F; Turki, H; Zahaf, A

    2005-12-01

    The localisation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis of L. major at the penis level is rare, we report here a new observation. Mr K. R aged of 41, without known pathological background presented for 20 days a nodular lesion of the anterior face of the neck, 2 juxtaposed ulcerated nodular lesions of the left wrist. He presented also subcutaneous nodules ranged linearly and extended to the root of the penis. Theses lesions were covered by an erythematous or ulcerated skin. The smear made from the genital lesions of the penis confirmed the diagnosis of a cutaneous leishmaniasis. The evolution was favourable after a 21 days treatment by doxycyclin after an interval of one week. Our observation was specific by the localisation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis and by the clinical form. This shows that in our region cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterised by different clinical symptoms. PMID:16425718

  3. Drug Resistance in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The treatment options of leishmaniasis are limited and far from satisfactory. For more than 60 years, treatment of leishmaniasis has centered around pentavalent antimonials (Sbv). Widespread misuse has led to the emergence of Sbv resistance in the hyperendemic areas of North Bihar. Other antileishmanials could also face the same fate, especially in the anthroponotic cycle. The HIV/ visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfected patients are another potential source for the emergence of drug resistance. At present no molecular markers of resistance are available and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of isolates is the technically demanding in vitro amastigote-macrophage model. As the armametrium of drugs for leishmaniasis is limited, it is important that effective monitoring of drug use and response should be done to prevent the spread of resistance. Regimens of simultaneous or sequential combinations should be seriously considered to limit the emergence of resistance. PMID:20606973

  4. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1–3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  5. Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    González, Urbà; Pinart, Mariona; Sinclair, David; Firooz, Alireza; Enk, Claes; Vélez, Ivan D; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Tristan, Mario; Alvar, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals. Objectives To assess the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions for cutaneous and for visceral leishmaniasis. Search methods We searched the following databases to 13 January 2015: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WHOLIS, Web of Science, and RePORTER. We also searched trials registers for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions in leishmaniasis-endemic regions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently searched for trials and extracted data from included RCTs. We resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 14 RCTs that evaluated a range of interventions across different settings. The study methods were generally poorly described, and consequently all included trials were judged to be at high or unclear risk of selection and reporting bias. Only seven trials reported clinical outcome data which limits our ability to make broad generalizations to different epidemiological settings and cultures. Cutaneous leishmaniasis One four-arm RCT from Afghanistan compared indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and insecticide-treated bedsheets, with no intervention. Over 15 months follow-up, all three insecticide-based interventions had a lower incidence of CL than the control area (IRS: risk

  6. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for noninvasive zoonotic transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a canine pet to a human.

    PubMed

    Tanner, M A; Everett, C L; Youvan, D C

    2000-04-01

    rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic techniques were used to identify the bacterial species present in the ear fluid from a female patient with otitis externa. We report the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius from the patient and a possible route of transmission. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the dominant species present was S. intermedius. A pet dog owned by the patient also was tested and found to harbor S. intermedius. In humans, the disease is rare and considered a zoonosis. Previously, S. intermedius has been associated with dog bite wounds, catheter-related injuries, and surgery. This study represents the first reported case of a noninvasive infection with S. intermedius.

  7. Vincristine modulates the expression of Ki67 and apoptosis in naturally occurring canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    PubMed

    Özalp, G R; Zik, B; Bastan, A; Peker, S; Özdemir-Salci, E S; Bastan, I; Darbaz, I; Salar, S; Karakas, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated eight adult dogs that were brought to veterinary clinics with a history of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT). Our goal was to demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis and the cessation of cell proliferation at every phase of scheduled chemotherapy for naturally occurring TVT. Tissue samples were collected immediately after weekly treatments with vincristine sulfate and processed for histological purposes. Sections 5 μm thick were stained by the TUNEL reaction for apoptosis and immunostained for Ki67 as a proliferation marker. We observed that after vincristine applications, tumor cell proliferation ceased and apoptosis increased. Ki67 HSCORE values were significantly lowered after the first and second treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent compared to controls, whereas TUNEL HSCORE values were significantly higher after two applications of vincristine compared to controls. Our results suggest that scheduled vincristine sulfate applications stabilize the induction of tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and preventing cell proliferation.

  8. Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil1

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luiz H.; Machado, Paulo R.L.; Lessa, Marcus; Lessa, Hélio A.; Lago, Ednaldo; Ritt, Guilherme; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Schriefer, Ana L.F.; Riley, Lee W.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether disease outcomes and clades of Leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999–2003 in Corte de Pedra in northeastern Brazil. Highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishmaniasis versus disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) (p<0.0001). Concordance was observed between distribution of these disease forms and clades of L. braziliensis genotypes shown to be associated with these disease forms. We also detected spread of DL over this region and an inverse correlation between frequency of recent DL diagnoses and distance to a previous DL case. These findings indicate that leishmaniasis outcomes are distributed differently within transmission foci and show that DL is rapidly spreading in northeastern Brazil. PMID:19523284

  9. Canine papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Lange, Christian E; Favrot, Claude

    2011-11-01

    Papillomaviruses can infect epithelia and induce proliferative disorders. Different types of canine papillomaviruses have been found to be associated with distinct pathologies including exophytic warts as in canine oral papillomatosis, endophytic warts, and pigmented plaques and, in some cases, squamous cell carcinomas. Virus infection is followed by a phase of subclinical infection before the onset of symptoms. A diagnosis can in some cases be made clinically but should be verified if there are any doubts. Most papillomas do regress spontaneously within a few months. Preventative vaccination is possible but not on the market.

  10. Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Engwerda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor. PMID:25505961

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Imported Cases of Leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  12. Canine Parvovirus

    MedlinePlus

    Finally, do not let your puppy or adult dog to come into contact with the fecal waste of other dogs while walking or playing outdoors. Prompt and proper ... advisable as a way to limit spread of canine parvovirus infection as well as other diseases that ...

  13. Leishmaniasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Harms, Gundel; Schönian, Gabriele; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2003-07-01

    In 2000, a reference center was created to systematically record leishmaniases in Germany. We analyzed 58 cases of leishmaniases imported during a 2-year period. These findings will serve as a baseline for the sandfly vector's anticipated northward move because of global warming and as an advisory for immunocompromised persons traveling to leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  14. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Efficacy Trial of the LiESP/QA-21 Vaccine in Naïve Dogs Exposed to Two Leishmania infantum Transmission Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Gaetano; Nieto, Javier; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Cappiello, Silvia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Moreno, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Carrillo, Eugenia; Butaud, Therese; Guegand, Laurie; Martin, Virginie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cañavate, Carmen; Gradoni, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with Leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. Effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. In this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish, Virbac, France) was assessed by exposing 90 naïve dogs to natural L. infantum infection during 2 consecutive transmission seasons, in two highly endemic areas of the Mediterranean basin. Regular PCR, culture, serological and clinical examinations were performed, and the infection/disease status of the dogs was classified at each examination. The vaccine was well-tolerated, and provided a significant reduction in the risk of progressing to uncontrolled active infection (p = 0.025) or symptomatic disease (p = 0.046), with an efficacy of 68.4% and a protection rate of 92.7%. The probability of becoming PCR positive was similar between groups, but the probability of returning to a PCR negative condition was higher in the vaccinated group (p = 0.04). In conclusion, we confirmed the interest of using this vaccine as part of a comprehensive control program for canine leishmaniasis, and validated the use of a protocol based on regular in-depth assessments over time to assess the efficacy of a canine leishmaniasis vaccine. PMID:25299614

  15. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26734869

  16. Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    González, Urbà; Pinart, Mariona; Sinclair, David; Firooz, Alireza; Enk, Claes; Vélez, Ivan D; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Tristan, Mario; Alvar, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals. Objectives To assess the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions for cutaneous and for visceral leishmaniasis. Search methods We searched the following databases to 13 January 2015: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WHOLIS, Web of Science, and RePORTER. We also searched trials registers for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions in leishmaniasis-endemic regions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently searched for trials and extracted data from included RCTs. We resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 14 RCTs that evaluated a range of interventions across different settings. The study methods were generally poorly described, and consequently all included trials were judged to be at high or unclear risk of selection and reporting bias. Only seven trials reported clinical outcome data which limits our ability to make broad generalizations to different epidemiological settings and cultures. Cutaneous leishmaniasis One four-arm RCT from Afghanistan compared indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and insecticide-treated bedsheets, with no intervention. Over 15 months follow-up, all three insecticide-based interventions had a lower incidence of CL than the control area (IRS: risk

  17. Systemic hypertension in dogs with leishmaniasis: prevalence and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Cortadellas, Oscar; del Palacio, María Josefa Fernández; Bayón, Alejandro; Albert, Angel; Talavera, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study was performed (November 1998 to December 2003) to determine the prevalence of systemic hypertension (SH) in dogs with glomerular disease secondary to leishmaniasis. One hundred and five dogs with leishmaniasis were screened and staged for the presence of renal disease (RD) and SH. For the purpose of the study, RD was defined as serum creatinine concentration > or = 1.4 mg/dL, a urine protein/creatinine ratio > or = 0.5, or both. SH was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or =180 mm Hg or an SBP between 150 and 179 mm Hg in the presence of clinical manifestations of SH. Fifty-two (49.5%) of the dogs had some degree of RD, and 32 (61.5%) of these dogs were diagnosed with SH. Moreover, SH also was diagnosed in 3 dogs without RD. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), estimated by echocardiography, was the most frequently observed systemic consequence of hypertension, being present in 32 (91.4%) of the hypertensive dogs. Echocardiographic abnormalities were not detected in any of the 33 dogs with leishmaniasis without RD, which were used as controls. Ocular consequences of SH were observed in only 2 (5.7%) of the dogs with hypertension. We conclude that SH is prevalent in dogs with RD secondary to leishmaniasis, not only in the more severe stages but also in the early course of the illness before azotemia becomes apparent. Canine leishmaniasis may be a useful natural model to study SH secondary to glomerular disease.

  18. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  19. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    PubMed

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.

  20. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    PubMed

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.

    PubMed

    Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2009-01-01

    From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

  2. Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gustavo A. S.; Boelaert, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    Background While three countries in South Asia decided to eliminate anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015, its control in other regions seems fraught with difficulties. Is there a scope for more effective VL control in the Americas where transmission is zoonotic? We reviewed the evidence on VL control strategies in Latin America—diagnosis, treatment, veterinary interventions, vector control—with respect to entomological and clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 1960 to November 2008 and references of selected articles. Intervention trials as well as observational studies that evaluated control strategies of VL in the Americas were included. While the use of rapid diagnostic tests for VL diagnosis seems well established, there is a striking lack of evidence from clinical trials for drug therapy and few well designed intervention studies for control of vectors or canine reservoirs. Conclusion Elimination of zoonotic VL in the Americas does not seem a realistic goal at this point given the lack of political commitment, gaps in scientific knowledge, and the weakness of case management and surveillance systems. Research priorities and current strategies should be reviewed with the aim of achieving better VL control. PMID:20098726

  3. Lutzomyia migonei as putative vector of visceral leishmaniasis in La Banda, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar D; Quintana, María G; Bezzi, Gisela; Morán, María L; Betbeder, Eduardo; Valdéz, Daniel V

    2010-01-01

    Four autochthonous cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were reported in La Banda, Santiago del Estero from June 2007 to May 2008. In the vicinity of these cases there were 3/47 rK39 sero-positive dogs, and another 4 dogs with VL were reported by passive surveillance. The sero-positive dogs and infected humans lived within a 3.1 km radius. Phebotomine sand fly captures were performed twice during November/December 2007 and April 2008. In 20 of the 59 sampled sites in the areas of the human and canine cases (220 night/traps) 151 phlebotomine sand flies were collected and consisted of: Lutzomyia migonei 93%, Lutzomyia cortelezzii 5.6% and Lutzomyia neivai 1.4%. We propose that there was an enzootic cycle of VL with accidental human transmission due to L. migonei and suggest that there be a surveillance of human isolated cases of VL within the L. migonei dispersion area. PMID:19716797

  4. Different optical spectral characteristics in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate observed by triple-band trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Slobodov, Gennady; Bunting, Charles F.; Piao, Daqing

    2011-03-01

    Different optical spectral characteristics were observed in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate by triple-wavelength trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The NIR imager acquiring at 705nm, 785nm and 808nm was used to quantify both the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (StO2) in the prostate. The TVT tumor in the canine prostate as a model of prostate cancer was induced in a 7-year old, 27 kg dog. A 2 mL suspension of 2.5x106 cells/mL of homogenized TVT cells recovered from an in vivo subcutaneously propagated TVT tumor in an NOD/SCID mouse were injected in the cranial aspect of the right lobe of the canine prostate. The left lobe of the prostate had a cystic lesion present before TVT inoculation. After the TVT homogenate injection, the prostate was monitored weekly over a 9-week period, using trans-rectal NIR and TRUS in grey-scale and Doppler. A TVT mass within the right lobe developed a necrotic center during the later stages of this study, as the mass presented with substantially increased [HbT] in the periphery, with an area of reduced StO2 less than the area of the mass itself shown on ultrasonography. Conversely, the cystic lesion presented with slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the lesion shown on ultrasound with oxygen-reduction inside and in the periphery of the lesion. There was no detectable change of blood flow on Doppler US in the periphery of the cystic lesion. The slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the cystic lesion was correlated with intra-lesional hemorrhage upon histopathologic examination.

  5. Canine Leishmania vaccines: still a long way to go.

    PubMed

    Gradoni, Luigi

    2015-02-28

    Dogs are the main reservoir host for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, a sand fly-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum. In endemic areas, "susceptible" dogs suffer from a severe disease characterized by chronic polymorphic viscerocutaneous signs that manifest several months from the exposure, whereas "resistant" dogs can remain subclinically infected for years or lifelong. The protective immune response to Leishmania is cell-mediated; for visceralizing Leishmania species a mixed T helper (Th)1/Th2 response with a dominant Th1 profile is required for protection. The activation of the adaptive immune system in naturally resistant dogs is revealed by parasite-specific lymphoproliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity, the production of interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α cytokines, and enhanced macrophage leishmanicidal activity via nitric oxide. Hence, an effective canine Leishmania vaccine should induce strong and long-lasting Th1-dominated immunity to control both infection progression and the parasite transmissibility via the vector. Preclinical research in rodent models has evaluated the efficacy of several categories of Leishmania antigens including killed parasites, cell purified fractions, parasite protein components or subunits, single or multiple chimeric recombinant proteins, plasmid DNA and viral particles encoding parasite virulence factors. Promising antigen(s)/adjuvant combinations from each of the above categories have also been tested in dogs; they mostly resulted in limited or no protection in Phase I-II studies (designed to test vaccine safety, immunogenicity and laboratory-induced protection) in which vaccinated dogs were challenged by the artificial intravenous injection of high-load L. infantum promastigotes. The recombinant A2 antigen plus saponin conferred about 40% protection against infection by this challenge system and has been registered in Brazil as a canine vaccine (LeishTec(®)). An increasing number of efficacy studies

  6. Interaction between canine and human visceral leishmaniases in a holoendemic focus of Central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zoghlami, Z; Chouihi, E; Barhoumi, W; Dachraoui, K; Massoudi, N; Helel, K Ben; Habboul, Z; Hadhri, M H; Limam, S; Mhadhbi, M; Gharbi, M; Zhioua, E

    2014-11-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, CVL is spatially associated with human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) affecting mostly children younger than 5 years old. In this study, seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs was assessed in highly endemic districts of the governorate of Kairouan where more than 50% of HVL cases in Tunisia were reported. An entomological investigation was also carried out in two endemic districts (Bouhajla and Haffouz) to assess sand fly fauna and infection status of sand flies with Leishmania. A total of 191 serum samples were collected from healthy dogs and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Overall seroprevalence for L. infantum was 26.7% being highest among dogs in the district of Bouhajla (52.7%) and the lowest in the district of Chbika (5.2%). In dogs, seroprevalence did not differ significantly based on gender or age, with dogs younger than 1 year showing a higher seroprevalence compared to older dogs. These findings suggest strong force of infection in naïve animals in holoendemic regions leading to emerging high incidence of HVL. Concomitant to the high CVL prevalence observed in the Bouhajla district, a significantly high cumulative HVL incidence also was observed in this district. Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis were the most abundant sand fly species in Bouhajla and Haffouz districts. The rate of Leishmania-DNA infection in sand flies was 9.4%. This finding points to spatial correlation between the occurrence of disease in humans, a high rate of infection in dogs and a high abundance of P. pernicious and P. longicuspis. Thus, CVL is the main risk factor for transmission to humans and subsequently, it is an important parameter for controlling transmission to humans.

  7. Interaction between canine and human visceral leishmaniases in a holoendemic focus of Central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zoghlami, Z; Chouihi, E; Barhoumi, W; Dachraoui, K; Massoudi, N; Helel, K Ben; Habboul, Z; Hadhri, M H; Limam, S; Mhadhbi, M; Gharbi, M; Zhioua, E

    2014-11-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, CVL is spatially associated with human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) affecting mostly children younger than 5 years old. In this study, seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs was assessed in highly endemic districts of the governorate of Kairouan where more than 50% of HVL cases in Tunisia were reported. An entomological investigation was also carried out in two endemic districts (Bouhajla and Haffouz) to assess sand fly fauna and infection status of sand flies with Leishmania. A total of 191 serum samples were collected from healthy dogs and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Overall seroprevalence for L. infantum was 26.7% being highest among dogs in the district of Bouhajla (52.7%) and the lowest in the district of Chbika (5.2%). In dogs, seroprevalence did not differ significantly based on gender or age, with dogs younger than 1 year showing a higher seroprevalence compared to older dogs. These findings suggest strong force of infection in naïve animals in holoendemic regions leading to emerging high incidence of HVL. Concomitant to the high CVL prevalence observed in the Bouhajla district, a significantly high cumulative HVL incidence also was observed in this district. Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis were the most abundant sand fly species in Bouhajla and Haffouz districts. The rate of Leishmania-DNA infection in sand flies was 9.4%. This finding points to spatial correlation between the occurrence of disease in humans, a high rate of infection in dogs and a high abundance of P. pernicious and P. longicuspis. Thus, CVL is the main risk factor for transmission to humans and subsequently, it is an important parameter for controlling transmission to humans. PMID:25004438

  8. Immunotherapy and Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis: Promising Treatments for this Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. Human immunodeficiency virus infection augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100–2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like interferon-γ associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10) or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand) has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease. PMID:24982655

  9. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

  10. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. [Serologic survey of dogs in an endemic area of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Paraná State, southern Brazil

    PubMed

    Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Toledo; Bertolini; Arraes; Vedovello Filho D

    1996-01-01

    Increased reporting of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Paraná points to the need for information on both this disease's epidemiology and pertinent control measures. A serological survey was thus performed, with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) for canine leishmaniasis in farm operations belonging to the Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná, in Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in northwestern Paraná. IIF was performed on 132 dogs, of which 24 (18.2%) had significant titers (>/=40). Imprints of six dogs with lesions were made and all were negative for Leishmania sp.

  12. Genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs identifies candidate genes involved in T helper cells and macrophage signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2....

