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Sample records for canine melanoma cell

  1. Cell proliferation and expression of connexins differ in melanotic and amelanotic canine oral melanomas.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tarso Felipe; Gentile, Luciana Boffoni; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Mennecier, Gregory; Chaible, Lucas Martins; Cogliati, Bruno; Roman, Marco Antonio Leon; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan

    2014-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm occurring in several animal species, and is the most frequently found tumor in the oral cavity in dogs. Melanomas are classified into two types: melanotic and amelanotic. Prior research suggests that human amelanotic melanomas are more aggressive than their melanotic counterparts. This study evaluates the behavior of canine melanotic and amelanotic oral cavity melanomas and quantifies cell proliferation and the expression of connexins. Twenty-five melanomas (16 melanotic and 9 amelanotic) were collected from dogs during clinical procedures at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. After diagnosis, dogs were followed until death or euthanasia. Histopathology confirmed the gross melanotic or amelanotic characteristics and tumors were classified according to the WHO. HMB45 or Melan A immunostainings were performed to confirm the diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas. Cell proliferation was quantified both by counting mitotic figures and PCNA positive nuclei. Expressions of connexins 26 and 43 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Dogs bearing amelanotic melanomas presented a shorter lifespan in comparison to those with melanotic melanomas. Cell proliferation was significantly higher in amelanotic melanomas. Expressions of Connexins 26 and 43 were significantly reduced in amelanotic melanomas. The results presented here suggest that oral cavity melanotic and amelanotic melanomas differ regarding their behavior, cell proliferation and connexin expression in dogs, indicating a higher aggressiveness of amelanotic variants. PMID:24126842

  2. Antitumor effects of celecoxib in COX-2 expressing and non-expressing canine melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyoung-won; Coh, Ye-rin; Rebhun, Robert B.; Ahn, Jin-ok; Han, Sei-Myung; Lee, Hee-woo; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a potential target for chemoprevention and cancer therapy. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits cell growth of various types of human cancer including malignant melanoma. In dogs, oral malignant melanoma represents the most common oral tumor and is often a fatal disease. Therefore, there is a desperate need to develop additional therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of celecoxib on canine malignant melanoma cell lines that express varying levels of COX-2. Celecoxib induced a significant anti-proliferative effect in both LMeC and CMeC-1 cells. In the CMeC cells, treatment of 50 µM celecoxib caused an increase in cells in the G0/G1 and a decreased proportion of cells in G-2 phase. In the LMeC cells, 50 µM of celecoxib led to an increase in the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and a significant activation of caspase-3 when compared to CMeC-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that celecoxib exhibits antitumor effects on canine melanoma LMeC and CMeC-1 cells by induction of G1-S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data suggest that celecoxib might be effective as a chemotherapeutic agent against canine malignant melanoma. PMID:24656746

  3. 6-Bromoindirubin-3'oxime (BIO) decreases proliferation and migration of canine melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chon, Esther; Flanagan, Brandi; de Sá Rodrigues, Lucas Campos; Piskun, Caroline; Stein, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor in dogs and is associated with a poor outcome. Novel, targeted agents are necessary to improve survival. In this study, 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor with reported specificity for glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) inhibition, was evaluated in vitro in three canine melanoma cell lines (CML-10C2, UCDK9M2, and UCDK9M3) for β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, Axin2 gene and protein expression levels, cell proliferation, chemotoxicity, migration and invasion assays. BIO treatment of canine malignant melanoma cell lines at 5 µM for 72 h enhanced β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, suggesting GSK-3β inhibition, and reduced cell proliferation and migration. There were no significant effects on invasion, chemotoxicity, or apoptosis. The results suggest that serine/threonine kinases may be viable therapeutic targets for the treatment of canine malignant melanoma.

  4. 6-Bromoindirubin-3′oxime (BIO) decreases proliferation and migration of canine melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Esther; Flanagan, Brandi; de Sá Rodrigues, Lucas Campos; Piskun, Caroline; Stein, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor in dogs and is associated with a poor outcome. Novel, targeted agents are necessary to improve survival. In this study, 6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO), a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor with reported specificity for glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) inhibition, was evaluated in vitro in three canine melanoma cell lines (CML-10C2, UCDK9M2, and UCDK9M3) for β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, Axin2 gene and protein expression levels, cell proliferation, chemotoxicity, migration and invasion assays. BIO treatment of canine malignant melanoma cell lines at 5 µM for 72 h enhanced β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, suggesting GSK-3β inhibition, and reduced cell proliferation and migration. There were no significant effects on invasion, chemotoxicity, or apoptosis. The results suggest that serine/ threonine kinases may be viable therapeutic targets for the treatment of canine malignant melanoma. PMID:25130776

  5. DNA methylation contributes toward silencing of antioncogenic microRNA-203 in human and canine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mori, Takashi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Haraguchi, Tomoya; Mizuno, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Melanoma is a poor-prognosis cancer in both humans and dogs. We have elucidated the antitumor mechanisms of antioncogenic microRNA (miR)-203 which is downregulated in human melanoma, as well as in canine melanoma. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of this downregulation. We focused on epigenetic aberration of miR-203 transcription. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine (5-aza) markedly upregulated the expression level of miR-203 in almost all of the cell lines tested. Furthermore, bisulfite sequencing or methylation-specific PCR showed DNA methylation of CpG islands upstream of the miR-203 coding region (MIR203) in both human and canine melanoma cells, as well as in canine clinical specimens, but not in human normal melanocytes. The results of a luciferase activity assay showed obvious suppression of the transcription of miR-203 by DNA methylation. The use of the luciferase activity assay for CREB1 and an inhibition assay of miR-203 function performed with an miR-203 inhibitor confirmed the contribution of miR-203 upregulation toward the negative regulation of the target gene of miR-203. These results indicate that canine melanoma might be a preclinical model of human melanoma for epigenetic studies. In addition, this study suggests that agents that can demethylate MIR203 could be a common promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of human and canine melanomas.

  6. Potential to involve multiple effector cells with human recombinant interleukin-2 and antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies in a canine malignant melanoma immunotherapy model.

    PubMed

    Helfand, S C; Soergel, S A; Donner, R L; Gan, J; Hank, J A; Lindstrom, M J; Sondel, P M

    1994-10-01

    Human tumors originating from neuroectodermal cells such as malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma express high levels of disialogangliosides GD2 and GD3, making these antigens ideal for targeting by monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). The purpose of this study was to investigate expression and targeting of gangliosides on canine melanoma. Using immunohistochemical methods, we analyzed the expression of disialogangliosides GD2 and GD3 on canine oral malignant melanomas with murine Mabs 14.G2a and R24 that recognize GD2 and GD3 disialogangliosides, respectively, on human tumors. We also assessed the ability of Mab 14.G2a (and its mouse-human chimera, ch 14.18) to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro against a canine malignant melanoma cell line with human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) activated canine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), or canine neutrophil effector cells. Our data show that Mabs 14.G2a and R24 recognized fresh frozen canine oral melanoma. Mabs 14.G2a or ch 14.18, or IL-2, potentiated lysis of the canine malignant melanoma cell line by canine PBL. The killing effect observed using the combination of either Mab with IL-2 was additive. Mab 14.G2a mediated potent ADCC of canine melanoma by canine neutrophils. These studies indicate that disialogangliosides are expressed on fresh canine melanoma cells. Mabs reactive with these antigens can target and trigger tumor killing by multiple canine effector populations and IL-2 can potentiate these effects by canine lymphocytes. Thus, canine oral malignant melanoma, a spontaneously occurring, metastatic cancer in the dog, may be a relevant animal model to investigate combination immunotherapy using antitumor Mab and IL-2.

  7. Canine malignant melanoma alpha-3 integrin binding peptides

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Olulanu H.; Maeda, Yoshiko; Harrison, Matthew; Zwingenberger, Allison L.; Walker, Naomi J.; Lam, Kit S.; Kent, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop novel targeted imaging and therapeutic agents that can aid in early diagnosis, detection of metastasis and treatment of melanoma. Alpha-3 integrin is overexpressed in 82% of metastatic melanomas in humans and may be a potential target for peptide ligands carrying therapeutic agents. Five melanoma cell lines were generated from canine primary oral and metastatic canine tumors, grown in mice, and validated with melanoma markers Melan A, S-100, Micropthalmia transcription factor (MITF), Tyrosinase, and MART-1. The melanoma cell lines were tested for binding affinity to previously published alpha-3 integrin-binding peptides containing the cdGXGXXc motif. Fluorescent conjugates of the alpha-3 integrin binding OA02 peptide were used to quantify receptor affinity in the cell lines, a specimen of canine primary oral melanoma, and melanoma xenografts. Alpha-3 integrin was expressed by all 5 canine melanoma cell lines. Four of the 5 lines as well as the primary canine tumor showed affinity to alpha-3 integrin binding peptides with the cdGXGXXc motif. Optical imaging of canine melanoma xenografts in nude mice indicates rapid, strong uptake of the optical tracer in the tumor with an average persistence of approximately 48 hours. Ex vivo images showed high tumor-to-background ratio, with tumor signals more than twice that of the kidney and other vital organs. We propose that integrin alpha-3 integrin binding ligands could potentially become useful probes for imaging and delivery of cytotoxic agents for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:21722969

  8. Analysis of microRNA-203 function in CREB/MITF/RAB27a pathway: comparison between canine and human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, S; Kumazaki, M; Mori, T; Baba, K; Okuda, M; Mizuno, T; Akao, Y

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-203 is downregulated and acts as an anti-oncomir in melanoma cells. Here, using human and canine melanoma cells, we elucidated the effects of miR-203 on cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB)/microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF)/RAB27a pathway, which is known to be important for the development and progression of human melanoma. In this study, we showed that miR-203 directly targeted CREB1 and regulated its downstream targets, MITF and RAB27a. miR-203 significantly suppressed the growth of human and canine melanoma cells and inhibited melanosome transport through the suppression of the signalling pathway. In conclusion, miR-203 was shown to be a common tumour-suppressive miRNA in human and canine melanoma and thus to play a crucial role in the biological mechanisms of melanoma development.

  9. Clinical systemic lupeol administration for canine oral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    YOKOE, INORU; AZUMA, KAZUO; HATA, KEISHI; MUKAIYAMA, TOSHIYUKI; GOTO, TAKAHIRO; TSUKA, TAKESHI; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; ITOH, NORIHIKO; MURAHATA, YUSUKE; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; MINAMI, SABURO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

    2015-01-01

    Canine oral malignant melanoma (COMM) is the most aggressive malignant tumor in dogs. Lupeol is a triterpene extracted from various fruits and vegetables that reportedly inhibits melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the efficacy of subcutaneous lupeol for spontaneous COMM was evaluated. A total of 11 dogs (3, 5 and 3 dogs diagnosed with clinical stage I, II and III melanoma, respectively) were evaluated. Subcutaneous lupeol (10 mg/kg) was administered postoperatively at various time points to treat these 11 COMM cases. Of the 11 subjects, 7 exhibited no local recurrence 180 days postoperatively and no severe adverse effects were observed in any of the cases. Furthermore, no distant metastasis was observed during the experimental period. Therefore, systemic lupeol may prevent local tumor progression and distant metastasis and may be a novel adjuvant treatment for the treatment of COMM. PMID:25469276

  10. The therapeutic effects of SET/I2PP2A inhibitors on canine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Enjoji, Shuhei; Yabe, Ryotaro; Fujiwara, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Shunya; Vitek, Michael P; Mizuno, Takuya; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Usui, Tatsuya; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    Canine melanoma is one of the most important diseases in small animal medicine. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a well conserved serine/threonine phosphatase, plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor. SET/I2PP2A is an endogenous inhibitor for PP2A, which directly binds to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Elevated SET protein levels have been reported to exacerbate human tumor progression. The role of SET in canine melanoma, however, has not been understood. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic role for SET inhibitors in canine melanoma. The expression of SET protein was observed in 6 canine melanoma cell lines. We used CMeC-1 cells (primary origin) and CMeC-2 cells (metastatic origin) to generate cell lines stably expressing SET-targeting shRNAs. Knockdown of SET expression in CMeC-2, but not in CMeC-1, leads to decreased cell proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Phosphorylation level of p70 S6 kinase was decreased by SET knockdown in CMeC-2, suggesting the involvement of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70 S6 kinase signaling. The SET inhibitors, OP449 and FTY720, more effectively killed CMeC-2 than CMeC-1. We observed PP2A activation in CMeC-2 treated with OP449 and FTY720. These results demonstrated the potential therapeutic application of SET inhibitors for canine melanoma. PMID:26062569

  11. Comparative analysis of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation and inhibition in human and canine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fowles, J S; Denton, C L; Gustafson, D L

    2015-09-01

    The lack of advanced animal models of human cancers is considered a barrier to developing effective therapeutics. Canine and human melanomas are histologically disparate but show similar disease progression and response to therapies. The purpose of these studies was to compare human and canine melanoma tumours and cell lines regarding MAPK and PI3K/AKT signalling dysregulation, and response to select molecularly targeted agents. Pathway activation was investigated via microarray and mutational analysis. Growth inhibition and cell cycle effects were assessed for pathway inhibitors AZD6244 (MAPK) and rapamycin (PI3K/AKT) in human and canine melanoma cells. Human and canine melanoma share similar differential gene expression patterns within the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Constitutive pathway activation and similar sensitivity to AZD6244 and rapamycin was observed in human and canine cells. These results show that human and canine melanoma share activation and sensitivity to inhibition of cancer-related signalling pathways despite differences in activating mutations. PMID:23745794

  12. Culturing Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Angi, Martina; Versluis, Mieke; Kalirai, Helen

    2015-04-01

    A major challenge in cancer research is the use of appropriate models with which to study a specific biological question. Cell lines have long been used to study cellular processes and the effects of individual molecules because they are easy to use, grow rapidly, produce reproducible results and have a strong track record in research. In uveal melanoma in particular, the absence of animal models that faithfully replicate the behavior of the human disease has propagated the generation and use of numerous cell lines by individual research groups. This in itself, however, can be viewed as a problem due to the lack of standardization when characterizing these entities to determine how closely they reflect the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of this disease. The alternative is to use in vitro primary cultures of cells obtained directly from uveal melanoma patient samples, but this too has its difficulties. Primary cell cultures are difficult to use, hard to obtain and can show considerable heterogeneity. In this article, we review the following: (1) the uveal melanoma cell lines that are currently available, discussing the importance of establishing a bank of those that represent the molecular heterogeneity of uveal melanoma; (2) the methods used to isolate and perform short-term cultures of primary uveal melanoma cells, and (3) the establishment of 3D tissue culture models that bridge the gap between 2D in vitro systems and in vivo models with which to dissect cancer biology and perform therapeutic screens. PMID:27171555

  13. Interferon-β gene transfer induces a strong cytotoxic bystander effect on melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Úrsula A; Gil-Cardeza, María L; Villaverde, Marcela S; Finocchiaro, Liliana M E; Glikin, Gerardo C

    2015-05-01

    A local gene therapy scheme for the delivery of type I interferons could be an alternative for the treatment of melanoma. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of interferon-β (IFNβ) gene lipofection on tumor cell lines derived from three human cutaneous and four canine mucosal melanomas. The cytotoxicity of human IFNβ gene lipofection resulted higher or equivalent to that of the corresponding addition of the recombinant protein (rhIFNβ) to human cells. IFNβ gene lipofection was not cytotoxic for only one canine melanoma cell line. When cultured as monolayers, three human and three canine IFNβ-lipofected melanoma cell lines displayed a remarkable bystander effect. As spheroids, the same six cell lines were sensitive to IFNβ gene transfer, two displaying a significant multicell resistance phenotype. The effects of conditioned IFNβ-lipofected canine melanoma cell culture media suggested the release of at least one soluble thermolabile cytotoxic factor that could not be detected in human melanoma cells. By using a secretion signal-free truncated human IFNβ, we showed that its intracellular expression was enough to induce cytotoxicity in two human melanoma cell lines. The lower cytoplasmatic levels of reactive oxygen species detected after intracellular IFNβ expression could be related to the resistance displayed by one human melanoma cell line. As IFNβ gene transfer was effective against most of the assayed melanomas in a way not limited by relatively low lipofection efficiencies, the clinical potential of this approach is strongly supported.

  14. The oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine solid tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    IGASE, Masaya; HWANG, Chung Chew; COFFEY, Matt; OKUDA, Masaru; NOGUCHI, Shunsuke; MIZUNO, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a new strategy for cancer treatment for humans and dogs. Reovirus has been proven to be a potent oncolytic virus in human medicine. Our laboratory has previously reported that canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma were susceptible to reovirus. In this study, canine solid tumor cell lines (mammary gland tumor, osteosarcoma and malignant melanoma) were tested to determine their susceptibility towards reovirus. We demonstrated that reovirus induces more than 50% cell death in three canine mammary gland tumors and one canine malignant melanoma cell line. The reovirus-induced cell death occurred via the activation of caspase 3. Ras activation has been shown to be one of the important mechanisms of reovirus-susceptibility in human cancers. However, Ras activation was not related to the reovirus-susceptibility in canine solid tumor cell lines, which was similar to reports in canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma. The results of this study highly suggest that canine mammary gland tumor and canine malignant melanoma are also potential candidates for reovirus therapy in veterinary oncology. PMID:25648933

  15. Lysis of human tumor cell lines by canine complement plus monoclonal antiganglioside antibodies or natural canine xenoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Helfand, S C; Hank, J A; Gan, J; Sondel, P M

    1996-01-10

    Because certain antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies can facilitate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against GD2+ ganglioside-bearing human and canine tumor cells, we wished to determine if clinically relevant antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) could also fix canine complement to lyse tumor cells in vitro. Using flow cytometry, human tumor cell lines (M21 melanoma and OHS osteosarcoma) were shown to highly express ganglioside GD2 and, to a lesser degree, GD3. In 51Cr release assays, M21 cells were lysed with canine serum, as a source of complement, plus either Mab 14.G2a or its mouse-human chimera, ch 14.18, specific for GD2. Heating canine serum abrogated its lytic activity and addition of rabbit complement reconstituted M21 lysis. Similar results were obtained with M21 cells when Mab R24 (against GD3) and canine serum were used. OHS cells were also lysed with canine serum plus Mab 14.G2a and lytic activity was abolished by heating canine serum but reconstituted with rabbit complement. Alone, canine serum or Mabs were not lytic to M21 or OHS cells. Conversely, human neuroblastoma (LAN-5) and K562 erythroleukemia cells were lysed by canine serum alone which was shown by flow cytometry to contain naturally occurring canine IgM antibodies that bound LAN-5 and K562 cells. The lytic activity of canine serum for LAN-5 or K562 cells was abolished by heating and restored by addition of either human or rabbit complement. Thus, human tumor cell lines can be lysed with antiganglioside Mabs through fixation and activation of canine complement-dependent lytic pathways. Canine xenoantibodies also mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity of some human tumor cell lines. Together, these results are significant because they demonstrate an antitumor effect of the canine immune system which is of potential importance for cancer immunotherapy in a promising animal model.

  16. Non-surgical treatment of canine oral malignant melanoma: A case study of the application of complementary alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    ITOH, HIROYASU; MUKAIYAMA, TOSHIYUKI; GOTO, TAKAHIRO; HATA, KEISHI; AZUMA, KAZUO; TSUKA, TAKASHI; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a dog with a clinical stage III oral malignant melanoma that was treated with complementary alternative medicine (CAM). The CAM included high temperature hyperthermia, dendritic cell therapy and lupeol injections. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy were not performed. Two months after the start of treatment, the tumor disappeared and after six months, the follow-up examinations revealed no recurrence or metastasis of the tumor. Quality of life (QOL) of the dog was maintained; therefore, the application of CAM may be an effective treatment for canine oral malignant melanoma. The effective application of CAM has the potential to prolong life and maintain an excellent QOL for pets. PMID:24932241

  17. Angiotropic metastatic malignant melanoma in a canine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai Jie; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Joo; Hong, Il-Hwa; Huh, Sung-Oh; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2011-12-01

    An eleven-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier presented with a sublumbar mass and upon ultrasonographic examination, was revealed to have a mammary gland tumor. Black to reddish colored masses, located in the visceral peritoneum of the sublumbar region was observed on laparotomy with masectomy of the right side. In the laparotomy, we observed reddish masses multifocally located in the serosal membrane of the large intestine. Histopathologic examination of the intestinal and abdominal mass showed highly invasiveness into the muscle and metastasis of melanocytic tumor cells through the blood vessels. The mammary glands showed abnormal hyperplasia of melanocytes, destruction of the normal glands by tumor cells and infiltration of some lymphocytes in the pool of melanocytic cells. We have identified a malignant melanoma containing an angiotumoral complex in which tumor cells occupied a pericytic location along the microvessels with intravasation determined by immunohistochemistry for S100 protein and protein kinase C-α. Histologic findings in this dog lead to a diagnosis of an angiotropic metastatic malignant melanoma.

  18. Cell Cycle Regulation and Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; McArthur, Grant

    2016-06-01

    Dysregulation of cell cycle control is a hallmark of melanomagenesis. Agents targeting the G1-S and G2-M checkpoints, as well as direct anti-mitotic agents, have all shown promising preclinical activity in melanoma. However, in vivo, standalone single agents targeting cell cycle regulation have only demonstrated modest efficacy in unselected patients. The advent of specific CDK 4/6 inhibitors targeting the G1-S transition, with an improved therapeutic index, is a significant step forward. Potential synergy exists with the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with existing therapies targeting the MAPK pathway, particularly in subsets of metastatic melanomas such as NRAS and BRAF mutants. This reviews summaries of the latest developments in both preclinical and clinical data with cell cycle-targeted therapies in melanoma. PMID:27106898

  19. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs. PMID:27276060

  20. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs. PMID:27276060

  1. Thigmotropism of malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E

    2012-01-01

    During malignant melanoma (MM) progression including incipient metastasis, neoplastic cells follow some specific migration paths inside the skin. In particular, they progress along the dermoepidermal basement membrane, the hair follicles, the sweat gland apparatus, nerves, and the near perivascular space. These features evoke the thigmotropism phenomenon defined as a contact-sensing growth of cells. This process is likely connected to modulation in cell tensegrity (control of the cell shape). These specifically located paucicellular aggregates of MM cells do not appear to be involved in the tumorigenic growth phase, but rather they participate in the so-called "accretive" growth model. These MM cell collections are often part of the primary neoplasm, but they may, however, correspond to MM micrometastases and predict further local overt metastasis spread. PMID:22203839

  2. Myeloid Cells' Evasion of Melanoma Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Lieping

    2015-01-01

    An immune-suppressive role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in melanoma has long been speculated, whereas molecular mechanisms underlying this role are not well understood. Here, Chung and colleagues show that dendritic cell-associated, heparan sulfate proteoglycans-dependent integrin ligand (DC-HIL), a cell surface immune-modulatory molecule, is highly expressed on tumor-associated MDSCs. Genetic ablation or antibody blockade of DC-HIL delays the growth of transplantable B16 melanoma in syngeneic mice, which is accompanied by enhanced antitumor T-cell activities. These findings support a role for DC-HIL in immune evasion within the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:25318429

  3. Melanoma cell galectin-1 ligands functionally correlate with malignant potential*

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Erika M.; Geddes-Sweeney, Jenna E.; Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Walley, Kempland C.; Barthel, Steven R.; Opperman, Matthew J.; Liang, Jennifer; Lin, Jennifer Y.; Schatton, Tobias; Laga, Alvaro C.; Mihm, Martin C.; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Widlund, Hans R.; Murphy, George F.; Dimitroff, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1)-binding to Gal-1 ligands on immune and endothelial cells can influence melanoma development through dampening anti-tumor immune responses and promoting angiogenesis. However, whether Gal-1 ligands are functionally expressed on melanoma cells to help control intrinsic malignant features remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed expression, identity and function of Gal-1 ligands in melanoma progression. Immunofluorescent analysis of benign and malignant human melanocytic neoplasms revealed that Gal-1 ligands were abundant in severely-dysplastic nevi as well as in primary and metastatic melanomas. Biochemical assessments indicated that melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) was a major Gal-1 ligand on melanoma cells that was largely dependent on its N-glycans. Other melanoma cell Gal-1 ligand activity conferred by O-glycans was negatively regulated by α2,6 sialyltransferase ST6GalNAc2. In Gal-1-deficient mice, MCAM-silenced (MCAMKD) or ST6GalNAc2-overexpressing (ST6O/E) melanoma cells exhibited slower growth rates, underscoring a key role for melanoma cell Gal-1 ligands and host Gal-1 in melanoma growth. Further analysis of MCAMKD or ST6O/E melanoma cells in cell migration assays indicated that Gal-1 ligand-dependent melanoma cell migration was severely inhibited. These findings provide a refined perspective on Gal-1 – melanoma cell Gal-1 ligand interactions as contributors to melanoma malignancy. PMID:25756799

  4. Expression of PD-L1 on Canine Tumor Cells and Enhancement of IFN-γ Production from Tumor-Infiltrating Cells by PD-L1 Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Adachi, Mami; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), its ligand, together induce the “exhausted” status in antigen-specific lymphocytes and are thus involved in the immune evasion of tumor cells. In this study, canine PD-1 and PD-L1 were molecularly characterized, and their potential as therapeutic targets for canine tumors was discussed. The canine PD-1 and PD-L1 genes were conserved among canine breeds. Based on the sequence information obtained, the recombinant canine PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins were constructed; they were confirmed to bind each other. Antibovine PD-L1 monoclonal antibody effectively blocked the binding of recombinant PD-1 with PD-L1–expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. Canine melanoma, mastocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, and other types of tumors examined expressed PD-L1, whereas some did not. Interestingly, anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment enhanced IFN-γ production from tumor-infiltrating cells. These results showed that the canine PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is also associated with T-cell exhaustion in canine tumors and that its blockade with antibody could be a new therapeutic strategy for canine tumors. Further investigations are needed to confirm the ability of anti-PD-L1 antibody to reactivate canine antitumor immunity in vivo, and its therapeutic potential has to be further discussed. PMID:24915569

  5. Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... have melanoma that has spread. Help the patient’s immune system fight the cancer Ipilimumab (Yervoy®), which was FDA ... How ipilimumab works : This drug helps the patient’s immune system to recognize, target, and attack cancer cells. Healthy ...

  6. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  7. Circulating melanoma cells as a predictive biomarker.

    PubMed

    Karakousis, Giorgos; Yang, Ruifeng; Xu, Xiaowei

    2013-06-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma has improved significantly with targeted therapeutic agents and immunotherapies. Detection of early melanoma recurrence after treatment will be beneficial to switch patients who fail on one therapy to different modalities. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells released by a tumor into the peripheral blood. These cells hold potential as prognostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic biomarkers for treatment. In this issue, Khoja et al. report that melanoma CTCs can be detected using Melcam and high molecular weight melanoma-associated antibody. They found that in 101 stage IV melanoma patients, CTC numbers ranged between 0 and 36/7.5 ml blood; 26% of the patients had ≥ 2 CTCs at baseline. The CTC number (≥ 2 CTCs) at baseline was significantly prognostic for median overall survival (OS) in univariate and multivariate analysis. Patients receiving treatment where CTC numbers remained ≥ 2 CTCs during their treatment had shorter median OS than those who maintained <2 CTCs (7 vs. 10 months, hazard ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.81, log-rank test P=0.015). The implications of this work are substantial in counseling patients about their prognosis and in helping to assess responses to systemic therapies. PMID:23673501

  8. Fas-mediated apoptosis of melanoma cells and infiltrating lymphocytes in human malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Katayama, Ichiro; Koji, Takehiko

    2002-04-01

    In a rodent system, melanoma cells expressing Fas ligand (FasL) could kill Fas-positive lymphocytes, suggesting that FasL expression was an essential factor for melanoma cell survival in vivo. These findings led us to investigate apoptosis, and to histochemically analyze involvement of Fas and FasL in the induction of apoptosis, in human malignant melanoma tissues. The percentages of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive melanoma cells and of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive melanoma cells in melanoma tissues (n = 22) were greater than those in melanocytes in uninvolved skin (n = 6) and nevus cells in nevi tissues (n = 9). The infiltrating lymphocytes around melanomas were also TUNEL positive. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of Fas and FasL in melanoma cells and lymphocytes, whereas no Fas or FasL expression was detected in normal skin melanocytes and nevus cells. There was significant correlation between Fas-positive indices and TUNEL indices in melanoma tissues. Moreover, TUNEL-, Fas-, and FasL-positive indices of melanoma cells from patients with Stage 3 melanomas were significantly lower than those with Stage 2 melanomas. The PCNA index of Stage 1 melanoma was significantly lower than that of the other stages, although the difference of PCNA index was insignificant among Stages 2 to 4. Among Stages 1 to 4, there was no difference in the PCNA, TUNEL-, and Fas-positive indices of lymphocytes, although the FasL-positive index of lymphocytes from Stage 3 melanomas was significantly lower than in that from Stage 2. These data reveal that melanoma cells and infiltrating lymphocytes have the potential to induce their own apoptosis regulated by Fas and FasL in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion and that the decline of Fas-mediated apoptosis of melanoma cells, rather than the apoptosis of infiltrating lymphocytes, may affect the prognosis of melanoma patients, possibly through the

  9. Cytokine-Enhanced Vaccine and Interferon-β plus Suicide Gene Therapy as Surgery Adjuvant Treatments for Spontaneous Canine Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Liliana M E; Fondello, Chiara; Gil-Cardeza, María L; Rossi, Úrsula A; Villaverde, Marcela S; Riveros, María D; Glikin, Gerardo C

    2015-06-01

    We present here a nonviral immunogene therapy trial for canine malignant melanoma, an aggressive disease displaying significant clinical and histopathological overlapping with human melanoma. As a surgery adjuvant approach, it comprised the co-injection of lipoplexes bearing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and canine interferon-β genes at the time of surgery, combined with the periodic administration of a subcutaneous genetic vaccine composed of tumor extracts and lipoplexes carrying the genes of human interleukin-2 and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Following complete surgery (CS), the combined treatment (CT) significantly raised the portion of local disease-free canine patients from 11% to 83% and distant metastases-free (M0) from 44% to 89%, as compared with surgery-only-treated controls (ST). Even after partial surgery (PS), CT better controlled the systemic disease (M0: 82%) than ST (M0: 48%). Moreover, compared with ST, CT caused a significant 7-fold (CS) and 4-fold (PS) rise of overall survival, and >17-fold (CS) and >13-fold (PS) rise of metastasis-free survival. The dramatic increase of PS metastasis-free survival (>1321 days) and CS recurrence- and metastasis-free survival (both >2251 days) demonstrated that CT was shifting a rapidly lethal disease into a chronic one. In conclusion, this surgery adjuvant CT was able of significantly delaying or preventing postsurgical recurrence and distant metastasis, increasing disease-free and overall survival, and maintaining the quality of life. The high number of canine patients involved in CT (301) and the extensive follow-up (>6 years) with minimal or absent toxicity warrant the long-term safety and efficacy of this treatment. This successful clinical outcome justifies attempting a similar scheme for human melanoma.

  10. Cytokine-Enhanced Vaccine and Interferon-β plus Suicide Gene Therapy as Surgery Adjuvant Treatments for Spontaneous Canine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fondello, Chiara; Gil-Cardeza, María L.; Rossi, Úrsula A.; Villaverde, Marcela S.; Riveros, María D.; Glikin, Gerardo C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present here a nonviral immunogene therapy trial for canine malignant melanoma, an aggressive disease displaying significant clinical and histopathological overlapping with human melanoma. As a surgery adjuvant approach, it comprised the co-injection of lipoplexes bearing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and canine interferon-β genes at the time of surgery, combined with the periodic administration of a subcutaneous genetic vaccine composed of tumor extracts and lipoplexes carrying the genes of human interleukin-2 and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Following complete surgery (CS), the combined treatment (CT) significantly raised the portion of local disease-free canine patients from 11% to 83% and distant metastases-free (M0) from 44% to 89%, as compared with surgery-only-treated controls (ST). Even after partial surgery (PS), CT better controlled the systemic disease (M0: 82%) than ST (M0: 48%). Moreover, compared with ST, CT caused a significant 7-fold (CS) and 4-fold (PS) rise of overall survival, and >17-fold (CS) and >13-fold (PS) rise of metastasis-free survival. The dramatic increase of PS metastasis-free survival (>1321 days) and CS recurrence- and metastasis-free survival (both >2251 days) demonstrated that CT was shifting a rapidly lethal disease into a chronic one. In conclusion, this surgery adjuvant CT was able of significantly delaying or preventing postsurgical recurrence and distant metastasis, increasing disease-free and overall survival, and maintaining the quality of life. The high number of canine patients involved in CT (301) and the extensive follow-up (>6 years) with minimal or absent toxicity warrant the long-term safety and efficacy of this treatment. This successful clinical outcome justifies attempting a similar scheme for human melanoma. PMID:25762364

  11. Standard melanoma-associated markers do not identify the MM127 metastatic melanoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, Parvathi; McGovern, Jacqui A.; Kashyap, Abhishek S.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable identification of different melanoma cell lines is important for many aspects of melanoma research. Common markers used to identify melanoma cell lines include: S100; HMB-45; and Melan-A. We explore the expression of these three markers in four different melanoma cell lines: WM35; WM793; SK-MEL-28; and MM127. The expression of these markers is examined at both the mRNA and protein level. Our results show that the metastatic cell line, MM127, cannot be detected using any of the commonly used melanoma-associated markers. This implies that it would be very difficult to identify this particular cell line in a heterogeneous sample, and as a result this cell line should be used with care. PMID:27087056

  12. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M.; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Frank, Markus H.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies1,2 and solid cancers3–6. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5− bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ sub-populations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5− progeny, whereas ABCB5− tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5− cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy. PMID:18202660

  13. AC-93253 triggers the downregulation of melanoma progression markers and the inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Karwaciak, Iwona; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Ryba, Katarzyna; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Pulaski, Lukasz; Ratajewski, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    A major challenge in anti-melanoma therapy is to develop treatments that are effective for advanced melanoma patients. Unfortunately, the currently used regimens are not efficient and have unsatisfactory effects on disease progression, thus increasing the pressure to develop new, profitable drugs and to identify new molecular targets. Here, we show for the first time that AC-93253, a SIRT2 inhibitor, exerts a negative effect on the expression of a set of genes involved in the progression and chemoresistance (e.g., oncogenes, apoptosis-related genes, ABC transporter genes, and cell cycle control genes) of melanoma cells. Furthermore, melanoma cells exposed to AC-93253 and doxorubicin displayed altered biological responses, including apoptosis and proliferation, compared to cells exposed to single treatments. Taken together, we conclude that the usage of AC-93253 in combined therapy could be a promising strategy for melanoma patients.

  14. Melanoma Stem Cells and Metastasis: Mimicking Hematopoietic Cell Trafficking?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nayoung; Barthel, Steven R.; Schatton, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic cancer that bears responsibility for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Amidst the research efforts to better understand melanoma progression, there has been increasing evidence that hints at a role for a subpopulation of virulent cancer cells, termed malignant melanoma stem or initiating cells (MMICs), in metastasis formation. MMICs are characterized by their preferential ability to initiate and propagate tumor growth and their selective capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into less tumorigenic melanoma cells. The frequency of MMICs has been shown to correlate with poor clinical prognosis in melanoma. Additionally, MMICs are enriched among circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients, suggesting that MMICs may be a critical player in the metastatic cascade. Although these links exist between MMICs and metastatic disease, the mechanisms by which MMICs may advance metastatic progression are only beginning to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that MMICs express molecules critical for hematopoietic cell maintenance and trafficking, providing a possible explanation for how circulating MMICs could drive melanoma dissemination. We therefore propose that MMICs might fuel melanoma metastasis by exploiting homing mechanisms commonly utilized by hematopoietic cells. Here we review the biological properties of MMICs and the existing literature on their metastatic potential. We will discuss possible mechanisms by which MMICs might initiate metastases in the context of established knowledge of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in other cancers and of hematopoietic homing molecules, with a particular focus on selectins, integrins, chemokines, and chemokine receptors known to be expressed by melanoma cells. Biological understanding of how these molecules might be utilized by MMICs to propel the metastatic cascade could critically impact the development of more effective therapies for advanced

  15. Melanocytes, melanocyte stem cells, and melanoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lang, Deborah; Mascarenhas, Joseph B; Shea, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Melanocyte stem cells differ greatly from melanoma stem cells; the former provide pigmented cells during normal tissue homeostasis and repair, and the latter play an active role in a lethal form of cancer. These 2 cell types share several features and can be studied by similar methods. Aspects held in common by both melanocyte stem cells and melanoma stem cells include their expression of shared biochemical markers, a system of similar molecular signals necessary for their maintenance, and a requirement for an ideal niche microenvironment for providing these factors. This review provides a perspective of both these cell types and discusses potential models of stem cell growth and propagation. Recent findings provide a strong foundation for the development of new therapeutics directed at isolating and manipulating melanocyte stem cells for tissue engineering or at targeting and eradicating melanoma specifically, while sparing nontumor cells.

  16. Comparative Metabolic Flux Profiling of Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Richardson, Adam D.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Knutzen, Christine A.; Chiang, Gary G.; Ronai, Ze'ev A.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rewiring is an established hallmark of cancer, but the details of this rewiring at a systems level are not well characterized. Here we acquire this insight in a melanoma cell line panel by tracking metabolic flux using isotopically labeled nutrients. Metabolic profiling and flux balance analysis were used to compare normal melanocytes to melanoma cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. All melanoma cells exhibited the Warburg phenomenon; they used more glucose and produced more lactate than melanocytes. Other changes were observed in melanoma cells that are not described by the Warburg phenomenon. Hypoxic conditions increased fermentation of glucose to lactate in both melanocytes and melanoma cells (the Pasteur effect). However, metabolism was not strictly glycolytic, as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was functional in all melanoma lines, even under hypoxia. Furthermore, glutamine was also a key nutrient providing a substantial anaplerotic contribution to the TCA cycle. In the WM35 melanoma line glutamine was metabolized in the “reverse” (reductive) direction in the TCA cycle, particularly under hypoxia. This reverse flux allowed the melanoma cells to synthesize fatty acids from glutamine while glucose was primarily converted to lactate. Altogether, this study, which is the first comprehensive comparative analysis of metabolism in melanoma cells, provides a foundation for targeting metabolism for therapeutic benefit in melanoma. PMID:21998308

  17. High LIFr expression stimulates melanoma cell migration and is associated with unfavorable prognosis in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Cheng, Yabin; Martinka, Magdalena; McElwee, Kevin

    2015-09-22

    Increased or decreased expression of LIF receptor (LIFr) has been reported in several human cancers, including skin cancer, but its role in melanoma is unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of LIFr in melanoma and assessed its prognostic value. Using tissue microarrays consisting of 441 melanomas and 96 nevi, we found that no normal nevi showed high LIFr expression. LIFr staining was significantly increased in primary melanoma compared to dysplastic nevi (P = 0.0003) and further increased in metastatic melanoma (P = 0.0000). Kaplan-Meier survival curve and univariate Cox regression analyses showed that increased expression of LIFr was correlated with poorer 5-year patient survival (overall survival, P = 0.0000; disease-specific survival, P = 0.0000). Multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that increased LIFr expression was an independent prognostic marker for primary melanoma (P = 0.036). LIFr knockdown inhibited melanoma cell migration in wound healing assays and reduced stress fiber formation. LIFr knockdown correlated with STAT3 suppression, but not YAP, suggesting that LIFr activation might stimulate melanoma cell migration through the STAT3 pathway. Our data indicate that strong LIFr expression identifies potentially highly malignant melanocytic lesions at an early stage and LIFr may be a potential target for the development of early intervention therapeutics. PMID:26329521

  18. Cytotoxic Effects of Loperamide Hydrochloride on Canine Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    REGAN, Rebecca Cohen; GOGAL, Robert Michael; BARBER, James Perry; TUCKFIELD, Richard Cary; HOWERTH, Elizabeth Wynne; LAWRENCE, Jessica Ann

    2014-01-01

    Loperamide is a peripheral opiate agonist that can cause apoptosis and G2/M arrest in human cancer cell lines and may sensitize cells to chemotherapy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of loperamide on viability, apoptosis and cell cycle kinetics in canine cancer cells and to establish whether the drug sensitizes cells to doxorubicin. Cell viability was assessed using Alamar Blue. Cell death and cell cycle were studied using flow cytometry with 7-Aminoactinomycin-D (7-AAD) and propidium iodide (PI), respectively. Loperamide decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion and was most effective against canine osteosarcoma cells. In all cell lines, it induced a dose and time dependent apoptosis and resulted in accumulation in G0/G1. When co-incubated with doxorubicin, loperamide induced a synergistic cell kill in canine carcinoma cells. Investigation is warranted into the role of loperamide in the treatment of canine cancer. PMID:25649936

  19. Cytokine-enhanced vaccine and suicide gene therapy as surgery adjuvant treatments for spontaneous canine melanoma: 9 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, L M E; Glikin, G C

    2012-12-01

    We present here the updated results after 9 years of the beginning of a trial on canine patients with malignant melanoma. This surgery adjuvant approach combined local suicide gene therapy with a subcutaneous vaccine composed by tumor cells extracts and xenogeneic cells producing human interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Toxicity was absent or minimal in all patients (0≤VCOG-CTCAE grade≤1). With respect to surgery-treated controls (ST), the complete surgery (CS) arm of this combined treatment (CT) significantly increased the fraction of local disease-free patients from 13 to 81% and distant metastases free from 32 to 84%. Even though less effective than the CS arm, the partial surgery (PS) arm of this CT was significantly better controlling the disease than only surgery (14% while PS-ST: 0%, P<0.01 and CS-ST: 5%, P<0.05). In addition, CT produced a significant sevenfold (CS) and threefold (PS) increase in overall survival. The CS-CT arm significantly improved both CS-ST metastasis-free- and melanoma overall survival from 99 days (respective ranges: 11-563 and 10-568) to >2848 days (81-2848 and 35-2848). Thus, more of 50% of our CT patients died of melanoma unrelated causes, transforming a lethal disease into a chronic one. Finally, surgery adjuvant CT delayed or prevented post-surgical recurrence and distant metastasis, significantly improved disease-free and overall survival maintaining the quality of life. Long-term safety and efficacy of this treatment are supported by the high number of CT patients (283) and extensive follow-up (>9 years). The successful clinical outcome encourages the further translation of similar approaches to human gene therapy trials. PMID:23059870

  20. Canine Pluripotent Stem Cells: Are They Ready for Clinical Applications?

    PubMed

    Betts, Dean H; Tobias, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine-induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms, and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner. PMID:26664969

  1. PLX4032 Mediated Melanoma Associated Antigen Potentiation in Patient Derived Primary Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    George, Andrea L.; Suriano, Robert; Rajoria, Shilpi; Osso, Maria C.; Tuli, Neha; Hanly, Elyse; Geliebter, Jan; Arnold, Angelo N.; Wallack, Marc; Tiwari, Raj K.

    2015-01-01

    Over expression of various immunogenic melanoma associated antigens (MAAs) has been exploited in the development of immunotherapeutic melanoma vaccines. Expression of MAAs such as MART-1 and gp100 is modulated by the MAPK signaling pathway, which is often deregulated in melanoma. The protein BRAF, a member of the MAPK pathway, is mutated in over 60% of melanomas providing an opportunity for the identification and approval by the FDA of a small molecule MAPK signaling inhibitor PLX4032 that functions to inactivate mutant BRAFV600E. To this end, we characterized five patient derived primary melanoma cell lines with respect to treatment with PLX4032. Cells were treated with 5μM PLX4032 and harvested. Western blotting analysis, RT-PCR and in vitro transwell migration and invasion assays were utilized to determine treatment effects. PLX4032 treatment modulated phosphorylation of signaling proteins belonging to the MAPK pathway including BRAF, MEK, and ERK and abrogated cell phenotypic characteristics such as migration and invasion. Most significantly, PLX4032 led to an up regulation of many MAA proteins in three of the four BRAF mutated cell lines, as determined at the protein and RNA level. Interestingly, MAGE-A1 protein and mRNA levels were reduced upon PLX4032 treatment in two of the primary lines. Taken together, our findings suggest that the BRAFV600E inhibitor PLX4032 has therapeutic potential over and above its known target and in combination with specific melanoma targeting vaccine strategies may have further clinical utility. PMID:26640592

  2. Melanin-producing dendritic cells and histogenesis of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Paul, E; Illig, L

    1976-12-15

    In a total of 70 malignant melanomas we searched for dendritic-branched fluorescent pigment cells. Hereby we found that dendritic-branched tumor cells are especially characteristic in cases of lentigo maligna. In the flat parts of these lesions, these cells are the predominant cell type. Dendrites in the pseudonests or nodular parts of lentigo maligna can only seldom be detected. The prevailing cell type in superficial spreading melanoma and in primary nodular melanoma is the round or oval unbranched tumor cell. In some cases of nodular melanoma, cells with short dendrites could be seen. In superficial spreading melanoma, dendritic tumor cells could be observed particularly in such tumor parts, in which the malignant cells were scattered between the keratinocytes. Melanocytes can evidently produce dendrites between cells of the sebaceous gland. In the marginal parts or in parts of regression of some superficial spreading melanomas, a great area of dendritic tumor cells could also be detected in the basal parts of the epidermis. Altogether, however, in superficial spreading melanoma and in nodular melanoma they occur only rarely. Dendritic-branched cells are also visible in lymph-node metastases of SSM and NM. The fact that the dendritic tumor cells can be observed in all 3 types of tumors (according to Clark and coworkers) gives a rise to a new discussion of the dualistic theory of melanoma-histogenesis of Mishima. Although this theory could not be disproved, up to now on the basis of the present results, an unitarian development of all types of mnelanoma from melanocytes seems to be possible.

  3. Primary Spindle Cell Malignant Melanoma of Esophagus: An Unusual Finding.

    PubMed

    Rawandale, Nirmalkumar A; Suryawanshi, Kishor H

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma of esophagus is usually a metastatic tumour rather than a primary tumour. Primary malignant melanoma accounts for less than 0.2% of all esophageal neoplasm. We report a case of primary spindle cell malignant melanoma of esophagus in a 69-year-old male who presented with history of dysphagia since 1 month. Radiological examinations revealed polypoidal growth at lateral aspect of esophagus. Biopsy was reported as grade III squamous cell carcinoma. Video assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy was performed. Histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry gave confirmed diagnosis of primary spindle cell malignant melanoma of esophagus. Though a rare entity, due to its aggressive nature and poor prognosis primary malignant melanoma should be one of the differential diagnoses in a patient with polypoidal esophageal mass lesion. Despite radical surgical treatment prognosis is extremely poor. PMID:27042502

  4. Gastrin receptors on isolated canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soll, A.H.; Amirian, D.A.; Thomas, L.P.; Reedy, T.J.; Elashoff, J.D.

    1984-05-01

    The receptors in the fundic mucosa that mediate gastrin stimulation of acid secretion have been studied. Synthetic human gastrin-17-I (G17) with a leucine substitution in the 15th position ((Leu15)-G17) was iodinated by chloramine T; high saturable binding was found to enzyme-dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells. /sup 127/I-(Leu15)-G17, but not /sup 127/I-G17, retained binding potency and biological activity comparable with uniodinated G17. Fundic mucosal cells were separated by size by using an elutriator rotor, and specific /sup 125/I-(Leu-15)-G17 binding in the larger cell fractions was highly correlated with the distribution of parietal cells. There was, however, specific gastrin binding in the small cell fractions, not accounted for by parietal cells. Using sequential elutriation and stepwise density gradients, highly enriched parietal and chief cell fractions were prepared; /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding correlated positively with the parietal cell (r . 0.98) and negatively with chief cell content (r . -0.96). In fractions enriched to 45-65% parietal cells, specific /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding was rapid, reaching a steady state at 37 degrees C within 30 min. Dissociation was also rapid, with the rate similar after 100-fold dilution or dilution plus excess pentagastrin. At a tracer concentration from 10 to 30 pM, saturable binding was 7.8 +/- 0.8% per 10(6) cells (mean +/- SE) and binding in the presence of excess pentagastrin accounted for 11% of total binding. G17 and carboxyl terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (26-33) were equipotent in displacing tracer binding and in stimulating parietal cell function ((/sup 14/C)aminopyrine accumulation), whereas the tetrapeptide of gastrin (14-17) had a much lower potency. Proglumide inhibited gastrin binding and selectively inhibited gastrin stimulation of parietal cell function.

  5. Identification of link proteins in canine synovial cell cultures and canine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Link proteins are glycoproteins in cartilage that are involved in the stabilization of aggregates of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid. We have identified link proteins in synovial cell cultures form normal canine synovium using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunofluorescence, and immunolocation with specific antibodies by electrophoretic transfer. We have also found evidence for the synthesis of link proteins in these cultures by fluorography of radiolabeled synovial cell extracts. We have identified a 70,000 mol-wt protein in canine synovial cell culture extracts that has antigenic cross-reactivity with the 48,000-mol-wt link protein. Three link proteins were identified in normal canine articular cartilage. These results indicate that link proteins are more widely distributed in connective tissues than previously recognized and may have biological functions other than aggregate stabilization. PMID:3980578

  6. In vitro melanoma cell growth after preenucleation radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneally, C.Z.; Farber, M.G.; Smith, M.E.; Devineni, R.

    1988-02-01

    The in vitro efficacy of 20 Gy (2000 rad) of external beam irradiation delivered to patients with choroidal melanomas prior to enucleation was investigated in 11 patients whose tumors were grown in cell culture. Phase-contrast microscopy was used to compare growth patterns between irradiated and nonirradiated tumors. Cell types were determined by histologic stains, and electron microscopy identified intracytoplasmic melanin. Irradiated melanomas did not grow and did not attach to culture flasks, thus demonstrating that preenucleation irradiation alters the in vitro growth of melanoma cells.

  7. Melanoma educates mesenchymal stromal cells towards vasculogenic mimicry

    PubMed Central

    VARTANIAN, AMALIA; KARSHIEVA, SAIDA; DOMBROVSKY, VLADISLAV; BELYAVSKY, ALEXANDER

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are recruited to the tumor, and promote tumor development and growth. The present study was performed to investigate the communication between aggressive melanoma and MSCs in vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Normal human MSCs plated on Matrigel were unable to form capillary-like structures (CLSs). By contrast, MSCs co-cultured with aggressive melanoma cell lines, namely, Mel Cher, Mel Kor and Mel P, generated CLSs. Significantly, MSCs co-cultured with poorly aggressive melanoma cells, namely, Mel Me, failed to form CLSs. To identify factors responsible for VM, the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), pro-epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor 1α on the formation of CLSs by MSCs were tested. VM was induced by the addition of VEGFA, whereas other cytokines were inefficient. To confirm the hypothesis that aggressive tumor cells can increase the vasculogenic ability of MSCs, a standard B16/F10 mouse melanoma test system was used. MSCs isolated from the adipose tissues of C57BL/6 mice with melanoma formed a vascular-like network on Matrigel, whereas MSCs from healthy mice failed to form such structures. This study provides the first direct evidence that melanoma tumors educate MSCs to engage in VM. The education may occur distantly. These findings offer promise for novel therapeutic directions in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:27313776

  8. SIRT1 regulates lamellipodium extension and migration of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, Risa; Jimbow, Kowichi; Tanimura, Akihiko; Sato, Masahiro; Horimoto, Kouhei; Hayashi, Takashi; Hisahara, Shin; Sugino, Toshiya; Hirobe, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Horio, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Melanoma is highly metastatic, but the mechanism of melanoma cell migration is still unclear. We found that melanoma cells expressed the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 in the cytoplasm. Cell membrane extension and migration of melanoma cells were inhibited by SIRT1 inhibitors or SIRT1 knockdown, whereas SIRT1 activators enhanced elongation of protrusion and cellular motility. In B16F1 cells, growth factor stimulation induced lamellipodium extension, a characteristic feature at the leading edge of migrating cells, and SIRT1 was found in the lamellipodium. SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) or SIRT1 small interfering RNAs suppressed the lamellipodium extension by serum or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The lamellipodium formation by dominant-active Rac1 was also inhibited by NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor. NAM inhibited the accumulation of phosphorylated Akt at the submembrane by serum or PDGF. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that NAM impaired PDGF-dependent increase in the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate level at the leading edge. NAM inhibited the abdominal metastasis of transplanted B16F1 melanoma cells in C57BL6/J mice and improved survival. Finally, SIRT1-knockdown B16F1 cells showed significantly reduced metastasis in transplanted mice compared with that in control B16F1 cells. These results indicate that SIRT1 inhibition is a strategy to suppress metastasis of melanoma cells. PMID:24480879

  9. Identification of canine helper T-cell epitopes from the fusion protein of canine distemper virus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Souravi; Walker, John; Jackson, David C

    2001-01-01

    The fusion protein of canine distemper virus (CDV-F), a 662 amino-acid envelope protein, was used as the target molecule for identification of canine T helper (Th) epitopes. A library of 94 peptides, each 17 residues in length overlapping by 10 residues and covering the entire sequence of CDV-F, was screened using a lymphocyte proliferation assay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from dogs inoculated with canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine. Initially we observed low and inconsistent proliferation of PBMC in response to these peptides, even when using cells obtained from dogs that had received multiple doses of CDV. Subsequently, the use of expanded cell populations derived by in vitro stimulation of canine PBMC with pools of peptides allowed the identification of a number of putative canine Th-epitopes within the protein sequence of CDV-F. There were two major clusters of Th-epitopes identified close to the cleavage site of the F0 fusion protein, while some others were scattered in both the F1 and F2 fragments of the protein. Some of these peptides, in particular peptide 35 (p35), were stimulatory in dogs of different breeds and ages. The identification of such promiscuous canine Th-epitopes encouraged us to assemble p35 in tandem with luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) a 10 amino-acid residue synthetic peptide representing a B-cell epitope which alone induces no antibody in dogs. The totally synthetic immunogen was able to induce the production of very high titres of antibodies against LHRH in all dogs tested. These results indicate that p35 could be an ideal candidate for use as a Th-epitope for use in outbred dogs. PMID:11576221

  10. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  11. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K.; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  12. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients.

  13. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. PMID:26739040

  14. An electrochemical immunosensing method for detecting melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Rajesh; Maddodi, Nityanand; Setaluri, Vijaysaradhi; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-06-15

    An electrochemical immunosensing method was developed to detect melanoma cells based on the affinity between cell surface melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) antigen and anti-MC1R antibody (MC1R-Ab). The MC1R-Abs were immobilized in amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (n-SiNPs)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified on working electrode surface of screen-printed electrode (SPE). Cyclic voltammetry was employed, with the help of redox mediator ([Fe(CN)6](3-)), to measure the change in anodic oxidation peak current arising due to the specific interaction between MC1R antigens and MC1R-Abs when the target melanoma cells are present in the sample. Various factors affecting the sensor performance, such as the amount of MC1R-Abs loaded, incubation time with the target melanoma cells, the presence of interfering non-melanoma cells, were tested and optimized over different expected melanoma cell loads in the range of 50-7500 cells/2.5 mL. The immunosensor is highly sensitive (20 cells/mL), specific, and reproducible, and the antibody-loaded electrode in ready-to-use stage is stable over two weeks. Thus, in conjunction with a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device our electrochemical immunosensing approach may be suitable for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood samples.

  15. An electrochemical immunosensing method for detecting melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Seenivasan, Rajesh; Maddodi, Nityanand; Setaluri, Vijaysaradhi; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical immunosensing method was developed to detect melanoma cells based on the affinity between cell surface melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) antigen and anti-MC1R antibody (MC1R-Ab). The MC1R-Abs were immobilized in amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (n-SiNPs)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified on working electrode surface of screen-printed electrode (SPE). Cyclic voltammetry was employed, with the help of redox mediator ([Fe(CN)6]3−), to measure the change in anodic oxidation peak current arising due to the specific interaction between MC1R antigens and MC1R-Abs when the target melanoma cells are present in the sample. Various factors affecting the sensor performance, such as the amount of MC1R-Abs loaded, incubation time with the target melanoma cells, the presence of interfering non-melanoma cells, were tested and optimized over different expected melanoma cell loads in the range of 50–7500 cells/2.5 mL. The immunosensor is highly sensitive (20 cells/mL), specific, and reproducible, and the antibody-loaded electrode in ready-to-use stage is stable over two weeks. Thus, in conjunction with a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device our electrochemical immunosensing approach may be suitable for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood samples. PMID:25636023

  16. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  17. The effect of divalent cations on Cloudman melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Borovanský, J; Riley, P A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of Ca2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ as acetates (10(-3) - 10(-5)M) and of 2% DMSO on the proliferation and differentiation of clone M3 of the Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma was studied and compared with the behaviour of GPK (keratocyte) and MRC5 (fibroblast) cell lines. Whereas neither calcium nor magnesium ions influenced the proliferation of the cells as measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, absorbance at 280 nm of NaOH cell digests and cell counts, cadmium, zinc and copper ions selectively inhibited the melanoma line. Cd2+ (10(-5)M) and Zn2+ (10(-4)M) were selectively cytotoxic to melanoma cells in contrast to keratocytes and fibroblasts. No direct effect of the cations on melanogenesis, as estimated from the ratio of absorbance at 350 nm and 280 nm and by tyrosinase assays, was demonstrated. DMSO stimulated melanogenesis in melanoma cells but inhibited their growth. Experiments with ouabain indicate that active transport is involved in the uptake of zinc by melanoma cells. PMID:6682780

  18. Stem cell growth factor receptor in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Wolfesberger, Birgitt; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Hlavaty, Juraj; Meyer, Florian R.; Hofer, Martin; Steinborn, Ralf; Gebhard, Christiane; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is considered the most common bone cancer in cats and dogs, with cats having a much better prognosis than dogs, since the great majority of dogs with osteosarcoma develop distant metastases. In search of a factor possibly contributing to this disparity, the stem cell growth factor receptor KIT was targeted, and the messenger (m)RNA and protein expression levels of KIT were compared in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas, as well as in normal bone. The mRNA expression of KIT was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and was observed to be significantly higher in canine (n=14) than in feline (n=5) osteosarcoma samples (P<0.001). KIT protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, which revealed that 21% of canine osteosarcoma samples did not exhibit KIT staining in their neoplastic cells, while in 14% of samples, a score of 1 (<10% positive tumour cells) was observed, and in 50% and 14% of samples, a score of 2 (10–50% positivity) and 3 (>50% positivity), respectively, was observed. By contrast, the cancer cells of all the feline bone tumour samples analysed were entirely negative for KIT. Notably, canine and feline osteocytes of healthy bone tissue lacked any KIT expression. These results could be the first evidence that KIT may be involved in the higher aggressiveness of canine osteosarcoma compared with feline osteosarcoma.

  19. Stem cell growth factor receptor in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Wolfesberger, Birgitt; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Hlavaty, Juraj; Meyer, Florian R.; Hofer, Martin; Steinborn, Ralf; Gebhard, Christiane; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is considered the most common bone cancer in cats and dogs, with cats having a much better prognosis than dogs, since the great majority of dogs with osteosarcoma develop distant metastases. In search of a factor possibly contributing to this disparity, the stem cell growth factor receptor KIT was targeted, and the messenger (m)RNA and protein expression levels of KIT were compared in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas, as well as in normal bone. The mRNA expression of KIT was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and was observed to be significantly higher in canine (n=14) than in feline (n=5) osteosarcoma samples (P<0.001). KIT protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, which revealed that 21% of canine osteosarcoma samples did not exhibit KIT staining in their neoplastic cells, while in 14% of samples, a score of 1 (<10% positive tumour cells) was observed, and in 50% and 14% of samples, a score of 2 (10–50% positivity) and 3 (>50% positivity), respectively, was observed. By contrast, the cancer cells of all the feline bone tumour samples analysed were entirely negative for KIT. Notably, canine and feline osteocytes of healthy bone tissue lacked any KIT expression. These results could be the first evidence that KIT may be involved in the higher aggressiveness of canine osteosarcoma compared with feline osteosarcoma. PMID:27698817

  20. A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Fu, Dah-Renn; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transporter recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [{sup 3}H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or LPM

  1. Nuclear stiffening inhibits migration of invasive melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Alexandre J.S.; Khanna, Payal; Sukumar, Aishwarya; Dong, Cheng; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2014-01-01

    During metastasis, melanoma cells must be sufficiently deformable to squeeze through extracellular barriers with small pore sizes. We visualize and quantify deformability of single cells using micropipette aspiration and examine the migration potential of a population of melanoma cells using a flow migration apparatus. We artificially stiffen the nucleus with recombinant overexpression of Δ50 lamin A, which is found in patients with Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome and in aged individuals. Melanoma cells, both WM35 and Lu1205, both show reduced nuclear deformability and reduced cell invasion with the expression of Δ50 lamin A. These studies suggest that cellular aging including expression of Δ50 lamin A and nuclear stiffening may reduce the potential for metastatic cancer migration. Thus, the pathway of cancer metastasis may be kept in check by mechanical factors in addition to known chemical pathway regulation. PMID:25544862

  2. Assaying Wnt5A-mediated invasion in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Michael P; French, Amanda D; Leotlela, Poloko D; Weeraratna, Ashani T

    2008-01-01

    Wnt5A has been implicated in melanoma metastasis, and the progression of other cancers including pancreatic, gastric, prostate, and lung cancers. Assays to test motility and invasion include both in vivo assays and in vitro assays. The in vivo assays include the use of tail vein or footpad injections of metastatic cells, and are often laborious and expensive. In vitro invasion assays provide quick readouts that can help to establish conditions that either activate or inhibit melanoma cell motility, and to assess whether the conditions in question are worth translating into an in vivo model. Here we describe two standard methods for assaying motility and invasion in vitro including wound healing assays and Matrigel invasion assays (Boyden chamber assays). In addition, we and several other laboratories have previously shown that melanoma cells require matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 for their invasion, and have recently shown that Wnt5A treatment can increase the levels of this enzyme in melanoma cells, as demonstrated by gelatin zymography. The use of these techniques can help to assess the migratory capacity of melanoma cells in response to Wnt treatment.

