Science.gov

Sample records for canine rabies elimination

  1. Eliminating canine rabies: the role of public-private partnerships.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Louise

    2013-05-01

    Canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, but infected dogs remain the principal source of human infections in the developing world. Despite the availability of effective tools for prevention and post-exposure prophylaxis, canine rabies inflicts a heavy burden on the poorest people of Africa, Asia and Latin America, resulting in more than 60,000 deaths each year. Public-private partnerships offer a new approach to the challenge of eliminating canine rabies in the developing world, by bringing together stakeholders to share responsibilities and reduce costs. The leading partnership for rabies control, the Partners for Rabies Prevention, is an informal international group that includes representatives of major health organizations (WHO, PAHO, FAO, OIE), the European Commission, universities, nongovernmental organizations, the human and animal health industries, and private global health institutions. This article describes how the Partners for Rabies Prevention is working toward the global elimination of canine rabies. It forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies.

  2. Successful strategies implemented towards the elimination of canine rabies in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Villa, Andres; Escobar, Luis E; Sanchez, Anthony; Shi, Mang; Streicker, Daniel G; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutierrez-Cedillo, Veronica; Damon, Inger; Emerson, Ginny

    2017-04-04

    Almost all cases of human rabies result from dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority. During recent decades, many countries in the Western Hemisphere have carried out large-scale dog vaccination campaigns, controlled their free-ranging dog populations and enforced legislation for responsible pet ownership. This article reviews progress in eliminating canine rabies from the Western Hemisphere. After briefly summarizing the history of control efforts and describing the approaches listed above, we note that programs in some countries have been hindered by societal attitudes and severe economic disparities, which underlines the need to discuss measures that will be required to complete the elimination of canine rabies throughout the region. We also note that there is a constant threat for dog-maintained epizootics to re-occur, so as long as dog-maintained rabies "hot spots" are still present, free-roaming dog populations remain large, herd immunity becomes low and dog-derived rabies lyssavirus (RABLV) variants continue to circulate in close proximity to rabies-naïve dog populations. The elimination of dog-maintained rabies will be only feasible if both dog-maintained and dog-derived RABLV lineages and variants are permanently eliminated. This may be possible by keeping dog herd immunity above 70% at all times, fostering sustained laboratory-based surveillance through reliable rabies diagnosis and RABLV genetic typing in dogs, domestic animals and wildlife, as well as continuing to educate the population on the risk of rabies transmission, prevention and responsible pet ownership. Complete elimination of canine rabies requires permanent funding, with governments and people committed to make it a reality. An accompanying article reviews the history and epidemiology of canine rabies in the Western Hemisphere, beginning with its introduction during the period of European colonization, and discusses how spillovers of viruses between dogs and

  3. Towards canine rabies elimination: Economic comparisons of three project sites.

    PubMed

    Elser, J L; Hatch, B G; Taylor, L H; Nel, L H; Shwiff, S A

    2017-03-15

    An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased. Transportation costs comprised a much higher proportion of total costs in rural areas and where house-to-house vaccination campaigns were necessary. The association between the cost of providing PEP and human population density was less clear. The presence of a pre-existing national rabies management programme had a marked effect on keeping infrastructure and equipment costs for the project low. Finally, the proportion of the total costs of the project provided by the external donor was found to be low for the projects in the Philippines and South Africa, but likely covered close to the complete costs of the project in Tanzania. The detailed economic evaluation of three recent large-scale rabies control pilot projects provides the opportunity to examine economic costs across these different settings and to identify factors influencing rabies control costs that could be applied to future projects.

  4. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    PubMed Central

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  5. The Feasibility of Canine Rabies Elimination in Africa: Dispelling Doubts with Data

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Hampson, Katie; Kaare, Magai T.; Ernest, Eblate; Knobel, Darryn; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Haydon, Daniel T.; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine rabies causes many thousands of human deaths every year in Africa, and continues to increase throughout much of the continent. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper identifies four common reasons given for the lack of effective canine rabies control in Africa: (a) a low priority given for disease control as a result of lack of awareness of the rabies burden; (b) epidemiological constraints such as uncertainties about the required levels of vaccination coverage and the possibility of sustained cycles of infection in wildlife; (c) operational constraints including accessibility of dogs for vaccination and insufficient knowledge of dog population sizes for planning of vaccination campaigns; and (d) limited resources for implementation of rabies surveillance and control. We address each of these issues in turn, presenting data from field studies and modelling approaches used in Tanzania, including burden of disease evaluations, detailed epidemiological studies, operational data from vaccination campaigns in different demographic and ecological settings, and economic analyses of the cost-effectiveness of dog vaccination for human rabies prevention. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are no insurmountable problems to canine rabies control in most of Africa; that elimination of canine rabies is epidemiologically and practically feasible through mass vaccination of domestic dogs; and that domestic dog vaccination provides a cost-effective approach to the prevention and elimination of human rabies deaths. PMID:20186330

  6. Designing Programs for Eliminating Canine Rabies from Islands: Bali, Indonesia as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Sunny E.; Sumantra, I Putu; Pudjiatmoko; Bagus, Gusti Ngurah; Brum, Eric; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crafter, Sally; Dewi, Ayu P. M.; Dharma, Dewa Made Ngurah; Dushoff, Jonathan; Girardi, Janice; Gunata, I Ketut; Hiby, Elly F.; Kalalo, Corlevin; Knobel, Darryn L.; Mardiana, I Wayan; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Schoonman, Luuk; Scott–Orr, Helen; Shand, Mike; Sukanadi, I Wayan; Suseno, Pebi Purwo; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hampson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine rabies is one of the most important and feared zoonotic diseases in the world. In some regions rabies elimination is being successfully coordinated, whereas in others rabies is endemic and continues to spread to uninfected areas. As epidemics emerge, both accepted and contentious control methods are used, as questions remain over the most effective strategy to eliminate rabies. The Indonesian island of Bali was rabies-free until 2008 when an epidemic in domestic dogs began, resulting in the deaths of over 100 people. Here we analyze data from the epidemic and compare the effectiveness of control methods at eliminating rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from Bali, we estimated the basic reproductive number, R0, of rabies in dogs, to be ∼1·2, almost identical to that obtained in ten–fold less dense dog populations and suggesting rabies will not be effectively controlled by reducing dog density. We then developed a model to compare options for mass dog vaccination. Comprehensive high coverage was the single most important factor for achieving elimination, with omission of even small areas (<0.5% of the dog population) jeopardizing success. Parameterizing the model with data from the 2010 and 2011 vaccination campaigns, we show that a comprehensive high coverage campaign in 2012 would likely result in elimination, saving ∼550 human lives and ∼$15 million in prophylaxis costs over the next ten years. Conclusions/Significance The elimination of rabies from Bali will not be achieved through achievable reductions in dog density. To ensure elimination, concerted high coverage, repeated, mass dog vaccination campaigns are necessary and the cooperation of all regions of the island is critical. Momentum is building towards development of a strategy for the global elimination of canine rabies, and this study offers valuable new insights about the dynamics and control of this disease, with immediate practical relevance. PMID:23991233

  7. The Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON): A unified approach to eliminating canine rabies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, T P; Coetzer, A; de Balogh, K; Wright, N; Nel, L H

    2015-12-01

    Even though Africa has the highest per capita death rate from rabies of any continent, and the disease is almost entirely transmitted by the bites of rabid dogs, there has been no coordinated pan-African approach to controlling canine rabies. In order to attain an inclusive and unified network, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) was established in 2014. By following the 'One Health' concept, which involves close coordination between animal and human health sectors across national, regional and continental levels, PARACON will provide a platform to facilitate and promote coordinated and sustainable control strategies and programmes. Meetings will take place at regular intervals and will be centred on the involvement by key focal persons from the medical and veterinary sectors. The inaugural meeting was held in South Africa in June, 2015 and was focused around interactive discussions and workshops, whilst updating country representatives on the tools available to aid them in developing and implementing sustainable rabies intervention strategies. Experts from various global organizations, institutions and industry participated in the discussions and shared their experience and expertise. The workshops focused on the latest format of the Rabies Blueprint platform (www.rabiesblueprint.com), which in the broadest sense assists with control and elimination campaigns, including educational and advocacy drives, improvement of surveillance and diagnosis and the systematic monitoring of progress. Together with the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination, the Blueprint is a planning tool to help countries free themselves from canine-transmitted rabies.

  8. Progress towards eliminating canine rabies: policies and perspectives from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Clavijo, Alfonso; Knobl, Terezinha; Silva, Hugo Marcelo Tamayo; Cosivi, Ottorino; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Belotto, Albino José; Espinal, Marcos Antonio

    2013-08-05

    Human rabies transmitted by dogs is considered a neglected disease that can be eliminated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by 2015. The aim of this paper is to discuss canine rabies policies and projections for LAC regarding current strategies for achieving this target and to critically review the political, economic and geographical factors related to the successful elimination of this deadly disease in the context of the difficulties and challenges of the region. The strong political and technical commitment to control rabies in LAC in the 1980s, started with the regional programme coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization. National and subnational programmes involve a range of strategies including mass canine vaccination with more than 51 million doses of canine vaccine produced annually, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, improvements in disease diagnosis and intensive surveillance. Rabies incidence in LAC has dramatically declined over the last few decades, with laboratory confirmed dog rabies cases decreasing from approximately 25 000 in 1980 to less than 300 in 2010. Dog-transmitted human rabies cases also decreased from 350 to less than 10 during the same period. Several countries have been declared free of human cases of dog-transmitted rabies, and from the 35 countries in the Americas, there is now only notification of human rabies transmitted by dogs in seven countries (Bolivia, Peru, Honduras, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and some states in north and northeast Brazil). Here, we emphasize the importance of the political commitment in the final progression towards disease elimination. The availability of strategies for rabies control, the experience of most countries in the region and the historical ties of solidarity between countries with the support of the scientific community are evidence to affirm that the elimination of dog-transmitted rabies can be achieved in the short term. The final efforts to confront the remaining

  9. Progress towards eliminating canine rabies: policies and perspectives from Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Clavijo, Alfonso; Knobl, Terezinha; Silva, Hugo Marcelo Tamayo; Cosivi, Ottorino; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Belotto, Albino José; Espinal, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human rabies transmitted by dogs is considered a neglected disease that can be eliminated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by 2015. The aim of this paper is to discuss canine rabies policies and projections for LAC regarding current strategies for achieving this target and to critically review the political, economic and geographical factors related to the successful elimination of this deadly disease in the context of the difficulties and challenges of the region. The strong political and technical commitment to control rabies in LAC in the 1980s, started with the regional programme coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization. National and subnational programmes involve a range of strategies including mass canine vaccination with more than 51 million doses of canine vaccine produced annually, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, improvements in disease diagnosis and intensive surveillance. Rabies incidence in LAC has dramatically declined over the last few decades, with laboratory confirmed dog rabies cases decreasing from approximately 25 000 in 1980 to less than 300 in 2010. Dog-transmitted human rabies cases also decreased from 350 to less than 10 during the same period. Several countries have been declared free of human cases of dog-transmitted rabies, and from the 35 countries in the Americas, there is now only notification of human rabies transmitted by dogs in seven countries (Bolivia, Peru, Honduras, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and some states in north and northeast Brazil). Here, we emphasize the importance of the political commitment in the final progression towards disease elimination. The availability of strategies for rabies control, the experience of most countries in the region and the historical ties of solidarity between countries with the support of the scientific community are evidence to affirm that the elimination of dog-transmitted rabies can be achieved in the short term. The final efforts to confront the remaining

  10. Towards Canine Rabies Elimination in Cebu, Philippines: Assessment of Health Economic Data.

    PubMed

    Miranda, L M; Miranda, M E; Hatch, B; Deray, R; Shwiff, S; Roces, M C; Rupprecht, C E

    2017-02-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines. In 2010, with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, a canine rabies elimination project was initiated in the Philippine Archipelago of Visayan. We conducted an analysis of dog vaccination and human PEP costs for dog bite patients in a highly urbanized area and a low-income rural municipality in Cebu Province, Philippines, from 2010 to 2012. Our findings indicated that eliminating rabies in dogs through mass vaccination is more cost-effective than treating rabies exposures in humans. The average costs (in USD) per human life saved through PEP were $1620.28 in Cebu City and $1498 in Carmen. Costs per dog vaccinated ranged from $1.18 to $5.79 in Cebu City and $2.15 to $3.38 in Carmen. Mass dog vaccination campaigns conducted in each village were more cost-effective than fixed-site campaigns. The costs of dog vaccination can be reduced further through bulk vaccine purchase by the national government or large donor agency, for example the BMGF. As communities achieve canine rabies elimination, more judicious use of PEP will result in significant public savings. The study affirms the willingness of local governments to invest and reassure donors of their cooperation and resource contribution to sustain disease elimination efforts.

  11. Heterogeneity in the spread and control of infectious disease: consequences for the elimination of canine rabies

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Elaine A.; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Consunji, Ramona; Deray, Raffy; Friar, John; Haydon, Daniel T.; Jimenez, Joji; Pancipane, Marlon; Townsend, Sunny E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing vaccination campaign effectiveness is vital in designing efficient disease elimination programmes. We investigated the importance of spatial heterogeneity in vaccination coverage and human-mediated dog movements for the elimination of endemic canine rabies by mass dog vaccination in Region VI of the Philippines (Western Visayas). Household survey data was used to parameterise a spatially-explicit rabies transmission model with realistic dog movement and vaccination coverage scenarios, assuming a basic reproduction number for rabies drawn from the literature. This showed that heterogeneous vaccination reduces elimination prospects relative to homogeneous vaccination at the same overall level. Had the three vaccination campaigns completed in Region VI in 2010–2012 been homogeneous, they would have eliminated rabies with high probability. However, given the observed heterogeneity, three further campaigns may be required to achieve elimination with probability 0.95. We recommend that heterogeneity be reduced in future campaigns through targeted efforts in low coverage areas, even at the expense of reduced coverage in previously high coverage areas. Reported human-mediated dog movements did not reduce elimination probability, so expending limited resources on restricting dog movements is unnecessary in this endemic setting. Enhanced surveillance will be necessary post-elimination, however, given the reintroduction risk from long-distance dog movements. PMID:26667267

  12. Heterogeneity in the spread and control of infectious disease: consequences for the elimination of canine rabies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Elaine A.; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Consunji, Ramona; Deray, Raffy; Friar, John; Haydon, Daniel T.; Jimenez, Joji; Pancipane, Marlon; Townsend, Sunny E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors influencing vaccination campaign effectiveness is vital in designing efficient disease elimination programmes. We investigated the importance of spatial heterogeneity in vaccination coverage and human-mediated dog movements for the elimination of endemic canine rabies by mass dog vaccination in Region VI of the Philippines (Western Visayas). Household survey data was used to parameterise a spatially-explicit rabies transmission model with realistic dog movement and vaccination coverage scenarios, assuming a basic reproduction number for rabies drawn from the literature. This showed that heterogeneous vaccination reduces elimination prospects relative to homogeneous vaccination at the same overall level. Had the three vaccination campaigns completed in Region VI in 2010-2012 been homogeneous, they would have eliminated rabies with high probability. However, given the observed heterogeneity, three further campaigns may be required to achieve elimination with probability 0.95. We recommend that heterogeneity be reduced in future campaigns through targeted efforts in low coverage areas, even at the expense of reduced coverage in previously high coverage areas. Reported human-mediated dog movements did not reduce elimination probability, so expending limited resources on restricting dog movements is unnecessary in this endemic setting. Enhanced surveillance will be necessary post-elimination, however, given the reintroduction risk from long-distance dog movements.

  13. Towards Canine Rabies Elimination in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Assessment of Health Economic Data.

    PubMed

    Shwiff, S A; Hatch, B; Anderson, A; Nel, L H; Leroux, K; Stewart, D; de Scally, M; Govender, P; Rupprecht, C E

    2016-08-01

    Rabies remains a significant problem throughout much of the developing world. An estimated 69 000 people die annually from exposure to rabies. Most of these deaths are the result of being bitten by a rabid dog. Mass vaccination campaigns targeting dogs have been implemented around the world in an attempt to control or eliminate canine rabies. We analysed the vaccination and cost data for a campaign in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa; we found that the cost per dog vaccinated to be $6.61 for mass campaigns and $5.41 for local campaigns. We also estimated the cost of human post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). The cost of PEP is approximately $64.50 on average per patient, and $333 on average for the 9% of patients who receive RIG. We also found that the districts that vaccinated the most dogs per capita experienced the highest rates of human treatment and thus had the highest PEP costs.