  13. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leça Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Guedes, Paula Elisa Brandão; Santana, Lailla Nascimento; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Albuquerque, George Rego; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias; Silva, Fabiana Lessa

    2015-08-01

    Leishmaniosis is a zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. American cutaneous leishmaniosis (ACL) is mainly caused by the species L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, and American visceral leishmaniosis (AVL) is caused by L. infantum chagasi. In addition to their proven roles as reservoirs of AVL, dogs are also suspected by researchers to be reservoirs of ACL due to reports of this infection in domestic environments and of infected dogs in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania sp. infection in dogs from Vila Operária, Buerarema, Bahia, using parasitological tests, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, this study also aimed to identify risk factors associated with illness in dogs in this locality by conducting an epidemiological survey. For this purpose, 292 dogs were clinically evaluated for the presence of skin lesions, and the dogs that showed these changes were submitted to scarification injury to enable preparation of slides for microscopic study of amastigotes. Subsequently, the dogs underwent blood sampling for serological (IFA) and molecular (PCR) tests. Additionally, the owners of the dogs answered an epidemiological questionnaire to facilitate the identification of risk factors for exposure of dogs to pathogens of ACL. Of the 292 dogs studied, 13 (4.5%) had lesions suggestive of ACL, but with a negative parasitological examination and 147 (50.3%) were seropositive according to the IFA. Of the 273 dogs studied using PCR test, 10 (3.66%) were positive for L. braziliensis, and all samples were negative for L. infantum chagasi. Wastelands in the peridomicile and the presence of light in the household were risk factors associated with ACL. The results show that Vila Operária has asymptomatic dogs with ACL and that the detection sensitivity of the IFA was higher than that of PCR for the infected dogs.

  14. Eco-epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in the urban area of Paracatu, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; Regina-Silva, Shara; França-Silva, João Carlos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Araújo, Simone Costa; Valadão, Josiane Lopes; de Oliveira Lara-Silva, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Fernanda Santos; Pacheco, Raquel Silva; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

    2011-03-10

    The present study was developed in the urban area of Paracatu, an endemic city for the American visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. A six-month canine survey was performed with 6295 domiciled dogs in 28 districts in that area and showed that 4.2% of those (267 dogs) were positive for VL by ELISA and IFAT serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 1.2% and 16.1%, depending on the district under investigation. Fifteen dogs - 80% of which were clinically asymptomatic for VL - were submitted to a more detailed study that comprised direct parasitological examination and Leishmania kDNA amplification of tissue samples as well as two PCR-RFLP methods using myelocultures. Leishmania amastigotes or Leishmania DNA were detected in all dogs but one. The infecting species of Leishmania was identified in about 50% (7/15) of the sample dogs: Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in two of them and, unexpectedly, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the remaining five. Three months after the end of confiscation and elimination of the VL-seropositive dogs in the 28 districts of Paracatu, a systematic entomological survey was performed in five of them. Six hundred and sixty five (665) phlebotomine sand flies were captured in total, from which 89.5% were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis. The population density of that species increased during the rainy season. Other thirteen (13) species of phlebotomine sand flies were captured at varying percentages from 0.2 to 5.0%. It is worth noting that L. longipalpis females were predominantely intradomicile when compared to males, suggesting that the VL transmission cycle in Paracatu may be occurring inside home.

  15. Spatial analysis for identification of priority areas for surveillance and control in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, David Soeiro; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Rangel, Maurício Eduardo Salgado; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2014-03-01

    Spatial analysis of epidemiological data may be used to assist in the implementation of surveillance and control measures against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. This ecological study aimed to identify priority areas for surveillance and control of VL in São Luís, the capital of the state of Maranhão in northeast Brazil, a highly endemic area for the disease. We evaluated the spatial structure of the incidence rates of human VL and of the mean number of human and canine cases occurring between 2005 and 2007 in 355 neighborhoods (aggregated into 203 geographical analytical units) within the municipality. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was explored using global and local Moran's I statistics. A local indicator of spatial autocorrelation was used to generate maps for the identification of VL clusters. The global Moran's I index revealed a weak, but statistically significant spatial autocorrelation for human VL incidence rates (I=0.138). A total of 43 geographical analytical units, encompassing 121 neighborhoods, were identified as priority areas for implementing surveillance and control actions. For the purpose of defining an action plan for the delivery of these measures, those 16 geographical analytical units (encompassing 54 neighborhoods) identified as clusters with high incidence rates of human VL should receive the highest priority. An additional nine geographical analytical units (comprising 28 neighborhoods) showed non-significant clustering of high rates of human, and might be considered as the next priority for VL management. Finally, a further 18 geographical analytical units (covering 39 neighborhoods) had records of coexisting human and canine VL cases during the study period, and these should receive priority attention when resources become available. Spatial data analysis is a valuable tool for defining priority areas for VL surveillance in high transmission areas contributing to a more effective management of financial and

  16. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    PubMed

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  17. Interferon Gamma in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kima, Peter E.; Soong, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-γ. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-γ are also discussed. PMID:23801993

  18. Interferon gamma in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kima, Peter E; Soong, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-γ. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-γ are also discussed.

  19. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

    PubMed

    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  20. Canine hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, P G; Steiner, J M

    2015-10-01

    Hyperlipidaemia refers to an increased concentration of lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidaemia is common in dogs and has recently emerged as an important clinical condition that requires a systematic diagnostic approach and appropriate treatment. Hyperlipidaemia can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidaemia is the most common form in dogs, and it can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, as well as other conditions and the use of certain drugs. Primary hyperlipidaemia is less common in the general canine population but it can be very common within certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridaemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common form of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs but other breeds are also affected. Possible complications of hyperlipidaemia in dogs include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease and seizures. Management of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs is achieved by administration of ultra low-fat diets with or without the administration of lipid lowering drugs such as omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, niacin and statins. PMID:26456868

  1. Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John

    2005-09-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids.

  2. The Relationship between Leishmaniasis and AIDS: the Second 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Alvar, Jorge; Aparicio, Pilar; Aseffa, Abraham; Den Boer, Margriet; Cañavate, Carmen; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Gradoni, Luigi; Ter Horst, Rachel; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Moreno, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Summary: To date, most Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases reported to WHO come from Southern Europe. Up to the year 2001, nearly 2,000 cases of coinfection were identified, of which 90% were from Spain, Italy, France, and Portugal. However, these figures are misleading because they do not account for the large proportion of cases in many African and Asian countries that are missed due to a lack of diagnostic facilities and poor reporting systems. Most cases of coinfection in the Americas are reported in Brazil, where the incidence of leishmaniasis has spread in recent years due to overlap with major areas of HIV transmission. In some areas of Africa, the number of coinfection cases has increased dramatically due to social phenomena such as mass migration and wars. In northwest Ethiopia, up to 30% of all visceral leishmaniasis patients are also infected with HIV. In Asia, coinfections are increasingly being reported in India, which also has the highest global burden of leishmaniasis and a high rate of resistance to antimonial drugs. Based on the previous experience of 20 years of coinfection in Europe, this review focuses on the management of Leishmania-HIV-coinfected patients in low-income countries where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:18400800

  3. Leishmaniasis: Current Status of Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Handman, Emanuela

    2001-01-01

    Leishmaniae are obligatory intracellular protozoa in mononuclear phagocytes. They cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging in severity from spontaneously healing skin lesions to fatal visceral disease. Worldwide, there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. To date, there are no vaccines against leishmaniasis and control measures rely on chemotherapy to alleviate disease and on vector control to reduce transmission. However, a major vaccine development program aimed initially at cutaneous leishmaniasis is under way. Studies in animal models and humans are evaluating the potential of genetically modified live attenuated vaccines, as well as a variety of recombinant antigens or the DNA encoding them. The program also focuses on new adjuvants, including cytokines, and delivery systems to target the T helper type 1 immune responses required for the elimination of this intracellular organism. The availability, in the near future, of the DNA sequences of the human and Leishmania genomes will extend the vaccine program. New vaccine candidates such as parasite virulence factors will be identified. Host susceptibility genes will be mapped to allow the vaccine to be targeted to the population most in need of protection. PMID:11292637

  4. Immunopathology of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Reed, S. G.; Roters, S. B.; Sadigursky, M.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant A/J mice were infected subcutaneously in the right hind footpad with promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A large localized lesion developed within 2 months after infection in the BALB/c mice, while A/J mice exhibited a small discrete fibrotic nodule. Sequential immunologic and histologic examination demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed a nodular foam-cell type of lesion and progressive depression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to leishmania antigen, while the A/J mice had a mixed cellular fibrosing and encapsulating reaction and developed and maintained positive DTH responses to leishmania antigen. Anti-leishmania antibody responses were positive at similar levels in both strains. The lesions in BALB/c mice were found in bone marrow, tendon, skin appendages, and regional lymph nodes, with a tendency toward cutaneous metastases. Lesions in A/J mice remained localized. Fibrosis, focal fibrinoid necrosis, and lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration were the outstanding features. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that no outstanding destruction of leishmanias seemed to occur within macrophages of either mouse strain. In the more resistant A/J mice, however, parasitized macrophages were frequently necrotic, and degenerating leishmanias were often seen free in the interstitial tissue. These observations help the interpretation of the histologic features, as well as the pathogenesis, of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6691411

  5. Infectivity of seropositive dogs, showing different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, to Lutzomyia longipalpis phlebotomine sand flies.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano; França-Silva, João Carlos; Pires, Marize Quinhone; Oliveira, Fernanda Santos; Pacheco, Raquel Silva; dos Santos, Sara Lopes; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Romanha, Alvaro José; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2007-06-20

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a growing zoonosis with an increasing number of new cases and a rapid geographical spreading of the disease. In the present study, a canine survey was carried out in the city of Montes Claros (320,000 inhabitants), an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total number of 4795 dogs were examined by serology, which showed a rate of seropositivity of 5%. Isoenzymatic analysis confirmed Leishmania infantum chagasi as the local aetiological agent of CVL. Canine tissues were assayed for the presence of Leishmania parasite DNA using different techniques. The infectivity of asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic seropositive dogs was tested by xenodiagnosis using laboratory reared Lutzomyia longipalpis. Rates of infection of 5.4%, 5.1% and 28.4% were found for the phlebotomine sand flies that fed in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. Our results indicate that, under experimental conditions, symptomatic dogs are about four times more infective to VL vectors than oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic animals. The lower infectivity rates of dogs displaying any of the last two clinical forms of leishmaniasis, however, must be taken into account in the epidemiology of CVL.

  6. Immunology of leishmaniasis*

    PubMed Central

    Heyneman, D.

    1971-01-01

    Knowledge of the immunological basis of the leishmaniases and of the host's response is fragmentary and largely pragmatic. This paper reviews certain conceptual and clinical aspects of the immunology of these diseases. Consideration is given to man's natural resistance and his ability to acquire resistance from natural infections and from vaccination. The age-distribution of infection in different populations is discussed in relation to the effects that interaction between the parasite and its intermediate host may have on its infection characteristics and virulence. Studies in the USSR of differences in virulence among 30 human strains and 39 rodent strains are reported. The rodent strains showed a broader range of virulence than did the human isolates. Serological tests for determining species relationships among the leishmaniae are generally nonspecific, but work concerned with the development of the antiserum—culture test is reviewed. Species identification and the recognition of new forms, perhaps with different infection characteristics, is, nevertheless, of the utmost importance in the prevention and treatment of the disease. The review concludes with a discussion of functional immunity and hypotheses of the immune process in leishmaniasis. PMID:5316252

  7. Epidemiologic Aspects of an Emerging Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Giorgobiani, Ekaterina; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Chanturya, Gvantsa; Grdzelidze, Marina; Jochim, Ryan C.; Machablishvili, Anna; Tushishvili, Tsiuri; Zedginidze, Yulia; Manjgaladze, Marina K.; Iashvili, Nino; Makharadze, Manana P.; Zakaraya, Tsiuri; Kikaleishvili, Konstantin; Markhvashvili, Ivan; Badashvili, Goderdzi; Daraselia, Teymuraz; Fay, Michael P.; Kamhawi, Shaden; Sacks, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the last 15 years, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a public health concern in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Methodology/Principal Findings Seroepidemiological surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of infection in children and dogs within the main focus of VL, and to identify risk factors associated with human infection. Of 4,250 children investigated, 7.3% were positive by direct agglutination test in a baseline survey; an apparent incidence rate of 6.0% was estimated by one year follow-up. None of the seropositive children progressed to VL during the survey. Increased seropositivity at one year was predicted by presence at baseline of clustered flying insects (OR = 1.49; P = 0.001), perceived satisfactory sanitation (OR = 1.65; P<0.001), stray dogs (OR = 1.33; P = 0.023), and by persistent fever during the 6 months prior to baseline survey (OR = 14.2; P<0.001). Overall, 18.2% (107/588) of domestic and 15.3% (110/718) of stray dogs were seropositive by the rk39 dipstick test. Clinical VL signs were found in 1.3% of domestic and 2.9% of stray, seropositive dogs. Parasites isolated from human and dog samples were identified by PCR and phylogenetic analysis of the Leishmania 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70) gene as Leishmania infantum. Conclusions/Significance There is an active focus of L. infantum transmission in Tbilisi with a high prevalence of human and canine infections. PMID:22180796

  8. Mucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmania tropica is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmanaisis in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of southeastern Europe. Although transmission of L. tropica has been reported as anthroponotic, in Israel it was found to have a zoonotic pattern. Findings A one year old male Pekingese dog from Maale Adumim, a focus of L. tropica human cutaneous leishmaniasis near Jerusalem, was presented by its owner with a large proliferative red mucocutaneous lesion on the lip between the mouth and nose. Physical examination and a biochemistry panel were normal and a complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. A biopsy of the lesion was suggestive of the presence of Leishmania organisms. Serology for Leishmania sp. by ELISA was positive and an aspirate from the lesion showed a large number of Leishmania amastigotes. ITS1-HRM-PCR of the lesion was positive and sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. tropica, which was also cultured from the lesion. Blood PCR was negative. The dog responded well to allopurinol treatment and its lesion shrunk considerably within one month of therapy and healed after two months. Conclusions Only a few cases of dog infection with L. tropica have been described to date. They were reported from Morocco and Iran and involved infection of visceral organs. This is the first report of focal mucocutaneous L. tropica infection in a dog and its response to anti-leishmanial treatment. Domestic and wild canines should be evaluated for being possible animal reservoirs for human L. tropica infection in endemic areas or merely accidental hosts. PMID:24661746

  9. Correlations between peripheral parasite load and common clinical and laboratory alterations in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Torrecilha, R B P; Utsunomiya, Y T; Bosco, A M; Almeida, B F; Pereira, P P; Narciso, L G; Pereira, D C M; Baptistiolli, L; Calvo-Bado, L; Courtenay, O; Nunes, C M; Ciarlini, P C

    2016-09-15

    Intensity of peripheral parasite infection has an important role in the transmission of Leishmania spp. from one host to another. As parasite load quantification is still an expensive procedure to be used routinely in epidemiological surveillance, the use of surrogate predictors may be an important asset in the identification of dogs with high transmitting ability. The present study examined whether common clinical and laboratory alterations can serve as predictors of peripheral parasitism in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania spp. Thirty-seven dogs were examined in order to establish correlations between parasite load (PL) in multiple peripheral tissues and common clinical and laboratory findings in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine PL in conjunctival swabs, ear skin, peripheral blood and buffy coat. Additionally, a series of hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress markers were quantified. Correlations between net peripheral infection and severity of clinical alterations and variation in laboratory parameters were assessed through a new analytical approach, namely Compressed Parasite Load Data (CPLD), which uses dimension reduction techniques from multivariate statistics to summarize PL across tissues into a single variable. The analysis revealed that elevation in PL is positively correlated with severity of clinical sings commonly observed in CVL, such as skin lesions, ophthalmic alterations, onycogriphosis, popliteal lymphadenomegaly and low body mass. Furthermore, increase in PL was found to be followed by intensification of non-regenerative anemia, neutrophilia, eosinopenia, hepatic injury and oxidative imbalance. These results suggest that routinely used clinical and laboratory exams can be predictive of intensity of peripheral parasite infection, which has an important implication in the identification of dogs with high transmitting ability. PMID:27664450

  10. [A case of visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, O; Tamariz-Cruz, O; Gándara-Ramírez, J L; Rojas-Domínguez, R; Cárdenas-Perea, M E

    1997-01-01

    A case of leishmaniasis (L. donovani) in a five year-old girl from Acatlan, State of Puebla, Mexico, is reported. She had had a 4-month history of malaise with 39 degrees C intermittent fever, hyporexia and a weight loss of 7 kg. She had spleen enlargement, and blood pancytopenia. A bone marrow study showed the Leishmania amastigotes; a positive blood culture on NNN media (Novy-Nicolle-MacNeal) confirmed the presence of promastigotes. A complete remission was achieved with methylglucamine. We present a review of the Mexican literature concerning visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. Rhinophymous leishmaniasis: A new variant.

    PubMed

    Ul Bari, Arfan; Ejaz, Amer

    2009-03-15

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is known for its wide clinical spectrum. The nose is one of the usual sites where the disease can present in many forms, such as psoriasiform plaques, furunculoid nodules, lupoid plaques, and erysipeloid or mucocutaneous types. We present a new morphology, i.e. rhinophyma-like plaque in an elderly male patient who presented with a large infiltrated plaque involving his nose and the adjoining area of his upper lip. It appeared to be rhinophyma of the nose but was diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis after the demonstration of leishmania parasites in a skin smear preparation; he was treated satisfactorily with antimonials.

  12. Age modifies the immunologic response and clinical presentation of American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Augusto M; Amorim, Camila F; Barbosa, Juliana L S; Lago, Alexsandro S; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2015-06-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main causal agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) that may present as cutaneous, mucosal, or disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease is highly prevalent in young males and there is a lack of studies of ATL in the elderly. Herein, we compared clinical manifestations, immunologic response, and response to antimony therapy between patients > 60 years of age (N = 58) and patients who were 21-30 years of age (N = 187). The study was performed in Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, a well-known area of L. braziliensis transmission. Cytokine production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen was performed. Elderly subjects more frequently had a previous history of cutaneous leishmaniasis, large lesions, or mucosal leishmaniasis, and they were less likely to have lymphadenopathy. There was no difference regarding gender and response to therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects produced a similar amount of tumor necrosis factor than young patients but they produced less interferon-gamma and more interleukin-10 than young subjects. We concluded that elderly patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis should be searched for mucosal or disseminated leishmaniasis. The decreased interferon-gamma production and increase in interleukin-10 observed in elderly patients may contribute to parasite persistence and L. braziliensis infection dissemination.

  13. Age Modifies the Immunologic Response and Clinical Presentation of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Augusto M.; Amorim, Camila F.; Barbosa, Juliana L. S.; Lago, Alexsandro S.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main causal agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) that may present as cutaneous, mucosal, or disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease is highly prevalent in young males and there is a lack of studies of ATL in the elderly. Herein, we compared clinical manifestations, immunologic response, and response to antimony therapy between patients > 60 years of age (N = 58) and patients who were 21–30 years of age (N = 187). The study was performed in Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, a well-known area of L. braziliensis transmission. Cytokine production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen was performed. Elderly subjects more frequently had a previous history of cutaneous leishmaniasis, large lesions, or mucosal leishmaniasis, and they were less likely to have lymphadenopathy. There was no difference regarding gender and response to therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects produced a similar amount of tumor necrosis factor than young patients but they produced less interferon-gamma and more interleukin-10 than young subjects. We concluded that elderly patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis should be searched for mucosal or disseminated leishmaniasis. The decreased interferon-gamma production and increase in interleukin-10 observed in elderly patients may contribute to parasite persistence and L. braziliensis infection dissemination. PMID:25918209

  14. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  15. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite. PMID:19288959

  16. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite.