  3. BPTF transduces MITF-driven prosurvival signals in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Altaf A.; Majid, Shahana; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Phan, Binh; Ursu, Sarah; Nosrati, Mehdi; De Semir, David; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Miller, James R.; Debs, Robert; Cleaver, James E.; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a critical and complex role in melanocyte transformation. Although several downstream targets of MITF action have been identified, the precise mechanisms by which MITF promotes melanocytic tumor progression are incompletely understood. Recent studies identified an oncogenic role for the bromodomain plant homeodomain finger transcription factor (BPTF) gene in melanoma progression, in part through activation of BCL2, a canonical target of MITF signaling. Analysis of the BPTF promoter identified a putative MITF-binding site, suggesting that MITF may regulate BPTF expression. Overexpression of MITF resulted in up-regulation of BPTF in a panel of melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. shRNA-mediated down-regulation of MITF in melanoma cells was accompanied by down-regulation of BPTF and BPTF-regulated genes (including BCL2) and resulted in reduced proliferative capacity of melanoma cells. The suppression of cell growth mediated by MITF silencing was rescued by overexpression of BPTF cDNA. Binding of MITF to the BPTF promoter was demonstrated using ChIP analysis. MITF overexpression resulted in direct transcriptional activation of BPTF, as evidenced by increased luciferase activity driven by the BPTF promoter. These results indicate that BPTF transduces key prosurvival signals driven by MITF, further supporting its important role in promoting melanoma cell survival and progression. PMID:27185926

  4. BPTF transduces MITF-driven prosurvival signals in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dar, Altaf A; Majid, Shahana; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Phan, Binh; Ursu, Sarah; Nosrati, Mehdi; De Semir, David; Sagebiel, Richard W; Miller, James R; Debs, Robert; Cleaver, James E; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2016-05-31

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a critical and complex role in melanocyte transformation. Although several downstream targets of MITF action have been identified, the precise mechanisms by which MITF promotes melanocytic tumor progression are incompletely understood. Recent studies identified an oncogenic role for the bromodomain plant homeodomain finger transcription factor (BPTF) gene in melanoma progression, in part through activation of BCL2, a canonical target of MITF signaling. Analysis of the BPTF promoter identified a putative MITF-binding site, suggesting that MITF may regulate BPTF expression. Overexpression of MITF resulted in up-regulation of BPTF in a panel of melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. shRNA-mediated down-regulation of MITF in melanoma cells was accompanied by down-regulation of BPTF and BPTF-regulated genes (including BCL2) and resulted in reduced proliferative capacity of melanoma cells. The suppression of cell growth mediated by MITF silencing was rescued by overexpression of BPTF cDNA. Binding of MITF to the BPTF promoter was demonstrated using ChIP analysis. MITF overexpression resulted in direct transcriptional activation of BPTF, as evidenced by increased luciferase activity driven by the BPTF promoter. These results indicate that BPTF transduces key prosurvival signals driven by MITF, further supporting its important role in promoting melanoma cell survival and progression. PMID:27185926

  5. Oxidative stress inhibits distant metastasis by human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Piskounova, Elena; Agathocleous, Michalis; Murphy, Malea M.; Hu, Zeping; Huddlestun, Sara E.; Zhao, Zhiyu; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Johnson, Timothy M.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancer cells commonly enter the blood and disseminate systemically but are highly inefficient at forming distant metastases for poorly understood reasons. We studied human melanomas that differed in their metastasis histories in patients and in their capacity to metastasize in NSG mice. All melanomas had high frequencies of cells that formed subcutaneous tumours, but much lower percentages of cells that formed tumours after intravenous or intrasplenic transplantation, particularly among inefficient metastasizers. Melanoma cells in the blood and visceral organs experienced oxidative stress not observed in established subcutaneous tumours. Successfully metastasizing melanomas underwent reversible metabolic changes during metastasis that increased their capacity to withstand oxidative stress, including increased dependence upon NADPH-generating enzymes in the folate pathway. Anti-oxidants promoted distant metastasis in NSG mice. Folate pathway inhibition using low-dose methotrexate, ALDH1L2 knockdown, or MTHFD1 knockdown inhibited distant metastasis without significantly affecting the growth of subcutaneous tumors in the same mice. Oxidative stress thus limits distant metastasis by melanoma cells in vivo. PMID:26466563

  6. Specifically targeting ERK1 or ERK2 kills Melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overcoming the notorious apoptotic resistance of melanoma cells remains a therapeutic challenge given dismal survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, recent clinical trials using a BRAF inhibitor revealed encouraging results for patients with advanced BRAF mutant bearing melanoma, but drug resistance accompanied by recovery of phospho-ERK (pERK) activity present challenges for this approach. While ERK1 and ERK2 are similar in amino acid composition and are frequently not distinguished in clinical reports, the possibility they regulate distinct biological functions in melanoma is largely unexplored. Methods Rather than indirectly inhibiting pERK by targeting upstream kinases such as BRAF or MEK, we directly (and near completely) reduced ERK1 and ERK2 using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to achieve sustained inhibition of pERK1 and/or pERK2. Results and discussion Using A375 melanoma cells containing activating BRAFV600E mutation, silencing ERK1 or ERK2 revealed some differences in their biological roles, but also shared roles by reduced cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and induced apoptosis. By contrast, chemical mediated inhibition of mutant BRAF (PLX4032) or MEK (PD0325901) triggered less killing of melanoma cells, although they did inhibit proliferation. Death of melanoma cells by silencing ERK1 and/or ERK2 was caspase dependent and accompanied by increased levels of Bak, Bad and Bim, with reduction in p-Bad and detection of activated Bax levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Rare treatment resistant clones accompanied silencing of either ERK1 and/or ERK2. Unexpectedly, directly targeting ERK levels also led to reduction in upstream levels of BRAF, CRAF and pMEK, thereby reinforcing the importance of silencing ERK as regards killing and bypassing drug resistance. Conclusions Selectively knocking down ERK1 and/or ERK2 killed A375 melanoma cells and also increased the ability of PLX4032 to kill A375 cells

  7. Characterization of canine dental pulp cells and their neuroregenerative potential.

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiji; Kudo, Daichi; Sekine, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kobatake, Yui; Tamaoki, Naritaka; Inden, Masatoshi; Iida, Kazuki; Ito, Yusuke; Hozumi, Isao; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Kamishina, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    Dental pulp cells (DPCs) of various species have been studied for their potentials of differentiation into functional neurons and secretion of neurotrophic factors. In canine, DPCs have only been studied for cell surface markers and differentiation, but there is little direct evidence for therapeutic potentials for neurological disorders. The present study aimed to further characterize canine DPCs (cDPCs), particularly focusing on their neuroregenerative potentials. It was also reported that superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles were useful for labeling of MSCs and tracking with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our data suggested that cDPCs hold higher proliferation capacity than bone marrow stromal cells, the other type of mesenchymal stem cells which have been the target of intensive research. Canine DPCs constitutively expressed neural markers, suggesting a close relationship to the nervous system in their developmental origin. Canine DPCs promoted neuritogenesis of PC12 cells, most likely through secretion of neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, SPIO nanoparticles could be effectively transported to cDPCs without significant cytotoxicity and unfavorable effects on neuritogenesis. SPIO-labeled cDPCs embedded in agarose spinal cord phantoms were successfully visualized with a magnetic resonance imaging arousing a hope for noninvasive cell tracking in transplantation studies.

  8. Tumor cell vascular mimicry: Novel targeting opportunity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Mary J C; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Seftor, Richard E B; Chao, Jun-Tzu; Chien, Du-Shieng; Chu, Yi-Wen

    2016-03-01

    In 1999, the American Journal of Pathology published an article, entitled "Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry" by Maniotis and colleagues, which ignited a spirited debate for several years and earned the journal's distinction of a "citation classic" (Maniotis et al., 1999). Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM), also known as vascular mimicry, describes the plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming de novo vascular networks and is associated with the malignant phenotype and poor clinical outcome. The tumor cells capable of VM share the commonality of a stem cell-like, transendothelial phenotype, which may be induced by hypoxia. Since its introduction as a novel paradigm for melanoma tumor perfusion, many studies have contributed new findings illuminating the underlying molecular pathways supporting VM in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas, sarcomas, glioblastomas, astrocytomas, and melanomas. Of special significance is the lack of effectiveness of angiogenesis inhibitors on tumor cell VM, suggesting a selective resistance by this phenotype to conventional therapy. Facilitating the functional plasticity of tumor cell VM are key proteins associated with vascular, stem cell, extracellular matrix, and hypoxia-related signaling pathways--each deserving serious consideration as potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic indicators of the aggressive, metastatic phenotype. This review highlights seminal findings pertinent to VM, including the effects of a novel, small molecular compound, CVM-1118, currently under clinical development to target VM, and illuminates important molecular pathways involved in the suppression of this plastic, aggressive phenotype, using melanoma as a model.

  9. Natural Killer Cell Recognition of Melanoma: New Clues for a More Effective Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona, Raquel; Duran, Esther; Solana, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells participate in the early immune response against melanoma and also contribute to the development of an adequate adaptive immune response by their crosstalk with dendritic cells and cytokine secretion. Melanoma resistance to conventional therapies together with its high immunogenicity justifies the development of novel therapies aimed to stimulate effective immune responses against melanoma. However, melanoma cells frequently escape to CD8 T cell recognition by the down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this scenario, NK cells emerge as potential candidates for melanoma immunotherapy due to their capacity to recognize and destroy melanoma cells expressing low levels of MHC class I molecules. In addition, the possibility to combine immune checkpoint blockade with other NK cell potentiating strategies (e.g., cytokine induction of activating receptors) has opened new perspectives in the potential use of adoptive NK cell-based immunotherapy in melanoma. PMID:26779186

  10. Natural Killer Cell Recognition of Melanoma: New Clues for a More Effective Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Raquel; Duran, Esther; Solana, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells participate in the early immune response against melanoma and also contribute to the development of an adequate adaptive immune response by their crosstalk with dendritic cells and cytokine secretion. Melanoma resistance to conventional therapies together with its high immunogenicity justifies the development of novel therapies aimed to stimulate effective immune responses against melanoma. However, melanoma cells frequently escape to CD8 T cell recognition by the down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this scenario, NK cells emerge as potential candidates for melanoma immunotherapy due to their capacity to recognize and destroy melanoma cells expressing low levels of MHC class I molecules. In addition, the possibility to combine immune checkpoint blockade with other NK cell potentiating strategies (e.g., cytokine induction of activating receptors) has opened new perspectives in the potential use of adoptive NK cell-based immunotherapy in melanoma.

  11. Photoacoustic imaging of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lidai; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Ruiying; Xu, Song; Li, Guo; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma, one of the most common types of skin cancer, has a high mortality rate, mainly due to a high propensity for tumor metastasis. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a potential predictor for metastasis. Label-free imaging of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo provides rich information on tumor progress. Here we present photoacoustic microscopy of single melanoma cells in living animals. We used a fast-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope to image the microvasculature in mouse ears. The imaging system has sub-cellular spatial resolution and works in reflection mode. A fast-scanning mirror allows the system to acquire fast volumetric images over a large field of view. A 500-kHz pulsed laser was used to image blood and CTCs. Single circulating melanoma cells were imaged in both capillaries and trunk vessels in living animals. These high-resolution images may be used in early detection of CTCs with potentially high sensitivity. In addition, this technique enables in vivo study of tumor cell extravasation from a primary tumor, which addresses an urgent pre-clinical need.

  12. Differential PAX3 functions in normal skin melanocytes and melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Medic, Sandra; Rizos, Helen; Ziman, Mel

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} PAX3 retains embryonic roles in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. {yields} Promotes 'stem' cell-like phenotype via NES and SOX9 in both cells types. {yields} Regulates melanoma and melanocyte migration through MCAM and CSPG4. {yields} PAX3 regulates melanoma but not melanocyte proliferation via TPD52. {yields} Regulates melanoma cell (but not melanocyte) survival via BCL2L1 and PTEN. -- Abstract: The PAX3 transcription factor is the key regulator of melanocyte development during embryogenesis and is also frequently found in melanoma cells. While PAX3 is known to regulate melanocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration during development, it is not clear if its function is maintained in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. To clarify this we have assessed which genes are targeted by PAX3 in these cells. We show here that similar to its roles in development, PAX3 regulates complex differentiation networks in both melanoma cells and melanocytes, in order to maintain cells as 'stem' cell-like (via NES and SOX9). We show also that mediators of migration (MCAM and CSPG4) are common to both cell types but more so in melanoma cells. By contrast, PAX3-mediated regulation of melanoma cell proliferation (through TPD52) and survival (via BCL2L1 and PTEN) differs from that in melanocytes. These results suggest that by controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration as well as maintaining a less differentiated 'stem' cell like phenotype, PAX3 may contribute to melanoma development and progression.

  13. CD133 Is Not Suitable Marker for Isolating Melanoma Stem Cells from D10 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Fomeshi, Motahareh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Firouzi, Javad; Khosravani, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cutaneous melanoma is the most hazardous malignancy of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for malignancy in most of cancers including melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare two common methods for melanoma stem cell enriching; isolating based on the CD133 cell surface marker and spheroid cell culture. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, melanoma stem cells were enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the CD133 protein expression and spheroid culture of D10 melanoma cell line,. To determine stemness features, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT4-A and -B genes as well as colony and spheroid formation assays were utilized in unsorted CD133+, CD133- and spheroid cells. Significant differences of the two experimental groups were compared using student’s t tests and a two-tailed value of P<0.05 was statistically considered as a significant threshold. Results Our results demonstrated that spheroid cells had more colony and spheroid forming ability, rather than CD133+ cells and the other groups. Moreover, melanospheres expressed higher mRNA expression level of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN and OCT4-A com- pared to other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Although CD133+ derived melanoma cells represented stemness fea- tures, our findings demonstrated that spheroid culture could be more effective meth- od to enrich melanoma stem cells. PMID:27054115

  14. Mast cells in canine cutaneous hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, Moges; Rajeev, Sreekumari

    2010-02-01

    Mast cell count (MCC) in 45 dogs with cutaneous hemangioma (HA, n = 12), hemangiosarcoma (HSA, n = 12), mammary adenoma (AD, n = 9) and mammary adenocarcinoma (AC, n = 12) was made using Toluidine blue stained sections. Antibodies against endothelial cell markers, Factor VIII and VEGF were used to visualize and determine the hot spot micro-vessel density (MVD). Total MCC and MCC along the invasive edges were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in canine mammary AC than in AD. The total MCC did not significantly differ (p > 0.05), in HSAs (8.6 +/- 3.3) than in HAs (5.5 +/- 2.8). There is a positive correlation (r = 0.14) between the hot spot MCC and MVD in mammary AC, although not significant (p = 0.3172), indicating that mast cells are associated with angiogenesis in canine mammary AC. This study suggests that mast cells may play an important role in neovascularization of canine cutaneous vascular and mammary neoplasms. Detailed studies encompassing correlation of MCC and MVD with clinical outcomes and prognosis in these neoplasms are recommended.

  15. Enhancing the treatment effect on melanoma by heat shock protein 70-peptide complexes purified from human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanwei; Gao, Weishi; Chen, Xia; Cha, Nier; Wang, Xiaoli; Jia, Xiangdong; Wang, Bingping; Ren, Meng; Ren, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines are currently one of the most effective approaches to treat melanoma. The immunogenicity of antigens loaded into DCs determines the treatment effects. Patients treated with autologous antigen-loaded DC vaccines achieve the best therapeutic effects. In China, most melanoma patients cannot access their autologous antigens because of formalin treatment of tumor tissue after surgery. In the present study, we purified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-peptide complexes (PCs) from human melanoma cell lines A375, A875, M21, M14, WM‑35, and SK‑HEL‑1. We named the purified product as M‑HSP70‑PCs, and determined its immunological activities. Autologous HSP70‑PCs purified from primary tumor cells of melanoma patients (nine cases) were used as controls. These two kinds of tumor antigenic complexes loaded into DCs were used to stimulate an antitumor response against tumor cells in the corresponding patients. Mature DCs pulsed with M‑HSP70‑PCs stimulated autologous T cells to secrete the same levels of type I cytokines compared with the autologous HSP70‑PCs. Moreover, DCs pulsed with M‑HSP70‑PCs induced CD8+ T cells with an equal ability to kill melanoma cells from patients compared with autologous HSP70‑PCs. Next, we used these PC‑pulsed autologous DCs and induced autologous specific CD8+ T cells to treat one patient with melanoma of the nasal skin and lung metastasis. The treatment achieved a good effect after six cycles. These findings provide a new direction for DC-based immunotherapy for melanoma patients who cannot access autologous antigens. PMID:27431432

  16. Enhancing the treatment effect on melanoma by heat shock protein 70-peptide complexes purified from human melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanwei; Gao, Weishi; Chen, Xia; Cha, Nier; Wang, Xiaoli; Jia, Xiangdong; Wang, Bingping; Ren, Meng; Ren, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines are currently one of the most effective approaches to treat melanoma. The immunogenicity of antigens loaded into DCs determines the treatment effects. Patients treated with autologous antigen-loaded DC vaccines achieve the best therapeutic effects. In China, most melanoma patients cannot access their autologous antigens because of formalin treatment of tumor tissue after surgery. In the present study, we purified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-peptide complexes (PCs) from human melanoma cell lines A375, A875, M21, M14, WM-35, and SK-HEL-1. We named the purified product as M-HSP70-PCs, and determined its immunological activities. Autologous HSP70-PCs purified from primary tumor cells of melanoma patients (nine cases) were used as controls. These two kinds of tumor antigenic complexes loaded into DCs were used to stimulate an antitumor response against tumor cells in the corresponding patients. Mature DCs pulsed with M-HSP70-PCs stimulated autologous T cells to secrete the same levels of type I cytokines compared with the autologous HSP70-PCs. Moreover, DCs pulsed with M-HSP70-PCs induced CD8+ T cells with an equal ability to kill melanoma cells from patients compared with autologous HSP70-PCs. Next, we used these PC-pulsed autologous DCs and induced autologous specific CD8+ T cells to treat one patient with melanoma of the nasal skin and lung metastasis. The treatment achieved a good effect after six cycles. These findings provide a new direction for DC-based immunotherapy for melanoma patients who cannot access autologous antigens. PMID:27431432

  17. Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Effector Cells Selectively Lyse Human Melanoma Cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Gregor; Bumol, Thomas F.; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1983-09-01

    Monoclonal antibody 9.2.27 (mAb 9.2.27) directed to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan on human melanoma cells was able to suppress tumor growth in athymic (nu/nu) mice more effectively when bound with polyethylene glycol to murine effector cells than when injected alone. These ``armed'' effector cells also proved more effective than the monoclonal antibody in eliciting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human melanoma target cells in vitro.

  18. Biomarker utility of circulating tumor cells in metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Leila; Lorigan, Paul; Zhou, Cong; Lancashire, Matthew; Booth, Jessica; Cummings, Jeff; Califano, Raffaele; Clack, Glen; Hughes, Andrew; Dive, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide. Advances in targeted agents and immunotherapy have improved outcomes in metastatic disease, but biomarkers are required to optimize treatment. We determined the prevalence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and explored their utility as prognostic and pharmacodynamic biomarkers. A total of 101 patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma were recruited prospectively. CTC number was determined using the CellSearch platform and melanoma kits in samples taken at baseline and serially during treatment. CTC numbers ranged between 0 and 36 per 7.5 ml blood; 26% of patients had ≥ 2 CTCs. Baseline CTC number was prognostic for median overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis (2.6 vs. 7.2 months (P<0.011) for patients with ≥ 2 CTCs vs. <2 CTCs, respectively). In multivariate analysis, CTC number was an independent prognostic biomarker of OS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.403, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.303-4.430, P=0.005). Patients receiving treatment in whom CTC number remained ≥ 2 CTCs during treatment had shorter median OS than those who maintained <2 CTCs (7 vs. 10 months, HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.81, log-rank test P=0.015). In conclusion, CTC number in metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients is prognostic for OS with a cutoff of 2 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood. CTC number measured before and throughout treatment provided additional prognostic information. Larger studies are warranted to confirm CTC biomarker utility in melanoma patients. PMID:23223143

  19. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates inhibit cell cycle progression in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Forsea, A-M; Müller, C; Riebeling, C; Orfanos, C E; Geilen, C C

    2004-08-16

    Cutaneous melanoma is one of the highly malignant human tumours, due to its tendency to generate early metastases and its resistance to classical chemotherapy. We recently demonstrated that pamidronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, has an antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect on different melanoma cell lines. In the present study, we compared the in vitro effects of three different bisphosphonates on human melanoma cell lines and we demonstrated that the two nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates pamidronate and zoledronate inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progression was altered, the two compounds causing accumulation of the cells in the S phase of the cycle. In contrast, the nonaminobisphosphonate clodronate had no effect on melanoma cells. These findings suggest a direct antitumoural effect of bisphosphonates on melanoma cells in vitro and further support the hypothesis of different intracellular mechanisms of action for nitrogen-containing and nonaminobisphosphonates. Our data indicate that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates may be a useful novel therapeutic class for treatment and/or prevention of melanoma metastases.

  20. Electrogene therapy with interleukin-12 in canine mast cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Cör, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor; Pogacnik, Azra; Tozon, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Background Mast cell tumors (MCT) are the most common malignant cutaneous tumors in dogs with extremely variable biological behaviour. Different treatment approaches can be used in canine cutaneous MCT, with surgical excision being the treatment of choice. In this study, electrogene therapy (EGT) as a new therapeutic approach to canine MCTs, was established. Materials and methods. Eight dogs with a total of eleven cutaneous MCTs were treated with intratumoral EGT using DNA plasmid encoding human interleukin-12 (IL-12). The local response to the therapy was evaluated by repeated measurements of tumor size and histological examination of treated tumors. A possible systemic response was assessed by determination of IL-12 and interferon- γ (IFN-γ) in patients’ sera. The occurence of side effects was monitored with weekly clinical examinations of treated animals and by performing basic bloodwork, consisting of the complete bloodcount and determination of selected biochemistry parameters. Results Intratumoral EGT with IL-12 elicits significant reduction of treated tumors’ size, ranging from 13% to 83% (median 50%) of the initial tumor volume. Additionally, a change in the histological structure of treated nodules was seen. There was a reduction in number of malignant mast cells and inflammatory cell infiltration of treated tumors. Systemic release of IL-12 in four patients was detected, without any noticeable local or systemic side effects. Conclusions These data suggest that intratumoral EGT with plasmid encoding IL-12 may be useful in the treatment of canine MCTs, exerting a local antitumor effect. PMID:22933932

  1. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.

  2. Variable DNA methylation changes during differentiation of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Steigerwald, S D; Pfeifer, G P

    1988-09-01

    The DNA 5-methylcytosine content has been analyzed in the human melanoma cell line M21 at several time points after induction of differentiation by a variety of inducers. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine reduces DNA methylation to about 50% of the control level and this demethylation occurs prior to the establishment of the differentiated phenotype. The DNA synthesis inhibitors cytosine arabinoside, aphidicolin, and hydroxyurea exert different effects on DNA methylation in these cells. Cytosine arabinoside induces an early DNA hypermethylation, which is however reversible and drops to the original level after 24 h. Hydroxyurea induces DNA hypermethylation after a lag period of more than 48 h and the DNA polymerase alpha inhibitor aphidicolin has no effect on the DNA methylation level. Treatment of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, another potent inducer of melanoma cell differentiation, does not result in a change of total DNA methylation over a period of 96 h. These results indicate that differentiation of human melanoma cells can be accompanied by variable changes of the DNA methylation pattern. These changes can be neither generally related to the differentiation process itself nor related to the effects of DNA synthesis inhibition on DNA methylation, but may more likely reflect a direct or indirect particular effect of the inducer on the DNA methylation process.

  3. Label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanoma cells have high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC), which is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. We have developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting photoacoustic signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we have constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals are detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. The raw signal detected from target cells often contains some noise caused by electronic devices, such as background noise and thermal noise. We choose the Wavelet denoising method to effectively distinguish the target signal from background noise. Processing in time domain and frequency domain would be combined to analyze the signal after denoising. This algorithm contains time domain filter and frequency transformation. The frequency spectrum image of the signal contains distinctive features that can be used to analyze the property of target cells or particles. The processing methods have a great potential for analyzing signals accurately and rapidly. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtain the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation.

  4. Effects of Wnt-10b on proliferation and differentiation of murine melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Misu, Masayasu; Ouji, Yukiteru; Kawai, Norikazu; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2015-08-07

    In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas tyrosinase activity was increased. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that migration of melanoma cells to the wound area was inhibited with the addition of Wnt-CM. Furthermore, evaluation of cellular senescence revealed prominent induction of SA-β-gal-positive senescent cells in cultures with Wnt-CM. Finally, the growth of B16 melanoma cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures was markedly suppressed in the presence of Wnt-CM. These results suggest that Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, such as proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage. - Highlights: • Wnt-10b inhibited proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b induced tyrosinase activity and senescence of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b suppressed growth of cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures. • Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage.

  5. Genome-wide methylated CpG island profiles of melanoma cells reveal a melanoma coregulation network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Liang; Mazar, Joseph; Zhong, Cuncong; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S.; Zhang, Zhan; Dinger, Marcel E.; Meredith, Gavin; Adams, Christopher; Zhang, Shaojie; Mattick, John S.; Ray, Animesh; Perera, Ranjan J.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a malignant cancer with generally poor prognosis, with no targeted chemotherapy. To identify epigenetic changes related to melanoma, we have determined genome-wide methylated CpG island distributions by next-generation sequencing. Melanoma chromosomes tend to be differentially methylated over short CpG island tracts. CpG islands in the upstream regulatory regions of many coding and noncoding RNA genes, including, for example, TERC, which encodes the telomerase RNA, exhibit extensive hypermethylation, whereas several repeated elements, such as LINE 2, and several LTR elements, are hypomethylated in advanced stage melanoma cell lines. By using CpG island demethylation profiles, and by integrating these data with RNA-seq data obtained from melanoma cells, we have identified a co-expression network of differentially methylated genes with significance for cancer related functions. Focused assays of melanoma patient tissue samples for CpG island methylation near the noncoding RNA gene SNORD-10 demonstrated high specificity. PMID:24129253

  6. Effects of thymol on B16-F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Satooka, Hiroki; Kubo, Isao

    2012-03-14

    Aromatic monoterpene, thymol, shows several beneficial activities, such as an antioxidative effect. However, the mechanism of its toxicity remains to be fully defined. In preliminary studies, thymol was characterized as a melanin formation inhibitor in an enzymatic system; however, thymol showed moderate cytotoxicity but not an antimelanogenic effect on B16-F10 melanoma cells. Thymol exhibited cytotoxicity, with an IC(50) value of 400 μM (60.09 μg/mL). This moderate toxic effect was suppressed with the addition of vitamin C and vitamin D, and 20 and 40% of cell viability was increased, respectively. Subsequently, the treatment of L-cysteine on thymol-treated melanoma cells reversed the toxic effect of thymol. Moreover, a significant oxidative stress condition was observed when B16 melanoma cells were cultured with thymol. In conclusion, the antioxidant actions of thymol generate a stable phenoxy radical intermediate, which generates reactive oxygen species and quinone oxide derivatives. Thus, it is proposed that the primary mechanism of thymol toxicity at high doses is due to the formation of antioxidant-related radicals. PMID:22352891

  7. Melanoma Cells Homing to the Brain: An In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, A.; Vasco, C.; Girgenti, V.; Fugnanesi, V.; Calatozzolo, C.; Canazza, A.; Salmaggi, A.; Rivoltini, L.; Morbin, M.; Ciusani, E.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an in vitro contact through-feet blood brain barrier (BBB) model built using type IV collagen, rat astrocytes, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cocultured through Transwell porous polycarbonate membrane. The contact between astrocytes and HUVECs was demonstrated by electron microscopy: astrocytes endfeet pass through the 8.0 μm pores inducing HUVECs to assume a cerebral phenotype. Using this model we evaluated transmigration of melanoma cells from two different patients (M1 and M2) selected among seven melanoma primary cultures. M2 cells showed a statistically significant higher capability to pass across the in vitro BBB model, compared to M1. Expression of adhesion molecules was evaluated by flow cytometry: a statistically significant increased expression of MCAM, αvβ3, and CD49b was detected in M1. PCR array data showed that M2 had a higher expression of several matrix metalloproteinase proteins (MMPs) compared to M1. Specifically, data suggest that MMP2 and MMP9 could be directly involved in BBB permeability and that brain invasion by melanoma cells could be related to the overexpression of many MMPs. Future studies will be necessary to deepen the mechanisms of central nervous system invasion. PMID:25692137

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Laser Microdissected Melanoma Cells from Skin Organ Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Brian L.; Grahovac, Jelena; Flint, Melanie S.; Sun, Mai; Charro, Nuno; Becker, Dorothea; Wells, Alan; Conrads, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Gaining insights into the molecular events that govern the progression from melanoma in situ to advanced melanoma, and understanding how the local microenvironment at the melanoma site influences this progression, are two clinically pivotal aspects that to date are largely unexplored. In an effort to identify key regulators of the crosstalk between melanoma cells and the melanoma-skin microenvironment, primary and metastatic human melanoma cells were seeded into skin organ cultures (SOCs), and grown for two weeks. Melanoma cells were recovered from SOCs by laser microdissection and whole-cell tryptic digests analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with an LTQ-Orbitrap. The differential protein abundances were calculated by spectral counting, the results of which provides evidence that cell-matrix and cell-adhesion molecules that are upregulated in the presence of these melanoma cells recapitulate proteomic data obtained from comparative analysis of human biopsies of invasive melanoma and a tissue sample of adjacent, non-involved skin. This concordance demonstrates the value of SOCs for conducting proteomic investigations of the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:20459140

  9. Curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles inhibit in vitro melanoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fernanda França; dos Santos, Michelly Christine; dos Passos, Debora Cristina Silva; Lima, Emilia Celma de Oliveira; Guillo, Lidia Andreu

    2011-09-01

    Curcumin is a natural product possessing therapeutic properties but the low water solubility of this compound limits its use. We have successfully incorporated curcumin into a bilayer of dodecanoic acid attached to magnetite nanoparticles in an effort to maximize solubility and delivery efficiency. Curcumin/magnetite nanoparticles were characterized using diffused reflectance infra-red fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Moreover curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles inhibited in vitro melanoma cell growth. An inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 66.0 +/- 3.0 microM (48 +/- 2.2 microg-iron/mL) was observed for the curcumin/magnetite nanoparticles. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles were internalized by the melanoma cells and remained in the cytoplasm. The curcumin/magnetic nanoparticles synthesized in this study possess magnetic and water solubility properties making this a novel curcumin formulation with therapeutic potential.

  10. Resistance to BRAF inhibitors induces glutamine dependency in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Baenke, Franziska; Chaneton, Barbara; Smith, Matthew; Van Den Broek, Niels; Hogan, Kate; Tang, Haoran; Viros, Amaya; Martin, Matthew; Galbraith, Laura; Girotti, Maria R.; Dhomen, Nathalie; Gottlieb, Eyal; Marais, Richard

    2016-01-01

    BRAF inhibitors can extend progression-free and overall survival in melanoma patients whose tumors harbor mutations in BRAF. However, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these drugs. Here we show that BRAF mutant melanoma cells that have developed acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors display increased oxidative metabolism and increased dependency on mitochondria for survival. Intriguingly, the increased oxidative metabolism is associated with a switch from glucose to glutamine metabolism and an increased dependence on glutamine over glucose for proliferation. We show that the resistant cells are more sensitive to mitochondrial poisons and to inhibitors of glutaminolysis, suggesting that targeting specific metabolic pathways may offer exciting therapeutic opportunities to treat resistant tumors, or to delay emergence of resistance in the first-line setting. PMID:26365896

  11. In vivo 6-thioguanine-resistant T cells from melanoma patients have public TCR and share TCR beta amino acid sequences with melanoma-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Zuleger, Cindy L.; Macklin, Michael D.; Bostwick, Bret L.; Pei, Qinglin; Newton, Michael A.; Albertini, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient T cells (MT) from melanoma patients are enriched for T cells with in vivo clonal amplifications that traffic between blood and tumor tissues. Melanoma is thus a model cancer to test the hypothesis that in vivo MT from cancer patients can be used as immunological probes for immunogenic tumor antigens. MT were obtained by 6-thioguanine (TG) selection of lymphocytes from peripheral blood and tumor tissues, and wild-type T cells (WT) were obtained analogously without TG selection. cDNA sequences of the T cell receptor beta chains (TRB) were used as unambiguous biomarkers of in vivo clonality and as indicators of T cell specificity. Public TRB were identified in MT from the blood and tumor of different melanoma patients. Such public TRB were not found in normal control MT or WT. As an indicator of T cell specificity for melanoma, the >2600 MT and WT TRB, including the public TRB from melanoma patients, were compared to a literature-derived empirical database of >1270 TRB from melanoma-reactive T cells. Various degrees of similarity, ranging from 100% conservation to 3-amino acid motifs (3-mer), were found between both melanoma patient MT and WT TRBs and the empirical database. The frequency of 3-mer and 4-mer TRB matching to the empirical database was significantly higher in MT compared with WT in the tumor (p=0.0285 and p=0.006, respectively). In summary, in vivo MT from melanoma patients contain public TRB as well as T cells with specificity for characterized melanoma antigens. We conclude that in vivo MT merit study as novel probes for uncharacterized immunogenic antigens in melanoma and other malignancies. PMID:21182840

  12. In vivo 6-thioguanine-resistant T cells from melanoma patients have public TCR and share TCR beta amino acid sequences with melanoma-reactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Zuleger, Cindy L; Macklin, Michael D; Bostwick, Bret L; Pei, Qinglin; Newton, Michael A; Albertini, Mark R

    2011-02-28

    In vivo hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient T cells (MT) from melanoma patients are enriched for T cells with in vivo clonal amplifications that traffic between blood and tumor tissues. Melanoma is thus a model cancer to test the hypothesis that in vivo MT from cancer patients can be used as immunological probes for immunogenic tumor antigens. MT were obtained by 6-thioguanine (TG) selection of lymphocytes from peripheral blood and tumor tissues, and wild-type T cells (WT) were obtained analogously without TG selection. cDNA sequences of the T cell receptor beta chains (TRB) were used as unambiguous biomarkers of in vivo clonality and as indicators of T cell specificity. Public TRB were identified in MT from the blood and tumor of different melanoma patients. Such public TRB were not found in normal control MT or WT. As an indicator of T cell specificity for melanoma, the >2600 MT and WT TRB, including the public TRB from melanoma patients, were compared to a literature-derived empirical database of >1270 TRB from melanoma-reactive T cells. Various degrees of similarity, ranging from 100% conservation to 3-amino acid motifs (3-mer), were found between both melanoma patient MT and WT TRBs and the empirical database. The frequency of 3-mer and 4-mer TRB matching to the empirical database was significantly higher in MT compared with WT in the tumor (p=0.0285 and p=0.006, respectively). In summary, in vivo MT from melanoma patients contain public TRB as well as T cells with specificity for characterized melanoma antigens. We conclude that in vivo MT merit study as novel probes for uncharacterized immunogenic antigens in melanoma and other malignancies. PMID:21182840

  13. Adoptive Cell Therapy of Melanoma with Cytokine-induced Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sung; Kim, Yong Guk; Pyo, Minji; Lee, Hong Kyung; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and its incidence is gradually increasing worldwide. Patients with metastatic melanoma have a very poor prognosis (estimated 5-year survival rate of <16%). In the last few years, several drugs have been approved for malignant melanoma, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockades. Although new therapeutic agents have improved progression-free and overall survival, their use is limited by drug resistance and drug-related toxicity. At the same time, adoptive cell therapy of metastatic melanoma with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we summarize the currently available drugs for treatment of malignant melanoma. In addition, we suggest cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as another candidate approach for adoptive cell therapy of melanoma. Our preclinical study and several previous studies have shown that CIK cells have potent anti-tumor activity against melanomas in vitro and in an in vivo human tumor xenograft model without any toxicity. PMID:25922594

  14. Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin is effective in BRAF mutated melanoma cells and interacts with BRAF inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dolinsek, Tanja; Prosen, Lara; Cemazar, Maja; Potocnik, Tjasa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to explore the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy (ECT) during the treatment of melanoma patients with BRAF inhibitors. Its effectiveness was tested on BRAF mutated and non-mutated melanoma cells in vitro and in combination with BRAF inhibitors. Materials and methods ECT with bleomycin was performed on two human melanoma cell lines, with (SK-MEL-28) or without (CHL-1) BRAF V600E mutation. Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assay to determine the effectiveness of ECT in melanoma cells of different mutation status. Furthermore, the effectiveness of ECT in concomitant treatment with BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib was also determined in BRAF mutated cells SK-MEL-28 with clonogenic assay. Results The survival of BRAF V600E mutated melanoma cells was even lower than non-mutated cells, indicating that ECT is effective regardless of the mutational status of melanoma cells. Furthermore, the synergistic interaction between vemurafenib and ECT with bleomycin was demonstrated in the BRAF V600E mutated melanoma cells. Conclusions The effectiveness of ECT in BRAF mutated melanoma cells as well as potentiation of its effectiveness during the treatment with vemurafenib in vitro implies on clinical applicability of ECT in melanoma patients with BRAF mutation and/or during the treatment with BRAF inhibitors.

  15. FRIZZLED7 Is Required for Tumor Inititation and Metastatic Growth of Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Shweta; Xu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Metastases are thought to arise from cancer stem cells and their tumor initiating abilities are required for the establishment of metastases. Nevertheless, in metastatic melanoma, the nature of cancer stem cells is under debate and their contribution to metastasis formation remains unknown. Using an experimental metastasis model, we discovered that high levels of the WNT receptor, FZD7, correlated with enhanced metastatic potentials of melanoma cell lines. Knocking down of FZD7 in a panel of four melanoma cell lines led to a significant reduction in lung metastases in animal models, arguing that FZD7 plays a causal role during metastasis formation. Notably, limiting dilution analyses revealed that FZD7 is essential for the tumor initiation of melanoma cells and FZD7 knockdown impeded the early expansion of metastatic melanoma cells shortly after seeding, in accordance with the view that tumor initiating ability of cancer cells is required for metastasis formation. FZD7 activated JNK in melanoma cell lines in vitro and the expression of a dominant negative JNK suppressed metastasis formation in vivo, suggesting that FZD7 may promote metastatic growth of melanoma cells via activation of JNK. Taken together, our findings uncovered a signaling pathway that regulates the tumor initiation of melanoma cells and contributes to metastasis formation in melanoma. PMID:26808375

  16. Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin is effective in BRAF mutated melanoma cells and interacts with BRAF inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dolinsek, Tanja; Prosen, Lara; Cemazar, Maja; Potocnik, Tjasa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to explore the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy (ECT) during the treatment of melanoma patients with BRAF inhibitors. Its effectiveness was tested on BRAF mutated and non-mutated melanoma cells in vitro and in combination with BRAF inhibitors. Materials and methods ECT with bleomycin was performed on two human melanoma cell lines, with (SK-MEL-28) or without (CHL-1) BRAF V600E mutation. Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assay to determine the effectiveness of ECT in melanoma cells of different mutation status. Furthermore, the effectiveness of ECT in concomitant treatment with BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib was also determined in BRAF mutated cells SK-MEL-28 with clonogenic assay. Results The survival of BRAF V600E mutated melanoma cells was even lower than non-mutated cells, indicating that ECT is effective regardless of the mutational status of melanoma cells. Furthermore, the synergistic interaction between vemurafenib and ECT with bleomycin was demonstrated in the BRAF V600E mutated melanoma cells. Conclusions The effectiveness of ECT in BRAF mutated melanoma cells as well as potentiation of its effectiveness during the treatment with vemurafenib in vitro implies on clinical applicability of ECT in melanoma patients with BRAF mutation and/or during the treatment with BRAF inhibitors. PMID:27679543

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy determines the susceptibility of melanoma cells to dabrafenib.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Ziping; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Kunli; Li, Dongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuying; Gong, Ting; Cheng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest skin cancers and accounts for most skin-related deaths due to strong resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of dabrafenib-induced drug resistance in human melanoma cell lines A375 and MEL624. Our studies support that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were induced in the melanoma cells after the treatment with dabrafenib. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy protects melanoma cells from the toxicity of dabrafenib. Moreover, inhibition of both ER stress and autophagy promote the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. Taken together, the data suggest that ER stress-induced autophagy determines the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. These results provide us with promising evidence that the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress could serve a therapeutic effect for the conventional dabrafenib chemotherapy. PMID:27536070

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy determines the susceptibility of melanoma cells to dabrafenib

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Ziping; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Kunli; Li, Dongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuying; Gong, Ting; Cheng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest skin cancers and accounts for most skin-related deaths due to strong resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of dabrafenib-induced drug resistance in human melanoma cell lines A375 and MEL624. Our studies support that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were induced in the melanoma cells after the treatment with dabrafenib. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy protects melanoma cells from the toxicity of dabrafenib. Moreover, inhibition of both ER stress and autophagy promote the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. Taken together, the data suggest that ER stress-induced autophagy determines the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. These results provide us with promising evidence that the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress could serve a therapeutic effect for the conventional dabrafenib chemotherapy. PMID:27536070

  19. Immunohistochemical characterization of 13 canine renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, R M; Oliveira, J P; Saraiva, A L; Seixas, F; Faria, F; Gärtner, F; Pires, M A; Lopes, C

    2011-03-01

    Canine renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are uncommon aggressive tumors that occur mainly in middle-aged male dogs. Their histologic classification bears no relationship with prognosis, and little information is available concerning their immunohistochemical properties. In this retrospective study, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 13 canine RCCs were retrieved from the archives, classified histologically, and evaluated immunohistochemically. The dogs were 7 males and 6 females (1 spayed) of 10 different breeds, averaging 8 years in age. The tumors were classified as papillary, tubulopapillary, papillary-cystic, solid, or sarcomatoid. All 13 tumors were immunohistochemically positive for uromodulin, 12 for c-KIT, 11 for vimentin, 9 for wide-spectrum-screening cytokeratins, 7 for cytokeratins AE1/AE3 and carcinoembryonic antigen, 4 for cytokeratins CAM 5.2, and 3 for CD10. All 3 solid RCCs expressed vimentin, c-KIT, and carcinoembryonic antigen and were negative for cytokeratins. All 7 papillary and tubulopapillary tumors expressed vimentin; 6 (86%), cytokeratins; and 6 (86%), c-KIT. Both papillary-cystic RCCs were positive for cytokeratins and c-KIT and negative for vimentin. These results indicate that the different histologic types of RCC have characteristic immunohistochemical profiles and that c-KIT may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine RCC.

  20. Chromomycin A2 induces autophagy in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Larissa Alves; Jimenez, Paula Christine; Sousa, Thiciana da Silva; Freitas, Hozana Patrícia S; Rocha, Danilo Damasceno; Wilke, Diego Veras; Martín, Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Deusdênia Loiola Pessoa, Otília; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras

    2014-12-04

    The present study highlights the biological effects of chromomycin A2 toward metastatic melanoma cells in culture. Besides chromomycin A2, chromomycin A3 and demethylchromomycin A2 were also identified from the extract derived from Streptomyces sp., recovered from Paracuru Beach, located in the northeast region of Brazil. The cytotoxic activity of chromomycin A2 was evaluated across a panel of human tumor cell lines, which found IC50 values in the nM-range for exposures of 48 and 72 h. MALME-3M, a metastatic melanoma cell line, showed the highest sensitivity to chromomycin A2 after 48h incubation, and was chosen as a model to investigate this potent cytotoxic effect. Treatment with chromomycin A2 at 30 nM reduced cell proliferation, but had no significant effect upon cell viability. Additionally, chromomycin A2 induced accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, with consequent reduction of S and G2/M and unbalanced expression of cyclins. Chromomycin A2 treated cells depicted several cellular fragments resembling autophagosomes and increased expression of proteins LC3-A and LC3-B. Moreover, exposure to chromomycin A2 also induced the appearance of acidic vacuolar organelles in treated cells. These features combined are suggestive of the induction of autophagy promoted by chromomycin A2, a feature not previously described for chromomycins.

  1. Amelanotic Melanoma Masquerading as a Granular Cell Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Pandiar, Deepak; Basheer, Shaini; Shameena, P. M.; Sudha, S.; Dhana, Lakshmi J.

    2013-01-01

    Amelanotic melanoma (AM) presents a diagnostic challenge due to its wide clinical presentations, lack of pigmentation, and varied histological appearances. Immunohistochemistry plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of these lesions. Amelanotic melanoma of oral mucosa is an uncommon lesion. We report a case of a 50-year-old male patient with a growth on the anterior mandibular gingiva of seven-month duration. In the present case, histologically, the tumour resembled a granular cell lesion, which has not been reported previously in AM. Diagnosis was possible by a sequential panel of immunohistochemical markers, of which finally vimentin, S100, HMB45, and Melan-A were positive. The tumor was surgically excised, and postsurgical radiotherapy was given. PMID:23533832

  2. Minor histocompatibility antigens on canine hemopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martin; Lange, Claudia; Günther, Wolfgang; Franz, Monika; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Kolb, Hans-Jochem

    2003-06-15

    Adoptive immunotherapy with CTL against minor histocompatibility Ags (mHA) provides a promising way to treat leukemia relapse in allogeneic chimeras. Here we describe the in vitro generation of CTL against mHA in the dog. We tested their inhibitory effect on the growth of hemopoietic progenitor cells stimulated by hemopoietic growth factors in a 4-day suspension culture. CTL were produced by coculture of donor PBMC with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs). These DCs were characterized by morphology, high expression of MHC class II and CD1a, and the absence of the monocyte-specific marker CD14. Characteristically these cells stimulated allogeneic lymphocytes (MLR) and, after pulsing with a foreign Ag (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), autologous T cells. CTL were generated either ex vivo by coculture with DCs of DLA-identical littermates or in vivo by immunization of the responder with DCs obtained from a DLA-identical littermate. In suspension culture assays the growth of hemopoietic progenitor cells was inhibited in 53% of DLA-identical littermate combinations. In canine families mHA segregated with DLA as restriction elements. One-way reactivity against mHA was found in five littermate combinations. In two cases mHA might be Y chromosome associated, in three cases autosomally inherited alleles were detected. We conclude that CTL can be produced in vitro and in vivo against mHA on canine hemopoietic progenitor cells using bone marrow-derived DCs. PMID:12794111

  3. CD10 expressed by fibroblasts and melanoma cells degrades endothelin-1 secreted by human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lining; Moroi, Yoichi; Takahara, Masakazu; Tsuji, Gaku; Oba, Junna; Hayashida, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Shan, Baoen; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent multifunctional peptide linked to wound healing, pigmentation, carcinogenesis, and fibrosclerotic processes in the skin. Whereas ET-1 was thought to be digested by receptor-mediated endocytosis, it is also reported to be biochemically degraded by the neutral endopeptidase CD10 using kidney homogenates. Although keratinocytes (KC) and fibroblasts (Fb) are sources of both ET-1 and CD10, respectively, there is no report investigating the direct association between CD10 expression and its function in relation to ET-1 degradation in the skin. CD10 expression in melanoma cells is associated with clinical prognosis, suggesting an important role in the invasive and metastatic potential of melanoma cells. Here, cultured KC produced much higher amounts of ET-1 than did cultured Fb or melanoma cells. In contrast, KC and A375 melanoma cells did not express CD10, while Fb, SK-MEL-28 and G361 melanoma cells constitutively expressed CD10. KC-derived ET-1 was down-modulated by both CD10-positive Fb and CD10-positive melanoma cells, and the inhibition was partially reversed under substitution conditions using CD10-knockdown Fb or CD10-knockdown melanoma cells. This indicates that CD10 on cultured Fb and melanoma cells is biochemically active in the degradation or down-modulation of ET-1 secreted from KC. These findings may lead to better understanding of skin homeostasis and of the malignant potential of melanoma.

  4. microRNA-21 is upregulated in malignant melanoma and influences apoptosis of melanocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Satzger, Imke; Mattern, Anika; Kuettler, Uta; Weinspach, Dirk; Niebuhr, Margarete; Kapp, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2012-07-01

    Overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been observed in various cancer types, but little is known about the role of miR-21 in melanoma. In this study, we demonstrate that levels of miR-21 are significantly increased in primary melanoma tissues as compared to benign nevi and in human melanoma cell lines as compared to melanocytic cell preparations. We show that downregulation of miR-21 in melanoma cell lines with high endogenous miR-21 expression induced apoptosis, whereas proliferation was not significantly altered. Upregulation of miR-21 in melanocytes resulted in increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. However, in the MEWO melanoma cells with low endogenous miR-21 expression, upregulation of miR-21 had no functional effects. These findings indicate a potential pathogenetic role of miR-21 upregulation in a subgroup of melanomas.

  5. Antiproliferative effect of α-mangostin on canine osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Krajarng, Aungkana; Nilwarankoon, Sirinun; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2012-10-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequently diagnosed primary bone tumor in dog. Since chemotherapeutics are quite limited due to high cost and severe toxicity, therefore, the ultimate goal is to discover cost-effective therapeutics with less toxicity. We have studied the effect of α-mangostin, a xanthone derivative isolated from pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) in canine osteosarcoma, D-17 cells. The results showed that α-mangostin induced antiproliferation with IC(50) at 15 μg/ml. Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining and nucleosomal DNA-gel electrophoresis revealed that α-mangostin could induce nuclear condensation and fragmentation, typically seen in apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that α-mangostin induced sub-G1 peak. In addition, α-mangostin also induced membrane flipping of the phosphatidylserine and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in D-17 cells. In conclusion, α-mangostin, induced apoptotic cell death against canine osteosarcoma D-17 cells, could be a potential candidate for preventive and therapeutic application for bone cancer treatment in dogs.

  6. Embryonic Chicken Transplantation is a Promising Model for Studying the Invasive Behavior of Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jayachandran, Aparna; McKeown, Sonja J.; Woods, Briannyn L.; Prithviraj, Prashanth; Cebon, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a hallmark event in the metastatic cascade conferring invasive ability to tumor cells. There are ongoing efforts to replicate the physiological events occurring during mobilization of tumor cells in model systems. However, few systems are able to capture these complex in vivo events. The embryonic chicken transplantation model has emerged as a useful system to assess melanoma cells including functions that are relevant to the metastatic process, namely invasion and plasticity. The chicken embryo represents an accessible and economical 3-dimensional in vivo model for investigating melanoma cell invasion as it exploits the ancestral relationship between melanoma and its precursor neural crest cells. We describe a methodology that enables the interrogation of melanoma cell motility within the developing avian embryo. This model involves the injection of melanoma cells into the neural tube of chicken embryos. Melanoma cells are labeled using fluorescent tracker dye, Vybrant DiO, then cultured as hanging drops for 24 h to aggregate the cells. Groups of approximately 700 cells are placed into the neural tube of chicken embryos prior to the onset of neural crest migration at the hindbrain level (embryonic day 1.5) or trunk level (embryonic day 2.5). Chick embryos are reincubated and analyzed after 48 h for the location of melanoma cells using fluorescent microscopy on whole mounts and cross-sections of the embryos. Using this system, we compared the in vivo invasive behavior of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like melanoma cells. We report that the developing embryonic microenvironment confers motile abilities to both types of melanoma cells. Hence, the embryonic chicken transplantation model has the potential to become a valuable tool for in vivo melanoma invasion studies. Importantly, it may provide novel insights into and reveal previously unknown mediators of the metastatic steps of invasion and dissemination in melanoma

  7. Embryonic Chicken Transplantation is a Promising Model for Studying the Invasive Behavior of Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Aparna; McKeown, Sonja J; Woods, Briannyn L; Prithviraj, Prashanth; Cebon, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a hallmark event in the metastatic cascade conferring invasive ability to tumor cells. There are ongoing efforts to replicate the physiological events occurring during mobilization of tumor cells in model systems. However, few systems are able to capture these complex in vivo events. The embryonic chicken transplantation model has emerged as a useful system to assess melanoma cells including functions that are relevant to the metastatic process, namely invasion and plasticity. The chicken embryo represents an accessible and economical 3-dimensional in vivo model for investigating melanoma cell invasion as it exploits the ancestral relationship between melanoma and its precursor neural crest cells. We describe a methodology that enables the interrogation of melanoma cell motility within the developing avian embryo. This model involves the injection of melanoma cells into the neural tube of chicken embryos. Melanoma cells are labeled using fluorescent tracker dye, Vybrant DiO, then cultured as hanging drops for 24 h to aggregate the cells. Groups of approximately 700 cells are placed into the neural tube of chicken embryos prior to the onset of neural crest migration at the hindbrain level (embryonic day 1.5) or trunk level (embryonic day 2.5). Chick embryos are reincubated and analyzed after 48 h for the location of melanoma cells using fluorescent microscopy on whole mounts and cross-sections of the embryos. Using this system, we compared the in vivo invasive behavior of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like melanoma cells. We report that the developing embryonic microenvironment confers motile abilities to both types of melanoma cells. Hence, the embryonic chicken transplantation model has the potential to become a valuable tool for in vivo melanoma invasion studies. Importantly, it may provide novel insights into and reveal previously unknown mediators of the metastatic steps of invasion and dissemination in melanoma.

  8. 4-methylcatechol-Induced Oxidative Stress Induces Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Metastatic Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Payton, Florastina; Bose, Rumu; Alworth, William L; Kumar, Addanki P; Ghosh, Rita

    2011-01-01

    There has been a steady rise in fatalities associated with thick melanomas (>4mm). Although understanding of the biology of the disease has improved, effective treatment strategies for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma remain elusive. Therefore, more intensive testing of agents with therapeutic potential are needed to improve survival of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. We have tested the ability of 4-methylcatechol, a metabolite of quercetin; a naturally occurring compound that is commonly found in a variety of fruits for its potential as an anti-melanoma agent. Our results show that 4-methylcatechol inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells in culture while not affecting the growth of normal human epidermal melanocytes. Further, the ability of metastatic melanoma cells to form colonies on soft agar was also inhibited. 4-methylcatechol caused the accumulation of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. There was an increase in reactive oxygen species following treatment with 4-methylcatechol that led to apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Treatment also inhibited cell survival mediated by Akt, a key player in melanoma cell survival. Taken together our results suggest that 4-methylcatechol exhibits cytotoxicity towards metastatic malignant melanoma cells while sparing normal melanocytes and should be tested further as a potential drug candidate for malignant melanoma. PMID:21419106

  9. A novel therapy for melanoma developed in mice: transformation of melanoma into dendritic cells with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucia; Rodriguez-Del Rio, Estela; Freire, Javier; Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Gomez-Roman, Jose Javier; Fernández-Llaca, Hector; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacteria and human pathogen widely used in cancer immunotherapy because of its capacity to induce a specific cytotoxic T cell response in tumours. This bacterial pathogen strongly induces innate and specific immunity with the potential to overcome tumour induced tolerance and weak immunogenicity. Here, we propose a Listeria based vaccination for melanoma based in its tropism for these tumour cells and its ability to transform in vitro and in vivo melanoma cells into matured and activated dendritic cells with competent microbicidal and antigen processing abilities. This Listeria based vaccination using low doses of the pathogen caused melanoma regression by apoptosis as well as bacterial clearance. Vaccination efficacy is LLO dependent and implies the reduction of LLO-specific CD4+ T cell responses, strong stimulation of innate pro-inflammatory immune cells and a prevalence of LLO-specific CD8+ T cells involved in tumour regression and Listeria elimination. These results support the use of low doses of pathogenic Listeria as safe melanoma therapeutic vaccines that do not require antibiotics for bacterial removal.

  10. A Novel Therapy for Melanoma Developed in Mice: Transformation of Melanoma into Dendritic Cells with Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucia; Rodriguez-Del Rio, Estela; Freire, Javier; Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Gomez-Roman, Jose Javier; Fernández-Llaca, Hector; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacteria and human pathogen widely used in cancer immunotherapy because of its capacity to induce a specific cytotoxic T cell response in tumours. This bacterial pathogen strongly induces innate and specific immunity with the potential to overcome tumour induced tolerance and weak immunogenicity. Here, we propose a Listeria based vaccination for melanoma based in its tropism for these tumour cells and its ability to transform in vitro and in vivo melanoma cells into matured and activated dendritic cells with competent microbicidal and antigen processing abilities. This Listeria based vaccination using low doses of the pathogen caused melanoma regression by apoptosis as well as bacterial clearance. Vaccination efficacy is LLO dependent and implies the reduction of LLO-specific CD4+ T cell responses, strong stimulation of innate pro-inflammatory immune cells and a prevalence of LLO-specific CD8+ T cells involved in tumour regression and Listeria elimination. These results support the use of low doses of pathogenic Listeria as safe melanoma therapeutic vaccines that do not require antibiotics for bacterial removal. PMID:25760947

  11. Apoptosis Induced by Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) in Melanoma Cells Is Mcl-1-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yao; Du, Jipei; Chen, Degao; Li, Chengtao; Zhang, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no chemotherapeutic agent available to significantly prolong the survival of the most patients with metastatic melanomas. Here we report that the Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761), one of the most widely sold herbal supplements in the world, potently induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells by disturbing the balance between pro- and anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 family proteins. Treatment with EGb761 induced varying degrees of apoptosis in melanoma cell lines but not in melanocytes. Induction of apoptosis was caspase-dependent and appeared to be mediated by the mitochondrial pathway, in that it was associated with reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of Bax and Bak. Although EGb761 did not cause significant change in the expression levels of the BH3-only Bcl-2 family proteins Bim, Puma, Noxa, and Bad, it significantly downregulated Mcl-1 in sensitive but not resistant melanoma cells, suggesting a major role of Mcl-1 in regulating apoptosis of melanoma cells induced by EGb761. Indeed, siRNA knockdown of Mcl-1 enhanced EGb761-induced apoptosis, which was associated with increased activation of Bax and Bak. Taken together, these results demonstrate that EGb761 kills melanoma cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and that Mcl-1 is a major regulator of sensitivity of melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by EGb761. Therefore, EGb761 with or without in combination with targeting Mcl-1 may be a useful strategy in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25860257

  12. Human Single-Chain Fv Immunoconjugates Targeted to a Melanoma-Associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Mediate Specific Lysis of Human Melanoma Cells by Natural Killer Cells and Complement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baiyang; Chen, Yi-Bin; Ayalon, Oran; Bender, Jeffrey; Garen, Alan

    1999-02-01

    Two antimelanoma immunoconjugates containing a human single-chain Fv (scFv) targeting domain conjugated to the Fc effector domain of human IgG1 were synthesized as secreted two-chain molecules in Chinese hamster ovary and Drosophila S2 cells, and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A. The scFv targeting domains originally were isolated as melanoma-specific clones from a scFv fusion-phage library, derived from the antibody repertoire of a vaccinated melanoma patient. The purified immunoconjugates showed similar binding specificity as did the fusion-phage clones. Binding occurred to human melanoma cells but not to human melanocytes or to several other types of normal cells and tumor cells. A 250-kDa melanoma protein was immunoprecipitated by the immunoconjugates and analyzed by mass spectrometry, using two independent procedures. A screen of protein sequence databases showed an exact match of several peptide masses between the immunoprecipitated protein and the core protein of a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, which is expressed on the surface of most human melanoma cells. The Fc effector domain of the immunoconjugates binds natural killer (NK) cells and also the C1q protein that initiates the complement cascade; both NK cells and complement can activate powerful cytolytic responses against the targeted tumor cells. An in vitro cytolysis assay was used to test for an immunoconjugate-dependent specific cytolytic response against cultured human melanoma cells by NK cells and complement. The melanoma cells, but not the human fibroblast cells used as the control, were efficiently lysed by both NK cells and complement in the presence of the immunoconjugates. The in vitro results suggest that the immunoconjugates also could activate a specific cytolytic immune response against melanoma tumors in vivo.

  13. Growth profiles of recent canine distemper isolates on Vero cells expressing canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM).

    PubMed

    Lan, N T; Yamaguchi, R; Uchida, K; Sugano, S; Tateyama, S

    2005-07-01

    Fresh samples of lymph node, lung and cerebrum taken post mortem from dogs no. 1, 2 and 3 yielded canine distemper virus (CDV) strains 007 Lm, 009 L and 011 C, respectively. These were titrated on Vero cells stably expressing canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; Vero-DST cells). Growth curves of the three strains were produced by titration of the released virus and cell-associated virus at various timepoints. All three isolates, especially 007 Lm, grew well on Vero-DST cells. The titres of cell-associated virus of two strains (009 L and 011 C) were clearly lower than those of virus released into the culture supernate. The results indicate that Vero-DST cells are not only useful for primary isolation but also efficient for titrating virus from fresh tissues and for the study of growth profiles of recent CDV isolates.