  14. Cost-estimate and proposal for a development impact bond for canine rabies elimination by mass vaccination in Chad.

    PubMed

    Anyiam, Franziska; Lechenne, Monique; Mindekem, Rolande; Oussigéré, Assandi; Naissengar, Service; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Mbilo, Celine; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Coleman, Paul G; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2016-11-23

    Close to 69,000 humans die of rabies each year, most of them in Africa and Asia. Clinical rabies can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, PEP is commonly not available or not affordable in developing countries. Another strategy besides treating exposed humans is the vaccination of vector species. In developing countries, the main vector is the domestic dog, that, once infected, is a serious threat to humans. After a successful mass vaccination of 70% of the dogs in N'Djaména, we report here a cost-estimate for a national rabies elimination campaign for Chad. In a cross-sectional survey in four rural zones, we established the canine : human ratio at the household level. Based on human census data and the prevailing socio-cultural composition of rural zones of Chad, the total canine population was estimated at 1,205,361 dogs (95% Confidence interval 1,128,008-1,736,774 dogs). Cost data were collected from government sources and the recent canine mass vaccination campaign in N'Djaména. A Monte Carlo simulation was used for the simulation of the average cost and its variability, using probability distributions for dog numbers and cost items. Assuming the vaccination of 100 dogs on average per vaccination post and a duration of one year, the total cost for the vaccination of the national Chadian canine population is estimated at 2,716,359 Euros (95% CI 2,417,353-3,035,081) for one vaccination round. A development impact bond (DIB) organizational structure and cash flow scenario were then developed for the elimination of canine rabies in Chad. Cumulative discounted cost of 28.3 million Euros over ten years would be shared between the government of Chad, private investors and institutional donors as outcome funders. In this way, the risk of the investment could be shared and the necessary investment could be made available upfront - a key element for the elimination of canine rabies in Chad.

  15. Elimination of human rabies in a canine endemic province in Thailand: five-year programme.

    PubMed Central

    Kamoltham, T.; Singhsa, J.; Promsaranee, U.; Sonthon, P.; Mathean, P.; Thinyounyong, W.

    2003-01-01

    A five-year project to prevent human deaths from rabies in Phetchabun Province, Thailand involved increasing accessibility of post-exposure treatment with the Thai Red Cross intradermal (2-2-2-0-1-1) regimen for humans exposed to potentially and confirmed rabid animals; intensifying documentation of post-exposure treatment; increasing educational awareness through advocacy in provincial schools, television programmes, and newspapers; reducing canine rabies by monitoring the dog population and implementing vaccination and sterilization programmes; increasing the cooperation between the Ministries of Public Health, Agriculture, and Education on a provincial level; and assessing the impact of the programme through intensified follow-up of patients exposed to suspected and laboratory-confirmed rabid animals. Between 1996 and 2001, 10350 patients received post-exposure treatment; 7227 of these received the Thai Red Cross intradermal regimen. Fewer than 3% of exposed patients received rabies immunoglobulin. Seventy-three percent of all patients presented with WHO category III exposures. In a retrospective study, 188 patients exposed to laboratory-confirmed rabid animals were followed to determine their health status. Of these patients, 20 received the intramuscular Essen regimen and 168 the Thai Red Cross intradermal regimen (148 received 0.1 ml purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine, 10 received 0.1 ml purified vero cell rabies vaccine, and 10 received 0.2 ml purified duck embryo cell rabies vaccine). All patients were alive one year after exposure. Two human deaths occurred in the first two years of the programme - neither patient had received vaccine or rabies immunoglobulin after exposure. No deaths occurred during the last three years of the programme, which indicated that the programme was successful. PMID:12862022

  16. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  17. Eliminating rabies in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.

  18. Current status of rabies and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Anthony R; Banyard, Ashley C; Horton, Daniel L; Johnson, Nicholas; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Jackson, Alan C

    2014-10-11

    Rabies is one of the most deadly infectious diseases, with a case-fatality rate approaching 100%. The disease is established on all continents apart from Antarctica; most cases are reported in Africa and Asia, with thousands of deaths recorded annually. However, the estimated annual figure of almost 60,000 human rabies fatalities is probably an underestimate. Almost all cases of human rabies result from bites from infected dogs. Therefore, the most cost-effective approach to elimination of the global burden of human rabies is to control canine rabies rather than expansion of the availability of human prophylaxis. Mass vaccination campaigns with parenteral vaccines, and advances in oral vaccines for wildlife, have allowed the elimination of rabies in terrestrial carnivores in several countries worldwide. The subsequent reduction in cases of human rabies in such regions advocates the multidisciplinary One Health approach to rabies control through the mass vaccination of dogs and control of canine populations.

  19. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control.

  20. The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Shwiff, S A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the economic impacts of canine rabies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, dog vaccination and control, rabies diagnostic testing and cattle mortality-related costs were accounted for. The number of human deaths was updated from previous estimates based on population growth, and the costs associated with the risk of human mortality were incorporated. We accounted for uncertainty associated with the parameter estimates using a Monte Carlo simulation and estimated that the global burden of canine rabies is approximately $124 billion annually. This result illustrates the potential benefits that could be realized if canine rabies was eliminated and provides an important benchmark against which the cost of any potential elimination campaign can be compared.

  1. Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio >1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in >1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  2. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Cáceres, Sigfrido

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This review is guided by three questions: What is canine rabies? Why is it a looming threat to public health? Why should we care about canine rabies being a public health threat? It seeks to answer these questions and notes that canine rabies is viral zoonosis with dogs being the major vectors. The disease is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. We should care about this evolving situation because, in general, rabies is a neglected disease for which there are vaccines, preventive measures, post-exposure prophylaxis, and control protocols. Abstract Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:26486619

  3. Rabies in South Asia: fighting for elimination.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fazle-Rabbi; Basher, Ariful; Amin, Mohammad R; Hassan, Nazia; Patwary, Mohammad I

    2015-01-01

    South Asia is regarded as the hot spot for the tourist and travelers. Unfortunately, three big countries (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) of this region belong to top five rabies endemic countries of the world. Around 55,000 people die of rabies every year globally and 45% of them belong to South and South East Asia. Countries are now working on the elimination of rabies by the year 2020. Elimination of animal rabies is the pivotal of controlling human rabies. Dog (primary source) registration, population control and mass vaccination are the different ways of eliminating animal rabies. Pre (for risk groups including travelers) and post-exposure vaccine is the core for controlling human rabies. Post-exposure vaccine consists of nerve tissue vaccine and tissue culture vaccine. Due to low antigenicity and post-vaccine neurological complications all countries of South Asia except Pakistan have phased out the production and use of nerve tissue vaccine. To reduce the cost intramuscular regimen is now largely replaced by intradermal regimen and equine rabies immunoglobulin will probably replace human immunoglobulin in future for category III animal bite. 'SAARC' took initiatives for rabies elimination through 'SAARC development fund' which would hopefully play a vital role in regional collaboration to make the region rabies free.

  4. Eliminating Dog-Mediated Rabies in Sikkim, India: A 10-Year Pathway to Success for the SARAH Program

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Helen; Britton, Andrea; Bhutia, Thinlay

    2017-01-01

    A third of the world rabies burden is in India. The Sikkim Anti-Rabies and Animal Health (SARAH) program is the first state-wide rabies program in India and demonstrates a successful One Health model of dog-mediated rabies elimination. The SARAH program was created in 2006 as a collaboration between the Government of Sikkim and international non-government organizations—Vets Beyond Borders and Fondation Brigitte Bardot. Activities are directed to canine rabies vaccination, humane dog population control, community education, and treatment of sick and injured animals. In 2005, there were 0.74 human rabies deaths per 100,000 (4 deaths) within Sikkim, and from 2006 to 2015, there were no human rabies deaths. In 2016, two human rabies deaths were reported near the West Bengal border region. From 2005 to 2010, the incidence of animal rabies is unknown; from 2010 to 2016, eight cases of animal rabies were reported. Major challenges for the program are continued commitment to rabies control in the face of 0 to low human rabies incidence and the risk of rabies incursions. Effective intersectoral communication between Health, Veterinary, Forestry, and Police officers is essential to enable rapid response to animal bite incidents and possible rabies incursions. An integrated One Health approach needs to be maintained with enhanced active rabies surveillance. Other states must establish similar programs if India is ever to achieve a goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies. PMID:28361056

  5. Rationale and support for a One Health program for canine vaccination as the most cost-effective means of controlling zoonotic rabies in endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Lavan, Robert P; King, Alasdair I MacG; Sutton, David J; Tunceli, Kaan

    2017-03-23

    Although dog vaccination has been demonstrated to reduce and eliminate rabies in humans, during meetings there are often calls for further pilot studies. The assembled data proves that a widespread approach is now required. While zoonotic rabies has a minimal presence in developed nations, it is endemic throughout most of Asia and Africa, where it is considered to be a neglected tropical disease. In these areas, rabies causes an estimated annual mortality of at least 55,000 human deaths. Worldwide rabid dogs are the source of the vast majority of human rabies exposures. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) advocate a collaborative One Health approach involving human public health and veterinary agencies, with mass canine vaccination programs in endemic areas being the mainstay of strategies to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies. While post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing deaths in people exposed to rabies, it is comparatively expensive and has little impact on the canine reservoir that is the primary source of zoonotic rabies. Indiscriminate culling of the dog population is expensive and there is little evidence that it is effective in controlling rabies in non-island locations. Mass canine vaccination programs using a One Health framework that achieves a minimum 70% vaccination coverage during annual campaigns have proven to be cost-effective in controlling zoonotic rabies in endemic, resource-poor regions. Case studies, such as in Tanzania and Bhutan, illustrate how an approach based on mass canine rabies vaccination has effectively reduced both canine and human rabies to minimal levels. The multiple benefits of mass canine rabies vaccination in these cases included eliminating rabies in the domestic dog reservoirs, eliminating human rabies cases, and decreasing the rabies economic burden by reducing expenditures on PEP.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K; Coulibaly, Amy P; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-05-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006-2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006–2013

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K.; Coulibaly, Amy P.; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006–2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country. PMID:27089307

  8. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    PubMed

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses.

  9. Challenges and needs for China to eliminate rabies.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenwu; Dong, Jie; Tu, Changchun; Edwards, John; Guo, Fusheng; Zhou, Hang; Yu, Hongjie; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-10-02

    In China, rabies is a significant public health concern where dogs remain the main reservoir of disease transmission to humans; rabies-related mortality ranks second in the world.We compiled all published articles and official documents on rabies in mainland China to examine challenges and needs to eliminate rabies in the country. The Chinese authorities have identified rabies as a priority, recognized rabies control in dogs as key to control rabies in humans and required intersectoral collaborations. Efforts have been made to respond effectively to the latest re-emergence of rabies, which peaked in 2007 with >3,300 cases. Despite these outcomes and the increasing volume of publications and regulations in the recent years, our review points to some major information gaps to improve rabies control activities and envisage elimination program. An emphasis on laboratory or pathogen-associated and basic epidemiology research in the literature has contrasted with the absence of information to monitor various systems in humans and animals (e.g. quality of surveillance, response and post-exposure prophylaxis). Information is also lacking to appropriately inform policymakers (e.g. economic disease burden, impact of policies) and assist program managers (e.g. comprehensive and strategic guidance for cost-effective prevention and control activities, public education and dog population management).In conclusion, strategic planning is needed to provide a sense of direction, demonstrate feasibility of elimination in China, and develop a research agenda, addressing country's operational needs and constraints. The planning should be a multisectoral effort.

  10. Predicted Spatial Spread of Canine Rabies in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Peter J. S.; Ward, Michael P.; Davis, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Modelling disease dynamics is most useful when data are limited. We present a spatial transmission model for the spread of canine rabies in the currently rabies-free wild dog population of Australia. The introduction of a sub-clinically infected dog from Indonesia is a distinct possibility, as is the spillover infection of wild dogs. Ranges for parameters were estimated from the literature and expert opinion, or set to span an order of magnitude. Rabies was judged to have spread spatially if a new infectious case appeared 120 km from the index case. We found 21% of initial value settings resulted in canine rabies spreading 120km, and on doing so at a median speed of 67 km/year. Parameters governing dog movements and behaviour, around which there is a paucity of knowledge, explained most of the variance in model outcomes. Dog density, especially when interactions with other parameters were included, explained some of the variance in whether rabies spread 120km, but dog demography (mean lifespan and mean replacement period) had minimal impact. These results provide a clear research direction if Australia is to improve its preparedness for rabies. PMID:28114327

  11. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas F; Schröder, Ronald; Wysocki, Patrick; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Freuling, Conrad M

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978-2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution.

  12. Challenges and needs for China to eliminate rabies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In China, rabies is a significant public health concern where dogs remain the main reservoir of disease transmission to humans; rabies-related mortality ranks second in the world. We compiled all published articles and official documents on rabies in mainland China to examine challenges and needs to eliminate rabies in the country. The Chinese authorities have identified rabies as a priority, recognized rabies control in dogs as key to control rabies in humans and required intersectoral collaborations. Efforts have been made to respond effectively to the latest re-emergence of rabies, which peaked in 2007 with >3,300 cases. Despite these outcomes and the increasing volume of publications and regulations in the recent years, our review points to some major information gaps to improve rabies control activities and envisage elimination program. An emphasis on laboratory or pathogen-associated and basic epidemiology research in the literature has contrasted with the absence of information to monitor various systems in humans and animals (e.g. quality of surveillance, response and post-exposure prophylaxis). Information is also lacking to appropriately inform policymakers (e.g. economic disease burden, impact of policies) and assist program managers (e.g. comprehensive and strategic guidance for cost-effective prevention and control activities, public education and dog population management). In conclusion, strategic planning is needed to provide a sense of direction, demonstrate feasibility of elimination in China, and develop a research agenda, addressing country’s operational needs and constraints. The planning should be a multisectoral effort. PMID:24088366

  13. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000) human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion) economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%), followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20%) and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%), with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%), and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to

  14. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals.

  15. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 –December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries. PMID:26600437

  16. Complex genetic structure of the rabies virus in Bangkok and its surrounding provinces, Thailand: implications for canine rabies control.

    PubMed

    Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Ruankaew, Nipada; Hoonsuwan, Wirongrong; Puanghat, Apirom; Sakarasaeranee, Plyyonk; Briggs, Deborrah; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2006-03-01

    Dog vaccination and population management have been suggested as priorities in attempts at disease control in canine rabies-endemic countries. Budget limitations and the complexity of social, cultural and religious variables have complicated progress in the developing world. In Bangkok, Thailand, an intensive canine vaccination and sterilization programme has been in place since November 2002. Our objective was to determine if the rabies virus could be mapped according to its genetic variations and geographical location on the small localized scale of Bangkok and its surrounding provinces. Phylogenetic characterization of 69 samples from Bangkok and five neighbouring and two remote provinces, by limited sequence analysis of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene, distinguished six different clades. Rabies viruses of four clades were intermixed in Bangkok and in the surrounding highly populated regions whereas the other two clades were confined to rural and less populated provinces. Such a complex pattern of gene flow, particularly in Bangkok, may affect the outcome of canine control programmes.

  17. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species.

  18. Factors associated with dog rabies vaccination in Bhol, Philippines: results of a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted following the island-wide rabies elimination campaign.

    PubMed

    Davlin, S; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human-to-dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12-23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3-11 months (95% CI 1.8-12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9-4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs.

  19. A phylogenetic reconstruction of the epidemiological history of canine rabies virus variants in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gareth J; Páez, Andrés; Bóshell, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-03-01

    Historically, canine rabies in Colombia has been caused by two geographically distinct canine variants of rabies virus (RV) which between 1992 and 2002 accounted for approximately 95% of Colombian rabies cases. Genetic variant 1 (GV1) has been isolated up until 1997 in the Central Region and the Department of Arauca, and is now considered extinct through a successful vaccination program. Genetic variant 2 (GV2) has been isolated from the northern Caribbean Region and continues to circulate at present. Here we have analyzed two sets of sequence data based upon either a 147 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene or a 258 nucleotide region that combines a fragment of the non-coding intergenic region and a fragment of the polymerase gene. Using both maximum likelihood (ML) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods we have estimated the time of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the two variants to be between 1983 and 1988. Reconstructions of the population history suggest that GV2 has been circulating in Colombia since the 1960s and that GV1 evolved as a separate lineage from GV2. Estimations of the effective population size at present show the GV2 outbreak to be approximately 20 times greater than that of GV1. Demographic reconstructions were unable to detect a decrease in population size concurrent with the elimination of GV1. We find a raised rate of nucleotide substitution for GV1 gene sequences when compared to that of GV2, although all estimates have wide confidence limits. We demonstrate that phylogenetic reconstructions and sequence analysis can be used to support incidence data from the field in the assessment of RV epidemiology.

  20. Incidence of canine rabies in N'Djaména, Chad.

    PubMed

    Kayali, U; Mindekem, R; Yémadji, N; Oussiguéré, A; Naïssengar, S; Ndoutamia, A G; Zinsstag, J

    2003-11-12

    This work describes for the first time the incidence risk of passively reported canine rabies, and quantifies reported human exposure in N'Djaména (the capital of Chad). To diagnose rabies, we used a direct immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). From January 2001 to March 2002, we were brought 34 rabies cases in dogs and three cases in cats. Canine cases were geographically clustered. The annual incidence risk of canine rabies was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.7) per 1000 unvaccinated dogs. Most of the rabid dogs were owned-although free-roaming and not vaccinated against rabies. Most showed increased aggressiveness and attacked people without being provoked. Eighty-one persons were exposed to rabid dogs and four persons to rabid cats (mostly children<15 years old). Most of the exposed persons were neighbours or family members of the animal owner. Most exposures were transdermal bites, but nearly half of all exposed persons did not apply any first wound care or only applied a traditional treatment. In N'Djaména, humans are often exposed to canine rabies but do not use the full-course post-exposure treatment and wound care is insufficient. Most rabid dogs would be accessible to parenteral vaccination. Pilot vaccination campaigns are needed to determine the success of dog mass vaccination in N'Djaména as a way to prevent animal and human rabies.