  17. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission. PMID:25686382

  18. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  19. Factors associated with the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs living around Atlantic Forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the

  20. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the

  1. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance

  2. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for leishmaniasis disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador: popular perceptions, knowledge, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Racines, R J; Zurita, C; Izurieta, R; Herrera, E; Hinojsa, E

    1994-06-01

    Popular perceptions and knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its treatment were studied in an endemic area of subtropical Northwest Ecuador. Although most of the adults surveyed were familiar with the disease, the vector, and traditional treatments, many showed a lack of knowledge about transmission of the disease, ulcer healing, and conventional treatment. Gender was found to have a significant impact on disease risk, perceptions, and treatment knowledge. Males experienced a risk of contracting cutaneous leishmaniasis that was almost triple that of women. Men were also more likely to perceive that the disease seriously diminished the victim's capacity to work. Women, on the other hand, were more prone to perceive that cutaneous leishmaniasis was a serious disease that significantly decreased self-esteem. Although 80% of the subjects knew at least one method of treating the disease, women tended to know more methods than men. Most of 150 different therapies reported involved the use of indigenous plants, chemicals, acids, antibiotics, heat treatments, or petroleum by-products. Some of these treatments could have clinical value. However, only 7% of the subjects knew about pentavalent antimonials. Almost 70% of the subjects with a past or present infection history were treated solely by traditional methods; only 12% received a full course of Glucantime, while 7.5% got an incomplete course. The findings indicate that it will be important to consider the identified gaps in knowledge and gender perceptions regarding the disease and its treatment when planning future control programs.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Panama.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Aracelis; Carrasco, Ricardo; Paz, Hector; Pascale, Juan M; Samudio, Franklyn; Saldaña, Azael; Santamaría, Giovanna; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Calzada, Jose E

    2009-10-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in Panama. This study describes the clinical characteristics and the molecular epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Panama over a 5-year period (2004-2008). Additionally, we applied a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based assay to identify Leishmania species in clinical isolates, skin scrapings, and sandflies specimens. Whereas 60.3% of cases were detected with conventional parasitologic techniques (smear or in vitro culture), the PCR detected 72% positive patients. Our clinical-epidemiologic data corroborate the high incidence of L. (Viannia) panamensis and provide evidence of peridomestic and/or domestic transmission. Mucosal involvement was observed in 4.2% of the patients. The overall natural infection rate with Leishmania in 103 pools of sandflies was 0.46%. Lutzomyia gomezi and Lutzomya panamensis were the prevalent species incriminated as vectors at the capture sites in central Panama. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the current epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Panama.

  5. A Rare Presentation of Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Ritesh; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Praveen; Singla, Vikas; Bansal, Naresh; Dhawan, Shashi; Arora, Anil

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a protozoan disease that can present as cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral, and disseminated disease. In India, it is usually localized in distinct areas of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, and parts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) involves the visceral organs, mainly the liver, the spleen and bone marrow. VL is characterized by prolonged fever, massive splenomegaly, weight loss, progressive anemia, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia, and can be complicated by serious infections. In most of the patient the diagnosis is made on bone marrow biopsy or splenic aspirate. We hereby present an unusual case of kala-azar in a 52-year-old patient non-resident of endemic area presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin, in whom bone marrow biopsy was negative for Leishmanin Donovan (LD) bodies, and diagnosis was made by liver biopsy in which LD bodies were seen. PMID:27493461

  6. Immunologic memory in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Phillip

    2005-12-01

    Leishmania major infections induce solid immunity to reinfection. Experimental studies in mice indicate that the CD4+ T cells responsible for this immunity include two populations: parasite-dependent T effector cells and parasite-independent central memory T (Tcm) cells. While there currently is no vaccine for leishmaniasis, the existence of a long-lived population of Tcm cells that does not require the continued presence of live parasites suggests that a vaccine that expands these cells might be efficacious.

  7. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  8. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  9. Is the Dog a Possible Reservoir for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suriname?

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Alida; Ramkalup, Prakash; Mans, Dennis; Schallig, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test) and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction). Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two) or nasal lesion (one). Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1 : 1600), and three animals had a borderline titre (1 : 800). All other animals (n = 42) were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle. PMID:24194768

  10. Neuroinflammation in advanced canine glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing; Harper, Matthew M.; Kecova, Helga; Adamus, Grazyna; Kardon, Randy H.; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The pathophysiological events that occur in advanced glaucoma are not well characterized. The principal purpose of this study is to characterize the gene expression changes that occur in advanced glaucoma. Methods Retinal RNA was obtained from canine eyes with advanced glaucoma as well as from healthy eyes. Global gene expression patterns were determined using oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed by real-time PCR. The presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors was evaluated by immunolabeling. Finally, we evaluated the presence of serum autoantibodies directed against retinal epitopes using western blot analyses. Results We identified over 500 genes with statistically significant changes in expression level in the glaucomatous retina. Decreased expression levels were detected for large number of functional groups, including synapse and synaptic transmission, cell adhesion, and calcium metabolism. Many of the molecules with decreased expression levels have been previously shown to be components of retinal ganglion cells. Genes with elevated expression in glaucoma are largely associated with inflammation, such as antigen presentation, protein degradation, and innate immunity. In contrast, expression of many other pro-inflammatory genes, such as interferons or interleukins, was not detected at abnormal levels. Conclusions This study characterizes the molecular events that occur in the canine retina with advanced glaucoma. Our data suggest that in the dog this stage of the disease is accompanied by pronounced retinal neuroinflammation. PMID:21042562

  11. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    PubMed

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  12. Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Michael P.; Croft, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The current treatments for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis (collectively referred to as the kinetoplastid diseases) are far from ideal but, for some, there has been significant recent progress. For HAT the only advances in treatment over the past two decades have been the introduction of an eflornithine/nifurtimox co-administration and a shorter regime of the old standard melarsoprol. Sources of data PubMed. Areas of Agreement There is a need for new safe, oral drugs for cost-effective treatment of patients and use in control programmes for all the trypanosomatid diseases. Areas of controversy Cutaneous leishmaniasis is not on the agenda and treatments are lagging behind. Growing points There are three compounds in development for the treatment of the CNS stage of HAT: fexinidazole, currently due to entry into phase II clinical studies, a benzoxaborole (SCYX-7158) in phase I trials and a diamidine derivative (CPD-0802), in advanced pre-clinical development. For Chagas disease, two anti-fungal triazoles are now in clinical trial. In addition, clinical studies with benznidazole, a drug previously recommended only for acute stage treatment, are close to completion to determine the effectiveness in the treatment of early chronic and indeterminate Chagas disease. For visceral leishmaniasis new formulations, therapeutic switching, in particular AmBisome, and the potential for combinations of established drugs have significantly improved the opportunities for the treatment in the Indian subcontinent, but not in East Africa. Areas timely for developing research Improved diagnostic tools are needed to support treatment, for test of cure in clinical trials and for monitoring/surveillance of populations in control programmes. PMID:23137768

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

  14. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  15. Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India.

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  17. Vaccine candidates for leishmaniasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Nagill, Rajeev; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical manifestation of the disease varies from self-limiting cutaneous lesions to progressive visceral disease. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The key control measures mainly rely on early case detection and chemotherapy which has been hampered by the toxicity of drugs, side-effects and by the emergence of drug resistance in parasites. Control of reservoir host and vector is difficult due to operational difficulties and frequent relapses in the host. Therefore, the development of effective and affordable vaccine against leishmaniasis is highly desirable. Although considerable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding immune mechanisms underlying potential candidate antigens, including killed, live attenuated parasites, crude parasites, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins or DNA encoding leishmanial proteins, as well as immunomodulators from sand fly saliva, very few candidate vaccines have progressed beyond the experimental stage. As such there is no vaccine against any form of human leishmaniasis. In recent years, however, much interest has been stimulated towards vaccination against leishmaniasis focused mainly on cutaneous leishmaniasis with fewer attempts against visceral leishmaniasis.

  18. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rudra Pratap; Picado, Albert; Alam, Shahnawaz; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Shri Prakash; Ostyn, Bart; Chappuis, François; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a late cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in 16 VL-endemic communities in Bihar, India. The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed.

  19. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis with Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tayal, Swati; Khatiwada, Saurav; Sehrawat, Priyanka; Nischal, Neeraj; Jorwal, Pankaj; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, M C; Sharma, S K; Verma, Pankaj; Singh, Anup

    2015-09-01

    Clinical presentations of Leishmania infection include visceral (most common form), cutaneous, mucocutaneous, mucosal and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Mucosal form of leishmaniasis mostly involves oral and nasal mucosa. Rarely, laryngeal and pharyngeal mucosa may also be involved. Its concomitant presence with tuberculosis (TB), a disease rampant in India, is uncommon. Here we are reporting a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis associated with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), with approach to diagnosis and treatment in a tropical resource-limited setting. PMID:27608871

  20. Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Krystal J; Kedzierski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL. PMID:21912561

  1. Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Krystal J.; Kedzierski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL. PMID:21912561

  2. Leishmaniasis in refugee and local Pakistani populations.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Mohammed, Nasir; Adil, Khaksar; Agha, Said; Reithinger, Richard; Rowland, Mark; Ali, Iftikhar; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2004-09-01

    The epidemiology of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated in northwest Pakistan. Results suggested similar patterns of endemicity in both Afghan refugee and Pakistani populations and highlighted risk factors and household clustering of disease. PMID:15498178

  3. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina. Cases notification and distribution of vectors (2006-2012)].

    PubMed

    Gould, Ignacio T; Perner, Mónica S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina B; Bezzi, Gisella; Maglianese, Mariana I; Antman, Julián G; Gutiérrez, Jorge A; Salomón, Oscar D

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Argentina. Every new case diagnosed must be reported to the National Health Surveillance System. In the period 2006-2012, a total of 103 cases have been notified in four provinces: Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Misiones and Santiago del Estero. Misiones has the largest amount of cases: a total of 80, detected in 15 towns from May 2006 to July 2012. The highest incidence is observed in children (less than 15 years of age). In 2004 the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected for the first time in Formosa Province. Cases of human and canine VL, as well as the presence of the canine vector were reported in 2006 in the province of Misiones, and in 2008-2009 in the province of Corrientes. In Santiago del Estero cases of human and canine VL (2008) were possibly associated with secondary vectors. In 2010 Lu longipalpis was found in Entre Rios, showing its dispersal to the south. Between January and April 2011 a systematic search of the VL vector was carried out in 13 towns, in Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Santiago del Estero Provinces (275 traps/night). The colonization of the vector Lu longipalpis was proved in Chajarí town (Entre Rios), but not in Santiago del Estero Province, where Migonemyia migonei appears as a putative LV vector. PMID:23570757

  4. Present situation of visceral leishmaniasis in China.

    PubMed

    Zhi-Biao, X

    1989-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar is a disease that is distributed world-wide from countries around the Mediterranean Sea to Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South America (Fig. 1). Visceral leishmaniasis was highly prevalent in China but since 1958, after a nationwide campaign, it has been brought under control. Only sporadic cases occur in the hilly and newly reclaimed desert areas in NW China.

  5. The immunology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL).

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2016-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Because of its possible role in transmission it is considered a public health problem in VL endemic areas. The clinical features include a skin rash consisting of macules, papules or nodules in an otherwise healthy individual; this presentation is determined by the immune response towards parasites in the skin that probably persisted from the previous VL episode. The immune response in VL, cured VL and PKDL is the result of changes in the cytokine profile that only in part can be captured under the Th1 and Th2 dichotomy. Regulatory T cells and Th 17 cells also play a role. VL is characterized by an absent immune response to Leishmania with a predominantly Th2 type of response with high levels of IL-10; after successful treatment the patient will be immune with in vitro features of a Th1 type of response and in vivo a positive leishmanin skin test. PKDL takes an intermediate position with a dissociation of the immune response between the skin and the viscera, with a Th2 and Th1 type of response, respectively. It is likely that immune responses determine the different epidemiological and clinical characteristics of PKDL in Asia and Africa; various risk factors for PKDL may influence this, such as incomplete and inadequate treatment of VL, parasite resistance and genetic factors. It should be noted that PKDL is a heterogeneous and dynamic condition and patients differ with regard to time of onset after visceral leishmaniasis (VL), chronicity, extent and appearance of the rash including related immune responses, all of which may vary over time. Better understanding of these immune responses may offer opportunities for manipulation including combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy for VL to prevent PKDL from occurring and similarly in the treatment of chronic or treatment resistant PKDL cases. PMID:27553063

  6. Leishmaniasis: focus on the design of nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Doroud, Delaram; Rafati, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Although mass vaccination of the entire population of an endemic area would be the most cost-effective tool to diminish Leishmania burden, an effective vaccine is not yet commercially available. Practically, vaccines have failed to achieve the required level of protection, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant and/or delivery system. Therefore, there is still an imperative demand for an improved, safe and efficient delivery system to enhance the immunogenicity of available vaccine candidates. Nanoparticles are proficient in boosting the quality and magnitude of immune responses in a predictable fashion. Herein, we discuss how nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems can be used to induce appropriate immune responses against leishmaniasis by controlling physicochemical properties of the vaccine. Stability, production reproducibility, low cost per dose and low risk-benefit ratios are desirable characteristics of an ideal vaccine formulation and solid lipid nanoparticles may serve as one of the most promising practical strategies to help to achieve such a leishmanial vaccine, at least in canine species in the developing world.

  7. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  8. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Alvar, Jorge; Croft, Simon L; Kaye, Paul; Khamesipour, Ali; Sundar, Shyam; Reed, Steven G

    2013-04-18

    Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study. Two reasons for this are that leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by several different species of parasite that are highly related, thus raising the possibility of developing a single vaccine to protect against multiple diseases. Another reason is the demonstration that a leishmaniasis vaccine may be used therapeutically as well as prophylactically. Although there is no registered human leishmaniasis vaccine today, immunization approaches using live or killed organisms, as well as defined vaccine candidates, have demonstrated at least some degree of efficacy in humans to prevent and to treat some forms of leishmaniasis, and there is a vigorous pipeline of candidates in development. Current approaches include using individual or combined antigens of the parasite or of salivary gland extract of the parasites' insect vector, administered with or without formulation in adjuvant. Animal data obtained with several vaccine candidates are promising and some have been or will be entered into clinical testing in the near future. There is sufficient scientific and epidemiological justification to continue to invest in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  9. Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; Carlota, Francisco Canindé; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed. Conclusion: The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies. PMID:26668661

  10. Species Typing in Dermal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  11. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-01

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  12. Canine epilepsy genetics.

    PubMed

    Ekenstedt, Kari J; Patterson, Edward E; Mickelson, James R

    2012-02-01

    There has been much interest in utilizing the dog as a genetic model for common human diseases. Both dogs and humans suffer from naturally occurring epilepsies that share many clinical characteristics. Investigations of inherited human epilepsies have led to the discovery of several mutated genes involved in this disease; however, the vast majority of human epilepsies remain unexplained. Mouse models of epilepsy exist, including single-gene spontaneous and knockout models, but, similar to humans, other, polygenic models have been more difficult to discern. This appears to also be the case in canine epilepsy genetics. There are two forms of canine epilepsies for which gene mutations have been described to date: the progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) and idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Gene discovery in the PMEs has been more successful, with eight known genes; six of these are orthologous to corresponding human disorders, while two are novel genes that can now be used as candidates for human studies. Only one IE gene has been described in dogs, an LGI2 mutation in Lagotto Romagnolos with a focal, juvenile remitting epilepsy. This gene is also a novel candidate for human remitting childhood epilepsy studies. The majority of studies of dog breeds with IE, however, have either failed to identify any genes or loci of interest, or, as in complex mouse and human IEs, have identified multiple QTLs. There is still tremendous promise in the ongoing canine epilepsy studies, but if canine IEs prove to be as genetically complex as human and murine IEs, then deciphering the bases of these canine epilepsies will continue to be challenging.

  13. Efficacy of canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine to decrease severity of clinical disease after co-challenge with canine influenza virus and Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first emerging into the North American canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. Severity of disease is variable, and co-infection by other respiratory pathogens is an impo...

  14. [Outsourced real-time PCR diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the outbreak region of Constatine, Algeria].

    PubMed

    Mihoubi, I; de Monbrison, F; Romeuf, N; Moulahem, T; Picot, S

    2006-02-01

    Taking into account the re-emergence of leishmaniasis in the world, the geographic variability of its epidemiology and the growing numbers of travellers, a pilot study on the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was undertaken in Constatine, one of the outbreak regions in eastern Algeria. A total of 143 specimens were collected on blotters and tested by real-time PCR. Results were compared with those of direct examination. Diagnosis was positive for leishmaniasis in 81% of cases using PCR versus 48% of cases using microscopy. Real-time PCR showed a significant quantitative difference between patients for whom microscopic diagnosis was positive and those for whom direct examination was negative. The results presented in this study demonstrated the effectiveness and sensitivity of PCR in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis from blotter specimens. This technique enabled in-field collection of specimens from each patient and provided prompt results. North-South cooperation based on the use of simple means for transmission of specimens for molecular diagnosis allowed creation of an effective partnership for daily diagnosis and promoted exchange between investigators in preparation for technology transfer.

  15. [Visceral leishmaniasis concurrent with splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Julhakyan, U L; Magomedova, A U; Dvirnyk, V N; Kravchenko, S K

    2016-01-01

    Splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (SMZBCL) is a rare non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma that presents with morphologically mature lymphoid cells corresponding in their immunological characteristics to secondary follicular marginal zone lymphocytes. It is clinically characterized by splenomegaly, moderate lymphocytosis, usually focal bone marrow lesion, sometimes moderate of monoclonal immunoglobulin in the serum (generally IgM or IgG) and/or urea, and a relatively benign course. Leishmaniasis is a transmissible natural focal infectious endemic disease that has a great diversity of clinical manifestations. The authors describe Russia's first case of SMZBCL concurrent with visceral leishmaniasis in a 52-year-old female patient admitted to a hematology hospital with weakness, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. The simultaneous detection of lymphoma and leishmaniasis in the same biopsy specimen is extremely rare. Visceral leishmaniasis should be borne in mind as an opportunistic infection in patients with malignancies, particularly in immunocompromised persons who live or have stayed in the endemic areas. PMID:27030189

  16. Immunopathological Features of Canine Myocarditis Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Piegari, Giuseppe; Otrocka-Domagala, Iwona; Ciccarelli, Davide; Iovane, Valentina; Oliva, Gaetano; Russo, Valeria; Rinaldi, Laura; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa Neospora caninum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, and Hepatozoon canis. However, although cardiac disease due to Leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of MHC classes I and II in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy from 15 dogs with an established intravitam diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pathological features of myocardium were characterized by hyaline degeneration of cardiomyocytes, necrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells consisting of lymphocytes and macrophages, sometimes with perivascular pattern; fibrosis was also present in various degrees. Immunophenotyping of inflammatory cells was performed by immunohistochemistry on cryostat sections obtained from the heart of the infected dogs. The predominant leukocyte population was CD8+ with a fewer number of CD4+ cells. Many cardiomyocytes expressed MHC classes I and II on the sarcolemma. Leishmania amastigote forms were not detected within macrophages or any other cell of the examined samples. Our study provided evidence that myocarditis in canine visceral leishmaniasis might be related to immunological alterations associated with Leishmania infection. PMID:27413751

  17. Immunopathological Features of Canine Myocarditis Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Piegari, Giuseppe; Otrocka-Domagala, Iwona; Ciccarelli, Davide; Iovane, Valentina; Oliva, Gaetano; Russo, Valeria; Rinaldi, Laura; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa Neospora caninum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, and Hepatozoon canis. However, although cardiac disease due to Leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of MHC classes I and II in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy from 15 dogs with an established intravitam diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pathological features of myocardium were characterized by hyaline degeneration of cardiomyocytes, necrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells consisting of lymphocytes and macrophages, sometimes with perivascular pattern; fibrosis was also present in various degrees. Immunophenotyping of inflammatory cells was performed by immunohistochemistry on cryostat sections obtained from the heart of the infected dogs. The predominant leukocyte population was CD8+ with a fewer number of CD4+ cells. Many cardiomyocytes expressed MHC classes I and II on the sarcolemma. Leishmania amastigote forms were not detected within macrophages or any other cell of the examined samples. Our study provided evidence that myocarditis in canine visceral leishmaniasis might be related to immunological alterations associated with Leishmania infection. PMID:27413751

  18. A Review of Preventative Methods against Human Leishmaniasis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine. PMID:23818997

  19. Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Bin Shuaib, Naemah O. M.; Azazy, Ahmed A.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. Conclusions/Significance The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person–to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL. PMID:20862227

  20. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... socks. Tuck your shirt into your pants. Apply insect repellent on uncovered skin and under the ends of ... used for children (no more than 10% DEET). Repellents with DEET should be used ... an insecticide to kill insects. If you are not sleeping in an area ...