  14. Detection and isolation of circulating melanoma cells using photoacoustic flowmetry.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Christine M; Rood, Kyle; Sengupta, Shramik; Gupta, Sagar K; DeSouza, Thiago; Cook, Aaron; Viator, John A

    2011-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are those cells that have separated from a macroscopic tumor and spread through the blood and lymph systems to seed secondary tumors(1,2,3). CTCs are indicators of metastatic disease and their detection in blood samples may be used to diagnose cancer and monitor a patient's response to therapy. Since CTCs are rare, comprising about one tumor cell among billions of normal blood cells in advanced cancer patients, their detection and enumeration is a difficult task. We exploit the presence of pigment in most melanoma cells to generate photoacoustic, or laser induced ultrasonic waves in a custom flow cytometer for detection of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs)(4,5). This process entails separating a whole blood sample using centrifugation and obtaining the white blood cell layer. If present in whole blood, CMCs will separate with the white blood cells due to similar density. These cells are resuspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and introduced into the flowmeter. Rather than a continuous flow of the blood cell suspension, we induced two phase flow in order to capture these cells for further study. In two phase flow, two immiscible liquids in a microfluidic system meet at a junction and form alternating slugs of liquid(6,7). PBS suspended white blood cells and air form microliter slugs that are sequentially irradiated with laser light. The addition of a surfactant to the liquid phase allows uniform slug formation and the user can create different sized slugs by altering the flow rates of the two phases. Slugs of air and slugs of PBS with white blood cells contain no light absorbers and hence, do not produce photoacoustic waves. However, slugs of white blood cells that contain even single CMCs absorb laser light and produce high frequency acoustic waves. These slugs that generate photoacoustic waves are sequestered and collected for cytochemical staining for verification of CMCs. PMID:22143421

  15. Overexpression of melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) enhances extravasation and metastasis of A-mel 3 melanoma cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guba, M; Bosserhoff, A-K; Steinbauer, M; Abels, C; Anthuber, M; Buettner, R; Jauch, K-W

    2000-01-01

    The secreted MIA protein is strongly expressed by advanced primary and metastatic melanomas but not in normal melanocytes. Previous studies have shown that MIA serum levels correlate with clinical tumour progression in melanoma patients. To provide direct evidence that MIA plays a role in metastasis of malignant melanomas, A-mel 3 hamster melanoma cells were transfected with sense- and antisense rhMIA cDNA and analysed subsequently for changes in their tumorigenic and metastatic potential. Enforced expression of MIA in A-mel 3 cells significantly increased their metastatic potential without affecting primary tumour growth, cell proliferation or apoptosis rate in hamsters, compared with control or antisense transfected cells. Additionally, MIA overexpressing transfectants showed a higher rate of both tumour cell invasion and extravasation. Cells transfected with MIA antisense generally exerted an opposite response. The above changes in function attributed to the expression of MIA may underlie the contribution of MIA to the malignant phenotype. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027436

  16. Tight Junction–Associated Signaling Pathways Modulate Cell Proliferation in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jayagopal, Ashwath; Yang, Jin-Long; Haselton, Frederick R.; Chang, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of tight junction (TJ)–associated signaling pathways in the proliferation of uveal melanoma. Methods. Human uveal melanoma cell lines overexpressing the TJ molecule blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves) were generated. The effects of Bves overexpression on TJ protein expression, cell proliferation, and cell cycle distribution were quantified. In addition, localization and transcription activity of the TJ-associated protein ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB) were evaluated using immunofluorescence and bioluminescence reporter assays to study the involvement of Bves signaling in cell proliferation-associated pathways. Results. Bves overexpression in uveal melanoma cell lines resulted in increased expression of the TJ proteins occludin and ZO-1, reduced cell proliferation, and increased sequestration of ZONAB at TJs and reduced ZONAB transcriptional activity. Conclusions. TJ proteins are present in uveal melanoma, and TJ-associated signaling pathways modulate cell signaling pathways relevant to proliferation in uveal melanoma. PMID:20861479

  17. Pentoxifylline Inhibits WNT Signalling in β-Cateninhigh Patient-Derived Melanoma Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Talar, Beata; Gajos-Michniewicz, Anna; Talar, Marcin; Chouaib, Salem; Czyz, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of melanoma needs to be addressed and combination therapies seem to be necessary to overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance to newly developed immunotherapies and targeted therapies. Although the role of WNT/β-catenin pathway in melanoma was early demonstrated, its contribution to the lack of the melanoma patient response to treatment was only recently recognized. Using patient-derived melanoma cell populations, we investigated the influence of pentoxifylline on melanoma cells with either high or low expression of β-catenin. Findings Our results indicate that pentoxifylline inhibits the activity of the canonical WNT pathway in melanoma cell populations with high basal activity of this signalling. This is supported by lowered overall activity of transcription factors TCF/LEF and reduced nuclear localisation of active β-catenin. Moreover, treatment of β-cateninhigh melanoma cell populations with pentoxifylline induces downregulation of genes that are targets of the WNT/β-catenin pathway including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF-M), a melanocyte- and melanoma cell-specific regulator. Conclusions These results suggest that pentoxifylline, a drug approved by the FDA in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, might be tested in a subset of melanoma patients with elevated activity of β-catenin. This pharmaceutical might be tested as an adjuvant drug in combination therapies when the response to immunotherapy is prevented by high activity of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. PMID:27351373

  18. Genetically modified murine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells producing interleukin-2 favor B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bahrambeigi, Vahid; Ahmadi, Nafiseh; Salehi, Rasoul; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are attractive tools for cancer gene therapy due to their intrinsic tropism to the tumor environment. Interleukin-2 (IL2) is recognized as a key regulatory molecule, which enhances the activity and growth of the immune effector cell function. High-Dose IL2 Therapy is an option for treatment of malignant melanoma but has frequent, often serious and sometimes life-threatening side effects. Here we investigated the effect of genetically modified ADSCs (GM-ADSCs) expressing IL2 in immunocompetent mouse models of subcutaneous and lung metastatic melanoma. Prior to in vivo studies, we demonstrated that IL2 produced by GM-ADSCs may act as a growth factor for melanoma cells due to the increased viability and reduced apoptosis of melanoma cells after in vitro treatment. Subcutaneous co-injection of IL2-expressing ADSCs with melanoma cells significantly enhanced the melanoma tumor growth. Furthermore, histological analysis of subcutaneous tumors for IL2 and Melan-A (a melanocytic differentiation marker) confirmed that most of cells in melanoma/IL2-ADSC co-injected tumors are melanoma cells, not IL2-ADSCs. In pulmonary metastases model, melanoma cells were injected intravenously and 10 days later mice were treated by systematical injection of GM-ADSCs. Intravenously injected IL2-ADSCs engrafted into melanoma lung tumors but were unable to reduce melanoma lung metastases. Besides, administered IL2-ADSCs significantly reduced systemic CD4+ cells and did not impact the total survival of lung metastases melanoma bearing mice. In conclusion, this study showed that IL2-producing ADSCs can favor B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation. Therefore, therapies utilizing IL2 have to be taken into careful consideration.

  19. Thymoquinone suppresses metastasis of melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Israr; Muneer, Kashiff M.; Tamimi, Iman A.; Chang, Michelle E.; Ata, Muhammad O.; Yusuf, Nabiha

    2013-07-01

    The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex which when activated regulates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. The NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome is constitutively assembled and activated in human melanoma cells. We have examined the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1,4-quinone), a major ingredient of black seed obtained from the plant Nigella sativa on metastatic human (A375) and mouse (B16F10) melanoma cell lines. We have assessed whether thymoquinone inhibits metastasis of melanoma cells by targeting NLRP3 subunit of inflammasomes. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we found that thymoquinone inhibited the migration of both human and mouse melanoma cells. The inhibitory effect of thymoquinone on metastasis was also observed in vivo in B16F10 mouse melanoma model. The inhibition of migration of melanoma cells by thymoquinone was accompanied by a decrease in expression of NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in decrease in proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1. Inactivation of caspase-1 by thymoquinone resulted in inhibition of IL-1β and IL-18. Treatment of mouse melanoma cells with thymoquinone also inhibited NF-κB activity. Furthermore, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by thymoquinone resulted in partial inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, thymoquinone exerts its inhibitory effect on migration of human and mouse melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, our results indicate that thymoquinone can be a potential immunotherapeutic agent not only as an adjuvant therapy for melanoma, but also, in the control and prevention of metastatic melanoma. - Highlights: • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of migration of melanoma cells. • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of metastasis in vivo. • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of migration by activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

  20. Natural history of intrahepatic canine islet cell autografts.

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, R; Cutfield, R G; Shienvold, F L; Polonsky, K S; Noel, J; Olson, L; Dillberger, J; Miller, J; Mintz, D H

    1986-01-01

    We have serially followed the function of intrahepatic canine islet autografts in 15 beagle dogs for up to 24 mo. Of these, only 20% sustained normal levels of fasting blood glucose for greater than 15 mo posttransplant. Failure of autograft function was accompanied by a preferential loss of well-granulated beta cells in the engrafted islets. The chronic stimulation of an initially marginal intrahepatic beta-cell mass ultimately resulted in metabolic deterioration and loss of beta cells below the minimal threshold required to maintain normal fasting blood glucose levels. It is possible that transplantation of a larger mass of islets would result in indefinite graft function in dogs. However, it remains to be demonstrated in larger mammals, including humans, whether an islet cell mass that is initially adequate in a heterotropic site such as the liver can remain functionally competent over a prolonged period. Images PMID:3095376

  1. Canine cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) is a proliferative disorder of CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P. F.; Olivry, T.; Naydan, D.

    1994-01-01

    Canine epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides [MF]) is a spontaneous neoplasm of skin and mucous membranes that occurs in old dogs (mean age 11 years) and has no breed predilection. The lesions evolve from a patch-plaque stage with prominent epitheliotropism into a tumor stage in which distant metastasis is observed. Unlike human MF, epitheliotropism of the lymphoid infiltrate is still prominent in tumor stage lesions. Tropism of the lymphoid infiltrate for adnexal structures, especially hair follicles and apocrine sweat glands, was marked in all clinical stages of canine MF. Twenty-three cases of MF were subjected to extensive immunophenotypic analysis in which reagents specific for canine leukocyte antigens and fresh frozen tissue sections of the canine lesions were used. Canine MF proved to be a T cell lymphoma in which the epitheliotropic lymphocytes consistently expressed CD3 (22 cases) and CD8 (19 cases); CD3+CD4-CD8- lymphocytes predominated in the remaining 4 cases. In this regard, canine MF clearly differed from human MF in which a CD4 immunophenotype predominates in the T cell infiltrate. Lack of expression of CD45RA by epitheliotropic T cells and intense expression of a beta 1 integrin (VLA-4-like) suggested that T cells in canine MF belonged to the memory subpopulation, as has been suggested for T cells in human MF. Pan-T cell antigen loss or discordant expression also proved useful as phenotypic indicators of neoplasia in canine MF. Loss of CD5 was observed in epitheliotropic T cells in 63% of cases. Discordance of neoplastic T cell Thy-1 expression was frequently observed between epithelial and dermal or submucosal compartments. We conclude that canine MF still represents a useful spontaneous animal disease model of human cutaneous T cell lymphoma, despite the immunophenotypic differences, which may reflect operational differences between human and canine skin-associated lymphoid tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure

  2. Four cases of cell cannibalism in highly malignant feline and canine tumors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernando Costa; Soares, Maria João; Carvalho, Sandra; Borralho, Liliana; Vicente, Gonçalo; Branco, Sandra; Correia, Jorge; Peleteiro, Maria Conceição

    2015-01-01

    Four cases of tumors in which cell internalization was frequently visualized are reported: one feline mammary carcinoma, one feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, one canine pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and one canine pleural mesothelioma. Cell internalization was observed by cytology in two of these cases (the feline mammary tumour and the pleural effusion in the canine mesothelioma) and by histopathology in all but the canine mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin was positive for both internalized and host cells, while E-cadherin expression was frequently absent, although internalized cells occasionally stained positive. This cell-to-cell interaction seems to be associated with tumors displaying a strong epithelial-mesenchymal transitional phenotype, in which cancer cells become engulfed by other cancer cells. Such event could be regarded as an important hallmark of very high malignancy. PMID:26525147

  3. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is the achille's heel of melanoma cells resistant to Braf-mutant inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    André, Fanny; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Scalbert, Camille; Garçon, Guillaume; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Balayssac, Stéphane; Rocchi, Stephane; Savina, Ariel; Formstecher, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vemurafenib/PLX4032, a selective inhibitor of mutant BRAFV600E, constitutes a paradigm shift in melanoma therapy. Unfortunately, acquired resistance, which unavoidably occurs, represents one major limitation to clinical responses. Recent studies have highlighted that vemurafenib activated oxidative metabolism in BRAFV600E melanomas expressing PGC1α. However, the oxidative state of melanoma resistant to BRAF inhibitors is unknown. We established representative in vitro and in vivo models of human melanoma resistant to vemurafenib including primary specimens derived from melanoma patients. Firstly, our study reveals that vemurafenib increased mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines regardless the expression of PGC1α. Secondly, melanoma cells that have acquired resistance to vemurafenib displayed intrinsically high rates of mitochondrial respiration associated with elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress irrespective of the presence of vemurafenib. Thirdly, the elevated ROS level rendered vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells prone to cell death induced by pro-oxidants including the clinical trial drug, elesclomol. Based on these observations, we propose that the mitochondrial oxidative signature of resistant melanoma constitutes a novel opportunity to overcome resistance to BRAF inhibition. PMID:24161908

  4. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J.

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  5. Cytotoxic evaluation of phenolic compounds from lichens against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Fabrício Gardini; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz; Matos, Maria de Fátima Cepa; Bogo, Danielle; Freitas, Deisy dos Santos; Oyama, Nathália Mitsuko; Honda, Neli Kika

    2013-01-01

    Atranorin, lichexanthone, and the (+)-usnic, diffractaic, divaricatic, perlatolic, psoromic, protocetraric, and norstictic acids isolated from the lichens Parmotrema dilatatum (VAIN.) HALE, Usnea subcavata MOTYKA, Usnea sp., Ramalina sp., Cladina confusa (SANT.) FOLMM. & AHTI, Dirinaria aspera HÄSÄNEN, and Parmotrema lichexanthonicum ELIASARO & ADLER were evaluated against UACC-62 and B16-F10 melanoma cells and 3T3 normal cells. Sulforhodamine B assay revealed significant cytotoxic activity in protocetraric, divaricatic, and perlatolic acids on UACC-62 cells (50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI(50)) 0.52, 2.7, and 3.3 µg/mL, respectively). Divaricatic and perlatolic acids proved the most active on B16-F10 cells (GI(50) 4.4, 18.0 µg/mL, respectively) and the most cytotoxic to 3T3 normal cells. Diffractaic, usnic, norstictic, and psoromic acids were cytotoxic to UACC-62 cells in the 24.7 to 36.6 µg/mL range, as were protocetraric and diffractaic acids to B16-F10 cells (GI(50) 24.0, 25.4 µg/mL, respectively). Protocetraric acid was highly selective (selectivity index (SI*) 93.3) against UACC-62 cells, followed by norstictic, perlatolic, psoromic, and divaricatic acids, while norstictic and divaricatic acids were more selective against B16-F10 cells. The high SI* value obtained for protocetraric acid on UACC-62 cells makes it a potential candidate for the study of melanomas in experimental models. Chemometric analysis was performed to evaluate the general behavior of the compounds against the cell lines tested. PMID:23207680

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Proton Beam Irradiated Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Jankowska, Urszula; Elas, Martyna; Sowa, Urszula; Swakon, Jan; Cierniak, Agnieszka; Olko, Pawel; Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena; Urbanska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Proton beam irradiation is a form of advanced radiotherapy providing superior distributions of a low LET radiation dose relative to that of photon therapy for the treatment of cancer. Even though this clinical treatment has been developing for several decades, the proton radiobiology critical to the optimization of proton radiotherapy is far from being understood. Proteomic changes were analyzed in human melanoma cells treated with a sublethal dose (3 Gy) of proton beam irradiation. The results were compared with untreated cells. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed with mass spectrometry to identify the proteins. At the dose of 3 Gy a minimal slowdown in proliferation rate was seen, as well as some DNA damage. After allowing time for damage repair, the proteomic analysis was performed. In total 17 protein levels were found to significantly (more than 1.5 times) change: 4 downregulated and 13 upregulated. Functionally, they represent four categories: (i) DNA repair and RNA regulation (VCP, MVP, STRAP, FAB-2, Lamine A/C, GAPDH), (ii) cell survival and stress response (STRAP, MCM7, Annexin 7, MVP, Caprin-1, PDCD6, VCP, HSP70), (iii) cell metabolism (TIM, GAPDH, VCP), and (iv) cytoskeleton and motility (Moesin, Actinin 4, FAB-2, Vimentin, Annexin 7, Lamine A/C, Lamine B). A substantial decrease (2.3 x) was seen in the level of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the metastatic properties of melanoma. PMID:24392146

  7. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  8. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  9. IL-2 Inducible T-cell Kinase, a Novel Therapeutic Target in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Craig C.; Moschos, Stergios J.; Edmiston, Sharon N.; Darr, David B.; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Groben, Pamela A.; Zhou, Xin; Kuan, Pei Fen; Pandey, Shaily; Chan, Keefe T.; Jordan, Jamie L.; Hao, Honglin; Frank, Jill S.; Hopkinson, Dennis A.; Gibbs, David C.; Alldredge, Virginia D.; Parrish, Eloise; Hanna, Sara C.; Berkowitz, Paula; Rubenstein, David S.; Miller, C. Ryan; Bear, James E.; Ollila, David W.; Sharpless, Norman E.; Conway, Kathleen; Thomas, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interleukin-2 inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) promoter CpG sites are hypomethylated in melanomas compared to nevi. The expression of ITK in melanomas, however, has not been established and requires elucidation. Experimental Design An ITK specific monoclonal antibody was used to probe sections from de-identified, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks or cell line arrays and ITK was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Levels of ITK protein differed among melanoma cell lines and representative lines were transduced with four different lentiviral constructs that each contained an shRNA designed to knockdown ITK mRNA levels. The effects of the selective ITK inhibitor BI 10N on cell lines and mouse models were also determined. Results ITK protein expression increased with nevus to metastatic melanoma progression. In melanoma cell lines, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ITK decreased proliferation and migration and increased the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with BI 10N reduced growth of ITK-expressing xenografts or established autochthonous (Tyr-Cre/Pten null/Braf V600E) melanomas. Conclusions We conclude that ITK, formerly considered an immune cell-specific protein, is aberrantly expressed in melanoma and promotes tumor development and progression. Our finding that ITK is aberrantly expressed in most metastatic melanomas suggests that inhibitors of ITK may be efficacious for melanoma treatment. The efficacy of a small molecule ITK inhibitor in the Tyr-Cre/Ptennull/BrafV600E mouse melanoma model supports this possibility. PMID:25934889

  10. Neoantigen landscape dynamics during human melanoma-T cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Verdegaal, Els M E; de Miranda, Noel F C C; Visser, Marten; Harryvan, Tom; van Buuren, Marit M; Andersen, Rikke S; Hadrup, Sine R; van der Minne, Caroline E; Schotte, Remko; Spits, Hergen; Haanen, John B A G; Kapiteijn, Ellen H W; Schumacher, Ton N; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2016-08-01

    Recognition of neoantigens that are formed as a consequence of DNA damage is likely to form a major driving force behind the clinical activity of cancer immunotherapies such as T-cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell therapy. Therefore, strategies to selectively enhance T-cell reactivity against genetically defined neoantigens are currently under development. In mouse models, T-cell pressure can sculpt the antigenicity of tumours, resulting in the emergence of tumours that lack defined mutant antigens. However, whether the T-cell-recognized neoantigen repertoire in human cancers is constant over time is unclear. Here we analyse the stability of neoantigen-specific T-cell responses and the antigens they recognize in two patients with stage IV melanoma treated by adoptive T-cell transfer. The T-cell-recognized neoantigens can be selectively lost from the tumour cell population, either by overall reduced expression of the genes or loss of the mutant alleles. Notably, loss of expression of T-cell-recognized neoantigens was accompanied by development of neoantigen-specific T-cell reactivity in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. These data demonstrate the dynamic interactions between cancer cells and T cells, which suggest that T cells mediate neoantigen immunoediting, and indicate that the therapeutic induction of broad neoantigen-specific T-cell responses should be used to avoid tumour resistance. PMID:27350335

  11. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  12. Hyperthermic radiosensitization of cells from a human melanoma xenograft

    SciTech Connect

    Rofstad, E.K.; Brustad, T.

    1984-07-01

    Cells derived directly from a human melanoma xenograft were exposed to radiation and/or hyperthermia under aerobic conditions in vitro. Single cell survival was assayed in soft agar. The activation energies for heat treatment alone were 420 +/- 40 kcal/mole (41.5-42.5/sup 0/C) and 170 +/- 10 kcal/mole (43.0-45.5/sup 0/C). Heat doses of 41.5/sup 0/C (30 min) or 43.5/sup 0/C (30 min) did not cause a reduction in the shoulder of the X-ray survival curve of the cells, but the D/sub 0/ value was reduced. The thermal enhancement ratios (the ratio of the D/sub 0/ values) were in the ranges 1.0-1.3 (41.5/sup 0/C, 30 min) and 1.1-1.7 (43.5/sup 0/C, 30 min), depending on the sequence and the time between the treatments. Repair of sublethal radiation damage was not significantly inhibited when treatments with 41.5/sup 0/C (30 min) or 43.5/sup 0/C (30 min) preceded irradiation, but was inhibited when 44.5/sup 0/C (30 min) was given immediately before radiation and when 4l.5/sup 0/C (120 min) was given immediately after radiation. Implications of the results for clinical treatment of malignant melanomas are discussed.

  13. Extreme Beta-Cell Deficiency in Pancreata of Dogs with Canine Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Emily J.; Lam, Carol J.; Cox, Aaron R.; Rankin, Matthew M.; Van Winkle, Thomas J.; Hess, Rebecka S.; Kushner, Jake A.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of canine diabetes remains poorly understood, in part due to enigmatic clinical features and the lack of detailed histopathology studies. Canine diabetes, similar to human type 1 diabetes, is frequently associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at onset or after insulin omission. However, notable differences exist. Whereas human type 1 diabetes often occurs in children, canine diabetes is typically described in middle age to elderly dogs. Many competing theories have been proposed regarding the underlying cause of canine diabetes, from pancreatic atrophy to chronic pancreatitis to autoimmune mediated β-cell destruction. It remains unclear to what extent β-cell loss contributes to canine diabetes, as precise quantifications of islet morphometry have not been performed. We used high-throughput microscopy and automated image processing to characterize islet histology in a large collection of pancreata of diabetic dogs. Diabetic pancreata displayed a profound reduction in β-cells and islet endocrine cells. Unlike humans, canine non-diabetic islets are largely comprised of β-cells. Very few β-cells remained in islets of diabetic dogs, even in pancreata from new onset cases. Similarly, total islet endocrine cell number was sharply reduced in diabetic dogs. No compensatory proliferation or lymphocyte infiltration was detected. The majority of pancreata had no evidence of pancreatitis. Thus, canine diabetes is associated with extreme β-cell deficiency in both new and longstanding disease. The β-cell predominant composition of canine islets and the near-total absence of β-cells in new onset elderly diabetic dogs strongly implies that similar to human type 1 diabetes, β-cell loss underlies the pathophysiology of canine diabetes. PMID:26057531

  14. Cell Surface CD74-MIF Interactions Drive Melanoma Survival in Response to Interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Tanese, Keiji; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Yuling; Samaniego, Felipe; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    While melanoma is believed to be a highly immunogenic tumor and recent developments in immunotherapies are promising. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced by immune cells plays a crucial role in tumor immune surveillance; however, it has also been reported to be pro-tumorigenic. In the current study, we found that IFN-γ enhances the expression of CD74, which interacts with its ligand, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and thereby activates the PI3K/AKT pathway in melanoma, promoting tumor survival. IFN-γ increased phosphorylation of AKT Ser473 and upregulated total and cell surface expression of CD74 in human melanoma cell lines tested. CD74 was highly expressed in melanoma tissues. Moreover, the expression of CD74 on tumor cells correlated with plasma IFN-γ levels in melanoma patient samples. In our analysis of melanoma cell lines, all produced MIF constitutively. Blockade of CD74-MIF interaction reduced AKT phosphorylation and expression of pro-tumorigenic molecules, including interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and BCL-2. Inhibition of CD74-MIF interaction significantly suppressed tumor growth in the presence of IFN-γ in our xenograft mouse model. Thus, we conclude that IFN-γ promotes melanoma cell survival by regulating CD74-MIF signaling, suggesting that targeting the CD74-MIF interaction under IFN-γ–stimulatory conditions would be an effective therapeutic approach for melanoma. PMID:26039541

  15. Cell Surface CD74-MIF Interactions Drive Melanoma Survival in Response to Interferon-γ.

    PubMed

    Tanese, Keiji; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Yuling; Samaniego, Felipe; Lee, Jeffrey E; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Melanoma is believed to be a highly immunogenic tumor and recent developments in immunotherapies are promising. IFN-γ produced by immune cells has a crucial role in tumor immune surveillance; however, it has also been reported to be pro-tumorigenic. In the current study, we found that IFN-γ enhances the expression of CD74, which interacts with its ligand, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and thereby activates the PI3K/AKT pathway in melanoma, promoting tumor survival. IFN-γ increased phosphorylation of AKT Ser473 and upregulated total cell surface expression of CD74 in human melanoma cell lines tested. CD74 was highly expressed in melanoma tissues. Moreover, the expression of CD74 on tumor cells correlated with plasma IFN-γ levels in melanoma patient samples. In our analysis of melanoma cell lines, all produced MIF constitutively. Blockade of CD74-MIF interaction reduced AKT phosphorylation and expression of pro-tumorigenic molecules, including IL-6, IL-8, and BCL-2. Inhibition of CD74-MIF interaction significantly suppressed tumor growth in the presence of IFN-γ in our xenograft mouse model. Thus, we conclude that IFN-γ promotes melanoma cell survival by regulating CD74-MIF signaling, suggesting that targeting the CD74-MIF interaction under IFN-γ-stimulatory conditions would be an effective therapeutic approach for melanoma.

  16. Proteome characterization of melanoma exosomes reveals a specific signature for metastatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ikrame; Clement, Emily; Ducoux-Petit, Manuelle; Denat, Laurence; Soldan, Vanessa; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Balor, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Larue, Lionel; Muller, Catherine; Nieto, Laurence

    2015-07-01

    Exosomes are important mediators in cell-to-cell communication and, recently, their role in melanoma progression has been brought to light. Here, we characterized exosomes secreted by seven melanoma cell lines with varying degrees of aggressivity. Extensive proteomic analysis of their exosomes confirmed the presence of characteristic exosomal markers as well as melanoma-specific antigens and oncogenic proteins. Importantly, the protein composition differed among exosomes from different lines. Exosomes from aggressive cells contained specific proteins involved in cell motility, angiogenesis, and immune response, while these proteins were less abundant or absent in exosomes from less aggressive cells. Interestingly, when exposed to exosomes from metastatic lines, less aggressive cells increased their migratory capacities, likely due to transfer of pro-migratory exosomal proteins to recipient cells. Hence, this study shows that the specific protein composition of melanoma exosomes depends on the cells' aggressivity and suggests that exosomes influence the behavior of other tumor cells and their microenvironment.

  17. The Chick Embryo as an Experimental System for Melanoma Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Christian; Krochmann, Jelena; Drews, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background A primary cutaneous melanoma will not kill the patient, but its metastases. Since in vitro studies on melanoma cells in 2-D cultures do often not reflect reality, 3-D models might come closer to the physiological situation in the patient during cancer initiation and progression. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe the chick embryo model for in vivo studies of melanoma cell migration and invasion. After transplantation of neural crest-derived melanoma cells into the neural tube, the melanoma cells resume neural crest cell migration along the medial and lateral pathways and finally undergo apoptosis in the target areas. Upon transplantation into ectopic areas such as the hindbrain or the optic cup malignant invasion and local tissue destruction occurs. In contrast, melanocytes are not able to spontaneously resume neural crest cell migration. However, malignant invasion can be induced in melanocytes by pre-treatment with the TGF-beta family members bone morphegenetic protein-2 or nodal. Transplantation of MCF7 breast cancer cells yields a different growth pattern in the rhombencephalon than melanoma cells. Conclusions/Significance The chick embryo model is a feasible, cost-effective in vivo system to study invasion by cancer cells in an embryonic environment. It may be useful to study invasive behavior induced by embryonic oncogenes and for targeted manipulation of melanoma or breast cancer cells aiming at ablation of invasive properties. PMID:23342051

  18. Investigation of the cytotoxic effect of flavopiridol in canine lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ema, Y; Igase, M; Takeda, Y; Yanase, T; Umeki, S; Hiraoka, H; Okuda, M; Mizuno, T

    2016-08-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, flavopiridol, was tested as a potential new cancer therapeutic agent to treat canine lymphoma by examining its effect on cell growth of canine lymphoma cell lines in vitro. Flavopiridol induced profound cell death in all eight lymphoma cell lines at 400 nM, and in all cases cell death was due to apoptosis. Apoptosis was inhibited by caspase inhibitor, despite the variable sensitivities between cell lines. Analysis of the mechanism of flavopiridol-induced apoptosis showed that Rb phosphorylation was inhibited, possibly due to CDK4 or CDK6 inhibition. There was also decreased expression of Rb protein and anti-apoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and XIAP, possibly through transcriptional regulation by inhibition of CDK7 or CDK9 activation. Canine lymphoma cell line-xenotransplanted mice were then treated with flavopiridol and profound tumour shrinkage was observed. This study describes a new therapeutic approach using flavopiridol for canine lymphoma treatment. PMID:25623777

  19. Bisphosphonamidate Clodronate Prodrug Exhibits Selective Cytotoxic Activity Against Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Marie R.; Kamat, Chandrashekhar; Connis, Nick; Zhao, Ming; Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Hann, Christine L.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are used clinically to treat disorders of calcium metabolism and malignant bone disease and are known to inhibit cancer cell growth, adhesion, and invasion. However, clinical use of these agents for the treatment of extraskeletal disease is limited due to low cell permeability. We recently described a bisphosphonamidate prodrug strategy for efficient intracellular release of bisphosphonates, including clodronate (CLO), in NSCLC cells. To evaluate anticancer activity of this prodrug class across many cancer cell types, the bisphosphonamidate clodronate prodrug (CLO prodrug) was screened against the NCI-60 cell line panel, and was found to exhibit selectivity toward melanoma cell lines. Here, we confirm efficient cellular uptake and intracellular activation of this prodrug class in melanoma cells. We further demonstrate inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and an anti-tumor effect of CLO prodrug in a xenograft model. These data suggest a novel therapeutic application for the CLO prodrug and potential to selectively target melanoma cells. PMID:24310621

  20. Sox4 Mediated Dicer Expression is Critical for Suppression of Melanoma Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Ardekani, Gholamreza Safaee; Ghaffari, Mazyar; Martinka, Magdalena; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported reduced expression of Sox4 in metastatic melanoma and its role in suppression of cell migration and invasion through inhibition of NF-κB p50. Sox4 can also bind to the promoter sequence of Dicer, a miRNA biogenesis factor. Interestingly, altered expression of Dicer was also observed in cancers. However, the potential mechanisms which regulate Dicer expression and its potential significance in melanoma progression are unknown. Here we studied the regulation of Dicer expression by Sox4 and its role in suppression of melanoma invasion. Our data showed that Sox4 positively regulates Dicer expression by binding to its promoter sequences and enhancing its activity. We found that knockdown of Dicer enhances the matrigel invasion of melanoma cells by at least 2-fold. In addition, we revealed that overexpression of exogenous Dicer reverts the enhanced melanoma cell invasion upon Sox4 knockdown. Furthermore, we examined the expression of Dicer protein in a large set of melanocytic lesions (n=504) at different stages by tissue microarray and found that Dicer expression is inversely correlated with melanoma progression (P < 0.0001). Consistently, reduced Dicer expression was correlated with a poorer overall and disease-specific 5-year survival of patients (P = 0.015 and 0.0029, respectively). In addition, we found a significant correlation between expression of Sox4 and Dicer proteins in melanoma biopsies (P = 0.009), further indicating the regulation of Dicer expression by Sox4. Finally, we revealed that knockdown of Sox4 induces a major change in the expression pattern of miRNAs in melanoma cells, mainly due to reduced expression of Dicer. Our results pinpoint the regulation of Dicer expression by Sox4 in melanoma and the critical role of Dicer in suppression of melanoma invasion. Our findings on Sox4 regulated miRNA biogenesis pathway may aid toward the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches for melanoma. PMID:22689055

  1. Genomic profiling of invasive melanoma cell lines by array comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Koroknai, Viktória; Ecsedi, Szilvia; Vízkeleti, Laura; Kiss, Tímea; Szász, István; Lukács, Andrea; Papp, Orsolya; Ádány, Róza; Balázs, Margit

    2016-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Invasion of cells is the first step in metastasis, resulting in cell migration through tissue compartments. We aimed to evaluate genomic alterations specifically associated with the invasive characteristics of melanoma cells. Matrigel invasion assays were used to determine the invasive properties of cell lines that originated from primary melanomas. Array comparative genomic hybridization analyses were carried out to define the chromosome copy number alterations (CNAs). Several recurrent CNAs were identified by array comparative genomic hybridization that affected melanoma-related genes. Invasive primary cell lines showed high frequencies of CNAs, including the loss of 7q and gain of 12q chromosomal regions targeting PTPN12, ADAM22, FZD1, TFPI2, GNG11, COL1A2, SMURF1, VGF, RELN and GLIPR1 genes. Gain of the GDNF (5p13.1), GPAA1, PLEC and SHARPIN (8q24.3) genes was significantly more frequent in invasive cell lines compared with the noninvasive ones. Importantly, copy number gains of these genes were also found in cell lines that originated from metastases, suggesting their role in melanoma metastasis formation. The present study describes genomic differences between invasive and noninvasive melanoma cell lines that may contribute toward the aggressive phenotype of human melanoma cells. PMID:26656572

  2. Plasmonic enhanced fs-laser optoporation of human melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, J.; Humbert, L.; St.-Louis Lalonde, B.; Lebrun, J.-J.; Meunier, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present the results of in vitro gene transfer by plasmonic enhanced optoporation of human melanoma cells. The fs-laser based optoporation is a gentle and efficient method for transfection. An optimum perforation rate with efficient dye or DNA uptake and high viability of the cells (~90%) was found for different types of nanostructures, spherical and rod shaped. The technique offers a very high selectivity and the low damage induced to the cell leads to a high transfection efficiency. The cell selectivity of this technique on the one hand is realized by using bioconjugated nanostructures, that couple selectively to a special cell type, and on the other hand, the spatial selectivity is due to the fact that only irradiated cells are perforated. In many biological applications a virus free and efficient transfection method is needed, especially in terms of its use in vivo. In cancer cells, the aggressiveness of the cells is shown in the migration and invasion velocity. The laser based and nanostructure enhanced transfection of cells offers the possibility to directly compare the treated and untreated cells. The treatment for migration and invasion assays can be performed by laser-scraping and laser transfection, resulting in a fully non-contact and therefore sterile method where the shape and the size of the scrape is well defined and reproducible. The laser based scrape test therefore offers less uncertainty due to scrape variations, high transfection efficiency, as well as direct comparison of treated and control cells in the same dish.

  3. Distinct host cell fates for human malignant melanoma targeted by oncolytic rodent parvoviruses.

    PubMed

    Vollmers, Ellen M; Tattersall, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The rodent parvoviruses are known to be oncoselective, and lytically infect many transformed human cells. Because current therapeutic regimens for metastatic melanoma have low response rates and have little effect on improving survival, this disease is a prime candidate for novel approaches to therapy, including oncolytic parvoviruses. Screening of low-passage, patient-derived melanoma cell lines for multiplicity-dependent killing by a panel of five rodent parvoviruses identified LuIII as the most melanoma-lytic. This property was mapped to the LuIII capsid gene, and an efficiently melanoma tropic chimeric virus shown to undergo three types of interaction with primary human melanoma cells: (1) complete lysis of cultures infected at very low multiplicities; (2) acute killing resulting from viral protein synthesis and DNA replication, without concomitant expansion of the infection, due to failure to export progeny virions efficiently; or (3) complete resistance that operates at an intracellular step following virion uptake, but preceding viral transcription.

  4. Impact of MAPK Pathway Activation in BRAF(V600) Melanoma on T Cell and Dendritic Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Ott, Patrick A; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2013-10-28

    Constitutive upregulation of the MAPK pathway by a BRAF(V600) mutation occurs in about half of melanomas. This leads to increased oncogenic properties such as tumor cell invasion, metastatic potential, and resistance to apoptosis. Blockade of the MAPK pathway with highly specific kinase inhibitors induces unprecedented tumor response rates in patients with advanced BRAF(V600) mutant melanoma. Immune checkpoint blockade with monoclonal antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programed death-1/PD-L1 has also demonstrated striking anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced melanoma. Tumor responses are likely limited by multiple additional layers of immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. There is emerging preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that MAPK inhibition has a beneficial effect on the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, providing a strong rationale for combined immunotherapy and MAPK pathway inhibition in melanoma. The T cell response has been the main focus in the studies reported to date. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are important in the induction of tumor-specific T cell responses, the impact of MAPK pathway activation in melanoma on DC function is critical for the melanoma directed immune response. BRAF(V600E) melanoma cells modulate DCs through the MAPK pathway because its blockade in melanoma cells can reverse suppression of DC function. As both MEK/BRAF inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade have recently taken center stage in the treatment of melanoma, a deeper understanding of how MAPK pathway inhibition affects the tumor immune response is needed.

  5. Canine osteosarcoma cell lines contain stem-like cancer cells: biological and pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Monica; Wurth, Roberto; Vito, Guendalina; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Thellung, Stefano; Maniscalco, Lorella; De Maria, Raffaella; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Bajetto, Adriana; Ratto, Alessandra; Ferrari, Angelo; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor formation and progression, drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasization. CSCs have been identified in many human tumors including osteosarcoma (OSA). CSC distinctive properties are the expression of stem cell markers, sustained growth, self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Here we report the isolation of stem-like cells from two canine OSA cultures, characterized by self-renewal, evaluated by sphere formation ability, differential marker expression, and in vitro proliferation when cultured in a medium containing EGF and bFGF. Current therapies for OSA increased survival time, but prognosis remains poor, due to the development of drug resistance and metastases. Chemotherapy shrinks the tumor mass but CSCs remain unaffected, leading to tumor recurrence. Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, has been shown to possess antitumor properties affecting CSC survival in different human and animal cancers. Here we show that metformin has a significant antiproliferative effect on canine OSA stem-like cells, validating this in vitro model for further pre-clinical drug evaluations. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining CSC-enriched cultures from primary canine OSA cells as a promising model for biological and pharmacological studies of canine and human OSAs.

  6. Canine osteosarcoma cell lines contain stem-like cancer cells: biological and pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Monica; Wurth, Roberto; Vito, Guendalina; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Thellung, Stefano; Maniscalco, Lorella; De Maria, Raffaella; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Bajetto, Adriana; Ratto, Alessandra; Ferrari, Angelo; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor formation and progression, drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasization. CSCs have been identified in many human tumors including osteosarcoma (OSA). CSC distinctive properties are the expression of stem cell markers, sustained growth, self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Here we report the isolation of stem-like cells from two canine OSA cultures, characterized by self-renewal, evaluated by sphere formation ability, differential marker expression, and in vitro proliferation when cultured in a medium containing EGF and bFGF. Current therapies for OSA increased survival time, but prognosis remains poor, due to the development of drug resistance and metastases. Chemotherapy shrinks the tumor mass but CSCs remain unaffected, leading to tumor recurrence. Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, has been shown to possess antitumor properties affecting CSC survival in different human and animal cancers. Here we show that metformin has a significant antiproliferative effect on canine OSA stem-like cells, validating this in vitro model for further pre-clinical drug evaluations. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining CSC-enriched cultures from primary canine OSA cells as a promising model for biological and pharmacological studies of canine and human OSAs. PMID:27506084

  7. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma.

  8. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25858017

  9. Regulatory T Cells in Melanoma Revisited by a Computational Clustering of FOXP3+ T Cell Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hiroko; Josse, Julie; Tanioka, Miki; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Husson, François

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells that express the transcription factor FOXP3 (FOXP3+ T cells) are commonly regarded as immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). FOXP3+ T cells are reported to be increased in tumor-bearing patients or animals and are considered to suppress antitumor immunity, but the evidence is often contradictory. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that FOXP3 is induced by antigenic stimulation and that some non-Treg FOXP3+ T cells, especially memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells, produce proinflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, the subclassification of FOXP3+ T cells is fundamental for revealing the significance of FOXP3+ T cells in tumor immunity, but the arbitrariness and complexity of manual gating have complicated the issue. In this article, we report a computational method to automatically identify and classify FOXP3+ T cells into subsets using clustering algorithms. By analyzing flow cytometric data of melanoma patients, the proposed method showed that the FOXP3+ subpopulation that had relatively high FOXP3, CD45RO, and CD25 expressions was increased in melanoma patients, whereas manual gating did not produce significant results on the FOXP3+ subpopulations. Interestingly, the computationally identified FOXP3+ subpopulation included not only classical FOXP3high Tregs, but also memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells by manual gating. Furthermore, the proposed method successfully analyzed an independent data set, showing that the same FOXP3+ subpopulation was increased in melanoma patients, validating the method. Collectively, the proposed method successfully captured an important feature of melanoma without relying on the existing criteria of FOXP3+ T cells, revealing a hidden association between the T cell profile and melanoma, and providing new insights into FOXP3+ T cells and Tregs. PMID:26864030

  10. A novel immune resistance mechanism of melanoma cells controlled by the ADAR1 enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Nemlich, Yael; Greenberg, Eyal; Ashkenazi, Shira; Hakim, Motti; Itzhaki, Orit; Shoshani, Noa; Shapira-Fromer, Ronnie; Ben-Ami, Eytan; Ofek, Efrat; Anafi, Liat; Besser, Michal J.

    2015-01-01

    The blossom of immunotherapy in melanoma highlights the need to delineate mechanisms of immune resistance. Recently, we have demonstrated that the RNA editing protein, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) is down-regulated during metastatic transition of melanoma, which enhances melanoma cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Here we investigate the role of ADAR1 in melanoma immune resistance. Importantly, knockdown of ADAR1 in human melanoma cells induces resistance to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in a cell contact-dependent mechanism. We show that ADAR1, in an editing-independent manner, regulates the biogenesis of miR-222 at the transcription level and thereby Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) expression, which consequently affects melanoma immune resistance. ADAR1 thus has a novel, pivotal, role in cancer immune resistance. Corroborating with these results, the expression of miR-222 in melanoma tissue specimens was significantly higher in patients who had no clinical benefit from treatment with ipilimumab as compared to patients that responded clinically, suggesting that miR-222 could function as a biomarker for the prediction of response to ipilimumab. These results provide not only novel insights on melanoma immune resistance, but also pave the way to the development of innovative personalized tools to enable optimal drug selection and treatment. PMID:26338962

  11. A novel immune resistance mechanism of melanoma cells controlled by the ADAR1 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Nemlich, Yael; Greenberg, Eyal; Ashkenazi, Shira; Hakim, Motti; Itzhaki, Orit; Shoshani, Noa; Shapira-Fromer, Ronnie; Ben-Ami, Eytan; Ofek, Efrat; Anafi, Liat; Besser, Michal J; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

    2015-10-01

    The blossom of immunotherapy in melanoma highlights the need to delineate mechanisms of immune resistance. Recently, we have demonstrated that the RNA editing protein, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) is down-regulated during metastatic transition of melanoma, which enhances melanoma cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Here we investigate the role of ADAR1 in melanoma immune resistance.Importantly, knockdown of ADAR1 in human melanoma cells induces resistance to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in a cell contact-dependent mechanism. We show that ADAR1, in an editing-independent manner, regulates the biogenesis of miR-222 at the transcription level and thereby Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) expression, which consequently affects melanoma immune resistance. ADAR1 thus has a novel, pivotal, role in cancer immune resistance. Corroborating with these results, the expression of miR-222 in melanoma tissue specimens was significantly higher in patients who had no clinical benefit from treatment with ipilimumab as compared to patients that responded clinically, suggesting that miR-222 could function as a biomarker for the prediction of response to ipilimumab.These results provide not only novel insights on melanoma immune resistance, but also pave the way to the development of innovative personalized tools to enable optimal drug selection and treatment.

  12. Fiber-laser-based photoacoustic microscopy and melanoma cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Song; Yang, Lihmei; Xia, Younan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    For broad applications in biomedical research involving functional dynamics and clinical studies, a photoacoustic microscopy system should be compact, stable, and fast. In this work, we use a fiber laser as the photoacoustic irradiation source to meet these goals. The laser system measures 45×56×13 cm3. The stability of the laser is attributed to the intrinsic optical fiber-based light amplification and output coupling. Its 50-kHz pulse repetition rate enables fast scanning or extensive signal averaging. At the laser wavelength of 1064 nm, the photoacoustic microscope still has enough sensitivity to image small blood vessels while providing high optical absorption contrast between melanin and hemoglobin. Label-free melanoma cells in flowing bovine blood are imaged in vitro, yielding measurements of both cell size and flow speed.

  13. KRAS Mutations in Canine and Feline Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Crozier, C; Wood, G A; Foster, R A; Stasi, S; Liu, J H W; Bartlett, J M S; Coomber, B L; Sabine, V S

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals may serve as valuable models for studying human cancers. Although KRAS is the most commonly mutated gene in human ductal pancreatic cancers (57%), with mutations frequently occurring at codons 12, 13 and 61, human pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) lack activating KRAS mutations. In the present study, 32 pancreatic ACC samples obtained from 14 dogs and 18 cats, including seven metastases, were analyzed for six common activating KRAS mutations located in codons 12 (n = 5) and 13 (n = 1) using Sequenom MassARRAY. No KRAS mutations were found, suggesting that, similar to human pancreatic ACC, KRAS mutations do not play a critical role in feline or canine pancreatic ACC. Due to the similarity of the clinical disease in dogs and cats to that of man, this study confirms that companion animals offer potential as a suitable model for investigating this rare subtype of pancreatic carcinoma.

  14. Role of ING4 in human melanoma cell migration, invasion and patient survival.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Martinka, Magdalena; Li, Gang

    2008-07-01

    Inhibitor of growth (ING) 4 has been reported as a tumor suppressor and shown to diminish colony-forming efficiency, induce p53-dependent apoptosis and arrest cell cycle at G(2)-M phase. In this study, we investigated the role of ING4 in human melanoma pathogenesis. Using the tissue microarray technology, we found that ING4 expression is significantly decreased in malignant melanoma compared with dysplastic nevi (P < 0.0001, chi(2) test) and reduced ING4 staining is associated with melanoma thickness, ulceration (P = 0.034 and 0.002, respectively, chi(2) test) as well as poor overall and disease-specific 5-year survival of primary melanoma patients (P = 0.0002 and 0.001, respectively, chi(2) test). Cox regression analysis revealed that reduced ING4 staining is an independent factor for the poor prognosis of patients with primary melanomas. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of ING4 suppressed cell migration by 63% and inhibited the activity of Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) small GTPase protein and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-mediated formation of stress fiber in melanoma cells. Moreover, our data showed that overexpression of ING4 inhibited melanoma cell invasion by 43% compared with the control (P = 0.006, t-test) and ING4-overexpressing melanoma cells showed significantly reduced activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Taken together, this study highlights the importance of ING4 in melanoma pathogenesis and ING4 may serve as a promising prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for human melanoma.

  15. Cannibalism of live lymphocytes by human metastatic but not primary melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lugini, Luana; Matarrese, Paola; Tinari, Antonella; Lozupone, Francesco; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Gentile, Massimo; Luciani, Francesca; Parmiani, Giorgio; Rivoltini, Licia; Malorni, Walter; Fais, Stefano

    2006-04-01

    The phenomenon of cell cannibalism, which generally refers to the engulfment of cells within other cells, was described in malignant tumors, but its biological significance is still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence, the in vivo relevance, and the underlying mechanisms of cannibalism in human melanoma. As first evidence, we observed that tumor cannibalism was clearly detectable in vivo in metastatic lesions of melanoma and often involved T cells, which could be found in a degraded state within tumor cells. Then, in vitro experiments confirmed that cannibalism of T cells was a property of metastatic melanoma cells but not of primary melanoma cells. In particular, morphologic analyses, including time-lapse cinematography and electron microscopy, revealed a sequence of events, in which metastatic melanoma cells were able to engulf and digest live autologous melanoma-specific CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, this cannibalistic activity significantly increased metastatic melanoma cell survival, particularly under starvation condition, supporting the evidence that tumor cells may use the eating of live lymphocytes as a way to "feed" in condition of low nutrient supply. The mechanism underlying cannibalism involved a complex framework, including lysosomal protease cathepsin B activity, caveolae formation, and ezrin cytoskeleton integrity and function. In conclusion, our study shows that human metastatic melanoma cells may eat live T cells, which are instead programmed to kill them, suggesting a novel mechanism of tumor immune escape. Moreover, our data suggest that cannibalism may represent a sort of "feeding" activity aimed at sustaining survival and progression of malignant tumor cells in an unfavorable microenvironment. PMID:16585188

  16. Capture and On-chip analysis of Melanoma Cells Using Tunable Surface Shear forces

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Simon Chang-Hao; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G.; Christophi, Christopher; Cebon, Jonathan; Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Behren, Andreas; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    With new systemic therapies becoming available for metastatic melanoma such as BRAF and PD-1 inhibitors, there is an increasing demand for methods to assist with treatment selection and response monitoring. Quantification and characterisation of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) has been regarded as an excellent non-invasive candidate but a sensitive and efficient tool to do these is lacking. Herein we demonstrate a microfluidic approach for melanoma cell capture and subsequent on-chip evaluation of BRAF mutation status. Our approach utilizes a recently discovered alternating current electrohydrodynamic (AC-EHD)-induced surface shear forces, referred to as nanoshearing. A key feature of nanoshearing is the ability to agitate fluid to encourage contact with surface-bound antibody for the cell capture whilst removing nonspecific cells from the surface. By adjusting the AC-EHD force to match the binding affinity of antibodies against the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (MCSP), a commonly expressed melanoma antigen, this platform achieved an average recovery of 84.7% from biological samples. Subsequent staining with anti-BRAFV600E specific antibody enabled on-chip evaluation of BRAFV600E mutation status in melanoma cells. We believe that the ability of nanoshearing-based capture to enumerate melanoma cells and subsequent on-chip characterisation has the potential as a rapid screening tool while making treatment decisions. PMID:26815318

  17. [Combined use of irradiation and DNA tumor vaccine to treat canine oral malignant melanoma: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Herzog, A; Buchholz, J; Ruess-Melzer, K; Lang, J; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2013-02-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral tumor in dogs, characterized by rapid growth, local invasion, and high metastatic rate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the combination of radiation therapy and DNA tumor vaccine. We hypothesized, that the concurrent use would not increase toxicity. Nine dogs with oral melanoma were treated with 4 fractions of 8 Gray at 7-day intervals. The vaccine was given 4 times every 14 days, beginning at the first radiation fraction. Local acute radiation toxicities were assessed according to the VRTOG toxicity scoring scheme over a time period of 7 weeks. In none of the evaluated dogs, mucositis, dermatitis and conjunctivitis exceeded grade 2. In 3 dogs mild fever, lethargy, and local swelling at the injection site were seen after vaccine application. In conclusion, the concurrent administration of radiation therapy and vaccine was well tolerated in all dogs. PMID:23385072

  18. Lumican Inhibits SNAIL-Induced Melanoma Cell Migration Specifically by Blocking MMP-14 Activity.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Marta; Boncela, Joanna; Perreau, Corinne; Karamanou, Konstantina; Chatron-Colliet, Aurore; Proult, Isabelle; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Chakravarti, Shukti; Maquart, François-Xavier; Kowalska, M Anna; Wegrowski, Yanusz; Brézillon, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan, inhibits MMP-14 activity and melanoma cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Snail triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during tumor progression. The aim of this work was to investigate lumican effects on MMP-14 activity and migration of Snail overexpressing B16F1 (Snail-B16F1) melanoma cells and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Lumican inhibits the Snail induced MMP-14 activity in B16F1 but not in HT-29 cells. In Snail-B16F1 cells, lumican inhibits migration, growth, and melanoma primary tumor development. A lumican-based strategy targeting Snail-induced MMP-14 activity might be useful for melanoma treatment. PMID:26930497

  19. Lumican Inhibits SNAIL-Induced Melanoma Cell Migration Specifically by Blocking MMP-14 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stasiak, Marta; Boncela, Joanna; Perreau, Corinne; Karamanou, Konstantina; Chatron-Colliet, Aurore; Proult, Isabelle; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Chakravarti, Shukti; Maquart, François-Xavier; Kowalska, M. Anna; Wegrowski, Yanusz; Brézillon, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan, inhibits MMP-14 activity and melanoma cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Snail triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during tumor progression. The aim of this work was to investigate lumican effects on MMP-14 activity and migration of Snail overexpressing B16F1 (Snail-B16F1) melanoma cells and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Lumican inhibits the Snail induced MMP-14 activity in B16F1 but not in HT-29 cells. In Snail-B16F1 cells, lumican inhibits migration, growth, and melanoma primary tumor development. A lumican-based strategy targeting Snail-induced MMP-14 activity might be useful for melanoma treatment. PMID:26930497

  20. Cancer stem cell vaccine expressing ESAT-6-gpi and IL-21 inhibits melanoma growth and metastases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fengshu; He, Xiangfeng; Sun, Jianan; Wu, Di; Pan, Meng; Li, Miao; Wu, Songyan; Zhang, Rong; Yan, Chunguang; Dou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Tumor vaccines may induce antitumor efficacy, however, weak immunogenicity of tumor antigens is one of the prime obstacles for excitation of the antitumor immune responses. Therefore, strategies that enhance immunogenicity of tumor vaccines are of particular interest. In this study, a novel melanoma B16F10 CD133+CD44+ cancer stem cell (CSC) vaccine expressing 6 kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form and secreting interleukin (IL)-21 was developed. Its anti-melanoma efficacy and mechanisms were investigated in mice. The results demonstrated that the B16F10-ESAT-6-gpi/IL-21 CD133+CD44+ CSC vaccine exhibited enhanced anti-melanoma efficacy as determined by inhibited melanoma growth, prolonged survival of melanoma bearing mice. The anti-melanoma immunity was associated with elevated levels of serum anti-ESAT-6 and interferon (IFN)-γ as well as increased cytotoxic activities of natural killer cells, splenocytes, and complement dependent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, this CSC-based vaccine apparently inhibited melanoma lung metastasis by decreasing the level of Vimentin while increasing the level of E-cadherin expression, suggesting an inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition. Thus, the B16F10-ESAT-6-gpi/IL-21 CD133+CD44+ CSC vaccine may be used to reactivate the anti-tumor immunity and for treatment of melanoma. PMID:26692931

  1. Inhibitory effects of N-(4-hydrophenyl) retinamide on liver cancer and malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xing-Zhong; Zhang, Li; Shi, Bi-Zhi; Hu, Ping

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of N-(4-hydrophenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), the derivative of retinoic acid, on inhibition of migration, invasion, cell growth, and induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs) and malignant melanoma cells. METHODS: 4-HPR was chemically synthesized. Cellular migration and invasion were assayed by Borden chamber experiment. Cell growth was assayed by MTT chromometry. Apoptosis effect was measured using Hoechst 32258 staining and flow cytometry. Gene transfection was performed with lipofectamine. RESULTS: We observed that the migration of HCC and melanoma cells was significantly suppressed by 4-HPR and the migration cells were reduced to 585.03 (control 20127.2, P < 0.05, n = 4) in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC, and to 25425.04 (control 30230.1, P < 0.05, n = 4) in melanoma cells after 6-h incubation with 4-HPR. The invasion through reconstituted basement membrane was also significantly reduced by 4-HPR treatment to 11.23.3 in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC (control 2713.1), and to 24.33.2 in melanoma cells (control 67.510.1, P < 0.05, n = 3). Cell growth, especially in melanoma cells, was also significantly inhibited. Furthermore, 3 mmol/L of 4-HPR induced apoptosis in B16 melanoma cells (37.110.94%) more significantly than all-trans retinoic acid (P < 0.05), but it failed to induce apoptosis in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC. The mechanism for 4-HPR-induced apoptosis was not clear, but we observed that 4-HPR could regulate p27kip1, and overexpression of cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST) diminished the apoptosis induced by 4-HPR in melanoma cells. CONCLUSION: 4-HPR is a potent inhibitor of HCC migration and inducer of melanoma cell apoptosis. CST and p27kip1expression might be associated with 4-HPR-induced apoptosis. PMID:16270382

  2. Acid treatment of melanoma cells selects for invasive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Moellering, Raymond E; Black, Kvar C; Krishnamurty, Chetan; Baggett, Brenda K; Stafford, Phillip; Rain, Matthew; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Solid tumors become acidic due to hypoxia and upregulated glycolysis. We have hypothesized that this acidosis leads to more aggressive invasive behavior during carcinogenesis (Nature Reviews Cancer 4:891-899, 2004). Previous work on this subject has shown mixed results. While some have observed an induction of metastasis and invasion with acid treatments, others have not. To investigate this, human melanoma cells were acclimated to low pH growth conditions. Significant cell mortality occurred during acclimation, suggesting that acidosis selected for resistant phenotypes. Cells maintained under acidic conditions exhibited a greater range of motility, a reduced capacity to form flank tumors in SCID mice and did not invade more rapidly in vitro, compared to non-selected control cells. However, re-acclimation of these selected cells to physiological pH gave rise to stable populations with significantly higher in vitro invasion. These re-acclimated cells maintained higher invasion and higher motility for multiple generations. Transcriptomic analyses of these three phenotypes revealed significant differences, including upregulation of relevant pathways important for tissue remodeling, cell cycle control and proliferation. These results reinforce the hypothesis that acidosis promotes selection of stable, more invasive phenotypes, rather than inductive changes, which would be reversible.

  3. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta M; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Casati, Lavinia; Comitato, Raffaella; Gravina, Giovanni L; Festuccia, Claudio; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma. PMID:27461002

  4. Liposomal C6 Ceramide Activates Protein Phosphatase 1 to Inhibit Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fangzhen; Jin, Kai; Huang, Shenyu; Bao, Qi; Shao, Zheren; Hu, Xueqing; Ye, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one common skin cancer. In the present study, the potential anti-melanoma activity by a liposomal C6 ceramide was tested in vitro. We showed that the liposomal C6 (ceramide) was cytotoxic and anti-proliferative against a panel of human melanoma cell lines (SK-Mel2, WM-266.4 and A-375 and WM-115). In addition, liposomal C6 induced caspase-dependent apoptotic death in the melanoma cells. Reversely, its cytotoxicity was attenuated by several caspase inhibitors. Intriguingly, liposomal C6 was non-cytotoxic to B10BR mouse melanocytes and primary human melanocytes. Molecularly, liposomal C6 activated protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to inactivate Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in melanoma cells. On the other hand, PP1 shRNA knockdown or exogenous expression of constitutively activate Akt1 (CA-Akt1) restored Akt-mTOR activation and significantly attenuated liposomal C6-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis in melanoma cells. Our results suggest that liposomal C6 activates PP1 to inhibit melanoma cells. PMID:27631768

  5. Liposomal C6 Ceramide Activates Protein Phosphatase 1 to Inhibit Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangzhen; Jin, Kai; Huang, Shenyu; Bao, Qi; Shao, Zheren; Hu, Xueqing; Ye, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one common skin cancer. In the present study, the potential anti-melanoma activity by a liposomal C6 ceramide was tested in vitro. We showed that the liposomal C6 (ceramide) was cytotoxic and anti-proliferative against a panel of human melanoma cell lines (SK-Mel2, WM-266.4 and A-375 and WM-115). In addition, liposomal C6 induced caspase-dependent apoptotic death in the melanoma cells. Reversely, its cytotoxicity was attenuated by several caspase inhibitors. Intriguingly, liposomal C6 was non-cytotoxic to B10BR mouse melanocytes and primary human melanocytes. Molecularly, liposomal C6 activated protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to inactivate Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in melanoma cells. On the other hand, PP1 shRNA knockdown or exogenous expression of constitutively activate Akt1 (CA-Akt1) restored Akt-mTOR activation and significantly attenuated liposomal C6-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis in melanoma cells. Our results suggest that liposomal C6 activates PP1 to inhibit melanoma cells. PMID:27631768

  6. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta M.; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Casati, Lavinia; Comitato, Raffaella; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Festuccia, Claudio; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma. PMID:27461002

  7. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta M; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Casati, Lavinia; Comitato, Raffaella; Gravina, Giovanni L; Festuccia, Claudio; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-07-27

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma.

  8. Folate-conjugated immunoglobulin targets melanoma tumor cells for NK cell effector functions

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Cassandra C.; McMichael, Elizabeth L.; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena C.; Abrams, Zachary B.; Lee, Robert J.; Carson, William E.