  1. Role of Apoptosis in Rabies Viral Encephalitis: A Comparative Study in Mice, Canine, and Human Brain with a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Suja, M. S.; Mahadevan, Anita; Madhusudana, S. N.; Shankar, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the role of apoptosis in rabies encephalitis in humans and canines infected with wild-type street virus, in comparison with rodent model infected with street and laboratory passaged CVS strain, we studied postmortem brain tissue from nine humans, six canines infected with street rabies virus, and Swiss albino mice inoculated intramuscularly (IM) and intracerebrally (IC) with street and CVS strains. Encephalitis and high rabies antigen load were prominent in canine and human brains compared to rodents inoculated with street virus. Neuronal apoptosis was detectable only in sucking mice inoculated with CVS strain and minimal in street virus inoculated mice. In a time point study in suckling mice, DNA laddering was noted only terminally (7 days p.i.) following IC inoculation with CVS strain but not with street virus. In weanling and adult mice, apoptosis was restricted to inflammatory cells and absent in neurons similar to human and canine rabies-infected brains. Absence of neuronal apoptosis in wild-type rabies may facilitate intraneuronal survival and replication while apoptosis in inflammatory cells prevents elimination of the virus by abrogation of host inflammatory response. PMID:21876844

  2. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Bingham, J; van Vuuren, M; Burroughs, R E J; Stylianides, E

    2002-03-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  3. Elimination of terrestrial rabies in Germany using oral vaccination of foxes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Freuling, Conrad; Kliemt, Anke; Kliemt, Jeannette; Heuser, Rolf; Schlüter, Hartmut; Selhorst, Thomas; Vos, Adriaan; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) has become the method of choice in fox rabies control in Europe. During the past three decades fox-mediated rabies virtually disappeared from Western and Central Europe. Following Switzerland, Germany was the second European country to launch ORV field trials on its territory in 1983. This paper provides a historical overview on the emergence of fox rabies in Germany; describing the basic principles and milestones of the German rabies eradication programme and presenting results of two decades of efforts to control the disease in foxes. Also, setbacks as well as country-specific differences and particularities on Germany's long way to rabies elimination in comparison to other European countries are addressed. Since the first field trials in Germany the number of rabies cases steadily decreased from 10 484 in 1983 to three cases recorded in 2006. On February 3rd 2006 the last case of terrestrial rabies in Germany was detected in a fox near the town of Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate. In 2008, ORV ceased after 25 years and Germany was officially declared as free from terrestrial rabies. The German rabies eradication programme did cost approximately 100 million euro of which 37 million euro were covered by the EU. For the future, efforts should focus on maintaining a rabies free status by implementing measures to prevent reintroduction of terrestrial rabies from endemic countries.

  4. Establishment of a High Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program [corrected].

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 -December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries.

  5. Notes from the Field: Assessment of Health Facilities for Control of Canine Rabies - Gondar City, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Pieracci, Emily G; Schroeder, Betsy; Mengistu, Araya; Melaku, Achenef; Shiferaw, Miriam; Blanton, Jesse D; Wallace, Ryan

    2016-05-06

    Rabies is an encephalitic disease that is nearly always fatal after onset of illness. Worldwide, rabies kills an estimated 59,000 humans each year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25,000-159,000); the majority of the deaths are caused by the rabies virus variant that circulates in dogs (1,2). Canine rabies is endemic in Ethiopia, with an estimated 2,771 human deaths annually (CI = 1,116-12,660) (1-3). Annual rabies-associated livestock losses are estimated at >$50 million (USD), making rabies important to both human and animal health (1).

  6. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction.

    PubMed

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species.

  7. Canine rabies in Australia: a review of preparedness and research needs.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, J; Fleming, P J S; Ballard, G; Scott-Orr, H; Durr, S; Ward, M P

    2015-06-01

    Australia is unique as a populated continent in that canine rabies is exotic, with only one likely incursion in 1867. This is despite the presence of a widespread free-ranging dog population, which includes the naturalized dingo, feral domestic dogs and dingo-dog cross-breeds. To Australia's immediate north, rabies has recently spread within the Indonesian archipelago, with outbreaks occurring in historically free islands to the east including Bali, Flores, Ambon and the Tanimbar Islands. Australia depends on strict quarantine protocols to prevent importation of a rabid animal, but the risk of illegal animal movements by fishing and recreational vessels circumventing quarantine remains. Predicting where rabies will enter Australia is important, but understanding dog population dynamics and interactions, including contact rates in and around human populations, is essential for rabies preparedness. The interactions among and between Australia's large populations of wild, free-roaming and restrained domestic dogs require quantification for rabies incursions to be detected and controlled. The imminent risk of rabies breaching Australian borders makes the development of disease spread models that will assist in the deployment of cost-effective surveillance, improve preventive strategies and guide disease management protocols vitally important. Here, we critically review Australia's preparedness for rabies, discuss prevailing assumptions and models, identify knowledge deficits in free-roaming dog ecology relating to rabies maintenance and speculate on the likely consequences of endemic rabies for Australia.

  8. Oral immunization of raccoons and skunks with a canine adenovirus recombinant rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Heather; Jackson, Felix; Bean, Kayla; Panasuk, Brian; Niezgoda, Michael; Slate, Dennis; Li, Jianwei; Dietzschold, Bernard; Mattis, Jeff; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-11-27

    Oral vaccination is an important part of wildlife rabies control programs. Currently, the vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus is the only oral rabies vaccine licensed in the United States, and it is not effective in skunks. In the current study, captive raccoons and skunks were used to evaluate a vaccine developed by incorporating the rabies virus glycoprotein gene into a canine adenovirus serotype 2 vector (CAV2-RVG). Seven of 7 raccoons orally vaccinated with CAV2-RVG developed virus neutralizing antibodies and survived lethal challenge. Five of 5 and 6 of 6 skunks in 2 experimental groups receiving 10-fold different dilutions of CAV2-RVG developed neutralizing antibodies and survived challenge. The results of this preliminary study suggest that CAV2-RVG stimulates protective immunity against rabies in raccoons and skunks.

  9. Three-year rabies duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination with a core combination vaccine against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Gore, Thomas C; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two seronegative pups were vaccinated at 8 weeks of age with modified-live canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2), and canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccine and at 12 weeks with a modified-live CDV, CAV-2, CPV, and killed rabies virus vaccine. An additional 31 seronegative pups served as age-matched, nonvaccinated controls. All test dogs were strictly isolated for 3 years after receiving the second vaccination and then were challenged with virulent rabies virus. Clinical signs of rabies were prevented in 28 (88%) of the 32 vaccinated dogs. In contrast, 97% (30 of 31) of the control dogs died of rabies infection. These study results indicated that no immunogenic interference occurred between the modified-live vaccine components and the killed rabies virus component. Furthermore, these results indicated that the rabies component in the test vaccine provided protection against virulent rabies challenge in dogs 12 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following vaccination.

  10. Intracellular Spread of Rabies Virus Is Reduced in the Paralytic Form of Canine Rabies Compared to the Furious Form.

    PubMed

    Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul Scott; Teerapakpinyo, Chinachote; Thepa, Nisachol; Phukpattaranont, Pornchai; Intarut, Nirun; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the furious and paralytic forms of canine rabies at the early stage of disease have shown a more rapid viral colonization of the cerebral hemispheres in the furious form, as measured by viral antigen within neuronal cell bodies and viral RNA levels. Measurement of cellular processes separate from neuronal cell body provides a visual record of the spread of rabies virus which occurs across synapses. In this study, the amount of rabies viral antigen within cell processes was quantitatively assessed by image analysis in a cohort of naturally rabies infected non-vaccinated dogs (5 furious and 5 paralytic) that were sacrificed shortly after developing illness. Measurements were taken at different levels of the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebrum. Results were compared to the amount of rabies viral antigen in neuronal cell bodies. Generally, the amount of rabies viral antigen in cell processes decreased in a rostral direction, following the pattern for the amount of rabies viral antigen in neuronal cell bodies and the percentage of involved cell bodies. However, there was a delay in cell process involvement following cell body involvement, consistent with replication occurring in the cell body region and subsequent transport out to cell processes. Greater amounts of antigen were seen in cell processes in dogs with the furious compared to paralytic form, at all anatomic levels examined. This difference was even evident when comparing (1) neurons with similar amounts of antigen, (2) similar percentages of involved neurons, and (3) anatomic levels that showed 100% positive neurons. These findings suggest that intracellular transport of the virus may be slower in the paralytic form, resulting in slower viral propagation. Possible mechanisms might involve host-specific differences in intracellular virus transport. The latter could be cytokine-mediated, since previous studies have documented greater inflammation in the paralytic form.

  11. Intracellular Spread of Rabies Virus Is Reduced in the Paralytic Form of Canine Rabies Compared to the Furious Form

    PubMed Central

    Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul Scott; Teerapakpinyo, Chinachote; Thepa, Nisachol; Phukpattaranont, Pornchai; Intarut, Nirun; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the furious and paralytic forms of canine rabies at the early stage of disease have shown a more rapid viral colonization of the cerebral hemispheres in the furious form, as measured by viral antigen within neuronal cell bodies and viral RNA levels. Measurement of cellular processes separate from neuronal cell body provides a visual record of the spread of rabies virus which occurs across synapses. In this study, the amount of rabies viral antigen within cell processes was quantitatively assessed by image analysis in a cohort of naturally rabies infected non-vaccinated dogs (5 furious and 5 paralytic) that were sacrificed shortly after developing illness. Measurements were taken at different levels of the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebrum. Results were compared to the amount of rabies viral antigen in neuronal cell bodies. Generally, the amount of rabies viral antigen in cell processes decreased in a rostral direction, following the pattern for the amount of rabies viral antigen in neuronal cell bodies and the percentage of involved cell bodies. However, there was a delay in cell process involvement following cell body involvement, consistent with replication occurring in the cell body region and subsequent transport out to cell processes. Greater amounts of antigen were seen in cell processes in dogs with the furious compared to paralytic form, at all anatomic levels examined. This difference was even evident when comparing (1) neurons with similar amounts of antigen, (2) similar percentages of involved neurons, and (3) anatomic levels that showed 100% positive neurons. These findings suggest that intracellular transport of the virus may be slower in the paralytic form, resulting in slower viral propagation. Possible mechanisms might involve host-specific differences in intracellular virus transport. The latter could be cytokine-mediated, since previous studies have documented greater inflammation in the paralytic form. PMID:27253394

  12. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrophobia; Animal bite - rabies; Dog bite - rabies; Bat bite - rabies; Raccoon bites - rabies ... for a number of years due to widespread animal vaccination. Other wild animals that can spread the ...

  13. Inactivated Recombinant Rabies Viruses Displaying Canine Distemper Virus Glycoproteins Induce Protective Immunity against Both Pathogens.

    PubMed

    da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; Hudacek, Andrew; Sawatsky, Bevan; Krämer, Beate; Yin, Xiangping; Schnell, Matthias J; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-04-15

    The development of multivalent vaccines is an attractive methodology for the simultaneous prevention of several infectious diseases in vulnerable populations. Both canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RABV) cause lethal disease in wild and domestic carnivores. While RABV vaccines are inactivated, the live-attenuated CDV vaccines retain residual virulence for highly susceptible wildlife species. In this study, we developed recombinant bivalent vaccine candidates based on recombinant vaccine strain rabies virus particles, which concurrently display the protective CDV and RABV glycoprotein antigens. The recombinant viruses replicated to near-wild-type titers, and the heterologous glycoproteins were efficiently expressed and incorporated in the viral particles. Immunization of ferrets with beta-propiolactone-inactivated recombinant virus particles elicited protective RABV antibody titers, and animals immunized with a combination of CDV attachment protein- and fusion protein-expressing recombinant viruses were protected from lethal CDV challenge. However, animals that were immunized with only a RABV expressing the attachment protein of CDV vaccine strain Onderstepoort succumbed to infection with a more recent wild-type strain, indicating that immune responses to the more conserved fusion protein contribute to protection against heterologous CDV strains.IMPORTANCE Rabies virus and canine distemper virus (CDV) cause high mortality rates and death in many carnivores. While rabies vaccines are inactivated and thus have an excellent safety profile and high stability, live-attenuated CDV vaccines can retain residual virulence in highly susceptible species. Here we generated recombinant inactivated rabies viruses that carry one of the CDV glycoproteins on their surface. Ferrets immunized twice with a mix of recombinant rabies viruses carrying the CDV fusion and attachment glycoproteins were protected from lethal CDV challenge, whereas all animals that received

  14. Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination

    PubMed Central

    Chipman, Richard B.; Slate, Dennis; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Gilbert, Amy T.

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada), foxes (Europe), and dogs and coyotes (United States) demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools. Also critical is a cooperatively produced strategic plan that emphasizes collaborative rabies management among agencies and organizations at the landscape scale. Common management strategies, alone or as part of an integrated approach, include the following: oral rabies vaccination (ORV), trap-vaccinate-release (TVR), and local population reduction. As a complement, mathematical and statistical modeling approaches can guide intervention planning, such as through contact networks, circuit theory, individual-based modeling, and others, which can be used to better understand and predict rabies dynamics through simulated interactions among the host, virus, environment, and control strategy. Strategies derived from this ecological lens can then be optimized to produce a management plan that balances the ecological needs and program financial resources. This paper discusses the management and modeling strategies that are currently used, or have been used in the past, and provides a platform of options for consideration while developing raccoon rabies virus elimination strategies in the US. PMID:28301480

  15. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated. Methods To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains. Results In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012. Conclusions These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country. PMID

  16. Renewed Global Partnerships and Redesigned Roadmaps for Rabies Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Attlan, Michaël; Bourhy, Hervé; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; de Balogh, Katinka; Dodet, Betty; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hiby, Elly; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tordo, Noël; Tumpey, Abbigail; Wandeler, Alexander; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine rabies, responsible for most human rabies deaths, is a serious global public health concern. This zoonosis is entirely preventable, but by focusing solely upon rabies prevention in humans, this “incurable wound” persists at high costs. Although preventing human deaths through canine rabies elimination is feasible, dog rabies control is often neglected, because dogs are not considered typical economic commodities by the animal health sector. Here, we demonstrate that the responsibility of managing rabies falls upon multiple sectors, that a truly integrated approach is the key to rabies elimination, and that considerable progress has been made to this effect. Achievements include the construction of global rabies networks and organizational partnerships; development of road maps, operational toolkits, and a blueprint for rabies prevention and control; and opportunities for scaling up and replication of successful programs. Progress must continue towards overcoming the remaining challenges preventing the ultimate goal of rabies elimination. PMID:21776359

  17. The Economics of a Successful Raccoon Rabies Elimination Program on Long Island, New York

    PubMed Central

    Elser, Julie L.; Bigler, Laura L.; Anderson, Aaron M.; Maki, Joanne L.; Lein, Donald H.; Shwiff, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Raccoon rabies is endemic in the eastern U.S.; however, an epizootic had not been confirmed on Long Island, New York until 2004. An oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program was initiated soon after the first rabies-positive raccoon was discovered, and continued until raccoon rabies was eliminated from the vaccination zone. The cost-effectiveness and economic impact of this rabies control program were unknown. A public health surveillance data set was evaluated following the ORV program on Long Island, and is used here as a case study in the health economics of rabies prevention and control efforts. A benefit-cost analysis was performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program, and a regional economic model was used to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of raccoon rabies elimination to New York State. The cost of the program, approximately $2.6 million, was recovered within eight years by reducing costs associated with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and veterinary diagnostic testing of rabies suspect animals. By 2019, the State of New York is projected to benefit from the ORV program by almost $27 million. The benefit-cost ratio will reach 1.71 in 2019, meaning that for every dollar spent on the program $1.71 will be saved. Regional economic modeling estimated employment growth of over 100 jobs and a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increase of $9.2 million through 2019. This analysis suggests that baiting to eliminate rabies in a geographically constrained area can provide positive economic returns. PMID:27935946

  18. Aiming for elimination of dog-mediated human rabies cases by 2030.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    A conference organised by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC), in Geneva on December 10 to 11, 2015, saw delegates from nearly 100 countries meet to discuss the WHO's goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies by 2030 and work on a new framework to focus efforts towards achieving this goal. Suzanne Jarvis reports.

  19. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans.

  20. The elimination of fox rabies from Europe: determinants of success and lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Freuling, Conrad M; Hampson, Katie; Selhorst, Thomas; Schröder, Ronald; Meslin, Francois X; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Müller, Thomas

    2013-08-05

    Despite perceived challenges to controlling an infectious disease in wildlife, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of foxes has proved a remarkably successful tool and a prime example of a sophisticated strategy to eliminate disease from wildlife reservoirs. During the past three decades, the implementation of ORV programmes in 24 countries has led to the elimination of fox-mediated rabies from vast areas of Western and Central Europe. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of 22 European ORV programmes between 1978 and 2010. During this period an area of almost 1.9 million km² was targeted at least once with vaccine baits, with control taking between 5 and 26 years depending upon the country. We examined factors influencing effort required both to control and eliminate fox rabies as well as cost-related issues of these programmes. The proportion of land area ever affected by rabies and an index capturing the size and overlap of successive ORV campaigns were identified as factors having statistically significant effects on the number of campaigns required to both control and eliminate rabies. Repeat comprehensive campaigns that are wholly overlapping much more rapidly eliminate infection and are less costly in the long term. Disproportionally greater effort is required in the final phase of an ORV programme, with a median of 11 additional campaigns required to eliminate disease once incidence has been reduced by 90 per cent. If successive ORV campaigns span the entire affected area, rabies will be eliminated more rapidly than if campaigns are implemented in a less comprehensive manner, therefore reducing ORV expenditure in the longer term. These findings should help improve the planning and implementation of ORV programmes, and facilitate future decision-making by veterinary authorities and policy-makers.