  1. Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Procedure for Accessing Lab Services Data Package Requirements AIDS Therapies Resource Guide In Vitro Efficacy Evaluations ... Assurances to Users Application and Approval Process User Requirements Malaria Vaccine Production Services Data Sharing and Release ...

  2. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

  3. Impacted Canines: Our Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sonia; Marya, Karan; Jhamb, Aakarsh; Bhatia, Hind Pal

    2011-01-01

    Background To discuss the management of impacted canines and the various approaches used for the same. Materials and methods The data of 33 cases, with 43 impacted canine teeth, seen and operated over a period of 3-year in Santosh Dental College and Hospital has been compiled. The diagnostic methods and treatment modalities undertaken are described and discussed. Results Canine impactions were more common in the maxilla as compared with mandible in our study, which was statistically significant. Impacted canine position was mostly palatal in maxilla and labial in mandible. Chi-square test yielded a p-value of 0.002 which shows that there is an association between arch and position. The treatment options used were surgical exposure and orthodontic repositioning, cyst enucleation with extraction of impacted canine and surgical removal of impacted canine. Conclusion Surgical exposure and orthodontic repositioning was successfully applied as first-line treatment for correcting ectopic positioned canine. In cases where exposure and subsequent orthodontic treatment was not indicated, the impacted canine was surgically removed to prevent future problems and surgical procedure was designed according to position of impacted canine.

  4. [Alignment of malpositioned canines].

    PubMed

    Wagner, L

    1991-03-01

    This article presents a system for aligning impacted canines. The base of this system is the lingual arch, a rigid reaction unit of four teeth, molars and premolars. From this base unit an impacted canine can be extruded, moved distally, jumped over the occlusion and derotated by segment arches, coil springs and elastic ligatures. The efficiency of this appliance is due to the elimination of undesired reactive forces, the safe moving of teeth, the possibility of an exact force application and the simple manipulation; also the esthetic inconvenience is minimal. All this results in a better prognosis and an essentially shorter treatment time. This appliance can be used in the upper and the lower jaw. Schematic drawings and clinical examples demonstrate this method.

  5. Control of canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Chappuis, G

    1995-05-01

    Control of canine distemper can realistically only be achieved by the use of vaccination. The types of vaccine in current use are described, together with some of the problems encountered such as interference by maternal antibodies, and usage in species other than dogs. Modified live viral vaccines, as used for more than thirty years, have proved very effective. Nevertheless there is scope for some improvement in vaccine efficacy and recent developments in genetic recombinant methods are described. PMID:8588329

  6. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  7. Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2013-03-01

    In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors. Three main foci were identified in eighty's decade: Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region, Lisbon region and Algarve region, but according to OnLeish observatory data, canine leishmaniasis cases have been reported from several other regions, for which sand fly species and their infection rates are unknown. This study is the first phlebotomine survey in Torres Novas municipality, Santarém District, Portugal. The main objectives were to identify the phlebotomine species, their bioecological aspects, Leishmania infection rate and the risk factors for the presence of phlebotomine species in the municipality. From June to November, 2010, 275 biotopes were surveyed with CDC light-traps. Captures covered the 17 parishes of the municipality and included domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic biotopes. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania and bloodmeal identification. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for phlebotomine presence. Nonparametric tests were used to compare densities of independent groups. A total of 1262 sand flies were captured and identified, and four species detected: P. perniciosus (73.69%), P. ariasi (8.16%), P. sergenti (6.58%) and Sergentomyia minuta (11.57%). In 71.4% localities at least one L. infantum proven vector species was present. Risk factors were identified as: high average temperatures and low relative humidities, sheltered locations and absence of strong wind, presence of pine trees as dominant vegetation, peridomestic biotopes, particularly sheep pens or proximity of sheep, poultry and house martin nests. L. infantum infection rate was 4% for P. ariasi and 0.48% for the total of Larroussius females. P. perniciosus females exhibited an opportunistic behavior, feeding in a wide variety of

  8. Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2013-03-01

    In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors. Three main foci were identified in eighty's decade: Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region, Lisbon region and Algarve region, but according to OnLeish observatory data, canine leishmaniasis cases have been reported from several other regions, for which sand fly species and their infection rates are unknown. This study is the first phlebotomine survey in Torres Novas municipality, Santarém District, Portugal. The main objectives were to identify the phlebotomine species, their bioecological aspects, Leishmania infection rate and the risk factors for the presence of phlebotomine species in the municipality. From June to November, 2010, 275 biotopes were surveyed with CDC light-traps. Captures covered the 17 parishes of the municipality and included domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic biotopes. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania and bloodmeal identification. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for phlebotomine presence. Nonparametric tests were used to compare densities of independent groups. A total of 1262 sand flies were captured and identified, and four species detected: P. perniciosus (73.69%), P. ariasi (8.16%), P. sergenti (6.58%) and Sergentomyia minuta (11.57%). In 71.4% localities at least one L. infantum proven vector species was present. Risk factors were identified as: high average temperatures and low relative humidities, sheltered locations and absence of strong wind, presence of pine trees as dominant vegetation, peridomestic biotopes, particularly sheep pens or proximity of sheep, poultry and house martin nests. L. infantum infection rate was 4% for P. ariasi and 0.48% for the total of Larroussius females. P. perniciosus females exhibited an opportunistic behavior, feeding in a wide variety of

  9. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk. PMID:26856914

  10. Oral azithromycin versus its combination with miltefosine for the treatment of experimental Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Amer, Eglal I; Eissa, Maha M; Mossallam, Shereen F

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected infectious diseases included in the World Health Organization's list of the top guns of antimicrobial resistance. Miltefosine is the first and the only available oral effective therapy for leishmaniasis. For fear of its potential resistance, identification of alternative, effective and safe drugs is urgently needed. Therefore, in view of azithromycin promising activity against a number of Leishmania species, this work was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of oral azithromycin alone versus its combination with miltefosine against experimental Old World Cutaneous leishmaniasis thus, can provide another alternative oral therapy or for the first time an oral combination therapy for leishmaniasis. The experiment were carried out on Swiss strain albino mice which were treated either with miltefosine for 20 days, Azithromycin for 20 days or both drugs in combination therapy for shorter duration of 10 days. Efficacy of azithromycin mono and combination therapy with miltefosine was evaluated clinically, parasitologically and by examination of the cutaneous lesions by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The current work demonstrated superior activity of oral azithromycin over oral miltefosine in the treatment of experimentally infected mice with Leishmania major (MHOM/IL/81/FEBNI). Unfortunately, oral combination therapy of azithromycin and miltefosine for short duration though, induced dramatic clinical improvement yet, relapse rapidly developed after cessation of therapy. Oral azithromycin could be a promising oral antileishmanial agent. Further research is recommended to investigate its leishmanicidal activity against other Leishmania species thus; another alternative oral therapy for leishmaniasis can be rapidly available. PMID:27413324

  11. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk. PMID:26856914

  12. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk.

  13. Experimental models in vaccine research: malaria and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C; Gomes, R

    2013-02-01

    Animal models have a long history of being useful tools, not only to test and select vaccines, but also to help understand the elaborate details of the immune response that follows infection. Different models have been extensively used to investigate putative immunological correlates of protection against parasitic diseases that are important to reach a successful vaccine. The greatest challenge has been the improvement and adaptation of these models to reflect the reality of human disease and the screening of vaccine candidates capable of overcoming the challenge of natural transmission. This review will discuss the advantages and challenges of using experimental animal models for vaccine development and how the knowledge achieved can be extrapolated to human disease by looking into two important parasitic diseases: malaria and leishmaniasis.

  14. Leishmaniasis vaccines: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Modabber, Farrokh

    2010-11-01

    No vaccine exists against any form of leishmaniasis. Because recovery from infection is usually accompanied by a strong immunity and because it is possible to protect experimental animals against live challenge, hope for the development of a vaccine for humans has been high. However, leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor and the market for a vaccine is very limited. Until a few years ago, with minimal resources, only a pragmatic approach was possible for testing the first-generation vaccines (i.e. killed whole parasites). Recently, funding has become available for developing defined second-generation vaccines, including recombinant proteins and DNA constructs. With new adjuvants also being developed there is new hope, and several new vaccines are in development against leishmaniasis.

  15. Investigational Drugs for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The armamentarium of antileishmanials is small. It is further being threatened by development of resistance and decreasing sensitivity to the available drugs. Development of newer drugs are sorely needed. Areas covered Literature search on investigational drugs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was done on PubMed. Those candidates with at least in vitro and in vivo activity against leishmania species causing VL were reviewed. Among the investigational drugs the nitroimidazole compound fexinidazole is the one of the few drugs which has reached phase II trials. Although the (S)-PA-824 is in phase II trials for the treatment of tuberculosis its R enantiomer has shown good antileishmanial activity. Development of sitamaquin, which has completed phase II studies has been stopped for VL due to its low efficacy. Many novel delivery system and oral formulations of Amphotericin B which are cheap and less toxic are in investigational stages, and will go a long way in improving the treatment of VL. Expert opinion Very few new drugs have reached the clinical stage in the treatment of this neglected tropical disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for support from public private partnerships to ensure that drug candidates are promptly taken forward into development. PMID:25409760

  16. Application of Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease caused by leishmania species. Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir of VL. A number of methods and antigen-based assays are used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. However, currently available methods are mainly based on direct examination of tissues for the presence of parasites, which is highly invasive. A variety of serological tests are commonly applied for VL diagnosis, including indirect fluorescence antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, direct agglutination test, Western-blotting, and immunochromatographic test. However, when soluble antigens are used, serological tests are less specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. Several studies have attempted to replace soluble antigens with recombinant proteins to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of the immunodiagnostic tests. Major technological advances in recombinant antigens as reagents for the serological diagnosis of VL have led to high sensitivity and specificity of these serological tests. A great number of recombinant proteins have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of leishmania infection in dogs, the major reservoir of L. infantum. Although few recombinant proteins with high efficacy provide reasonable results for the diagnosis of human and canine VL, more optimization is still needed for the appropriate antigens to provide high-throughput performance. This review aims to explore the application of different recombinant proteins for the serodiagnosis of VL in humans and dogs. PMID:26883952

  17. Post-Genomic Research on Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Paul M.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientific conferences, a major feature of academic life, rarely provide the opportunity for self appraisal of a research field. During a recent meeting on leishmaniasis research in the post-genomic era, ~60 researchers participated in group discussions that aimed to provide a critical self-appraisal of the state of the field and to highlight major roadblocks likely to prevent translation of new research into tools for leishmaniasis control. These discussions demonstrated a surprising concordance of views and highlighted a number of critical areas for future development. PMID:18684668

  18. Reemergence of Canine Echinococcus granulosus Infection, Wales

    PubMed Central

    Buishi, Imad; Walters, Tom; Guildea, Zoë; Palmer, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of large-scale outdoor slaughter of sheep during the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United Kingdom and the possibility of increased risk for transmission of Echinococcus granulosus between sheep and dogs, a large survey of canine echinococcosis was undertaken in mid-Wales in 2002. An Echinococcus coproantigen-positive rate of 8.1% (94/1,164) was recorded on 22% of farms surveyed, which compares to a rate of 3.4% obtained in the same region in 1993. Positivity rates between FMD-affected properties and unaffected ones did not differ significantly. Significant risk factors for positive results in farm dogs were allowing dogs to roam free and the infrequent dosing (>4-month intervals) of dogs with praziquantel. When these data are compared to those of a previous pilot hydatid control program in the area (1983–1989), an increase in transmission to humans appears probable. PMID:15829195

  19. Entomological investigation following the resurgence of human visceral leishmaniasis in southern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benallal, K; Gassen, B; Bouiba, L; Depaquit, J; Harrat, Z

    2013-12-01

    Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are the main endemic vector born diseases in Algeria. In the Hoggar region (extreme south of the country) human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is known to be sporadic but during the last decade the number of cases has increased significantly. In 2010, a peak of HVL cases was registered mostly among children. Therefore an entomological survey and a retrospective study on HVL cases were carried out in order to explore the transmission of the disease. Among the sand fly caught Phlebotomus bergeroti was the most frequent species (68%) followed by Sergentomyia schwetzi (22%). In this work we describe the presence of Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) kazeruni for the first time in the Hoggar region.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Tanure, Aline; Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  1. Leishmania tropica in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) in a focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Jaffe, Charles L; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Warburg, Alon; King, Roni; Svobodova, Milena; Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania tropica, has recently emerged in urban and rural foci of central and northern Israel, and constitutes a major public health concern. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the suspected natural reservoir, were trapped in the cutaneous leishmaniasis urban focus of Maale Adumim in central Israel and evaluated for L. tropica infection by real-time kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology. Real-time PCR on blood and computerized western blot serology analysis was positive for L. tropica in 58% and 80%, respectively, of the hyraxes tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 region indicated that similar genotypes were present in humans and hyraxes from the same habitat. The high rates of infection and exposure to L. tropica among hyraxes supports their involvement in the transmission cycle of this parasite, and their potential role as a reservoir for human disease.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  3. Seroepidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis in south and southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, A; Berhe, N; Sisay, Z; Abraham, I; Medhin, G

    1996-01-01

    Sero-epidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis were carried out in eight localities of South and Southwest Ethiopia between the July 1989 and June 1992. A total number of 4870 subjects comprising semi-pastoral nomads, peasants and farm labourers were included in the study. Areas of high and low leishmanin skin test positivity were identified, with rates varying from 1.0-80.5%. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine prevalence of antileishmanial antibodies. The rates varied from 1.8% to 27.8%. Age and sex related serological and leishmanin skin test profiles are described. Correlation analysis of serological and leishmanin skin test was made for data in each locality. The relationships between seroprevalence, leishmanin skin test rates and prevalence of active visceral leishmaniasis and the implications on degrees of endemicity and patterns of transmission are discussed. PMID:8674496

  4. Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent: Modelling Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Picado, Albert; Ostyn, Bart; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Duerr, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. This model was used to predict the effects of different intervention strategies. Methods and Findings Parameters on the natural history of Leishmania infection were estimated based on a literature review and expert opinion or drawn from a community intervention trial (the KALANET project). The transmission dynamic of Leishmania donovani is rather slow, mainly due to its long incubation period and the potentially long persistence of parasites in infected humans. Cellular immunity as measured by the Leishmanin skin test (LST) lasts on average for roughly one year, and re-infection occurs in intervals of about two years, with variation not specified. The model suggests that transmission of L. donovani is predominantly maintained by asymptomatically infected hosts. Only patients with symptomatic disease were eligible for treatment; thus, in contrast to vector control, the treatment of cases had almost no effect on the overall intensity of transmission. Conclusions Treatment of Kala-azar is necessary on the level of the individual patient but may have little effect on transmission of parasites. In contrast, vector control or exposure prophylaxis has the potential to efficiently reduce transmission of parasites. Based on these findings, control of VL should pay more attention to vector-related interventions. Cases of PKDL may appear after years and may initiate a new outbreak of disease; interventions should therefore be long enough, combined with an active case detection and include effective treatment. PMID:22140589

  5. Absence of canine papillomavirus sequences in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sardon, D; Blundell, R; Burrai, G P; Alberti, A; Tore, G; Passino, E Sanna; Antuofermo, E

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in human breast cancer tissue; however, it remains controversial as to whether these viruses play a role in the aetiology of this tumour. There has been minimal study of whether PVs are found in normal or abnormal mammary glands of animals. The present study investigated whether a PV sequence could be found in the mammary glands of 33 female dogs by rolling circle amplification and polymerase chain reaction. No PV DNA was found in normal or neoplastic canine mammary tissues, suggesting that canine PVs are probably not involved in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia. PMID:25435511

  6. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Carrillo, Eugenia; Martorell, Susanna; Todolí, Felicitat; Ojeda, Ana; Martínez-Flórez, Alba; Urniza, Alicia; Moreno, Javier; Alberola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI) in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease. PMID:27171409

  7. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Eugenia; Martorell, Susanna; Todolí, Felicitat; Martínez-Flórez, Alba; Urniza, Alicia; Moreno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI) in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease. PMID:27171409

  8. Social and Economic Burden of Human Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Leishmaniasis continues to pose a major public health problem worldwide. With new epidemics occurring in endemic areas and the spread of the disease to previously free areas because of migration, tourism, and military activities, there is a great need for the development of an effective vaccine. Leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor, occurring mostly in remote rural villages with poor housing and little or no access to modern health-care facilities. In endemic areas, diagnosis of any form of leishmaniasis puts a huge financial strain on an already meagre financial resource at both the individual and community levels. Most often families need to sell their assets (land and livestock) or take loans from informal financial outfits with heavy interest rates to pay for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. Here, we discuss the disease with special emphasis on its socioeconomic impact on the affected individual and community. In addition, we highlight the reasons why continued research aimed at developing an effective Leishmania vaccine is necessary. PMID:26787156

  9. Ocular Leishmaniasis Treated by Intralesional Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Nikandish, Malihe; Goyonlo, Vahid Mashayekhi; Taheri, Ahmad Reza; Kiafar, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases with varied clinical manifestations. Ocular involvement is an unusual presentation of leishmaniasis, and the eyelid is not a common site of cutaneous lesions, likely due to the mobility of the lids. Some case reports of conjunctival involvement are either a contiguous dissemination from lid margin or in the setting of disseminated leishmaniasis in an immunocompromised host. To our knowledge, isolated involvement of the bulbar conjunctiva has not been reported. We present the first case in the literature of a patient with an erythematous fibrovascular lesion in the interpalpebral zone that was clinically diagnosed as pterygium, but recurred at the site of surgical excision. After histopathologic diagnosis, the lesion was treated with intralesional injection of amphotericin B and improved completely within a few weeks. An accurate diagnosis of leishmaniasis in the eye may be challenging in many clinical settings. To our knowledge, an isolated pterygium.like lesion has not been reported in literature. In addition, intralesional injection of amphotericin B is a novel treatment method in this setting. PMID:26957858

  10. Recent updates and perspectives on leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Dianella

    2015-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne tropical infection considered to be a disease of the poor. Concentrated in poverty-stricken countries within Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Latin America, it is also endemic in several Mediterranean countries. The management of the heterogeneous syndromes determined by parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania is particularly difficult in developed, non-endemic countries owing to the unfamiliarity of physicians with clinical symptoms, diagnostic possibilities, and available treatment options. Therefore, travelers and other people who may be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. Serological diagnosis is rarely used for cutaneous and mucocutaneous diseases, but it is the most commonly used technique for visceral leishmaniasis. The drugs used to treat this last disease are expensive and sometimes have toxic side effects. This review highlights the diagnostic, chemotherapeutic, and immunizing strategies to control leishmaniasis, though no human vaccine is commercially available currently owing to the complexity of the cellular immune response to this parasite. PMID:26142667

  11. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; Chicharro, Carmen; Negreira, Sagrario; Galán, Pilar; Pérez-Gorricho, Beatriz; Calvo, Cristina; Prieto, Luis; De la Parte, María; Otheo, Enrique; Vivanco, Jose Luis; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocitosis (HLH) syndrome can be a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A multicenter prospective study was conducted to determine the frequency of HLH syndrome in children with VL. Twenty-four children with VL were identified, and 10 (41%) developed HLH syndrome. VL should be ruled out in all children with HLH criteria living in or coming from endemic areas.

  12. New approaches from nanomedicine for treating leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Víctor; Seabra, Amedea B; Reguera, Rosa M; Khandare, Jayant; Calderón, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis, a vector-borne disease caused by obligate intramacrophage protozoa, threatens 350 million people in 98 countries around the world. There are already 12 million infected people worldwide and two million new cases occur annually. Leishmaniasis has three main clinical presentations: cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML), and visceral (VL). It is considered an opportunistic, infectious disease and the HIV-leishmaniasis correlation is well known. Antimonial compounds are used as first-line treatment drugs, but their toxicity, which can be extremely high, leads to a number of undesirable side effects and resultant failure of the patients to adhere to treatment. There is also a reported increase in Leishmania sp. resistance to these drugs. Nanotechnology has emerged as an attractive alternative because of its improved bioavailability and lower toxicity, and other characteristics that help to relieve the burden of this disease. In this review we will present some of the recent advances in the nanotechnological research regarding the treatment of leishmaniasis. The preclinical results regarding the approaches for a biomedical treatment of the disease have been encouraging, but further efforts will still be necessary for this therapy to have greater clinical applicability in humans.