    2016-01-01

    The folate receptor (FR) is over-expressed on the vascular side of cancerous cells including those of the breast, ovaries, testes, and cervix. We hypothesized that a folate-conjugated immunoglobulin (F-IgG) would bind to the FR that is over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells to target these cells for lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Folate receptor expression was confirmed in the Mel-39 (human melanoma) cell line by flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis, using KB (human oral epithelial) and F01 (human melanoma) as a positive and negative control, respectively. FR-positive and negative cell lines were treated with F-IgG or control immunoglobulin G (C-IgG) in the presence or absence of cytokines in order to determine NK cell ability to lyse FR-positive cell lines. NK cell activation was significantly upregulated and lysis of Mel 39 tumor cells enhanced following treatment with F-IgG, as compared to C-IgG at all effector:target (E:T) ratios (p<0.01). This trend was further enhanced by NK cell stimulation with the activating cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12). NK cell production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), and regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were also significantly increased in response to co-stimulation with IL-12 stimulation and F-IgG-coated Mel 39 target cells, as compared to controls (p<0.01). In contrast, F-IgG did not bind to the FR-negative cell line F01 and had no significant effect on NK cell lysis or cytokine production. This research indicates the potential use of F-IgG for its ability to induce an immune response from NK cells against FR-positive melanoma tumor cells which can be further enhanced by the addition of cytokines. PMID:27035691

  9. Biochemical mechanism of Acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity in melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Vad, Nikhil M.; Yount, Garret; Moore, Dan; Weidanz, Jon; Moridani, Majid Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the biochemical mechanism of acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular cancer therapeutic target. Our results showed that APAP was metabolized 87% by tyrosinase at 2h incubation. AA and NADH, quinone reducing agents, were significantly depleted during APAP oxidation by tyrosinase. The IC50 (48h) of APAP towards SK-MEL-28, MeWo, SK-MEL-5, B16-F0 and B16-F10 melanoma cells was 100μM whereas it showed no significant toxicity towards BJ, Saos-2, SW-620, and PC-3 non-melanoma cells, demonstrating selective toxicity towards melanoma cells. Dicoumarol, a diaphorase inhibitor, and 1-bromoheptane, a GSH depleting agent, enhanced APAP toxicity towards SK-MEL-28 cells. AA and GSH were effective in preventing APAP induced melanoma cell toxicity. Trifluoperazine and cyclosporin A, inhibitors of permeability transition pore in mitochondria, significantly prevented APAP melanoma cell toxicity. APAP caused time and dose-dependent decline in intracellular GSH content in SK-MEL-28, which preceded cell toxicity. APAP led to ROS formation in SK-MEL-28 cells which was exacerbated by dicoumarol and 1-bromoheptane whereas cyslosporin A and trifluoperazine prevented it. Our investigation suggests that APAP is a tyrosinase substrate, and that intracellular GSH depletion, ROS formation and induced mitochondrial toxicity contributed towards APAP's selective toxicity in SK-MEL-28 cells. PMID:18759348

  10. Identification of a candidate therapeutic antibody for treatment of canine B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rue, Sarah M; Eckelman, Brendan P; Efe, Jem A; Bloink, Kristin; Deveraux, Quinn L; Lowery, David; Nasoff, Marc

    2015-04-15

    B-cell lymphoma is one of the most frequently observed non-cutaneous neoplasms in dogs. For both human and canine BCL, the standard of care treatment typically involves a combination chemotherapy, e.g. "CHOP" therapy. Treatment for human lymphoma greatly benefited from the addition of anti-CD20 targeted biological therapeutics to these chemotherapy protocols; this type of therapeutic has not been available to the veterinary oncologist. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a rituximab-like anti-CD20 antibody intended as a candidate treatment for canine B-cell lymphoma. A panel of anti-canine CD20 monoclonal antibodies was generated using a mouse hybridoma approach. Mouse monoclonal antibody 1E4 was selected for construction of a canine chimeric molecule based on its rank ordering in a flow cytometry-based affinity assay. 1E4 binds to approximately the same location in the extracellular domain of CD20 as rituximab, and 1E4-based chimeric antibodies co-stain canine B cells in flow cytometric analysis of canine leukocytes using an anti-canine CD21 antibody. We show that two of the four reported canine IgG subclasses (cIgGB and cIgGC) can bind to canine CD16a, a receptor involved in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Chimeric monoclonal antibodies were assembled using canine heavy chain constant regions that incorporated the appropriate effector function along with the mouse monoclonal 1E4 anti-canine CD20 variable regions, and expressed in CHO cells. We observed that 1E4-cIgGB and 1E4-cIgGC significantly deplete B-cell levels in healthy beagle dogs. The in vivo half-life of 1E4-cIgGB in a healthy dog was ∼14 days. The antibody 1E4-cIgGB has been selected for further testing and development as an agent for the treatment of canine B-cell lymphoma.

  11. Fermented Viola mandshurica inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Yu, Hai Yang; Chung, Eunsook; Kim, Seok-Jo; Cha, Jae-Young; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effects of chloroform extract of fermented Viola mandshurica (CEFV) on melanogenesis B16 melanoma cells. CEFV treatment significantly decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity in dose-dependent manners. To elucidate the mechanism of the inhibitory effects of CEFV on melanogenesis, we performed RT-PCR and Western blotting for melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). CEFV strongly inhibited mRNA as well as the protein expression of tyrosinase and MITF, but had no significant effect on TRP-1 or TRP-2 expressions. It markedly decreased the phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), and induced the duration of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, leading to reduction of MITF expression and subsequently that of tyrosinase. Therefore, we suggest that CEFV induces downregulation of melanogenesis through decreased CREB phosphorylation and ERK activation.

  12. Effect of xanthohumol on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Jeung-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoon, Ha-Yong; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Choi, Il-Whan; Jung, Sung Hoo; Kim, Han-Uk; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XH), the principal prenylflavonoid of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), dose-dependently inhibited isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX)-induced melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells, with little cytotoxicity at the effective concentrations. Decreased melanin content was accompanied by reduced tyrosinase enzyme activity, protein and mRNA expression. The levels of tyrosinase-related protein 1 and 2 mRNAs were decreased by XH. XH also inhibited α-melanocyte stimulating hormone- or forskolin-induced increases in melanogenesis, suggesting an action on the cAMP-dependent melanogenic pathway. XH downregulated the protein and mRNA expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a master transcriptional regulator of key melanogenic enzymes. These results suggest that XH might act as a hypo-pigmenting agent through the downregulation of MITF in the cAMP-dependent melanogenic pathway. PMID:18587269

  13. Biosynthesis of somatostatin in canine fundic D cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, T; Park, J; Yamada, T

    1988-01-01

    The observation that virtually all of the somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the stomach consists of somatostatin-14 (S14), to the exclusion of somatostatin-28 (S28), suggests a unique pattern of prosomatostatin posttranslational processing. In order to examine the mechanisms by which S14 is produced from its precursor in the stomach, we investigated the biosynthesis of somatostatin in isolated canine fundic D cells. D cells pulse-labeled with [35S]cysteine revealed a cycloheximide inhibitable time-dependent incorporation of radioactivity into S14. A small fraction of radioactivity was incorporated into S28 but not into larger precursors. However, when the cells were incubated with monensin (1 microM), incorporation of radioactivity into a presumed somatostatin precursor was noted. Upon transfer of [35S]cysteine prelabeled cells to radioactivity-free medium, no conversion of S28 to S14 could be detected and the decrease of labeled S14 in cells correlated with a complimentary increase in the culture medium. Exogenous somatostatin inhibited somatostatin biosynthesis in a fashion that could be blocked by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Stimulation of prelabeled D cells with tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (10(-7) M) or forskolin (10(-4) M) for 2 h resulted in release of 41 and 33% of the newly synthesized radioactive S14, respectively, while only 9 and 6% of the total cell content of radioimmunoassayable somatostatin was secreted. These data suggest that: (a) somatostatin is synthesized in fundic D cells primarily as S14, (b) S14 is produced by rapid processing of a larger precursor but there is little, if any, conversion of S28 to S14, (c) somatostatin biosynthesis is autoregulated, and (d) newly synthesized S14 is preferentially released from D cells in response to stimulation. PMID:2892859

  14. Melanoma Affects the Composition of Blood Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Koliha, Nina; Heider, Ute; Ozimkowski, Tobias; Wiemann, Martin; Bosio, Andreas; Wild, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are specifically loaded with nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins from their parental cell. Therefore, the constitution of EVs reflects the type and status of the originating cell and EVs in melanoma patient’s plasma could be indicative for the tumor. Likewise, EVs might influence tumor progression by regulating immune responses. We performed a broad protein characterization of EVs from plasma of melanoma patients and healthy donors as well as from T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), and platelets using a multiplex bead-based platform. Using this method, we succeeded in analyzing 58 proteins that were differentially displayed on EVs. Hierarchical clustering of protein intensity patterns grouped EVs according to their originating cell type. The analysis of EVs from stimulated B cells and moDCs revealed the transfer of surface proteins to vesicles depending on the cell status. The protein profiles of plasma vesicles resembled the protein profiles of EVs from platelets, antigen-presenting cells and NK cells as shown by platelet markers, co-stimulatory proteins, and a NK cell subpopulation marker. In comparison to healthy plasma vesicles, melanoma plasma vesicles showed altered signals for platelet markers, indicating a changed vesicle secretion or protein loading of EVs by platelets and a lower CD8 signal that might be associated with a diminished activity of NK cells or T cells. As we hardly detected melanoma-derived vesicles in patient’s plasma, we concluded that blood cells induced the observed differences. In summary, our results question a direct effect of melanoma cells on the composition of EVs in melanoma plasma, but rather argue for an indirect influence of melanoma cells on the vesicle secretion or vesicle protein loading by blood cells. PMID:27507971

  15. Melanoma Affects the Composition of Blood Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Koliha, Nina; Heider, Ute; Ozimkowski, Tobias; Wiemann, Martin; Bosio, Andreas; Wild, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are specifically loaded with nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins from their parental cell. Therefore, the constitution of EVs reflects the type and status of the originating cell and EVs in melanoma patient's plasma could be indicative for the tumor. Likewise, EVs might influence tumor progression by regulating immune responses. We performed a broad protein characterization of EVs from plasma of melanoma patients and healthy donors as well as from T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), and platelets using a multiplex bead-based platform. Using this method, we succeeded in analyzing 58 proteins that were differentially displayed on EVs. Hierarchical clustering of protein intensity patterns grouped EVs according to their originating cell type. The analysis of EVs from stimulated B cells and moDCs revealed the transfer of surface proteins to vesicles depending on the cell status. The protein profiles of plasma vesicles resembled the protein profiles of EVs from platelets, antigen-presenting cells and NK cells as shown by platelet markers, co-stimulatory proteins, and a NK cell subpopulation marker. In comparison to healthy plasma vesicles, melanoma plasma vesicles showed altered signals for platelet markers, indicating a changed vesicle secretion or protein loading of EVs by platelets and a lower CD8 signal that might be associated with a diminished activity of NK cells or T cells. As we hardly detected melanoma-derived vesicles in patient's plasma, we concluded that blood cells induced the observed differences. In summary, our results question a direct effect of melanoma cells on the composition of EVs in melanoma plasma, but rather argue for an indirect influence of melanoma cells on the vesicle secretion or vesicle protein loading by blood cells. PMID:27507971

  16. Antiproliferative effect of linalool on RPMI 7932 human melanoma cell line: ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cerchiara, Teresa; Straface, Serafina Vittoria; Brunelli, Elvira; Tripepi, Sandro; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Chidichimo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Linalool, a small monoterpene molecule, is used widely for its flavoring and fragrant properties in many cosmetic products. In this work, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of two different linalool solutions on RPMI 7932 human melanoma and NCTC 2544 normal keratinocites cell lines using the trypan blue method. Morphological changes in cells were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, apoptosis was evaluated using caspase 3-antibody. Linalool showed a selective inhibitory effect on the growth of melanoma cells in a concentrationdependent manner, inducing several morphological changes, as revealed by SEM and TEM analysis. Moreover, the labelling for caspase-3 is abundant in the melanoma cells and almost absent in the normal keratinocites cells. The results suggest that linalool could be used as drug and/or as model drug for developing potential therapeutic agents for melanoma. PMID:25973472

  17. Antiproliferative effect of linalool on RPMI 7932 human melanoma cell line: ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cerchiara, Teresa; Straface, Serafina Vittoria; Brunelli, Elvira; Tripepi, Sandro; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Chidichimo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Linalool, a small monoterpene molecule, is used widely for its flavoring and fragrant properties in many cosmetic products. In this work, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of two different linalool solutions on RPMI 7932 human melanoma and NCTC 2544 normal keratinocites cell lines using the trypan blue method. Morphological changes in cells were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, apoptosis was evaluated using caspase 3-antibody. Linalool showed a selective inhibitory effect on the growth of melanoma cells in a concentrationdependent manner, inducing several morphological changes, as revealed by SEM and TEM analysis. Moreover, the labelling for caspase-3 is abundant in the melanoma cells and almost absent in the normal keratinocites cells. The results suggest that linalool could be used as drug and/or as model drug for developing potential therapeutic agents for melanoma.

  18. Peripheral canine CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells - unique amongst others.

    PubMed

    von Buttlar, Heiner; Bismarck, Doris; Alber, Gottfried

    2015-12-15

    T lymphocytes co-expressing CD4 and CD8 ("double-positive T cells") are commonly associated with a thymic developmental stage of T cells. Their first description in humans and pigs as extrathymic T cells with a memory phenotype almost 30 years ago came as a surprise. Meanwhile peripheral double-positive T cells have been described in a growing number of different species. In this review we highlight novel data from our very recent studies on canine peripheral double-positive T cells which point to unique features of double-positive T cells in the dog. In contrast to porcine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells forming a homogenous cellular population based on their expression of CD4 and CD8α, canine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells can be divided into three different cellular subsets with distinct expression levels of CD4 and CD8α. Double-positive T cells expressing CD8β are present in humans and dogs but absent in swine. Moreover, canine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells can not only develop from CD4(+) single-positive T cells but also from CD8(+) single-positive T cells. Together, this places canine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells closer to their human than porcine counterparts since human double-positive T cells also appear to be heterogeneous in their CD4 and CD8α expression and have both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as progenitor cells. However, CD4(+) single-positive T cells are the more potent progenitors for canine double-positive T cells, whereas CD8(+) single-positive T cells are more potent progenitors for human double-positive T cells. Canine double-positive T cells have an activated phenotype and may have as yet unrecognized roles in vivo in immunity to infection or in inflammatory diseases such as chronic infection, autoimmunity, allergy, or cancer.

  19. Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of MAT2B inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yaohua; Zhao, Yuan; Sun, Jingying; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal of skin cancers and its pathogenesis is complex and heterogeneous. The efficacy of conventional therapeutic regimens for melanoma remains limited. Thus, it is important to explore novel effective therapeutic targets in the treatment of melanoma. The MAT2B gene encodes for the regulatory subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). Recent studies have suggested that MAT2B may have functional roles other than modulating catalytic activity of MAT. In order to identify the roles of MAT2B in the tumorigenesis of malignant melanoma, we compared MAT2B expression profile in melanoma tissues with that in benign nevus samples. We employed lentivirus-mediated RNAi to downregulate the expression of MAT2B in malignant melanoma cell lines (A375 and Mel-RM), and investigated the effects of MAT2B on cell growth, colony-formation ability and apoptosis in vitro, as well as tumor growth of a xenograft model in vivo. The expression levels of BCL2 and XAF1 proteins, which were closely related to tumor cell apoptosis, were analyzed by western blot analysis. Our data showed that MAT2B was elevated in both primary and metastatic melanoma tissues compared with benign nevus samples. Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of MAT2B suppressed cell growth, colony formation and induced apoptosis in A375 and Mel-RM cell lines in vitro, affected protein expression of BCL2 and XAF1, extended the transplanted tumor growth in vivo. These results indicated that MAT2B was critical in the proliferation of melanoma cells and tumorigenicity. It may be considered as a potential anti-melanoma therapeutic target. PMID:27573889

  20. Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Melanoma Cells Engineered to Secrete Human Granulocyte--Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Generates Potent Antitumor Immunity in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soiffer, Robert; Lynch, Thomas; Mihm, Martin; Jung, Ken; Rhuda, Catherine; Schmollinger, Jan C.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Liebster, Laura; Lam, Prudence; Mentzer, Steven; Singer, Samuel; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Duda, Rosemary; Sober, Arthur; Bhan, Atul; Daley, John; Neuberg, Donna; Parry, Gordon; Rokovich, Joseph; Richards, Laurie; Drayer, Jan; Berns, Anton; Clift, Shirley; Cohen, Lawrence K.; Mulligan, Richard C.; Dranoff, Glenn

    1998-10-01

    We conducted a Phase I clinical trial investigating the biologic activity of vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic melanoma. Immunization sites were intensely infiltrated with T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in all 21 evaluable patients. Although metastatic lesions resected before vaccination were minimally infiltrated with cells of the immune system in all patients, metastatic lesions resected after vaccination were densely infiltrated with T lymphocytes and plasma cells and showed extensive tumor destruction (at least 80%), fibrosis, and edema in 11 of 16 patients examined. Antimelanoma cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses were associated with tumor destruction. These results demonstrate that vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent antitumor immunity in humans with metastatic melanoma.

  1. Expression of the human endogenous retrovirus-K transmembrane envelope, Rec and Np9 proteins in melanomas and melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Kristina; Hahn, Silvia; Hofmann, Maja; Trefzer, Uwe; Ozel, Muhsin; Sterry, Wolfram; Löwer, Johannes; Löwer, Roswitha; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2006-06-01

    The human endogenous retrovirus-K encodes two potential tumor proteins, Rec and Np9. Rec is related to the Rev protein of HIV-1 and has been shown to be associated with tumor development in nude mice. Having shown the expression of human endogenous retrovirus-K in human melanomas and melanoma cell lines, tools were developed to allow the expression of the transmembrane envelope, Rec and Np9 mRNA and proteins to be studied in more detail. The expression of spliced env, rec and np9 was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of primers developed to discriminate between full-length and spliced mRNA. Env-specific, Rec-specific and Np9-specific antisera were produced, characterized and used to study protein expression in melanomas and melanoma cell lines by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Existence of human endogenous retrovirus-K Rec and Np9-specific antibodies in the sera of melanoma patients were analyzed by Western blot of immunofluorescence studies. The expression of both spliced env and rec mRNA was detected in 39% of the melanomas and in 40% of the melanoma cell lines and np9 mRNA was detected in 29 and 21%, respectively. In normal neonatal melanocytes, spliced rec mRNA was detected in the absence of spliced env mRNA. Using antisera specific for Rec and Np9, Rec protein was found in 14% of the melanomas but Np9 in none. In addition, cell surface expression of the putatively immunosuppressive transmembrane envelope protein and release of virus particles were shown. Antibodies specific for neither Rec nor Np9 were detected. The transmembrane envelope protein, Rec and Np9 proteins are expressed in melanoma cells with a pattern similar to that seen in teratocarcinoma cell lines. Additional experiments are needed to determine their involvement, if any, in cell proliferation and tumor progression.

  2. CONTROL OF PIGMENT PRODUCTION IN MOUSE MELANOMA CELLS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Silagi, Selma

    1969-01-01

    A clonally derived amelanotic melanoma cell line repeatedly has been forced to produce pigment by the inhibitor of DNA synthesis, I-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) at sublethal levels. One ara-C-derived melanotic line has been cloned, and has continued to produce pigment for 2 years on normal medium. The inhibitor is most effective when administered to synchronized cells in four pulses on successive days at 1.8 x 10-5 M during the S phase of the cell cycle. Colcemid at a sublethal concentration, and growth on medium solidified with agar also evoked pigment production in this line, but a large number of other inhibitors of biosynthetic processes did not, under the conditions tested. The melanotic lines are active producers of tyrosinase (DOPA oxidase), whereas the amelanotic line produces an inhibitor of tyrosinase activity. Both enzyme and inhibitor are labile at 4° C and -20° C, and decay of the inhibitor in homogenates of amelanotic cells reveals a low level of residual DOPA oxidase activity. The mean population doubling time of a cloned melanotic line is 23 hr, and that of a cloned amelanotic line 16.5 hr. A similar decrease in rate of growth is found in other melanotic lines and is believed to be a significant factor in maintaining this differentiated function. Rapid growth may be related to the production of an inhibitor by the amelanotic cells. PMID:4981070

  3. Fenofibrate Induces Ketone Body Production in Melanoma and Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Grabacka, Maja M; Wilk, Anna; Antonczyk, Anna; Banks, Paula; Walczyk-Tytko, Emilia; Dean, Matthew; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies [beta-hydroxybutyrate (bHB) and acetoacetate] are mainly produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. bHB is a very efficient energy substrate for sustaining ATP production in peripheral tissues; importantly, its consumption is preferred over glucose. However, the majority of malignant cells, particularly cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin such as glioblastoma, are not able to use ketone bodies as a source of energy. Here, we report a novel observation that fenofibrate, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) agonist, induces bHB production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells, as well as in neurospheres composed of non-transformed cells. Unexpectedly, this effect is not dependent on PPARa activity or its expression level. The fenofibrate-induced ketogenesis is accompanied by growth arrest and downregulation of transketolase, but the NADP/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios remain unaffected. Our results reveal a new, intriguing aspect of cancer cell biology and highlight the benefits of fenofibrate as a supplement to both canonical and dietary (ketogenic) therapeutic approaches against glioblastoma. PMID:26869992

  4. Fenofibrate Induces Ketone Body Production in Melanoma and Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja M.; Wilk, Anna; Antonczyk, Anna; Banks, Paula; Walczyk-Tytko, Emilia; Dean, Matthew; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies [beta-hydroxybutyrate (bHB) and acetoacetate] are mainly produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. bHB is a very efficient energy substrate for sustaining ATP production in peripheral tissues; importantly, its consumption is preferred over glucose. However, the majority of malignant cells, particularly cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin such as glioblastoma, are not able to use ketone bodies as a source of energy. Here, we report a novel observation that fenofibrate, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) agonist, induces bHB production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells, as well as in neurospheres composed of non-transformed cells. Unexpectedly, this effect is not dependent on PPARa activity or its expression level. The fenofibrate-induced ketogenesis is accompanied by growth arrest and downregulation of transketolase, but the NADP/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios remain unaffected. Our results reveal a new, intriguing aspect of cancer cell biology and highlight the benefits of fenofibrate as a supplement to both canonical and dietary (ketogenic) therapeutic approaches against glioblastoma. PMID:26869992

  5. Cancer procoagulant in human tumor cells: evidence from melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Donati, M B; Gambacorti-Passerini, C; Casali, B; Falanga, A; Vannotti, P; Fossati, G; Semeraro, N; Gordon, S G

    1986-12-01

    It has repeatedly been proposed that fibrin plays a role in tumor growth and metastasis. Among tumor cell products or activities which may promote clot formation, cancer procoagulant (CP), a direct activator of coagulation factor X, has been suggested to be selectively associated with the malignant phenotype. We report here the enzymatic and immunological identification of this cysteine proteinase procoagulant in extracts and cells from human melanoma. CP activity was independent of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation, using factor IX and factor VII deficient plasmas, and was inhibited by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors iodoacetamide and HgCl2. CP activity was detectable in extracts and cell suspensions from all 32 patients studied and was higher in extracts from metastases (14.8 +/- 3.9 units/mg protein) than from the primary tumors (3.7 +/- 1.0 units/mg protein). CP activity was not affected by an anti-apoprotein III antibody or by concanavalin A, a known inhibitor of thromboplastin. In contrast, no CP activity or antigen was detected in extracts from six benign melanocytic lesions. The procoagulant activity was dependent on factor VII and was inhibited by anti-apoprotein III antibody and by concanavalin A, properties that suggest that the procoagulant was tissue thromboplastin. These data indicate that CP can be expressed by human tumor cells and that, among melanotic lesions, its presence is associated with the malignant phenotype and its activity is particularly high in metastatic cells.

  6. Oral microparticulate vaccine for melanoma using M-cell targeting.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Bernadette; Bhowmik, Tuhin; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Oettinger, Carl; Selvaraj, Periasamy; D'Souza, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Cancer vaccines are limited in their use, because of their inability to mount a robust anti-tumor immune response. Thus, targeting M-cells in the small intestine, which are responsible for entry of many pathogens, will be an attractive way to elicit a strong immune response toward particulate antigens. Therefore, in the present investigation, we demonstrated that efficient oral vaccination against melanoma antigens could be accomplished by incorporating the antigens in an albumin-based microparticle with a ligand AAL (Aleuria aurantia lectin) targeted specifically to M-cells. The oral microparticulate vaccine effectively protected the mice from subcutaneous challenge with tumor cells in prophylactic settings. The animals were vaccinated with antigen microparticles having a size range of around 1-1.25 µm where one prime and four booster doses were administered every 14 days over 10 weeks of duration, followed by challenge with live tumor cells, which showed complete tumor protection after oral vaccination. With the inclusion of ligand in the microparticles, we observed significantly higher IgG titers (1565 μg/mL) as compared to the microparticle formulations without AAL (872 μg/mL). This data suggests that ligand loaded microparticles may have the potential to target antigens to M-cells for an efficient oral vaccination.

  7. Tumor-Related Methylated Cell-Free DNA and Circulating Tumor Cells in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Salvianti, Francesca; Orlando, Claudio; Massi, Daniela; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Grazzini, Marta; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinzani, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumor release into the circulation cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which represent promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Circulating tumor DNA may be studied in plasma from cancer patients by detecting tumor specific alterations, such as genetic or epigenetic modifications. Ras association domain family 1 isoform A (RASSF1A) is a tumor suppressor gene silenced by promoter hypermethylation in a variety of human cancers including melanoma. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic performance of a tumor-related methylated cfDNA marker in melanoma patients and to compare this parameter with the presence of CTCs. RASSF1A promoter methylation was quantified in cfDNA by qPCR in a consecutive series of 84 melanoma patients and 68 healthy controls. In a subset of 68 cases, the presence of CTCs was assessed by a filtration method (Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor Cells, ISET) as well as by an indirect method based on the detection of tyrosinase mRNA by RT-qPCR. The distribution of RASSF1A methylated cfDNA was investigated in cases and controls and the predictive capability of this parameter was assessed by means of the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The percentage of cases with methylated RASSF1A promoter in cfDNA was significantly higher in each class of melanoma patients (in situ, invasive and metastatic) than in healthy subjects (Pearson chi-squared test, p < 0.001). The concentration of RASSF1A methylated cfDNA in the subjects with a detectable quantity of methylated alleles was significantly higher in melanoma patients than in controls. The biomarker showed a good predictive capability (in terms of AUC) in discriminating between melanoma patients and healthy controls. This epigenetic marker associated to cfDNA did not show a significant correlation with the presence of CTCs, but, when the two parameters are jointly considered, we obtain a higher sensitivity of the detection of positive cases in invasive and

  8. Epigenetic regulation of the transcription factor Foxa2 directs differential elafin expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kyung Sook; Jo, Ji Yoon; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Yangsoon; Bae, Jong Hwan; Chung, Young-Hwa; Koh, Sang Seok

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Elafin expression is epigenetically silenced in human melanoma cells. {yields} Foxa2 expression in melanoma cells is silenced by promoter hypermethylation. {yields} Foxa2 directs activation of the elafin promoter in vivo. {yields} Foxa2 expression induces apoptosis of melanoma cells via elafin re-expression. -- Abstract: Elafin, a serine protease inhibitor, induces the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human melanoma cells, where its expression is transcriptionally silenced. However, it remains unknown how the elafin gene is repressed in melanoma cells. We here demonstrate that elafin expression is modulated via epigenetically regulated expression of the transcription factor Foxa2. Treatment of melanoma cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor induced elafin expression, which was specifically responsible for reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. Suppression of Foxa2 transcription, mediated by DNA hypermethylation in its promoter region, was released in melanoma cells upon treatment with the demethylating agent. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that the Foxa2 binding site in the elafin promoter was critical for the activation of the promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed that Foxa2 bound to the elafin promoter in vivo. Analyses of melanoma cells with varied levels of Foxa2 revealed a correlated expression between Foxa2 and elafin and the ability of Foxa2 to induce apoptosis. Our results collectively suggest that, in melanoma cells, Foxa2 expression is silenced and therefore elafin is maintained unexpressed to facilitate cell proliferation in the disease melanoma.

  9. Reprogramming metastatic melanoma cells to assume a neural crest cell-like phenotype in an embryonic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kulesa, Paul M.; Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer C.; Teddy, Jessica M.; Margaryan, Naira V.; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Seftor, Richard E. B.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Human metastatic melanoma cells express a dedifferentiated, plastic phenotype, which may serve as a selective advantage, because melanoma cells invade various microenvironments. Over the last three decades, there has been an increased focus on the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression, with the goal of reversing the metastatic phenotype. Here, using an embryonic chick model, we explore the possibility of reverting the metastatic melanoma phenotype to its cell type of origin, the neural-crest-derived melanocyte. GFP-labeled adult human metastatic melanoma cells were transplanted in ovo adjacent to host chick premigratory neural crest cells and analyzed 48 and 96 h after egg reincubation. Interestingly, the transplanted melanoma cells do not form tumors. Instead, we find that transplanted melanoma cells invade surrounding chick tissues in a programmed manner, distributing along host neural-crest-cell migratory pathways. The invading melanoma cells display neural-crest-cell-like morphologies and populate host peripheral structures, including the branchial arches, dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia. Analysis of a melanocyte-specific phenotype marker (MART-1) and a neuronal marker (Tuj1) revealed a subpopulation of melanoma cells that invade the chick periphery and express MART-1 and Tuj1. Our results demonstrate the ability of adult human metastatic melanoma cells to respond to chick embryonic environmental cues, a subset of which may undergo a reprogramming of their metastatic phenotype. This model has the potential to provide insights into the regulation of tumor cell plasticity by an embryonic milieu, which may hold significant therapeutic promise. PMID:16505384

  10. The Efficacy of Dandelion Root Extract in Inducing Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, S. J.; Ovadje, P.; Mousa, M.; Hamm, C.; Pandey, S.

    2011-01-01

    Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25–29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible), and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In this study, we show that dandelion root extract (DRE) specifically and effectively induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells without inducing toxicity in noncancerous cells. Characteristic apoptotic morphology of nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of A375 human melanoma cells was observed within 48 hours. DRE-induced apoptosis activates caspase-8 in A375 cells early on, demonstrating employment of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway to kill A375 cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated from DRE-treated isolated mitochondria indicates that natural compounds in DRE can also directly target mitochondria. Interestingly, the relatively resistant G361 human melanoma cell line responded to DRE when combined with the metabolism interfering antitype II diabetic drug metformin. Therefore, treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells. PMID:21234313

  11. Ocular albinism type 1-induced melanoma cell migration is mediated through the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jun; Xie, Xin; Lei, Yun; An, Gaili; He, Li; Lv, Xiaopeng

    2014-07-01

    Malignant melanoma has the highest risk of mortality among all types of skin cancer due to its highly metastatic potential. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) protein is a pigment cell‑specific glycoprotein, which shares significant structural and functional features with G protein‑coupled receptors. However, the role of OA1 in melanoma has yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate whether OA1 is involved in melanoma cell migration. OA1 was found to stimulate cell migration in a dose‑dependent manner in cultured human melanoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of OA1 using small interfering RNA was observed to significantly inhibit melanoma cell migration. In addition, the mechanism underlying OA1‑induced melanoma cell migration was investigated. Stimulation of the RAS/RAF/mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) pathway using growth factors enhanced OA1 expression and melanoma cell migration, whereas inhibition of this pathway using U0126 was observed to markedly decrease OA1 expression and the number of migrated cells. These findings indicate that OA1 is involved in melanoma cell migration and that OA1‑induced melanoma cell migration is mediated through the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Therefore, OA1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for melanoma. PMID:24736838

  12. Cycle reset in a melanoma cell line caused by cooling.

    PubMed

    Dewey, D L

    1987-11-01

    When cells in culture are released from G0 into cycle by diluting into fresh medium there is a delay of many hours before they re-enter the cycle and start DNA synthesis. A mouse melanoma cell line designated HP2 has been used to investigate the effects of non-standard temperatures between the time of plating and DNA synthesis. When the cells were incubated in a 5% CO2 box at 8 degrees C for periods during the G0-G1 transition there was an extra delay before the start of S, approximately equal to the time that the cells were held at 8 degrees C and independent of the time when the cold pulse was administered. When the cells were cooled to 25 degrees C the delay was longer than the time for which the cells had been kept at 25 degrees C, and this extra delay was also dependent on the point in G0-G1 when the cells were cooled, as though the cells could be reset to an earlier time by this treatment. It is suggested that a labile substance required for progression is destroyed faster than it is made at 25 degrees C but at 8 degrees C the rate of destruction is very low. Another phenomenon noted during these cooling experiments was that the peak height of the S phase profile, as measured by frequent pulse-thymidine incorporation experiments, was substantially higher for cells which had been cooled at a later stage in the G0-G1 transition, even though the overall times at 37 degrees C and at the colder temperature were identical. By varying the temperature of the cold pulse it was possible to separate the change in the peak height and the delay as separate entities. PMID:3502929

  13. The photodynamic therapy effect of aluminum and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduray, K.; Karsten, A.; Odhav, B.; Nyokong, T.

    2010-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents a novel treatment that uses a photosensitizer (PS), light source (laser) of an appropriate wavelength and oxygen to induce cell death in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the photodynamic effects of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines (AlTSPc) and zinc (ZnTSPc) tetrasulfophthalocyanines activated with a 672nm wavelength laser on melanoma cancer, dermal fibroblast and epidermal keratinocyte cells. Each cell line was photosensitized with either AlTSPc or ZnTSPc for 2 h before using a diode laser with a wavelength of 672nm to deliver a light dose of 4.5 J/cm2 to the cells. The cell viability of melanoma cells were decreased to approximately 50% with concentrations of 40 μg/ml for AlTSPc and 50 μg/ml for ZnTSPc. These PS concentrations caused a slight decrease in the cell viability of fibroblast and keratinocyte cells. Both photosensitizers in the presence of high concentrations (60 μg/ml-100 μg/ml) showed cytotoxicity effects on melanoma cells in its inactive state. This was not observed in fibroblast and keratinocyte cells. Cell death in PDT treated melanoma cells was induced by apoptosis. Therefore, AlTSPc and ZnTSPc exhibit the potential to be used as a PS in PDT for the treatment of melanoma cancer.

  14. Detection of novel papillomaviruses in canine mucosal, cutaneous and in situ squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, N; Nespeca, G; Hauser, B; Ackermann, M; Favrot, C

    2005-10-01

    Papillomavirus (PV) DNA is frequently uncovered in samples of human skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). However, the role of these viruses in the development of such cancers in canine species remains controversial. While approximately 100 human PVs are known, only one single canine oral PV (COPV) has been identified and studied extensively. Therefore, we applied a narrow-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suitable for the detection of classical canine and feline PVs, as well as a broad-range PCR, which has been used for the detection of various novel PVs in humans, in order to analyse 42 paraffin-embedded samples, representing three different forms of canine SCCs. Ten samples of skin tissues with various non-neoplastic conditions served as controls. While none of the negative controls reacted positively, PV DNA was discovered in 21% of the tested SCC samples. Interestingly, the classical COPV was amplified from only one sample, while the other positive cases were associated with a variety of thus far unknown PVs. This study suggests that a fraction of canine SCC is infected with PVs and that a genetic variety of canine PVs exists. Therefore, these results will facilitate the future study of the role of PVs in the development of canine skin cancers. PMID:16238808

  15. The single-chain immunotoxin MCSP-ETA’, targeting melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is a potent inducer of apoptosis in cultured human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwenkert, Michael; Birkholz, Katrin; Schwemmlein, Michael; Kellner, Christian; Peipp, Matthias; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Schaft, Niels; Dörrie, Jan; Ferrone, Soldano; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Fey, Georg H.

    2009-01-01

    A recombinant immunotoxin was constructed by fusing a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment, specific for the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP), to a truncated variant of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (ETA’), carrying a C-terminal KDEL peptide for improved intracellular transport. The resulting immunotoxin, MCSP-ETA’, induced antigen-specific, potent apoptosis in the cultured human melanoma-derived cell lines A2058 and A375M, and treatment with a single dose of the agent eliminated up to 80 % of these cells within 72 h. The dose needed for half-maximum killing (EC50) was approximately 1 nM for both cell lines. MCSP-ETA’ also displayed cytotoxic activity against cultured primary melanoma cells from patients with advanced disease, with net cell death reaching up to 70 % within 96 h after treatment with a single dose of 14 nM. MCSP-ETA’ induced cell death synergistically with Cyclosporin A (CsA), both in established human melanoma cell lines and cultured primary melanoma cells. The distinctive antigen-restricted induction of apoptosis and the synergy with CsA justify further evaluation of this novel agent with regard to its potential applications for the treatment of melanoma and other MCSP-positive malignancies. PMID:18337643

  16. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of autotaxin that inhibit melanoma cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lauren P; Ouellette, Amy; Bandle, Russ; Chang, William Chozen; Zhou, Hongwen; Misra, Raj N; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Braddock, Demetrios T

    2008-10-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a prometastatic enzyme initially isolated from the conditioned medium of human melanoma cells that stimulates a myriad of biological activities, including angiogenesis and the promotion of cell growth, survival, and differentiation through the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX increases the aggressiveness and invasiveness of transformed cells, and ATX levels directly correlate with tumor stage and grade in several human malignancies. To study the role of ATX in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma, we developed antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors against recombinant human protein. Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded human tissue shows that ATX levels are markedly increased in human primary and metastatic melanoma relative to benign nevi. Chemical screens identified several small-molecule inhibitors with binding constants ranging from nanomolar to low micromolar. Cell migration and invasion assays with melanoma cell lines show that ATX markedly stimulates melanoma cell migration and invasion, an effect suppressed by ATX inhibitors. The migratory phenotype can be rescued by the addition of the enzymatic product of ATX, LPA, confirming that the observed inhibition is linked to suppression of LPA production by ATX. Chemical analogues of the inhibitors show structure-activity relationships important for ATX inhibition and indicate pathways for their optimization. These studies suggest that ATX is an approachable molecular target for the rational design of chemotherapeutic agents directed against malignant melanoma.

  17. Pigment-cell-specific genes from fibroblasts are transactivated after chromosomal transfer into melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T P; Shows, T B; Davidson, R L

    1994-01-01

    Human and mouse fibroblast chromosomes carrying tyrosinase or b-locus genes were introduced, by microcell hybridization, into pigmented Syrian hamster melanoma cells, and the microcell hybrids were tested for transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. By using species-specific PCR amplification to distinguish fibroblast and melanoma cDNAs, it was demonstrated that the previously silent fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes were transactivated following chromosomal transfer into pigmented melanoma cells. However, transactivation of the mouse fibroblast tyrosinase gene was unstable in microcell hybrid subclones and possibly dependent on a second fibroblast locus that could have segregated in the subclones. This second locus was not necessary for transactivation of the fibroblast b-locus gene, thus demonstrating noncoordinate transactivation of fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. Transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase gene in microcell hybrids apparently is dependent on the absence of a putative fibroblast extinguisher locus for tyrosinase gene expression, which presumably is responsible for the extinction of pigmentation in hybrids between karyotypically complete fibroblasts and melanoma cells. Images PMID:8289799

  18. Pigment-cell-specific genes from fibroblasts are transactivated after chromosomal transfer into melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.P.; Davidson, R.L.; Shows, T.B.

    1994-02-01

    Human and mouse fibroblast chromosomes carrying tyrosinase or b-locus genes were introduced, by microcell hybridization, into pigmented Syrian hamster melanoma cells, and the microcell hybrids were tested for transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. By using species-specific PCR amplification to distinguish fibroblast and melanoma cDNAs, it was demonstrated that the previously silent fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes were transactivated following chromosomal transfer into pigmented melanoma cells. However, transactivation of the mouse fibroblast tyrosinase gene was unstable in microcell hybrid subclones and possibly dependent on a second fibroblast locus that could have segregated in the subclones. This second locus was not necessary for transactivation of the fibroblast b-locus gene, thus demonstrating noncoordinate transactivation of fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. Transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase gene in microcell hybrids apparently is dependent on the absence of a putative fibroblast extinguisher locus for tyrosinase gene expression, which presumably is responsible for the extinction of pigmentation in hybrids between karyotypically complete fibroblasts and melanoma cells. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Biflorin induces cytotoxicity by DNA interaction in genetically different human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Ana Carolina Lima; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; da Silva Souza, Luciana Gregório; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is a public health problem and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been notably increasing, resulting in high aggressiveness and poor survival rates. Taking into account the antitumor activity of biflorin, a substance isolated from Capraria biflora L. roots that is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo, this study aimed to demonstrate the action of biflorin against three established human melanoma cell lines that recapitulate the molecular landscape of the disease in terms of genetic alterations and mutations, such as the TP53, NRAS and BRAF genes. The results presented here indicate that biflorin reduces the viability of melanoma cell lines by DNA interactions. Biflorin causes single and double DNA strand breaks, consequently inhibiting cell cycle progression, replication and DNA repair and promoting apoptosis. Our data suggest that biflorin could be considered as a future therapeutic option for managing melanoma. PMID:27079618

  20. Vemurafenib resistance selects for highly malignant brain and lung-metastasizing melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zubrilov, Inna; Sagi-Assif, Orit; Izraely, Sivan; Meshel, Tsipi; Ben-Menahem, Shlomit; Ginat, Ravit; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Nahmias, Clara; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hoon, Dave S B; Witz, Isaac P

    2015-05-28

    V600E being the most common mutation in BRAF, leads to constitutive activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. The majority of V600E BRAF positive melanoma patients treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib showed initial good clinical responses but relapsed due to acquired resistance to the drug. The aim of the present study was to identify possible biomarkers associated with the emergence of drug resistant melanoma cells. To this end we analyzed the differential gene expression of vemurafenib-sensitive and vemurafenib resistant brain and lung metastasizing melanoma cells. The major finding of this study is that the in vitro induction of vemurafenib resistance in melanoma cells is associated with an increased malignancy phenotype of these cells. Resistant cells expressed higher levels of genes coding for cancer stem cell markers (JARID1B, CD271 and Fibronectin) as well as genes involved in drug resistance (ABCG2), cell invasion and promotion of metastasis (MMP-1 and MMP-2). We also showed that drug-resistant melanoma cells adhere better to and transmigrate more efficiently through lung endothelial cells than drug-sensitive cells. The former cells also alter their microenvironment in a different manner from that of drug-sensitive cells. Biomarkers and molecular mechanisms associated with drug resistance may serve as targets for therapy of drug-resistant cancer.

  1. The BRAFV600E inhibitor, PLX4032, increases type I collagen synthesis in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Molly H.; Croteau, Walburga; Mullins, David W.; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical growth phase (VGP) melanoma is frequently metastatic, a process mediated by changes in gene expression, which are directed by signal transduction pathways in the tumor cells. A prominent signaling pathway is the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk MAPK pathway, which increases expression of genes that promote melanoma progression. Many melanomas harbor a mutation in this pathway, BRAFV600E, which constitutively activates MAPK signaling and expression of downstream target genes that facilitate tumor progression. In BRAFV600E melanoma, the small molecule inhibitor, vemurafenib (PLX4032), has revolutionized therapy for melanoma by inducing rapid tumor regression. This compound down-regulates the expression of many genes. However, in this study, we document that blocking the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk MAPK pathway, either with an ERK (PLX4032) or a MEK (U1026) signaling inhibitor, in BRAFV600E human and murine melanoma cell lines increases collagen synthesis in vitro and collagen deposition in vivo. Since TGFβ signaling is a major mediator of collagen synthesis, we examined whether blocking TGFβ signaling with a small molecule inhibitor would block this increase in collagen. However, there was minimal reduction in collagen synthesis in response to blocking TGFβ signaling, suggesting additional mechanism(s), which may include activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Presently, it is unclear whether this increased collagen synthesis and deposition in melanomas represent a therapeutic benefit or an unwanted “off target” effect of inhibiting the Ras-Raf-Erk-Mek pathway. PMID:25989506

  2. In vivo transfection of melanoma cells by lithotripter shock waves.

    PubMed

    Bao, S; Thrall, B D; Gies, R A; Miller, D L

    1998-01-15

    The potential for gene transfection during shock wave tumor therapy was evaluated by searching for shock wave-induced DNA transfer in mouse tumor cells. B16 mouse melanoma cells were cultured by standard methods and implanted s.c. in female C57BL/6 mice 10-14 days before treatment. A luciferase reporter vector was used as the DNA plasmid for intratumoral injection at 0.2 mg/ml tumor. Air at 10% of tumor volume was injected after the DNA in some tumors to enhance acoustic cavitation activity. The shock wave generation system was similar to a Dornier HM-3 lithotripter with pressure amplitudes of 24.4 MPa peak positive and 5.2 MPa peak negative. Luciferase production in isolated tumor cells was measured with a luminometer 1 day after treatment to assess gene transfer and expression. Exposure to 800 shock waves, followed by immediate isolation and culture of tumor cells for 1 day, yielded 1.1 (0.43 SE) pg/10(6) cells for plasmid injection only and 7.5 (2.5 SE) pg/10(6) cells for plasmid plus air injection. Significantly increased luciferase production, relative to shams, occurred for 200-, 400-, 800-, and 1200-shock wave treatments with plasmid and air injection. Exposure with the isolation of tumor cells delayed for a day to allow gene expression within the growing tumors gave increased luciferase production for 100- and 400-shock wave exposures without and with air injection. Gene transfer therefore can be induced during lithotripter shock wave treatment in vivo, particularly with enhanced acoustic cavitation, which supports the concept that gene and shock wave therapy might be advantageously merged. PMID:9443395

  3. Redox effects and cytotoxic profiles of MJ25 and auranofin towards malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Catherine J.; McCarthy, Anna R.; Higgins, Maureen; Campbell, Johanna; Brodin, Bertha; Arnér, Elias S.J.; Laín, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. Although recent progress in treatment has been achieved, lack of response, drug resistance and relapse remain major problems. The tumor suppressor p53 is rarely mutated in melanoma, yet it is inactive in the majority of cases due to dysregulation of upstream pathways. Thus, we screened for compounds that can activate p53 in melanoma cells. Here we describe effects of the small molecule MJ25 (2-{[2-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylsulfonyl)ethyl]thio}-1,3-benzoxazole), which increased the level of p53-dependent transactivation both as a single agent and in combination with nutlin-3. Furthermore, MJ25 showed potent cytotoxicity towards melanoma cell lines, whilst having weaker effects against human normal cells. MJ25 was also identified in an independent screen as an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenoenzyme in the control of oxidative stress and redox regulation. The well-characterized TrxR inhibitor auranofin, which is FDA-approved and currently in clinical trials against leukemia and a number of solid cancers, displayed effects comparable with MJ25 on cells and led to eradication of cultured melanoma cells at low micromolar concentrations. In conclusion, auranofin, MJ25 or other inhibitors of TrxR1 should be evaluated as candidate compounds or leads for targeted therapy of malignant melanoma. PMID:26029997

  4. Characterization of foamy epithelial surface cells in the canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Bartel, C; Tichy, A; Walter, I

    2014-06-01

    In mature bitches, endometrial epithelial surface cells modify function and corresponding morphology during the oestrous cycle. During late metoestrous, endometrial epithelial surface cells frequently accumulate fat and thereby adopt a foamy morphology. This cyclic appearance of foamy endometrial epithelial cells (fEECs) seems to be physiological in the dog, whereas in other species, it indicates pathological changes. Function of these fEECs has not been identified until now. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize the fEECs by means of transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Different manifestations of fEECs were observed and analysed with regard to proliferative activity and presence of different epithelial adhesion molecules including PLEKHA7, β-catenin and E-cadherin. PLEKHA7 was restricted to the apical regions of the fEECs, whereas E-cadherin and β-catenin were demonstrated basolateral. The immunohistochemical detection of steroid hormone receptors demonstrated the responsiveness of the fEECs to steroid hormones. Intense progesterone receptor expression was observed in the fEECs indicating a high responsiveness to this hormone. Considering a potential function of the fEECs, we hypothesized that leptin, a hormone produced by other lipid-accumulating cells and described to be involved in reproduction, in particular during implantation, might also originate from the fEECs which was confirmed by immunohistochemical methods. Moreover, leptin receptor was found in fEECs indicating the fEECs as both, source and target for leptin. Therefore, we conclude that fEECs in the canine uterus have a potential role in early pregnancy events and that the different observed manifestations might simply reflect the variations of signs of pseudopregnancy among bitches.

  5. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vayssade, Muriel; Sengkhamparn, Nipaporn; Verhoef, René; Delaigue, Claire; Goundiam, Oumou; Vigneron, Pascale; Voragen, Alphons G J; Schols, Henk A; Nagel, Marie-Danielle

    2010-07-01

    The proliferation and apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells are often abnormal. We have evaluated the action of a pectic rhamnogalacturonan obtained by hot buffer extraction of okra pods (okra RG-I) on melanoma cell growth and survival in vitro. We added okra RG-I containing an almost pure RG-I carrying very short galactan side chains to 2D (on tissue culture polystyrene, tPS) and 3D (on poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate), polyHEMA) cultures of highly metastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. We then analyzed cell morphology, proliferation index, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and the expression of adhesion molecules. Immunostaining and western blotting were used to assay galectin-3 (Gal-3) protein.Incubation with okra RG-I altered the morphology of B16F10 cells and significantly reduced their proliferation on both tPS and polyHEMA. The cell cycle was arrested in G2/M, and apoptosis was induced, particularly in cells on polyHEMA. The expression of N-cadherin and alpha5 integrin subunit was reduced and that of the multifunctional carbohydrate-binding protein, Gal-3, at the cell membrane increased.These findings suggest that okra RG-I induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by interacting with Gal-3. As these interactions might open the way to new melanoma therapies, the next step will be to determine just how they occur.

  6. Enhancement of melphalan activity by buthionine sulfoximine and electroporation in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Alessia; Pellati, Agnese; De Mattei, Monica; De Terlizzi, Francesca; Rossi, Carlo R; Campana, Luca G

    2015-03-01

    Melphalan represents the reference drug for locoregional chemotherapy of melanoma; nevertheless, treatment failure may occur because of resistance to chemotherapy. Refractory melanoma cells show either an increased capability of drug inactivation, which is known to be associated with elevated intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH), or a decreased melphalan uptake. The aim of this study was to explore a biochemical and a biophysical strategy, and their combination, to overcome melphalan resistance in melanoma cells. The biochemical strategy was based on the treatment of melanoma cells with DL-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete the GSH levels, thus reducing melphalan inactivation. In the biophysical strategy, cell membrane electroporation was used to increase melphalan uptake. The SK-MEL 28-resistant human melanoma cell line was pretreated with 50 μmol/l BSO for 24 h and then treated with increasing melphalan doses, with or without electroporation. Spectrophotometric quantification of cell viability was used to determine melphalan cytotoxicity. Intracellular total GSH was measured using a kinetic enzymatic assay. BSO induced 3.50-fold GSH depletion in untreated cells and a similar reduction was also maintained in melphalan-treated cells. BSO pretreatment produced a 2.46-fold increase in melphalan cytotoxicity. Electroporation increased melphalan cytotoxicity 1.42-fold. The combination of both BSO pretreatment with melphalan plus electroporation led to a 4.40-fold increase in melphalan cytotoxicity compared with melphalan alone. Pretreatment with BSO and cell membrane permeabilization by electroporation enhanced the cytotoxic activity of melphalan in melanoma cells. Their rational combination deserves further investigation and may improve the efficacy of locoregional chemotherapy of melanoma.

  7. Effect of chlorogenic acid on melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao-Rong; Habasi, Maidina; Xie, Lian-Zhen; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2014-08-25

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the ester formed between caffeic acid and l-quinic acid, is a widespread phenolic compound. It is part of the human diet, found in foods such as coffee, apples, pears, etc. CGA is also was widely used in cosmetics, but the effects of CGA on melanogenesis are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the effects of CGA on cell proliferation, melanin content and tyrosinase of B16 murine melanoma cells. Additionally, the enzymatic reactions of CGA in B16 melanoma cells lytic solution were detected by UV spectrophotometry. Results showed CGA at 30 and 60 μM significantly suppresses cell proliferation. 8-MOP at 100 μM significantly promotes cell proliferation, but CGA can counter this. Incubated for 24 h, CGA (500 μM) improves melanogenesis while suppressing tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) co-incubated B16 melanoma cells. After 12 h, B16 melanoma cell treatment with CGA leads to an increase in melanin accumulation, however, after 48 h there is a decrease in melanin production which correlates broadly with a decrease in tyrosinase activity. CGA incubated with lytic solution 24 h turned brown at 37 °C. The formation of new products (with a maximum absorption at 295 nm) is associated with reduction of CGA (maximum absorption at 326 nm). Therefore, CGA has its two sidesroles in melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells. CGA is a likely a substrate of melanin, but the metabolic product(s) of CGA may suppress melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity.

  8. Effect of chlorogenic acid on melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao-Rong; Habasi, Maidina; Xie, Lian-Zhen; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the ester formed between caffeic acid and l-quinic acid, is a widespread phenolic compound. It is part of the human diet, found in foods such as coffee, apples, pears, etc. CGA is also was widely used in cosmetics, but the effects of CGA on melanogenesis are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the effects of CGA on cell proliferation, melanin content and tyrosinase of B16 murine melanoma cells. Additionally, the enzymatic reactions of CGA in B16 melanoma cells lytic solution were detected by UV spectrophotometry. Results showed CGA at 30 and 60 μM significantly suppresses cell proliferation. 8-MOP at 100 μM significantly promotes cell proliferation, but CGA can counter this. Incubated for 24 h, CGA (500 μM) improves melanogenesis while suppressing tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) co-incubated B16 melanoma cells. After 12 h, B16 melanoma cell treatment with CGA leads to an increase in melanin accumulation, however, after 48 h there is a decrease in melanin production which correlates broadly with a decrease in tyrosinase activity. CGA incubated with lytic solution 24 h turned brown at 37 °C. The formation of new products (with a maximum absorption at 295 nm) is associated with reduction of CGA (maximum absorption at 326 nm). Therefore, CGA has its two sidesroles in melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells. CGA is a likely a substrate of melanin, but the metabolic product(s) of CGA may suppress melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. PMID:25157464

  9. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  10. Circulating tumour cells as tumour biomarkers in melanoma: detection methods and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Khoja, L; Lorigan, P; Dive, C; Keilholz, U; Fusi, A

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are cells of solid tumour origin detectable in the peripheral blood. Their occurrence is considered a prerequisite step for establishing distant metastases. Metastatic melanoma was the first malignancy in which CTCs were detected and numerous studies have been published on CTC detection in melanoma at various stages of disease. In spite of this, there is no general consensus as to the clinical utility of CTCs in melanoma, largely due to conflicting results from heterogeneous studies and discrepancies in methods of detection between studies. In this review, we examine the possible clinical significance of CTCs in cutaneous, mucosal and ocular melanoma, focusing on detection methods and prognostic value of CTC detection.

  11. Circulating tumour cells as tumour biomarkers in melanoma: detection methods and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Khoja, L; Lorigan, P; Dive, C; Keilholz, U; Fusi, A

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are cells of solid tumour origin detectable in the peripheral blood. Their occurrence is considered a prerequisite step for establishing distant metastases. Metastatic melanoma was the first malignancy in which CTCs were detected and numerous studies have been published on CTC detection in melanoma at various stages of disease. In spite of this, there is no general consensus as to the clinical utility of CTCs in melanoma, largely due to conflicting results from heterogeneous studies and discrepancies in methods of detection between studies. In this review, we examine the possible clinical significance of CTCs in cutaneous, mucosal and ocular melanoma, focusing on detection methods and prognostic value of CTC detection. PMID:24907634

  12. Circulating Melanoma Cell Subpopulations: Their Heterogeneity and Differential Responses to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elin S; Reid, Anna L; Bowyer, Samantha; Calapre, Leslie; Siew, Kelvin; Pearce, Robert; Cowell, Lester; Frank, Markus H; Millward, Michael; Ziman, Mel

    2015-08-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a highly heterogeneous tumor; thus, methods to analyze tumor-derived cells circulating in blood should address this diversity. Taking this into account, we analyzed, using multiparametric flow cytometry, the co-expression of the melanoma markers melanoma cell adhesion molecule and melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and the tumor-initiating markers ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5), CD271, and receptor activator of NF-κβ (RANK) in individual circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from 40 late-stage (III-IV) and 16 early-stage (I-II) melanoma patients. CTCs were heterogeneous within and between patients, with limited co-expression between the five markers analyzed. Analysis of patient matched blood and metastatic tumors revealed that ABCB5 and RANK subpopulations are more common among CTCs than in the solid tumors, suggesting a preferential selection for these cells in circulation. Pairwise comparison of CTC subpopulations longitudinally before and 6-13 weeks after treatment initiation showed that the percentage of RANK(+) CTCs significantly increased in the patients undergoing targeted therapy (N=16, P<0.01). Moreover, the presence of ⩾5 RANK(+) CTCs in the blood of patients undergoing targeted therapies was prognostic of shorter progression-free survival (hazards ratio 8.73, 95% confidence interval 1.82-41.75, P<0.01). Taken together, our results provide evidence of the heterogeneity among CTC subpopulations in melanoma and the differential response of these subpopulations to targeted therapy.

  13. UV-induction of keratinocyte endothelin-1 downregulates E-cadherin in melanocytes and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Sumayah; Schneider, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a peptide that is secreted by keratinocytes in the skin in response to ultraviolet irradiation, is a ligand for the endothelin-B (ET(B)) receptor. Blockade of this receptor inhibits melanoma cell growth and induces cell death in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, ET(B) is a melanoma progression marker. These findings suggest that the ET-1/ET(B) receptor pathway contributes to melanoma development or progression. Here, we demonstrate that activation of the ET-1/ET(B) pathway downregulates E-cadherin and associated catenin proteins in human melanocytes and melanoma cells. E-cadherin is an established suppressor of melanoma cell invasion in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of E-cadherin by ET-1/ET(B) involves the downstream activation of caspase-8 but not of distal, executioner caspases, and does not lead to apoptosis. ET-1 also induces a transient association between caspase-8 and E-cadherin:beta-catenin complexes. Hence, activation of the ET-1/ET(B) pathway promotes molecular events known to promote melanoma invasion.

  14. Heterogeneity of cytokine and growth factor gene expression in human melanoma cells with different metastatic potentials.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Gutman, M; Radinsky, R

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mRNA expression level of multiple cytokine and growth factor genes in human malignant melanoma. Melanoma cells were isolated from several surgical specimens, adapted to growth in culture, characterized for their ability to produce experimental metastases in nude mice, and assessed for cytokine and growth factor steady-state gene expression. Highly metastatic in vivo- and in vitro-derived variants isolated from a single melanoma, A375, were also analyzed. Northern blot analyses revealed that all melanomas analyzed constitutively expressed steady-state mRNA transcripts for the growth and angiogenic factors, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), which correlated with metastatic propensity. Only one highly metastatic melanoma, TXM-1, originally isolated from a lymph node metastasis, expressed mRNA transcripts specific for monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Similarly, of the nine melanomas examined, only TXM-1 expressed interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6, important immunomodulatory cytokines. These data demonstrate the differential and heterogeneous expression of cytokine and growth factor genes in human malignant melanoma. PMID:7648437

  15. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT OF INOSITOL HEXAPHOSPHATE ON HUMAN SKIN MELANOMA CELLS IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Wawszczyk, Joanna; Kapral, Małgorzata; Lodowska, Jolanta; Jesse, Katarzyna; Hollek, Andrzej; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2015-01-01

    Human malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic tumor with poor prognosis. The majority of metastatic melanomas are resistant to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. Consequently, the search for novel antimelanoma agents continues. In recent years, the interest in plants and their biologically active constituents as a source of novel potential drugs significantly increased. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring compound that has been shown to inhibit the growth of a wide variety of tumor cells in multiple experimental model systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic influence of IP6 on melanotic melanoma cells in vitro. The A2058 cells used as a model of human skin melanoma malignum were exposed to different concentrations of IP6 (0.1-5 mM) for a various period of time and their growth was determined by sulforhodamine B assay after 24, 48 and 72 h. The cytotoxicity of IP6 was measured at 24 and 72 h by XTT assay. IP6 has been found to cause dose-dependent growth suppression of A2058 melanoma cells. At low concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 mM) it did not exert any influence on the cell proliferation as compared to control cultures. Higher concentrations of IP6 (from 1 to 5 mM) had a statistically significant, suppressive effect on cell proliferation after 24 h incubation. When the experimental time period was increased up to 72 h, statistically significant inhibition of cell proliferation was monitored at all IP6 concentrations used. Data obtained from XTT assay indicated that IP6 had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on melanoma cells. The results demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of IP6 in a wide range of concentrations on human A2058 melanoma cells. Hence, it can be suggested that IP6 could have a promising therapeutic significance in treating cancer.