  1. Rabies.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Nark

    2013-01-01

    Rabies has been a scourge of mankind since antiquity. The name itself, ?rabies? is derived from the ancient Sanskrit rabhas meaning ?to do violence? and has been found described in medical writings several thousand years old. The rabies virus is an RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae (Greek for ?rod-shaped virus?), genus Lyssavirus (Lyssa being the Greek God of frenzy and rage). Rabies infections have a worldwide spread, with only a few, mostly island nations laying claim to being ?rabies free.?

  2. The elimination of raccoon rabies from Wolfe Island, Ontario: animal density and movements.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, Rick; MacDonald, Erin; Sobey, Kirk; Donovan, Dennis; Bruce, Laura; Allan, Mike; Silver, Andrew; Bennett, Kim; Brown, Lucy; Macdonald, Kathryn; Gibson, Mark; Buchanan, Tore; Stevenson, Bev; Davies, Chris; Wandeler, Alex; Muldoon, Frances

    2007-04-01

    During 1996 to 1998, an average of 52% to 55% of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) population on Wolfe Island, Ontario was vaccinated against rabies during proactive trap-vaccinate-release (TVR) operations. However, during 1999, the percent of the population vaccinated declined to 39% and an outbreak (6 cases) of raccoon rabies occurred on the island from December 1999 to January 2000. The raccoon population on Wolfe Island declined dramatically (71% reduction) from 1,067 raccoons (mean density = 8.4/km(2) [6.4-12.4, 95% CI]) during 1999 to 305 raccoons (mean density = 2.4/km(2) [0.87-4.1, 95% CI]) in the spring of 2000. Raccoon density immediately following the outbreak was significantly lower in cells with rabies cases, suggesting that rabies had a negative effect on population size. However, raccoon density had doubled by 1 yr following the outbreak. Movement of raccoons on Wolfe Island was as great as 24 km. Male raccoons moved greater distances than females. Movements to surrounding islands were also noted for raccoons ear tagged on Wolfe Island which indicates the island could serve as a focus for greater geographic rabies spread. Point infection control (PIC) during 2000, TVR during 2001-02, and the aerial distribution of Vaccinia-Rabies Glycoprotein (V-RG) baits during 2000 and 2003-05 were used to eliminate rabies from Wolfe Island. No cases have been detected since late January 2000 (to February 2007).

  3. Efficacy and safety of a live canine adenovirus-vectored rabies virus vaccine in swine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Ma, Guangpeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2008-10-03

    Rabies infections in swine have been reported occasionally in recent years in certain geographic locations. Although a protective vaccine consisting of inactivated rabies virus is available for use in swine, searching for a more economically viable formulation for use in developing countries is always a priority. This work describes the testing of a canine adenovirus that expresses a rabies viral epitope (CAV-2-E3Delta-RGP) in a porcine rabies model. The data presented here show that the recombinant viral vaccine was effective in protecting swine against rabies if administered intramuscularly, but not orally or intranasally, and that protection was probably related to the development of a humoral response that lasted at least 28 weeks. Following vaccination, no behavioral abnormalities were observed in vaccinated swine and virus particles were not detected in either tissues or body fluids, indicating that this formulation was safe. The recombinant virus stimulated an effective level of antibody response in the immunized swine after a single intramuscular inoculation.

  4. Dog Bite Histories and Response to Incidents in Canine Rabies-Enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hergert, Melinda; Nel, Louis H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Our aim was to evaluate respondent knowledge of canine rabies and response to dog bite incidents towards improved rabies control. Six communities consisting of three land use types were randomly sampled from September 2009 to January 2011, using a cluster design. A total of 1992 household records were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling to evaluate source of rabies knowledge, experiences with dog bites, and factors affecting treatment received within respective households that occurred within the 365 day period prior to the surveys. 86% of the population surveyed had heard of rabies. Non-dog owners were 1.6 times more likely to have heard of rabies than dog owners; however, fear of rabies was not a reason for not owning a dog. Government veterinary services were reported most frequently as respondent source of rabies knowledge. Nearly 13% of households had a member bitten by a dog within the year prior to the surveys with 82% of the victims visiting a clinic as a response to the bite. 35% of these clinic visitors received at least one rabies vaccination. Regression modeling determined that the only response variable that significantly reflected the likelihood of a patient receiving rabies vaccination or not was the term for the area surveyed. Overall the survey showed that most respondents have heard of dog associated rabies and seek medical assistance at a clinic in response to a dog bite regardless of offending dog identification. An in-depth study involving factors associated within area clinics may highlight the area dependency for patients receiving rabies post exposure prophylaxis shown by this model. PMID:23593511

  5. Dog bite histories and response to incidents in canine rabies-enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hergert, Melinda; Nel, Louis H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Our aim was to evaluate respondent knowledge of canine rabies and response to dog bite incidents towards improved rabies control. Six communities consisting of three land use types were randomly sampled from September 2009 to January 2011, using a cluster design. A total of 1992 household records were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling to evaluate source of rabies knowledge, experiences with dog bites, and factors affecting treatment received within respective households that occurred within the 365 day period prior to the surveys. 86% of the population surveyed had heard of rabies. Non-dog owners were 1.6 times more likely to have heard of rabies than dog owners; however, fear of rabies was not a reason for not owning a dog. Government veterinary services were reported most frequently as respondent source of rabies knowledge. Nearly 13% of households had a member bitten by a dog within the year prior to the surveys with 82% of the victims visiting a clinic as a response to the bite. 35% of these clinic visitors received at least one rabies vaccination. Regression modeling determined that the only response variable that significantly reflected the likelihood of a patient receiving rabies vaccination or not was the term for the area surveyed. Overall the survey showed that most respondents have heard of dog associated rabies and seek medical assistance at a clinic in response to a dog bite regardless of offending dog identification. An in-depth study involving factors associated within area clinics may highlight the area dependency for patients receiving rabies post exposure prophylaxis shown by this model.

  6. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    Rabies is a deadly animal disease caused by a virus. It can happen in wild animals, including ... of an infected animal. In people, symptoms of rabies include fever, headache and fatigue, then confusion, hallucinations ...

  7. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... has rabies, quick treatment can prevent the illness. Animal Bites Rabies is very serious and can make ... important for someone who's been bitten by an animal to see a doctor. This is especially important ...

  8. Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru.

    PubMed

    Seneschall, Charlotte; Luna-Farro, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Rabies remains endemic in Peru. In 1983, Latin America and the Caribbean promised to eliminate canine-transmitted rabies from the continent. This led to Peru introducing a multidisciplinary public health system for controlling and managing rabies across the country. The system consists of mass canine vaccination campaigns, post exposure prophylaxis and monitoring aggressor animals for signs of rabies. The Peruvian city of Trujillo, La Libertad, is an urban area where dogs are the principal reservoir for rabies. The disease burden of rabies in Trujillo, La Libertad is currently minimal, with no rabies cases in humans for over 10 years, and only three canine cases. No human deaths due to rabies have occurred for several decades. From this it can be inferred that antirabies systems such as this do have real effects in reducing cases of human rabies at a grass roots level.

  9. A recombinant canine distemper virus expressing a modified rabies virus glycoprotein induces immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhili; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Jiazeng; Yi, Bao; Hou, Qiang; Mao, Yaping; Liu, Weiquan

    2015-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RV) are two important pathogens of the dog. CDV, a member of the morbillivirus genus, has shown promise as an expression vector. The glycoprotein from RV is a main contributor to protective immunity and capable of eliciting the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we recovered an attenuated strain of canine distemper virus and constructed a recombinant virus, rCDV-RV-G, expressing a modified (R333Q) rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G) of RV Flury strain LEP. RV-G expression by the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Furthermore, G was proved to be incorporated into the surface of CDV particles. While replication of the recombinant virus was slightly reduced compared with the parental CDV, it stably expressed the RV-G over ten serial passages. Inoculation of mice induced specific neutralizing antibodies against both RV-G and CDV. Therefore, the rCDV-RV-G has the potential as a vaccine that may be used to control rabies virus infection in dogs and other animals.

  10. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in Wukari metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U

    2014-06-12

    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti

  11. [Rabies].

    PubMed

    Nishizono, Akira

    2009-02-01

    Rabies is a fetal viral encephalitis caused by the rabies virus, that is mainly transmitted through the saliva of infected domestic or wild animals. Rabies remains an important public health issue worldwide due to the prevalence of endemic dog rabies in developing countries. The epidemiological impact is particularly still high in Asian and African countries. In contrast, in the developed countries, including Japan, rabies is a re-emerging disease. The Lyssaviruses (types EBLV and ABL) and rabies virus infections via bats have recently emerged in Europe and the United States. Although the incubation period averages 1-3 months, there is no known treatment once the symptoms of rabies appear. On the basis of clinical manifestations, rabies can be classified into 2 types: furious and paralytic rabies. The former is characterized by the well-known symptoms of hydrophobia, aerophobia, and hypersalivation. However the latter type is likely to be misdiagnosed because of its similarity to Guillian-Barré syndrome and neuropsychiatric illnesses. Therefore, post-exposure treatment (PET) using a tissue-culture vaccine is the only way to prevent the disease. In the case of exposure to severe bites (WHO category III), rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is essential for PET. Although the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of rabies remains poorly understood, the recent technique of reverse genetics can be a useful tool for understanding rabies pathogenesis at a genetic level. Japan has been free of rabies for over 50 years because of the proper registration of domestic animals and control over their vaccinations. However, it is necessary to always remember that rabies is still a global burden as a representative of a re-emerging disease.

  12. Prioritization of capacities for the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies in the Americas: building the framework.

    PubMed

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Burgeño, Adamelia; Montibeller, Gilberto; Clavijo, Alfonso; Vigilato, Marco Antonio; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2013-10-01

    The region of the Americas pledged to eliminate dog-transmitted human rabies by 2015. After 30 years of sustained efforts, regional elimination appears possible as dog-mediated human rabies cases are at an all-time low, and a number of countries and territories have already eliminated the disease. In this setting, there is an opportunity to generate a framework to support countries strategies in the achievement and maintenance of rabies-free status (RFS). To this end, we describe the development of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) model to help the evaluation of rabies programmes and the identification of the best investment strategy for countries and territories to improve and efficiently maintain their rabies status. The model contemplates human and animal related capacities, six in each area, to comprehensively assess the wide scope of rabies programmes. An initial elicitation of expert opinion of values and weights for the MCDA model was performed via a web-based questionnaire. Even at this pilot stage, the model produces comparable capacity-scores, and overall (combined for public and animal health areas) as well as area-specific investment strategies. The model is being developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) as part of the regional efforts towards dog-mediated human rabies elimination and will be presented to the countries for review, refinement, contextualization, and testing. The aspiration is that countries use the model to identify the best allocation of resources towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies.

  13. Coverage of pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against canine rabies in N'Djaména, Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Kayali, U.; Mindekem, R.; Yémadji, N.; Vounatsou, P.; Kaninga, Y.; Ndoutamia, A. G.; Zinsstag, J.

    2003-01-01

    Canine rabies, and thus human exposure to rabies, can be controlled through mass vaccination of the animal reservoir if dog owners are willing to cooperate. Inaccessible, ownerless dogs, however, reduce the vaccination coverage achieved in parenteral campaigns. This study aimed to estimate the vaccination coverage in dogs in three study zones of N'Djaména, Chad, after a pilot free parenteral mass vaccination campaign against rabies. We used a capture-mark-recapture approach for population estimates, with a Bayesian, Markov chain, Monte Carlo method to estimate the total number of owned dogs, and the ratio of ownerless to owned dogs to calculate vaccination coverage. When we took into account ownerless dogs, the vaccination coverage in the dog populations was 87% (95% confidence interval (CI), 84-89%) in study zone I, 71% (95% CI, 64-76%) in zone II, and 64% (95% CI, 58-71%) in zone III. The proportions of ownerless dogs to owned dogs were 1.1% (95% CI, 0-3.1%), 7.6% (95% CI, 0.7-16.5%), and 10.6% (95% CI, 1.6-19.1%) in the three study zones, respectively. Vaccination coverage in the three populations of owned dogs was 88% (95% CI, 84-92%) in zone I, 76% (95% CI, 71-81%) in zone II, and 70% (95% CI, 66-76%) in zone III. Participation of dog owners in the free campaign was high, and the number of inaccessible ownerless dogs was low. High levels of vaccination coverage could be achieved with parenteral mass vaccination. Regular parenteral vaccination campaigns to cover all of N'Djaména should be considered as an ethical way of preventing human rabies when post-exposure treatment is of limited availability and high in cost. PMID:14758434

  14. Can man be protected against rabies?

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, K. F.

    1954-01-01

    The literature dealing with the protection of man against rabies over the past 70 years in many parts of the world is reviewed, and the salient problems of our present state of knowledge analysed. The author discusses the measures currently in use for eliminating canine rabies by quarantine, regulation of the dog population, and—in particular—mass vaccination of dogs, with a detailed survey of the questions of immunological research which this method raises. Measures for suppressing the disease in other vectors are also described. It is concluded that, given effective education of the public and the widespread use of canine mass vaccination, human rabies is a preventable disease. PMID:13182607

  15. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a squirrel or a bat. But any mammal can get rabies, including household pets, such as ... them and their owners. Animals who are not mammals, such as birds, fish, turtles, and snakes, cannot ...

  16. Human and animal rabies prevention and control cost in Bhutan, 2001-2008: the cost-benefit of dog rabies elimination.

    PubMed

    Tenzin; Wangdi, Kinley; Ward, Michael P

    2012-12-17

    The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of various interventions and to quantify the economic impacts of rabies in Bhutan. Cost-benefit of dog rabies elimination versus human post exposure treatment cost was also assessed. The average direct medical cost of human post-exposure treatment (using rabies vaccine only) was estimated to be Nu. 1615 (US$ 35.65) per 5-dose Essen regimen per patient. The cost would increase to Nu. 2497 (US$ 55.13) and Nu. 19,633 (US$ 433.41) per patient when one dose of either equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIG) or human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) is administered, respectively. The societal cost (direct medical and indirect patient expenses) per patient was estimated to be Nu. 2019 (US$ 45), Nu. 2901 (US$ 64) and Nu. 20,037 (US$ 442) using vaccine only, vaccine with ERIG and vaccine with HRIG, respectively. The average cost per dog vaccination and sterilization were estimated to be Nu. 75 (US$ 1.66) and Nu. 288 (US$ 6.36), respectively. The total direct cost of rabies and various interventions between 2001 and 2008 was estimated to be Nu. 46.95 million (US$ 1.03 million). The direct cost for intensified human PET was estimated to be Nu. 5.85 million (US$ 0.11 million) per year with a cumulated estimated costs of Nu. 35.10 million (US$ 0.70 million) while the cost of mass dog vaccination with at least 70% coverage is estimated to be approximately Nu. 10.31 million (US$ 0.21 million) at the end of 6 years. The combined cost of mass dog vaccination and human PET was estimated to be greater than the cost of human PET alone during the first 2 years of the campaign, and then would be lower than human PET cost alone after the 5th year of the campaign. The total cumulated cost of the combined strategy was estimated to be Nu. 34.14 million (US$ 0.73 million) and would be lower than the cumulated cost of human PET alone (Nu. 35.10 million, US$ 0.77 million) at the end of 6 years. Rabies represents a substantial economic impact to the

  17. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO) and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. This initiative marks the first time that both the human and animal health sectors have come together to adopt a common strategy against this devastating and massively neglected disease. Monitoring ...

  18. Oral vaccination of dogs (Canis familiaris) with baits containing the recombinant rabies-canine adenovirus type-2 vaccine confers long-lasting immunity against rabies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Ye; Fooks, Anthony R; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2008-01-17

    Rabies is a reemerging and fatal infectious disease in Asia mainly caused by exposure to rabid dogs. Prevention of dog rabies would be the most effective way to stop rabies transmission to humans. However, vaccinating stray dogs in urban and rural areas using conventional vaccines is always difficult and is not cost-effective for use in most areas including China. Further to previous studies from our laboratory, we developed a bait containing the recombinant rabies vaccine and performed a non-parenteral trial in dogs. This vaccine was intranasally administrated once to 46 dogs in solution form with 1 x 10(8.5) PFU and orally to 90 dogs in specially designed baits with 3 x 10(8.5) PFU of the recombinant canine adenovirus. Results showed that about 87.5% (119/136) of the immunized dogs developed virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA). The immune response against rabies in dogs was detectable at 2-3 weeks after administration, reaching a peak by 5-6 weeks. Among the seroconverted animals, 90.8% (108/119) elicited a VNA response for over 24 months. The antibody titer during the 2 years was above 0.5IU /ml while showing a gradual but slow decline from the 6th week after vaccination. In a challenge experiment of 10 dogs with 60,000 mouse LD(50) of CVS-24 2 years after the vaccination, all the dogs survived. This demonstrated that the recombinant vaccine could be orally administrated and the bait was effective for the oral vaccination of dogs.