  13. Visceral leishmaniasis in a Scottish child.

    PubMed Central

    Galea, P; Goel, K M

    1990-01-01

    A Scottish girl acquired visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) while on holiday in Majorca. She presented with the infection, six months later, in Scotland. Because of inexperience with the disease and a degree of scepticism unnecessary investigations were carried out resulting in a delay in treatment. Images p1270-a PMID:2248543

  14. Social and Economic Burden of Human Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Leishmaniasis continues to pose a major public health problem worldwide. With new epidemics occurring in endemic areas and the spread of the disease to previously free areas because of migration, tourism, and military activities, there is a great need for the development of an effective vaccine. Leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor, occurring mostly in remote rural villages with poor housing and little or no access to modern health-care facilities. In endemic areas, diagnosis of any form of leishmaniasis puts a huge financial strain on an already meagre financial resource at both the individual and community levels. Most often families need to sell their assets (land and livestock) or take loans from informal financial outfits with heavy interest rates to pay for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. Here, we discuss the disease with special emphasis on its socioeconomic impact on the affected individual and community. In addition, we highlight the reasons why continued research aimed at developing an effective Leishmania vaccine is necessary.

  15. [Visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV positive patient].

    PubMed

    Rossiere-Echazarreta, Natalia Lorena; Rodríguez-Campos, Esther Alicia; Morales-Esponda, Mario; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Cruz-Ortiz, Margarita; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Leoncio Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la leishmaniasis visceral o kala azar es la presentación clínica más grave. En México, es una enfermedad rara por lo que su diagnóstico es tardío y generalmente culmina en la muerte del paciente. Se describe a un paciente VIH positivo que desarrolló leishmaniasis visceral. El objetivo es explicar sus características fisiopatológicas y de su tratamiento. Caso clínico: hombre de 45 años de edad, quien ingresó al hospital por cuadro crónico de diarrea sanguinolenta, distensión abdominal, dolor tipo cólico, pérdida de peso y fiebre. A la exploración física se identificó paciente febril con dolor en fosa iliaca derecha y hepatoesplenomegalia. La prueba ELISA para VIH resultó positiva y el ultrasonido hizo evidente una tumoración en ciego, por lo que se realizó biopsia. El informe histopatológico indicó que se trataba de leishmaniasis. Conclusiones: en los pacientes con leishmaniasis e infección por VIH existe pobre respuesta al tratamiento y la mortalidad es alta, causada por la menor respuesta inmune del huésped. En la literatura especializada se sugiere el tratamiento establecido para la infección por VIH combinado con miltefosine y anfotericina B liposomal para la leishmaniasis.

  16. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. Results To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88). From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). Conclusions This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk

  17. Proteinuria reduction after treatment with miltefosine and allopurinol in dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Perego, and Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in proteinuria in dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis, following treatment with miltefosine (MLF) and allopurinol. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 40 dogs with leishmaniasis, treated with 2 mg/kg MLF every 24 h PO and 10 mg/kg allopurinol every 12 h for 28 days were reviewed. 20 dogs were included in the study, and clinical staging was performed following guidelines of the Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) Working Group, and dogs were categorized for proteinuria according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) staging system. Clinical score, indirect fluorescent antibody test titer, serum total protein, gamma globulin (IgG), serum creatinine and urea concentration, and urine protein creatinine ratio (UP/C) were recorded at the time of diagnosis before the start of therapy (D0) and at the end of 28 days of therapy (D28). Results: Following the CanL Working Group staging, all 20 dogs were classified as the clinical Stage C (Clinical disease) before and after the cycle of treatment. Before the cycle of therapy, dogs were categorized according to the IRIS staging system, as: 9/20 non-proteinuric (NP), 7/20 borderline proteinuric (BP), and 4/20 proteinuric (P). After treatment, 12/20 dogs were NP, 7/20 were BP, and 1/20 was P. There was a significant change in UP/C values before and after one cycle of treatment with MLF. In detail, after 28 days of therapy, 2 of 9 NP dogs became BP, 3 of the 7 BP dogs became NP, and 2 of the 4 P dogs became NP. Conclusion: This study showed a significant decrease in UP/C values occurred after one cycle of treatment with MLF and allopurinol in dogs naturally affected with CanL. This suggests that MLF does not increase proteinuria, and the use of MLF could be considered for the management of dogs with leishmaniasis, particularly in those with impaired renal function at the time of diagnosis.

  18. Proteinuria reduction after treatment with miltefosine and allopurinol in dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Perego, and Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in proteinuria in dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis, following treatment with miltefosine (MLF) and allopurinol. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 40 dogs with leishmaniasis, treated with 2 mg/kg MLF every 24 h PO and 10 mg/kg allopurinol every 12 h for 28 days were reviewed. 20 dogs were included in the study, and clinical staging was performed following guidelines of the Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) Working Group, and dogs were categorized for proteinuria according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) staging system. Clinical score, indirect fluorescent antibody test titer, serum total protein, gamma globulin (IgG), serum creatinine and urea concentration, and urine protein creatinine ratio (UP/C) were recorded at the time of diagnosis before the start of therapy (D0) and at the end of 28 days of therapy (D28). Results: Following the CanL Working Group staging, all 20 dogs were classified as the clinical Stage C (Clinical disease) before and after the cycle of treatment. Before the cycle of therapy, dogs were categorized according to the IRIS staging system, as: 9/20 non-proteinuric (NP), 7/20 borderline proteinuric (BP), and 4/20 proteinuric (P). After treatment, 12/20 dogs were NP, 7/20 were BP, and 1/20 was P. There was a significant change in UP/C values before and after one cycle of treatment with MLF. In detail, after 28 days of therapy, 2 of 9 NP dogs became BP, 3 of the 7 BP dogs became NP, and 2 of the 4 P dogs became NP. Conclusion: This study showed a significant decrease in UP/C values occurred after one cycle of treatment with MLF and allopurinol in dogs naturally affected with CanL. This suggests that MLF does not increase proteinuria, and the use of MLF could be considered for the management of dogs with leishmaniasis, particularly in those with impaired renal function at the time of diagnosis. PMID:27651682

  19. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present. The general situation of the leishmaniasis in Thailand is hereby reviewed. Although Thailand is a tropical country, the leishmaniasis is not endemic but sporadic. The imported cases are documented in some literatures. The serious form of leishmaniasis, the visceral leishmaniasis is also detectable in Thailand. Also, the author performed an in depth literature review of the reports of bone marrow leishmaniasis, a specific kind of visceral leishmaniasis, in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this infection among Thai patients. According to this review, there have been at least 5 reports in the literature of 6 cases of bone marrow leishmaniasis in the Thai population, of which no case was lethal. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all except had prolonged fever with unknown origin. From physical examination, all had hepatosplenomegaly. The striking findings were active hemophagocytosis with increased proliferation of lymphoidplasma cell line in the bone marrow and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani was demonstrated. Considering the treatment, pantavalent antimony compound was used and the excellent improvement and complete recovery. Finally, the author also discussed on the importance of leishmaniasis in Thailand relating to the present globalization and good traveling system.

  20. Canine hypoadrenocorticism: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Susan C.; Peterson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) has been referred to as “the great pretender,” due to its ability to mimic other common diseases in the dog and thereby represent a diagnostic challenge. Naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism is an uncommon canine disease. Young, female dogs are overrepresented. Hypoadrenocorticism typically results from immune-mediated destruction of all adrenocortical layers, resulting in deficiencies of min-eralocorticoids (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol). A small number of dogs suffer from glucocorticoid deficiency only. Dogs suffering from hypoadrenocorticism may present in a variety of conditions, from a mildly ill dog to a shocky and recumbent dog. This review discusses etiology, pathophysiology, history, physical examination findings, and diagnostic findings in the Addisonian patient. A follow-up article (Part II) will discuss the definitive diagnosis and management strategies for these patients. PMID:20357943

  1. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

  2. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Ayesha; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Qadir, Abdul; Sabir, Arshad Makhdoom

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis make the disease a public health concern in Punjab, Pakistan. The knowledge of how the population perceives the disease and its vector is essential in order to design an effective management strategy, but such studies are rare in Pakistan. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study was based on a cross-sectional self-administered survey comprising 250 household samples collected from five localities including Bhawalpur, Multan, Jhang, Faisalabad and Lahore. The results revealed that the respondents had a poor knowledge of the vector and disease. Few of the respondents were aware about the identification of sand flies, their breeding place, biting time, transmission of leishmaniasis and control measures. Skin infection and sandflies as the main disease symptom and vector of the disease, respectively, were known to some of the respondents. Some believed that summer was the main peak incidence of the disease and it could be transmitted from man to man via contact. However, most of the respondents believed that the disease could be cured. Admission to hospitals, cleanliness and use of bed nets were the treatment measures for the disease in suspected patients, whereas some thought that the use of bed nets could be helpful in preventing leishmaniasis infection. Conclusions/Significance Poor knowledge of the disease and its vector in the study population emphasize the need to initiate health education and awareness campaigns to minimize the risks of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future. PMID:26090870

  3. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  4. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Mascari, Thomas M.; Hanafi, Hanafi A.; Jackson, Ryan E.; Ouahabi, Souâd; Ameur, Btissam; Faraj, Chafika; Obenauer, Peter J.; Diclaro, Joseph W.; Foil, Lane D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods. The specific larval food source is unknown for all but a few sand fly species, and this is particularly true for the vectors of Leishmania parasites. We provide methods and materials that could be used to understand, and ultimately break, the transmission cycle of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet, without having to locate or capture the sand fly larvae themselves. In a field trial, we also demonstrated using this technique that half of captured adult sand flies had fed as larvae on rodent feces. Through the identification of rodent feces as a sand fly larval habitat, we now know that rodent baits containing insecticides that have been shown in previous studies to pass into the rodents' feces and kill sand fly larvae also could play a future role in sand fly control. In a second study we showed that rubidium incorporated into rodent baits could be used to demonstrate the level of bloodfeeding by sand flies on baited rodents, and that the elimination of sand flies that feed on rodents can be achieved using baits containing an insecticide that circulates in the blood of baited rodents. Conclusions Combined, the techniques described could help to identify larval food sources of other important vectors of the protozoa that cause visceral or dermal leishmaniasis. Unveiling aspects of the life cycles of sand flies that could be targeted with insecticides would guide future sand fly control programs for prevention of leishmaniasis. PMID:24069489

  5. Multi-modal Analysis of Courtship Behaviour in the Old World Leishmaniasis Vector Phlebotomus argentipes

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Daniel P.; Yaman, Khatijah; Underhilll, Beryl A.; Mitchell, Fraser; Carter, Victoria; Hamilton, James G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is arguably the most important vector of leishmaniasis worldwide. As there is no vaccine against the parasites that cause leishmaniasis, disease prevention focuses on control of the insect vector. Understanding reproductive behaviour will be essential to controlling populations of P. argentipes, and developing new strategies for reducing leishmaniasis transmission. Through statistical analysis of male-female interactions, this study provides a detailed description of P. argentipes courtship, and behaviours critical to mating success are highlighted. The potential for a role of cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship is also investigated, by comparing chemicals extracted from the surface of male and female flies. Principal Findings P. argentipes courtship shared many similarities with that of both Phlebotomus papatasi and the New World leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Male wing-flapping while approaching the female during courtship predicted mating success, and touching between males and females was a common and frequent occurrence. Both sexes were able to reject a potential partner. Significant differences were found in the profile of chemicals extracted from the surface of males and females. Results of GC analysis indicate that female extracts contained a number of peaks with relatively short retention times not present in males. Extracts from males had higher peaks for chemicals with relatively long retention times. Conclusions The importance of male approach flapping suggests that production of audio signals through wing beating, or dispersal of sex pheromones, are important to mating in this species. Frequent touching as a means of communication, and the differences in the chemical profiles extracted from males and females, may also indicate a role for cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship. Comparing characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mates could aid in identifying the

  6. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in a US citizen.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joseph W; Milner, Danny A; Maguire, James H

    2003-11-01

    Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is endemic to many areas of Central and South America. A case of MCL in a US citizen is reported here. An ulcer appeared on the patient's left hard palate, years after a working trip to Peru. Punch biopsies of the lesion were obtained, Leishmania promastigotes were isolated by culture and animal inoculation, and the patient was appropriately treated. As this case demonstrates, a patient's travel history is a key element in making a differential diagnosis of oral lesions.

  7. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement "La Cabaña", in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011.The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n=654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n=7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n=3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n=2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n=1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168-3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in "La Cabaña".

  8. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement “La Cabaña”, in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011. The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n = 654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n = 7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n = 3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n = 2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n = 1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168–3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in “La Cabaña”. PMID:25917717

  9. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the D...

  10. Climate and Leishmaniasis in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Amaury; Nacher, Mathieu; Hanf, Matthieu; Drogoul, Anne Sophie; Adenis, Antoine; Basurko, Celia; Dufour, Julie; Sainte Marie, Dominique; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stephane; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    To study the link between climatic variables and the incidence of leishmaniasis a study was conducted in Cayenne, French Guiana. Patients infected between January 1994 and December 2010. Meteorological data were studied in relation to the incidence of leishmaniasis using an ARIMA model. In the final model, the infections were negatively correlated with rainfall (with a 2-month lag) and with the number of days with rainfall > 50 mm (lags of 4 and 7 months). The variables that were positively correlated were temperature and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index with lags of 8 and 4 months, respectively. Significantly greater correlations were observed in March for rainfall and in November for the Multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index. Climate thus seems to be a non-negligible explanatory variable for the fluctuations of leishmaniasis. A decrease in rainfall is linked to increased cases 2 months later. This easily perceptible point could lead to an interesting prevention message. PMID:23939706

  11. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  12. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  13. Bayesian Geostatistical Modeling of Leishmaniasis Incidence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Scholte, Ronaldo G. C.; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. Methodology We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001–2010). Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Principal Findings For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676) for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288) for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence. PMID:23675545

  14. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  15. Complexities of Assessing the Disease Burden Attributable to Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Maguire, James H.; Alvar, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to the burden, and introduce further complexities. Leishmaniasis occurs globally, but has disproportionate impact in the Horn of Africa, South Asia and Brazil (for visceral leishmaniasis), and Latin America, Central Asia, and southwestern Asia (for cutaneous leishmaniasis). Disease characteristics and challenges for control are reviewed for each of these foci. We recommend review of reliable secondary data sources and collection of baseline active survey data to improve current disease burden estimates, plus the improvement or establishment of effective surveillance systems to monitor the impact of control efforts. PMID:18958165

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ≥ 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (≥1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (≥1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ≥ 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph

  17. Leishmaniasis Gone Viral: Social Media and an Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Mongkolrattanothai, Kanokporn; Nadipuram, Santhosh M; Krakowski, Andrew C; Stone, Margaret M; Krogstad, Paul; Lehman, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    This report details how social media communication was used in a group of teens to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis that they acquired during a trip to Israel. Their posts quickly brought the cluster to the attention of the teens and their parents, leading to prompt recognition of the true etiology of their lesions and appropriate treatment. PMID:27469423

  18. Epitope Mapping of the HSP83.1 Protein of Leishmania braziliensis Discloses Novel Targets for Immunodiagnosis of Tegumentary and Visceral Clinical Forms of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Gold standard serological diagnostic methods focus on antigens that elicit a strong humoral immune response that is specific to a certain pathogen. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are conserved among Leishmania species but are divergent from the host species Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris and from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, to select potential targets for the immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. Using these criteria, we selected heat shock protein 83.1 of Leishmania braziliensis for this study. We predicted three linear B-cell epitopes in its sequence. These peptides and the recombinant heat shock protein 83.1 (rHSP83.1) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against serum samples from patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and from dogs infected with Leishmania infantum (canine VL [CVL]). Our data show that rHSP83.1 is a promising target in the diagnosis of TL. We also identified specific epitopes derived from HSP83.1 that can be used in the diagnosis of human TL (peptide 3), both human and canine VL (peptides 1 and 3), and all TL, VL, and CVL clinical manifestations (peptide 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP83.1 and peptides 1 and 3 compared to that of the soluble L. braziliensis antigen and the reference test kit for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC kit; Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz). Our study thus provides proof-of-principle evidence of the feasibility of using bioinformatics to identify novel targets for the immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases using proteins that are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:24807053

  19. Seroepidemiological and entomological survey in a new focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Kars province, Northeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Barış; Limoncu, M Emin; Balcioglu, I Cuneyt; Aldemir, Adnan; Tasci, Gencay Taskin; Kiliç, Yunus; Toz, Seray; Demirci, Berna; Demir, Samiye; Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2015-04-30

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has now been recorded from 38 provinces of Turkey. Twenty-one VL cases were reported within six years from settlements located in most northeastern Turkey and we therefore aimed to carry out an entomological and seroepidemiological survey in this new focus for clarifying risk factors. Blood samples from 290 children and 165 dogs were collected. Sera samples were investigated for anti-Leishmania antibodies using indirect fluorescent antibody test. Sand fly collection for determining the fauna and seasonal activity was performed in all settlements by CDC light traps between June and September 2006. Although no seropositive child was detected during the survey the overall seroprevalence rate of canine leishmaniasis was found as 7.2%. A total of 4154 sand flies were collected and 10 species of genus Phlebotomus were identified belonging to Adlerius, Larroussius, Paraphlebotomus and Phlebotomus subgenera. Among them Phlebotomus kandelakii s.l. (55.44%), Phlebotomus balcanicus (12.62%) and Phlebotomus neglectus (4.40%) was detected as probable vector species for this new focus. The poor sanitation, very high population size of sand flies, probably because of very short season, no control measures for sand flies as well as dogs, and presence of microclimate suitable for sand flies were considered as main risk factors in the area.

  20. Seroepidemiological and entomological survey in a new focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Kars province, Northeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Barış; Limoncu, M Emin; Balcioglu, I Cuneyt; Aldemir, Adnan; Tasci, Gencay Taskin; Kiliç, Yunus; Toz, Seray; Demirci, Berna; Demir, Samiye; Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2015-04-30

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has now been recorded from 38 provinces of Turkey. Twenty-one VL cases were reported within six years from settlements located in most northeastern Turkey and we therefore aimed to carry out an entomological and seroepidemiological survey in this new focus for clarifying risk factors. Blood samples from 290 children and 165 dogs were collected. Sera samples were investigated for anti-Leishmania antibodies using indirect fluorescent antibody test. Sand fly collection for determining the fauna and seasonal activity was performed in all settlements by CDC light traps between June and September 2006. Although no seropositive child was detected during the survey the overall seroprevalence rate of canine leishmaniasis was found as 7.2%. A total of 4154 sand flies were collected and 10 species of genus Phlebotomus were identified belonging to Adlerius, Larroussius, Paraphlebotomus and Phlebotomus subgenera. Among them Phlebotomus kandelakii s.l. (55.44%), Phlebotomus balcanicus (12.62%) and Phlebotomus neglectus (4.40%) was detected as probable vector species for this new focus. The poor sanitation, very high population size of sand flies, probably because of very short season, no control measures for sand flies as well as dogs, and presence of microclimate suitable for sand flies were considered as main risk factors in the area. PMID:25769470

  1. Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709

  2. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Vaccination: A Matter of Quality

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Paula Mello; Macedo, Amanda Beatriz Barreto

    2016-01-01

    There have been exhaustive efforts to develop an efficient vaccine against leishmaniasis. Factors like host and parasite genetic characteristics, virulence, epidemiological scenarios, and, mainly, diverse immune responses triggered by Leishmania species make the achievement of this aim a complex task. It is already clear that the induction of a Th1, pro-inflammatory response, is important in the protection against Leishmania infection. However, many questions must still be answered to fully understand Leishmania immunopathology, especially regarding Leishmania-specific Th1 response induction, regulation, and persistence. A large number of Leishmania antigens able to induce pro-inflammatory response have been selected so far, but none of them demonstrated efficiency in protection assays. A possible explanation is that CD4 T cells display marked heterogeneity at a single-cell level especially regarding the production of Th1-defining cytokines and multifunctionality. It has been established in the literature that Th1 cells undergo a differentiation process, which can generate cells with diverse phenotypes and survival capabilities. Despite that, only a few studies evaluate this heterogenic response and the amount of multifunctional CD4 T cells induced by Leishmania vaccine candidates, missing what can be a crucial point in defining a correlate of protection after vaccination. Moreover, most of the knowledge involving the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) vaccines comes from the mouse model of infection with Leishmania major, which cannot be fully applied to New World Leishmaniasis. For this reason, the immune response triggered by infection with New World Leishmania species, as well as vaccine candidates, need further studies. In this review, we will reinforce the importance of evaluating the quality of immune response against Leishmania, using a multiparametric analysis in order to understand better this complex host-parasite interaction, discussing the

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-01

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  4. First Molecular Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. Conclusion The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL. PMID:22724036

  5. Immune regulation during chronic visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Rebecca J; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M; Engwerda, Christian R

    2014-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed.