  16. Adenovirus-Mediated FKHRL1/TM Sensitizes Melanoma Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E.; McNally, Lacey R.; Nitz, Jonathan; McMasters, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Melanoma exhibits variable resistance to the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). We evaluated the potential of adenovirus expressing forkhead human transcription factor like 1 triple mutant (Ad-FKHRL1/TM) to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ. Four melanoma cell lines were treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ, alone or in combination. Apoptosis was assessed by activation and inhibition of caspase pathway, nuclei fragmentation, and annexin V staining. The potential therapeutic efficacy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ was also assessed in a mouse melanoma xenograft model. Combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ resulted in greater cell killing (<20% cell viability) compared with single therapy and controls (p<0.05). Combination indices of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ therapy indicated significant (p<0.05) synergistic killing effect. Greater apoptosis induction was found in cells treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ than with Ad-FKHRL1/TM or TMZ-treated cells alone. Treatment with TMZ enhanced adenovirus transgene expression in a cell type-dependent manner. In an in vivo model, combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ results in greater tumor growth reduction in comparison with single treatments. We suggest that Ad-FKHRL1/TM is a promising vector to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ, and that a combination of both approaches would be effective in the clinical setting. PMID:25238278

  17. Tumor Cell Adhesion As a Risk Factor for Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Meves, Alexander; Nikolova, Ekaterina; Heim, Joel B.; Squirewell, Edwin J.; Cappel, Mark A.; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Otley, Clark C.; Behrendt, Nille; Saunte, Ditte M.; Lock-Andersen, Jorgen; Schenck, Louis A.; Weaver, Amy L.; Suman, Vera J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Less than 20% of patients with melanoma who undergo sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy based on American Society of Clinical Oncology/Society of Surgical Oncology recommendations are SLN positive. We present a multi-institutional study to discover new molecular risk factors associated with SLN positivity in thin and intermediate-thickness melanoma. Patients and Methods Gene clusters with functional roles in melanoma metastasis were discovered by next-generation sequencing and validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using a discovery set of 73 benign nevi, 76 primary cutaneous melanoma, and 11 in-transit melanoma metastases. We then used polymerase chain reaction to quantify gene expression in a model development cohort of 360 consecutive thin and intermediate-thickness melanomas and a validation cohort of 146 melanomas. Outcome of interest was SLN biopsy metastasis within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis. Logic and logistic regression analyses were used to develop a model for the likelihood of SLN metastasis from molecular, clinical, and histologic variables. Results ITGB3, LAMB1, PLAT, and TP53 expression were associated with SLN metastasis. The predictive ability of a model that included these molecular variables in combination with clinicopathologic variables (patient age, Breslow depth, and tumor ulceration) was significantly greater than a model that only considered clinicopathologic variables and also performed well in the validation cohort (area under the curve, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.97; false-positive and false-negative rates of 22% and 0%, respectively, using a 10% cutoff for predicted SLN metastasis risk). Conclusion The addition of cell adhesion–linked gene expression variables to clinicopathologic variables improves the identification of patients with SLN metastases within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis. PMID:26150443

  18. Melanoma cell lysosome secretory burst neutralizes the CTL-mediated cytotoxicity at the lytic synapse

    PubMed Central

    Khazen, Roxana; Müller, Sabina; Gaudenzio, Nicolas; Espinosa, Eric; Puissegur, Marie-Pierre; Valitutti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Human melanoma cells express various tumour antigens that are recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and elicit tumour-specific responses in vivo. However, natural and therapeutically enhanced CTL responses in melanoma patients are of limited efficacy. The mechanisms underlying CTL effector phase failure when facing melanomas are still largely elusive. Here we show that, on conjugation with CTL, human melanoma cells undergo an active late endosome/lysosome trafficking, which is intensified at the lytic synapse and is paralleled by cathepsin-mediated perforin degradation and deficient granzyme B penetration. Abortion of SNAP-23-dependent lysosomal trafficking, pH perturbation or impairment of lysosomal proteolytic activity restores susceptibility to CTL attack. Inside the arsenal of melanoma cell strategies to escape immune surveillance, we identify a self-defence mechanism based on exacerbated lysosome secretion and perforin degradation at the lytic synapse. Interfering with this synaptic self-defence mechanism might be useful in potentiating CTL-mediated therapies in melanoma patients. PMID:26940455

  19. miR-186 suppressed CYLD expression and promoted cell proliferation in human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haijiang; Yuan, Suirong; Lu, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that microRNA-186 (miR-186) is overexpressed in various human cancers and is associated with the regulation of the carcinogenic processes. However, the underlying mechanisms of this microRNA in melanoma remain largely unknown. In the present study, the overexpression of miR-186 was identified in melanoma tissues and melanoma cells compared to the expression of miR-186 in the matched tumor adjacent tissues and normal human epidermal melanocytes. Overexpression of miR-186 promoted the proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of melanoma cells, whereas inhibition of miR-186 reduced this effect. Bioinformatics analysis also revealed cylindromatosis (CYLD), a putative tumor suppressor, to be a potential target of miR-186. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-186 directly targeted the 3′-untranslated regions of CYLD messenger RNA. Additional experiments showed that overexpression of miR-186 promoted the proliferation of melanoma cells, which was consistent with the inhibitory effects induced by knockdown of CYLD. In summary, the present study indicated that miRNA-186 plays a crucial role in melanoma growth and its oncogenic effect is mediated chiefly through the direct suppression of CYLD expression.

  20. CIZ/NMP4 is expressed in B16 melanoma and forms a positive feedback loop with RANKL to promote migration of the melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Tomomi; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kitazawa, Riko; Notomi, Takuya; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Ezura, Yoichi; Amagasa, Teruo; Noda, Masaki

    2012-07-01

    Tumor metastasis to bone is a serious pathological situation that causes severe pain, and deterioration in locomoter function. However, the mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis is still incompletely understood. CIZ/NMP4 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein and its roles in tumor cells have not been known. We, therefore, hypothesized the role of CIZ/NMP4 in B16 melanoma cells that metastasize to bone. CIZ/NMP4 is expressed in B16 cells. The CIZ/NMP4 expression levels are correlated to the metastatic activity in divergent types of melanoma cells. Overexpression of CIZ/NMP4 increased B16 cell migration in Trans-well assay. Conversely, siRNA-based knockdown of CIZ/NMP4 suppressed migratory activity of these cells. As RANKL promotes metastasis of tumor cells in bone, we tested its effect on CIZ in melanoma cells. RANKL treatment enhanced CIZ/NMP4 expression. This increase of CIZ by RANKL promoted migration. Conversely, we identified CIZ/NMP4 binding site in the promoter of RANKL. Furthermore, luciferase assay indicated that CIZ/NMP4 overexpression enhanced RANKL promoter activities, revealing a positive feedback loop of CIZ/NMP4 and RANKL in melanoma. These observations indicate that CIZ/NMP4 is critical regulator of metastasis of melanoma cells. PMID:22307584

  1. Characterization of the novel indolylmaleimides' PDA-66 and PDA-377 effect on canine lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura C.; Roolf, Catrin; Pews-Davtyan, Anahit; Rütgen, Barbara C.; Hammer, Sabine; Willenbrock, Saskia; Sekora, Anett; Rolfs, Arndt; Beller, Matthias; Brenig, Bertram; Nolte, Ingo; Junghanss, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors are widely used in chemotherapeutic cancer regimens. Maleimide derivatives such as SB-216763 act as GSK-3 inhibitor targeting cell proliferation, cell death and cell cycle progression. Herein, the two arylindolylmaleimide derivatives PDA-66 and PDA-377 were evaluated as potential chemotherapeutic agents on canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Canine lymphoma represents a naturally occurring model closely resembling the human high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). PDA-66 showed more pronounced effects on both cell lines. Application of 2.5μM PDA-66 resulted in a significant induction of apoptosis (approx. 11 %), decrease of the metabolic activity (approx. 95 %), anti-proliferative effect (approx. 85 %) and cell death within 48h. Agent induced mode of action was characterized by whole transcriptome sequencing, 12 h and 24 h post-agent exposure. Key PDA-66-modulated pathways identified were cell cycle, DNA replication and p53 signaling. Expression analyses indicated that the drug acting mechanism is mediated through DNA replication and cycle arrest involving the spindle assembly checkpoint. In conclusion, both PDA derivatives displayed strong anti-proliferation activity in canine B-cell lymphoma cells. The cell and molecular PDA-induced effect characterization and the molecular characterization of the agent acting mechanism provides the basis for further evaluation of a potential drug for canine lymphoma serving as model for human NHL. PMID:27177088

  2. Melanotransferrin induces human melanoma SK-Mel-28 cell invasion in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Yanick . E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2007-02-09

    The expression of melanotransferrin (MTf), a membrane-bound glycoprotein highly expressed in melanomas, is correlated with tumor vascularization and progression, suggesting a proinvasive function associated with MTf in malignant tumors. To test this hypothesis, we silenced MTf in human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and examined the plasmin activity and invasiveness of MTf-silenced melanoma. In vitro, the siRNA-mediated MTf knockdown inhibited by 58% the cell surface activation of plasminogen into plasmin. In addition, decreased expression of MTf in melanoma cells reduced cell migration. In vivo, we used a nude mice invasion model in which tissue factor (TF) induces vascular [{sup 125}I]-fibrin deposition following injection. Using this metastasis model, the invasive potential of MTf-silenced cells into the lungs was reduced by fivefold. Altogether, these findings strongly suggest that MTf overexpression in melanoma cells contributes to tumor progession by stimulating plasmin generation as well as cell migration and invasion.

  3. Melanocytes Affect Nodal Expression and Signaling in Melanoma Cells: A Lesson from Pediatric Large Congenital Melanocytic Nevi

    PubMed Central

    Margaryan, Naira V.; Gilgur, Alina; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Purnell, Chad; Arva, Nicoleta C.; Gosain, Arun K.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Strizzi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Expression of Nodal, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) related growth factor, is associated with aggressive melanoma. Nodal expression in adult dysplastic nevi may predict the development of aggressive melanoma in some patients. A subset of pediatric patients diagnosed with giant or large congenital melanocytic nevi (LCMN) has shown increased risk for development of melanoma. Here, we investigate whether Nodal expression can help identify the rare cases of LCMN that develop melanoma and shed light on why the majority of these patients do not. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining results show varying degree of Nodal expression in pediatric dysplastic nevi and LCMN. Moreover, median scores from Nodal IHC expression analysis were not significantly different between these two groups. Additionally, none of the LCMN patients in this study developed melanoma, regardless of Nodal IHC levels. Co-culture experiments revealed reduced tumor growth and lower levels of Nodal and its signaling molecules P-SMAD2 and P-ERK1/2 when melanoma cells were grown in vivo or in vitro with normal melanocytes. The same was observed in melanoma cells cultured with melanocyte conditioned media containing pigmented melanocyte derived melanosomes (MDM). Since MDM contain molecules capable of inactivating radical oxygen species, to investigate potential anti-oxidant effect of MDM on Nodal expression and signaling in melanoma, melanoma cells were treated with either N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a component of the anti-oxidant glutathione or synthetic melanin, which in addition to providing pigmentation can also exert free radical scavenging activity. Melanoma cells treated with NAC or synthetic melanin showed reduced levels of Nodal, P-SMAD2 and P-ERK1/2 compared to untreated melanoma cells. Thus, the potential role for Nodal in melanoma development in LCMN is less evident than in adult dysplastic nevi possibly due to melanocyte cross-talk in LCMN capable of offsetting or delaying the pro-melanoma

  4. Boron uptake in normal melanocytes and melanoma cells and boron biodistribution study in mice bearing B16F10 melanoma for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo Rogério Pinto; Arruda-Neto, João Dias Toledo; Camillo, Maria Aparecida Pires; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2012-08-01

    Information on (10)B distribution in normal tissues is crucial to any further development of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo boron biodistribution in B16F10 murine melanoma and normal tissues as a model for human melanoma treatment by a simple and rapid colorimetric method, which was validated by HR-ICP-MS. The B16F10 melanoma cell line showed higher melanin content than human melanocytes, demonstrating a greater potential for boronophenylalanine uptake. The melanocytes showed a moderate viability decrease in the first few minutes after BNCT application, stabilizing after 75 min, whereas the B16F10 melanoma showed the greatest intracellular boron concentration at 150 min after application, indicating a different boron uptake of melanoma cells compared to normal melanocytes. Moreover, at this time, the increase in boron uptake in melanoma cells was approximately 1.6 times higher than that in normal melanocytes. The (10)B concentration in the blood of mice bearing B16F10 melanoma increased until 90 min after BNCT application and then decreased after 120 min, and remained low until the 240th minute. On the other hand, the (10)B concentration in tumors was increased from 90 min and maximal at 150 min after application, thus confirming the in vitro results. Therefore, the present in vitro and in vivo study of (10)B uptake in normal and tumor cells revealed important data that could enable BNCT to be possibly used as a treatment for melanoma, a chemoresistant cancer associated with high mortality.

  5. p16 Immunostaining of Canine Squamous Cell Carcinomas Is Not Associated with Papillomaviral DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sabattini, Silvia; Savini, Federica; Gallina, Laura; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Bassi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    While papillomavirus (PVs) are an established cause of human cancer, few reports have supported a relationship between PV and canine squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Human oncogenic PVs lead to an increased expression of the p16 tumor suppressor protein, and the latter can be demonstrated immunohistochemically to support a likely causal relationship between tumor and PV infection. In the present study, archive samples of canine SCC from different anatomical locations were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of PV DNA and by p16 immunohistochemistry. The aims were to investigate the relationship between p16 expression and presence of PV DNA, in order to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a biomarker of PV infection in canine SCC. A total of 52 SCCs were included. Nine cases (17.3%) showed moderate p16 immunoreactivity, with no association with tumor degree of differentiation, histotype or mitotic activity. The canPVf/FAP64 primers amplified Canis familiaris PV-1 DNA from 3 out of 52 tumors (5.8%), one cutaneous, one oral and one tonsillar SCC. There was no association between PV presence and p16 immunostaining. These results do not support a significant role of PVs in the development of canine SCCs. Additionally, PV infection was apparently not the cause of the p16 immunostaining observed in a subset of canine SCCs. A better awareness of p16 level of expression and cellular function in canine cancer may help to define its diagnostic and prognostic role. PMID:27441555

  6. MMP16 Mediates a Proteolytic Switch to Promote Cell-Cell Adhesion, Collagen Alignment, and Lymphatic Invasion in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tatti, Olga; Gucciardo, Erika; Pekkonen, Pirita; Holopainen, Tanja; Louhimo, Riku; Repo, Pauliina; Maliniemi, Pilvi; Lohi, Jouko; Rantanen, Ville; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Alitalo, Kari; Ranki, Annamari; Ojala, Päivi M; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Lehti, Kaisa

    2015-05-15

    Lymphatic invasion and accumulation of continuous collagen bundles around tumor cells are associated with poor melanoma prognosis, but the underlying mechanisms and molecular determinants have remained unclear. We show here that a copy-number gain or overexpression of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase MMP16 (MT3-MMP) is associated with poor clinical outcome, collagen bundle assembly around tumor cell nests, and lymphatic invasion. In cultured WM852 melanoma cells derived from human melanoma metastasis, silencing of MMP16 resulted in cell-surface accumulation of the MMP16 substrate MMP14 (MT1-MMP) as well as L1CAM cell adhesion molecule, identified here as a novel MMP16 substrate. When limiting the activities of these trans-membrane protein substrates toward pericellular collagen degradation, cell junction disassembly, and blood endothelial transmigration, MMP16 supported nodular-type growth of adhesive collagen-surrounded melanoma cell nests, coincidentally steering cell collectives into lymphatic vessels. These results uncover a novel mechanism in melanoma pathogenesis, whereby restricted collagen infiltration and limited mesenchymal invasion are unexpectedly associated with the properties of the most aggressive tumors, revealing MMP16 as a putative indicator of adverse melanoma prognosis. PMID:25808867

  7. Evaluation of an additive solution for preservation of canine red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Wardrop, K J; Owen, T J; Meyers, K M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of an additive preservative solution on canine red blood cell posttransfusion viability (PTV) and on selected canine red blood cell biochemical parameters was studied. One unit (450 mL) of blood was collected from 6 clinically normal dogs into the anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose, centrifuged, and the plasma removed. The red blood cells were then suspended in 100 mL of a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution and stored at 4 degrees C. Aliquots were removed for study at 1, 10, 20, 30, 37, and 44 days. The 24-hour PTV of autologous red blood cells was determined using a sodium chromate (51Cr) label. Red blood cell concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), and pH were also determined. Canine red blood cell PTV, pH, ATP, and 2,3-DPG concentrations decreased during storage (P < .05). The PTV decreased from 94% using day 1 red blood cells to 80% and 75% using day 37 and day 44 red blood cells, respectively (P < .05). Although the mean PTV of the day 44 stored units equaled the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) minimum standard for human red blood cells, the PTV was substandard in 75% of the day 44 units. The FDA standard was exceeded in 83% of the day 37 units. It was concluded that 37-day-old canine red blood cells preserved with a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution are of acceptable quality for transfusion.

  8. Vaccination of melanoma patients using dendritic cells loaded with an allogeneic tumor cell lysate.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Margarita; Bercovici, Nadège; Taylor, Rachel; Vereecken, Pierre; Massicard, Séverine; Duriau, Dominique; Vernel-Pauillac, Frédérique; Boyer, Aurélie; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Mallard, Eric; Bartholeyns, Jacques; Goxe, Béatrice; Latour, Nathalie; Leroy, Sophie; Prigent, Didier; Martiat, Philippe; Sales, François; Laporte, Marianne; Bruyns, Catherine; Romet-Lemonne, Jean-Loup; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Lehmann, Frédéric; Velu, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the present phase I/II study was to evaluate the safety, immune responses and clinical activity of a vaccine based on autologous dendritic cells (DC) loaded with an allogeneic tumor cell lysate in advanced melanoma patients. DC derived from monocytes were generated in serum-free medium containing GM-CSF and IL-13 according to Good Manufacturing Practices. Fifteen patients with metastatic melanoma (stage III or IV) received four subcutaneous, intradermal, and intranodal vaccinations of both DC loaded with tumor cell lysate and DC loaded with hepatitis B surface protein (HBs) and/or tetanus toxoid (TT). No grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to the vaccination were observed. Enhanced immunity to the allogeneic tumor cell lysate and to TAA-derived peptides were documented, as well as immune responses to HBs/TT antigens. Four out of nine patients who received the full treatment survived for more than 20 months. Two patients showed signs of clinical response and received 3 additional doses of vaccine: one patient showed regression of in-transit metastases leading to complete remission. Eighteen months later, the patient was still free of disease. The second patient experienced stabilization of lung metastases for approximately 10 months. Overall, our results show that vaccination with DC loaded with an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate was feasible in large-scale and well-tolerated in this group of advanced melanoma patients. Immune responses to tumor-related antigens documented in some treated patients support further investigations to optimize the vaccine formulation.

  9. Increased NY-ESO-1 expression and reduced infiltrating CD3+ T cells in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Giavina-Bianchi, Mara; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Muzikansky, Alona; Kalil, Jorge; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79), rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10) and not in benign nevi (0/20). Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P = 0.007) and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P < 0.02). NY-ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.017). When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P = 0.010) or as isolated cells (P = 0.002) than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  10. RIPK1 regulates survival of human melanoma cells upon endoplasmic reticulum stress through autophagy.

    PubMed

    Luan, Qi; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Chen Chen; Tay, Kwang Hong; Lai, Fritz; Liu, Xiao Ying; Liu, Yi Lun; Guo, Su Tang; Li, Chun Ying; Yan, Xu Guang; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Zhang, Xu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although RIPK1 (receptor [TNFRSF]-interacting protein kinase 1) is emerging as a critical determinant of cell fate in response to cellular stress resulting from activation of death receptors and DNA damage, its potential role in cell response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains undefined. Here we report that RIPK1 functions as an important prosurvival mechanism in melanoma cells undergoing pharmacological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) or thapsigargin (TG) through activation of autophagy. While treatment with TM or TG upregulated RIPK1 and triggered autophagy in melanoma cells, knockdown of RIPK1 inhibited autophagy and rendered the cells sensitive to killing by TM or TG, recapitulating the effect of inhibition of autophagy. Consistently, overexpression of RIPK1 enhanced induction of autophagy and conferred resistance of melanoma cells to TM- or TG-induced cell death. Activation of MAPK8/JNK1 or MAPK9/JNK2, which phosphorylated BCL2L11/BIM leading to its dissociation from BECN1/Beclin 1, was involved in TM- or TG-induced, RIPK1-mediated activation of autophagy; whereas, activation of the transcription factor HSF1 (heat shock factor protein 1) downstream of the ERN1/IRE1-XBP1 axis of the unfolded protein response was responsible for the increase in RIPK1 in melanoma cells undergoing pharmacological ER stress. Collectively, these results identify upregulation of RIPK1 as an important resistance mechanism of melanoma cells to TM- or TG-induced ER stress by protecting against cell death through activation of autophagy, and suggest that targeting the autophagy-activating mechanism of RIPK1 may be a useful strategy to enhance sensitivity of melanoma cells to therapeutic agents that induce ER stress.

  11. The role of alpha-synuclein in melanin synthesis in melanoma and dopaminergic neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianhong; Zhu, Julie; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Jankovic, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The relatively high co-occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD) and melanoma has been established by a large number of epidemiological studies. However, a clear biological explanation for this finding is still lacking. Ultra-violet radiation (UVR)-induced skin melanin synthesis is a defense mechanism against UVR-induced damage relevant to the initiation of melanoma, whereas, increased neuromelanin (NM), the melanin synthesized in dopaminergic neurons, may enhance the susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury relevant to PD. SNCA is a PD-causing gene coding for alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn) that expresses not only in brain, but also in skin as well as in tumors, such as melanoma. The findings that α-Syn can interact with tyrosinase (TYR) and inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), both of which are enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin and dopamine (DA), led us to propose that α-Syn may participate in the regulation of melanin synthesis. In this study, by applying ultraviolet B (UVB) light, a physiologically relevant stimulus of melanogenesis, we detected melanin synthesis in A375 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and in SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic neuronal cells and determined effects of α-Syn on melanin synthesis. Our results showed that UVB light exposure increased melanin synthesis in all 4 cell lines. However, we found that α-Syn expression reduced UVB light-induced increase of melanin synthesis and that melanin content was lower when melanoma cells were expressed with α-Syn, indicating that α-Syn may have inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Different from melanoma cells, the melanin content was higher in α-Syn-over-expressed dopaminergic neuronal SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells, cellular models of PD, than that in non-α-Syn-expressed control cells. We concluded that α-Syn could be one of the points responsible for the positive association between PD and melanoma via its differential roles in melanin synthesis in melanoma

  12. Serological survey of normal humans for natural antibody to cell surface antigens of melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, A N; Taormina, M C; Ikeda, H; Watanabe, T; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1980-01-01

    Sera of 106 normal adult men were tested for antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens of three established lines of cultured malignant melanoma. Positive reactions with a protein A assay for IgG antibodies were extremely rare (1-2%). The frequency of positive reactions with assays for IgM antibodies was higher: 5-15% in immune adherence assays and 55-82% in anti-C3 mixed hemadsorption assays. After low-titered sera and sera reacting with fetal calf serum components, conventional alloantigens, and widely distributed class 3 antigens were excluded, sera from seven individuals (one with IgG antibody and six with IgM antibodies) were selected for detailed analysis. The serum containing the IgG antibody came from a healthy 65-year-old Caucasian man; titers of antibody in his serum ranged from < 1/10 to 1/40,000 in tests with different melanoma cell lines. This IgG antibody identifies a differentiation antigen of melanocytes, provisionally designated Mel 1, that distinguishes two classes of melanomas: 22 melanoma cell lines typed Mel 1+ and 17 types Mel 1-. Mel 1 is expressed by fetal fibroblasts but not adult fibroblasts and can be found on a proportion of cultured epithelial cancer cell lines (5 out of 23) but not on glioma or B-cell lines. The melanoma antigens detected by the naturally occurring IgM antibodies are serologically unrelated to Mel 1 but, like Mel 1, appear to be differentiation antigens that distinguish subsets of melanoma. These IgM antibodies detect antigens that are identical or closely related to the AH antigen, a melanoma surface antigen that was initially defined by autologous antibody in a patient with melanoma. In view of the immunogenicity of both Mel 1 and the AH antigens in humans and their occurrence on more than 50% of melanomas, it remains to be seen whether antibody to these antigens can be elicited by specific vaccination of seronegative melanoma patients and whether this will have an influence on the clinical course of the disease

  13. Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of rosuvastatin against melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafal; Zegarska, Barbara; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Statins are considered potential candidate agents for melanoma chemoprevention. Statin-induced mevalonate pathway inhibition leads to reduction of cholesterol synthesis and also to decreased cellular levels of non-steroidal isoprenoids, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate. This results in the impairment of protein prenylation which affects carcinogenesis. Aim To analyze anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of rosuvastatin against melanoma cells. Material and methods Melanoma cell lines (A375 and WM1552C) and normal fibroblasts (BJ) were used as the primary research material. Cells were treated with rosuvastatin at concentrations ranging from 0.01 µM to 10 µM. Cell viability was analyzed with the use of an MTT assay. Expression of proliferation marker Ki67 was assessed on the basis of immunofluorescence staining. Results Rosuvastatin reduced A375 and BJ cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After 72 h incubation, the IC50, half maximal inhibitory concentration, was 2.3 µM for melanoma cells and 7.4 µM for normal fibroblasts. In turn, rosuvastatin exhibited relatively lower activity against WM1552C cells. A significant reduction of Ki67 expression was also noted for BJ fibroblasts after prolonged incubation with the tested drug. Conclusions The results indicate that the anti-melanoma properties of rosuvastatin are highly dependent on the tumor cell line assessed. However, the concentrations required to decrease melanoma cell viability in vitro exceed the plasma concentrations reached in patients treated with rosuvastatin at well-tolerated doses. What is more disturbing, reduction of proliferation and viability observed in BJ fibroblasts indicated that rosuvastatin at high doses may be toxic for normal cells. PMID:27605895

  14. Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of rosuvastatin against melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafal; Zegarska, Barbara; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Statins are considered potential candidate agents for melanoma chemoprevention. Statin-induced mevalonate pathway inhibition leads to reduction of cholesterol synthesis and also to decreased cellular levels of non-steroidal isoprenoids, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate. This results in the impairment of protein prenylation which affects carcinogenesis. Aim To analyze anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of rosuvastatin against melanoma cells. Material and methods Melanoma cell lines (A375 and WM1552C) and normal fibroblasts (BJ) were used as the primary research material. Cells were treated with rosuvastatin at concentrations ranging from 0.01 µM to 10 µM. Cell viability was analyzed with the use of an MTT assay. Expression of proliferation marker Ki67 was assessed on the basis of immunofluorescence staining. Results Rosuvastatin reduced A375 and BJ cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After 72 h incubation, the IC50, half maximal inhibitory concentration, was 2.3 µM for melanoma cells and 7.4 µM for normal fibroblasts. In turn, rosuvastatin exhibited relatively lower activity against WM1552C cells. A significant reduction of Ki67 expression was also noted for BJ fibroblasts after prolonged incubation with the tested drug. Conclusions The results indicate that the anti-melanoma properties of rosuvastatin are highly dependent on the tumor cell line assessed. However, the concentrations required to decrease melanoma cell viability in vitro exceed the plasma concentrations reached in patients treated with rosuvastatin at well-tolerated doses. What is more disturbing, reduction of proliferation and viability observed in BJ fibroblasts indicated that rosuvastatin at high doses may be toxic for normal cells.

  15. Preconditioned endothelial progenitor cells reduce formation of melanoma metastases through SPARC-driven cell-cell interactions and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Defresne, Florence; Bouzin, Caroline; Grandjean, Marie; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K; Kupatt, Christian; Feron, Olivier

    2011-07-15

    Tumor progression is associated with the release of signaling substances from the primary tumor into the bloodstream. Tumor-derived cytokines are known to promote the mobilization and the recruitment of cells from the bone marrow, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Here, we examined whether such paracrine influence could also influence the capacity of EPC to interfere with circulating metastatic cells. We therefore consecutively injected EPC prestimulated by tumor-conditioned medium (EPC-CM) and luciferase-expressing B16 melanoma cells to mice. A net decrease in metastases spreading (vs. nonstimulated EPC) led us to carry out a 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) proteomic study to identify possible mediators of EPC-driven protection. Among 33 proteins exhibiting significant changes in expression, secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) presented the highest induction after EPC exposure to CM. We then showed that contrary to control EPC, SPARC-silenced EPC were not able to reduce the extent of metastases when injected with B16 melanoma cells. Using adhesion tests and the hanging drop assay, we further documented that cell-cell interactions between EPC-CM and melanoma cells were promoted in a SPARC-dependent manner. This interaction led to the engulfment of melanoma cells by EPC-CM, a process prevented by SPARC silencing and mimicked by recombinant SPARC. Finally, we showed that contrary to melanoma cells, the prometastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231-D3H2 reduced SPARC expression in human EPC and stimulated metastases spreading. Our findings unravel the influence of tumor cells on EPC phenotypes through a SPARC-driven accentuation of macrophagic capacity associated with limitations to metastatic spread. PMID:21616936

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of Fotemustine analogues on human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Winum, Jean Yves; Bouissière, Jean Luc; Passagne, Isabelle; Evrard, Alexandre; Montero, Véronique; Cuq, Pierre; Montero, Jean Louis

    2003-03-01

    Two new analogues of Fotemustine have been synthesized and tested on two melanoma cell lines. Compounds 4 and 8 proved to be more potent than the reference compound on A375 cell line which express the MGMT enzyme involved in the chemoresistance of tumoral cells. PMID:12667699

  17. Oncolytic reovirus synergizes with chemotherapeutic agents to promote cell death in canine mammary gland tumor

    PubMed Central

    Igase, Masaya; Hwang, Chung Chew; Kambayashi, Satoshi; Kubo, Masato; Coffey, Matt; Miyama, Takako Shimokawa; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    The oncolytic effects of reovirus in various cancers have been proven in many clinical trials in human medicine. Oncolytic virotherapy using reovirus for canine cancers is being developed in our laboratory. The objective of this study was to examine the synergistic anti-cancer effects of a combination of reovirus and low doses of various chemotherapeutic agents on mammary gland tumors (MGTs) in dogs. The first part of this study demonstrated the efficacy of reovirus in canine MGTs in vitro and in vivo. Reovirus alone exerted significant cell death by means of caspase-dependent apoptosis in canine MGT cell lines. A single injection of reovirus impeded growth of canine MGT tumors in xenografted mice, but was insufficient to induce complete tumor regression. The second part of this study highlighted the anti-tumor effects of reovirus in combination with low doses of paclitaxel, carboplatin, gemcitabine, or toceranib. Enhanced synergistic activity was observed in the MGT cell line treated concomitantly with reovirus and in all the chemotherapeutic agents except toceranib. In addition, combining reovirus with paclitaxel or gemcitabine at half dosage of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) enhanced cytotoxicity by activating caspase 3. Our data suggest that the combination of reovirus and low dose chemotherapeutic agents provides an attractive option in canine cancer therapy. PMID:26733729

  18. Local control and distant metastases in primary canine malignant melanomas treated with hyperthermia and/or radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, M W; Sim, D A; Forsyth, K; Grochowski, K J; Wilson, S; Bicknell, E

    1985-01-01

    Forty-three dogs with primary malignant melanoma were randomized to receive radiotherapy alone (XRT) or hyperthermia plus radiotherapy (delta + XRT). Tumour responses were analysed in terms of complete response rates, rate of one year disease free survival and the incidence and time to develop distant metastasis. The frequency of complete responses (CR) was greater with adjuvant heat (76 per cent vs 21 per cent for XRT; P = 0.001). A trend towards an improvement in one year disease free survival was observed with delta + XRT (23.8 per cent) as compared with XRT (7.7 per cent), but the difference was not statistically significant. The frequency of distant metastases was not different between the two treatments. Descriptors of intratumoural temperatures achieved during therapy indicated that higher CR rates could be achieved with higher minima. When minima were less than and greater than 20 Equivalent minutes at 43 degrees C (Eq43) the CR rates were 64 and 90 per cent, respectively. One year disease free survival rates and frequencies of distant metastases seemed to be correlated with the intratumoural temperatures as well. This was reflected in analyses examining temperature minima and maxima. Examination of patterns of failure suggested that the most plausible explanation for the correlation between intratumoural temperature and metastases was the high local failure rate (70 per in the heated group). The results of this study emphasize the need for further investigation of the influence of local hyperthermia as a part of curative therapy on the frequency of distant metastases. PMID:3836269

  19. Low natural-killer-cell activity in familial melanoma patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Hersey, P; Edwards, A; Honeyman, M; McCarthy, W H

    1979-07-01

    Patients with melanoma who had one or more close relatives with melanoma were studied for their natural-killer-cell (NK) activity against cultured melanoma cells and Chang cells. A high proportion of the patients and their relatives were found to have low NK activity against these target cells. In most of the patients this could not be attributed to general depression of their immune function, since B- and T-cell numbers and the mitogenic response to PHA were within normal limits. The levels of NK activity of the patients and their relatives were found to be significantly correlated, suggesting that the NK activity in these families may have been genetically (or environmentally) determined. Several genetic markers were examined in the patients and their relatives for association with the disease state and NK activity. No association with HLA antigens or ABO blood groups was detected, but there was a low incidence of the Rhesus negative phenotype in the patients (the Rh phenotype had previously been associated with high NK activity). The present results indicate that NK activity has a familial association in families with a high incidence of melanoma, and raise the question whether low NK activity may be one of the predisposing factors in the development of familial melanoma.

  20. A temporarily distinct subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells is required for continuous tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Alexander; Fukunaga-Kalabis, Mizuho; Schmidt, Elizabeth C.; Zabierowski, Susan E.; Brafford, Patricia A.; Vultur, Adina; Basu, Devraj; Gimotty, Phyllis; Vogt, Thomas; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2010-01-01

    Summary Melanomas are highly heterogeneous tumors, but the biological significance of their different subpopulations is not clear. Using the H3K4 demethylase JARID1B (KDM5B/PLU-1/RBP2-H1) as a biomarker, we have characterized a small subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells that cycle with doubling times of >4 weeks within the rapidly proliferating main population. Isolated JARID1B-positive melanoma cells give rise to a highly proliferative progeny. Knock-down of JARID1B leads to an initial acceleration of tumor growth followed by exhaustion which suggests that the JARID1B-positive subpopulation is essential for continuous tumor growth. Expression of JARID1B is dynamically regulated and does not follow a hierarchical cancer stem cell model because JARID1B-negative cells can become positive and even single melanoma cells irrespective of selection are tumorigenic. These results suggest a new understanding of melanoma heterogeneity with tumor maintenance as a dynamic process mediated by a temporarily distinct subpopulation. PMID:20478252

  1. Transmigration characteristics of breast cancer and melanoma cells through the brain endothelium: Role of Rac and PI3K.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Judit; Fazakas, Csilla; Haskó, János; Sipos, Orsolya; Nagy, Krisztina; Nyúl-Tóth, Ádám; Farkas, Attila E; Végh, Attila G; Váró, György; Galajda, Péter; Krizbai, István A; Wilhelm, Imola

    2016-05-01

    Brain metastases are common and devastating complications of both breast cancer and melanoma. Although mammary carcinoma brain metastases are more frequent than those originating from melanoma, this latter has the highest tropism to the brain. Using static and dynamic in vitro approaches, here we show that melanoma cells have increased adhesion to the brain endothelium in comparison to breast cancer cells. Moreover, melanoma cells can transmigrate more rapidly and in a higher number through brain endothelial monolayers than breast cancer cells. In addition, melanoma cells have increased ability to impair tight junctions of cerebral endothelial cells. We also show that inhibition of Rac or PI3K impedes adhesion of breast cancer cells and melanoma cells to the brain endothelium. In addition, inhibition of Rac or PI3K inhibits the late phase of transmigration of breast cancer cells and the early phase of transmigration of melanoma cells. On the other hand, the Rac inhibitor EHT1864 impairs the junctional integrity of the brain endothelium, while the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 has no damaging effect on interendothelial junctions. We suggest that targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway may represent a novel opportunity in preventing the formation of brain metastases of melanoma and breast cancer.

  2. TLR2/6 agonists and interferon-gamma induce human melanoma cells to produce CXCL10.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, Ileana S; Wang, Ena; Deacon, Donna H; Olson, Walter C; Bao, Yongde; Slingluff, Craig L

    2015-09-15

    Clinical approaches to treat advanced melanoma include immune therapies, whose benefits depend on tumor-reactive T-cell infiltration of metastases. However, most tumors lack significant immune infiltration prior to therapy. Selected chemokines promote T-cell migration into tumors; thus, agents that induce these chemokines in the tumor microenvironment (TME) may improve responses to systemic immune therapy. CXCL10 has been implicated as a critical chemokine supporting T-cell infiltration into the TME. Here, we show that toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can induce chemokine production directly from melanoma cells when combined with IFNγ treatment. We find that TLR2 and TLR6 are widely expressed on human melanoma cells, and that TLR2/6 agonists (MALP-2 or FSL-1) synergize with interferon-gamma (IFNγ) to induce production of CXCL10 from melanoma cells. Furthermore, melanoma cells and immune cells from surgical specimens also respond to TLR2/6 agonists and IFNγ by upregulating CXCL10 production, compared to treatment with either agent alone. Collectively, these data identify a novel mechanism for inducing CXCL10 production directly from melanoma cells, with TLR2/6 agonists +IFNγ and raise the possibility that intratumoral administration of these agents may improve immune signatures in melanoma and have value in combination with other immune therapies, by supporting T-cell migration into melanoma metastases.

  3. miR-33a is downregulated in melanoma cells and modulates cell proliferation by targeting PCTAIRE1

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, FANGZHEN; WEI, HONGTU; TIAN, HUA; QIU, YING; XU, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-33a (miR-33a) was previously identified as a lipid regulator that controls the cellular balance between cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. However, its role in tumor progression is largely unknown. The present study identified that miR-33a acts as a tumor suppressor in melanoma cells. The present study revealed that miR-33a was downregulated in melanoma cells compared with melanocytes. Overexpression of miR-33a suppressed the colony formation of human melanoma SK-MEL-1 and WM-115 cells. Furthermore, a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay and anaphase analysis revealed that miR-33a inhibits melanoma cell proliferation. miR-33a overexpression inhibited p27 phosphorylation and upregulated p27 expression. Additionally, the present study demonstrated that PCTAIRE1 was a direct target of miR-33a; miR-33a overexpression suppressed the luciferase activity of a reporter construct containing a 3′-untranslated region of PCTAIRE1 and downregulated PCTAIRE1 in melanoma cells. An overexpression of PCTAIRE1 reversed the miR-33a-induced p27 accumulation and tumor suppressive effects. In summary, the present findings offer novel mechanistic insights into miR-33a and its downstream target in melanoma cells. PMID:27073545

  4. Characterization of hormone-sensitive Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; Beckner, S.K.; Darfler, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the optimal conditions for maintaining hormone responsiveness, measurement of intracellular AMP, and the characteristics of several types of hormone sensitivity in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Cyclic AMP is measured by radioimmunoassay with (/sup 175/I) as tracer. The responsiveness of the kidney cells to glucagon, vasopressin, isoproterenol, and prostaglandin in presented.

  5. Zinc Induces Apoptosis of Human Melanoma Cells, Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species, p53 and FAS Ligand.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, Mauro; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Bartozzi, Beatrice; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro effect of zinc on the apoptosis of human melanoma cells, by studying the zinc-dependent modulation of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of p53 and FAS ligand proteins. We showed that zinc concentrations ranging from 33.7 μM to 75 μM Zn(2+) induced apoptosis in the human melanoma cell line WM 266-4. This apoptosis was associated with an increased production of intracellular ROS, and of p53 and FAS ligand protein. Treatment of tumor cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was able to prevent Zn(2+)-induced apoptosis, as well as the increase of p53 and FAS ligand protein induced by zinc. Zinc induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by increasing ROS and this effect may be mediated by the ROS-dependent induction of p53 and FAS/FAS ligand.

  6. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Teng; Ji, Jiang; Guo, Yong-li

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  7. Primary Malignant Melanoma of Renal Pelvis with Extensive Clear Cell Change

    PubMed Central

    Liapis, George; Sarlanis, Helen; Poulaki, Elpida; Stravodimos, Konstandinos; Lazaris, Andreas C

    2016-01-01

    Our presentation illustrates a rare case of primary renal pelvis malignant melanoma in a 35-year-old man. The diagnosis of malignant melanoma was based on immunophenotype and the detection of intracellular melanin pigment. The renal origin was proven by the presence of scattered melanocytes within the urothelium of the pelvis. The tumor exhibited extensive clear cell change that closely mimics clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The patient’s clinical history did not disclose any signs of previous melanocytic skin or mucosa lesions. Differential diagnosis includes tumors capable of synthesizing melanin or expressing melanocytic markers. PMID:27226943

  8. Inhibitors of melanogenesis increase toxicity of cyclophosphamide and lymphocytes against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir

    2009-03-15

    High mortality rate for metastatic melanoma is related to its resistant to the current methods of therapy. Melanogenesis is a metabolic pathway characteristic for normal and malignant melanocytes that can affect the behavior of melanoma cells or its surrounding environment. Human melanoma cells in which production of melanin pigment is dependent on tyrosine levels in medium were used for experiments. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were derived from the buffy coats purchased from Lifeblood Biological Services. Cell pigmentation was evaluated macroscopically, and tyrosinase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Cell proliferation and viability were measured using lactate dehydrogenase release MTT, [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and DNA content analyses, and gene expression was measured by real time RT-PCR. Pigmented melanoma cells were significantly less sensitive to cyclophosphamide and to killing action of IL-2-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes. The inhibition of melanogenesis by either blocking tyrosinase catalytic site or chelating copper ions sensitized melanoma cells towards cytotoxic action of cyclophosphamide, and amplified immunotoxic activities of IL-2 activated lymphocytes. Exogenous L-DOPA inhibited lymphocyte proliferation producing the cell cycle arrest in G1/0 and dramatically inhibited the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10. Thus, the active melanogenesis could not only impair the cytotoxic action of cyclophosphamid but also has potent immunosuppressive properties. This resistance to a chemotherapeutic agent or immunotoxic activity of lymphocytes could be reverted by the action of tyrosinase inhibitors. Thus, the inhibition of melanogenesis might represent a valid therapeutic target for the management of advanced melanotic melanomas. PMID:19085934

  9. CD271 Expression on Patient Melanoma Cells Is Unstable and Unlinked to Tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Samantha E; Fedele, Clare G; Corbin, Vincent; Wybacz, Elisha; Szeto, Pacman; Lewin, Jeremy; Young, Richard J; Wong, Annie; Fuller, Robert; Spillane, John; Speakman, David; Donahoe, Simon; Pohl, Miklos; Gyorki, David; Henderson, Michael A; Johnstone, Ricky W; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Shackleton, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The stability of markers that identify cancer cells that propagate disease is important to the outcomes of targeted therapy strategies. In human melanoma, conflicting data exist as to whether hierarchical expression of CD271/p75/NGFR (nerve growth factor receptor) marks cells with enriched tumorigenicity, which would compel their specific targeting in therapy. To test whether these discrepancies relate to differences among groups in assay approaches, we undertook side-by-side testing of published methods of patient-derived melanoma xenografting (PDX), including comparisons of tissue digestion procedures or coinjected Matrigel formulations. We found that CD271(-) and CD271(+) melanoma cells from each of seven patients were similarly tumorigenic, regardless of assay variations. Surprisingly variable CD271 expression patterns were observed in the analyses of sibling PDX tumors (n = 68) grown in the same experiments from either CD271(-) or CD271(+) cells obtained from patients. This indicates unstable intratumoral lineage relationships between CD271(-) and CD271(+) melanoma cells that are inconsistent with classical, epigenetically based theories of disease progression, such as the cancer stem cell and plasticity models. SNP genotyping of pairs of sibling PDX tumors grown from phenotypically identical CD271(-) or CD271(+) cells showed large pairwise differences in copy number (28%-48%). Differences were also apparent in the copy number profiles of CD271(-) and CD271(+) cells purified directly from each of the four melanomas (1.4%-23%). Thus, CD271 expression in patient melanomas is unstable, not consistently linked to increased tumorigenicity and associated with genetic heterogeneity, undermining its use as a marker in clinical studies. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3965-77. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27325642

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (CD-RAP)/melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) in murine, canine, bovine and equine cerebrospinal tissues.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Satoshi; Fujiki, Makoto; Yabuki, Akira; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2012-04-01

    Cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (CD-RAP)/melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), which appears abundantly in hypertrophic cartilage at the stage of endochondral ossification, is also detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following spinal cord injury. In this study, the localization of the CD-RAP/MIA molecule in normal tissues of the spine and brain obtained from mice, rats, dogs, cattle and horses was examined using immunohistochemistry with a specific antibody. The positive signals of CD-RAP/MIA were found at nerve cells in the spinal cords of all species and were especially strong at cerebellar Purkinje cells. The results suggested that CD-RAP/MIA included in normal cerebrospinal tissues could be a biomarker associated with tissue injuries, as the molecules might flow into the CSF.

  11. Lebein, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Induces Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Manel B.; Montenegro, María F.; Sánchez-del-Campo, Luis; Zakraoui, Ons; Aloui, Zohra; Riahi-Chebbi, Ichrak; Karoui, Habib; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma, the most threatening form of skin cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is characterized by its very invasive and chemoresistant properties. Despite the recent promising news from the field of immunotherapy, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches that are free of resistance mechanisms and side effects. Anti-neoplasic properties have been highlighted for different disintegrins from snake venom including Lebein; however, the exact effect of Lebein on melanoma has not yet been defined. In this study, we showed that Lebein blocks melanoma cell proliferation and induces a more differentiated phenotype with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) overexpression. Melanoma cells became detached but were less invasive with upregulation of E-cadherin after Lebein exposure. Lebein induced a caspase-independent apoptotic program with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and Bim overexpression together with downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). It generated a distinct response in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p53 levels depending on the p53 cell line status (wild type or mutant). Therefore, we propose Lebein as a new candidate for development of potential therapies for melanoma. PMID:27399772

  12. Common antigenic determinants on human melanoma, glioma, neuroblastoma, and sarcoma cells defined with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Seeger, R C; Rosenblatt, H M; Imai, K; Ferrone, S

    1981-07-01

    Antigenic determinants that are common to melanomas, gliomas, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas but that are minimally or not detectably expressed by adult tissues were defined with monoclonal antibodies. Quantitative absorption of monoclonal antibody (Ab 165) with adult tissues followed by testing on antigen-positive UCLA-SO-M14 melanoma cells did not demonstrate antigenic determinant (Ag 165) in brain, lung, liver, kidney, intestine, adrenal, and muscle, Absorption of Ab 376 demonstrated Ag 376 in adult lung but minimal or no antigen in other tissues. Both antigens were associated with a variety of fetal tissues. Assessment of 28 human tumor cell lines with the 131I-staphylococcal Protein A-binding test demonstrated that Ab 165 reacted strongly with melanomas and gliomas and weakly with sarcomas. Ab 376 reacted strongly with melanomas, gliomas, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas. Neither of these antibodies reacted appreciably with carcinoma or teratoma cell lines. Absorption of Ab 165 and Ab 376 with noncultured tumors demonstrated that melanomas, sarcomas, and neuroblastomas can have greater quantities of these antigens in vivo than do normal adult tissues. Qualitative and quantitative antigenic heterogeneity within positive classes of tumors was demonstrated for both cultured and noncultured tumors. The differences in antigen expression in vivo between normal and neoplastic cells suggest potential value for these antibodies in immunodiagnosis and possibly immunotherapy.

  13. Exploiting cannabinoid-induced cytotoxic autophagy to drive melanoma cell death.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jane L; Hill, David S; McKee, Christopher S; Hernandez-Tiedra, Sonia; Lorente, Mar; Lopez-Valero, Israel; Eleni Anagnostou, Maria; Babatunde, Fiyinfoluwa; Corazzari, Marco; Redfern, Christopher P F; Velasco, Guillermo; Lovat, Penny E

    2015-06-01

    Although the global incidence of cutaneous melanoma is increasing, survival rates for patients with metastatic disease remain <10%. Novel treatment strategies are therefore urgently required, particularly for patients bearing BRAF/NRAS wild-type tumors. Targeting autophagy is a means to promote cancer cell death in chemotherapy-resistant tumors, and the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cannabinoids promote autophagy-dependent apoptosis in melanoma. Treatment with Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) resulted in the activation of autophagy, loss of cell viability, and activation of apoptosis, whereas cotreatment with chloroquine or knockdown of Atg7, but not Beclin-1 or Ambra1, prevented THC-induced autophagy and cell death in vitro. Administration of Sativex-like (a laboratory preparation comprising equal amounts of THC and cannabidiol (CBD)) to mice bearing BRAF wild-type melanoma xenografts substantially inhibited melanoma viability, proliferation, and tumor growth paralleled by an increase in autophagy and apoptosis compared with standard single-agent temozolomide. Collectively, our findings suggest that THC activates noncanonical autophagy-mediated apoptosis of melanoma cells, suggesting that cytotoxic autophagy induction with Sativex warrants clinical evaluation for metastatic disease. PMID:25674907

  14. Lebein, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Induces Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Manel B; Montenegro, María F; Sánchez-Del-Campo, Luis; Zakraoui, Ons; Aloui, Zohra; Riahi-Chebbi, Ichrak; Karoui, Habib; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma, the most threatening form of skin cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is characterized by its very invasive and chemoresistant properties. Despite the recent promising news from the field of immunotherapy, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches that are free of resistance mechanisms and side effects. Anti-neoplasic properties have been highlighted for different disintegrins from snake venom including Lebein; however, the exact effect of Lebein on melanoma has not yet been defined. In this study, we showed that Lebein blocks melanoma cell proliferation and induces a more differentiated phenotype with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) overexpression. Melanoma cells became detached but were less invasive with upregulation of E-cadherin after Lebein exposure. Lebein induced a caspase-independent apoptotic program with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and Bim overexpression together with downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). It generated a distinct response in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p53 levels depending on the p53 cell line status (wild type or mutant). Therefore, we propose Lebein as a new candidate for development of potential therapies for melanoma. PMID:27399772

  15. Intrinsic Radiosensitivity and Cellular Characterization of 27 Canine Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Froning, Coral E.; Brents, Colleen A.; Rose, Barbara J.; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Canine cancer cell lines have progressively been developed, but are still underused resources for radiation biology research. Measurement of the cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity is important because understanding the difference may provide a framework for further elucidating profiles for prediction of radiation therapy response. Our studies have focused on characterizing diverse canine cancer cell lines in vitro and understanding parameters that might contribute to intrinsic radiosensitivity. First, intrinsic radiosensitivity of 27 canine cancer cell lines derived from ten tumor types was determined using a clonogenic assay. The 27 cell lines had varying radiosensitivities regardless tumor type (survival fraction at 2 Gy, SF2 = 0.19–0.93). In order to understand parameters that might contribute to intrinsic radiosensitivity, we evaluated the relationships of cellular radiosensitivity with basic cellular characteristics of the cell lines. There was no significant correlation of SF2 with S-phase fraction, doubling time, chromosome number, ploidy, or number of metacentric chromosomes, while there was a statistically significant correlation between SF2 and plating efficiency. Next, we selected the five most radiosensitive cell lines as the radiosensitive group and the five most radioresistant cell lines as the radioresistant group. Then, we evaluated known parameters for cell killing by ionizing radiation, including radiation-induced DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis, in the radiosensitive group as compared to the radioresistant group. High levels of residual γ-H2AX foci at the sites of DSBs were present in the four out of the five radiosensitive canine cancer cell lines. Our studies suggested that substantial differences in intrinsic radiosensitivity exist in canine cancer cell lines, and radiation-induced DSB repair was related to radiosensitivity, which is consistent with previous human studies. These data may assist further investigations

  16. Intrinsic Radiosensitivity and Cellular Characterization of 27 Canine Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Junko; Froning, Coral E; Brents, Colleen A; Rose, Barbara J; Thamm, Douglas H; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2016-01-01

    Canine cancer cell lines have progressively been developed, but are still underused resources for radiation biology research. Measurement of the cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity is important because understanding the difference may provide a framework for further elucidating profiles for prediction of radiation therapy response. Our studies have focused on characterizing diverse canine cancer cell lines in vitro and understanding parameters that might contribute to intrinsic radiosensitivity. First, intrinsic radiosensitivity of 27 canine cancer cell lines derived from ten tumor types was determined using a clonogenic assay. The 27 cell lines had varying radiosensitivities regardless tumor type (survival fraction at 2 Gy, SF2 = 0.19-0.93). In order to understand parameters that might contribute to intrinsic radiosensitivity, we evaluated the relationships of cellular radiosensitivity with basic cellular characteristics of the cell lines. There was no significant correlation of SF2 with S-phase fraction, doubling time, chromosome number, ploidy, or number of metacentric chromosomes, while there was a statistically significant correlation between SF2 and plating efficiency. Next, we selected the five most radiosensitive cell lines as the radiosensitive group and the five most radioresistant cell lines as the radioresistant group. Then, we evaluated known parameters for cell killing by ionizing radiation, including radiation-induced DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis, in the radiosensitive group as compared to the radioresistant group. High levels of residual γ-H2AX foci at the sites of DSBs were present in the four out of the five radiosensitive canine cancer cell lines. Our studies suggested that substantial differences in intrinsic radiosensitivity exist in canine cancer cell lines, and radiation-induced DSB repair was related to radiosensitivity, which is consistent with previous human studies. These data may assist further investigations

  17. MT1-MMP dependent repression of the tumor suppressor SPRY4 contributes to MT1-MMP driven melanoma cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdashvili, Khvaramze; Zhang, Keman; Osman, Iman; Honda, Kord; Jobava, Rauli; Bedogni, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is the deadliest of all skin cancers. Despite progress in diagnostics and treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for metastatic patients remains poor. We previously showed that Membrane-type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is one of the drivers of melanoma metastasis. Classically, MT1-MMP regulates a verity of cellular functions including cell-to-cell interaction and cell-to-matrix communication. Recently, MT1-MMP has been found to also modulate gene expression. To specifically assess MT1-MMP dependent gene regulation in melanoma, microarray gene expression analysis was performed in a melanoma cell line whose metastatic properties depend on the activity of MT1-MMP. We identified the tumor suppressor gene SPRY4 as a new transcriptional target of MT1-MMP that is negatively regulated by the protease. Knockdown of MT1-MMP enhances SPRY4 expression at the mRNA and protein level. SPRY4 expression inversely correlates with that of MT1-MMP in melanoma samples and importantly, correlates with melanoma patient survival. SPRY4 modulates MT1-MMP dependent cell migration such that inhibition of SPRY4 rescues cell migration that has been impaired by MT1-MMP knock down. MT1-MMP decreases SPRY4 in part through an MMP2/RAC1 axis we previously show promotes cell motility downstream of MT1-MMP. These results identify the tumor suppressor SPRY4 as a novel molecular effector of MT1-MMP affecting melanoma cell motility. PMID:26392417

  18. Effect of blue light emitting diodes on melanoma cells: involvement of apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Na, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Hyosook; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Lim, SeokTae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether blue LED irradiation induces cellular apoptosis in B16-F10 cells and whether it blocks the early growth of melanoma cells in mice. Irradiation with blue LED was observed to reduce cell viability and to induce apoptotic cell death, as accompanied by exposure of phosphatidylserine on the plasma outside membrane and an accumulation of a sub-G1 population. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential increased, and mitochondria-related apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c, caspase 3, and PARP) were observed. In addition, the level of intracellular superoxide anion (O2(-)) gradually increased. Interestingly the phosphorylation of p53 increased at earlier times under blue LED irradiation, but reduced after exposure for a longer time. Additionally, the thickness of the mice footpad injected with B16-F10 cells decreased significantly until the 9th day of blue LED irradiation, indicating the inhibition of the early growth rate of the melanoma cells. Our data demonstrate that blue LED irradiation induces apoptotic cell death by activating the mitochondria-mediated pathway and reduces the early growth rate of melanoma cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of blue LED in melanoma cells.

  19. Direct detection of a BRAF mutation in total RNA from melanoma cells using cantilever arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, F.; Lang, H. P.; Backmann, N.; Rimoldi, D.; Gerber, Ch.

    2013-02-01

    Malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is characterized by a predominant mutation in the BRAF gene. Drugs that target tumours carrying this mutation have recently entered the clinic. Accordingly, patients are routinely screened for mutations in this gene to determine whether they can benefit from this type of treatment. The current gold standard for mutation screening uses real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods. Here we show that an assay based on microcantilever arrays can detect the mutation nanomechanically without amplification in total RNA samples isolated from melanoma cells. The assay is based on a BRAF-specific oligonucleotide probe. We detected mutant BRAF at a concentration of 500 pM in a 50-fold excess of the wild-type sequence. The method was able to distinguish melanoma cells carrying the mutation from wild-type cells using as little as 20 ng µl-1 of RNA material, without prior PCR amplification and use of labels.

  20. Cytotoxic Activity of Oleocanthal Isolated from Virgin Olive Oil on Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Fogli, Stefano; Arena, Chiara; Carpi, Sara; Polini, Beatrice; Bertini, Simone; Digiacomo, Maria; Gado, Francesca; Saba, Alessandro; Saccomanni, Giuseppe; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Nieri, Paola; Manera, Clementina; Macchia, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Oleocanthal is one of the phenolic compounds of extra virgin olive oil with important anti-inflammatory properties. Although its potential anticancer activity has been reported, only limited evidence has been provided in cutaneous malignant melanoma. The present study is aimed at investigating the selective in vitro antiproliferative activity of oleocanthal against human malignant melanoma cells. Since oleocanthal is not commercially available, it was obtained as a pure standard by direct extraction and purification from extra virgin olive oil. Cell viability experiments carried out by WST-1 assay demonstrated that oleocanthal had a remarkable and selective activity for human melanoma cells versus normal dermal fibroblasts with IC50s in the low micromolar range of concentrations. Such an effect was paralleled by a significant inhibition of ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation and downregulation of Bcl-2 expression. These findings may suggest that extra virgin olive oil phenolic extract enriched in oleocanthal deserves further investigation in skin cancer. PMID:27266366

  1. Decoding the regulatory landscape of melanoma reveals TEADS as regulators of the invasive cell state.

    PubMed

    Verfaillie, Annelien; Imrichova, Hana; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; Dewaele, Michael; Rambow, Florian; Hulselmans, Gert; Christiaens, Valerie; Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Luciani, Flavie; Van den Mooter, Laura; Claerhout, Sofie; Fiers, Mark; Journe, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem-Elias; Herrmann, Carl; Halder, Georg; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Aerts, Stein

    2015-04-09

    Transcriptional reprogramming of proliferative melanoma cells into a phenotypically distinct invasive cell subpopulation is a critical event at the origin of metastatic spreading. Here we generate transcriptome, open chromatin and histone modification maps of melanoma cultures; and integrate this data with existing transcriptome and DNA methylation profiles from tumour biopsies to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this key reprogramming event. This shows thousands of genomic regulatory regions underlying the proliferative and invasive states, identifying SOX10/MITF and AP-1/TEAD as regulators, respectively. Knockdown of TEADs shows a previously unrecognized role in the invasive gene network and establishes a causative link between these transcription factors, cell invasion and sensitivity to MAPK inhibitors. Using regulatory landscapes and in silico analysis, we show that transcriptional reprogramming underlies the distinct cellular states present in melanoma. Furthermore, it reveals an essential role for the TEADs, linking it to clinically relevant mechanisms such as invasion and resistance.

  2. Decoding the regulatory landscape of melanoma reveals TEADS as regulators of the invasive cell state

    PubMed Central

    Verfaillie, Annelien; Imrichova, Hana; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; Dewaele, Michael; Rambow, Florian; Hulselmans, Gert; Christiaens, Valerie; Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Luciani, Flavie; Van den Mooter, Laura; Claerhout, Sofie; Fiers, Mark; Journe, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem-Elias; Herrmann, Carl; Halder, Georg; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Aerts, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming of proliferative melanoma cells into a phenotypically distinct invasive cell subpopulation is a critical event at the origin of metastatic spreading. Here we generate transcriptome, open chromatin and histone modification maps of melanoma cultures; and integrate this data with existing transcriptome and DNA methylation profiles from tumour biopsies to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this key reprogramming event. This shows thousands of genomic regulatory regions underlying the proliferative and invasive states, identifying SOX10/MITF and AP-1/TEAD as regulators, respectively. Knockdown of TEADs shows a previously unrecognized role in the invasive gene network and establishes a causative link between these transcription factors, cell invasion and sensitivity to MAPK inhibitors. Using regulatory landscapes and in silico analysis, we show that transcriptional reprogramming underlies the distinct cellular states present in melanoma. Furthermore, it reveals an essential role for the TEADs, linking it to clinically relevant mechanisms such as invasion and resistance. PMID:25865119

  3. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  4. In vivo and Ex vivo MR Imaging of Slowly Cycling Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Magnitsky, S.; Roesch, A.; Herlyn, M.; Glickson, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Slowly cycling cells are believed to play a critical role in tumor progression and metastatic dissemination. The goal of this study was to develop a method for in vivo detection of slowly cycling cells. To distinguish these cells from more rapidly proliferating cells that constitute the vast majority of cells in tumors, we utilized the well-known effect of label dilution due to division of cells with normal cycle and retention of contrast agent in slowly dividing cells. To detect slowly cycling cells melanoma cells were labeled with iron oxide particles. After labeling, we observed dilution of contrast agent in parallel with cell proliferation in the vast majority of normally cycling cells. A small and distinct sub-population of iron-retaining cells was detected by flow cytometry after 20 days of in vitro proliferation. These iron-retaining cells exhibited high expression of a biological marker of slowly cycling cells, JARID1B. After implantation of labeled cells as xenografts into immunocompromised mice, iron-retaining cells were detected in vivo and ex vivo by MRI that was confirmed by Prussian Blue staining. MR imaging detects not only iron retaining melanoma cells but also iron positive macrophages. Proposed method opens up opportunities to image subpopulation of melanoma cells, which is critical for continuous tumor growth. PMID:21523820

  5. Toward immunotherapy with redirected T cells in a large animal model: ex vivo activation, expansion, and genetic modification of canine T cells.