  19. [Molecular epidemiology of rabies epizootics in Colombia, 1994-2002: evidence of human and canine rabies associated with chiroptera].

    PubMed

    Páez, Andrés; Nuñez, Constanza; García, Clemencia; Boshell, Jorge

    2003-03-01

    Three urban rabies outbreaks have been reported in Colombia during the last two decades, one of which is ongoing in the Caribbean region (northern Colombia). The earlier outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in Arauca (eastern Colombia) and in the Central region, ending in 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among rabies viruses isolated from the three areas were based on a comparison of cDNA fragments coding for the endodomain of protein G and a fragment of L protein obtained by RT-PCR. The sequenced amplicons which included the G-L intergenic region contained 902 base pairs. Phylogenetic analysis showed three distinct groups of viruses. Colombian genetic variant I viruses were isolated only from Arauca and the Central region, but are now apparently extinct. Colombian genetic variant II viruses were isolated in the Caribbean region and are still being transmitted in that area. The third group of bat rabies variants were isolated from two insectivorous bats, three domestic dogs and a human. This associates bat rabies virus with rabies in Colombian dogs and humans, and indicates bats to be a rabies reservoir of public health significance.

  20. A single immunization with a recombinant canine adenovirus expressing the rabies virus G protein confers protective immunity against rabies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jianwei; Faber, Milosz; Papaneri, Amy; Faber, Marie-Luise; McGettigan, James P.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard . E-mail: bernhard.dietzschold@jefferson.edu

    2006-12-20

    Rabies vaccines based on live attenuated rabies viruses or recombinant pox viruses expressing the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein (G) hold the greatest promise of safety and efficacy, particularly for oral immunization of wildlife. However, while these vaccines induce protective immunity in foxes, they are less effective in other animals, and safety concerns have been raised for some of these vaccines. Because canine adenovirus 2 (CAV2) is licensed for use as a live vaccine for dogs and has an excellent efficacy and safety record, we used this virus as an expression vector for the RVG. The recombinant CAV2-RV G produces virus titers similar to those produced by wild-type CAV2, indicating that the RVG gene does not affect virus replication. Comparison of RVG expressed by CAV2-RV G with that of vaccinia-RV G recombinant virus (V-RG) revealed similar amounts of RV G on the cell surface. A single intramuscular or intranasal immunization of mice with CAV2-RVG induced protective immunity in a dose-dependent manner, with no clinical signs or discomfort from the virus infection regardless of the route of administration or the amount of virus.

  1. Experimental immunization of cats with a recombinant rabies-canine adenovirus vaccine elicits a long-lasting neutralizing antibody response against rabies.

    PubMed

    Hu, R L; Liu, Y; Zhang, S F; Zhang, F; Fooks, A R

    2007-07-20

    During the past decade, human rabies caused by cats has ranked the second highest in China. Several recombinant rabies vaccines have been developed for dogs. However, seldom have these vaccines been assessed or used in cats. In this trial, we report the experimental immunization of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3Delta-RGP, in cats. Thirty cats were inoculated with the recombinant vaccine intramuscularly, orally and intranasally, respectively. Safety and efficacy studies were undertaken using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test and evaluated. Results showed that this recombinant vaccine is safe for cats as demonstrated by the three different routes of administration. The vaccine stimulated an efficient humoral response in the vaccinated cats when 10(8.5)PFU/ml of the recombinant vaccine was injected intramuscularly in a single dose. The neutralizing antibody level increased above 0.5IU/ml at 4 weeks after the vaccination. The mean antibody level ranged from 0.96+/-0.26 to 4.47+/-1.57IU/ml among individuals, and the antibody levels were elicited for at least 12 months. After this period, the immunized cats survived the challenge of CVS-24 and an obvious anemnestic and protective immune response was stimulated after the challenge. The immune response occurred later than the inactivated vaccine and the overall antibody level in the vaccinated cats was lower, but it was sufficient to confer protection of cats against infection. This demonstrated that a single, intramuscular dose of CAV-2-E3Delta-RGP stimulated a long-lasting protective immune response in cats and suggested that CAV-2-E3Delta-RGP could be considered as a potential rabies vaccine candidate for cats.

  2. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Slate, Dennis; Algeo, Timothy P; Nelson, Kathleen M; Chipman, Richard B; Donovan, Dennis; Blanton, Jesse D; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-12-22

    Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV). Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans) through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US. Progress continues

  3. Toward Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies: Experiences from Implementing a Large-scale Demonstration Project in Southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mpolya, Emmanuel Abraham; Lembo, Tiziana; Lushasi, Kennedy; Mancy, Rebecca; Mbunda, Eberhard M.; Makungu, Selemani; Maziku, Matthew; Sikana, Lwitiko; Jaswant, Gurdeep; Townsend, Sunny; Meslin, François-Xavier; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Changalucha, Joel; Mtema, Zacharia; Sambo, Maganga; Mchau, Geofrey; Rysava, Kristyna; Nanai, Alphoncina; Kazwala, Rudovick; Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie

    2017-01-01

    A Rabies Elimination Demonstration Project was implemented in Tanzania from 2010 through to 2015, bringing together government ministries from the health and veterinary sectors, the World Health Organization, and national and international research institutions. Detailed data on mass dog vaccination campaigns, bite exposures, use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and human rabies deaths were collected throughout the project duration and project areas. Despite no previous experience in dog vaccination within the project areas, district veterinary officers were able to implement district-wide vaccination campaigns that, for most part, progressively increased the numbers of dogs vaccinated with each phase of the project. Bite exposures declined, particularly in the southernmost districts with the smallest dog populations, and health workers successfully transitioned from primarily intramuscular administration of PEP to intradermal administration, resulting in major cost savings. However, even with improved PEP provision, vaccine shortages still occurred in some districts. In laboratory diagnosis, there were several logistical challenges in sample handling and submission but compared to the situation before the project started, there was a moderate increase in the number of laboratory samples submitted and tested for rabies in the project areas with a decrease in the proportion of rabies-positive samples over time. The project had a major impact on public health policy and practice with the formation of a One Health Coordination Unit at the Prime Minister’s Office and development of the Tanzania National Rabies Control Strategy, which lays a roadmap for elimination of rabies in Tanzania by 2030 by following the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE). Overall, the project generated many important lessons relevant to rabies prevention and control in particular and disease surveillance in general. Lessons include the need for (1) a specific unit in the

  4. [Effect of free-roaming dogs culling on the control of canine rabies].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Levy, Michael Z; Náquira, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    In the Peruvian city of Arequipa, rabid dogs have been detected since March 2015, signaling the reintroduction of the rabies virus (RV) in this previously officially-declared rabies free zone. High dog density is considered one of the causes for the continuous transmission of the RV in the outbreak in the city of Arequipa, which seemingly lends support to the culling of dogs as a public health measure. However, the effectiveness of culling free-roaming dogs to control urban rabies has not been evaluated. Objective to determine the effectiveness of free-roaming dog culling as a control measure of urban rabies.

  5. Global partnerships are critical to advance the control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases: The case of the Global Alliance for Rabies Control.

    PubMed

    Nel, Louis H; Taylor, Louise H; Balaram, Deepashree; Doyle, Kim A S

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for innovation to improve control of all Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs). The Global Alliance for Rabies Control was formed to prevent human deaths from rabies and relieve the burden of rabies in other animal populations, especially dogs. It aims to identify reasons for the neglect of rabies in developing countries and to develop strategies to improve rabies control. Through initiatives such as World Rabies Day and the Partners for Rabies Prevention, progress has been made towards increased awareness of the burden of rabies transmitted by dogs at scales from local to international. An evidence base of the feasibility of canine rabies elimination has been built up and now easier access to information and tools enables countries to design and implement rabies elimination strategies in a logical way, utilizing the structures of regional networks for rabies control. The body of evidence has built consensus amongst international stakeholders in rabies control and is now being used to encourage international policy change, attract investment and increase delivery of effective rabies control programmes in canine rabies endemic countries.

  6. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine.

  7. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010).

    PubMed

    Nouvellet, Pierre; Donnelly, Christl A; De Nardi, Marco; Rhodes, Chris J; De Benedictis, Paola; Citterio, Carlo; Obber, Federica; Lorenzetto, Monica; Pozza, Manuela Dalla; Cauchemez, Simon; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.

  8. Rabies and rabies-related viruses: a modern perspective on an ancient disease.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, F; Picard-Meyer, E

    2004-08-01

    Rabies is a worldwide zoonosis caused by a lyssavirus, with many host species acting as reservoirs for infection. The epidemiology of rabies has changed over recent years, as this disease has been brought under control or eliminated in many terrestrial animal species in Europe and North America. A large number of Lyssavirus variants have now been characterised, and their distribution and animal hosts have become known. However, new lyssaviruses have been isolated from bats, prompting scientists to question the efficacy of the existing human and veterinary vaccines against these new strains. The epidemiology of bat rabies should be fully explored, so that the precise risks to the health of humans and domestic and wild carnivores may be determined and methods of preventing the disease among people who handle bats can be discovered. Rabies is still a significant public health problem, particularly in areas where canine rabies is still endemic, such as countries in Africa and Asia.

  9. Experimental oral immunization of ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) with a recombinant canine adenovirus vaccine CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP and an attenuated rabies virus SRV9.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fang, Lijun; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2014-04-01

    Ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) are a major reservoir of rabies virus in southeastern China. Oral immunization has been shown to be a practical method for wildlife rabies management in Europe and North America. Two groups of 20 ferret badgers were given a single oral dose of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP, or an experimental attenuated rabies virus vaccine, SRV9. At 21 days, all ferret badgers had seroconverted, with serum virus-neutralizing antibodies ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 IU/mL. Titers were >0.50 IU/mL (an acceptable level) in 17/20 and 16/20 animals receiving CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP or SRV9, respectively. The serologic results indicate that the recombinant CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP is at least as effective as the attenuated rabies virus vaccine. Both may be considered for additional research as oral rabies vaccine candidates for ferret badgers.

  10. A novel technique to eliminate cross-contamination when making wells on slides for rabies diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Anna J; Constantine, Denny G; Armstrong, Oscar; Wong, Wanda Y; Comb, Jean C

    2004-02-01

    The direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) rabies diagnostic test requires demarcating desirable areas of brain tissue slip smear slides to be stained, traditionally achieved by applying paint from a tech pen or using a wax pencil to form a circle or dam-like ring or well into which rabies conjugate is expelled. Unfortunately, using these instruments poses a possibility of cross-contamination by transfer via the pen or pencil tip of rabies antigen from one slide to another. A new method was developed to avoid cross-contamination. The open end of a disposable glass test tube, dipped into a shallow reservoir of nail polish, was used to apply a dam-like ring about the slip smear area to be stained, after which the test tube was discarded, thereby precluding tissue transfer.

  11. Eliminating Rabies in Tanzania? Local Understandings and Responses to Mass Dog Vaccination in Kilombero and Ulanga Districts

    PubMed Central

    Bardosh, Kevin; Sambo, Maganga; Sikana, Lwitiko; Hampson, Katie; Welburn, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background With increased global attention to neglected diseases, there has been a resurgence of interest in eliminating rabies from developing countries through mass dog vaccination. Tanzania recently embarked on an ambitious programme to repeatedly vaccinate dogs in 28 districts. To understand community perceptions and responses to this programme, we conducted an anthropological study exploring the relationships between dogs, society, geography and project implementation in the districts of Kilombero and Ulanga, Southern Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings Over three months in 2012, we combined the use of focus groups, semi-structured interviews, a household questionnaire and a population-based survey. Willingness to participate in vaccination was mediated by fear of rabies, high medical treatment costs and the threat of dog culling, as well as broader notions of social responsibility. However, differences between town, rural and (agro-) pastoralist populations in livelihood patterns and dog ownership impacted coverage in ways that were not well incorporated into project planning. Coverage in six selected villages was estimated at 25%, well below official estimates. A variety of problems with campaign mobilisation, timing, the location of central points, equipment and staff, and project organisation created barriers to community compliance. Resource-limitations and institutional norms limited the ability for district staff to adapt implementation strategies. Conclusions and Significance In the shadows of resource and institutional limitations in the veterinary sector in Africa, top-down interventions for neglected zoonotic diseases likes rabies need to more explicitly engage with project organisation, capacity and community participation. Greater attention to navigating local realities in planning and implementation is essential to ensuring that rabies, and other neglected diseases, are controlled sustainably. PMID:24945697

  12. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005–2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). PMID:26849358

  13. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination.

    PubMed

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-02-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005-2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles).

  14. Kinetics of rabies antibodies as a strategy for canine active immunization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rabies, a zoonosis found throughout the globe, is caused by a virus of the Lyssavirus genus. The disease is transmitted to humans through the inoculation of the virus present in the saliva of infected mammals. Since its prognosis is usually fatal for humans, nationwide public campaigns to vaccinate dogs and cats against rabies aim to break the epidemiological link between the virus and its reservoirs in Brazil. Findings During 12 months we evaluated the active immunity of dogs first vaccinated (booster shot at 30 days after first vaccination) against rabies using the Fuenzalida-Palácios modified vaccine in the urban area of Botucatu city, São Pauto state, Brazil. Of the analyzed dogs, 54.7% maintained protective titers (≥0.5 IU/mL) for 360 days after the first vaccination whereas 51.5% during all the study period. Conclusions The present results suggest a new vaccination schedule for dogs that have never been vaccinated. In addition to the first dose of vaccine, two others are recommended: the second at 30 days after the first and the third dose at 180 days after the first for the maintenance of protective titers during 12 months. PMID:26413082

  15. Evaluation of a canine rabies vaccination campaign and characterization of owned-dog populations in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L E; Miranda, M E; Miranda, N L; Childs, J E

    1996-06-01

    A mass canine rabies vaccination campaign in Sorsogon Province, the Republic of the Philippines, was conducted in April and May 1993. From 1 to 14 days following visits by vaccination teams to 30 selected villages (barangays), survey teams revisited the barangays to assess vaccine coverage. Modified cluster survey methods were used to gather information about vaccine coverage in the owned-dog population (210 households) and about characteristics of owned-dogs and factors influencing owner willingness to participate in the campaign. Vaccinated dogs were identified by asking owners about receipt of certificates given by the vaccinating teams and examining each animal for a special collar or paint mark placed on the animal at the time of vaccination. Survey results indicated that 73% (178/243) of eligible dogs were vaccinated and 82% of vaccinated dogs were marked with a collar or paint. Dogs were owned by 69% of households and ranged in age from 3 days to 13 years (median = 1 year), and the ratio of male to females dogs was 1:1. The dog-to-human ratio was 1:3.8, with an average of 1.4 dogs per household or 2.1 dogs per dog-owning household. Most dogs were kept as guards (83%) and most were free-ranging (85%). The most common reasons dogs were not vaccinated included they could not be restrained (11/64), the owner was not home (10/64), and fear of injury resulting from vaccination (10/64). The owners of 20% of vaccinated dogs reported some adverse reaction in their pet. Improved vaccine coverage was significantly associated with restrained dogs kept primarily for guard functions by owners who received information about the vaccination campaign from multiple sources. Vaccine coverage was sufficiently high to potentially control rabies transmission among dogs through herd immunity and indicated a successful vaccine campaign.

  16. Addressing the Disconnect between the Estimated, Reported, and True Rabies Data: The Development of a Regional African Rabies Bulletin

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Terence P.; Coetzer, Andre; Fahrion, Anna S.; Nel, Louis H.

    2017-01-01

    It is evident that rabies continues to be a neglected tropical disease; however, a recent global drive aims to eliminate canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Global efforts have been vested into creating and developing resources for countries to take ownership of and overcome the challenges that rabies poses. The disconnect between the numbers of rabies cases reported and the numbers estimated by prediction models is clear: the key to understanding the epidemiology and true burden of rabies lies within accurate and timely data; poor and discrepant data undermine its true burden and negate the advocacy efforts needed to curb this lethal disease. In an effort to address these challenges, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network is developing a regional rabies-specific disease surveillance bulletin based on the District Health Information System 2 platform—a web-based, open access health information platform. This bulletin provides a data repository from which specific key indicators, essential to any rabies intervention program, form the basis of data collection. The data are automatically analyzed, providing useful outputs for targeted intervention. Furthermore, in an effort to reduce reporting fatigue, the data submitted, under authority from the respective governments, can automatically be shared with approved international authorities. The implementation of a rabies-specific bulletin will facilitate targeted control efforts and provide measurements of success, while also acting as a basis for advocacy to raise the priority of this neglected disease. PMID:28265562

  17. Recombinant rabies virus expressing the H protein of canine distemper virus protects dogs from the lethal distemper challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Tan, Bin; Li, Zhen-Guang; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Fu, Zhen F; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2014-12-05

    The rabies virus (RV) vector LBNSE expressing foreign antigens have shown considerable promise as vaccines against viral and bacteria diseases, which is effective and safe. We produced a new RV-based vaccine vehicle expressing 1.824 kb hemagglutinin (H) gene of the canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse genetics technology. The recombinant virus LBNSE-CDV-H retained growth properties similar to those of vector LBNSE both in BSR and mNA cell culture. The H gene of CDV was expressed and detected by immunostaining. To compare the immunogenicity of LBNSE-CDV-H, dogs were immunized with each of these recombinant viruses by intramuscular (i.m.). The dogs were bled at third weeks after the immunization for the measurement of virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) and then challenged with virulent virus (ZJ 7) at fourth weeks. The parent virus (LBNSE) without expression of any foreign molecules was included for comparison. Dogs inoculated with LBNSE-CDV-H showed no any signs of disease and exhibited seroconversion against both RV and CDV H protein. The LBNSE-CDV-H did not cause disease in dogs and conferred protection from challenge with a lethal wild type CDV strain, demonstrating its potential value for wildlife conservation efforts. Together, these studies suggest that recombinant RV expressing H protein from CDV stimulated high levels of adaptive immune responses (VNA), and protected all dogs challenge infection.