  6. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; Annajar, Badereddin B.; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  7. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; Annajar, Badereddin B; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A Townsend

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country.

  8. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; Annajar, Badereddin B; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A Townsend

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  9. Current developments in canine genetics.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified. PMID:20690545

  10. [Prevention and control of leishmaniasis vectors: current approaches].

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Khoury, C

    2004-06-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the suspected or proven vectors of Leishmania spp. in at least 88 countries, including over 40 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and a further 30 belonging to the genus Lutzomyia in the New World. In recent years, both cutaneous (CL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) have become increasingly prevalent in urban areas, including large Latin American cities. A similar trend has been recorded in all Mediterranean areas during the last decade. Based on mathematical models, insecticidal control of sandflies appears to represent a more effective way of reducing Leishmania infantum transmission than the present strategy of culling infected dogs in Latin America as well as being more acceptable to the human population. Since man is a dead-end host of most Leishmania species, treatment of existing human cases generally does not affect transmission. Interruption of the cycle by vector control may offer a cheaper, more practical solution to treatment and improved knowledge of the alternatives available could lead to preventative measures being undertaken in more leishmaniasis foci. In this note a review of current knowledge on sandfly control is presented. Different measures to control phlebotomine sandflies, including residual spraying of dwellings and animal shelters, insecticide treated nets, application of repellents/insecticides to skin or to fabrics and impregnated dog collars are discussed. Although effective in urban areas with high concentrations of sandflies, residual spraying of insecticides is no often longer tenable in most situations. In rural areas where dwellings are more dispersed and surrounded by large, untargeted "reservoir" populations of sandflies, residual spraying of houses may be both impractical for logistic reasons and ineffective. Actually, this control measure depends on the availability of a suitable public health infrastructure, including adequate supplies of insecticide, spraying

  11. Eco-epidemiological survey of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ribeira Valley River, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2005-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed. PMID:15652328

  12. Animal models for the study of leishmaniasis immunology.

    PubMed

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers ("low" 1 × 10(2) and "high" 1 × 10(6)) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  13. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  14. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  15. Natural Products: Insights into Leishmaniasis Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Verônica; Alves, Renan L.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade; Pinheiro, Anderson S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that affects several populations worldwide, against which there are no vaccines available and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Depending on the species causing the infection, the disease is characterized by commitment of tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. Despite the relevance of host inflammatory mediators on parasite burden control, Leishmania and host immune cells interaction may generate an exacerbated proinflammatory response that plays an important role in the development of leishmaniasis clinical manifestations. Plant-derived natural products have been recognized as bioactive agents with several properties, including anti-protozoal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present review focuses on the antileishmanial activity of plant-derived natural products that are able to modulate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The capability of crude extracts and some isolated substances in promoting an anti-inflammatory response during Leishmania infection may be used as part of an effective strategy to fight the disease. PMID:26538837

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Basrah Villages, South Iraq.

    PubMed

    Jarallah, Hind Mahdi

    2014-12-01

    CL in Iraq is caused by both Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica. Marshes Villages of Basrah province south Iraq are regarded as a rural area. A total of 35 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases 12 (34.28%) females and 23(65.71%) males were clinically registered from April 2013 to March 2014 in Health Care Center of Basrah Marshes Villages, South of Iraq are reported and investigated. All patients were parasitologically confirmed by stained smears and culture, the main clinical features were ulcerations. Number of cutaneous lesions per patients ranged from 1 to 5 with different lesions' size from 3x3 mm to 25x25 mm in diameter. Amastigotes form were detected in all cases 35 (100%), while promastigotes from were found in culture sample of 29 (82.8%) cases. The results were analyzed and evaluated. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Basrah marshes villages may differ from other regions because of the difference of the Leishmania strains, people life style, behaviors and difference in vectors and reservoir hosts.

  17. Review of the Risks of Some Canine Zoonoses from Free-Roaming Dogs in the Post-Disaster Setting of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Garde, Elena; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-roaming dogs are seldom considered an important public health risk following natural disasters in developing regions. With the high number of recognized canine zoonoses and evidence of increased transmission of some significant diseases this is a risk that may be being overlooked. Communities with free-roaming dogs and endemic canine zoonoses of importance should be developing appropriate community preparedness and response plans to mitigate the occurrence of increased transmission following disasters. Abstract In the absence of humane and sustainable control strategies for free-roaming dogs (FRD) and the lack of effective disaster preparedness planning in developing regions of the world, the occurrence of canine zoonoses is a potentially important yet unrecognized issue. The existence of large populations of FRDs in Latin America predisposes communities to a host of public health problems that are all potentially exacerbated following disasters due to social and environmental disturbances. There are hundreds of recognized canine zoonoses but a paucity of recommendations for the mitigation of the risk of emergence following disasters. Although some of the symptoms of diseases most commonly reported in human populations following disasters resemble a host of canine zoonoses, there is little mention in key public health documents of FRDs posing any significant risk. We highlight five neglected canine zoonoses of importance in Latin America, and offer recommendations for pre- and post-disaster preparedness and planning to assist in mitigation of the transmission of canine zoonoses arising from FRDs following disasters.

  18. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2012-05-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

  19. Histological study of cell migration in the dermis of hamsters after immunisation with two different vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2009-04-15

    Vaccine candidates, including live and/or killed parasites, Leishmania-purified fractions, defined recombinant antigens and antigen-encoding DNA-plasmids have been proposed to use as vaccine anti-Leishmania. More recently, the hamsters have been used to pre-selection of antigens candidate to apply in further experiments using canine model. In this report we evaluated the kinetics of cell migration in dermal inflammatory infiltrate, circulating leukocytes and the presence of nitric oxide (NO)/induced nitric oxide synthase during the early (1-24h) and late (48-168h) periods following inoculation of hamsters with antigenic components of anti-canine visceral leishmaniasis vaccines Leishmune and Leishmania braziliensis antigen (LB) with and without saponin (Sap) adjuvant. Our results show that LB caused an early reduction of lymphocytes in the dermis while Sap and LBSap triggered a late recruitment, suggesting the role of the adjuvant in the traffic of antigen-presenting cells and the induction of lymphocyte migration. In that manner our results suggest that the kinetics of cell migration on hamster model may be of value in the selection of vaccine antigens prior the tests in dogs particularly in respect of the toxicity of the preparations.

  20. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species.

  1. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species. PMID:23805791

  2. A gp63 based vaccine candidate against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sukrat; Sundaram, Shanthy; Singh, Anand Prakash; Tripathi, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a macrophage associated disorder which leads to a profound decrease in the natural immunotherapeutic potential of the infected subjects to combat the disease. The major surface glycoprotein gp63 has been found to be a significant vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis. The current study addresses the levels of similarity and identity in the gp63 obtained from different species of Leishmania viz donovoni, chagasi and infantum linked to the cause of visceral leishmaniasis. The results from BLAST, Phylogram and Cladogram studies indicate significant identity, similarity and conservation of important residues in the protein which lead us to conclude that a common gp63 based vaccine can be used as a therapeutical tool against visceral leishmaniasis caused by different species strains of leishmania. PMID:21383918

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: immune responses in protection and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Phillip; Novais, Fernanda O

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major public health problem and causes a range of diseases from self-healing infections to chronic disfiguring disease. Currently, there is no vaccine for leishmaniasis, and drug therapy is often ineffective. Since the discovery of CD4(+) T helper 1 (TH1) cells and TH2 cells 30 years ago, studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice have answered basic immunological questions concerning the development and maintenance of CD4(+) T cell subsets. However, new strategies for controlling the human disease have not been forthcoming. Nevertheless, advances in our knowledge of the cells that participate in protection against Leishmania infection and the cells that mediate increased pathology have highlighted new approaches for vaccine development and immunotherapy. In this Review, we discuss the early events associated with infection, the CD4(+) T cells that mediate protective immunity and the pathological role that CD8(+) T cells can have in cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:27424773

  4. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  5. First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: a review of field efficacy trials.

    PubMed

    Noazin, Sassan; Modabber, Farrokh; Khamesipour, Ali; Smith, Peter G; Moulton, Lawrence H; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Sharifi, Iraj; Khalil, Eltahir A G; Bernal, Ivan Dario Velez; Antunes, Carlos M F; Kieny, Marie Paule; Tanner, Marcel

    2008-12-01

    First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and several studies showed reasonable immunogenicity and some indication of protection, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is yet to be identified. Despite this overall failure, these trials contributed significantly to increasing knowledge on human leishmaniasis immunology. To provide a collective view, this review discusses the methods and findings of field efficacy trials of first generation leishmaniasis vaccine clinical trials conducted in the Old and New Worlds.

  6. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F. N.; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed. PMID:26266250

  7. Environmental factors associated with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a new Andean focus in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, C. B.; Ferro, M. C.; Cadena, H.; Gongora, R.; Pérez, M.; Valderrama-Ardila, C. H.; Quinnell, R. J.; Alexander, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the environmental and ecological factors associated with Leishmania transmission and vector abundance in Chaparral, Tolima-Colombia. METHODS First, we compared the ecological characteristics, abundance of phlebotomies and potential reservoir hosts in the peridomestic environment (100 m radius) of randomly selected houses, between two townships with high and low cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence. Second, we examined peridomestic correlates of phlebotomine abundance in all 43 houses in the higher risk township. RESULTS The high transmission township had higher coverage of forest (23% vs. 8.4%) and shade coffee (30.7% vs. 11%), and less coffee monoculture (16.8% vs. 26.2%) and pasture (6.3% vs. 12.3%), compared to the low transmission township. Lutzomyia were more abundant in the high transmission township 2.5 vs. 0.2/trap/night. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most common species in both townships: 1021/1450 (70%) and 39/80 (49%). Numbers of potential wild mammal reservoirs were small, although four species were found to be infected with Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In the high transmission township, the overall peridomiciliary capture rate of L. longiflocosa was 1.5/trap/night, and the abundance was higher in houses located nearer to forest (ρ = −0.30, P = 0.05). CONCLUSION The findings are consistent with a domestic transmission cycle with the phlebotomies dependent on dense vegetation near the house. PMID:22882595

  8. Sex Hormones and Modulation of Immunity against Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Heidi; Lezama-Davila, Claudio; Alexander, James; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-associated hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have all been shown to modulate immune responses, which can result in differential disease outcomes between males and females, as well as between pregnant and nonpregnant females. Most parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, usually result in more severe disease in males compared with females. This review highlights our current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones in modulating leishmaniasis in both clinical settings and experimental disease models. PMID:19212130

  9. Interdisciplinary approach to palatally impacted canine

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ashish; Loomba, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Sharma, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. The article highlights the salient features and various surgical and orthodontic considerations to approach cases with impacted canines. It is exemplified with a case in which a palatally impacted canine and a highly placed canine in the buccal vestibule have been surgically intervened and orthodontically extruded with sequential traction and aligned in the arch. PMID:22442552

  10. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. PMID:26973063

  11. Canine histiocytic neoplasia: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Amanda K.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2007-01-01

    Canine histiocytic neoplasms include cutaneous histiocytoma, as well as localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. These tumors have variable biologic behavior, although the malignant disorders often have a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry plays an essential role in differentiating histiocytic tumors from other neoplasias that may have similar histological appearances. This allows a definitive diagnosis to be established and provides a more accurate prediction of prognosis. This article reviews the biologic behavior, diagnosis, and treatment of histiocytic tumors in the dog. PMID:17987966

  12. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  13. Visceral leishmaniasis in zoo and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tayse Domingues; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2014-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Although the domestic dog is the main vertebrate host, many zoo and wild mammal species have been diagnosed with L. infantum infection, especially in endemic areas. There are many available diagnostic approaches, including serological, parasitological and molecular tests. Among wild animals, carnivores and primates are more often clinically affected, with some species, such as the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) being especially susceptible to development of clinical signs. There are also reports and research articles of VL in felids, rodents, and marsupials. This work aims to review the occurrence of VL in zoo and wildlife and raise awareness of its importance in the field of conservational veterinary medicine.

  14. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  15. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in Northern Argentina: distribution of infection and disease, in three municipalities of Salta, 1990-1992.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Estani, S; Segura, E L; Salomón, O D; Gómez, A; Peralta, M; Coutada, V; Ruiz, L M

    2000-01-01

    This work describes the epidemiological pattern of tegumentary leishmaniasis in an area north of Salta, Argentina. The prevalence and incidence were estimated by means of a cross-sectional study and two follow-up studies during two consecutive years. The Montenegro Skin Test (MST) was administered to 7336 subjects at baseline. The prevalence and incidence between 1990 and 1992 of infection (MST reactive) was 38 per mil persons and 4.5 per mil persons/year respectively. The prevalence and incidence of tegumentary leishmaniasis (presence of clinical signs) was 1.8 per mil and 0.8 per mil persons/year, respectively. A physical examination performed on 264 patients with MST reactive during three years revealed that 130 cases (49.2%) had some evident sign of infection (scar and/or lesion), with a clinical presentation compatible with leishmaniasis. Our study demonstrated that after the epidemic outbreak of 1985 the transmission in the study area returned to endemic levels in 1992, and also demonstrated the presence of the asymptomatic infection in the area.

  16. Report of the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) consortium meeting, New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)―a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27–29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report. PMID:23819611

  17. Environmental Risk Factors for the Incidence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Sub-Andean Zone of Colombia (Chaparral, Tolima)

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marín, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R.; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5–4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km2, 95% CI = 7–41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence. PMID:20134000

  18. Environmental risk factors for the incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a sub-Andean zone of Colombia (Chaparral, Tolima).

    PubMed

    Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Ferro, Cristina; Cadena, Horacio; Marín, Dairo; Holford, Theodore R; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ocampo, Clara B

    2010-02-01

    Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5-4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km(2), 95% CI = 7-41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence.

  19. [Necessity to adopt and disseminate therapeutic schemes for the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Paraná].

    PubMed

    Teodoro, U; Spinoza, R P; La Salvia Filho, V; Guilherme, A L; Lima, A P; Junqueira, G M; Misuta, N M; Nerilo Sobrinho, A; de Lima, E M

    1991-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis has shown an endemic character in areas of North-North-west Paraná State, which were populated in 40's, where residual forests persist with intense modifications. The infection has been found mainly in males, but was found also in females and children and in many individuals of a same family. 513 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis notified to SUCAM by clinical diagnosis were investigated. Treatment was begun with Glucantime at State Health Centers or at SUCAM. Of 513 treated patients 260 (50.67%) were considered clinically cured. The remaining 253 (49.33%) abandoned treatment. The quantity of Glucantime supplied to the patients varied from 10 vials to more than 200, with or without intervals during the treatment. Two hundred and seventeen (85.46%) patients among 260 received from 10 to 75 vials. The occurrence of leishmaniasis in 163 (31.75%) women and in 34 (6.62%) children, of both sexes, up to 10 years old, suggests domiciliary transmission. It's not known if the 253 (49.33%) individuals who abandoned the treatment recovered. This high number shows the necessity of better knowledge of the consequences that can occur due to incomplete treatment.

  20. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Konstantinos V.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; McDonald, Michael; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Davison, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154) isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp) and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp) that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively). The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease. PMID:27213534

  1. Visceral kala-azar associated with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Agrawal, S K; Jha, T K

    1989-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis associated with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is very rare. We are reporting one such case which incidentally is the seventh case so far reported from Indian sub-continent. PMID:2808294

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Mauro Maciel de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Mauro Maciel de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL.

  5. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS FROM AN AREA PREVIOUSLY NOT KNOWN TO BE ENDEMIC; DANGUR, BENSHANGUL-GUMUZ, REGIONAL STATE, NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Abera, Adugna; Tasew, Geremew; Degu, Abay; Almneh, Mulusew; Mulugeta, Abate; Aseffa, Abraham; Gadisa, Endalamaw

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a ftial and growing public health problem in Ethiopia. VL is recently reported outside the major endemic foci, the lowlands in the northwest and the Omo and Abaroba-plain, Segen and Woito valleys in the southwest. Here, we report a visceral leishmaniasis case from Benishangul-Gumuz Regional state near the Guba area. The patient had no history of travel to known VL endemic areas. The patient is a temporary farm laborer from West Go'jam Zone, Wanbermna District in Amhara Regional State. While in Benishangul-Gumuz, the patient was diagnosed with prolonged and intermittentfever, epistaxis, splenomegaly, skin pallor, diarrhea, cough and oedema. Laboratory diagnosis results showed that he had marked leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The patient was suspected of having VL and checked with rK39 immunochromnatography and direct agglutination tests which were positive for anti leishmanial antibodies. After getting full dose of sodium stibogluconate as per the national visceral leishmaniasis treatment guideline, was clinically cured. As the area in Benshangul-Gumuz where this patient contracted visceral leishmaniasis is under social and ecological transformation with large scale projects attracting huge influx of temporary laborers and settlers, due attention is needed with respect to introduction or emergence of VL transmission. PMID:27191028

  6. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  7. [Chronic lupoid leishmaniasis. A rare differential diagnosis in Germany for erythematous infiltrative facial plaques].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, A; Wohlrab, J; Sudeck, H; Burchard, G-D; Marsch, W C

    2007-03-01

    Lupoid leishmaniasis is a unique form of cutaneous leishmaniasis characterized by unusual clinical features and a chronic relapsing course. Clinically and histologically it is similar to lupus vulgaris, which is thus the most important differential diagnostic consideration. All patients with granulomatous facial lesions coming from endemic areas or with a positive travel history should be suspected of having leishmaniasis. We describe a 59-year-old woman with facial lupoid leishmaniasis. PMID:16670926

  8. Uveitis secondary to leishmaniasis immune reconstitution syndrome in a HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Davies, Olubanke; Allen, Felicity; Gruener, Anna M; Simons, Rebecca; Graham, Elizabeth M; Larbalestier, Nick

    2016-06-01

    We describe the case of a HIV-positive patient treated for visceral leishmaniasis who developed uveitis as part of a leishmaniasis immune reconstitution syndrome. Visceral leishmaniasis is increasingly found in HIV-positive adults. Its ophthalmic manifestations can range from relatively minor to complicated anterior uveitis, leading to secondary glaucoma and loss of vision. Clinicians caring for people living with HIV should be alert to the complications of leishmaniasis that can occur before and during treatment. PMID:26002317