    PubMed

    Mata, Melinda; Vera, Juan F; Gerken, Claudia; Rooney, Cliona M; Miller, Tasha; Pfent, Catherine; Wang, Lisa L; Wilson-Robles, Heather M; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising antitumor activity in early phase clinical studies, especially for hematological malignancies. However, most preclinical models do not reliably mimic human disease. We reasoned that developing an adoptive T-cell therapy approach for spontaneous osteosarcoma (OS) occurring in dogs would more closely reproduce the condition in human cancer. To generate CAR-expressing canine T cells, we developed expansion and transduction protocols that allow for the generation of sufficient numbers of CAR-expressing canine T cells for future clinical studies in dogs within 2 weeks of ex vivo culture. To evaluate the functionality of CAR-expressing canine T cells, we targeted HER2(+) OS. We demonstrate that canine OS is positive for HER2, and that canine T cells expressing a HER2-specific CAR with human-derived transmembrane and CD28.ζ signaling domains recognize and kill HER2(+) canine OS cell lines in an antigen-dependent manner. To reduce the potential immunogenicity of the CAR, we evaluated a CAR with canine-derived transmembrane and signaling domains, and found no functional difference between human and canine CARs. Hence, we have successfully developed a strategy to generate CAR-expressing canine T cells for future preclinical studies in dogs. Testing T-cell therapies in an immunocompetent, outbred animal model may improve our ability to predict their safety and efficacy before conducting studies in humans.

  6. Solanum nigrum Linn. water extract inhibits metastasis in mouse melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Wu, Dun-Hao; Chang, Yun-Ching; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2010-11-24

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Solanum nigrum Linn., commonly used in Oriental medicine, has showed antineoplastic activity in human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitive effect of S. nigrum Linn. water extract (SNWE) on melanoma metastasis and dissect the underlying mechanisms of SNWE actions. B16-F1 cells were analyzed for migrating and invasive abilities with SNWE treatment, and several putative targets involved in metastatic melanoma were examined. In parallel, primary mouse xenograft and lung metastasis of melanoma models were established to examine the therapeutic potential of SNWE. The results indicated SNWE significantly inhibited B16-F1 cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, decreased Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions were detected in dose-dependent manners. In line with this notion, >50% reduced tumor weight and lung metastatic nodules were observed in 1% SNWE fed mice. This was associated with reduced serum MMP-9 as well as Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions. Thus, this work indicates SNWE has potential application for treating metastatic melanoma. PMID:21028816

  7. Recovery of a cell surface fetal antigen from circulating immune complexes of melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, J H; Aguero, B; Gupta, R K; Morton, D L

    1988-01-01

    A well-characterized 69.5 x 10(3) dalton glycoprotein fetal antigen (FA), isolated from the spent culture medium of a melanoma cell line, UCLA-SO-14 (M14), was utilized to characterize the antigen component of circulating immune complexes (CIC) from melanoma patients. Ten serum samples from five patients with stage II melanoma at 1 and 4 months prior to the clinical detection of recurrent disease were selected for study. The CIC were dissociated with low pH and ultrafiltered through a 100 x 10(3) dalton exclusion limit membrane. The low pH treatment resulted in an increase in antibody titer in eight of ten serum samples. The antibody activity in membrane immunofluorescence was quantitatively inhibited by the filtered antigen fraction and purified FA, suggesting the presence of anti-FA antibodies in the treated serum, which possibly were complexed with FA in the untreated sample. As determined by competitive inhibition in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the filtrate (antigen fraction) contained an antigen that was immunologically similar to FA. These results clearly demonstrate that FA, expressed on the cell surface of melanoma cells, is present in CIC of selected melanoma patients.

  8. Adhesion and stress relaxation forces between melanoma and cerebral endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Végh, Attila G; Fazakas, Csilla; Nagy, Krisztina; Wilhelm, Imola; Molnár, Judit; Krizbai, István A; Szegletes, Zsolt; Váró, György

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical parameters play a crucial role in proper cellular functions. This article examines the process of the appearance and breaking of adhesion forces during contact between the confluent cerebral endothelial cell layer and a melanoma cell attached to a tipless cantilever. This adhesion is the initial phase of melanoma transmigration through the endothelial cell layer. Taking the force measurement, if the contact was prolonged for several seconds, a decrease in the load force was observed, which corresponds to stress relaxation of the cells. The dependence of adhesion force and stress relaxation on dwell time showed a saturation-like behavior. These stress relaxation curves could be fitted with the sum of two exponentials, suggesting that two independent processes take place simultaneously. The breakup of the adhesion during the retraction of the cantilever with the attached melanoma cell is not continuous but shows jumps. Between living endothelial and melanoma cells, a minimum jump size of about 20 pN could be determined. The minimum jump is independent of the dwell time and load force. It seems to be the elementary binding force between these two cell types. In case of fixed endothelial cells, the adhesion force was strongly decreased and the jumps disappeared, whereas the stress relaxation did not show considerable change upon fixation. PMID:22038122

  9. Enhanced effects of citrate on UVB-induced apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yun-Mi; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Su Yeon; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2009-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma. Recent studies have reported that the intake of citrate-containing juices may reduce the risk of cancer. Thus, we investigated the effects of citrate on UVB-irradiated B16 murine melanoma cells. B16 cells had more evident apoptotic features with the combination of citrate/UVB than by citrate or UVB alone; cell death of HaCaT human keratinocytes was not observed with citrate/UVB. Western blot analysis demonstrated that citrate/UVB led to phosphorylation of the stress signaling proteins, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, citrate/UVB caused activation of caspase-9/-3 as well as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Correspondingly, cell cycle analysis showed that citrate/UVB clearly increased the sub-G0/G1 phase, which indicated apoptotic cell death of B16 cells. Therefore, our study has demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of citrate enhanced the apoptotic cell death of melanoma cells under UVB irradiation. From these results, we suggest that citrate might reduce the risk of developing melanoma induced by UVB.

  10. Mechanisms contributing to differential regulation of PAX3 downstream target genes in normal human epidermal melanocytes versus melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Danielle; Boyle, Glen M; Ziman, Mel; Medic, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive and drug resistant form of skin cancer. It arises from melanocytes, the pigment producing cells of the skin. The formation of these melanocytes is driven by the transcription factor PAX3 early during embryonic development. As a result of alternative splicing, the PAX3 gene gives rise to eight different transcripts which encode isoforms that have different structures and activate different downstream target genes involved in pathways of cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival. Furthermore, post-translational modifications have also been shown to alter the functions of PAX3. We previously identified PAX3 downstream target genes in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Here we assessed the effects of PAX3 down-regulation on this panel of target genes in primary melanocytes versus melanoma cells. We show that PAX3 differentially regulates various downstream target genes involved in cell proliferation in melanoma cells compared to melanocytes. To determine mechanisms behind this differential downstream target gene regulation, we performed immunoprecipitation to assess post-translational modifications of the PAX3 protein as well as RNAseq to determine PAX3 transcript expression profiles in melanocytes compared to melanoma cells. Although PAX3 was found to be post-translationally modified, there was no qualitative difference in phosphorylation and ubiquitination between melanocytes and melanoma cells, while acetylation of PAX3 was reduced in melanoma cells. Additionally, there were differences in PAX3 transcript expression profiles between melanocytes and melanoma cells. In particular the PAX3E transcript, responsible for reducing melanocyte proliferation and increasing apoptosis, was found to be down-regulated in melanoma cells compared to melanocytes. These results suggest that alternate transcript expression profiles activate different downstream target genes leading to the melanoma phenotype.

  11. IRF-8 Controls Melanoma Progression by Regulating the Cross Talk between Cancer and Immune Cells within the Tumor Microenvironment12

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Fabrizio; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Sestili, Paola; Spadaro, Francesca; Fragale, Alessandra; Sistigu, Antonella; Lucarini, Valeria; Spada, Massimo; Sanchez, Massimo; Scala, Stefania; Battistini, Angela; Belardelli, Filippo; Gabriele, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8) is crucial for myeloid cell development and immune response and also acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Here, we analyzed the role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma cells and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. B16-F10 melanoma cells transplanted into IRF-8-deficient (IRF-8-/-) mice grow more rapidly, leading to higher numbers of lung metastasis, with respect to control animals. These events correlated with reduced dendritic cell and T cell infiltration, accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a chemokine/chemokine receptor expression profile within the tumor microenvironment supporting tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Noticeably, primary tumors developing in IRF-8-/- mice displayed a clear-cut inhibition of IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells. Injection of the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine into melanoma-bearing IRF-8-/- animals induced intratumoral IRF-8 expression and resulted in the re-establishment of a chemokine/ chemokine receptor pattern favoring leukocyte infiltration and melanoma growth arrest. Importantly, intrinsic IRF-8 expression was progressively down-modulated during melanoma growth in mice and in human metastatic melanoma cells with respect to primary tumors. Lastly, IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells was directly modulated by soluble factors, among which interleukin-27 (IL-27), released by immune cells from tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, these results underscore a key role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma and immune cells, thus revealing its critical function within the tumor microenvironment in regulating melanoma progression and invasiveness. PMID:23308054

  12. IRF-8 controls melanoma progression by regulating the cross talk between cancer and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Fabrizio; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Sestili, Paola; Spadaro, Francesca; Fragale, Alessandra; Sistigu, Antonella; Lucarini, Valeria; Spada, Massimo; Sanchez, Massimo; Scala, Stefania; Battistini, Angela; Belardelli, Filippo; Gabriele, Lucia

    2012-12-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8) is crucial for myeloid cell development and immune response and also acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Here, we analyzed the role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma cells and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. B16-F10 melanoma cells transplanted into IRF-8-deficient (IRF-8(-/-)) mice grow more rapidly, leading to higher numbers of lung metastasis, with respect to control animals. These events correlated with reduced dendritic cell and T cell infiltration, accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a chemokine/chemokine receptor expression profile within the tumor microenvironment supporting tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Noticeably, primary tumors developing in IRF-8(-/-) mice displayed a clear-cut inhibition of IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells. Injection of the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine into melanoma-bearing IRF-8(-/-) animals induced intratumoral IRF-8 expression and resulted in the re-establishment of a chemokine/ chemokine receptor pattern favoring leukocyte infiltration and melanoma growth arrest. Importantly, intrinsic IRF-8 expression was progressively down-modulated during melanoma growth in mice and in human metastatic melanoma cells with respect to primary tumors. Lastly, IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells was directly modulated by soluble factors, among which interleukin-27 (IL-27), released by immune cells from tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, these results underscore a key role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma and immune cells, thus revealing its critical function within the tumor microenvironment in regulating melanoma progression and invasiveness. PMID:23308054

  13. Melanoma-Derived BRAF(V600E) Mutation in Peritumoral Stromal Cells: Implications for in Vivo Cell Fusion.

    PubMed

    Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos V; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Oláh, Judit; Jakab, Ádám; Polyánka, Hilda; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma often recurs in patients after the removal of the primary tumor, suggesting the presence of recurrent tumor-initiating cells that are undetectable using standard diagnostic methods. As cell fusion has been implicated to facilitate the alteration of a cell's phenotype, we hypothesized that cells in the peritumoral stroma having a stromal phenotype that initiate recurrent tumors might originate from the fusion of tumor and stromal cells. Here, we show that in patients with BRAF(V600E) melanoma, melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART1)-negative peritumoral stromal cells express BRAF(V600E) protein. To confirm the presence of the oncogene at the genetic level, peritumoral stromal cells were microdissected and screened for the presence of BRAF(V600E) with a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, cells carrying the BRAF(V600E) mutation were not only found among cells surrounding the primary tumor but were also present in the stroma of melanoma metastases as well as in a histologically tumor-free re-excision sample from a patient who subsequently developed a local recurrence. We did not detect any BRAF(V600E) mutation or protein in the peritumoral stroma of BRAF(WT) melanoma. Therefore, our results suggest that peritumoral stromal cells contain melanoma-derived oncogenic information, potentially as a result of cell fusion. These hybrid cells display the phenotype of stromal cells and are therefore undetectable using routine histological assessments. Our results highlight the importance of genetic analyses and the application of mutation-specific antibodies in the identification of potentially recurrent-tumor-initiating cells, which may help better predict patient survival and disease outcome. PMID:27338362

  14. MITF and PAX3 Play Distinct Roles in Melanoma Cell Migration; Outline of a "Genetic Switch" Theory Involving MITF and PAX3 in Proliferative and Invasive Phenotypes of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Michael R; He, Shujie; Ahn, Antonio; Slobbe, Lynn J; Jeffs, Aaron R; Yoon, Han-Seung; Baguley, Bruce C

    2013-09-11

    Melanoma is a very aggressive neoplasm with a propensity to undergo progression and invasion early in its evolution. The molecular pathways underpinning invasion in melanoma are now just beginning to be elucidated, but a clear understanding of the transition from non-invasive to invasive melanoma cells remains elusive. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), is thought to be a central player in melanoma biology, and it controls many aspects of the phenotypic expression of the melanocytic lineage. However, recently the paired box transcription factor PAX3 was shown to transcriptionally activate POU3F2/BRN2, leading to direct repression of MITF expression. Here we present a theory to explain melanoma phenotype switching and discuss the predictions that this theory makes. One prediction is that independent and opposing roles for MITF and PAX3 in melanoma would be expected, and we present empirical evidence supporting this: in melanoma tissues PAX3 expression occurs independently of MITF, and PAX3 does not play a key role in melanoma cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that knockdown of PAX3 inhibits cell migration in a group of "lower MITF" melanoma cell lines, while knockdown of MITF promotes cell migration in a complementary "higher MITF" group of melanoma cell lines. Moreover, the morphological effects of knocking down PAX3 versus MITF in melanoma cells were found to differ. While these data support the notion of independent roles for MITF and PAX3, additional experiments are required to provide robust examination of the proposed genetic switch theory. Only upon clear delineation of the mechanisms associated with progression and invasion of melanoma cells will successful treatments for invasive melanoma be developed.

  15. Canine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. TRANSMISSION OF SEROLOGIC ABNORMALITIES BY CELL-FREE FILTRATES

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robert M.; Andre-Schwartz, Janine; Harbis, Gerald S.; Hirsch, Martin S.; Black, Paul H.; Schwartz, Robert S.

    1973-01-01

    The presence of viruses was sought in a colony of dogs bred from parents with systemic lupus crythematosus (SLE). Cell-free filtrates prepared from the spleens of these animals were injected into newborn dogs, mice, and rats. The canine recipients developed antinuclear antibody (ANA) and positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell tests: ANA and, in some cases, antinative DNA antibodies were produced by the murine recipients: no abnormalities were detected in the rats. Serial passage of spleen cells or cell-free filtrates of spleen tissue in syngeneic mice reduced the time required for appearance of ANA from 9 to 4 mo. Some murine recipients of the canine filtrate developed malignant lymphomas. Murine leukemia viruses were identified in these tumors by electron microscopic, virologic, and serologic technics. These neoplasms, but not other tumors known to contain murine leukemia viruses, were associated with the production of ANA. Puppies inoculated with the canine filtrate-induced mouse lymphoma developed ANA and positive LE cell tests within 4 mo. The results were interpreted to indicate the presence in canine SLE of a virus capable of: (a) inducing the serologic abnormalities of SLE in normal dogs and mice: (b) activating latent murine leukemia viruses: and (c) spreading by both horizonal and vertical routes. Images PMID:4124208

  16. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) reduces cell number in canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    UCHIDA, Mona; SAEKI, Kohei; MAEDA, Shingo; TAMAHARA, Satoshi; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) is initially reported to protect macrophages from apoptosis. In this study, we determined the effect of AIM on the macrophage-derived tumor, histiocytic sarcoma cell lines (HS) of dogs. Five HS and five other tumor cell lines were used. When recombinant canine AIM was applied to non-serum culture media, cell numbers of all the HS and two of other tumor cell lines decreased dose-dependently. The DNA fragmentation, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry tests revealed that AIM induced both of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the HS. Although AIM is known as an apoptosis inhibitor, these results suggest that a high dose of AIM could have an opposite function in HS and some tumor cell lines. PMID:27246397

  17. Genetic Engineering of T cells to Target HERV-K, an Ancient Retrovirus on Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Janani; Rabinovich, Brian A.; Mi, Tiejuan; Switzer, Kirsten C.; Olivares, Simon; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Plummer, Joshua B.; Singh, Harjeet; Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R.; Huls, Helen M.; Wang-Johanning, Feng; Cooper, Laurence J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K) envelope (env) protein is a tumor- associated antigen expressed on melanoma, but not normal cells. This study was designed to engineer a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on T cell surface, such that they target tumors in advanced stages of melanoma. Experimental Design Expression of HERV-K protein was analyzed in 220 melanoma samples (with various stages of disease) and 139 normal organ donor tissues using immuno-histochemical (IHC) analysis. HERV-K env-specific CAR derived from mouse monoclonal antibody was introduced into T cells using the transposon-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) system. HERV-K env-specific CAR+ T cells were expanded ex vivo on activating and propagating cells (AaPC), and characterized for CAR expression and specificity. This includes evaluating the HERV-K-specific CAR+ T cells for their ability to kill A375-SM metastasized tumors in a mouse xenograft model. Results We detected HERV-K env protein on melanoma, but not in normal tissues. After electroporation of T cells and selection on HERV-K+ AaPC, over 95% of genetically-modified T cells expressed the CAR with an effector memory phenotype and lysed HERV-K env+ tumor targets in an antigen specific manner. Even though there is apparent shedding of this TAA from tumor cells which can be recognized by HERV-K env-specific CAR+ T cells, we observed a significant anti-tumor effect. Conclusion Adoptive cellular immunotherapy with HERV-K env-specific CAR+ T cells represents a clinically-appealing treatment strategy for advanced-stage melanoma and provides an approach for targeting this TAA on other solid tumors. PMID:25829402

  18. Melanoma-Derived BRAFV600E Mutation in Peritumoral Stromal Cells: Implications for in Vivo Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos V.; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Oláh, Judit; Jakab, Ádám; Polyánka, Hilda; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma often recurs in patients after the removal of the primary tumor, suggesting the presence of recurrent tumor-initiating cells that are undetectable using standard diagnostic methods. As cell fusion has been implicated to facilitate the alteration of a cell’s phenotype, we hypothesized that cells in the peritumoral stroma having a stromal phenotype that initiate recurrent tumors might originate from the fusion of tumor and stromal cells. Here, we show that in patients with BRAFV600E melanoma, melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART1)-negative peritumoral stromal cells express BRAFV600E protein. To confirm the presence of the oncogene at the genetic level, peritumoral stromal cells were microdissected and screened for the presence of BRAFV600E with a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, cells carrying the BRAFV600E mutation were not only found among cells surrounding the primary tumor but were also present in the stroma of melanoma metastases as well as in a histologically tumor-free re-excision sample from a patient who subsequently developed a local recurrence. We did not detect any BRAFV600E mutation or protein in the peritumoral stroma of BRAFWT melanoma. Therefore, our results suggest that peritumoral stromal cells contain melanoma-derived oncogenic information, potentially as a result of cell fusion. These hybrid cells display the phenotype of stromal cells and are therefore undetectable using routine histological assessments. Our results highlight the importance of genetic analyses and the application of mutation-specific antibodies in the identification of potentially recurrent-tumor-initiating cells, which may help better predict patient survival and disease outcome. PMID:27338362

  19. Bioactive proanthocyanidins inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells by decreasing the accumulation of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    VAID, MUDIT; SINGH, TRIPTI; PRASAD, RAM; KATIYAR, SANTOSH K.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer with poor survival rate. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin has been observed in nearly one-third of human melanoma cases thereby indicating that targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling could be a promising strategy against melanoma development. In the present study, we determined chemotherapeutic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on the growth of melanoma cells and validated their protective effects in vivo using a xenograft mouse model, and assessed if β-catenin is the target of GSP chemotherapeutic effect. Our in vitro data show that treatment of A375 and Hs294t human melanoma cells with GSPs inhibit the growth of melanoma cells, which was associated with the reduction in the levels of β-catenin. Administration of dietary GSPs (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) in supplementation with AIN76A control diet significantly inhibited the growth of melanoma tumor xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, dietary GSPs inhibited the xenograft growth of Mel928 (β-catenin-activated), while did not inhibit the xenograft growth of Mel1011 (β-catenin-inactivated) cells. These observations were further verified by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin and forced overexpression of β-catenin in melanoma cells using a cell culture model. PMID:26676402

  20. Theranostic properties of a survivin-directed molecular beacon in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Giannetti, Ambra; Adinolfi, Barbara; Tombelli, Sara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Vanni, Alessia; Martinotti, Enrica; Martini, Claudia; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Pellegrino, Mario; Nieri, Paola; Baldini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis overexpressed in different types of tumors and undetectable in most terminally differentiated normal tissues. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the in vitro theranostic properties of a molecular beacon-oligodeoxynucleotide (MB) that targets survivin mRNA. We used laser scanning confocal microscopy to study MB delivery in living cells and real-time PCR and western blot to assess selective survivin-targeting in human malignant melanoma cells. We further assess the pro-apoptotic effect of MB by measuring internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and changes in nuclear morphology. Transfection of MB into A375 and 501 Mel cells generated high signal intensity from the cytoplasm, while no signal was detected in the extracellular environment and in survivin-negative cells (i.e., human melanocytes and monocytes). MB time dependently decreased survivin mRNA and protein expression in melanoma cells with the maximum effect reached at 72 h. Treatment of melanoma cells with MB induced apoptosis by significant changes in MMP, accumulation of histone-complexed DNA fragments in the cytoplasm and nuclear condensation. MB also enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of standard chemotherapeutic drugs tested at clinically relevant concentrations. The MB tested in the current study conjugates the ability of imaging with the pharmacological silencing activity against survivin mRNA in human melanoma cells and may represent an innovative approach for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Serum CEACAM1 Elevation Correlates with Melanoma Progression and Failure to Respond to Adoptive Cell Transfer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ortenberg, R.; Sapoznik, S.; Zippel, D.; Shapira-Frommer, R.; Itzhaki, O.; Kubi, A.; Zikich, D.; Besser, M. J.; Schachter, J.; Markel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a devastating disease whose incidences are continuously rising. The recently approved antimelanoma therapies carry new hope for metastatic patients for the first time in decades. However, the clinical management of melanoma is severely hampered by the absence of effective screening tools. The expression of the CEACAM1 adhesion molecule on melanoma cells is a strong predictor of poor prognosis. Interestingly, a melanoma-secreted form of CEACAM1 (sCEACAM1) has recently emerged as a potential tumor biomarker. Here we add novel evidences supporting the prognostic role of serum CEACAM1 by using a mice xenograft model of human melanoma and showing a correlation between serum CEACAM1 and tumor burden. Moreover, we demonstrate that serum CEACAM1 is elevated over time in progressive melanoma patients who fail to respond to immunotherapy as opposed to responders and stable disease patients, thus proving a correlation between sCEACAM1, response to treatment, and clinical deterioration. PMID:26688824

  2. Targeting melanocyte and melanoma stem cells by 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin.

    PubMed

    Bonchak, Jonathan G; Eby, Jonathan M; Willenborg, Kristin A; Chrobak, David; Henning, Steven W; Krzywiec, Anna; Johnson, Steven L; Le Poole, I Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH) is cytotoxic towards melanocytes. Its treatment efficacy is limited by an inability to eradicate stem cells. By contrast, 8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-DPAT) affects melanocyte stem cell survival. MBEH and 8-DPAT were added to melanocytes and melanoma cells to compare cytotoxicity. Stem cell content among viable cells was determined by fluorocytometry using markers CD34, Pax3, and CD271. Immunostaining was used to identify stem cells in skin explants treated with MBEH or 8-DPAT ex vivo. Mice were exposed to MBEH or 8-DPAT and scanned for depigmentation before harvesting skin. MBEH exposure prompted a relative increase in stem cells among cultured melanocytes and melanoma cells, as treatment preferentially eliminated differentiated cells and spared the stem cells. Viability of this remaining, enriched stem cell population was however rapidly reduced by exposure to 8-DPAT within melanocyte and melanoma cell cultures. In human skin explants, the abundance of melanocyte stem cells was also visibly reduced after 8-DPAT treatment, in contrast to tissue exposed to MBEH. Meanwhile, significant depigmentation of the mouse pelage and loss of differentiated melanocytes was observed in vivo in response to topical application of MBEH, but not 8-DPAT. Prolonged application of the latter agent instead appeared to effectively reduce the abundance of melanocyte stem cells in the dermis. This furthers the idea that MBEH and 8-DPAT target complementary cell populations. Results indicate that combination treatment may demonstrate superior therapeutic activity by eliminating both differentiated and tumor initiating populations.

  3. Hormone Conjugated with Antibody to CD3 Mediates Cytotoxic T Cell Lysis of Human Melanoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Margaret Ann; Nussbaum, Samuel R.; Eisen, Herman N.

    1988-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be activated by antibodies to their antigen-specific receptor complex (TCR-CD3) to destroy target cells, regardless of the specificity of the cytotoxic T cells. A novel hormone-antibody conjugate, consisting of an analog of melanocyte-stimulating hormone chemically coupled to a monoclonal antibody to CD3, the invariant component of the T cell receptor complex, was used to target human melanoma cells for destruction by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes that bear no specificity for the tumor cells. As targeting components of such anti-CD3 conjugates, hormones or growth factors are expected to prove more effective than antibodies to tumor-associated antigens in focusing the destructive activity of cytotoxic T cells on tumor target cells.

  4. Biochemical mechanism of Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester (CAPE) selective toxicity towards melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kudugunti, Shashi K.; Vad, Nikhil M.; Whiteside, Amanda J.; Naik, Bhakti U.; Yusuf, Mohd. A.; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S.; Moridani, Majid Y.

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the in-vitro biochemical mechanism of caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) toxicity and eight hydroxycinnamic/caffeic acid derivatives in-vitro, using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular target in human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. Enzymatic reaction models using tyrosinase/O2 and HRP/H2O2 were used to delineate the role of one- and two-electron oxidation. Ascorbic acid (AA), NADH and GSH depletion were used as markers of quinone formation and oxidative stress in CAPE induced toxicity in melanoma cells. Ethylenediamine, an o-quinone trap, prevented the formation of o-quinone and oxidations of AA and NADH mediated by tyrosinase bioactivation of CAPE. The IC50 of CAPE towards SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells was 15μM. Dicoumarol, a diaphorase inhibitor, and 1-bromoheptane, a GSH depleting agent, increased CAPE’s toxicity towards SK-MEL-28 cells indicating quinone formation played an important role in CAPE induced cell toxicity. Cyclosporin-A and trifluoperazine, inhibitors of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (PTP), prevented CAPE toxicity towards melanoma cells. We further investigated the role of tyrosinase in CAPE toxicity in the presence of a shRNA plasmid, targeting tyrosinase mRNA. Results from tyrosinase shRNA experiments showed that CAPE led to negligible anti-proliferative effect, apoptotic cell death and ROS formation in shRNA plasmid treated cells. Furthermore, it was also found that CAPE selectively caused escalation in the ROS formation and intracellular GSH (ICG) depletion in melanocytic human SK-MEL-28 cells which express functional tyrosinase. In contrast, CAPE did not lead to ROS formation and ICG depletion in amelanotic C32 melanoma cells, which do not express functional tyrosinase. These findings suggest that tyrosinase plays a major role in CAPE’s selective toxicity towards melanocytic melanoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms of CAPE toxicity in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells

  5. Anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate induces canine mammary cancer cell aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Santos, Ana L; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  6. Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate Induces Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Joana T.; Santos, Ana L.; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  7. Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of black pomegranate peel extract on melanoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dana, N.; Javanmard, Sh. Haghjooy; Rafiee, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study possible effects of black pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the B16F10 melanoma cells proliferation and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) angiogenesis were investigated. PPE was added into the cell lines (B16F10 and HUVECs) media with different concentrations (10–450 μg/ml). After 48 h, the cell survival was measured by 3-(Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Angiogenesis was investigated by matrigel assay (PPE (200, 300, 400 μg/ml)); HUVECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay. VEGF concentration in culture medium of HUVECs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPE had positive anti proliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not on HUVECs. The matrigel assay results indicated that PPE significantly inhibited length, size and junction of the tube like structures (P<0.05). VEGF mRNA expression and concentration levels in culture medium of PPE treated HUVECs reduced significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Simultaneous inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis proposed that, PPE can be a good candidate against melanoma development. Based on the results, PPE could effectively suppress angiogenesis potentially through a VEGF dependent mechanism. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26487888

  8. Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of black pomegranate peel extract on melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Dana, N; Javanmard, Sh Haghjooy; Rafiee, L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study possible effects of black pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the B16F10 melanoma cells proliferation and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) angiogenesis were investigated. PPE was added into the cell lines (B16F10 and HUVECs) media with different concentrations (10-450 μg/ml). After 48 h, the cell survival was measured by 3-(Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Angiogenesis was investigated by matrigel assay (PPE (200, 300, 400 μg/ml)); HUVECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay. VEGF concentration in culture medium of HUVECs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPE had positive anti proliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not on HUVECs. The matrigel assay results indicated that PPE significantly inhibited length, size and junction of the tube like structures (P<0.05). VEGF mRNA expression and concentration levels in culture medium of PPE treated HUVECs reduced significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Simultaneous inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis proposed that, PPE can be a good candidate against melanoma development. Based on the results, PPE could effectively suppress angiogenesis potentially through a VEGF dependent mechanism. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26487888

  9. Plasma Membrane Integrity and Survival of Melanoma Cells After Nanosecond Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G.; Camacho-López, Santiago; Evans, Rodger; Guillén, Gabriel; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) photoacoustic detection systems can aid clinical decision-making in the treatment of cancer. Interaction of melanin within melanoma cells with nanosecond laser pulses generates photoacoustic waves that make its detection possible. This study aims at: (1) determining melanoma cell survival after laser pulses of 6 ns at λ = 355 and 532 nm; (2) comparing the potential enhancement in the photoacoustic signal using λ = 355 nm in contrast with λ = 532 nm; (3) determining the critical laser fluence at which melanin begins to leak out from melanoma cells; and (4) developing a time-resolved imaging (TRI) system to study the intracellular interactions and their effect on the plasma membrane integrity. Monolayers of melanoma cells were grown on tissue culture-treated clusters and irradiated with up to 1.0 J/cm2. Surviving cells were stained with trypan blue and counted using a hemacytometer. The phosphate buffered saline absorbance was measured with a nanodrop spectrophotometer to detect melanin leakage from the melanoma cells post-laser irradiation. Photoacoustic signal magnitude was studied at both wavelengths using piezoelectric sensors. TRI with 6 ns resolution was used to image plasma membrane damage. Cell survival decreased proportionally with increasing laser fluence for both wavelengths, although the decrease is more pronounced for 355 nm radiation than for 532 nm. It was found that melanin leaks from cells equally for both wavelengths. No significant difference in photoacoustic signal was found between wavelengths. TRI showed clear damage to plasma membrane due to laser-induced bubble formation. PMID:20589533

  10. Isolation and characterization of canine amniotic membrane-derived multipotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Bum; Seo, Min-Soo; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that amniotic membrane tissue is a rich source of stem cells in humans. In clinical applications, the amniotic membrane tissue had therapeutic effects on wound healing and corneal surface reconstruction. Here, we successfully isolated and identified multipotent stem cells (MSCs) from canine amniotic membrane tissue. We cultured the canine amniotic membrane-derived multipotent stem cells (cAM-MSCs) in low glucose DMEM medium. cAM-MSCs have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic. We characterized the immunophenotype of cAM-MSCs by flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by the cumulative population doubling level (CPDL). We performed differentiation studies for the detection of trilineage multipotent ability, under the appropriate culture conditions. Taken together, our results show that cAM-MSCs could be a rich source of stem cells in dogs. Furthermore, cAM-MSCs may be useful as a cell therapy application for veterinary regenerative medicine.

  11. Use of CD10 as a marker of canine mammary myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, R; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Millán, Y; Guil-Luna, S; Reymundo, C; Herráez, P; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Martin de Las Mulas, J

    2013-02-01

    CD10 is an important cell marker in the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and of breast myoepithelial (ME) cells in humans. The objective of this study was to assess the value of CD10 as a marker of canine ME cells using immunohistochemistry on routinely processed normal, dysplastic and neoplastic mammary tissue. Five different CD10 positive cell types were identified on the basis of cell morphology, pattern of immunoreactivity, and on the co-expression of additional cell lineage-specific markers. Type 1 cells were typical fusiform cells with a ME cell phenotype (calponin- and cytokeratin [CK] 14-positive, CK8/18-negative). Type 2 cells were typical or atypical polyhedral cells with a luminal epithelial (LE) cell phenotype (calponin- and CK14-negative, CK8/18-positive). Type 3 cells had a type 1 phenotype with variable morphology, and type 4 were atypical neoplastic cells with a mixed ME/LE phenotype. Type 5 cells were typical fusiform cells with a stromal phenotype. Type 1 cells were considered normal ME cells and were found in all sample types; type 2 cells were considered normal or neoplastic LE cells and were also found in all sample types; types 3 and 4 cells were restricted to tumour samples and to malignant tumours, respectively, and type 5 cells were found in all sample types, although predominantly in neoplastic tissue. The findings indicate that the CD10 antigen is a sensitive (although not specific) marker of canine ME cells in normal, dysplastic and neoplastic mammary tissue. Differences in the distribution and staining intensity of CD10-positive cells suggest a number of potential roles for this protein in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia. PMID:22819182

  12. Evaluation of the drug sensitivity and expression of 16 drug resistance-related genes in canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    ASADA, Hajime; TOMIYASU, Hirotaka; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; FUJINO, Yasuhito; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive tumor type originating from histiocytic cell lineages. This disease is characterized by poor response to chemotherapy and short survival time. Therefore, it is of critical importance to identify and develop effective antitumor drugs against HS. The objectives of this study were to examine the drug sensitivities of 10 antitumor drugs. Using a real-time RT-PCR system, the mRNA expression levels of 16 genes related to drug resistance in 4 canine HS cell lines established from dogs with disseminated HS were determined and compared to 2 canine lymphoma cell lines (B-cell and T-cell). These 4 canine HS cell lines showed sensitivities toward microtubule inhibitors (vincristine, vinblastine and paclitaxel), comparable to those in the canine B-cell lymphoma cell line. Moreover, it was shown that P-gp in the HS cell lines used in this study did not have enough function to efflux its substrate. Sensitivities to melphalan, nimustine, methotrexate, cytarabine, doxorubicin and etoposide were lower in the 4 HS cell lines than in the 2 canine lymphoma cell lines. The data obtained in this study using cultured cell lines could prove helpful in the developing of advanced and effective chemotherapies for treating dogs that are suffering from HS. PMID:25715778

  13. Cinnamic acid induces apoptotic cell death and cytoskeleton disruption in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Niero, Evandro Luís de Oliveira; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia Maria

    2013-05-23

    Anticancer activities of cinnamic acid derivatives include induction of apoptosis by irreversible DNA damage leading to cell death. The present work aimed to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of cinnamic acid in human melanoma cell line (HT-144) and human melanocyte cell line derived from blue nevus (NGM). Viability assay showed that the IC50 for HT-144 cells was 2.4 mM, while NGM cells were more resistant to the treatment. The growth inhibition was probably associated with DNA damage leading to DNA synthesis inhibition, as shown by BrdU incorporation assay, induction of nuclear aberrations and then apoptosis. The frequency of cell death caused by cinnamic acid was higher in HT-144 cells. Activated-caspase 3 staining showed apoptosis after 24 hours of treatment with cinnamic acid 3.2 mM in HT-144 cells, but not in NGM. We observed microtubules disorganization after cinnamic acid exposure, but this event and cell death seem to be independent according to M30 and tubulin labeling. The frequency of micronucleated HT-144 cells was higher after treatment with cinnamic acid (0.4 and 3.2 mM) when compared to the controls. Cinnamic acid 3.2 mM also increased the frequency of micronucleated NGM cells indicating genotoxic activity of the compound, but the effects were milder. Binucleation and multinucleation counting showed similar results. We conclude that cinnamic acid has effective antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells. However, the increased frequency of micronucleation in NGM cells warrants the possibility of genotoxicity and needs further investigation.

  14. Cinnamic acid induces apoptotic cell death and cytoskeleton disruption in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activities of cinnamic acid derivatives include induction of apoptosis by irreversible DNA damage leading to cell death. The present work aimed to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of cinnamic acid in human melanoma cell line (HT-144) and human melanocyte cell line derived from blue nevus (NGM). Viability assay showed that the IC50 for HT-144 cells was 2.4 mM, while NGM cells were more resistant to the treatment. The growth inhibition was probably associated with DNA damage leading to DNA synthesis inhibition, as shown by BrdU incorporation assay, induction of nuclear aberrations and then apoptosis. The frequency of cell death caused by cinnamic acid was higher in HT-144 cells. Activated-caspase 3 staining showed apoptosis after 24 hours of treatment with cinnamic acid 3.2 mM in HT-144 cells, but not in NGM. We observed microtubules disorganization after cinnamic acid exposure, but this event and cell death seem to be independent according to M30 and tubulin labeling. The frequency of micronucleated HT-144 cells was higher after treatment with cinnamic acid (0.4 and 3.2 mM) when compared to the controls. Cinnamic acid 3.2 mM also increased the frequency of micronucleated NGM cells indicating genotoxic activity of the compound, but the effects were milder. Binucleation and multinucleation counting showed similar results. We conclude that cinnamic acid has effective antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells. However, the increased frequency of micronucleation in NGM cells warrants the possibility of genotoxicity and needs further investigation. PMID:23701745

  15. In vitro photodynamic effect of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma skin cancer and healthy normal skin cells.

    PubMed

    Maduray, K; Odhav, B; Nyokong, T

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a medical treatment that uses an inactive dye/drug and lasers as a light source to activate the dye/drug to produce a toxic form of oxygen that destroys the cancer cells. This study aimed at investigating the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines in its inactive and active state (laser induced) on melanoma skin cancer cells, healthy normal skin fibroblast and keratinocyte cells. Experimentally, 3 × 10⁴ cells/ml were seeded in 24-well plates before treatment with different concentrations of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines. After 2h, cells were irradiated with a light dose of 4.5 J/cm². Post-irradiated cells were incubated for 24h before cell viability was measured using the CellTiter-Blue Viability Assay. Results showed that aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at high concentrations were cytotoxic to melanoma cells in the absence of laser activation. In the presence of laser activation of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at a concentration of 40 μg/ml decreased cell viability of melanoma cells to 45%, fibroblasts to 78% and keratinocytes to 73%. At this photosensitizing concentration of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines the efficacy of the treatment light dose 4.5 J/cm² and the cell death mechanism induced by photoactivated aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines was evaluated. A light dose of 4.5 J/cm² was more efficient in killing a higher number of melanoma cells and a lower number of fibroblast and keratinocyte cells than the other light doses of 2.5 J/cm², 7.5 J/cm² and 10.5 J/cm². Apoptosis features such as blebbing, nucleus condensation, nucleus fragmentation and the formation of apoptotic bodies were seen in the photodynamic therapy treated melanoma skin cancer cells. This in vitro photodynamic therapy study concludes that using aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at a photosensitizing concentration of 40 μg/ml in combination with a laser dose of 4.5 J/cm² was potentially lethal

  16. Molecular profiling of CD8 T cells in autochthonous melanoma identifies Maf as driver of exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Marilyn; Henin, Coralie; Maurizio, Julien; Imbratta, Claire; Bourdely, Pierre; Buferne, Michel; Baitsch, Lukas; Vanhille, Laurent; Sieweke, Michael H; Speiser, Daniel E; Auphan-Anezin, Nathalie; Schmitt-Verhulst, Anne-Marie; Verdeil, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    T cells infiltrating neoplasms express surface molecules typical of chronically virus-stimulated T cells, often termed “exhausted” T cells. We compared the transcriptome of “exhausted” CD8 T cells infiltrating autochthonous melanomas to those of naïve and acutely stimulated CD8 T cells. Despite strong similarities between transcriptional signatures of tumor- and virus-induced exhausted CD8 T cells, notable differences appeared. Among transcriptional regulators, Nr4a2 and Maf were highly overexpressed in tumor-exhausted T cells and significantly upregulated in CD8 T cells from human melanoma metastases. Transduction of murine tumor-specific CD8 T cells to express Maf partially reproduced the transcriptional program associated with tumor-induced exhaustion. Upon adoptive transfer, the transduced cells showed normal homeostasis but failed to accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and developed defective anti-tumor effector responses. We further identified TGFβ and IL-6 as main inducers of Maf expression in CD8 T cells and showed that Maf-deleted tumor-specific CD8 T cells were much more potent to restrain tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, the melanoma microenvironment contributes to skewing of CD8 T cell differentiation programs, in part by TGFβ/IL-6-mediated induction of Maf. PMID:26139534

  17. Reprogramming of Melanoma Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Fusaki, Noemi; Sabel, Michael S; Chang, Alfred E; Ito, Fumito

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27057178

  18. Reprogramming of Melanoma Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Fusaki, Noemi; Sabel, Michael S.; Chang, Alfred E.; Ito, Fumito

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27057178

  19. Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Cartwright, Ian M.; Haskins, Jeremy S.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujimori, Akira; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams. Clonogenic survival was examined using colony-forming as says, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values were calculated relative to gamma-rays using the D10 value, which is determined as the dose (Gy) resulting in 10% survival. For proton irradiation, the RBE values for all four cell lines were 1.0–1.1. For all four cell lines, exposure to carbon ions yielded a decreased cell survival compared with gamma-rays, with the RBE values ranging from 1.56–2.10. Iron ions yielded the lowest cell survival among tested radiation types, with RBE values ranging from 3.51–3.69 observed in the three radioresistant cell lines. The radiosensitive cell line investigated demonstrated similar cell survival for carbon and iron ion irradiation. The results of the present study suggest that heavy ions are more effective for killing radioresistant canine OSA cells when compared with gamma-rays and protons. This markedly increased efficiency of cell killing is an attractive reason for utilizing heavy ions for radioresistant canine OSA. PMID:27446477

  20. St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) Photomedicine: Hypericin-Photodynamic Therapy Induces Metastatic Melanoma Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Kleemann, Britta; Loos, Benjamin; Scriba, Thomas J.; Lang, Dirk; Davids, Lester M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypericin, an extract from St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), is a promising photosensitizer in the context of clinical photodynamic therapy due to its excellent photosensitizing properties and tumoritropic characteristics. Hypericin-PDT induced cytotoxicity elicits tumor cell death by various mechanisms including apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy-related cell death. However, limited reports on the efficacy of this photomedicine for the treatment of melanoma have been published. Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor due to its metastasizing potential and resistance to conventional cancer therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the response mechanisms of melanoma cells to hypericin-PDT in an in vitro tissue culture model. Hypericin was taken up by all melanoma cells and partially co-localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes and melanosomes, but not the nucleus. Light activation of hypericin induced a rapid, extensive modification of the tubular mitochondrial network into a beaded appearance, loss of structural details of the endoplasmic reticulum and concomitant loss of hypericin co-localization. Surprisingly the opposite was found for lysosomal-related organelles, suggesting that the melanoma cells may be using these intracellular organelles for hypericin-PDT resistance. In line with this speculation we found an increase in cellular granularity, suggesting an increase in pigmentation levels in response to hypericin-PDT. Pigmentation in melanoma is related to a melanocyte-specific organelle, the melanosome, which has recently been implicated in drug trapping, chemotherapy and hypericin-PDT resistance. However, hypericin-PDT was effective in killing both unpigmented (A375 and 501mel) and pigmented (UCT Mel-1) melanoma cells by specific mechanisms involving the externalization of phosphatidylserines, cell shrinkage and loss of cell membrane integrity. In addition, this treatment resulted in extrinsic (A375) and intrinsic (UCT

  1. St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) photomedicine: hypericin-photodynamic therapy induces metastatic melanoma cell death.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, Britta; Loos, Benjamin; Scriba, Thomas J; Lang, Dirk; Davids, Lester M

    2014-01-01

    Hypericin, an extract from St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), is a promising photosensitizer in the context of clinical photodynamic therapy due to its excellent photosensitizing properties and tumoritropic characteristics. Hypericin-PDT induced cytotoxicity elicits tumor cell death by various mechanisms including apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy-related cell death. However, limited reports on the efficacy of this photomedicine for the treatment of melanoma have been published. Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor due to its metastasizing potential and resistance to conventional cancer therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the response mechanisms of melanoma cells to hypericin-PDT in an in vitro tissue culture model. Hypericin was taken up by all melanoma cells and partially co-localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes and melanosomes, but not the nucleus. Light activation of hypericin induced a rapid, extensive modification of the tubular mitochondrial network into a beaded appearance, loss of structural details of the endoplasmic reticulum and concomitant loss of hypericin co-localization. Surprisingly the opposite was found for lysosomal-related organelles, suggesting that the melanoma cells may be using these intracellular organelles for hypericin-PDT resistance. In line with this speculation we found an increase in cellular granularity, suggesting an increase in pigmentation levels in response to hypericin-PDT. Pigmentation in melanoma is related to a melanocyte-specific organelle, the melanosome, which has recently been implicated in drug trapping, chemotherapy and hypericin-PDT resistance. However, hypericin-PDT was effective in killing both unpigmented (A375 and 501mel) and pigmented (UCT Mel-1) melanoma cells by specific mechanisms involving the externalization of phosphatidylserines, cell shrinkage and loss of cell membrane integrity. In addition, this treatment resulted in extrinsic (A375) and intrinsic (UCT

  2. Adoptive T-cell therapy improves treatment of canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma post chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Colleen M; Sheppard, Sabina; Hartline, Cassie A; Huls, Helen; Johnson, Mark; Palla, Shana L; Maiti, Sourindra; Ma, Wencai; Davis, R Eric; Craig, Suzanne; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard; Wilson, Heather; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2012-01-01

    Clinical observations reveal that an augmented pace of T-cell recovery after chemotherapy correlates with improved tumor-free survival, suggesting the add-back of T cells after chemotherapy may improve outcomes. To evaluate adoptive immunotherapy treatment for B-lineage non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we expanded T cells from client-owned canines diagnosed with NHL on artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of human interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21. Graded doses of autologous T cells were infused after CHOP chemotherapy and persisted for 49 days, homed to tumor, and significantly improved survival. Serum thymidine kinase changes predicted T-cell engraftment, while anti-tumor effects correlated with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and granzyme B expression in manufactured T cells. Therefore, chemotherapy can be used to modulate infused T-cell responses to enhance anti-tumor effects. The companion canine model has translational implications for human immunotherapy which can be readily exploited since clinical-grade canine and human T cells are propagated using identical approaches. PMID:22355761

  3. Melanoma Cells Can Adopt the Phenotype of Stromal Fibroblasts and Macrophages by Spontaneous Cell Fusion in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kemény, Lajos V.; Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Jakab, Ádám; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B.

    2016-01-01

    After the removal of primary cutaneous melanoma some patients develop local recurrences, even after having histologically tumor-free re-excision. A potential explanation behind this phenomenon is that tumor cells switch their phenotype, making their recognition via standard histopathological assessments extremely difficult. Tumor-stromal cell fusion has been proposed as a potential mechanism for tumor cells to acquire mesenchymal traits; therefore, we hypothesized that melanoma cells could acquire fibroblast- and macrophage-like phenotypes via cell fusion. We show that melanoma cells spontaneously fuse with human dermal fibroblasts and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The hybrid cells’ nuclei contain chromosomes from both parental cells and are indistinguishable from the parental fibroblasts or macrophages based on their morphology and immunophenotype, as they could lose the melanoma specific MART1 marker, but express the fibroblast marker smooth muscle actin or the macrophage marker CD68. Our results suggest that, by spontaneous cell fusion in vitro, tumor cells can adopt the morphology and immunophenotype of stromal cells while still carrying oncogenic, tumor-derived genetic information. Therefore, melanoma–stromal cell fusion might play a role in missing tumor cells by routine histopathological assessments. PMID:27271591

  4. The antiproliferative effect of bovine lactoferrin on canine mammary gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichi; Sato, Reeko; Kobayashi, Saori; Hankanga, Careen; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Momota, Yutaka; Tomizawa, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Jun

    2008-05-01

    Lactoferrin has several biological activities, including antitumor activities in some human and animal tumor cells. Clinical trials have been carried out in human medicine based on these effects. However, the antitumor effects of lactoferrin in veterinary medicine remain unknown. In this in vitro study, we demonstrated that co-incubation of canine mammary gland tumor cells (CIPp and CHMp) and bovine lactoferrin induced growth arrest of tumor cells. This growth arrest was associated with induction of G1 arrest. Furthermore, this effect was stronger in tumor cells than in normal cells. These findings demonstrate that bovine lactoferrin has anti-tumor activity in canine mammary tumors and has the potential for use in tumor-bearing dogs.

  5. Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma using genetically engineered GD2-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Yvon, Eric; Vecchio, Michele Del; Savoldo, Barbara; Hoyos, Valentina; Dutour, Aurélie; Anichini, Andrea; Dotti, Gianpietro; Brenner, Malcolm K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Genetic engineering of human T lymphocytes to express tumor-directed chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) can produce anti-tumor effector cells that bypass tumor immune escape mechanisms that are due to abnormalities in protein-antigen processing and presentation. Moreover, these transgenic receptors can be directed to tumor associated antigens that are not protein derived, such as the ganglioside GD2, which is expressed on a high proportion of melanoma cells. Experimental design We generated chimeric T cells specific for the ganglioside GD2 by joining an extracellular antigen-binding domain derived from the GD2-specific antibody sc14.G2a to cytoplasmic signaling domains derived from the TCR ζ-chain, with the endodomains of the co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and OX40. We expressed this CAR in human T cells and assessed the targeting of GD2+ melanoma tumors in vitro and in a murine xenograft. Results Upon co-incubation with GD2-expressing melanoma cells, CAR-GD2 T lymphocytes incorporating the CD28 and OX40 endodomains secreted significant levels of cytokines in a pattern comparable to the cytokine response obtained by engagement of the native CD3 receptor. These CAR-T cells had anti-melanoma activity in vitro and in our xenograft model, increasing the survival tumor-bearing animals. Conclusion Redirecting human T lymphocytes to a tumor-associated ganglioside GD2 generates effector cells with anti-melanoma activity that should be testable in subjects with disease. PMID:19737958

  6. Melanoma Cells Break Down LPA to Establish Local Gradients That Drive Chemotactic Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Muinonen-Martin, Andrew J.; Susanto, Olivia; Zhang, Qifeng; Smethurst, Elizabeth; Faller, William J.; Veltman, Douwe M.; Kalna, Gabriela; Lindsay, Colin; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Sansom, Owen J.; Herd, Robert; Jones, Robert; Machesky, Laura M.; Wakelam, Michael J. O.; Knecht, David A.; Insall, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality of melanoma is caused by rapid spread of cancer cells, which occurs unusually early in tumour evolution. Unlike most solid tumours, thickness rather than cytological markers or differentiation is the best guide to metastatic potential. Multiple stimuli that drive melanoma cell migration have been described, but it is not clear which are responsible for invasion, nor if chemotactic gradients exist in real tumours. In a chamber-based assay for melanoma dispersal, we find that cells migrate efficiently away from one another, even in initially homogeneous medium. This dispersal is driven by positive chemotaxis rather than chemorepulsion or contact inhibition. The principal chemoattractant, unexpectedly active across all tumour stages, is the lipid agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acting through the LPA receptor LPAR1. LPA induces chemotaxis of remarkable accuracy, and is both necessary and sufficient for chemotaxis and invasion in 2-D and 3-D assays. Growth factors, often described as tumour attractants, cause negligible chemotaxis themselves, but potentiate chemotaxis to LPA. Cells rapidly break down LPA present at substantial levels in culture medium and normal skin to generate outward-facing gradients. We measure LPA gradients across the margins of melanomas in vivo, confirming the physiological importance of our results. We conclude that LPA chemotaxis provides a strong drive for melanoma cells to invade outwards. Cells create their own gradients by acting as a sink, breaking down locally present LPA, and thus forming a gradient that is low in the tumour and high in the surrounding areas. The key step is not acquisition of sensitivity to the chemoattractant, but rather the tumour growing to break down enough LPA to form a gradient. Thus the stimulus that drives cell dispersal is not the presence of LPA itself, but the self-generated, outward-directed gradient. PMID:25313567

  7. Regulation of viability, differentiation and death of human melanoma cells carrying neural stem cell biomarkers: a possibility for neural trans-differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2015-07-01

    During embryonic development, melanoblasts, the precursors of melanocytes, emerge from a subpopulation of the neural crest stem cells and migrate to colonize skin. Melanomas arise during melanoblast differentiation into melanocytes and from young proliferating melanocytes through somatic mutagenesis and epigenetic regulations. In the present study, we used several human melanoma cell lines from the sequential phases of melanoma development (radial growth phase, vertical growth phase and metastatic phase) to compare: (i) the frequency and efficiency of the induction of cell death via apoptosis and necroptosis; (ii) the presence of neural and cancer stem cell biomarkers as well as death receptors, DR5 and FAS, in both adherent and spheroid cultures of melanoma cells; (iii) anti-apoptotic effects of the endogenous production of cytokines and (iv) the ability of melanoma cells to perform neural trans-differentiation. We demonstrated that programed necrosis or necroptosis, could be induced in two metastatic melanoma lines, FEMX and OM431, while the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis was prevalent in a vast majority of melanoma lines. All melanoma lines used in the current study expressed substantial levels of pluripotency markers, SOX2 and NANOG. There was a trend for increasing expression of Nestin, an early neuroprogenitor marker, during melanoma progression. Most of the melanoma lines, including WM35, FEMX and A375, can grow as a spheroid culture in serum-free media with supplements. It was possible to induce neural trans-differentiation of 1205Lu and OM431 melanoma cells in serum-free media supplemented with insulin. This was confirmed by the expression of neuronal markers, doublecortin and β3-Tubulin, by significant growth of neurites and by the negative regulation of this process by a dominant-negative Rac1N17. These results suggest a relative plasticity of differentiated melanoma cells and a possibility for their neural trans-differentiation without the

  8. Actin remodeling confers BRAF inhibitor resistance to melanoma cells through YAP/TAZ activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Jongshin; Hong, Hyowon; Lee, Si-Hyung; Lee, June-Koo; Jung, Eunji; Kim, Joon

    2016-03-01

    The activation of transcriptional coactivators YAP and its paralog TAZ has been shown to promote resistance to anti-cancer therapies. YAP/TAZ activity is tightly coupled to actin cytoskeleton architecture. However, the influence of actin remodeling on cancer drug resistance remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a pivotal role of actin remodeling in YAP/TAZ-dependent BRAF inhibitor resistance in BRAF V600E mutant melanoma cells. Melanoma cells resistant to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4032 exhibit an increase in actin stress fiber formation, which appears to promote the nuclear accumulation of YAP/TAZ. Knockdown of YAP/TAZ reduces the viability of resistant melanoma cells, whereas overexpression of constitutively active YAP induces resistance. Moreover, inhibition of actin polymerization and actomyosin tension in melanoma cells suppresses both YAP/TAZ activation and PLX4032 resistance. Our siRNA library screening identifies actin dynamics regulator TESK1 as a novel vulnerable point of the YAP/TAZ-dependent resistance pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of actin remodeling is a potential strategy to suppress resistance in BRAF inhibitor therapies.

  9. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral effect of curcumin against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Odot, Johann; Albert, Philippe; Carlier, Annie; Tarpin, Michel; Devy, Jérôme; Madoulet, Claudie

    2004-09-01

    Curcumin, the active ingredient from the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), is known to be an anti-oxidant and an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been demonstrated recently to possess anti-angiogenic effects and pro-apoptotic activities against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. In the current study, curcumin was found to be cytotoxic in vitro for B16-R melanoma cells resistant to doxorubicin either cultivated as monolayers or grown in three-dimensional (3-D) cultures (spheroids). We have demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect observed in the 2 culture types can be related to the induction of programmed cell death. In our in vivo studies, we examined the effectiveness of a prophylactic immune preparation of soluble proteins from B16-R cells, or a treatment with curcumin as soon as tumoral appearance, alone or in combination, on the murine melanoma B16-R. The combination treatment resulted in substantial inhibition of growth of B16-R melanoma, whereas each treatment by itself showed little effect. Moreover, animals receiving the combination therapy exhibited an enhancement of their humoral anti-soluble B16-R protein immune response and a significant increase in their median survival time (> 82.8% vs. 48.6% and 45.7% respectively for the immunized group and the curcumin-treated group). Our study shows that curcumin may provide a valuable tool for the development of a therapeutic combination against the melanoma. PMID:15221965

  10. Vemurafenib enhances MHC induction in BRAFV600E homozygous melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Bishu; Hill, Charles E.; Pollack, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    To optimally integrate targeted kinase inhibitors and immunotherapies in the treatment of melanoma, it will be critical to understand how BRAFV600E mutational status and BRAFV600E inhibition influence the expression of genes that govern antitumor immune responses. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are critical for interactions between tumor cells and lymphocytes, we investigated the impact of BRAFV600E-selective inhibitors on the expression of MHC molecules. We found that the treatment of A375 melanoma cells with vemurafenib enhances the induction of MHC Class I and Class II molecules by interferon γ and IFNα2b. Consistent with these findings, we observed that the forced overexpression of BRAFV600E has the opposite effect and can repress the baseline expression of MHC Class I molecules in A375 cells. Further studies utilizing eight other melanoma cell lines revealed that the vemurafenib-mediated enhancement of MHC induction by IFNγ only occurs in the context of homozygous, but not heterozygous, BRAFV600E mutation. These findings suggest that BRAFV600Eactivity directly influences the expression of MHC molecules and the response to Type I and Type II IFNs. Furthermore, our data suggest that the effect of vemurafenib on the expression of immune system-relevant genes may depend on the zygosity of the BRAFV600E mutation, which is not routinely assessed in melanoma patients. PMID:23483066

  11. Enhancing anti-melanoma immunity by electrochemotherapy and in vivo dendritic-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Gerlini, Gianni; Di Gennaro, Paola; Borgognoni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Combining electrochemotherapy with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy is a promising strategy against human metastatic melanoma that deserves to be clinically assessed. While electrochemotherapy induces a rapid regression of metastases, immunotherapy generates systemic anticancer immunity, contributes to eradicate the tumor and maintains an immunological memory to control relapse. PMID:23264927

  12. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma.

  13. Inhibition of Src family kinases with dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Ralf; Mesa, Tania; Vultur, Adina; Lee, Frank; Jove, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Src family kinases (SFK) are involved in regulating a multitude of biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival, depending on the cellular context. Therefore, although SFKs are currently being investigated as potential targets for treatment strategies in various cancers, the biological responses to inhibition of SFK signaling in any given tumor type are not predictable. Dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor with potent antiproliferative activity against hematologic malignancies harboring activated BCR-ABL. In this study, we show that dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells without affecting proliferation and survival. Moreover, dasatinib completely inhibits SFK kinase activity at low nanomolar concentrations in all eight human melanoma cell lines investigated. In addition, two known downstream targets of SFKs, focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)), are inhibited with similar concentrations and kinetics. Consistent with inhibition of these signaling pathways and invasion, dasatinib down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. We also provide evidence that dasatinib directly inhibits kinase activity of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed and/or overactive in many solid tumors, including melanoma. Thus, SFKs and downstream signaling are implicated as having key roles in migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  14. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma. PMID:27169173

  15. Inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohguchi, Kenji; Koike, Minako; Suwa, Yoshihide; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Mizutani, Yuki; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Akao, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    We examined the effect of whisky congeners, substances other than ethanol in whisky, on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Treatment with whisky congeners significantly blocked melanogenesis. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on melanogenesis is due to direct inhibition of tyrosinase activity and to suppression of tyrosinase protein levels.

  16. Cyclopedic protein expression analysis of cultured canine mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells from six tumours.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Watanabe, M; Ohashi, E; Uyama, R; Takauji, S; Mochizuki, M; Nishimura, R; Ogawa, H; Sugano, S; Sasaki, N

    2006-06-01

    We characterised cultured canine mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells by exhaustive step protein expression analysis to identify factors associated with tumour progression or metastasis of canine mammary gland tumour. Cultured adenocarcinoma cells derived from a total of 3 primary and 3 metastatic lesions from 3 dogs (CHMp/m, CIPp/m and CNMp/m, where CHM, CIP, and CNM indicate the 3 animals) were used in this study. The expression of 24 proteins reported to be related to tumourigenesis or malignancy of human breast cancers were examined by Western blot analysis using 24 antibodies. The expression of sialyl Lewis X [sLe(x)] was only observed in CHMm cells, which were derived from pleural effusion. This expression was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The levels of some factors, such as 14-3-3sigma, cyclinD1 and Rb, differed among cells or between the primary and metastatic cells in the pair. Though the difference in their expression was not consistent within the cells from primary and metastatic origin, this characterisation should provide useful information for further molecular analysis of these cultured cells. Since some of the factors, such as sLe(x), 14-3-3sigma, cyclinD1 and Rb, showed different levels of expression in the pair, these cultured cells might be meaningful tools for clarification of distant metastasis in canine mammary gland tumours.