  18. Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate--Virginia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Julie R; Wallace, Ryan M; Gruszynski, Karen; Freeman, Marilyn Bibbs; Campbell, Colin; Semple, Shereen; Innes, Kristin; Slavinski, Sally; Palumbo, Gabriel; Bair-Brake, Heather; Orciari, Lillian; Condori, Rene E; Langer, Adam; Carroll, Darin S; Murphy, Julia

    2015-12-18

    Canine rabies virus variant has been eliminated in the United States and multiple other countries. Globally, however, dogs remain the principal source for human rabies infections. The World Health Organization recommends that when dogs cross international borders, national importing authorities should require an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animal did not show signs of rabies at the time of shipment, was permanently identified, vaccinated, or revaccinated, and had been subjected to a serologic test for rabies before shipment. On June 8, 2015, an adult female dog that had recently been picked up from the streets of Cairo, Egypt, and shipped by a U.S. animal rescue organization to the United States was confirmed to have rabies by the Virginia Department of General Services Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS). This dog was part of a large shipment of dogs and cats from Egypt that rescue organizations had distributed to multiple states for adoption. During the investigation, public health officials learned that the rabies vaccination certificate used for entry of the rabid dog into the United States had intentionally been falsified to avoid exclusion of the dog from entry under CDC's current dog importation regulations. This report underscores the ongoing risk posed by U.S. importation of domestic animals that have not been adequately vaccinated against rabies.

  19. Prevention and control of rabies in an age of global travel: a review of travel- and trade-associated rabies events--United States, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    Lankau, E W; Cohen, N J; Jentes, E S; Adams, L E; Bell, T R; Blanton, J D; Buttke, D; Galland, G G; Maxted, A M; Tack, D M; Waterman, S H; Rupprecht, C E; Marano, N

    2014-08-01

    Rabies prevention and control efforts have been successful in reducing or eliminating virus circulation regionally through vaccination of specific reservoir populations. A notable example of this success is the elimination of canine rabies virus variant from the United States and many other countries. However, increased international travel and trade can pose risks for rapid, long-distance movements of ill or infected persons or animals. Such travel and trade can result in human exposures to rabies virus during travel or transit and could contribute to the re-introduction of canine rabies variant or transmission of other viral variants among animal host populations. We present a review of travel- and trade-associated rabies events that highlight international public health obligations and collaborative opportunities for rabies prevention and control in an age of global travel. Rabies is a fatal disease that warrants proactive coordination among international public health and travel industry partners (such as travel agents, tour companies and airlines) to protect human lives and to prevent the movement of viral variants among host populations.

  20. Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?

    PubMed

    Prager, K C; Mazet, Jonna A K; Dubovi, Edward J; Frank, Laurence G; Munson, Linda; Wagner, Aaron P; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2012-12-01

    Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a "metareservoir" consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern.

  1. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16–December 28, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010–July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial

  2. Rabies control in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C H Alvarez; Pino, F Vargas; Baer, G; Morales, P Kuri; Cedillo, V Gutiérrez; Blanco, M A Llanas; Avila, M Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Rabies in dogs was unknown in the Americas before the arrival of the Spanish "Conquistadores". Until the mid-1980s rabies in animals and, in turn in humans, changed little from year to year, with the number of dog vaccinations reported annually rarely reaching one million. In Mexico, the national rabies control programme using mass parenteral vaccination of dogs started in 1990 with about seven million dogs vaccinated the same year. The number of vaccinated dogs exceeded 10 and 15 million in 1995 and 2005, respectively. Modern cell culture-based inactivated rabies virus vaccines were used. A key factor for the success of the dog rabies control program was the supply of potent canine rabies vaccines. Between 1990 and 2005, more than 150 million vaccine doses from 300 lots were administered. Each lot was tested for potency prior to use in the field. The required minimum content of rabies virus antigen for vaccines was 2 IU, in accord with WHO standards. Testing revealed antigen contents ranging from 3.28 to 5.59 IU. As a result of the mass dog vaccination campaigns, human rabies cases due to dog-mediated rabies decreased from 60 in 1990 to 0 in 2000. The number of rabies cases in dogs decreased from 3,049 in 1990 to 70 cases last year.

  3. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (p<0.01) between annual cases of dog and human rabies. In 2011, there was an epidemic of sylvatic rabies transmitted to people by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in the Amazon region, specifically in Morona Santiago, leading to 11 fatalities. Phylogenetic analyses of the CVS vaccine N gene showed an association with urban canine rabies strains (the Cosmopolitan lineage and Asian strains), whereas sylvatic rabies, like those reported in the Amazon region, were found to be grouped in a different clade represented mainly by bat-derived strains. Conclusions: This study presents the first compilation of epidemiological data on rabies in Ecuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the

  4. Modification of the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation test--elimination of the cytotoxic effect for the detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Lojkić, Ivana; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Jungić, Andreja; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Cač, Zeljko; Hostnik, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The virus neutralisation test is used for the quantitation of specific antibodies in serum samples. However, the success of the test depends on the quality of samples. In the case of poor quality samples, a cytotoxic effect can be observed and the results of the test can be compromised. Additionally, the cytotoxic effect limits the use of different substances, such as muscle extract or liquid from thoracic cavity (thoracic liquid), as a sample for the detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies in the follow-up of fox oral vaccination campaigns. To eliminate the cytotoxic effect, a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (mFAVN) test was developed and evaluated. In the mFAVN test, inocula were removed after a 1h and the cytotoxic effect was prevented. According to the results obtained, the specificity of the mFAVN test compared to the FAVN test was 88.8% and the sensitivity was 94.4%. The diagnostic validity of the test was 0.99 (CI=0.98-1.00). To evaluate the possibility of using muscle extract and thoracic liquid as samples for the virus neutralisation test, 102 sera, muscle extract and thoracic liquid samples of dog origin were tested with the mFAVN test. The correlation between sera and muscle extracts was 87.9% (r=0.88, p<0.001). The correlation between sera and thoracic liquid was 94.2% (r=0.94, p<0.001). These findings indicated that both muscle extract and thoracic liquid could be used as samples for detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies in the follow-up of oral vaccination campaigns. To evaluate the level of elimination of the cytotoxic effect, the 102 samples of sera, muscle extracts and thoracic liquid of dog origin were also tested in parallel using the mFAVN and FAVN tests. In the mFAVN test, no instance of cytotoxic effect was observed in the cells. In the FAVN test, two sera (1.9%), 35 muscle extracts (34.3%) and 56 thoracic liquid samples (54.9%) showed cytotoxic effect. The results of this study strongly suggest that

  5. Control and prevention of rabies in animals: paradigm shifts.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, C E; Hanlon, C A; Slate, D

    2006-01-01

    Animal management is the keystone of any modern programme for the prevention and control of rabies. Historically, "animal control" for local elimination of disease was largely equated with population reduction. However, with relatively few exceptions, culling alone has not led to effective control of rabies. In most documented examples of effective control of rabies in the 20th century, an integrated management approach was used that included public education, responsible stewardship of animal populations, manipulation of the population carrying capacity of the local habitat, and vaccination strategies. Globally, the greatest burden on human health that is attributable to this zoonosis is caused by uncontrolled rabies in dogs. Where political willingness, biomedical infrastructure, and economic stability permit the sustained use of control measures (e.g. stray animal removal and mandatory parenteral vaccination), canine rabies has been significantly suppressed and even eliminated over large geographical areas. Examples include many island nations, most of North America, Europe, and increasingly in South America. Despite the effectiveness of such proven control techniques, however, their implementation in parts of Asia, Africa, and elsewhere has been limited, primarily because of a lack of dedicated resources and intersectoral cooperation, and also because of the burden of high-density populations of dogs. Implementation is often complicated by cultural and social factors, e.g. reluctance to cull apparently ownerless, nuisance animals that are suspected to have been exposed to rabies, partly on the basis of religious beliefs). Attempts to modify animal fertility (such as the encouragement of voluntary spay-neuter programmes or individual chemical contraception, and the extension of such actions to animals in the community) may provide ancillary support in line with other traditional methods of control of canine rabies. With the identification of complex situations

  6. Rabies Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by a virus. Rabies is mainly a disease of animals. Humans get rabies when they are bitten by infected ... and paralysis. Rabies is almost always fatal.Wild animals, especially bats, ... can also transmit the disease.Human rabies is rare in the United States. ...

  7. Rabies in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A.; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K.; Abdybekova, Aida M.; Karatayev, Bolat S.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings We used detailed public health and veterinary surveillance data from 2003 to 2015 to map where livestock rabies is occurring. We also estimate the economic impact and human burden of rabies. Livestock and canine rabies occurred over most of Kazakhstan, but there were regional variations in disease distribution. There were a mean of 7.1 officially recorded human fatalities due to rabies per year resulting in approximately 457 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). A mean of 64,289 individuals per annum underwent post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) which may have resulted in an additional 1140 DALYs annually. PEP is preventing at least 118 cases of human rabies each year or possibly as many as 1184 at an estimated cost of $1193 or $119 per DALY averted respectively. The estimated economic impact of rabies in Kazakhstan is $20.9 million per annum, with nearly half of this cost being attributed to the cost of PEP and the loss of income whilst being treated. A further $5.4 million per annum was estimated to be the life time loss of income for fatal cases. Animal vaccination programmes and animal control programmes also contributed substantially to the economic losses. The direct costs due to rabies fatalities of agricultural animals was relatively low. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that in Kazakhstan there is a substantial economic cost and health impact of rabies. These costs could be reduced by modifying the vaccination programme that is now practised. The study also fills some data gaps on the epidemiology

  8. Lyssaviruses and rabies: current conundrums, concerns, contradictions and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Charles; Kuzmin, Ivan; Meslin, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. Africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the Genus Lyssavirus, Family Rhabdoviridae. Diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. In terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species today, but for unknown reasons. All mammals are believed to be susceptible to rabies virus infection. Besides reservoirs among the Chiroptera, meso-carnivores also serve as major historical hosts and are represented among the canids, raccoons, skunks, mongooses, and ferret badgers.  Perpetuating as a disease of nature with the mammalian central nervous system as niche, host breadth alone precludes any candidacy for true eradication. Despite having the highest case fatality of any infectious disease and a burden in excess of or comparative to other major zoonoses, rabies remains neglected. Once illness appears, no treatment is proven to prevent death. Paradoxically, vaccines were developed more than a century ago, but the clear majority of human cases are unvaccinated. Tens of millions of people are exposed to suspect rabid animals and tens of thousands succumb annually, primarily children in developing countries, where canine rabies is enzootic. Rather than culling animal populations, one of the most cost-effective strategies to curbing human fatalities is the mass vaccination of dogs. Building on considerable progress to date, several complementary actions are needed in the near future, including a more harmonized approach to viral taxonomy, enhanced de-centralized laboratory-based surveillance, focal pathogen discovery and characterization, applied pathobiological research for therapeutics, improved estimates of canine populations at risk, actual production of required

  9. WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies. Second report.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Although there is debate about the estimated health burden of rabies, the estimates of direct mortality and the DALYs due to rabies are among the highest of the neglected tropical diseases. Poor surveillance, underreporting in many developing countries, frequent misdiagnosis of rabies, and an absence of coordination among all the sectors involved are likely to lead to underestimation of the scale of the disease It is clear, however, that rabies disproportionately affects poor rural communities, and particularly children. Most of the expenditure for postexposure prophylaxis is borne by those who can least afford it. As a result of growing dog and human populations, the burden of human deaths from rabies and the economic costs will continue to escalate in the absence of concerted efforts and investment for control. Since the first WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies in 2004, WHO and its network of collaborating centres on rabies, specialized national institutions, members of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Rabies and partners such as the Gates Foundation, the Global Alliance for Rabies Control and the Partnership for Rabies Prevention, have been advocating the feasibility of rabies elimination regionally and globally and promoting research into sustainable cost-effective strategies. Those joint efforts have begun to break the cycle of rabies neglect, and rabies is becoming recognized as a priority for investment. This Consultation concluded that human dog-transmitted rabies is readily amenable to control, regional elimination in the medium- term and even global elimination in the long-term. A resolution on major neglected tropical diseases, including rabies, prepared for submission to the World Health Assembly in May 2013 aims at securing Member States' commitment to the control, elimination or eradication of these diseases. Endorsement of the resolution would open the door for exciting advances in rabies prevention and control.

  10. Epidemiological analysis of setbacks in oral vaccination in the final stage of fox rabies elimination in densely populated areas in Germany.

    PubMed

    Selhorst, T; Müller, T; Bätza, H J

    2006-01-01

    Despite a long history of oral vaccination of foxes (OVF) against rabies, in a few restricted areas of Germany rabies is still endemic, posing a continuous risk of re-introduction of rabies into adjacent, rabies-free areas. The endemic area is characterized by a high density population. It is hypothesized that the degree of urbanization in the area under consideration influences the number of rabies cases via the mode of bait distribution. In urban areas vaccine baits are distributed by hand, whereas in non-urban areas baits can be distributed aerially with the help of fixed-winged aircraft. Statistical analysis of the effect of the mode of bait distribution upon the number of rabies cases shows a significant influence. In areas where baits are distributed by hand the number of rabies cases is significantly higher than the expected number. This finding forces managers to reassess the procedure of bait distribution by hand in urban areas, taking into account the ecologically and biologically different dynamics of urban fox populations. If the oral vaccination of foxes in urban areas can be refined, rabies eradication in Germany is expected to succeed in due course.

  11. Rabies in Asia: the classical zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains a constant threat to humans throughout much of Asia. The dog is the main reservoir and vector with wildlife playing a very minor role. No Asian country or region has been declared rabies free by WHO in over two decades and there is evidence of canine rabies spread to new regions during the past 10 years. We now have the knowledge and technology to control canine rabies. The main barrier in managing this costly endemic is lack of motivation by authorities to address this issue along with regional inability of public health and livestock (agriculture) officials to tackle this issue in cooperation and coordination. Rabies is one of the first recognized zoonoses and a model for a true "One Health" management goal where human; veterinary, and government officials must work together in harmony to defeat this disease.

  12. Rabies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... messages between the brain and the body. The rabies virus spreads through the nerves, first causing flu- ... to hallucinations, delirium, and insomnia. If left untreated, rabies is nearly always fatal.

  13. Rabies in Europe: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle

    2014-08-01

    Rabies remains a serious endemic disease in animal populations in many European countries. Oral vaccination by use of rabies vaccine baits has proved to be durably efficient for controlling and eliminating terrestrial rabies. However, the recurrence of rabies in some countries highlights the fragility of rabies-free country status and the need for continuous surveillance. In Eastern and Southern countries, the rabies control programmes for foxes should be accompanied by stray dog management measures in view of the high populations of strays in certain areas. Alerts of rabies in pets imported from enzootic countries are regularly reported in Europe, threatening the rabies-free status of terrestrial animals. New variants of rabies virus have been recently discovered in autochthonous bats, implying research studies to assess the efficacy of the current vaccines against those strains and the possible crossing of the species barrier in terrestrial mammals. The incidence of the disease in humans is very low, with cases contracted in Europe or in enzootic countries. Sustainable strategies of vaccination programmes in animals and improvement of public awareness, particularly for travelers, regarding rabies risks and legislation for pet movements would render accessible the elimination of rabies in Europe.

  14. [The development of rabies in Tunisia from 1982 to 1986].

    PubMed

    Chadli, A; Arrouji, A; Hannachi, A

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the epidemiology of rabies disease in Tunisia since 1982, the problem of reservoirs and vectors, the production of vaccine, the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease. They note that this disease is decreasing in the animals that have bitten, nevertheless the canine rabies remains an important problem of public health in the country.

  15. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Events Rabies in the Americas World Rabies Day Rabies ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Events Rabies in the Americas World Rabies Day Rabies ...