  9. Epidemiology of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Hoyos, Carlos L.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Marco, Jorge D.; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M.; Cayo, Melina; Torrejón, Irma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Nasser, Julio R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endemic areas of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) in Salta, Argentina, present some overlap zones with the geographical distribution of Chagas disease, with mixed infection cases being often detected. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of Leishmania sp. infection and potential associated risk factors, the serologic prevalence of T. cruzi, and the presence of T. cruzi-Leishmania sp. mixed infection in a region of the northwest of Argentina. Methods. Cross-sectional studies were conducted to detect TL prevalence and T. cruzi seroprevalence. A case-control study was conducted to examine leishmaniasis risk factors. Results. Prevalence of TL was 0.17%, seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was 9.73%, and mixed infection proportion—within the leishmaniasic patients group—was 16.67%. The risk factors associated with TL transmission were sex, age, exposure to bites at work, staying outdoors more than 10 hours/day, bathing in the river, and living with people who had lesions or were infected during the study. Discussion. The endemic pattern of TL seems to involve exposure of patients to vectors in wild as well as peridomestic environment. Cases of T. cruzi infection are apparently due to migration. Therefore, a careful epidemiological surveillance is necessary due to the contraindication of antimonial administration to chagasic patients. PMID:27777950

  10. An analysis of reported cases of leishmaniasis in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    Olalla, Hector R; Velez, Lenin N; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Caceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Zambrano, Flavio C; Romero-Álvarez, Daniel A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed using the data registered in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region during 27 years from 1986 to 2012. The cases/subjects with both the suspected CL lesions and the amastigote-positive results were recruited for the analysis. The yearly occurrence of cases showed a markedly higher number during the six years, 1988 and 1993. After 1994 when the insecticide spraying campaign using helicopter in 1993-1994, the number dropped remarkably. Then, the yearly occurrence gradually fluctuated from 101 cases in 1996 to 11 in 2009, maintaining a low number of cases after the campaign. The monthly occurrence of cases showed a markedly high number during March and August, suggesting a correlation to the rainy season (months) in the areas. A statistical significance was found between the monthly average number of the CL case and the average precipitation (p=0.01474). It was suggested that the time of transmission of CL would depend on the rainy seasons at each endemic area of Ecuador, which has a diverse climatic feature depending on the geographic regions. Such information at given leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador would be important for the future planning of the disease control. Molecular analysis and characterization of clinical samples revealed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:25796313

  11. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Paraguayan Communities, Patients, and Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Ruoti, Mónica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orué, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A.; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M.; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Krentel, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. PMID:23690792

  12. An analysis of reported cases of leishmaniasis in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    Olalla, Hector R; Velez, Lenin N; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Caceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Zambrano, Flavio C; Romero-Álvarez, Daniel A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed using the data registered in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region during 27 years from 1986 to 2012. The cases/subjects with both the suspected CL lesions and the amastigote-positive results were recruited for the analysis. The yearly occurrence of cases showed a markedly higher number during the six years, 1988 and 1993. After 1994 when the insecticide spraying campaign using helicopter in 1993-1994, the number dropped remarkably. Then, the yearly occurrence gradually fluctuated from 101 cases in 1996 to 11 in 2009, maintaining a low number of cases after the campaign. The monthly occurrence of cases showed a markedly high number during March and August, suggesting a correlation to the rainy season (months) in the areas. A statistical significance was found between the monthly average number of the CL case and the average precipitation (p=0.01474). It was suggested that the time of transmission of CL would depend on the rainy seasons at each endemic area of Ecuador, which has a diverse climatic feature depending on the geographic regions. Such information at given leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador would be important for the future planning of the disease control. Molecular analysis and characterization of clinical samples revealed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

  13. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    ARAUJO, Andreina de Carvalho; GONÇALVES, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; DANTAS-TORRES, Filipe; FERREIRA, Fernando; HORTA, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  14. Malnutrition, age and the risk of parasitic disease: visceral leishmaniasis revisited.

    PubMed

    Dye, C; Williams, B G

    1993-10-22

    Children are said to be at greater risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL) when they are younger and more malnourished. If malnutrition really is associated with VL, this potentially fatal and visible disease may be a general indicator of community health among the rural and suburban poor. Previous conclusions reached about the roles of malnutrition and age in VL epidemiology are questionable because they may have been confounded by transmission rate, because they have not been able to distinguish between different mechanisms of acquiring immunity, and because empirical observations have not been compared with theoretical expectations. Here we offer a framework with which to investigate these questions quantitatively, and do so with published data from endemic areas of Brazil. We conclude that children are indeed more susceptible to VL when they are younger and more malnourished, but it remains unclear whether the immunity to VL acquired with age is always acquired as a result of infection. The significance for leishmaniasis control, and for the control of other diseases associated with malnutrition, will depend on underlying mechanisms, which are not yet understood.

  15. Challenges in visceral leishmaniasis control and elimination in the developing countries: A review.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Tadesse; Yimer, Mulat; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan that affects animals and human. Transmission is zoonotic and/or anthroponotic through the bite of an infected female sandfly. Control and elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) require proper case detection, identification of reservoir hosts, and launching of effective vector control strategies in endemic areas. The aim of this review was to highlight the challenges in VL control in developing countries. Literatures pertaining to VL burden, diagnosis, prevention and control from the year 1969 to 2014 were systematically reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Medline and Google scholar sources during July 2015. Poor vector control strategies, limited diagnostic services, drugs, treatments and lack of community awareness are the most important challenges in VL control and elimination especially in endemic areas. Absence of highly sensitive and specific tests, lack of trained man power, and community awareness are the major challenges in VL control. Therefore, proper case diagnosis, community mobilization and launching of effective vector control strategies in endemic areas are vital. PMID:27681541

  16. Predicted Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis Vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae; Phlebotominae) in Iran: A Niche Model Study.

    PubMed

    Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Rassi, Y; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Haghdoost, A A; Akhavan, A A; Charrahy, Z; Karimi, A

    2015-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important vector-borne disease in Iran. Till now, Leishmania infantum has been detected from five species of sand flies in the country including Phlebotomus kandelakii, Phlebotomus major s.l., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus alexandri and Phlebotomus tobbi. Also, Phlebotomus keshishiani was found to be infected with Leishmania parasites. This study aimed at predicting the probable niches and distribution of vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. Data on spatial distribution studies of sand flies were obtained from Iranian database on sand flies. Sample points were included in data from faunistic studies on sand flies conducted during 1995-2013. MaxEnt software was used to predict the appropriate ecological niches for given species, using climatic and topographical data. Distribution maps were prepared and classified in ArcGIS to find main ecological niches of the vectors and hot spots for VL transmission in Iran. Phlebotomus kandelakii, Ph. major s.l. and Ph. alexandri seem to have played a more important role in VL transmission in Iran, so this study focuses on them. Representations of MaxEnt model for probability of distribution of the studied sand flies showed high contribution of climatological and topographical variables to predict the potential distribution of three vector species. Isothermality was found to be an environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation for Ph. kandelakii and Ph. major s.l., while for Ph. alexandri, the most effective variable was precipitation of the coldest quarter. The results of this study present the first prediction on distribution of sand fly vectors of VL in Iran. The predicted distributions were matched with the disease-endemic areas in the country, while it was found that there were some unaffected areas with the potential transmission. More comprehensive studies are recommended on the ecology and vector competence of VL vectors in the country. PMID:26032232

  17. Complete genome sequence of an avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from dogs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Song, Dae-Sub

    2012-09-01

    An avian-origin Korean H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strain, designated A/canine/Korea/01/2007 (H3N2), was isolated from nasal swabs of pet dogs exhibiting severe respiratory syndrome in 2007. In the present study, we report the first complete genome sequence containing 3' and 5' noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 CIV, which will provide important insights into the molecular basis of pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of CIV.

  18. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) in leishmaniasis. I. TNF alpha mediates host protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Liew, F Y; Parkinson, C; Millott, S; Severn, A; Carrier, M

    1990-01-01

    Genetically resistant CBA mice developed significantly larger lesions to Leishmania major infection when they were injected with rabbit anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-specific antibodies compared to control mice injected with normal rabbit immunoglobulin. BALB/c mice recovered from a previous infection following prophylactic sublethal irradiation also developed exacerbated lesions when treated with the anti-TNF antibody. Injection of TNF into the lesion of infected CBA mice significantly reduced the lesion development. Furthermore, TNF activates macrophages to kill Leishmania in vitro. These data demonstrate that TNF plays an important role in mediating host-protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:2335376

  19. [American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo, 1993 to 2005].

    PubMed

    Condino, Maria Lúcia Fadel; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Holcman, Márcia Moreira; Salum, Maria Rafaela Braga; Silva, Diogo Correa da; Novaes Júnior, René Antonio

    2008-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired epidemic characteristics on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo beginning in the 1990s. From secondary data, a descriptive study of the disease in the four municipalities making up this region over the period from 1993 to 2005 was conducted. The frequency of phlebotomine capture in the probable transmission locations was analyzed. 689 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified, with single and grouped cases, thus determining that the spatial distribution was heterogenous. There was synchronism and cyclicity of disease manifestation, at intervals of six to eight years. All ages were affected, with slight predominance among males, without association with any specific occupation. Among the 2,758 phlebotomines captured, Nyssomyia intermedia predominated (80.4%) inside homes and in areas surrounding them. The disease presented a transmission profile inside homes and in areas surrounding them, between the urban fringe and forests, and inside forests. In such cases, transmission would be more related to enzootic foci.

  20. Regulation of PKC mediated signaling by calcium during visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  1. [The impact of climate change on leishmaniasis in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Chrystian Soares; Coelho, Alexandre Bragança; Féres, José Gustavo; Souza, Elvanio Costa de; Cunha, Dênis Antônio da

    2016-01-01

    This paper sought to assess how climate change will affect the proliferation of leishmaniasis in Brazil in three time frames: 2010-2039, 2040-2079 and 2080-2100, and with two climate change scenarios. The relation of temperature, precipitation and the number of hospital admissions due to leishmaniasis was estimated and projections were made using these results. Results show that precipitation has a strong relation with leishmaniasis incidence and projections show that by the end of the twenty-first century there will be a 15% growth in the annual number of hospital admissions due to leishmaniasis in Brazil, compared to the base scenario (1992-2002). In regional terms, projections indicate growth in every region, with the exception of the Mid-West. The highest relative growth will be in the South of the country, while the highest increase in absolute terms will be observed in the Northeast region. In general, the incidence of leishmaniasis will grow in Brazil due to climate change.

  2. Wave transmission characteristics and anisotropy of canine carotid arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moritz, W. E.; Anliker, M.

    1974-01-01

    A method was developed to generate and record three types of small amplitude waves (pressure, torsion and axial) in the exposed carotid artery of anesthetized dogs. The pressure waves were studied with the aid of miniature pressure transducers; electro-optical tracking units monitored the axial and circumferential surface displacements. Results from 6 dogs are presented in the form of the phase velocities and attenuation of three types of waves. The data demonstrate incompatibility with an isotropic elastic model for the mechanical behavior of the artery. The measured damping appears to be primarily due to the viscoelastic properties of the vessel wall material.

  3. Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg

    2013-02-27

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts.

  4. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure.

  5. Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

  6. Evaluation of immune responses and analysis of the effect of vaccination of the Leishmania major recombinant ribosomal proteins L3 or L5 in two different murine models of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Laura; Santos, Diego M; Souza, Ana P; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Barral, Aldina; Alonso, Carlos; Escutia, Marta R; Bonay, Pedro; de Oliveira, Camila I; Soto, Manuel

    2013-02-18

    Four new antigenic proteins located in Leishmania ribosomes have been characterized: S4, S6, L3 and L5. Recombinant versions of the four ribosomal proteins from Leishmania major were recognized by sera from human and canine patients suffering different clinical forms of leishmaniasis. The prophylactic properties of these proteins were first studied in the experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major inoculation into BALB/c mice. The administration of two of them, LmL3 or LmL5 combined with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) was able to protect BALB/c mice against L. major infection. Vaccinated mice showed smaller lesions and parasite burden compared to mice inoculated with vaccine diluent or vaccine adjuvant. Protection was correlated with an antigen-specific increased production of IFN-γ paralleled by a decrease of the antigen-specific IL-10 mediated response in protected mice relative to non-protected controls. Further, it was demonstrated that BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant LmL3 or LmL5 plus CpG-ODN were also protected against the development of cutaneous lesions following inoculation of L. braziliensis. Together, data presented here indicate that LmL3 or LmL5 ribosomal proteins combined with Th1 inducing adjuvants, may be relevant components of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by distinct species.

  7. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a new host cell in latent leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N

    2011-09-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs have been isolated, cultured, characterized, and infected with different species of Leishmania parasites (L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum). Infectivity was examined by Giemsa staining, microculture, and polymerase chain reaction methods. As a result, infectivity of ADMSCs by Leishmania parasites has been determined for the first time in this study. According to our findings, it is very important that donors are screened for Leishmania parasites before stem cell transplantations in regions where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:21896818

  8. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D.; Adler, Gregory H.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  9. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    PubMed

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America.

  10. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    PubMed

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  11. [Diversity of phlebotominae in an endemic zone of american visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Traviezo Valles, Luis Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the ecology of phlebotominae in the population of La Rinconada, in the state of Lara, Venezuela, endemic zone of Leishmaniasis, where cases of American Visceral Leshmaniasis (AVL) have been described, a longitudinal study was conducted during five months, and the presence of phlebotominae was identified one night per month in the surrounding areas of a home where an AVL case had been reported. Six species were found, of which only two were anthropophilic. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis (90%), the abundance peak was observed in July - a dry month preceding the rainiest months of the year. Although in our sample we have not found any evidence that phlebotominae were infected by Leishmania; evidence presented is important for a better understanding of a vector that participates in AVL transmission. PMID:23338636

  12. Geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand flies in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakila, Ashraf; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Salim, Azra; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is found in all the four provinces of Pakistan; these are NWFP, Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. In Balochistan the areas from where the patients came are Uthal, Quetta and Ormara. The highest number of patients came from Quetta and least from Ormara. The patients included in this study were from the Mangopir and Chakewara, areas of Karachi. The infection is endemic in this country and the recent epidemics in the Dadu District and Nawabshah indicate its importance in the locality. The sand fly vector is found in all four provinces of Pakistan that are listed here. It is quite obvious that presence of leishmaniasis indicates the presence of sand flies and cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common.

  13. Measures to Control Phlebotomus argentipes and Visceral Leishmaniasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, DeAnna C.; Poché, Richard M.; Garlapati, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease that is transmitted via the bite of a female sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes. The highest burden of this disease is in northern India. In 2005, India embarked on an initiative with Nepal, Bangladesh, and the World Health Organization to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis by 2015. With the goal of 1 case in 10,000 people still unmet, it is prudent to evaluate the tools that have been used thus far to reduce vector numbers and cases of the disease. Herein, we present a review of studies conducted on vector-control strategies in India to combat visceral leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, environmental modification, and feed-through insecticides. This review suggests that the quality of indoor residual spraying may enhance control measures while a combination of spraying, nets, and feed-through insecticides would best confront the diverse habitats of P. argentipes. PMID:27308270

  14. [The Elba triad: harara, light dermatoses, leishmaniasis. The ecological background].

    PubMed

    Krampitz, H E

    1981-05-01

    A report is given on a travel to Elba, the largest island of the Tuscany archepelago (Italy) and a holiday place preferred by German speaking tourists. In the last years some cases of visceral leishmaniasis and oriental sores, respectively, were introduced to Germany from this island. The geoecological background of this development was investigated. Reproduction and spread of the most abundant sandfly species Phlebotomus (Laroussius) perniciosus favour ruinous buildings, actually used as animal shelters sometimes in the immediate vicinity of new tourist bungalows. A typical allergic response upon sandfly bites occurs in almost all of the newcomers. This skin irritation is wellknown as urticaria multiformis endemica of Harara. Local people and tourists connect this itching disorder with certain types of sun trauma and do not take notice of their real etiology. Cortisone treatment in severe cases may facilitate the start of simultaneously transmitted leishmaniasis. The possible epidemiological role, which the dog travelling to southern countries in connection with leishmaniasis plays, is considered.

  15. Effects of P-MAPA immunomodulator on Toll-like receptor 2, ROS, nitric oxide, MAPKp38 and IKK in PBMC and macrophages from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, L M; Perosso, J; Almeida, B F M; Silva, K L O; Somenzari, M A; de Lima, V M F

    2014-02-01

    Leishmania (L.) chagasi is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that can be transmitted to humans and dogs. VL in Brazil represents a serious public health problem; therefore, it is important to study new alternatives to treat infected dogs. In dogs, the therapeutic arsenal against canine VL is limited. The immunomodulator protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) improves immunocompetence when the immune system is impaired, but its dependence on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the mechanisms involved in immune response remain unclear. The in vitro action of P-MAPA on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and IKK phosphorylation was studied in mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and macrophages from healthy and Leishmania-infected dogs. The PBMC or macrophages were isolated and cultured with different concentrations of P-MAPA (20,100 and 200 μg/ml) in a humid environment at 37°C with 5% CO(2). Observation revealed that Leishmania-infected dogs showed a decrease in TLR2 in macrophages compared with healthy dogs and in induction with P-MAPA. ROS were increased in PBMCs from Leishmania spp.-infected dogs compared with healthy dogs and P-MAPA improved ROS production. NO production was increased in culture supernatant from macrophages stimulated by P-MAPA in both healthy and Leishmania spp. infected dogs. Treatment of macrophages from healthy dogs with immunomodulatory P-MAPA induced p38 MAPK and IKK phosphorylation, suggesting signal transduction by this pathway. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as a therapeutic drug in the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  16. Amphotericin B lipid complex: in visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, David R; Perry, Caroline M

    2004-01-01

    Amphotericin B lipid complex is a lipid formulation of amphotericin B, an antifungal drug with activity against Leishmania spp. Amphotericin B lipid complex appears to enhance uptake of amphotericin B by infected macrophages in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In randomised, open-label, dose-ranging studies, short-course treatment with once-daily amphotericin B lipid complex (5-15 mg/kg total cumulative dose over 5 days), administered by intravenous infusion, produced high rates of apparent (day 19) [93-100%] and definitive (6 months) [79-100%] cures in Indian patients with antimonial-resistant VL. Amphotericin B lipid complex appeared to be as effective as liposomal amphotericin B or the conventional deoxycholate formulation in a randomised, open-label study conducted in India in a mixed population of patients with previously untreated or antimonial-resistant VL. In patients with HIV infection and VL, amphotericin B lipid complex 3 mg/kg/day for 5 or 10 days appeared to be as effective as meglumine antimonate 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days in a small randomised pilot study in southern Europe. Amphotericin B lipid complex was generally well tolerated in patients with VL. Infusion-related reactions were the most common adverse events associated with amphotericin B lipid complex.

  17. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control.

  18. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Central Asia and Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Darchenkova, N N

    1990-01-01

    At present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. The natural foci of VL are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. In southern areas of the Turkmen SSR the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. The reservoir of pathogen here may be Vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is Phlebotomus turanicus. In Kazakhstan cases of VL are encountered in the thickets of the Syr-Darya floodlands in Kzyl-Orda Province, where the natural reservoir of the pathogen are Canis aureus L. and Vulpes corsac, and the vector is P. smirnovi. Synanthropic foci in Dzhambul and Chimkent, where dogs were most likely the source of the infection and P. longiductus was the vector, are at present inactive. The maps have been plotted where landscape dissemination of mosquitoes (VL vectors) is compared to places of habitation of Canis aureus L. and VL incidence in humans at peaks of the disease endemia. Medical personnel should be on the look-out for VL on the whole territory with VL natural foci.

  19. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  20. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission.