  17. A Subset of Nuclear Receptors are Uniquely Expressed in Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kenneth Edward; Carstens, Ryan; Martinez, Elisabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. Nearly 50% of UM patients develop untreatable and fatal metastases. The 48-member nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily represents a therapeutically targetable group of transcription factors known for their regulation of key cancer pathways in numerous tumor types. Here, we profiled the expression of the 48 human NRs by qRT-PCR across a melanoma cell line panel including 5 UM lines, 9 cutaneous melanoma (CM) lines, and normal primary melanocytes. NR expression patterns identified a few key features. First, in agreement with our past studies identifying RXRg as a CM-specific marker, we found that UM cells also exhibit high levels of RXRg expression, making it a universal biomarker for melanoma tumors. Second, we found that LXRb is highly expressed in both UM and CM lines, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic target in a UM metastatic setting as it has been in CM models. Third, we found that RARg, PPARd, EAR2, RXRa, and TRa expressions could subdivide UM from CM. Previous studies of UM cancers identified key mutations in three genes: GNAQ, GNA11, and BRAF. We found unique NR expression profiles associated with each of these UM mutations. We then performed NR-to-NR and NR-to-genome expression correlation analyses to find potential NR-driven transcriptional programs activated in UM and CM. Specifically, RXRg controlled gene networks were identified that may drive melanoma-specific signaling and metabolism. ERRa was identified as a UM-defining NR and genes correlated with its expression confirm the role of ERRa in metabolic control. Given the plethora of available NR agonists, antagonists, and selective receptor modulators, pharmacologic manipulation of these NRs and their transcriptional outputs may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of key UM pathways and how we can leverage them for better therapeutic alternatives. PMID:26217306

  18. In vivo anti-melanoma efficacy of allo-restricted CTLs specific for melanoma expanded by artificial antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-ling; Jiang, Xiao-bing; Liu, Ru-en; Zhang, Sheng-min; Liang, Z-h

    2009-04-01

    Cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are key effectors in the immunotherapy of malignant and viral diseases. However, autologous T cell responses to tumor antigens presented by self-MHC are usually weak and ineffective. Allo-restricted T cells represent a potent source of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. This study reports in vivo anti-melanoma efficacy of the pTRP2-specific allo-restricted CTLs expanded from the BALB/c splenocytes by multiple stimulations with aAPCs made by coating H-2K(b)-Ig/pTRP2 dimeric complexes, anti-CD28 antibody, 4-1BBL molecules and CD83 molecules to cell-sized latex beads. The induced allo-restricted CTLs exhibited specific lysis against RMA-S cells pulsed with the peptide pTRP2 and H-2K(b+) melanoma cells expressing TRP2, while a murine Lewis lung carcinoma cell line 3LL could not be recognized by the CTLs. The peptide-specific activity was inhibited by anti-H-2K(b) monoclonal antibody Y3. Adoptive transfer of the allo-restricted CTLs specific for malignant melanoma expanded by the aAPCs can mediate effective anti-melanoma response in vivo. These results suggested that the specific allo-restricted CTLs expanded by aAPCs coated with an MHC-Ig/peptide complex, anti-CD28 antibody, 4-1BBL and CD83 could be a potential option of specific immunotherapy for patients with malignant melanoma. PMID:18682943

  19. Molecular changes induced by the curcumin analogue D6 in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previous report, we described the in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of a hydroxylated biphenyl (D6), a structural analogue of curcumin, on malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma tumours. In this paper, we investigated the molecular changes induced by such a compound, underlying cell growth arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells. Results To shed light on the mechanisms of action of D6, we firstly demonstrated its quick cellular uptake and subsequent block of cell cycle in G2/M phase transition. A gene expression profile analysis of D6-treated melanoma cells and fibroblasts was then carried out on high density microarrays, to assess gene expression changes induced by this compound. The expression profile study evidenced both an induction of stress response pathways and a modulation of cell growth regulation mechanisms. In particular, our data suggest that the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of D6 in melanoma could be partially driven by up-regulation of the p53 signalling pathways as well as by down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-kB pathways. Modulation of gene expression due to D6 treatment was verified by western blot analysis for single proteins of interest, confirming the results from the gene expression profile analysis. Conclusions Our findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of D6, through a comprehensive description of the molecular changes induced by this compound at the gene expression level, in agreement with the previously reported anti-tumour effects on melanoma cells. PMID:23642048

  20. CpG island methylation profiling in human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Carmen S; Shen, Lanlan; Estécio, Marcos R H; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2009-06-01

    A better understanding of key molecular changes during the pathogenesis of melanoma could impact strategies to reduce mortality from this cancer. Two epigenetic events involved in the pathogenesis of cancer are hypermethylation of tumor-suppressor gene promoters associated with transcriptional repression and hypomethylation associated with gene reexpression and genomic instability. We analyzed 16 melanoma cell lines for aberrant hypermethylation of 15 cancer-linked genes (ER alpha, MGMT, RAR beta 2, RIL, RASSF1A, PAX7, PGR beta, PAX2, NKX2-3, OLIG2, HAND1, ECAD, CDH13, MLH1, and p16) and hypomethylation of two genes (MAGEA1, maspin) and two repetitive sequences (LINE-1 and Alu) using pyrosequencing. We observed hypermethylation of ER alpha in 50% of the cell lines, MGMT (50%), RAR beta 2 (44%), RIL (88%), RASSF1A (69%), PAX7 (31%), PGR beta (56%), PAX2 (38%), NKX2-3 (63%), OLIG2 (63%), HAND1 (63%), ECAD (88%), CDH13 (44%), MLH1 (0%), and p16 (6%). In human melanoma cell lines, hypomethylation of MAGEA1 (44%), maspin (25%), LINE-1 (75%), and Alu (13%) is frequently observed. We analyzed a panel of cell lines for BRAF V600E and NRAS codon 61 mutations. In melanoma cell lines, the BRAF and NRAS mutations had no association with aberrant methylation. We found that the cumulative aberrant hypermethylation of the gene promoters was correlated with the level of global DNA methylation. We conclude that aberrant hypermethylation, is frequent in melanoma cell lines, directly correlated with global DNA methylation, and independent of BRAF and NRAS mutations.

  1. TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen–specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, Joe-Marc; Pagliano, Ornella; Fourcade, Julien; Sun, Zhaojun; Wang, Hong; Sander, Cindy; Kirkwood, John M.; Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy; Maurer, Mark; Korman, Alan J.; Zarour, Hassane M.

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, Tregs, and NK cells. Here, we determined that TIGIT is upregulated on tumor antigen–specific (TA-specific) CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with melanoma, and these TIGIT-expressing CD8+ T cells often coexpress the inhibitory receptor PD-1. Moreover, CD8+ TILs from patients exhibited downregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD226, which competes with TIGIT for the same ligand, supporting a TIGIT/CD226 imbalance in metastatic melanoma. TIGIT marked early T cell activation and was further upregulated by T cells upon PD-1 blockade and in dysfunctional PD-1+TIM-3+ TA-specific CD8+ T cells. PD-1+TIGIT+, PD-1–TIGIT+, and PD-1+TIGIT– CD8+ TILs had similar functional capacities ex vivo, suggesting that TIGIT alone, or together with PD-1, is not indicative of T cell dysfunction. However, in the presence of TIGIT ligand–expressing cells, TIGIT and PD-1 blockade additively increased proliferation, cytokine production, and degranulation of both TA-specific CD8+ T cells and CD8+ TILs. Collectively, our results show that TIGIT and PD-1 regulate the expansion and function of TA-specific CD8+ T cells and CD8+ TILs in melanoma patients and suggest that dual TIGIT and PD-1 blockade should be further explored to elicit potent antitumor CD8+ T cell responses in patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:25866972

  2. Comparison of primer sets for T-cell clonality testing in canine intestinal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, Masamine; Kagawa, Yumiko

    2015-09-01

    Clonality testing based on polymerase chain reaction is an important tool for diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases. Many primers have been designed and used for canine clonality testing. Canine intestinal lymphoma is usually diagnosed pathologically by examination of excised intestinal or endoscopic biopsy tissues, and clonality testing is sometimes used to support the pathological diagnosis if this examination is inconclusive. In the present study, the sensitivity of each previously published primer set for clonality testing was examined by using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 39 cases pathologically diagnosed as canine intestinal lymphoma (large-cell type). All 39 cases were immunohistochemically positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)3. Thirty-two out of the 39 cases showed clonality in the T-cell receptor gamma (TRG) with at least 1 of the tested primers. The primer set with the highest sensitivity detected all 32 cases with TRG clonality, with a sensitivity of 82.1%. These results provide useful evidence for the selection of primer sets for clonality testing of canine intestinal lymphoma.

  3. Characterization of HOX gene expression in canine mammary tumour cell lines from spontaneous tumours.

    PubMed

    DeInnocentes, P; Perry, A L; Graff, E C; Lutful Kabir, F M; Curtis Bird, R

    2015-09-01

    Spatial/temporal controls of development are regulated by the homeotic (HOX) gene complex and require integration with oncogenes and tumour suppressors regulating cell cycle exit. Spontaneously derived neoplastic canine mammary carcinoma cell models were investigated to determine if HOX expression profiles were associated with neoplasia as HOX genes promote neoplastic potential in human cancers. Comparative assessment of human and canine breast cancer expression profiles revealed remarkable similarity for all four paralogous HOX gene clusters and several unlinked HOX genes. Five canine HOX genes were overexpressed with expression profiles consistent with oncogene-like character (HOXA1, HOXA13, HOXD4, HOXD9 and SIX1) and three HOX genes with underexpressed profiles (HOXA11, HOXC8 and HOXC9) were also identified as was an apparent nonsense mutation in HOXC6. This data, as well as a comparative analysis of similar data from human breast cancers suggested expression of selected HOX genes in canine mammary carcinoma could be contributing to the neoplastic phenotype. PMID:24034269

  4. Characterization of HOX gene expression in canine mammary tumour cell lines from spontaneous tumours.

    PubMed

    DeInnocentes, P; Perry, A L; Graff, E C; Lutful Kabir, F M; Curtis Bird, R

    2015-09-01

    Spatial/temporal controls of development are regulated by the homeotic (HOX) gene complex and require integration with oncogenes and tumour suppressors regulating cell cycle exit. Spontaneously derived neoplastic canine mammary carcinoma cell models were investigated to determine if HOX expression profiles were associated with neoplasia as HOX genes promote neoplastic potential in human cancers. Comparative assessment of human and canine breast cancer expression profiles revealed remarkable similarity for all four paralogous HOX gene clusters and several unlinked HOX genes. Five canine HOX genes were overexpressed with expression profiles consistent with oncogene-like character (HOXA1, HOXA13, HOXD4, HOXD9 and SIX1) and three HOX genes with underexpressed profiles (HOXA11, HOXC8 and HOXC9) were also identified as was an apparent nonsense mutation in HOXC6. This data, as well as a comparative analysis of similar data from human breast cancers suggested expression of selected HOX genes in canine mammary carcinoma could be contributing to the neoplastic phenotype.

  5. Generation and characterization of LIF-dependent canine induced pluripotent stem cells from adult dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Deanne J; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2012-08-10

    Dogs provide a more clinically relevant model of human disease than rodents, particularly with respect to hereditary diseases. Thus, the availability of canine stem cells will greatly facilitate the use of the dog in the development of stem cell-based gene therapies and regenerative medicine. In this study we describe the production of canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) from adult dermal fibroblasts. These cells have a morphology resembling previously described canine embryonic stem cells, a normal karyotype, and express pluripotency markers including alkaline phosphatase, Nanog, Oct4, Telomerase, SSEA1, SSEA4, TRA1-60, TRA1-81, and Rex1. Furthermore, the inactive X chromosome is reactivated indicating a ground-state pluripotency. In culture they readily form embryoid bodies, which in turn give rise to cell types from all 3 embryonic germ layers, as indicated by expression of the definitive endoderm markers Cxcr4 and α-fetoprotein, mesoderm markers Collagen IIA and Gata2, and ectoderm markers βIII-tubulin, Enolase, and Nestin. Of particular significance is the observation that these ciPSCs are dependent only on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), making them similar to mouse and canine embryonic stem cells, but strikingly unlike the ciPSCs recently described in two other studies, which were dependent on both basic fibroblast growth factor and LIF in order to maintain their pluripotency. Thus, our ciPSCs closely resemble mouse ESCs derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos, while the previously described ciPSCs appear to be more representative of cells from the epiblast of mouse postimplantation embryos.

  6. Expression of Tissue Factor by Melanoma Cells Promotes Efficient Hematogenous Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Barbara M.; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Edgington, Thomas S.; Ruf, Wolfram

    1992-12-01

    Metastasis is a multistep process which requires highly adapted interactions of tumor cells with host target organs. Compared with nonmetastatic cells, metastatic human melanoma cells express 1000-fold higher levels of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of the plasma coagulation protease cascades. To explore whether TF may contribute to metastatic tumor dissemination, we analyzed the effect of specific inhibition of TF function on human melanoma metastasis in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using species-specific antibodies to TF, we demonstrate that initial adherence is insufficient for successful tumor cell implantation in a target organ. Rapid arrest of human tumor cells in the lungs of mice was not diminished by inhibition of TF. However, inhibition of TF receptor function and consequent reduction in local protease generation abolished prolonged adherence of tumor cells, resulting in significantly reduced numbers of tumor cells retained in the vasculature of the lungs. The growth of pulmonary metastases was also significantly inhibited by a blocking anti-TF monoclonal antibody and Fab fragments thereof, whereas a noninhibitory antibody lacked antimetastatic effects. Cell surface expression of functional TF thus contributes to melanoma progression by allowing metastatic cells to provide requisite signals for prolonged adhesive interactions and/or transmigration of tumor cells across the endothelium, resulting in successful metastatic tumor implantation.

  7. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for monitoring CDK4/cyclin D kinase activity in melanoma cell extracts, mouse xenografts and skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; González-Vera, Juan A; Henri, Pauline; Meunier, Laurent; Vollaire, Julien; Josserand, Véronique; Morris, May C

    2016-11-15

    Melanoma constitutes the most aggressive form of skin cancer, which further metastasizes into a deadly form of cancer. The p16(INK4a)-Cyclin D-CDK4/6-pRb pathway is dysregulated in 90% of melanomas. CDK4/Cyclin D kinase hyperactivation, associated with mutation of CDK4, amplification of Cyclin D or loss of p16(INK4a) leads to increased risk of developing melanoma. This kinase therefore constitutes a key biomarker in melanoma and an emerging pharmacological target, however there are no tools enabling direct detection or quantification of its activity. Here we report on the design and application of a fluorescent peptide biosensor to quantify CDK4 activity in melanoma cell extracts, skin biopsies and melanoma xenografts. This biosensor provides sensitive means of comparing CDK4 activity between different melanoma cell lines and further responds to CDK4 downregulation by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors. By affording means of monitoring CDK4 hyperactivity consequent to cancer-associated molecular alterations in upstream signaling pathways that converge upon this kinase, this biosensor offers an alternative to immunological identification of melanoma-specific biomarkers, thereby constituting an attractive tool for diagnostic purposes, providing complementary functional information to histological analysis, of particular utility for detection of melanoma onset in precancerous lesions. This is indeed the first fluorescent peptide biosensor which has been successfully implemented to monitor kinase activity in skin samples and melanoma tumour xenografts. Moreover by enabling to monitor response to CDK4 inhibitors, this biosensor constitutes an attractive companion assay to identify compounds of therapeutic relevance for melanoma. PMID:27203461

  8. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for monitoring CDK4/cyclin D kinase activity in melanoma cell extracts, mouse xenografts and skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; González-Vera, Juan A; Henri, Pauline; Meunier, Laurent; Vollaire, Julien; Josserand, Véronique; Morris, May C

    2016-11-15

    Melanoma constitutes the most aggressive form of skin cancer, which further metastasizes into a deadly form of cancer. The p16(INK4a)-Cyclin D-CDK4/6-pRb pathway is dysregulated in 90% of melanomas. CDK4/Cyclin D kinase hyperactivation, associated with mutation of CDK4, amplification of Cyclin D or loss of p16(INK4a) leads to increased risk of developing melanoma. This kinase therefore constitutes a key biomarker in melanoma and an emerging pharmacological target, however there are no tools enabling direct detection or quantification of its activity. Here we report on the design and application of a fluorescent peptide biosensor to quantify CDK4 activity in melanoma cell extracts, skin biopsies and melanoma xenografts. This biosensor provides sensitive means of comparing CDK4 activity between different melanoma cell lines and further responds to CDK4 downregulation by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors. By affording means of monitoring CDK4 hyperactivity consequent to cancer-associated molecular alterations in upstream signaling pathways that converge upon this kinase, this biosensor offers an alternative to immunological identification of melanoma-specific biomarkers, thereby constituting an attractive tool for diagnostic purposes, providing complementary functional information to histological analysis, of particular utility for detection of melanoma onset in precancerous lesions. This is indeed the first fluorescent peptide biosensor which has been successfully implemented to monitor kinase activity in skin samples and melanoma tumour xenografts. Moreover by enabling to monitor response to CDK4 inhibitors, this biosensor constitutes an attractive companion assay to identify compounds of therapeutic relevance for melanoma.

  9. B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib in combination with temozolomide and fotemustine in the killing response of malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Andrea; Merz, Stephanie; Switzeny, Olivier Jérôme; Christmann, Markus; Loquai, Carmen; Kaina, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of metastatic melanoma, a highly therapy-refractory cancer, alkylating agents are used and, for the subgroup of BRAFV600E cancers, the B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib. Although vemurafenib is initially beneficial, development of drug resistance occurs leading to tumor relapse, which necessitates the requirement for combined or sequential therapy with other drugs, including genotoxic alkylating agents. This leads to the question whether vemurafenib and alkylating agents act synergistically and whether chronic vemurafenib treatment alters the melanoma cell response to alkylating agents. Here we show that a) BRAFV600E melanoma cells are killed by vemurafenib, driving apoptosis, b) BRAFV600E melanoma cells are neither more resistant nor sensitive to temozolomide/fotemustine than non-mutant cells, c) combined treatment with vemurafenib plus temozolomide or fotemustine has an additive effect on cell kill, d) acquired vemurafenib resistance of BRAFV600E melanoma cells does not affect MGMT, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1, nor does it affect the resistance to temozolomide and fotemustine, e) metastatic melanoma biopsies obtained from patients prior to and after vemurafenib treatment did not show a change in the MGMT promoter methylation status and MGMT expression level. The data suggest that consecutive treatment with vemurafenib and alkylating drugs is a reasonable strategy for metastatic melanoma treatment. PMID:25557167

  10. Prevalence and heterogeneity of circulating tumour cells in metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Leila; Shenjere, Patrick; Hodgson, Clare; Hodgetts, Jackie; Clack, Glen; Hughes, Andrew; Lorigan, Paul; Dive, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are detectable by the MelCAM and high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA)-dependent CellSearch platform. However, CTCs which do not express these capture and detection markers are not detectable by CellSearch. Consequently, we explored the use of isolation by size of epithelial tumour cells (ISET), a marker independent, filtration-based device to determine the prevalence and heterogeneity of CTCs in metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients. Ninety patients were prospectively recruited and blood samples taken before treatment. Patients' blood was filtered using the ISET platform. CTCs were enumerated using dual immunohistochemistry with positive selection by S100 expression and exclusion of leucocytes and endothelial cells expressing CD45 or CD144, respectively. A panel of markers (Melan-A, MITF, MelCAM, high molecular melanoma-associated antigen, CD271 and MAGEC) was also examined. Fifty-one patients (57%) had CTCs (range 1-44 CTCs/4 ml blood) and 12 patients also had circulating tumour microemboli. Seven patients had S100- CTCs, 11 patients' CTCs were S100+ and 33 patients had S100+ and S100- CTCs. Substantial intrapatient and interpatient heterogeneity was observed for all other melanoma-associated markers. CTCs in metastatic cutaneous melanoma are detectable using the flexible marker-independent ISET platform. CTCs display significant marker expression heterogeneity implying that marker-dependent platforms would not detect all CTCs and multimarker assays are now required to reveal the biological significance of this CTC heterogeneity.

  11. Prevalence and heterogeneity of circulating tumour cells in metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Leila; Shenjere, Patrick; Hodgson, Clare; Hodgetts, Jackie; Clack, Glen; Hughes, Andrew; Lorigan, Paul; Dive, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are detectable by the MelCAM and high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA)-dependent CellSearch platform. However, CTCs which do not express these capture and detection markers are not detectable by CellSearch. Consequently, we explored the use of isolation by size of epithelial tumour cells (ISET), a marker independent, filtration-based device to determine the prevalence and heterogeneity of CTCs in metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients. Ninety patients were prospectively recruited and blood samples taken before treatment. Patients' blood was filtered using the ISET platform. CTCs were enumerated using dual immunohistochemistry with positive selection by S100 expression and exclusion of leucocytes and endothelial cells expressing CD45 or CD144, respectively. A panel of markers (Melan-A, MITF, MelCAM, high molecular melanoma-associated antigen, CD271 and MAGEC) was also examined. Fifty-one patients (57%) had CTCs (range 1-44 CTCs/4 ml blood) and 12 patients also had circulating tumour microemboli. Seven patients had S100- CTCs, 11 patients' CTCs were S100+ and 33 patients had S100+ and S100- CTCs. Substantial intrapatient and interpatient heterogeneity was observed for all other melanoma-associated markers. CTCs in metastatic cutaneous melanoma are detectable using the flexible marker-independent ISET platform. CTCs display significant marker expression heterogeneity implying that marker-dependent platforms would not detect all CTCs and multimarker assays are now required to reveal the biological significance of this CTC heterogeneity. PMID:24201293

  12. Clinically proven markers of metastasis predict metastatic spread of human melanoma cells engrafted in scid mice

    PubMed Central

    Thies, A; Mauer, S; Fodstad, O; Schumacher, U

    2007-01-01

    Metastasis formation is a complex process and as such can only be modelled in vivo. As markers indicating metastatic spread in syngenic mouse models differ significantly from those in man, this study aimed to develop a human melanoma xenograft mouse model that reflects the clinical situation. Six human melanoma cell lines (LOX, MV3, FEMX-1, G361, MeWo and UISO-Mel6) were xenografted into severe combined immunodeficient mice and tumour growth, metastatic behaviour and number of lung metastases were assessed. Tumours and metastases were analysed for HPA binding and expression of CEACAM-1 and L1, all markers indicative of metastasis in clinical studies. Development of primary tumour nodules ranged from 3 weeks (MV3) to 3 months (MeWo). Whereas G361 and FEMX-1 rarely formed lung metastases, MeWo, MV3 and LOX were moderately and UISO-Mel6 was highly metastatic. Similar to clinical studies, HPA, CEACAM1 and L1 indicated metastatic spread in the xenograft melanoma model, but were not all simultaneously expressed in all cell lines. Considering the strongest expression of one marker combined with an absent or low expression of the other two markers, we conclude that LOX is the cell line of choice for analyses of the functional role of HPA-binding glycoconjugates, UISO-Mel6 is ideally suited to study CEACAM1 function in melanoma spread and L1 function can best be modelled using MeWo. PMID:17262079

  13. Effect of adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium on the proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JU-HEE; PARK, CHUL HONG; CHUN, KWANG-HOON; HONG, SOON-SUN

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a population of cells derived from adipose tissue. ASCs exhibit multilineage development potential and are able to secrete various factors, which influence adjacent cells. Previous studies have reported the effectiveness of ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) in wound healing, anti-melanogenesis, wrinkle improvement and hair growth. In the present study, the anticancer function of ASC-CM was investigated in vitro and in vivo. An MTT assay revealed that ASC-CM significantly decreased the proliferation of B16 melanoma cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Cell cycle analysis indicated that ASC-CM significantly increased the number of cells in G1 phase while reducing the number of cells in the S and G2/M phases (P<0.01). Furthermore, a wound migration model demonstrated that ASC-CM treatment significantly decreased the migration ability of B16 melanoma cells (P<0.01). In addition, C57BL/6 mice were administered with a single intratumoral injection of ASC-CM, daily or every other day, and a significant reduction in the volume of the tumor mass was observed compared with that of the control group (P<0.01). Thus, the findings of the present study indicated that ASC-CM has an anti-tumorigenic effect on B16 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and may potentially be used to support the treatment of melanoma in the future. PMID:26622561

  14. The Tumor Antigen NY-ESO-1 Mediates Direct Recognition of Melanoma Cells by CD4+ T Cells after Intercellular Antigen Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Fonteneau, Jean Francois; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    NY-ESO-1–specific CD4+ T cells are of interest for immune therapy against tumors, because it has been shown that their transfer into a patient with melanoma resulted in tumor regression. Therefore, we investigated how NY-ESO-1 is processed onto MHC class II molecules for direct CD4+ T cell recognition of melanoma cells. We could rule out proteasome and autophagy-dependent endogenous Ag processing for MHC class II presentation. In contrast, intercellular Ag transfer, followed by classical MHC class II Ag processing via endocytosis, sensitized neighboring melanoma cells for CD4+ T cell recognition. However, macroautophagy targeting of NY-ESO-1 enhanced MHC class II presentation. Therefore, both elevated NY-ESO-1 release and macroautophagy targeting could improve melanoma cell recognition by CD4+ T cells and should be explored during immunotherapy of melanoma. PMID:26608910

  15. The Tumor Antigen NY-ESO-1 Mediates Direct Recognition of Melanoma Cells by CD4+ T Cells after Intercellular Antigen Transfer.

    PubMed

    Fonteneau, Jean Francois; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian; Gannagé, Monique

    2016-01-01

    NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells are of interest for immune therapy against tumors, because it has been shown that their transfer into a patient with melanoma resulted in tumor regression. Therefore, we investigated how NY-ESO-1 is processed onto MHC class II molecules for direct CD4(+) T cell recognition of melanoma cells. We could rule out proteasome and autophagy-dependent endogenous Ag processing for MHC class II presentation. In contrast, intercellular Ag transfer, followed by classical MHC class II Ag processing via endocytosis, sensitized neighboring melanoma cells for CD4(+) T cell recognition. However, macroautophagy targeting of NY-ESO-1 enhanced MHC class II presentation. Therefore, both elevated NY-ESO-1 release and macroautophagy targeting could improve melanoma cell recognition by CD4(+) T cells and should be explored during immunotherapy of melanoma.

  16. Inhibitory components from the buds of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Matsubara, Eri; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Sukaton, Edi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-03-01

    In the course to find a new whitening agent, we evaluated the methanol extract from bud of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells. Eugenol and eugenol acetate were isolated as the active compounds and showed melanin inhibition of 60% and 40% in B16 melanoma cell with less cytotoxicity at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, an essential oil prepared from the bud of clove, which contain eugenol and eugenol acetate as dominant components, showed melanin inhibition of 50% and 80% in B16 melanoma cells at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL, respectively.

  17. Cancer immunotherapy. A dendritic cell vaccine increases the breadth and diversity of melanoma neoantigen-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Carreno, Beatriz M; Magrini, Vincent; Becker-Hapak, Michelle; Kaabinejadian, Saghar; Hundal, Jasreet; Petti, Allegra A; Ly, Amy; Lie, Wen-Rong; Hildebrand, William H; Mardis, Elaine R; Linette, Gerald P

    2015-05-15

    T cell immunity directed against tumor-encoded amino acid substitutions occurs in some melanoma patients. This implicates missense mutations as a source of patient-specific neoantigens. However, a systematic evaluation of these putative neoantigens as targets of antitumor immunity is lacking. Moreover, it remains unknown whether vaccination can augment such responses. We found that a dendritic cell vaccine led to an increase in naturally occurring neoantigen-specific immunity and revealed previously undetected human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted neoantigens in patients with advanced melanoma. The presentation of neoantigens by HLA-A*02:01 in human melanoma was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Vaccination promoted a diverse neoantigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in terms of both TCR-β usage and clonal composition. Our results demonstrate that vaccination directed at tumor-encoded amino acid substitutions broadens the antigenic breadth and clonal diversity of antitumor immunity.

  18. Suppression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, but not NF-kappa B sensitizes melanoma specific cell death.

    PubMed

    Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Sahoo, Binay K; Manna, Sunil K

    2016-08-01

    Mutation in B-Raf leads to gain of function in melanoma and causes aggressive behavior for proliferation. Most of the therapeutics are ineffective in this scenario. However, regulation of this aggressive behavior by targeting the key molecules would be viable strategy to develop novel and effective therapeutics. In this report we provide evidences that the resveratrol is potent to regulate melanoma cell growth than other inducers of apoptosis. Resveratrol inhibits pronounced cell proliferation in melanoma than other tumor cell types. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry shows that the treatment with resveratrol results in S phase arrest. Resveratrol inhibits microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and its dependent genes without interfering the MITF DNA binding in vitro. Resveratrol-mediated cell death is protected in MITF overexpressed cells and it is aggravated in MITF knocked down cells. These suggest the resveratrol-mediated decrease in MITF is the possible cause of melanoma cell death. Though resveratrol-mediated downregulation of NF-κB is responsible for cell apoptosis, but the downregulation of MITF is the main reason for melanoma-specific cell death. Thus, resveratrol can be effective chemotherapeutic agent against rapid proliferative melanoma cells. PMID:27325430

  19. Establishment, characterization, and response to cytotoxic and radiation treatment of three human melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Courdi, A.; Gioanni, J.; Lalanne, C.M.; Fischel, J.L.; Schneider, M.; Ettore, F.; Lambert, J.C.

    1983-06-01

    Three human melanoma cell lines were derived from tumor specimens and established in culture. CAL 1 originated from a bone marrow metastasis and CAL 4 and CAL 7 were derived from solid tumor fragments. CAL 1 and CAL 7 were cloned before establishment. Ultrastructural and chromosome analysis were carried out along with the response to nine chemotherapeutic agents at various concentrations. Survival curves after irradiation were also plotted. The uncloned cell line, CAL 4, displayed some differences from the other two cell lines as regards ploidy and response to chemotherapy. Greater spread of chromosome numbers were observed with this cell line, which contained both hypoploid and a hyperploid modal numbers. All three cell lines showed a relatively high extrapolation number after irradiation, suggesting that inherent cellular properties may be partly responsible for the clinical radioresistance of malignant melanomas.

  20. L1 cell adhesion molecule induces melanoma cell motility by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Su; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-06-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is highly expressed in various types of cancer cells and has been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and motility. Recently, L1CAM was reported to induce the motility of melanoma cells, but the mechanism of this induction remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which L1CAM induces the motility of melanoma cells. Unlike other types of cancer cells, B16F10 melanoma cells highly expressed L1CAM at both the RNA and protein levels, and the expression of L1CAM induced AP-1 activity. In accordance to AP-1 activation, MAPK signaling pathways were activated by L1CAM. Inhibition of L1CAM expression by L1CAM-specific siRNA suppressed the activation of MAPKs such as ERK and p38. However, no significant change was observed in JNK activation. As expected, upstream MAP2K, MKK3/6, MAP3K, and TAK1 were also deactivated by the inhibition of L1CAM expression. L1CAM induced the motility of B16F10 cells. Inhibition of L1CAM expression suppressed migration and invasion of B16F10 cells, but no suppressive effect was observed on their proliferation and anti-apoptotic resistance. Treatment of B16F10 cells with U0126, an ERK inhibitor, or SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, suppressed the migration and invasion abilities of B16F10 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that L1CAM induces the motility of B16F10 melanoma cells via the activation of MAPK pathways. This finding provides a more detailed molecular mechanism of L1CAM-mediated induction of melanoma cell motility. PMID:24974583

  1. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate the expression of MGMT and chemosensitivity to temozolomide in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xi-Feng; Feng, Shou-Xin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive, highly lethal dermatological malignancy. Chemoresistance and rapid metastasis limit the curative effect of multimodal therapies like surgery or chemotherapy. The suicide enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes adducts from the O6-position of guanine to repair DNA damage. High MGMT expression is associated with resistance to therapy in melanoma. However, it is unknown if MGMT is regulated by DNA methylation or histone acetylation in melanoma. We examined the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A alone or in combination on MGMT expression and promoter methylation and histone acetylation in A375, MV3, and M14 melanoma cells. This study demonstrates that MGMT expression, CpG island methylation, and histone acetylation vary between melanoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A led to reexpression of MGMT, indicating that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are associated with silencing of MGMT in melanoma. This study provides information on the role of epigenetic modifications in malignant melanoma that may enable the development of new strategies for treating malignant melanoma. PMID:26943799

  2. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate the expression of MGMT and chemosensitivity to temozolomide in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xi-Feng; Feng, Shou-Xin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive, highly lethal dermatological malignancy. Chemoresistance and rapid metastasis limit the curative effect of multimodal therapies like surgery or chemotherapy. The suicide enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes adducts from the O6-position of guanine to repair DNA damage. High MGMT expression is associated with resistance to therapy in melanoma. However, it is unknown if MGMT is regulated by DNA methylation or histone acetylation in melanoma. We examined the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A alone or in combination on MGMT expression and promoter methylation and histone acetylation in A375, MV3, and M14 melanoma cells. This study demonstrates that MGMT expression, CpG island methylation, and histone acetylation vary between melanoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A led to reexpression of MGMT, indicating that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are associated with silencing of MGMT in melanoma. This study provides information on the role of epigenetic modifications in malignant melanoma that may enable the development of new strategies for treating malignant melanoma.

  3. Neurogenesis and precursor cell differences in the dorsal and ventral adult canine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Aileen; Dalton, Marshall; Sidhu, Kuldip; Sachdev, Perminder; Reynolds, Brent; Valenzuela, Michael

    2015-04-23

    During evolution a unique anterior-posterior flexure posited the canine dentate gyrus in two distinct dorsal and ventral positions. We therefore sought to explore neurogenesis and neurogenic cell-related difference along the canine hippocampal dorsal-ventral axis. Post mortem histological analysis revealed 49.1% greater doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and a 158.5% greater percentage of double labeled DCX-positive/neuronal nuclei (NeuN) positive cells in the dorsal subgranular zone compared to the ventral. We then show neural precursor cells isolated from fresh hippocampal tissue are capable of proliferating long term, and after differentiation, express neuronal and glial markers. Dorsal hippocampal isolates produced a 120.0% higher frequency of sphere-forming neural precursor cells compared to ventral hippocampal tissue. Histological DCX and neurosphere assay results were highly correlated. Overall, we provide the first evidence that the dorsal canine hippocampus has a markedly higher rate of adult neurogenesis than the ventral hippocampus, possibly related to a greater frequency of contributory neural precursor cells.

  4. Canine papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Lange, Christian E; Favrot, Claude

    2011-11-01

    Papillomaviruses can infect epithelia and induce proliferative disorders. Different types of canine papillomaviruses have been found to be associated with distinct pathologies including exophytic warts as in canine oral papillomatosis, endophytic warts, and pigmented plaques and, in some cases, squamous cell carcinomas. Virus infection is followed by a phase of subclinical infection before the onset of symptoms. A diagnosis can in some cases be made clinically but should be verified if there are any doubts. Most papillomas do regress spontaneously within a few months. Preventative vaccination is possible but not on the market.

  5. Ipilimumab administered to metastatic melanoma patients who progressed after dendritic cell vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Boudewijns, Steve; Koornstra, Rutger H. T.; Westdorp, Harm; Schreibelt, Gerty; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; Geukes Foppen, Marnix H.; Haanen, John B.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.; Figdor, Carl G.; Bol, Kalijn F.; Gerritsen, Winald R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Ipilimumab has proven to be effective in metastatic melanoma patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients who showed progressive disease upon experimental dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 48 stage IV melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab after progression upon DC vaccination earlier in their treatment. DC vaccination was given either as adjuvant treatment for stage III disease (n = 18) or for stage IV disease (n = 30). Ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) was administered every 3 weeks for up to 4 cycles. Results: Median time between progression upon DC vaccination and first gift of ipilimumab was 5.4 mo. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates for patients that received ipilimumab after adjuvant DC vaccination, and patients that received DC vaccination for stage IV melanoma, were 35% and 7% at 1 y and 35% and 3% at 2 y, while the median PFS was 2.9 mo and 3.1 mo, respectively. Median overall survival of patients pre-treated with adjuvant DC vaccination for stage III melanoma was not reached versus 8.0 mo (95% CI, 5.2–10.9) in the group pre-treated with DC vaccination for stage IV disease (HR of death, 0.36; p = 0.017). Grade 3 immune-related adverse events occurred in 19% of patients and one death (2%) was related to ipilimumab. Conclusions: Clinical responses to ipilimumab were found in a considerable number of advanced melanoma patients with progression after adjuvant DC vaccination for stage III disease, while the effect was very limited in patients who showed progression after DC vaccination for stage IV disease.

  6. Ipilimumab administered to metastatic melanoma patients who progressed after dendritic cell vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Boudewijns, Steve; Koornstra, Rutger H. T.; Westdorp, Harm; Schreibelt, Gerty; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; Geukes Foppen, Marnix H.; Haanen, John B.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.; Figdor, Carl G.; Bol, Kalijn F.; Gerritsen, Winald R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Ipilimumab has proven to be effective in metastatic melanoma patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients who showed progressive disease upon experimental dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 48 stage IV melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab after progression upon DC vaccination earlier in their treatment. DC vaccination was given either as adjuvant treatment for stage III disease (n = 18) or for stage IV disease (n = 30). Ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) was administered every 3 weeks for up to 4 cycles. Results: Median time between progression upon DC vaccination and first gift of ipilimumab was 5.4 mo. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates for patients that received ipilimumab after adjuvant DC vaccination, and patients that received DC vaccination for stage IV melanoma, were 35% and 7% at 1 y and 35% and 3% at 2 y, while the median PFS was 2.9 mo and 3.1 mo, respectively. Median overall survival of patients pre-treated with adjuvant DC vaccination for stage III melanoma was not reached versus 8.0 mo (95% CI, 5.2–10.9) in the group pre-treated with DC vaccination for stage IV disease (HR of death, 0.36; p = 0.017). Grade 3 immune-related adverse events occurred in 19% of patients and one death (2%) was related to ipilimumab. Conclusions: Clinical responses to ipilimumab were found in a considerable number of advanced melanoma patients with progression after adjuvant DC vaccination for stage III disease, while the effect was very limited in patients who showed progression after DC vaccination for stage IV disease. PMID:27622070

  7. Favorable overall survival in stage III melanoma patients after adjuvant dendritic cell vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bol, Kalijn F; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Hout, Florentien E M in 't; Schreibelt, Gerty; Creemers, Jeroen H A; Lesterhuis, W Joost; Gerritsen, Winald R; Grunhagen, Dirk J; Verhoef, Cornelis; Punt, Cornelis J A; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; de Wilt, Johannes H W; Figdor, Carl G; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma patients with regional metastatic disease are at high risk for recurrence and metastatic disease, despite radical lymph node dissection (RLND). We investigated the immunologic response and clinical outcome to adjuvant dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in melanoma patients with regional metastatic disease who underwent RLND with curative intent. In this retrospective study, 78 melanoma patients with regional lymph node metastasis who underwent RLND received autologous DCs loaded with gp100 and tyrosinase and were analyzed for functional tumor-specific T cell responses in skin-test infiltrating lymphocytes. The study shows that adjuvant DC vaccination in melanoma patients with regional lymph node metastasis is safe and induced functional tumor-specific T cell responses in 71% of the patients. The presence of functional tumor-specific T cells was correlated with a better 2-year overall survival (OS) rate. OS was significantly higher after adjuvant DC vaccination compared to 209 matched controls who underwent RLND without adjuvant DC vaccination, 63.6 mo vs. 31.0 mo (p = 0.018; hazard ratio 0.59; 95%CI 0.42–0.84). Five-year survival rate increased from 38% to 53% (p < 0.01). In summary, in melanoma patients with regional metastatic disease, who are at high risk for recurrence and metastatic disease after RLND, adjuvant DC vaccination is well tolerated. It induced functional tumor-specific immune responses in the majority of patients and these were related to clinical outcome. OS was significantly higher compared to matched controls. A randomized clinical trial is needed to prospectively validate the efficacy of DC vaccination in the adjuvant setting. PMID:26942068

  8. Non-thermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells via Production of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Sensenig, Rachel; Kalghatgi, Sameer; Cerchar, Ekaterina; Fridman, Gregory; Shereshevsky, Alexey; Torabi, Behzad; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Podolsky, Erica; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Brooks, Ari D.

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma may provide a novel approach to treat malignancies via induction of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of DBD plasma to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were exposed to plasma at doses that did not induce necrosis, and cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test, Annexin-V/PI staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL® analysis. Trypan blue staining revealed that non-thermal plasma treatment significantly decreased the viability of cells in a dose-dependent manner 3 and 24 h after plasma treatment. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed a significant increase in apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001). Caspase-3 cleavage was observed 48 h post-plasma treatment at a dose of 15 J/cm2. TUNEL® analysis of plasma-treated cells demonstrated an increase in apoptosis at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001) at a dose of 15 J/cm2. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 5 and 15 J/cm2. Plasma treatment induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through a pathway that appears to be dependent on production of intracellular ROS. DBD plasma production of intracellular ROS leads to dose-dependent DNA damage in melanoma cells, detected by γ-H2AX, which was completely abrogated by pre-treating cells with ROS scavenger, NAC. Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies. PMID:21046465

  9. Proteasomal Degradation of Mcl-1 by Maritoclax Induces Apoptosis and Enhances the Efficacy of ABT-737 in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kenichiro; Sharma, Arun K.; Wang, Hong-Gang; Amin, Shantu

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Metastatic melanoma remains one of the most invasive and highly drug resistant cancers. The over expression of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 has been associated with inferior survival, poor prognosis and chemoresistance of malignant melanoma. A BH3 mimetic, ABT-737, has demonstrated efficacy in several forms of cancers. However, the efficacy of ABT-737 depends on Mcl-1. Because the over expression of Mcl-1 is frequently observed in melanoma, specifically targeting of Mcl-1 may overcome the resistance of ABT-737. In this study, we investigated the effects of Maritoclax, a novel Mcl-1-selective inhibitor, alone and in combination with ABT-737, on the survival of human melanoma cells. Experimental approach For cell viability assessment we performed MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined using western blot and flow cytometric analysis. Key results The treatment of Maritoclax reduced the cell viability of melanoma cells with an IC50 of between 2.2–5.0 µM. Further, treatment of melanoma cells with Maritoclax showed significant decrease in Mcl-1 expression. We found that Maritoclax was able to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells in a caspase-dependent manner. Moreover, Maritoclax induced Mcl-1 degradation via the proteasome system, which was associated with its pro-apoptotic activity. We also found that Maritoclax treatment increased mitochondrial translocation of Bim and Bmf. Importantly, Maritoclax markedly enhanced the efficacy of ABT-737 against melanoma cells in both two- and three-dimensional spheroids. Conclusions and implications Taken together, these results suggest that targeting of Mcl-1 by Maritoclax may represent a new therapeutic strategy for melanoma treatment that warrants further investigation as a single therapy or in combination with other agents such as Bcl-2 inhibitors. PMID:24223823

  10. A non-canonical adenosinergic pathway led by CD38 in human melanoma cells induces suppression of T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Fabio; Morandi, Barbara; Horenstein, Alberto L; Chillemi, Antonella; Quarona, Valeria; Zaccarello, Gianluca; Carrega, Paolo; Ferlazzo, Guido; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Pistoia, Vito; Malavasi, Fabio

    2015-09-22

    Nucleotide-metabolizing ectoenzymes are endowed with an extracellular catalytic domain, which is involved in regulating the extracellular nucleotide/nucleoside balance. The tumor microenvironment contains high levels of adenosine (ADO) generated by this enzymatic network, thus promoting tumor growth by inhibiting anti-tumor immune responses. ADO inhibition in melanoma murine models limits tumor metastases and restores anti-tumor immune responses. This work investigates the expression and function of ectoenzymes in primary human melanoma cell lines. All of latter cells expressed CD38, CD39, CD73, and CD203a/PC-1, and produced ADO from AMP and NAD(+ )T cell proliferation. Accordingly, phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein, p38 and Stat1 was lower in activated memory cells than in naïve CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Melanoma cells also inhibited proliferation of naïve, memory and -to a lesser extent- of effector CD8(+) T cells. These different inhibitory effects correlated with distinct patterns of expression of the ADO receptor A2a and A2b. These results show that primary human melanoma cell lines suppress in vitro T cell proliferation through an adenosinergic pathway in which CD38 and CD73 play a prominent role. PMID:26329660

  11. Five decades of progress in hematopoietic cell transplantation based on the preclinical canine model

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, Marilena; Storb, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The preclinical canine model has proved valuable for the development of principles and techniques of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) applicable to human patients. Studies in random-bred dogs concerning the impact of histocompatibility barriers on engraftment and graft-versus-host disease, the kinetics of immunological reconstitution, the efficacy of various pre-transplant conditioning regimens, post-transplantation immunosuppression protocols, treatment of malignant diseases, and graft-versus-tumor effects have advanced HCT from an investigational therapy with uncertain clinical benefit half a century ago to an important treatment choice for thousands of patients treated annually in transplantation centers worldwide. More recent preclinical canine studies have resulted in the clinical translation of nonmyeloablative, minimally invasive transplantation protocols that have extended allogeneic HCT to include older human patients with malignant and non-malignant, acquired or inherited hematological disorders, and those with comorbid conditions. Here we review the contributions of the canine model to modern HCT and describe the usefulness of HCT for the treatment of canine hematological disorders. PMID:19754798

  12. Malignant potential of cells isolated from lymph node or brain metastases of melanoma patients and implications for prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R D; Price, J E; Schackert, G; Itoh, K; Fidler, I J

    1991-04-15

    We studied the correlation between the formation of brain metastasis and the malignant growth potential of seven human melanoma cell lines, isolated from lymph node metastases (A375-SM, TXM-1, DM-4) or from brain metastases (TXM-13, TXM-18, TXM-34, TXM-40), and the potential of three variants of the mouse K-1735 melanoma. Growth rates in different concentrations of fetal bovine serum and colony-forming efficiency in semisolid agarose were measured, and the tumorigenicity and metastatic ability were determined in nude mice (for the human melanoma cell lines) or in C3H/HeN mice (for the K-1735 variants). The ability to form brain metastasis was tested by injection of cells into the carotid artery. A high colony-forming efficiency in agarose, especially at concentrations of agarose greater than 0.6%, corresponded with high tumor take rates, rapid tumor growth rates, and metastatic colonization of the lungs of the recipient mice. For the human melanomas, the lymph node metastasis-derived cells were more tumorigenic and metastatic than the brain metastasis-derived cells. In the K-1735 mouse melanoma, the tumorigenic and metastatic behavior of the cells after i.v. and s.c. injection corresponded with growth in agarose cultures. However, for growth in the brain after intracarotid injection, the different melanoma cell lines showed similar frequencies of tumor take, regardless of tumorigenicity in other sites of the recipient mice, although mice given injections of brain metastasis-derived cells survived longer than mice given injections of lymph node metastasis (human melanoma) or lung metastasis (K-1735 M-2)-derived cell lines. The results from the human and mouse melanoma cell lines show that the brain metastasis-derived cell lines were not more malignant than the lymph node or lung metastasis-derived cells. These data imply that the production of brain metastasis is not always the final stage of a metastatic cascade. PMID:1826230

  13. Timosaponin AIII inhibits melanoma cell migration by suppressing COX-2 and in vivo tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Mo; Im, A-Rang; Kim, Seung Hyung; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin disease, due in large part to its propensity to metastasize. We examined the effects of timosaponin AIII, a compound isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, on melanoma cancer cell migration and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using B16-F10 and WM-115 melanoma cells lines. Overexpression of COX-2, its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4) promoted cell migration in vitro. Exposure to timosaponin AIII resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with reduced levels of COX-2, PGE2, and PGE2 receptors. Transient transfection of COX-2 siRNA also inhibited cell migration. Exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbal-13-acetate enhanced cell migration, whereas timosaponin AIII inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbal-13-acetate-induced cell migration and reduced basal levels of EP2 and EP4. Moreover, timosaponin AIII inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), an upstream regulator of COX-2 in B16-F10 cells. Consistent with our in vitro findings, in vivo studies showed that timosaponin AIII treatment significantly reduced the total number of metastatic nodules in the mouse lung and improved histological alterations in B16-F10-injected C57BL/6 mice. In addition, C57BL/6 mice treated with timosaponin AIII showed reduced expression of COX-2 and NF-κB in the lung. Together, these results indicate that timosaponin AIII has the capacity to inhibit melanoma cell migration, an essential step in the process of metastasis, by inhibiting expression of COX-2, NF-κB, PGE2, and PGE2 receptors.

  14. Development of a Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Vaccine Regimen in the Canine Model of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rosinski, Steven L.; Stone, Brad; Graves, Scott S.; Fuller, Deborah H.; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Spies, Gregory A.; Mize, Gregory J.; Fuller, James T.; Storb, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Background Minor histocompatibility (miHA) antigen vaccines have the potential to augment graft-versus-tumor effects without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We used mixed hematopoietic chimerism in the canine model of MHC-matched allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as a platform to develop a miHA vaccination regimen. Methods We engineered DNA plasmids and replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) constructs encoding large sections of canine SMCY and the entire canine SRY gene. Results Priming with rAd5 constructs and boosting with ex vivo plasmid-transfected dendritic cells and cutaneous delivery of plasmids with a particle-mediated epidermal delivery device (PMED) in two female dogs induced antigen-specific T cell responses. Similar responses were observed following a prime-boost vaccine regimen in three female HCT donors. Subsequent donor lymphocyte infusion resulted in a significant change of chimerism in 1 of 3 male recipients without any signs of GVHD. The change in chimerism in the recipient occurred in association with the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to the same peptide pools detected in the donor. Conclusions These studies describe the first in vivo response to miHA vaccination in a large, outbred animal model without using recipient cells to sensitize the donor. This model provides a platform for ongoing experiments designed to define optimal miHA targets, and develop protocols to directly vaccinate the recipient. PMID:25965411

  15. Irradiation affects cellular properties and Eph receptor expression in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mosch, Birgit; Pietzsch, Doreen; Pietzsch, Jens

    2012-01-01

    X-ray irradiation influences metastatic properties of tumor cells and, moreover, metastasis and cellular motility can be modified by members of the Eph receptor/ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases. We hypothesized that irradiation-induced changes in cellular properties relevant for metastasis in melanoma cells could be mediated by Eph receptor/ephrin signaling. In this pilot study, we analyzed one pre-metastatic (Mel-Juso) and three metastatic human melanoma (Mel-Juso-L3, A375, and A2058) cells lines and predominantly found anti-metastatic effects of X-ray irradiation with impaired cell growth, clonal growth and motility. Additionally, we observed an irradiation-induced increase in adhesion paralleled by a decrease in migration in Mel-Juso and Mel-Juso-L3 cells and, in part, also in A375 cells. We further demonstrate a decrease of EphA2 both in expression and activity at 7 d after irradiation paralleled by an upregulation of EphA3. Analyzing downstream signaling after irradiation, we detected decreased Src kinase phosphorylation, but unchanged focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, indicating, in part, irradiation-induced downregulation of signaling via the EphA2-Src-FAK axis in melanoma cells. However, to which extent this finding contributes to the modification of metastasis-relevant cellular properties remains to be elucidated. PMID:22568947

  16. Tumor stroma and chemokines control T-cell migration into melanoma following Temozolomide treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kar Wai; Evrard, Maximilien; Tham, Muly; Hong, Michelle; Huang, Caleb; Kato, Masashi; Prevost-Blondel, Armelle; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Ng, Lai Guan; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The infiltration of T lymphocytes within tumors is associated with better outcomes in cancer patients, yet current understanding of factors that influence T-lymphocyte infiltration into tumors remains incomplete. In our study, Temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat metastatic melanoma, induced T-cell infiltration into transplanted melanoma and into genitourinary (GU) tumors in mice developing spontaneous melanoma. In contrast, TMZ treatment did not increase T-cell infiltration into cutaneous tumors, despite similar increases in the expression of the (C-X-C) chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in all sites after TMZ exposure. Our findings reveal that the matrix architecture of the GU tumor stroma, and its ability to present CXCL9 and CXCL10 after TMZ treatment played a key role in favouring T-cell infiltration. We subsequently demonstrate that modifications of these key elements by combined collagenase and TMZ treatment induced T-cell infiltration into skin tumors. T cells accumulating within GU tumors after TMZ treatment exhibited T helper type-1 effector and cytolytic functional phenotypes, which are important for control of tumor growth. Our findings highlight the importance of the interaction between tumor stroma and chemokines in influencing T-cell migration into tumors, thereby impacting immune control of tumor growth. This knowledge will aid the development of strategies to promote T-cell infiltration into cancerous lesions and has the potential to markedly improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25949877

  17. Memory and effector CD8 T-cell responses after nanoparticle vaccination of melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Speiser, Daniel E; Schwarz, Katrin; Baumgaertner, Petra; Manolova, Vania; Devevre, Estelle; Sterry, Wolfram; Walden, Peter; Zippelius, Alfred; Conzett, Katrin Baumann; Senti, Gabriela; Voelter, Verena; Cerottini, Jean-Philippe; Guggisberg, David; Willers, Jörg; Geldhof, Christine; Romero, Pedro; Kündig, Thomas; Knuth, Alexander; Dummer, Reinhard; Trefzer, Uwe; Bachmann, Martin F

    2010-10-01

    Induction of cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses is enhanced by the exclusive presentation of antigen through dendritic cells, and by innate stimuli, such as toll-like receptor ligands. On the basis of these 2 principles, we designed a vaccine against melanoma. Specifically, we linked the melanoma-specific Melan-A/Mart-1 peptide to virus-like nanoparticles loaded with A-type CpG, a ligand for toll-like receptor 9. Melan-A/Mart-1 peptide was cross-presented, as shown in vitro with human dendritic cells and in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. A phase I/II study in stage II-IV melanoma patients showed that the vaccine was well tolerated, and that 14/22 patients generated ex vivo detectable T-cell responses, with in part multifunctional T cells capable to degranulate and produce IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. No significant influence of the route of immunization (subcutaneous versus intradermal) nor dosing regimen (weekly versus daily clusters) could be observed. It is interesting to note that, relatively large fractions of responding specific T cells exhibited a central memory phenotype, more than what is achieved by other nonlive vaccines. We conclude that vaccination with CpG loaded virus-like nanoparticles is associated with a human CD8 T-cell response with properties of a potential long-term immune protection from the disease. PMID:20842051

  18. Expression of high-affinity IL-4 receptors on human melanoma, ovarian and breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, N I; Siegel, J P; Varricchio, F; Puri, R K

    1994-01-01

    It has previously been shown that murine sarcoma cells express high-affinity IL-4 receptors (IL-4R) which are internalized after binding to the ligand (Puri et al., Cancer Res 1991; 51:3011-7). We have also reported that human renal cell carcinoma cells express high-affinity IL-4R, and IL-4 inhibits tumour growth in vitro (Obiri et al., J Clin Invest 1993; 91:88). In this study we investigated the expression and function of IL-4R on other human solid tumours. Human melanoma, ovarian carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines were assessed for the cell surface expression of IL-4R by radio-ligand receptor binding and for IL-4R gene expression by Northern blot analysis. Primary cultures of mesothelioma and neurofibrosarcoma cells were similarly investigated. Human melanoma, ovarian carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines expressed IL-4R on their cell surface with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 140-549 pM. These tumour lines expressed a single 4 kb species of mRNA for IL-4R. Similarly, primary cultures of mesothelioma and neurofibrosarcoma cells were positive for the IL-4R mRNA by Northern blot analysis. Fresh, non-cultured mesothelioma and neurofibrosarcoma tumour sections were also positive for the presence of IL-4R as determined by immunohistochemistry of frozen sections using anti-IL-4R antibody. In order to study possible functions of IL-4R, we evaluated the effects of IL-4 on cell growth and its effect on MHC antigen expression in the presence or absence of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In tissue culture, IL-4 reduced the growth of tumour cell lines and primary cell cultures studied. IL-4 had very little effect on MHC class I antigen expression on ovarian, breast and melanoma cell lines; however, MHC class II (HLA-DR) expression was enhanced on melanoma and breast carcinoma cells. IL-4 also enhanced the IFN-gamma-induced class II expression on melanoma and breast carcinoma cells. Taken together, our observations indicate that IL-4R are expressed on a variety of

  19. The activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is implicated in melanoma cell malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Serafino, A. Balestrieri, E.; Pierimarchi, P.; Matteucci, C.; Moroni, G.; Oricchio, E.; Rasi, G.; Mastino, A.; Spadafora, C.; Garaci, E.; Vallebona, P. Sinibaldi

    2009-03-10

    Melanoma development is a multi-step process arising from a series of genetic and epigenetic events. Although the sequential stages involved in progression from melanocytes to malignant melanoma are clearly defined, our current understanding of the mechanisms leading to melanoma onset is still incomplete. Growing evidence show that the activation of endogenous retroviral sequences might be involved in transformation of melanocytes as well as in the increased ability of melanoma cells to escape immune surveillance. Here we show that human melanoma cells in vitro undergo a transition from adherent to a more malignant, non-adherent phenotype when exposed to stress conditions. Melanoma-derived non-adherent cells are characterized by an increased proliferative potential and a decreased expression of both HLA class I molecules and Melan-A/MART-1 antigen, similarly to highly malignant cells. These phenotypic and functional modifications are accompanied by the activation of human endogenous retrovirus K expression (HERV-K) and massive production of viral-like particles. Down-regulation of HERV-K expression by RNA interference prevents the transition from the adherent to the non-adherent growth phenotype in low serum. These results implicate HERV-K in at least some critical steps of melanoma progression.

  20. Exceptional antineoplastic activity of a dendritic-cell-targeted vaccine loaded with a Listeria peptide proposed against metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucia; Freire, Javier; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Alaez-Alvarez, Lidia; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsóles; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) is proposed to induce lasting responses against melanoma but its survival benefit in patients needs to be demonstrated. We propose a DC-targeted vaccine loaded with a Listeria peptide with exceptional anti-tumour activity to prevent metastasis of melanoma. Mice vaccinated with vaccines based on DCs loaded with listeriolysin O peptide (91–99) (LLO91–99) showed clear reduction of metastatic B16OVA melanoma size and adhesion, prevention of lung metastasis, enhanced survival, and reversion of immune tolerance. Robust innate and specific immune responses explained the efficiency of DC-LLO91–99 vaccines against B16OVA melanoma. The noTable features of this vaccine related to melanoma reduction were: expansion of immune-dominant LLO91–99-specific CD8 T cells that helped to expand melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells; high numbers of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes with a cytotoxic phenotype; and a decrease in CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells. This vaccine might be a useful alternative treatment for advanced melanoma, alone or in combination with other therapies. PMID:26942874

  1. Limited genomic heterogeneity of circulating melanoma cells in advanced stage patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Carmen; Li, Julia; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Kolatkar, Anand; Kendall, Jude T.; Flores, Edna; Topp, Zheng; Samlowski, Wolfram E.; McClay, Edward; Bethel, Kelly; Ferrone, Soldano; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Purpose. Circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) constitute a potentially important representation of time-resolved tumor biology in patients. To date, genomic characterization of CMCs has been limited due to the lack of a robust methodology capable of identifying them in a format suitable for downstream characterization. Here, we have developed a methodology to detect intact CMCs that enables phenotypic, morphometric and genomic analysis at the single cell level. Experimental design. Blood samples from 40 metastatic melanoma patients and 10 normal blood donors were prospectively collected. A panel of 7 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was used to immunocytochemically label CMCs. Detection was performed by automated digital fluorescence microscopy and multi-parametric computational analysis. Individual CMCs were captured by micromanipulation for whole genome amplification and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Results. Based on CSPG4 expression and nuclear size, 1-250 CMCs were detected in 22 (55%) of 40 metastatic melanoma patients (0.5-371.5 CMCs ml-1). Morphometric analysis revealed that CMCs have a broad spectrum of morphologies and sizes but exhibit a relatively homogeneous nuclear size that was on average 1.5-fold larger than that of surrounding PBMCs. CNV analysis of single CMCs identified deletions of CDKN2A and PTEN, and amplification(s) of TERT, BRAF, KRAS and MDM2. Furthermore, novel chromosomal amplifications in chr12, 17 and 19 were also found. Conclusions. Our findings show that CSPG4 expressing CMCs can be found in the majority of advanced melanoma patients. High content analysis of this cell population may contribute to the design of effective personalized therapies in patients with melanoma.