  16. Adaptation of a Chinese ferret badger strain of rabies virus to high-titered growth in BHK-21 cells for canine vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2012-12-01

    Rabies virus strain JX08-45CC was derived from a Chinese isolate (JX08-45) by serial passage in the BHK-21 cell line, reaching a titer of 10(8) TCID(50)/mL. JX08-45CC produced rabies in adult mice but was nonpathogenic in dogs after intramuscular injection. A comparison of the entire genomes of JX08-45 and JX08-45CC led to the identification of 17 nucleotide substitutions, resulting in seven amino acid changes in the mature G and L proteins. The immunogenicity of β-propiolactone-inactivated JX08-45CC was similar to the immunogenicity of the live vaccine strains widely used in China. The inactivated vaccine induced antibody responses for more than 6 months and provided full protection from an intramuscular challenge in dogs. JX08-45CC has excellent potential for development as an inactivated vaccine for dogs in China.

  17. Eradicating rabies at source.

    PubMed

    Pastoret, P-P; Van Gucht, S; Brochier, B

    2014-08-01

    Along with zoonotic influenza and antimicrobial resistance, rabies has been identified as a key One Health issue by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). It provides an excellent example of a disease that has an impact on public, animal and environmental health, and therefore benefits from a One Health approach to management. Regrettably, this zoonotic disease is still neglected despite the fact that, annually, it kills as many as 70,000 people worldwide (chiefly children in Asia and Africa), millions of dogs suffer and die, and the disease threatens some populations of endangered wildlife. This is particularly unfortunate, given that effective means of prevention exist. As Her Royal Highness Princess Haya of Jordan pointed out in a video to mark World Rabies Day on 28 September 2013, rabies is a serious world public health problem that is all too often underestimated and even neglected. Yet we know it can be eliminated. By combatting rabies at its source in animals and vaccinating 70% of dogs, we can eradicate it.

  18. Rabies intradermal post-exposure vaccination of humans using reconstituted and stored vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kamoltham, Thavachai; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Wilde, Henry

    2002-09-10

    Thailand's northern Petchabun province is endemic for canine rabies. There were 27 reported human rabies deaths between 1989 and 1998. A rabies control plan was formulated in 1997 between medical and veterinary public health officials. It started an intense education program and an ongoing dog vaccination campaign. Economic constraints and the high cost of biological were the main reasons for inadequate human post-exposure management (PET). It was therefore decided to use the economical Thai Red Cross Intradermal Vaccine Regimen (TRC-ID) throughout the province. The original TRC-ID method is only suitable for clinics that see more than one PET patient daily. TRC-ID was therefore modified by storing the reconstituted vaccine in a refrigerator for the same patient's next two visits. Data on a total of 8157 PET patients were collected. An additional modification of TRC-ID also eliminated the 90 day booster. There were no treatment failures and no human rabies deaths in 1999, 2000 and 2001. The modified TRC-ID method induces adequate levels of neutralizing antibodies, protects humans bitten by rabid dogs and results in significant savings in vaccine and travel costs.

  19. Cattle rabies vaccination--A longitudinal study of rabies antibody titres in an Israeli dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ≥ 0.5 IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from

  20. Dogs Entering the United States from Rabies-Endemic Countries, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J R; Washburn, F; Fox, S; Lankau, E W

    2015-08-01

    International dog imports pose a risk because of the potential movement of disease agents, including the canine rabies virus variant which has been eliminated from the United States since 2007. US regulations require a rabies vaccination certificate for dogs arriving from rabies-endemic countries, but permit the importation of dogs that have not been adequately immunized against rabies, provided that the dogs are confined under conditions that restrict their contact with humans and other animals until they have been immunized. CDC Form 75.37, 'Notice to Owners and Importers of Dogs', explains the confinement requirements and serves as a binding confinement agreement with the importer. In this evaluation, we describe the characteristics of unimmunized dogs imported into the United States over a 1-year period based upon dog confinement agreements recorded at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) quarantine stations. Confinement agreements were issued for nearly 2800 unimmunized dogs that entered the United States during 1 June 2011-31 May 2012, the majority of which travelled to the United States by air and without any seasonal pattern in import volume. Over 60% of these animals were puppies <3 months of age and included a wide variety of breeds. The dogs arrived from 81 countries, with the majority arriving from North America or Europe. Dogs placed on confinement agreements had final destinations in 49 states. California, New York, Texas, Washington and Florida received the largest number of dogs on confinement agreements. These results (which do not reflect human travel or US dog ownership data) suggest that a large portion of unimmunized dogs arrive from rabies-endemic countries for commercial, shelter and rescue purposes. Further evaluation and key stakeholder involvement are needed to assess whether the current dog importation regulations are an adequate compromise between the benefits and risks of dog importation.

  1. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  2. Porcupine quills in raccoons as an indicator of rabies, distemper, or both diseases: disease management implications.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, Rick; Wandeler, Alex; Muldoon, Frances; Campbell, Doug

    2007-03-01

    A relationship was detected between the presence of embedded porcupine quills and the diagnosis of rabies in raccoons in eastern Canada during 1999-2004. No relationship was found between the presence of quills in raccoons and the diagnosis of canine distemper. Raccoons with embedded quills should be submitted for rabies testing.

  3. Epidemiological Profile of Wild Rabies in Brazil (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Rocha, S M; de Oliveira, S V; Heinemann, M B; Gonçalves, V S P

    2017-04-01

    Rabies is one of the most important zoonosis in the world with high impact on public health. Studies report the presence of Lyssavirus in reservoirs of the wild cycle, highlighting the role of wild canines, marmosets, and vampire and non-vampire bats as potential vectors of the disease to domestic animals and human beings. Therefore, the reintroduction of rabies in urban environments from reservoirs of the wild cycle is a matter of concern. This study describes the profile of rabies cases documented in Brazil from 2002 to 2012, with emphasis on the wild transmission cycle of the disease. We carried out a descriptive study using records with information on the time of infection, persons with infection and location of confirmed cases of rabies in humans and animals, as well as data on anti-rabies treatments obtained from the Information System of Notifiable Diseases (Sinan) database. Within the study period, 82 cases of rabies transmitted by wild animals to humans were reported, predominantly in rural areas of the northern and north-eastern regions. Of the cases in humans, 72% did not receive post-exposure prophylaxis. Among wild mammals, vampire bats were the most frequent vectors of the disease. In the north-east region, 460 terrestrial wild mammals were reported with confirmed rabies. Over the study period, 1703 bats were reported to carry the rabies virus. In the south-east region, the most frequently reported carriers of the virus were non-vampire bats. The midwest and northern regions presented a lower number of records of rabies cases among terrestrial wild mammals. However, the high number of rabies cases among bovines reflects the role of the vampire bat as a maintainer of the rabies virus in the rural cycle. The present results are key to adjust the planning of rabies control in Brazil to the current epidemiological trends.

  4. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV) or purified chick embryo cell (PCEC) vaccine. The schedule for this series ... purified Vero cell rabies vaccine and purified duck embryo cell vaccine are acceptable alternatives if available. Assistance ...

  5. Kids and Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Kids and Rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... touching a living or dead bat Visit CDC's Kids and Rabies Web Site Visit CDC's Kids and ...

  6. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... my child? Rabies is not common in dogs, cats, ferrets, and live- stock in the United States ... rabies isn't common in U.S. dogs and cats anymore, is there anything to worry about? Unfortunately, ...

  7. Burden of Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... decreased. View infographic and text description Rabies in Cats While dogs have historically been associated with spreading rabies to people, more cats than dogs are reported rabid in the U.S. ...

  8. One Health approach to cost-effective rabies control in India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hiral A.; Pandey, Abhishek; Bilinski, Alyssa M.; Kakkar, Manish; Clark, Andrew D.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Over 20,000 rabies deaths occur annually in India, representing one-third of global human rabies. The Indian state of Tamil Nadu has pioneered a “One Health” committee to address the challenge of rabies in dogs and humans. Currently, rabies control in Tamil Nadu involves postexposure vaccination of humans after dog bites, whereas potential supplemental approaches include canine vaccination and sterilization. We developed a data-driven rabies transmission model fit to human rabies autopsy data and human rabies surveillance data from Tamil Nadu. Integrating local estimates for canine demography and costs, we predicted the impact of canine vaccination and sterilization on human health outcomes and evaluated cost-effectiveness according to the WHO criteria for India, which correspond to thresholds of $1,582 and $4,746 per disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for very cost-effective and cost-effective strategies, respectively. We found that highly feasible strategies focused on stray dogs, vaccinating as few as 7% of dogs annually, could very cost-effectively reduce human rabies deaths by 70% within 5 y, and a modest expansion to vaccinating 13% of stray dogs could cost-effectively reduce human rabies by almost 90%. Through integration over parameter uncertainty, we find that, for a cost-effectiveness threshold above $1,400 per DALY, canine interventions are at least 95% likely to be optimal. If owners are willing to bring dogs to central point campaigns at double the rate that campaign teams can capture strays, expanded annual targets become cost-effective. This case study of cost-effective canine interventions in Tamil Nadu may have applicability to other settings in India and beyond. PMID:27994161

  9. Epidemiological management of rabies in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Najar, Hagit; Streinu-Cercel, Anca

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Transmission of rabies to humans occurs rarely in Europe but in the absence of vaccination, it almost invariably leads to a fatal disease. In 2007, Romania implemented a program for rabies eradication in foxes. Methods We performed a descriptive study evaluating the trend of rabies disease in Romania, both in animals and in humans, between 2008-2012. Results In the past years, a large number of adults have presented to the Antirabic Center of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof.Dr. Matei Balş”, Bucharest, Romania. The major bite-inflicting animals were cats and dogs, particularly stray dogs (more than two thirds of the cases). Most cases of animal rabies were recorded in 2008 (1089 cases), with a subsequent decline in the following years: 516 in 2009, 469 in 2010, and 195 in 2011. Six cases of human rabies have been reported in Romania from 2008 to 2012, two of which were located in the Bacău district. Four of the cases occurred in females, and two in males; half were children and half adults. The animals inflicting the bites were domestic cats and stray dogs in half of the cases. Discussion Domestic animals, particularly cats, appear to be a major cause of rabies transmission to humans. Therefore, vaccination after cat bites should be taken into account. There is stringent need for specific measures to increase the awareness regarding the problem. People should be educated that cats in rural areas or in the vicinity of forests pose the same level of risk as dogs or wild animals. Conclusion There is need for a new strategy regarding the prevention of animal rabies and its transmission to humans. Proper surveillance systems and continuous monitoring for the disease in wildlife and cities is of utmost importance and should be continued, together with the programs for vaccination of stray dogs and foxes in order to eliminate rabies infection. PMID:24432269

  10. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas.

  11. Optimal frequency of rabies vaccination campaigns in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bilinski, Alyssa M; Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Rupprecht, Charles E; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-11-16

    Rabies causes more than 24 000 human deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends annual canine vaccination campaigns with at least 70% coverage to control the disease. While previous studies have considered optimal coverage of animal rabies vaccination, variation in the frequency of vaccination campaigns has not been explored. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies canine vaccination campaigns at varying coverage and frequency, we parametrized a rabies virus transmission model to two districts of northwest Tanzania, Ngorongoro (pastoral) and Serengeti (agro-pastoral). We found that optimal vaccination strategies were every 2 years, at 80% coverage in Ngorongoro and annually at 70% coverage in Serengeti. We further found that the optimality of these strategies was sensitive to the rate of rabies reintroduction from outside the district. Specifically, if a geographically coordinated campaign could reduce reintroduction, vaccination campaigns every 2 years could effectively manage rabies in both districts. Thus, coordinated campaigns may provide monetary savings in addition to public health benefits. Our results indicate that frequency and coverage of canine vaccination campaigns should be evaluated simultaneously and tailored to local canine ecology as well as to the risk of disease reintroduction from surrounding regions.

  12. Barriers to dog rabies vaccination during an urban rabies outbreak: Qualitative findings from Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joanna; Borrini, Katty; Arevalo, Claudia; Levy, Michael Z.; Buttenheim, Alison; Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Becerra, Victor; Behrman, Jere; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa’s complex urban environment, putting the city’s 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts. Methodology/Principal findings We conducted 8 focus groups (FG) in urban and peri-urban communities of Mariano Melgar district; each FG included both sexes, and campaign participants and non-participants. All FG were transcribed and then coded independently by two coders. Results were summarized using the Social Ecological Model. At the individual level, participants described not knowing enough about rabies and vaccination campaigns, mistrusting the campaign, and being unable to handle their dogs, particularly in peri-urban vs. urban areas. At the interpersonal level, we detected some social pressure to vaccinate dogs, as well as some disparaging of those who invest time and money in pet dogs. At the organizational level, participants found the campaign information to be insufficient and ill-timed, and campaign locations and personnel inadequate. At the community level, the influence of landscape and topography on accessibility to vaccination points was reported differently between participants from the urban and peri-urban areas. Poor security and impermanent housing materials in the peri-urban areas also drives higher prevalence of guard dog ownership for home protection; these dogs usually roam freely on the streets and are more difficult to handle and bring to the vaccination points. Conclusions A well-designed communication campaign could improve

  13. Rabies virus receptors.

    PubMed

    Lafon, Monique

    2005-02-01

    There is convincing in vitro evidence that the muscular form of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) bind rabies virus and/or facilitate rabies virus entry into cells. Other components of the cell membrane, such as gangliosides, may also participate in the entry of rabies virus. However, little is known of the role of these molecules in vivo. This review proposes a speculative model that accounts for the role of these different molecules in entry and trafficking of rabies virus into the nervous system.

  14. [Clinical feature of human rabies].

    PubMed

    Takayama, Naohide

    2005-12-01

    Rabies is one of the most typical zoonosis that has been well known since ancient ages. Although no rabies case has been reported since 1957 in Japan, there are many areas where rabies is yet endemic or epidemic. Usually men contract rabies through rabid animal bite. However, human-to-human transmission of rabies virus occurred through organ transplantations. Rabies causes fatal encephalitis in animals and humans and effective methods to treat rabies patients have not yet been available. The only means to escape rabies death is to receive the post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies with rabies vaccine as soon after animal bite as possible. We should keep in mind that rabies is preventable but incurable.

  15. Rabies Outbreaks and Vaccination in Domestic Camels and Cattle in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Ning; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Yu-Mei; Ma, Long; Li, Nan; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to many countries where rabies has been well controlled in humans and livestock, even in wildlife, rabies is still endemic in almost regions of China. In Northwest China, rabies transmitted by stray dogs and wild foxes has caused heavy economic losses to local herdsmen, as well as causing numbers of human cases. In this study, as part of an investigation of ways to prevent rabies epidemics in livestock, we report an analysis of domestic cattle and camel rabies cases in Ningxia Hui (NHAR) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) and the immune efficacy of canine inactivated rabies vaccines in these animals. We found that rabies viruses from these animals are closely related to dog-hosted China I and fox-associated China III lineages, respectively, indicating that the infections originated from two different sources (dogs and wild foxes). As well as the previously reported Arctic and Arctic-related China IV lineage in IMAR, at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. Since there is no licensed oral vaccine for wild foxes and no inactivated vaccine for large livestock, local canine inactivated vaccine products were used for emergency immunization of beef and milk cattle and bactrian (two-humped) camels in local farms. Compared with a single injection with one (low-efficacy) or three doses (high-cost), a single injection of a double dose of canine vaccine provided low-price and convenience for local veterinarians while inducing levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies for at least 1 year in the cattle and camels. However, licensed vaccines for wildlife and large domestic animals are still needed in China. PMID:27583559

  16. Human Rabies - Missouri, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pratt, P Drew; Henschel, Kathleen; Turabelidze, George; Grim, Autumn; Ellison, James A; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Franka, Richard; Wu, Xianfu; Ma, Xiaoyue; Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Smith, Todd G; Petersen, Brett; Shiferaw, Miriam

    2016-03-18

    On September 18, 2014, the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (MDHSS) was notified of a suspected rabies case in a Missouri resident. The patient, a man aged 52 years, lived in a rural, deeply wooded area, and bat sightings in and around his home were anecdotally reported. Exposure to bats poses a risk for rabies. After two emergency department visits for severe neck pain, paresthesia in the left arm, upper body tremors, and anxiety, he was hospitalized on September 13 for encephalitis of unknown etiology. On September 24, he received a diagnosis of rabies and on September 26, he died. Genetic sequencing tests confirmed infection with a rabies virus variant associated with tricolored bats. Health care providers need to maintain a high index of clinical suspicion for rabies in patients who have unexplained, rapidly progressive encephalitis, and adhere to recommended infection control practices when examining and treating patients with suspected infectious diseases.

  17. Use of aspiration method for collecting brain samples for rabies diagnosis in small wild animals.

    PubMed

    Iamamoto, K; Quadros, J; Queiroz, L H

    2011-02-01

    In developing countries such as Brazil, where canine rabies is still a considerable problem, samples from wildlife species are infrequently collected and submitted for screening for rabies. A collaborative study was established involving environmental biologists and veterinarians for rabies epidemiological research in a specific ecological area located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The wild animals' brains are required to be collected without skull damage because the skull's measurements are important in the identification of the captured animal species. For this purpose, samples from bats and small mammals were collected using an aspiration method by inserting a plastic pipette into the brain through the magnum foramen. While there is a progressive increase in the use of the plastic pipette technique in various studies undertaken, it is also appreciated that this method could foster collaborative research between wildlife scientists and rabies epidemiologists thus improving rabies surveillance.