  1. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. PMID:26978066

  2. Epidemiological status of leishmaniasis in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Shirzadi, M R; Esfahania, S B; Mohebalia, M; Ershadia, M R Y; Gharachorlo, F; Razavia, M R; Postigo, J A R

    2015-12-13

    Leishmaniasis has a long history in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This study aimed to show the trend in leishmaniasis incidence from 1983 to 2012 and to describe the epidemiological characteristics in 2012. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, data were extracted from th%e national leishmaniasis surveillance system for the 3 clinical types-cutaneous (zoonotic and anthroponotic) and visceral (zoonotic). The average annual number of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases was 18 884 (average annual incidence 32 cases per 100 000 inhabitants). In 2012 the highest incidences were in age groups 1-4 and 5-9-years (43 and 40 per 100 000), and more males (57%) than females (43%) were infected. The annual average number of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis cases was 175 (average annual incidence 0.18 per 100 000). The incidences of cutaneous and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis have decreased in recent years, which coincides with national leishmaniasis control efforts.

  3. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering.

    PubMed

    Kariyawasam, K K G D U L; Edirisuriya, C S; Senerath, U; Hensmen, D; Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunaweera, N D

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1-90 years (median  =  43  ±  17.31), low monthly income ( < 20 000 LKR, 52.8%) and a male to female ratio of 1 : 2. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed by light microscopy, culture and/or PCR with a disease prevalence of 1.68%. Spatial mapping provided evidence for significant case clustering, which tended to be more prominent with proximity to forest areas. The risk factors identified were un-plastered brick walls, absence or low usage of protective measures against insect bites, low income and excessive time (>4 hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200 m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease. PMID:26345305

  4. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering

    PubMed Central

    Kariyawasam, K. K. G. D. U. L.; Edirisuriya, C. S.; Senerath, U.; Hensmen, D.; Siriwardana, H. V. Y. D.; Karunaweera, N. D.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1–90 years (median  =  43  ±  17.31), low monthly income ( < 20 000 LKR, 52.8%) and a male to female ratio of 1 : 2. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed by light microscopy, culture and/or PCR with a disease prevalence of 1.68%. Spatial mapping provided evidence for significant case clustering, which tended to be more prominent with proximity to forest areas. The risk factors identified were un-plastered brick walls, absence or low usage of protective measures against insect bites, low income and excessive time (>4 hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200 m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease. PMID:26345305

  5. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research. PMID:23497410

  6. Canine size, shape, and bending strength in primates and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ruff, Christopher B

    2008-05-01

    Anthropoid primates are well known for their highly sexually dimorphic canine teeth, with males possessing canines that are up to 400% taller than those of females. Primate canine dimorphism has been extensively documented, with a consensus that large male primate canines serve as weapons for intrasexual competition, and some evidence that large female canines in some species may likewise function as weapons. However, apart from speculation that very tall male canines may be relatively weak and that seed predators have strong canines, the functional significance of primate canine shape has not been explored. Because carnivore canine shape and size are associated with killing style, this group provides a useful comparative baseline for primates. We evaluate primate maxillary canine tooth size, shape and relative bending strength against body size, skull size, and behavioral and demographic measures of male competition and sexual selection, and compare them to those of carnivores. We demonstrate that, relative to skull length and body mass, primate male canines are on average as large as or larger than those of similar sized carnivores. The range of primate female canine sizes embraces that of carnivores. Male and female primate canines are generally as strong as or stronger than those of carnivores. Although we find that seed-eating primates have relatively strong canines, we find no clear relationship between male primate canine strength and demographic or behavioral estimates of male competition or sexual selection, in spite of a strong relationship between these measures and canine crown height. This suggests either that most primate canines are selected to be very strong regardless of variation in behavior, or that primate canine shape is inherently strong enough to accommodate changes in crown height without compromising canine function.

  7. Diminished CD4+/CD25+ T cell and increased IFN-gamma levels occur in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix; Ikeda, Fabiana Augusta; Rossi, Cláudio N; Feitosa, Mary Marcondes; Vasconcelos, Rosemeride Oliveira; Nunes, Caris Maroni; Goto, Hiro

    2010-06-15

    The Leishmune vaccine has been used in endemic areas to prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, but cytokine production induced by vaccination has rarely been investigated in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response of dogs vaccinated with Leishmune FML vaccine (Fort Dodge) against total antigen of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (TAg) and FML. Twenty healthy dogs from Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic leishmaniasis area, received three consecutive subcutaneous injection of Leishmune vaccine at 21-day intervals. PBMC were isolated before and 10 days after completing vaccination and lymphoproliferative response and antibody production against FML or total promastigote antigen were tested. Cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-4 and TNF-alpha were measured in culture supernatant and CD4+/CD25+ and CD8+/CD25+ T cell presence was determined. Analysis of the data indicated that the vaccine conferred humoral responses (100%) against both antigens and cellular immunity to FML (85%) and total antigen (80%), the supernatant of cultured cells stimulated with TAg and FML showed an increase in IFN-gamma (P<0.05), and the vaccine reduced CD4+/CD25+ T cell presence compared to that observed before vaccination. These responses may constitute part of the immune mechanism induced by Leishmune.

  8. Global database of leishmaniasis occurrence locations, 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Messina, Jane P; Battle, Katherine E; Duda, Kirsten A; Balard, Yves; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine; Brownstein, John S; Freifeld, Clark C; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Madoff, Lawrence C; George, Dylan B; Myers, Monica F; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases of significant public health importance. However, information on their global occurrence is disparate and sparse. This database represents an attempt to collate reported leishmaniasis occurrences from 1960 to 2012. Methodology for the collection of data from the literature, abstraction of case locations and data processing procedures are described here. In addition, strain archives and online data resources were accessed. A total of 12,563 spatially and temporally unique occurrences of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis comprise the database, ranging in geographic scale from villages to states. These data can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses covering multiple resolutions.

  9. The evolutionary ecology of transmissible cancers.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Gatenby, Robert A; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Transmissible tumours, while rare, present a fascinating opportunity to examine the evolutionary dynamics of cancer as both an infectious agent and an exotic, invasive species. Only three naturally-occurring transmissible cancers have been observed so far in the wild: Tasmanian devil facial tumour diseases, canine transmissible venereal tumour, and clam leukaemia. Here, we define four conditions that are necessary and sufficient for direct passage of cancer cells between either vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. Successful transmission requires environment and behaviours that facilitate transfer of tumour cells between hosts including: tumour tissue properties that promote shedding of large numbers of malignant cells, tumour cell plasticity that permits their survival during transmission and growth in a new host, and a 'permissible' host or host tissue. This rare confluence of multiple host- and tumour cell-traits both explains the rarity of tumour cell transmission and provides novel insights into the dynamics that both promote and constrain their growth. PMID:26861618

  10. Etiology of maxillary canine impaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Becker, Adrian; Chaushu, Stella

    2015-10-01

    This article is a review that enumerates the causes of impaction of the maxillary permanent canines, including hard tissue obstructions, soft tissue lesions, and anomalies of neighboring teeth, and discusses the much-argued relationship between environmental and genetic factors. These phenomena have been shown in many investigations to accompany the diagnosis of canine impaction and have been presented as unrelated anomalous features, each of which is etiologically construed as genetic, including the aberrant canine itself. While in general the influence of genetics pervades the wider picture, a guidance theory proposes an alternative etiologic line of reasoning and interpretation of these studies, in which the same genetically determined anomalous features provide an abnormal milieu in which the canine is reared and from which it is guided in its misdirected and often abortive path of eruption. PMID:26432311

  11. Canine atopic dermatitis - what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Uri, Maarja; Halliwell, Richard

    2013-02-23

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a complex multifactorial disease. Here, Tim Nuttall, Maarja Uri and Richard Halliwell, representing three generations of veterinary dermatologists, describe the research underpinning our understanding of the condition and highlight its relevance to clinical practice.

  12. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  13. Clinicoepidemiologic pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis and molecular characterization of its causative agent in Hajjah governorate, northwest of Yemen.

    PubMed

    Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Khatri, Mishri Lal; Mukred, Abdualdaim M; Kassem, Hala A; El Sawaf, Bahira M; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-11-01

    The clinicoepidemiologic profile of 143 cases (93 males and 50 females) with cutaneous leishmaniasis from 18 villages of Hajjah governorate, Yemen was studied. Dry-type lesions were seen in 98.6% and wet-type lesions in 1.4% of patients. Lesions were localized in all cases with different morphological patterns. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slit smears revealed amastigotes in 74.1% of patients with dry-type lesions and 0% in patients with wet-type lesions. The burden of the parasites in the lesions was high indicating active transmission of the disease. Most cases were from villages with moderate altitude range (8001-1600m). All age groups were affected, but most cases were seen in ages from 5 to 15 years. Leishmania species identification was done for all cases by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The biopsic material was scraped from both Giemsa-stained and methanol-fixed smears. The molecular characterization of Leishmania species revealed Leishmania tropica as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hajjah, Yemen. The risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease and recommendations for improving case detection were discussed. PMID:27515810

  14. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-05-11

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama.

  15. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  16. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  17. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  18. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  19. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  20. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  1. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  2. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  3. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  4. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  5. Canine Cytogenetics - From band to basepair

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st Century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics ‘toolbox’ for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics. PMID:18467825

  6. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  7. [The cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face in Gafsa area, Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, A; Kitar, A; Rebai, M; Bouassida, S; Turki, H; Zahaf, A

    2005-12-01

    The cutaneous leishmaniasis is a frequent affection in Tunisia. In the Gafsa region it is a endemoepidemic infection. Our prospective study was carried out on 225 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face collected over two years in the outpatients' department of dermatology at Gafsa hospital. The aim of our study was to know more about the evolutive epidemio-clinical particularities of the cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face. The relative frequency of the cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face for the new patients reached 5%. An equal distribution between the two sexes was noted. The average age of our patients was 24 years old and 6 months old with extremes ranging from 3 months to 77 years. The nodular and ulcerated forms were the most frequent (35.3%), followed by impetiginoid forms (23%), then the lupoid forms (15%). The papular form was quite frequent (13%). Impetiginoid lesions occurred frequently in the child. Lupoid lesions appeared particularly on the nose. The complicated forms: the cutaneuos necrosis or erysipelas of the face appeared after intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). The intramuscular meglumine antimoniate was used in 172 patients, among them 47 needed two treatments or more because of a particular resistance of the lesions of the face. The pimple of Gafsa, term initially used for ulcerated skin nodules, was actually characterised by a lesional polymorphism. The prognosis was good however the risk of in aesthetic scar of the face was important. PMID:16425717

  8. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  9. Pharmacotherapy for leishmaniasis in the United States: focus on miltefosine.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Niyati H; Fujinami, Noriko; Shah, Punit J

    2015-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan infection native to various countries, including those in South America and Southeast Asia. Although the incidence of leishmaniasis is low in the United States, it is an important cause of infection in individuals traveling to endemic areas. Various treatment modalities are available, depending on their availability in the geographic region. In the United States, the treatment of choice is considered to be liposomal amphotericin, although other therapies have been explored. In 2014, miltefosine became the first orally available medication approved for the treatment of leishmaniasis in the United States. Based on available data, miltefosine is a first-line option for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Miltefosine is equally efficacious to and may be as tolerable as liposomal amphotericin B. The most common adverse effects of miltefosine are vomiting, diarrhea, and transient liver enzyme level elevation. Miltefosine has not been readily available in the United States due to marketing delays and is expected to become available later this year. In the meantime, the drug may be obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded-access investigational new drug protocol. PMID:25940658

  10. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  11. Reduced in vitro adherence of Staphylococcus species to feline corneocytes compared to canine and human corneocytes.

    PubMed

    Woolley, K L; Kelly, R F; Fazakerley, J; Williams, N J; Nuttall, T J; McEwan, N A

    2008-02-01

    It is apparent that in-contact humans and animals exchange commensal staphylococci. Previous in vitro studies, however, indicate that staphylococci preferentially adhere to corneocytes from host species. This study compared adherence of meticillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA), S. intermedius, S. felis and S. hominis to feline, canine and human corneocytes acquired from 10 healthy subjects using adhesive tape discs. Adherent bacteria were counted using an image processing and analysis programme. Mean adherence of MSSA (P = 0.0009), MRSA (P = 0.0162) and S. intermedius (P = 0.0117), but not S. felis or S. hominis, to feline corneocytes was significantly lower than that to canine and human corneocytes. All the isolates had similar adherence to both human and canine corneocytes. S. felis was the most adherent species to feline corneocytes followed by S. intermedius, and then MSSA, MRSA and S. hominis. For dogs and humans, S. intermedius and S. felis were the most adherent, followed by MRSA and MSSA, and then S. hominis. These results do not reveal any preferential adherence of staphylococci to canine or human corneocytes. Poor adherence to feline corneocytes could suggest that cats are relatively resistant to pyoderma and cross-species transmission of staphylococci.

  12. New serological tools for improved diagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lourena E; Salles, Beatriz C S; Alves, Patrícia T; Dias, Ana C S; Vaz, Emília R; Ramos, Fernanda F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Duarte, Mariana C; Roatt, Bruno M; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Tavares, Carlos A P; Gonçalves, Denise U; Rocha, Manoel O C; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-07-01

    Human tegumentary leishmaniasis (HTL), characterized by skin ulcers that may spread and cause dreadful and massive tissue destruction of the nose and mouth, is considered a neglected tropical disease, and it is a serious threat to global health due to its continuous expansion, favored by the lifecycle of its causative organism that is maintained in domestic animal reservoirs and anthropophilic sand fly species. Serodiagnosis of HTL is a great challenge due to many biological factors, including hampered specificity and/or sensitivity. This investigation addresses the unmet need for new diagnostic markers of HTL, and describes a simple platform to improve the serodiagnosis. A constrained conformational phage display random peptide library combined with a magnetic microsphere-based subtraction strategy was used to identify ligands with potential diagnostic applications. Six clones were selected against IgG antibodies from HTL patients, characterized by sequencing and confirmed by a phage-ELISA using sera from patients developing visceral leishmaniasis (n=20), Chagas disease (n=10), mucosal (n=30) and cutaneous (n=20) leishmaniasis; as well as from healthy subjects living in endemic (n=20) and non-endemic (n=30) areas of leishmaniasis. A wild-type M13-phage clone and a soluble Leishmania antigenic extract were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Three clones reached 100% sensitivity and specificity, without any cross-reactivity with sera from patients with leishmaniasis-related diseases. Briefly, we describe for the first time a set of serological markers based on three immunodominant mimotopes that showed 100% accuracy, and that could be used in a phage-ELISA assay for the HTL serodiagnosis.

  13. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  14. Impact of urbanization on the sand fly Phlebotomus langeroni nitzulescu in an old focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hala A; El Nogoumy, Nihad N; El Sawaf, Bahira M

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the environment often cause changes in disease transmission. Land use change especially urbanization can have a huge impact on transmission of vector-borne diseases. This study investigated the effect of urban development on the abundance of sand flies, in an old endemic focus of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the north coast of Egypt. Sand fly abundance obtained in this study was compared to those obtained in 1984. In context remote sensing techniques are used to identify landscape features that might have influenced the spatial distribution of the sand fly vector in the area. In 2005, sand flies were completely absent from El Agamy. Sand fly habitat in El Agamy entirely changed and was replaced by urban settlements. Through the analysis of satellite imagery taken before and after, land use/land cover modification together with entomological data, the factors underlying the bionomics of sand flies are discussed.

  15. The role of indigenous phlebotomine sandflies and mammals in the spreading of leishmaniasis agents in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, M; Gramiccia, M; Molina, R; Dvorak, V; Volf, P

    2013-01-01

    An updated view of the establishment and spread of the leishmaniases in Europe is presented, mostly with respect to newly emerging and re-emerging foci and the incrimination of neglected as well as new reservoir hosts. At the same time, a concept of specific versus permissive vectors reassesses the potential role of various sandfly species in Leishmania transmission and considers the risk of introduction of exotic Leishmania species in Europe. The leishmaniases are dynamic diseases and the circumstances of transmission are continually changing in relation to environmental, demographic and human behavioural factors. Changes in the habitat of the natural hosts and vectors, immunosuppressive conditions (like infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or organ transplantation-associated therapies in humans) and the consequences of war, all contribute to the transformation of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Such changes should be considered when studying the spread of the disease throughout Europe for targeted control measures to safeguard public health. PMID:23929183

  16. Epidemiological Changes in Leishmaniasis in Spain According to Hospitalization-Based Records, 1997–2011: Raising Awareness towards Leishmaniasis in Non-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, B. Carolina; Granados, Marisol; San Martín, Juan Victor; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6%) were males and 2240/3442 (65.1%) aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6%) of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), while 118/3442 (3.4%) hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1%) were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113). Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021) while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717). Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04), 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3), visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28) and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04). The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57), other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32) and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07). Our findings suggest a significant increase of

  17. Epidemiological changes in leishmaniasis in Spain according to hospitalization-based records, 1997-2011: raising awareness towards leishmaniasis in non-HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Herrador, Zaida; Gherasim, Alin; Jimenez, B Carolina; Granados, Maria del sol; Granados, Marisol; San Martín, Juan Victor; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6%) were males and 2240/3442 (65.1%) aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6%) of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), while 118/3442 (3.4%) hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1%) were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113). Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021) while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717). Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04), 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3), visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28) and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04). The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57), other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32) and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07). Our findings suggest a significant increase of

  18. Diagnosis and clinical course of canine oral papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Bredal, W P; Thoresen, S I; Rimstad, E; Aleksandersen, M; Nafstad, P H

    1996-03-01

    A six-month-old intact male rottweiler presented with papillomatous growths protruding from the oral mucous membranes. A tentative diagnosis of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) infection was made based on the gross appearance of the numerous lesions and the young age of the patient. Two warts from the oral mucosa were removed surgically for further diagnostic investigations. The viral aetiology of the diseases was confirmed by histopathological and electron microscopic findings, and by the identification of specific COPV DNA is removed oral papillomatous tissue. The patient was followed clinically and complete regression of the oral lesions occurred after four weeks. Neither the route of transmission nor the source of infection was found. Immunodeficiency as a contributing aetiological factor to the development of COPV-induced lesions as discussed. PMID:8683957

  19. Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarnke, R.L.; Evermann, J.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McNay, M.E.; Boertje, R.D.; Gardner, C.L.; Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.; Burch, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/ 240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.

  20. A review of canine babesiosis: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Sainz, Ángel; Roura, Xavier; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Miró, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Canine babesiosis is a significant tick-borne disease caused by various species of the protozoan genus Babesia. Although it occurs worldwide, data relating to European infections have now been collected for many years. These data have boosted the publication record and increased our working knowledge of these protozoan parasites. Both the large and small forms of Babesia species (B. canis, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, and B. microti-like isolates also referred to as "B. vulpes" and "Theileria annae") infect dogs in Europe, and their geographical distribution, transmission, clinical signs, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for each species. The goal of this review is to provide veterinary practitioners with practical guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of babesiosis in European dogs. Our hope is that these guidelines will answer the most frequently asked questions posed by veterinary practitioners. PMID:27289223

  1. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy. PMID:22802694

  2. Behavioral aspects of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, E F; Silva, E A; Casaril, A E; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Gamarra, R M; Ribeiro, A A; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G

    2013-03-01

    The study of some of the behavioral aspects of the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas in the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), such as dispersion, population size, and vector survival rates, is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These parameters were studied by means of capture-mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area of Campo Grande municipality, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, situated in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Six capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken between November 2009 and November 2010 and once in January 2012 with a view to assessing the population size and survival rate of Lu. longipalpis. The insects were released in a peridomicile surrounded by 13 residences. The recaptures were undertaken with automatic light traps for four consecutive weeks after release in the surrounding area. In total, 3,354 sand flies were captured, marked, and released. The overall recapture rate during the capture-mark-release-recapture experiments was 4.23%, of which 92.45% were recaptured at the release site, indicating limited dispersal. The greatest distance recorded from the release site was 165 m for males and 241 m for females. The male daily survival rate, calculated on the basis of regressions from the numbers of marked recaptured insects during the 15 successive days after release was 0.897. The estimated male population size measured by the Lincoln Index was 10,947.127. Though Lu. longipalpis presented a limited dispersion the physical barriers typical of urban environments did not prevent the sand flies from flying long distances.

  3. Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response wit