  2. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai; Boehm, Beate; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Gutwein, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  3. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Le, Thuc T; Johlfs, Mary G; Fiscus, Ronald R; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1-positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ~40-80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1-containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. PMID:23318676

  4. Mesenchymal to amoeboid transition is associated with stem-like features of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellular plasticity confers cancer cells the ability to adapt to microenvironmental changes, a fundamental requirement for tumour progression and metastasis. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a transcriptional programme associated with increased cell motility and stemness. Besides EMT, the mesenchymal to amoeboid transition (MAT) has been described during tumour progression but to date, little is known about its transcriptional control and involvement in stemness. The aim of this manuscript is to investigate (i) the transcriptional profile associated with the MAT programme and (ii) to study whether MAT acquisition in melanoma cancer cells correlates with clonogenic potential to promote tumour growth. Results By using a multidisciplinary approach, we identified four different treatments able to induce MAT in melanoma cells: EphA2 overexpression, Rac1 functional inhibition using its RacN17 dominant negative mutant, stimulation with Ilomastat or treatment with the RhoA activator Calpeptin. First, gene expression profiling identified the transcriptional pathways associated with MAT, independently of the stimulus that induces the MAT programme. Notably, gene sets associated with the repression of mesenchymal traits, decrease in the secretion of extracellular matrix components as well as increase of cellular stemness positively correlate with MAT. Second, the link between MAT and stemness has been investigated in vitro by analysing stemness markers and clonogenic potential of melanoma cells undergoing MAT. Finally, the link between MAT inducing treatments and tumour initiating capability has been validated in vivo. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that MAT programme in melanoma is characterised by increased stemness and clonogenic features of cancer cells, thus sustaining tumour progression. Furthermore, these data suggest that stemness is not an exclusive feature of cells undergoing EMT, but more generally is associated with

  5. NCRs and DNAM-1 mediate NK cell recognition and lysis of human and mouse melanoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmikanth, Tadepally; Burke, Shannon; Ali, Talib Hassan; Kimpfler, Silvia; Ursini, Francesco; Ruggeri, Loredana; Capanni, Marusca; Umansky, Viktor; Paschen, Annette; Sucker, Antje; Pende, Daniela; Groh, Veronika; Biassoni, Roberto; Höglund, Petter; Kato, Masashi; Shibuya, Kazuko; Schadendorf, Dirk; Anichini, Andrea; Ferrone, Soldano; Velardi, Andrea; Kärre, Klas; Shibuya, Akira; Carbone, Ennio; Colucci, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    NK cells use a variety of receptors to detect abnormal cells, including tumors and their metastases. However, in the case of melanoma, it remains to be determined what specific molecular interactions are involved and whether NK cells control metastatic progression and/or the route of dissemination. Here we show that human melanoma cell lines derived from LN metastases express ligands for natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1), two emerging NK cell receptors key for cancer cell recognition, but not NK group 2 member D (NKG2D). Compared with cell lines derived from metastases taken from other anatomical sites, LN metastases were more susceptible to NK cell lysis and preferentially targeted by adoptively transferred NK cells in a xenogeneic model of cell therapy. In mice, DNAM-1 and NCR ligands were also found on spontaneous melanomas and melanoma cell lines. Interference with DNAM-1 and NCRs by antibody blockade or genetic disruption reduced killing of melanoma cells. Taken together, these results show that DNAM-1 and NCRs are critical for NK cell–mediated innate immunity to melanoma cells and provide a background to design NK cell–based immunotherapeutic strategies against melanoma and possibly other tumors. PMID:19349689

  6. Molecular mechanism implicated in Pemetrexed-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metastatic melanoma is a lethal skin cancer and its incidence is rising every year. It represents a challenge for oncologist, as the current treatment options are non-curative in the majority of cases; therefore, the effort to find and/or develop novel compounds is mandatory. Pemetrexed (Alimta®, MTA) is a multitarget antifolate that inhibits folate-dependent enzymes: thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase, required for de novo synthesis of nucleotides for DNA replication. It is currently used in the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and has shown clinical activity in other tumors such as breast, colorectal, bladder, cervical, gastric and pancreatic cancer. However, its effect in human melanoma has not been studied yet. Results In the current work we studied the effect of MTA on four human melanoma cell lines A375, Hs294T, HT144 and MeWo and in two NSCLC cell lines H1299 and Calu-3. We have found that MTA induces DNA damage, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and caspase- dependent and –independent apoptosis. We show that an increment of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 is required for MTA-induced cytotoxicity by utilizing N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) to blockage of ROS and p53-defective H1299 NSCLC cell line. Pretreatment of melanoma cells with NAC significantly decreased the DNA damage, p53 up-regulation and cytotoxic effect of MTA. MTA was able to induce p53 expression leading to up-regulation of p53-dependent genes Mcl-1 and PIDD, followed by a postranscriptional regulation of Mcl-1 improving apoptosis. Conclusions We found that MTA induced DNA damage and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells in vitro and that the associated apoptosis was both caspase-dependent and –independent and p53-mediated. Our data suggest that MTA may be of therapeutic relevance for the future treatment of human malignant melanoma. PMID:22537194

  7. Sema6A and Mical1 control cell growth and survival of BRAFV600E human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Rossella; Bon, Giulia; Perotti, Valentina; Gallo, Enzo; Bersani, Ilaria; Baldassari, Paola; Porru, Manuela; Leonetti, Carlo; Di Carlo, Selene; Visca, Paolo; Brizzi, Maria Felice; Anichini, Andrea; Mortarini, Roberta; Falcioni, Rita

    2015-01-01

    We used whole genome microarray analysis to identify potential candidate genes with differential expression in BRAFV600E vs NRASQ61R melanoma cells. We selected, for comparison, a peculiar model based on melanoma clones, isolated from a single tumor characterized by mutually exclusive expression of BRAFV600E and NRASQ61R in different cells. This effort led us to identify two genes, SEMA6A and MICAL1, highly expressed in BRAF-mutant vs NRAS-mutant clones. Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry confirmed preferential expression of Sema6A and Mical1 in BRAFV600E melanoma. Sema6A is a member of the semaphorin family, and it complexes with the plexins to regulate actin cytoskeleton, motility and cell proliferation. Silencing of Sema6A in BRAF-mutant cells caused cytoskeletal remodeling, and loss of stress fibers, that in turn induced cell death. Furthermore, Sema6A depletion caused loss of anchorage-independent growth, inhibition of chemotaxis and invasion. Forced Sema6A overexpression, in NRASQ61R clones, induced anchorage-independent growth, and a significant increase of invasiveness. Mical1, that links Sema/PlexinA signaling, is also a negative regulator of apoptosis. Indeed, Mical-1 depletion in BRAF mutant cells restored MST-1-dependent NDR phosphorylation and promoted a rapid and massive NDR-dependent apoptosis. Overall, our data suggest that Sema6A and Mical1 may represent new potential therapeutic targets in BRAFV600E melanoma. PMID:25576923

  8. BRAF inhibition decreases cellular glucose uptake in melanoma in association with reduction in cell volume

    PubMed Central

    Theodosakis, Nicholas; Held, Matthew A.; Marzuka-Alcala, Alexander; Meeth, Katrina M.; Micevic, Goran; Long, Georgina V.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Stern, David F.; Bosenberg, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    BRAF kinase inhibitors have dramatically impacted treatment of BRAFV600E/K-driven metastatic melanoma. Early responses assessed using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have shown dramatic reduction of radiotracer signal within two weeks of treatment. Despite high response rates, relapse occurs in nearly all cases, frequently at sites of treated metastatic disease. It remains unclear whether initial loss of 18FDG uptake is due to tumor cell death or other reasons. Here we provide evidence of melanoma cell volume reduction in a patient cohort treated with BRAF inhibitors. We present data demonstrating that BRAF inhibition reduces melanoma glucose uptake per cell, but that this change is no longer significant following normalization for cell volume changes. We also demonstrate that volume normalization greatly reduces differences in transmembrane glucose transport and hexokinase-mediated phosphorylation. Mechanistic studies suggest that this loss of cell volume is due in large part to decreases in new protein translation as a consequence of vemurafenib treatment. Ultimately, our findings suggest that cell volume regulation constitutes an important physiologic parameter that may significantly contribute to radiographic changes observed in clinic. PMID:25948295

  9. P-glycoprotein expression in canine mammary gland tumours related with myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, N-H; Hwang, Y-H; Im, K-S; Kim, J-H; Chon, S-K; Kim, H-Y; Sur, J-H

    2012-12-01

    P-glycoprotein is influential in chemotherapy-resistance in numerous cancers and has been widely studied in human breast cancer research, but is less studied in canine mammary gland tumour (MGT). The study was to evaluate P-glycoprotein expression and its localisations related with prognostic factors with monoclonal antibody C219, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of 68 cases of canine malignant (n=54) and benign (n=14) MGT. Additional immunofluorescence (IF) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were also performed. There was a novel finding that P-glycoprotein expression with C219 localised at two different cell types: epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial localised tumours were 5 benign (35.5%) and 21 malignant (63.6%), while epithelial localised tumours were 12 cases, all malignant (36.5%). Unlike conventional belief, semi-quantitative evaluation of IHC intensity scores of C219 expression in malignant MGT was related with favourable histopathological parameters. PMID:22554937

  10. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell

  11. Isolation, Genetic Manipulation, and Transplantation of Canine Spermatogonial Stem Cells: Progress Toward Transgenesis Through the Male Germ Line

    PubMed Central

    Harkey, Michael A.; Asano, Atsushi; Zoulas, Mary Ellen; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The dog is recognized as a highly predictive model for pre-clinical research. Its size, life span, physiology and genetics more closely match human parameters than do those of the mouse model. Investigations of the genetic basis of disease and of new regenerative treatments have frequently taken advantage of canine models. However, full utility of this model hasn’t been realized because of the lack of easy transgenesis. Blastocyst-mediated transgenic technology developed in mice has been very slow to translate to larger animals, and somatic cell nuclear transfer remains technically challenging, expensive, and low yield. Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation, which does not involve manipulation of ova or blastocysts, has proven to be an effective alternative approach for generating transgenic offspring in rodents, and in some large animals. Our recent demonstration that canine testis cells can engraft in a host testis, and generate donor-derived sperm, suggests that SSC transplantation may offer a similar avenue to transgenesis in the canine model. Here, we explore the potential of SSC transplantation in dogs as a means of generating canine transgenic models for pre-clinical models of genetic diseases. Specifically, we 1) established markers for identification and tracking canine spermatogonial cells; 2) established methods for enrichment and genetic manipulation of these cells; 3) described their behavior in culture; and 4) demonstrated engraftment of genetically manipulated SSC, and production of transgenic sperm. These findings help set the stage for generation of transgenic canine models via SSC transplantation. PMID:23690628

  12. Isolation, genetic manipulation, and transplantation of canine spermatogonial stem cells: progress toward transgenesis through the male germ-line.

    PubMed

    Harkey, Michael A; Asano, Atsushi; Zoulas, Mary Ellen; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The dog is recognized as a highly predictive model for preclinical research. Its size, life span, physiology, and genetics more closely match human parameters than do those of the mouse model. Investigations of the genetic basis of disease and of new regenerative treatments have frequently taken advantage of canine models. However, full utility of this model has not been realized because of the lack of easy transgenesis. Blastocyst-mediated transgenic technology developed in mice has been very slow to translate to larger animals, and somatic cell nuclear transfer remains technically challenging, expensive, and low yield. Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation, which does not involve manipulation of ova or blastocysts, has proven to be an effective alternative approach for generating transgenic offspring in rodents and in some large animals. Our recent demonstration that canine testis cells can engraft in a host testis, and generate donor-derived sperm, suggests that SSC transplantation may offer a similar avenue to transgenesis in the canine model. Here, we explore the potential of SSC transplantation in dogs as a means of generating canine transgenic models for preclinical models of genetic diseases. Specifically, we i) established markers for identification and tracking canine spermatogonial cells; ii) established methods for enrichment and genetic manipulation of these cells; iii) described their behavior in culture; and iv) demonstrated engraftment of genetically manipulated SSC and production of transgenic sperm. These findings help to set the stage for generation of transgenic canine models via SSC transplantation.

  13. mRNA-based dendritic cell immunization improves survival in ret transgenic mouse melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Sharbi-Yunger, Adi; Grees, Mareike; Tzehoval, Esther; Utikal, Jochen; Umansky, Viktor; Eisenbach, Lea

    2016-06-01

    Malignant melanoma is characterized by a rapid progression, metastasis to distant organs and resistance to chemo and radiotherapy. Although melanoma is capable of eliciting an immune response, the disease progresses and the overall results of immunotherapeutic clinical studies are not satisfactory. Recently, we have developed a novel genetic platform for improving an induction of peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells by dendritic cell (DC) based on membrane-anchored β2-microglobulin (β2m) linked to a selected antigenic peptide at the N-terminus and to the cytosolic domain of TLR4 at the C-terminus. In vitro transcribed mRNA transfection of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) resulted in an efficient coupling of peptide presentation and cell activation. In this research, we utilize the chimeric platform to induce an immune response in ret transgenic mice that spontaneously develop malignant skin melanoma and to examine its effect on the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice. Following immunization with chimeric construct system, we observe a significantly prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice as compared to the control group. Moreover, we see elevations in the frequency of CD62L(hi)CD44(hi) central and CD62L(lo)CD44(hi) effector memory CD8(+) T-cell subsets. Importantly, we do not observe any changes in frequencies of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the vaccinated groups. Our data suggest that this novel vaccination approach could be efficiently applied for the immunotherapy of malignant melanoma. PMID:27471629

  14. Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 promotes uveal melanoma cell growth and invasion by silencing of miR-140

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Sun, Peng; Zhou, Qi-ying; Gao, Xiangchun; Han, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) play a significant role in the development of tumor. However, the role of metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in uveal melanoma remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of MALAT1 was upregulated in the uveal melanoma tissues compared to normal tissues. Among them, MALAT1 was upregulated in 72% (18/25) uveal melanoma tissues compared to their paired normal tissues. Knockdown of MALAT1 suppressed uveal melanoma cell proliferation, colony information, invasion and migration. Moreover, we showed that knockdown of MALAT1 promoted miR-140 expression and suppressed Slug and ADAM10 expression in the MUM-2C cell. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-140 was downregulated in the uveal melanoma tissues compared to normal tissues and cell lines. The expression level of MALAT1 was inversely correlated with the expression level of miR-140 in uveal melanoma tissues. These results suggested that MALAT1 served as an oncogenic LncRNA in the development of uveal melanoma. PMID:27725873

  15. The Cytolytic Amphipathic β(2,2)-Amino Acid LTX-401 Induces DAMP Release in Melanoma Cells and Causes Complete Regression of B16 Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Mauseth, Brynjar; Camilio, Ketil André; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the ability of the amino acid derivative LTX-401 to induce cell death in cancer cell lines, as well as the capacity to induce regression in a murine melanoma model. Mode of action studies in vitro revealed lytic cell death and release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules, preceded by massive cytoplasmic vacuolization and compromised lysosomes in treated cells. The use of a murine melanoma model demonstrated that the majority of animals treated with intratumoural injections of LTX-401 showed complete and long-lasting remission. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of LTX-401 as an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:26881822

  16. Human melanoma cells transplanted into zebrafish proliferate, migrate, produce melanin, form masses and stimulate angiogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Haldi, Maryann; Ton, Christopher; Seng, Wen Lin; McGrath, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    In this research, we optimized parameters for xenotransplanting WM-266-4, a metastatic melanoma cell line, including zebrafish site and stage for transplantation, number of cells, injection method, and zebrafish incubation temperature. Melanoma cells proliferated, migrated and formed masses in vivo. We transplanted two additional cancer cell lines, SW620, a colorectal cancer cell line, and FG CAS/Crk, a pancreatic cancer cell line and these human cancers also formed masses in zebrafish. We also transplanted CCD-1092Sk, a human fibroblast cell line established from normal foreskin and this cell line migrated, but did not proliferate or form masses. We quantified the number of proliferating melanoma and normal skin fibroblasts by dissociating xenotransplant zebrafish, dispensing an aliquot of CM-DiI labeled human cells from each zebrafish onto a hemocytometer slide and then visually counting the number of fluorescently labeled cancer cells. Since zebrafish are transparent until approximately 30 dpf, the interaction of labeled melanoma cells and zebrafish endothelial cells (EC) can be visualized by whole-mount immunochemical staining. After staining with Phy-V, a mouse anti-zebrafish monoclonal antibody (mAb) that specifically labels activated EC and angioblasts, using immunohistology and 2-photon microscopy, we observed activated zebrafish EC embedded in human melanoma cell masses. The zebrafish model offers a rapid efficient approach for assessing human cancer cells at various stages of tumorigenesis. PMID:17051341

  17. Distinct cell tropism of canine distemper virus strains to adult olfactory ensheathing cells and Schwann cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Haas, Ludwig; Rohn, Karl; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wewetzer, Konstantin

    2009-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) can enter the brain via infection of olfactory neurons. Whether olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are also infected by CDV, and if yes, how they respond to the virus has remained enigmatic. Here, we exposed adult canine OECs in vitro to several attenuated (CDV-2544, CDV-R252, CDV-Ond, CDV-OndeGFP) and one virulent CDV strain (CDV-5804PeGFP) and studied their susceptibility compared to Schwann cells, a closely related cell type sharing the phagocytizing activity. We show that OECs and Schwann cells were infected by CDV strains albeit to different levels. Ten days post-infection (dpi), a mild to severe cytopathic effect ranging from single cell necrosis to layer detachment was noted. The percentage of infection increased during 10 dpi and viral progenies were detected in each culture using virus titration. Interestingly, CDV-2544, CDV-OndeGFP, and CDV-5804PeGFP predominantly infected OECs, while CDV-Ond targeted Schwann cells. No significant differences were found between the virulent and attenuated CDV strains. The observation of a CDV strain-specific cell tropism is evidence for significant molecular differences between OECs and Schwann cells. Whether these differences are either related to strain-specific distemper pathogenesis or support a role of OECs during CDV infection and virus spread needs to be addressed in future studies.

  18. The pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 induces cell apoptosis and inhibits the migration of human uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuiqing; Luo, Qingqiong; Cun, Biyun; Hu, Dan; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun; Chen, Fuxiang

    2012-01-01

    Uveal melanomas are highly metastatic and have high rate of recurrence due to the lack of effective systemic therapy. The identification of important survival pathways in uveal melanomas provides novel therapeutic targets for effective treatment. In the present study, we found that the NF-κB signaling pathway was constitutively and highly activated in uveal melanoma cells. Treatment with the pharmacological NF-κB specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 markedly decreased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In a dose-dependent setting, BAY11-7082 inhibited the proliferation and growth of uveal melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis without effect on cell cycle. The migration capacity of uveal melanoma cells was also significantly suppressed by BAY11-7082 treatment. Mechanistically, BAY11-7082 increased the activity of caspase 3 and reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, but did not influence the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, BAY11-7082 induced uveal melanoma cell apoptosis and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Collectively, the present study identified NF-κB as an important survival signal for uveal melanoma cells and suggested that administration of specific NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 could serve as an effective treatment for patients with uveal melanoma.

  19. The Pharmacological NF-κB Inhibitor BAY11-7082 Induces Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits the Migration of Human Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuiqing; Luo, Qingqiong; Cun, Biyun; Hu, Dan; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun; Chen, Fuxiang

    2012-01-01

    Uveal melanomas are highly metastatic and have high rate of recurrence due to the lack of effective systemic therapy. The identification of important survival pathways in uveal melanomas provides novel therapeutic targets for effective treatment. In the present study, we found that the NF-κB signaling pathway was constitutively and highly activated in uveal melanoma cells. Treatment with the pharmacological NF-κB specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 markedly decreased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In a dose-dependent setting, BAY11-7082 inhibited the proliferation and growth of uveal melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis without effect on cell cycle. The migration capacity of uveal melanoma cells was also significantly suppressed by BAY11-7082 treatment. Mechanistically, BAY11-7082 increased the activity of caspase 3 and reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, but did not influence the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, BAY11-7082 induced uveal melanoma cell apoptosis and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Collectively, the present study identified NF-κB as an important survival signal for uveal melanoma cells and suggested that administration of specific NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 could serve as an effective treatment for patients with uveal melanoma. PMID:23443086

  20. The pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 induces cell apoptosis and inhibits the migration of human uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuiqing; Luo, Qingqiong; Cun, Biyun; Hu, Dan; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun; Chen, Fuxiang

    2012-01-01

    Uveal melanomas are highly metastatic and have high rate of recurrence due to the lack of effective systemic therapy. The identification of important survival pathways in uveal melanomas provides novel therapeutic targets for effective treatment. In the present study, we found that the NF-κB signaling pathway was constitutively and highly activated in uveal melanoma cells. Treatment with the pharmacological NF-κB specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 markedly decreased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In a dose-dependent setting, BAY11-7082 inhibited the proliferation and growth of uveal melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis without effect on cell cycle. The migration capacity of uveal melanoma cells was also significantly suppressed by BAY11-7082 treatment. Mechanistically, BAY11-7082 increased the activity of caspase 3 and reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, but did not influence the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, BAY11-7082 induced uveal melanoma cell apoptosis and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Collectively, the present study identified NF-κB as an important survival signal for uveal melanoma cells and suggested that administration of specific NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 could serve as an effective treatment for patients with uveal melanoma. PMID:23443086

  1. Dissecting the multicellular ecosystem of metastatic melanoma by single-cell RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Tirosh, Itay; Izar, Benjamin; Prakadan, Sanjay M.; Wadsworth, Marc H.; Treacy, Daniel; Trombetta, John J.; Rotem, Asaf; Rodman, Christopher; Lian, Christine; Murphy, George; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Lin, Jia-Ren; Cohen, Ofir; Shah, Parin; Lu, Diana; Genshaft, Alex S.; Hughes, Travis K.; Ziegler, Carly G. K.; Kazer, Samuel W.; Gaillard, Aleth; Kolb, Kellie E.; Villani, Alexandra-Chloé; Johannessen, Cory M.; Andreev, Aleksandr Y.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Bertagnolli, Monica; Sorger, Peter K.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Frederick, Dennie T.; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Yoon, Charles H.; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Shalek, Alex K.; Regev, Aviv; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the distinct genotypic and phenotypic states of melanoma tumors we applied single-cell RNA-seq to 4,645 single cells isolated from 19 patients, profiling malignant, immune, stromal and endothelial cells. Malignant cells within the same tumor displayed transcriptional heterogeneity associated with the cell cycle, spatial context, and a drug resistance program. In particular, all tumors harbored malignant cells from two distinct transcriptional cell states, such that “MITF-high” tumors also contained “AXL-high” tumor cells. Single-cell analyses suggested distinct tumor micro-environmental patterns, including cell-to-cell interactions. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating T cells revealed exhaustion programs, their connection to T cell activation and to clonal expansion, and their variability across patients. Overall, we begin to unravel the cellular ecosystem of tumors and how single cell genomics offers insights with implications for both targeted and immune therapies. PMID:27124452

  2. Dissecting the multicellular ecosystem of metastatic melanoma by single-cell RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Itay; Izar, Benjamin; Prakadan, Sanjay M; Wadsworth, Marc H; Treacy, Daniel; Trombetta, John J; Rotem, Asaf; Rodman, Christopher; Lian, Christine; Murphy, George; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Lin, Jia-Ren; Cohen, Ofir; Shah, Parin; Lu, Diana; Genshaft, Alex S; Hughes, Travis K; Ziegler, Carly G K; Kazer, Samuel W; Gaillard, Aleth; Kolb, Kellie E; Villani, Alexandra-Chloé; Johannessen, Cory M; Andreev, Aleksandr Y; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Bertagnolli, Monica; Sorger, Peter K; Sullivan, Ryan J; Flaherty, Keith T; Frederick, Dennie T; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Yoon, Charles H; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Shalek, Alex K; Regev, Aviv; Garraway, Levi A

    2016-04-01

    To explore the distinct genotypic and phenotypic states of melanoma tumors, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to 4645 single cells isolated from 19 patients, profiling malignant, immune, stromal, and endothelial cells. Malignant cells within the same tumor displayed transcriptional heterogeneity associated with the cell cycle, spatial context, and a drug-resistance program. In particular, all tumors harbored malignant cells from two distinct transcriptional cell states, such that tumors characterized by high levels of the MITF transcription factor also contained cells with low MITF and elevated levels of the AXL kinase. Single-cell analyses suggested distinct tumor microenvironmental patterns, including cell-to-cell interactions. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating T cells revealed exhaustion programs, their connection to T cell activation and clonal expansion, and their variability across patients. Overall, we begin to unravel the cellular ecosystem of tumors and how single-cell genomics offers insights with implications for both targeted and immune therapies.

  3. Downregulation of the KLF4 transcription factor inhibits the proliferation and migration of canine mammary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yung-Tien; Chang, Mei-Hsien; Chu, Pei-Yi; Lin, Chen-Si; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Liao, Albert T

    2015-08-01

    Canine mammary tumor (CMT) is the most common neoplasm in female dogs, and over 50% of CMTs are diagnosed as malignant. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a member of the KLF family of transcription factors and is associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Although the role of KLF4 is still controversial in various human cancers, KLF4 has been identified as an oncogene in human breast cancer. Moreover, high KLF4 expression is correlated with an aggressive phenotype in CMT. Therefore, investigating the function of KLF4 may help better understand the pathogenesis of CMT. In this study, partial sequences of canine KLF4 and KLF4 expression were identified in various normal canine tissues, as well as CMT cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Kenpaullone, a small molecule inhibitor of KLF4, downregulated KLF4 expression in CMT cells and reduced CMT cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation in soft agar. Kenpaullone treatment induced S and G2/M phase arrest in CMT and MDCK cells, and induced death in CMT cells, but not in MDCK cells. It was concluded that KLF4 is expressed in various normal canine tissues, and downregulation of KLF4 inhibited CMT cell proliferation and migration, and induced cell death. The results of this study suggest that KLF4 may represent a suitable therapeutic target for CMT therapy. PMID:25616642

  4. The Induction of Apoptosis in A375 Malignant Melanoma Cells by Sutherlandia frutescens

    PubMed Central

    van der Walt, Nicola B.; Zakeri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens is a medicinal plant indigenous to Southern Africa and is commonly known as the “cancer bush.” This plant has traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, although it is best known for its claims of activity against “internal” cancers. Here we report on its effect on melanoma cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an extract of S. frutescens could induce apoptosis in the A375 melanoma cell line and to outline the basic mechanism of action. S. frutescens extract induced apoptosis in A375 cells as evidenced by morphological features of apoptosis, phosphatidylserine exposure, nuclear condensation, caspase activation, and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Studies in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor allude to caspase-independent cell death, which appeared to be mediated by the apoptosis inducing factor. Taken together, the results of this study show that S. frutescens extract is effective in inducing apoptosis in malignant melanoma cells and indicates that further in vivo mechanistic studies may be warranted. PMID:27656236

  5. The Induction of Apoptosis in A375 Malignant Melanoma Cells by Sutherlandia frutescens

    PubMed Central

    van der Walt, Nicola B.; Zakeri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens is a medicinal plant indigenous to Southern Africa and is commonly known as the “cancer bush.” This plant has traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, although it is best known for its claims of activity against “internal” cancers. Here we report on its effect on melanoma cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an extract of S. frutescens could induce apoptosis in the A375 melanoma cell line and to outline the basic mechanism of action. S. frutescens extract induced apoptosis in A375 cells as evidenced by morphological features of apoptosis, phosphatidylserine exposure, nuclear condensation, caspase activation, and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Studies in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor allude to caspase-independent cell death, which appeared to be mediated by the apoptosis inducing factor. Taken together, the results of this study show that S. frutescens extract is effective in inducing apoptosis in malignant melanoma cells and indicates that further in vivo mechanistic studies may be warranted.

  6. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell-facilitated TRAIL expression in melanoma treatment in vitro

    PubMed Central

    JING, HAI XIA; DUAN, DE JIAN; ZHOU, HUI; HU, QING MEI; LEI, TIE CHI

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) may be useful as an efficient vehicle in cell-based gene therapy of human diseases due to their ability to migrate to disease lesions. This study investigated the ability of ADSC-harbored human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) cDNA to facilitate TRAIL expression and induce A375 melanoma cell apoptosis as observed using a Transwell co-culture system. A cell migration assay was used to observe ADSC migration ability. In addition, TRAIL protein expression was successfully detected by western blot analysis in ADSCs after stable transfection of TRAIL cDNA. The Transwell co-culture system data showed that TRAIL-ADSCs could induce A375 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. At the gene level, the killing activity of TRAIL-ADSCs was associated with activation of caspase-4 and caspase-8. Collectively, the data from the current study provides preclinical support of ADSC-facilitated TRAIL expression in the treatment of melanoma. Further investigation is required to evaluate and confirm the in vivo ability of TRAIL-ADSCs in therapy of melanoma in animal models. PMID:27177242

  7. The Induction of Apoptosis in A375 Malignant Melanoma Cells by Sutherlandia frutescens.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, Nicola B; Zakeri, Zahra; Cronjé, Marianne J

    2016-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens is a medicinal plant indigenous to Southern Africa and is commonly known as the "cancer bush." This plant has traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, although it is best known for its claims of activity against "internal" cancers. Here we report on its effect on melanoma cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an extract of S. frutescens could induce apoptosis in the A375 melanoma cell line and to outline the basic mechanism of action. S. frutescens extract induced apoptosis in A375 cells as evidenced by morphological features of apoptosis, phosphatidylserine exposure, nuclear condensation, caspase activation, and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Studies in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor allude to caspase-independent cell death, which appeared to be mediated by the apoptosis inducing factor. Taken together, the results of this study show that S. frutescens extract is effective in inducing apoptosis in malignant melanoma cells and indicates that further in vivo mechanistic studies may be warranted. PMID:27656236

  8. Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. )

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

  9. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-05-23

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms.

  10. Metabolic flux profiling of MDCK cells during growth and canine adenovirus vector production

    PubMed Central

    Carinhas, Nuno; Pais, Daniel A. M.; Koshkin, Alexey; Fernandes, Paulo; Coroadinha, Ana S.; Carrondo, Manuel J. T.; Alves, Paula M.; Teixeira, Ana P.

    2016-01-01

    Canine adenovirus vector type 2 (CAV2) represents an alternative to human adenovirus vectors for certain gene therapy applications, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. However, more efficient production processes, assisted by a greater understanding of the effect of infection on producer cells, are required. Combining [1,2-13C]glucose and [U-13C]glutamine, we apply for the first time 13C-Metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) to study E1-transformed Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells metabolism during growth and CAV2 production. MDCK cells displayed a marked glycolytic and ammoniagenic metabolism, and 13C data revealed a large fraction of glutamine-derived labelling in TCA cycle intermediates, emphasizing the role of glutamine anaplerosis. 13C-MFA demonstrated the importance of pyruvate cycling in balancing glycolytic and TCA cycle activities, as well as occurrence of reductive alphaketoglutarate (AKG) carboxylation. By turn, CAV2 infection significantly upregulated fluxes through most central metabolism, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, glutamine anaplerosis and, more prominently, reductive AKG carboxylation and cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A formation, suggestive of increased lipogenesis. Based on these results, we suggest culture supplementation strategies to stimulate nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis for improved canine adenoviral vector production. PMID:27004747

  11. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-01-01

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms. PMID:27323085

  12. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of melanoma cells by docosahexaenoic acid: association with decreased pRb phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Albino, A P; Juan, G; Traganos, F; Reinhart, L; Connolly, J; Rose, D P; Darzynkiewicz, Z

    2000-08-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma is undergoing a dramatic increase in persons with light-color skin in all parts of the world. The prognosis for individuals with advanced disease is dismal due to the lack of effective treatment options. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to control tumor progression. Epidemiological, experimental, and mechanistic data implicate omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as stimulators and long-chain omega-3 PUFAs as inhibitors of development and progression of a range of human cancers, including melanoma. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 PUFA, affects human melanoma cells. Exponentially growing melanoma cell lines were exposed in vitro to DHA and then assessed for (a) inhibition of cell growth; (b) expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in individual cells by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies to cyclin D1, cyclin E, p21WAF1/CIP1, or p27(KIP1); and (c) expression of total pRb(T) independent of phosphorylation state and hypophosphorylated pRb(P-) in fixed cells by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies to pRb(T) or pRb(P-), respectively. After treatment with increasing concentrations of DHA, cell growth in a majority of melanoma cell lines (7 of 12) was inhibited, whereas in 5 of 12 cell lines, cell growth was minimally affected. Two melanoma cell lines were examined in detail, one resistant (SK-Mel-29) and one sensitive (SK-Mel-110) to the inhibitory activity of DHA. SK-Mel-29 cells were unaffected by treatment with up to 2 microg/ml DHA whether grown in the absence or presence of 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS). No appreciable change was observed in cell growth, cell cycle distribution, the status of pRb phosphorylation, cyclin D1 expression, or the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. In contrast, SK-Mel-110 cell growth was

  13. Targeting histone deacetylase 6 mediates a dual anti-melanoma effect: Enhanced antitumor immunity and impaired cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Villaroel, P.; Lee, C.; Cheng, F.; Knox, T.; Woods, D.M.; Barrios, K.; Powers, J.; Sahakian, E.; Wang, H.W.; Canales, J.; Marante, D.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Bergman, J.; Seto, E.; Kozikowski, A.; Pinilla-Ibarz, J.; Sarnaik, A.; Celis, E.; Weber, J.; Sotomayor, E.M.; Villagra, A.

    2015-01-01

    The median survival for metastatic melanoma is in the realm of 8–16 months and there are few therapies that offer significant improvement in overall survival. One of the recent advances in cancer treatment focuses on epigenetic modifiers to alter the survivability and immunogenicity of cancer cells. Our group and others have previously demonstrated that pan-HDAC inhibitors induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and changes in the immunogenicity of melanoma cells. Here we interrogated specific HDACs which may be responsible for this effect. We found that both genetic abrogation and pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC6 decreases in vitro proliferation and induces G1 arrest of melanoma cell lines without inducing apoptosis. Moreover, targeting this molecule led to an important upregulation in the expression of tumor associated antigens and MHC class I, suggesting a potential improvement in the immunogenicity of these cells. Of note, this anti-melanoma activity was operative regardless of mutational status of the cells. These effects translated into a pronounced delay of in vivo melanoma tumor growth which was, at least in part, dependent on intact immunity as evidenced by the restoration of tumor growth after CD4+ and CD8+ depletion. Given our findings, we provide the initial rationale for the further development of selective HDAC6 inhibitors as potential therapeutic anti-melanoma agents. PMID:25957812

  14. NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Shuya; Arakawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Ayaka; Shigeeda, Wataru; Yasuhira, Shinji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Akasaka, Toshihide; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression. PMID:27045471

  15. High fat diet increases melanoma cell growth in the bone marrow by inducing osteopontin and interleukin 6

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Liang; Luo, Yubin; Eriksson, Daniel; Meng, Xianyi; Qian, Cheng; Bäuerle, Tobias; Chen, Xiao-Xiang; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of metabolic stress induced by obesity on the bone marrow melanoma niche is largely unknown. Here we employed diet induced obese mice model, where mice received high-fat (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 6 weeks before challenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. Tumor size, bone loss and osteoclasts numbers were assessed histologically in the tibial bones. For defining the molecular pathway, osteopontin knock-out mice, interleukin 6 neutralizing antibody or Janus kinase 2 inhibition were carried out in the same model. Mechanistic studies such as adipocyte-melanoma co-cultures for defining adipocyte induced changes of tumor cell proliferation and expression profiles were also performed. As results, HFD enhanced melanoma burden in bone by increasing tumor area and osteoclast numbers. This process was associated with higher numbers of bone marrow adipocytes expressing IL-6 in direct vicinity to tumor cells. Inhibition of IL-6 or of downstream JAK2 blocked HFD-induced tumor progression. Furthermore, the phenotypic changes of melanoma cells triggered macrophage and osteoclast accumulation accompanied by increased osteopontin expression. Osteopontin triggered osteoclastogenesis and also exerted a positive feedback loop to tumor cells, which was abrogated in its absence. Metabolic stress by HFD promotes melanoma growth in the bone marrow by an increase in bone marrow adipocytes and IL-6-JAK2-osteopontin mediated activation of tumor cells and osteoclast differentiation. PMID:27049717

  16. miRNA-205 Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation and Induces Senescence via Regulation of E2F1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Altaf A.; Majid, Shahana; de Semir, David; Nosrati, Mehdi; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by repressing translation or directing sequence-specific degradation of complementary mRNA. Here, we report that expression of miR-205 is significantly suppressed in melanoma specimens when compared with nevi and is correlated inversely with melanoma progression. miRNA target databases predicted E2F1 and E2F5 as putative targets. The expression levels of E2F1 and E2F5 were correlated inversely with that of miR-205 in melanoma cell lines. miR-205 significantly suppressed the luciferase activity of reporter plasmids containing the 3′-UTR sequences complementary to either E2F1 or E2F5. Overexpression of miR-205 in melanoma cells reduced E2F1 and E2F5 protein levels. The proliferative capacity of melanoma cells was suppressed by miR-205 and mediated by E2F-regulated AKT phosphorylation. miR-205 overexpression resulted in induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by increased cleaved caspase-3, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and cytochrome c release. Stable overexpression of miR-205 suppressed melanoma cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor cell growth in vivo and induced a senescence phenotype accompanied by elevated expression of p16INK4A and other markers for senescence. E2F1 overexpression in miR-205-expressing cells partially reversed the effects on melanoma cell growth and senescence. These results demonstrate a novel role for miR-205 as a tumor suppressor in melanoma. PMID:21454583

  17. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment.

    PubMed

    Sustarsic, Elahu G; Junnila, Riia K; Kopchick, John J

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute's NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data, GH could be a new therapeutic target in melanoma. PMID:24134847

  18. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  19. Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Can Equally Present MART-1 Antigen to CD8+ T Cells after Phagocytosis of Gamma-Irradiated Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, María Marcela; Abes, Riad; Colombo, Marina; Pizzurro, Gabriela; Boix, Charlotte; Roberti, María Paula; Gélizé, Emmanuelle; Rodriguez-Zubieta, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) can achieve cross-presentation of naturally-occurring tumor-associated antigens after phagocytosis and processing of dying tumor cells. They have been used in different clinical settings to vaccinate cancer patients. We have previously used gamma-irradiated MART-1 expressing melanoma cells as a source of antigens to vaccinate melanoma patients by injecting irradiated cells with BCG and GM-CSF or to load immature DC and use them as a vaccine. Other clinical trials have used IFN-gamma activated macrophage killer cells (MAK) to treat cancer patients. However, the clinical use of MAK has been based on their direct tumoricidal activity rather than on their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate an adaptive antitumor response. Thus, in the present work, we compared the fate of MART-1 after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated cells by clinical grade DC or MAK as well as the ability of these cells to cross present MART-1 to CD8+ T cells. Using a high affinity antibody against MART-1, 2A9, which specifically stains melanoma tumors, melanoma cell lines and normal melanocytes, the expression level of MART-1 in melanoma cell lines could be related to their ability to stimulate IFN-gamma production by a MART-1 specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ T cell clone. Confocal microscopy with Alexa Fluor®647-labelled 2A9 also showed that MART-1 could be detected in tumor cells attached and/or fused to phagocytes and even inside these cells as early as 1 h and up to 24 h or 48 h after initiation of co-cultures between gamma-irradiated melanoma cells and MAK or DC, respectively. Interestingly, MART-1 was cross-presented to MART-1 specific T cells by both MAK and DC co-cultured with melanoma gamma-irradiated cells for different time-points. Thus, naturally occurring MART-1 melanoma antigen can be taken-up from dying melanoma cells into DC or MAK and both cell types can induce specific CD8+ T cell cross-presentation thereafter. PMID:22768350

  20. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy towards melanoma cells by encapsulation of Pc4 in silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Baozhong; Yin Junjie; Bilski, Piotr J.; Chignell, Colin F.; Roberts, Joan E.; He Yuying

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future.

  1. Durable Complete Responses in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Using T Cell Transfer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Steven A.; Yang, James C.; Sherry, Richard M.; Kammula, Udai S.; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Phan, Giao Q.; Citrin, Deborah E.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Robbins, Paul F.; Wunderlich, John R.; Morton, Kathleen E.; Laurencot, Carolyn M.; Steinberg, Seth M.; White, Donald E.; Dudley, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Most treatments for patients with metastatic melanoma have a low rate of complete regression and thus overall survival in these patients is poor. We have investigated the ability of adoptive cell transfer utilizing autologous, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes to mediate durable complete regressions in heavily pre-treated patients with metastatic melanoma. Experimental Design Ninety-three patients with measurable metastatic melanoma were treated with the adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes administered in conjunction with interleukin-2 following a lymphodepleting preparative regimen on three sequential clinical trials. Ninety-five percent of these patients had progressive disease following a prior systemic treatment. Median potential followup was 62 months. Results Objective response rates by RECIST criteria in the three trials using lymphodepleting preparative regimens (chemotherapy alone or with 2Gy or 12Gy irradiation) were 49%, 52% and 72%. Twenty of the 93 patients (22%) achieved a complete tumor regression and 19 have ongoing complete regressions beyond three years The actuarial three and five year survivals for the entire group were 36% and 29% respectively but for the 20 complete responders were 100% and 93%. The likelihood of achieving a complete response was similar regardless of prior therapy. Factors associated with objective response included longer telomeres of the infused cells, the number of CD8+ CD27+ cells infused and the persistence of the infused cells in the circulation at one month (all p2<0.001). Conclusions Cell transfer therapy with autologous tumor infiltrating can mediate durable complete responses in patients with metastatic melanoma and has similar efficacy irrespective of prior treatment. PMID:21498393

  2. Immunohistochemical identification of myoepithelial, epithelial, and connective tissue cells in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Destexhe, E; Lespagnard, L; Degeyter, M; Heymann, R; Coignoul, F

    1993-03-01

    Fifty-eight formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded canine mammary tumors, 19 malignant and 39 benign, were used in this study. Tumors were obtained from dogs submitted for surgical resection of lesions at private veterinary practices in Brussels or from the surgery unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed, using monoclonal antibodies directed against keratins 8-18 and 19, vimentin, desmin, and alpha-actin and polyclonal antibodies directed against high-molecular-weight keratins and S-100 protein. The main cell types, epithelial, myoepithelial, and connective, were identified, and myoepithelial cells represented the major component of most tumors, both benign and malignant. Myoepithelial cells had five patterns: resting and proliferative suprabasal cells, spindle and star-shaped interstitial cells, and cartilage. Reactivity to keratin 19, vimentin, alpha-actin, and S-100 protein suggested a progressive transformation from resting cells to cartilage. Epithelial cell reactivities were limited to keratins; only keratinized cells were positive for polyclonal keratins. Myofibroblasts were positive for both vimentin and alpha-actin, and connective tissue cells were positive for vimentin. Myoepithelial cells appeared to be the major component of carcinomas, justifying reevaluation and simplification of histomorphologic classifications, with a "pleomorphic carcinoma" group including all carcinomas except squamous, mucinous, and comedo carcinomas. Immunohistochemical evaluation, in addition to routine hematoxylin and eosin histopathologic evaluation is recommended for precise classification of canine mammary tumors. PMID:7682367

  3. Inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion of B16-F10 melanoma cells by α-mangostin

    SciTech Connect

    Beninati, Simone; Oliverio, Serafina; Cordella, Martina; Rossi, Stefania; Senatore, Cinzia; Liguori, Immacolata; Lentini, Alessandro; Piredda, Lucia; Tabolacci, Claudio

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We studied the anticancer potential of a new emerging molecule, α-mangostin (α-M). • We provide first evidences on the effects of α-M on transglutaminase activity. • We deeply examined the antimetastatic effects of α-M through many in vitro assays. • Proteomic analysis revealed that α-M promotes a reorganization at cellular level. - Abstract: In this study, we have evaluated the potential antineoplastic effects of α-mangostin (α-M), the most representative xanthone in Garcinia mangostana pericarp, on melanoma cell lines. This xanthone markedly inhibits the proliferation of high-metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells. Furthermore, by deeply analyzing which steps in the metastatic process are influenced by xanthone it was observed that α-M strongly interferes with homotypic aggregation, adhesion, plasticity and invasion ability of B16-F10 cells, probably by the observed reduction of metalloproteinase-9 activity. The antiproliferative and antimetastatic properties of α-M have been established in human SK-MEL-28 and A375 melanoma cells. In order to identify pathways potentially involved in the antineoplastic properties of α-M, a comparative mass spectrometry proteomic approach was employed. These findings may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of α-M on melanoma.

  4. Dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) reduces experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Yee, J A; Thompson, L U; Yan, L

    1999-07-19

    We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), a lignan precursor isolated from flaxseed, on experimental metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Four diets were compared: a basal diet (control group) and the basal diet supplemented with SDG at 73, 147 or 293 micromol/kg (equivalent to SDG provided in the 2.5, 5 or 10% flaxseed diet). Mice were fed the diet for 2 weeks before and after an intravenous injection of 0.6 x 10(5) tumor cells. At necropsy, the number and size of tumors that formed in the lungs were determined. The median number of tumors in the control group was 62, and those in the SDG-supplemented groups were 38, 36 and 29, respectively. The last was significantly different from the control (P < 0.01). Dietary supplementation with SDG at 73, 147 and 293 micromol/kg also decreased tumor size (tumor cross-sectional area and volume) in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control values. These results show that SDG reduced pulmonary metastasis of melanoma cells and inhibited the growth of metastatic tumors that formed in the lungs. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with SDG reduces experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice.

  5. FAK competes for Src to promote migration against invasion in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kolli-Bouhafs, K; Sick, E; Noulet, F; Gies, J-P; De Mey, J; Rondé, P

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most deadly cancers because of its high propensity to metastasis, a process that requires migration and invasion of tumor cells driven by the regulated formation of adhesives structures like focal adhesions (FAs) and invasive structures like invadopodia. FAK, the major kinase of FAs, has been implicated in many cellular processes, including migration and invasion. In this study, we investigated the role of FAK in the regulation of invasion. We report that suppression of FAK in B16F10 melanoma cells led to increased invadopodia formation and invasion through Matrigel, but impaired migration. These effects are rescued by FAK WT but not by FAKY397F reexpression. Invadopodia formation requires local Src activation downstream of FAK and in a FAK phosphorylation-dependant manner. FAK deletion correlates with increased phosphorylation of Tks-5 (tyrosine kinase substrate with five SH3 domain) and reactive oxygen species production. In conclusion, our data show that FAK is able to mediate opposite effects on cell migration and invasion. Accordingly, beneficial effects of FAK inhibition are context dependent and may depend on the cell response to environmental cues and/or on the primary or secondary changes that melanoma experienced through the invasion cycle. PMID:25118939

  6. Anti-tumor Properties of cis-Resveratrol Methylated Analogues in Metastatic Mouse Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Valery L.; Toseef, Tayyaba; Nazumudeen, Fathima B.; Rivoira, Christian; Spatafora, Carmela; Tringali, Corrado; Rotenberg, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (E-3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenol found in red wine that has been shown to have multiple anti-cancer properties. Although cis (Z) and trans (E) isomers of resveratrol occur in nature, the cis form is not biologically active. However, methylation at key positions of the cis form results in more potent anti-cancer properties. This study determined that synthetic cis-polymethoxystilbenes (methylated analogues of cis-resveratrol) inhibited cancer-related phenotypes of metastatic B16 F10 and non-metastatic B16 F1 mouse melanoma cells. In contrast with cis or trans-resveratrol and trans-polymethoxystilbene which were ineffective at 10 μM, cis-polymethoxystilbenes inhibited motility and proliferation of melanoma cells with low micromolar specificity (IC50 <10 μM). Inhibitory effects by cis-polymethoxystilbenes were significantly stronger with B16 F10 cells and were accompanied by decreased expression of β-tubulin and pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein, a marker of metastatic B16 cells. Thus, cis-polymethoxystilbenes have potential as chemotherapeutic agents for metastatic melanoma. PMID:25567208

  7. Cell-surface antigens of melanoma recognized by human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, H; Furukawa, K; Fortunato, S R; Livingston, P O; Lloyd, K O; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1987-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were derived from lymph node lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with melanoma. Four methods for generating human mAbs were compared: fusion with human [LICR-LON-HMy-2 (LICR-2)] or mouse (NS-1) cells; transformation by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); and EBV transformation followed by NS-1 fusion. NS-1 fusion with lymph node lymphocytes resulted in a higher number of growing hybrids than LICR-2 fusion. Virtually no hybrids were obtained from NS-1 or LICR-2 fusions with PBL. EBV transformed lymphocytes from lymph node and peripheral blood with equal efficiency, and the yield of proliferating cultures for antibody screening was more than 10- to 30-fold greater than that obtained by fusion techniques. However, once antibody-producing cultures had been identified, stability and clonability of EBV-transformed cells were poorer than that of NS-1 hybrid cells. To combine the strengths of both methods, cultures of EBV-transformed cells were fused with NS-1; and hybrid clones were isolated that showed vigorous growth, clonability, and stable antibody secretion. Detailed specificity analysis of the mAbs produced by six of these clones indicated detection of a class 1 (unique) melanoma antigen, a class 3 melanoma antigen, and four ganglioside antigens (GD3, GM3, and two other, as yet uncharacterized, heterophile antigens). Images PMID:3031684

  8. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M. Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary’s bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary’s anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed. PMID:26176704

  9. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Le, Thuc T.; Johlfs, Mary G.; Fiscus, Ronald R.; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in

  10. Melanoma immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Glodny, Bradley; Pan, Michael; Merad, Miriam; Saenger, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma immunotherapy has been an area of intense research for decades, and this work is now yielding more tangible results for patients. Work has focused on 4 main areas: cytokine therapy, administration of immune-modulating antibodies, adoptive T-cell therapy, and vaccines. Cytokine therapy is an established treatment for advanced melanoma, and immune-modulating antibodies have recently emerged as an exciting new area of drug development with efficacy now established in a phase III trial. Adoptive T-cell therapy provides the proof of principle that T cells can attack and eliminate tumors. It has been challenging, however, to adapt this treatment for widespread use. Vaccines have generally yielded poor results, but intratumor pathogen-based strategies have shown encouraging results in recent trials, perhaps due to stronger immune stimulation. A review of the field of melanoma immunotherapy is provided here, with emphasis on those agents that have reached clinical testing. Novel strategies to induce the immune system to attack melanomas are reviewed. In the future, it is envisioned that immunotherapy will have further application in combination with cytotoxic and targeted therapies.

  11. Amino acid alcohols: growth inhibition and induction of differentiated features in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Landau, O; Wasserman, L; Deutsch, A A; Reiss, R; Panet, H; Novogrodsky, A; Nordenberg, J

    1993-05-14

    The effects of a series of D- and L-amino acid alcohols on the proliferation and phenotypic expression of B16 mouse melanoma cells were evaluated. B16 melanoma cells were incubated for different time intervals in the presence of D- or L-phenylalaninol (PHE), D- or L-alaninol (AL), D- or L-leucinol (LE), L-histidinol (HIS), L-tyrosinol (TYR) and L-methioninol (MET). All agents, including the D or L configuration, induced an anti-proliferative effect, although of considerably different magnitude. D-PHE was the most active growth inhibitor. The growth inhibitory effects were accompanied by phenotypic alterations, which included morphological changes and enhancement in the activities of NADPH cytochrome c reductase and tau-glutamyl transpeptidase. These phenotypic alterations correlated with the growth inhibitory effects of the different agents and seem to reflect a higher differentiated state. PMID:8099846

  12. Effect of serum-derived albumin scaffold and canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on osteogenesis in canine segmental bone defect model

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Daeyoung; Kang, Byung-Jae; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Rhew, Daeun; Kim, Wan Hee

    2015-01-01

    Composite biological and synthetic grafts with progenitor cells offer an alternative approach to auto- or allografts for fracture repair. This study was conducted to evaluate osteogenesis of autologous serum-derived albumin (ASA) scaffolds seeded with canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) in a canine segmental bone defect model. ASA scaffold was prepared with canine serum using cross-linking and freeze-drying procedures. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was mixed at the cross-linking stage. Ad-MSCs were seeded into the scaffold and incubated for one day before implantation. After 16 weeks, the grafts were harvested for histological analysis. The dogs were divided into five groups: control, ASA scaffolds with and without Ad-MSCs, and ASA scaffolds including β-TCP with and without Ad-MSCs. ASA scaffolds with Ad-MSCs had a significantly larger area of increased opacity at the proximal and distal host cortex-implant interfaces in radiographs 16 weeks after implantation compared to the groups with β-TCP (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric analysis showed that ASA scaffolds with Ad-MSCs had significantly greater new bone formation than other groups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Ad-MSCs seeded into ASA scaffolds enhanced osteogenesis in the bone defect model, but that β-TCP in the ASA scaffold might prevent penetration of the cells required for bone healing. PMID:26119162

  13. Langerhans cells and melanocytes share similar morphologic features under in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy: a challenge for melanoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Pantea; Pulitzer, Melissa P.; Scope, Alon; Kovalyshyn, Ivanka; Halpern, Allan C.; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intraepidermal Langerhans cells (ILC) are difficult to differentiate from melanocytes under reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and their presence may simulate pagetoid spread of melanocytes on RCM images. Objective To correlate bright round and dendritic cells in a pagetoid pattern identified on RCM with findings of conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry for lesions that were falsely diagnosed as melanoma by RCM. Methods This retrospective study included histopathologically proven nevi, imaged by RCM, which displayed bright cells in a pagetoid pattern (BCPP) under RCM, resulting in the incorrect RCM diagnosis of melanoma. Morphological comparisons were histopathologically proven melanomas displaying BCPP on RCM and biopsy-proven nevi without such cells on RCM. Results We identified 24 nevi that were falsely diagnosed as melanoma by RCM due to the presence of BCPP. These pagetoid cells on RCM corresponded on histopathology to ILC with a high density in 23 of the 24 nevi (95%) and to melanocytes in 7 of the 24 nevi (29%). Among 6 melanomas displaying BCPP on RCM, ILC with high density were observed histopathologically in 5 of the 6 cases (83%) and pagetoid melanocytes were seen in all 6 cases (100%). Limitations The results cannot be generalized to clinically banal-appearing nevi. Conclusions Although the finding of BCPP is a useful RCM feature for the diagnosis of melanoma it does not always imply the presence of pagetoid melanocytes but may at times, represent ILC. PMID:21798622

  14. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P < .05) than in the control (3.4 ± 0.6). Although not significant (P > .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  15. Canine Distemper Virus Epithelial Cell Infection Is Required for Clinical Disease but Not for Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Hinkelmann, Sarah; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the importance of infection of epithelial cells for morbillivirus pathogenesis, we took advantage of the severe disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) in ferrets. To obtain a CDV that was unable to enter epithelial cells but retained the ability to enter immune cells, we transferred to its attachment (H) protein two mutations shown to interfere with the interaction of measles virus H with its epithelial receptor, human nectin-4. As expected for an epithelial receptor (EpR)-blind CDV, this virus infected dog and ferret epithelial cells inefficiently and did not cause cell fusion or syncytium formation. On the other hand, the EpR-blind CDV replicated in cells expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), the morbillivirus immune cell receptor, with similar kinetics to those of wild-type CDV. While ferrets infected with wild-type CDV died within 12 days after infection, after developing severe rash and fever, animals infected with the EpR-blind virus showed no clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, both viruses spread rapidly and efficiently in immune cells, causing similar levels of leukopenia and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation activity, two indicators of morbillivirus immunosuppression. Infection was documented for airway epithelia of ferrets infected with wild-type CDV but not for those of animals infected with the EpR-blind virus, and only animals infected with wild-type CDV shed virus. Thus, epithelial cell infection is necessary for clinical disease and efficient virus shedding but not for immunosuppression. PMID:22278252

  16. Expression of class II beta-tubulin by proliferative myoepithelial cells in canine mammary mixed tumors.

    PubMed

    Arai, K; Nakano, H; Shibutani, M; Naoi, M; Matsuda, H

    2003-11-01

    Benign mammary mixed tumors in dogs resemble human salivary pleomorphic adenomas with regard to their histogenesis, including the occurrence of cartilaginous or bony metaplasia as well as the expression pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in proliferative myoepithelial cells. Recently, a monoclonal antibody specific for class II beta-tubulin has been developed. The epitope it recognizes was determined to be the heptapeptide Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Gly-Glu-Asp, which is the common sequence found among the canine, rat, mouse, and human class II beta-tubulin-specific regions. We carried out immunohistochemical studies on mammary mixed tumors obtained from three female dogs using this the monoclonal antibody. The antibody to class II beta-tubulin reacted intensely with proliferative myoepithelial cells in canine mammary mixed tumors, whereas staining was barely detectable in normal myoepithelial cells surrounding alveoli and alveolar ducts within the tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Proliferative myoepithelial cells also expressed vimentin, but alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) staining was barely detectable. Immunoblot analysis showed that class II beta-tubulin and vimentin were expressed in myoepithelial cell lines prepared from the three mammary mixed tumors. On the other hand, only one cell line, which was negative for alphaSMA, produced cartilage-specific type II collagen. These results suggest that class II beta-tubulin could be a new molecular marker of proliferating myoepithelial cells in canine mammary mixed tumors and that differential expression of cytoskeletal components is associated with cartilaginous metaplasia of proliferative myoepithelial cells in mixed mammary tumors.

  17. Cell behavior observation and gene expression analysis of melanoma associated with stromal fibroblasts in a three-dimensional magnetic cell culture array.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Matsumura, Taku; Yamamoto, And Shuhei; Nakayama, Eiichi; Jimbow, Kowichi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid culture array has been fabricated using a magnetic force-based cell patterning method, analyzing the effect of stromal fibroblast on the invasive capacity of melanoma. Formation of spheroids was observed when array-like multicellular patterns of melanoma were developed using a pin-holder device made of magnetic soft iron and an external magnet, which enables the assembly of the magnetically labeled cells on the collagen gel-coated surface as array-like cell patterns. The interaction of fibroblast on the invasion of melanoma was investigated using three types of cell interaction models: (i) fibroblasts were magnetically labeled and patterned together in array with melanoma spheroids (direct-interaction model), (ii) fibroblasts coexisting in the upper collagen gel (indirect-interaction model) of melanoma spheroids, and (iii) fibroblast-sheets coexisting under melanoma spheroids (fibroblast-sheet model). The fibroblast-sheet model has largely increased the invasive capacity of melanoma, and the promotion of adhesion, migration, and invasion were also observed. In the fibroblast-sheet model, the expression of IL-8 and MMP-2 increased by 24-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in real time RT-PCR compared to the absence of fibroblasts. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of fibroblast interaction to invasive capacity of melanoma in the 3D in vitro bioengineered tumor microenvironment.

  18. Potentiated cytotoxic effects of statins and ajoene in murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Eliades; Wittig, Olga; Alonso, Jose; Cardier, Jose E

    2009-04-01

    Because statins and ajoene inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, we evaluated the hypothesis that the cytotoxic effect of these compounds may be potentiated when both are used in combination on tumor cells. We showed that cotreatment of the murine melanoma B16F10 cell with statins (atorvastatin and pravastatin) and ajoene, all at nontoxic doses, dramatically increased their cytotoxicity. B16F10 cell death induced by statins, but not by ajoene, was prevented by mevalonate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the combination of statins and ajoene, which alters the mevalonate pathway, might potentiate their cytotoxic effects on tumor cells.

  19. Macrophage-Tumor Cell Fusions from Peripheral Blood of Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, Gary A.; Matters, Gail L.; Xin, Ping; Imamura-Kawasawa, Yuka; Du, Zhen; Thiboutot, Diane M.; Helm, Klaus F.; Neves, Rogerio I.; Abraham, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background While the morbidity and mortality from cancer are largely attributable to its metastatic dissemination, the integral features of the cascade are not well understood. The widely accepted hypothesis is that the primary tumor microenvironment induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells, facilitating their escape into the bloodstream, possibly accompanied by cancer stem cells. An alternative theory for metastasis involves fusion of macrophages with tumor cells (MTFs). Here we culture and characterize apparent MTFs from blood of melanoma patients. Methods We isolated enriched CTC populations from peripheral blood samples from melanoma patients, and cultured them. We interrogated these cultured cells for characteristic BRAF mutations, and used confocal microscopy for immunophenotyping, motility, DNA content and chromatin texture analyses, and then conducted xenograft studies using nude mice. Findings Morphologically, the cultured MTFs were generally large with many pseudopod extensions and lamellipodia. Ultrastructurally, the cultured MTFs appeared to be macrophages. They were rich in mitochondria and lysosomes, as well as apparent melanosomes. The cultured MTF populations were all heterogeneous with regard to DNA content, containing aneuploid and/or high-ploidy cells, and they typically showed large sheets (and/or clumps) of cytoplasmic chromatin. This cytoplasmic DNA was found within heterogeneously-sized autophagic vacuoles, which prominently contained chromatin and micronuclei. Cultured MTFs uniformly expressed pan-macrophage markers (CD14, CD68) and macrophage markers indicative of M2 polarization (CD163, CD204, CD206). They also expressed melanocyte-specific markers (ALCAM, MLANA), epithelial biomarkers (KRT, EpCAM), as well as the pro-carcinogenic cytokine MIF along with functionally related stem cell markers (CXCR4, CD44). MTF cultures from individual patients (5 of 8) contained melanoma-specific BRAF activating mutations

  20. RanBP3 Regulates Melanoma Cell Proliferation via Selective Control of Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Pathria, Gaurav; Garg, Bhavuk; Wagner, Christine; Garg, Kanika; Gschaider, Melanie; Jalili, Ahmad; Wagner, Stephan N

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome region maintenance 1-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport has been shown as a potential anticancer target in various malignancies. However, the role of the most characterized chromosome region maintenance 1 cofactor ran binding protein 3 (RanBP3) in cancer cell biology has never been investigated. Utilizing a loss-of-function experimental setting in a vast collection of genetically varied melanoma cell lines, we observed the requirement of RanBP3 in melanoma cell proliferation and survival. Mechanistically, we suggest the reinstatement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-Smad2/3-p21(Cip1) tumor-suppressor axis as part of the RanBP3 silencing-associated antiproliferative program. Employing extensive nuclear export sequence analyses and immunofluorescence-based protein localization studies, we further present evidence suggesting the requirement of RanBP3 function for the nuclear exit of the weak nuclear export sequence-harboring extracellular signal-regulated kinase protein, although it is dispensable for general CRM1-mediated nuclear export of strong nuclear export sequence-harboring cargoes. Rendering mechanistic support to RanBP3 silencing-mediated apoptosis, consequent to extracellular signal-regulated kinase nuclear entrapment, we observed increased levels of cytoplasmically restricted nonphosphorylated/active proapoptotic Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death (BAD) protein. Last, we present evidence suggesting the frequently activated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in melanoma as a potential founding basis for a deregulated post-translational control of RanBP3 activity. Collectively, the presented data suggest RanBP3 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in human melanoma.

  1. Ligand-independent canonical Wnt activity in canine mammary tumor cell lines associated with aberrant LEF1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gracanin, Ana; Timmermans-Sprang, Elpetra P M; van Wolferen, Monique E; Rao, Nagesha A S; Grizelj, Juraj; Vince, Silvijo; Hellmen, Eva; Mol, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Pet dogs very frequently develop spontaneous mammary tumors and have been suggested as a good model organism for breast cancer research. In order to obtain an insight into underlying signaling mechanisms during canine mammary tumorigenesis, in this study we assessed the incidence and the mechanism