  18. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2011

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Jesse D.; Dyer, Jessie; McBrayer, Jesse; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During 2011, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,981 raccoons (32.8%), 1,627 skunks (270%), 1,380 bats (22.9%), 427 foxes (71%), 303 cats (5.0%), 65 cattle (1.1%), and 70 dogs (1.2%). Compared with 2010, there was a substantial increase in the number of rabid skunks reported. Six cases of rabies involving humans were reported from California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and South Carolina. Three cases reported from Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York were determined to be a result of canine rabies virus variants acquired outside the United States. PMID:22947154

  19. Rabies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... mostly in developing countries where programs for vaccinating dogs against rabies don't exist. But the good ... vaccination programs in the United States, transmission from dogs to people is very rare. Outside the United ...

  20. The Rabi Quantum Computer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    example that other students learn to make quantum computers does not quite meet the RQC specification, consider useful in many fields . I also want to...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010869 TITLE: The Rabi Quantum Computer DISTRIBUTION: Approved for...comprise the compilation report: ADP010865 thru ADP010894 UNCLASSIFIED 5-1 The Rabi Quantum Computer Rudolph A. Krutar Advanced Information Technology’ U.S

  1. Developments in rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hicks, D J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2012-09-01

    The development of vaccines that prevent rabies has a long and distinguished history, with the earliest preceding modern understanding of viruses and the mechanisms of immune protection against disease. The correct application of inactivated tissue culture-derived vaccines is highly effective at preventing the development of rabies, and very few failures are recorded. Furthermore, oral and parenteral vaccination is possible for wildlife, companion animals and livestock, again using inactivated tissue culture-derived virus. However, rabies remains endemic in many regions of the world and causes thousands of human deaths annually. There also remain no means of prophylaxis for rabies once the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this is the poor immune response within the CNS to infection with rabies virus (RABV). New approaches to vaccination using modified rabies viruses that express components of the innate immune system are being applied to this problem. Preliminary reports suggest that direct inoculation of such viruses could trigger an effective anti-viral response and prevent a fatal outcome from RABV infection.

  2. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  3. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  4. Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Vietnam (2006-2009).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh K T; Nguyen, Dong V; Ngo, Giang C; Nguyen, Thu T; Inoue, Satoshi; Yamada, Akio; Dinh, Xuyen K; Nguyen, Dung V; Phan, Thao X; Pham, Bao Q; Nguyen, Hien T; Nguyen, Hanh T H

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus (RABV) circulating in Vietnam. Intra vitam samples (saliva and cerebrospinal fluid) were collected from 31 patients who were believed to have rabies and were admitted to hospitals in northern provinces of Vietnam. Brain samples were collected from 176 sick or furious rabid dogs from all over the country. The human and canine samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The findings showed that 23 patients tested positive for RABV. Interestingly, 5 rabies patients did not have any history of dog or cat bites, but they had an experience of butchering dogs or cats, or consuming their meat. RABV was also detected in 2 of the 100 sick dogs from slaughterhouses. Molecular epidemiological analysis of 27 RABV strains showed that these viruses could be classified into two groups. The RABVs classified into Group 1 were distributed throughout Vietnam and had sequence similarity with the strains from China, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines. However, the RABVs classified into Group 2 were only found in the northern provinces of Vietnam and showed high sequence similarity with the strain from southern China. This finding suggested the recent influx of Group 2 RABVs between Vietnam and China across the border. Although the incidence of rabies due to circulating RABVs in slaughterhouses is less common than that due to dog bite, the national program for rabies control and prevention in Vietnam should include monitoring of the health of dogs meant for human consumption and vaccination for workers at dog slaughterhouses. Further, monitoring of and research on the circulating RABVs in dog markets may help to determine the cause of rabies and control the spread of rabies in slaughterhouses in Vietnam.

  5. Human rabies focusing on dog ecology-A challenge to public health in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kumarapeli, Vindya; Awerbuch-Friedlander, Tamara

    2009-10-01

    Sri Lanka is among the top ten countries in the world that report the highest rate of human rabies deaths (2.8 per 1,000,000 in 2007) and animal bites requiring anti-rabies post-exposure treatment (PET) (755 per 100,000 in 2003). Dogs are the main reservoir and transmitters of rabies in Sri Lanka. Present study evaluates the effectiveness of dog rabies control strategies on reducing incidence of human rabies deaths. Analysis is based on data from last three decades and showed strong correlations between the interventions and human rabies incidence. GIS maps provided a method for illustrating the district distribution of human rabies deaths and dog population density and for recognizing districts at risk. Interrupting the natural transmission cycle of rabies in dogs would be a logical approach in eliminating dog rabies in Sri Lanka. However, interventions implemented so far, such as dog vaccination, elimination of stray dogs (abandoned in 2005), and animal birth control have been inadequate to do so. Better understanding of the ecology of stray and owned dogs (e.g. population density, population structure, confinement status) in the context of the human environment and culture, are needed to strategize the control activities, requiring coordination among regional Public Health and Veterinary services.

  6. Oral vaccination of foxes against rabies in Turkey between 2008 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Un, Hikmet; Eskiizmirliler, Seza; Unal, Nil; Freuling, Conrad M; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas; Vos, Adriaan; Aylan, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Following a sustained spill-over event from dogs to foxes, fox rabies spread rapidly in the Aegean region, Turkey. In order to control the outbreak a program of oral vaccination of foxes against rabies was introduced. In the selected vaccination area three annual campaigns between 2008 and 2010 were undertaken during the winter months whereby the vaccine baits were distributed exclusively by plane using a density of 18 baits per km2. Subsequently, fox rabies cases were reported only from locations bordering the non-vaccinated areas. Hence, it was shown that fox rabies control by means of oral rabies vaccination is feasible in Turkey. However, for the progress towards the elimination of fox-mediated rabies in Turkey to be maintained, it is necessary that political and financial support is secured to extend oral vaccination where infected foxes remain.

  7. Protect Your Family from Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Protect Your Family from Rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... or camp official right away. Talk With Your Family About the Seriousness of Rabies While very few ...

  8. [Rabies in bats].

    PubMed

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans.

  9. Tactics and Economics of Wildlife Oral Rabies Vaccination, Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Martin I.; Shwiff, Stephanie A.; Slate, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Progressive elimination of rabies in wildlife has been a general strategy in Canada and the United States; common campaign tactics are trap–vaccinate–release (TVR), point infection control (PIC), and oral rabies vaccination (ORV). TVR and PIC are labor intensive and the most expensive tactics per unit area (≈$616/km2 [in 2008 Can$, converted from the reported $450/km2 in 1991 Can$] and ≈$612/km2 [$500/km2 in 1999 Can$], respectively), but these tactics have proven crucial to elimination of raccoon rabies in Canada and to maintenance of ORV zones for preventing the spread of raccoon rabies in the United States. Economic assessments have shown that during rabies epizootics, costs of human postexposure prophylaxis, pet vaccination, public health, and animal control spike. Modeling studies, involving diverse assumptions, have shown that ORV programs can be cost-efficient and yield benefit:cost ratios >1.0. PMID:19757549

  10. Tactics and economics of wildlife oral rabies vaccination, Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sterner, Ray T; Meltzer, Martin I; Shwiff, Stephanie A; Slate, Dennis

    2009-08-01

    Progressive elimination of rabies in wildlife has been a general strategy in Canada and the United States; common campaign tactics are trap-vaccinate-release (TVR), point infection control (PIC), and oral rabies vaccination (ORV). TVR and PIC are labor intensive and the most expensive tactics per unit area (approximately $616/km(2) [in 2008 Can$, converted from the reported $450/km(2) in 1991 Can$] and approximately $612/km(2) [$500/km(2) in 1999 Can$], respectively), but these tactics have proven crucial to elimination of raccoon rabies in Canada and to maintenance of ORV zones for preventing the spread of raccoon rabies in the United States. Economic assessments have shown that during rabies epizootics, costs of human postexposure prophylaxis, pet vaccination, public health, and animal control spike. Modeling studies, involving diverse assumptions, have shown that ORV programs can be cost-efficient and yield benefit:cost ratios >1.0.

  11. Rabies Control: Could Innovative Financing Break the Deadlock?

    PubMed Central

    Welburn, Susan C.; Coleman, Paul G.; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality in over 80 countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The nature of neglect for the NZDs has been ascribed, in part, to underreporting resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that, together with a lack of advocacy, downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. While this may be the case for many NZDs, for rabies this is not the case. The global burden estimates for rabies (931,600 DALYs) more than justify prioritizing rabies control building on the strong advocacy platforms, functioning at local, regional, and global levels (including the Global Alliance for Rabies Control), and commitments from WHO, OIE, and FAO. Simple effective tools for rabies control exist together with blueprints for operationalizing control, yet, despite elimination targets being set, no global affirmative action has been taken. Rabies control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time to achieve the desired cumulative gains. Despite the availability of effective vaccines and messaging tools, rabies will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. While rabies control is usually perceived as a public good, public private partnerships could prove equally effective in addressing endemic rabies through harnessing social investment and demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of control. It is acknowledged that greater attention to navigating local realities in planning and implementation is essential to ensuring that rabies, and other neglected diseases, are controlled sustainably. In the shadows of resource and institutional limitations in the veterinary sector in low- and middle-income countries, sufficient funding is required so that top-down interventions

  12. Rabies Control: Could Innovative Financing Break the Deadlock?

    PubMed

    Welburn, Susan C; Coleman, Paul G; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality in over 80 countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The nature of neglect for the NZDs has been ascribed, in part, to underreporting resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that, together with a lack of advocacy, downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. While this may be the case for many NZDs, for rabies this is not the case. The global burden estimates for rabies (931,600 DALYs) more than justify prioritizing rabies control building on the strong advocacy platforms, functioning at local, regional, and global levels (including the Global Alliance for Rabies Control), and commitments from WHO, OIE, and FAO. Simple effective tools for rabies control exist together with blueprints for operationalizing control, yet, despite elimination targets being set, no global affirmative action has been taken. Rabies control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time to achieve the desired cumulative gains. Despite the availability of effective vaccines and messaging tools, rabies will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. While rabies control is usually perceived as a public good, public private partnerships could prove equally effective in addressing endemic rabies through harnessing social investment and demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of control. It is acknowledged that greater attention to navigating local realities in planning and implementation is essential to ensuring that rabies, and other neglected diseases, are controlled sustainably. In the shadows of resource and institutional limitations in the veterinary sector in low- and middle-income countries, sufficient funding is required so that top-down interventions

  13. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher H.; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M. Karen; Malcolm, James R.; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world’s rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005–2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%–87% vs. 34%–39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP’s Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  14. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

  15. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio; Makita, Kohei

    2017-03-23

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001), indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01), there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01). We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to

  16. Epidemiologic trends of rabies in domestic animals in southern Thailand, 1994-2008.

    PubMed

    Thiptara, Anyarat; Atwill, Edward R; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chomel, Bruno B

    2011-07-01

    Rabies and associated risk factors in dogs, cats and cattle (n = 3,454) in southern Thailand during 1994-2008 were evaluated by using a mixed-effect logistic regression model. Overall prevalence was 48%. In dogs, odds of being rabid were 1.7 times higher in unvaccinated dogs than in vaccinated dogs and two times higher in dogs with bite history than in dogs with no known bite history. Similarly, aggressive dogs were more likely to be rabid than non-aggressive dogs. In cattle, aggression, pharyngeal paralysis, hyperactivity, and depression were clinical signs associated with being rabid. Annual fluctuations of the species-specific prevalence of rabies is suggestive of a positive correlation between canine and either feline (r = 0.60, P = 0.05) or bovine rabies (r = 0.78, P = 0.004). Insufficient vaccination coverage led to maintenance of rabies, which could be easily controlled by increased vaccine coverage and public education.

  17. Poxvirus-vectored vaccines for rabies--a review.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Jacqueline; Rupprecht, Charles E; Nel, Louis H

    2009-11-27

    Oral rabies vaccination of target reservoir species has proved to be one of the pillars of successful rabies elimination programs. The use of live attenuated rabies virus vaccines has been extensive but several limitations hamper its future use. A recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine has also been successfully used for the oral vaccination of several species. Nevertheless, its lack of efficacy in certain important rabies reservoirs and concerns on the use of this potent live virus as vaccine carrier (vector) impair the expansion of its use for new target species and new areas. Several attenuated and host-restricted poxvirus alternatives, which supposedly offer enhanced safety, have been investigated. Once again, efficacy in certain target species and innocuity through the oral route remain major limitations of these vaccines. Alternative recombinant vaccines using adenovirus as an antigen delivery vector have been extensively investigated and may provide an important addition to the currently available oral rabies vaccine repertoire, but are not the primary subject of this review.

  18. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2008: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).

    PubMed

    2008-04-18

    Rabies is a fatal viral zoonosis and a serious public health problem. The disease is an acute, progressive encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus. Although the United States has been declared free of canine rabies virus variant transmission, multiple viral variants are maintained in wild mammal populations, and there is always a risk of reintroduction of canine rabies. All mammals are believed to be susceptible to the disease, and for purposes of this document, use of the term "animal" refers to mammals. The recommendations in this compendium serve as a basis for animal rabies-prevention and -control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. The most current version replaces all previous versions. These recommendations do not supersede state and local laws or requirements. Principles of rabies-prevention and -control are detailed in Part I; recommendations for parenteral vaccination procedures are presented in Part II; and all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part III.

  19. Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Sergio; Navarro-Vela, Ana Maria; Deray, Raffy; Vigilato, Marco; Ertl, Hildegund; Durrheim, David; Rees, Helen; Nel, Louis H; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Briggs, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the safety and immunogenicity of pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis (including accelerated schedules, co-administration with other vaccines and booster doses), its cost–effectiveness and recommendations for use, particularly in high-risk settings. Methods We searched the PubMed, Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for papers on pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis published between 2007 and 29 January 2016. We reviewed field data from pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns in Peru and the Philippines. Findings Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic in children and adults, also when co-administered with routine childhood vaccinations and the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. The evidence available indicates that shorter regimens and regimens involving fewer doses are safe and immunogenic and that booster intervals could be extended up to 10 years. The few studies on cost suggest that, at current vaccine and delivery costs, pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns would not be cost-effective in most situations. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has been advocated for high-risk populations, only Peru and the Philippines have implemented appropriate national programmes. In the future, accelerated regimens and novel vaccines could simplify delivery and increase affordability. Conclusion Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis is safe and immunogenic and should be considered: (i) where access to postexposure prophylaxis is limited or delayed; (ii) where the risk of exposure is high and may go unrecognized; and (iii) where controlling rabies in the animal reservoir is difficult. Pre-exposure prophylaxis should not distract from canine vaccination efforts, provision of postexposure prophylaxis or education to increase rabies awareness in local communities. PMID:28250534

  20. Oral Rabies Vaccine Design for Expression in Plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankit; Saxena, Gauri; Verma, Praveen C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is the sensitization process of the immune system against any pathogen. Generally, recombinant subunit vaccines are considered safer than attenuated vaccines. As whole pathogenic organisms are used in the immunization process, the attenuated vaccines are considered more risky than subunit vaccines. Rabies is the oldest known zoonosis which spreads through a neurotropic Lyssavirus primarily mediated through infected canine bites. Rabies causes worldwide loss of more than 60,000 human lives every year. Animal vaccination is equally important to check the transmission of rabies into humans. Rabies oral vaccination can be a good alternative where multiple booster and priming regimens are required while the painful vaccination process can continue for long durations. Introduction of oral vaccines was made to ease the discomfort associated with the mode of introduction of conventional vaccines into the body. Although the rabies oral vaccine can substantially reduce the cost of vaccination in the developing countries, mass immunization programs need larger quantities of vaccines which should be delivered at nominal cost. Expression of recombinant antigen proteins in E. coli is often not viable because of lack of post-translational modifications and folding requirements. Though yeast and insect cell line expression systems have post-translational processing and modifications, significantly different immunological response against their post-translational modification pattern limits their deployment as an expression system. As an alternative, plants are emerging as a promising system to express and deliver wide range of functionally active biopharmaceutical product at lower cost for mass immunization programs. As generation of vaccine antigenic proteins in plant systems are cheaper, the strategy will benefit developing countries where this disease causes thousands of deaths every year. In this chapter, we will discuss about our efforts toward development of oral

  1. Low coverage of central point vaccination against dog rabies in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Muthiani, Yvonne; Traoré, Abdallah; Mauti, Stephanie; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hattendorf, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Canine rabies remains an important public-health problem in Africa. Dog mass vaccination is the recommended method for rabies control and elimination. We report on the first small-scale mass dog vaccination campaign trial in Bamako, Mali. Our objective was to estimate coverage of the vaccination campaign and to quantify determinants of intervention effectiveness. In September 2013, a central point vaccination campaign--free of cost for dog owners--was carried out in 17 posts on three consecutive days within Bamako's Commune 1. Vaccination coverage and the proportion of ownerless dogs were estimated by combining mark-recapture household and transect surveys using Bayesian modeling. The estimated vaccination coverage was 17.6% (95% Credibility Interval, CI: 14.4-22.1%) which is far below the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended vaccination coverage of 70%. The Bayesian estimate for the owned dog population of Commune 1 was 3459 dogs (95% CI: 2786-4131) and the proportion of ownerless dogs was about 8%. The low coverage observed is primarily attributed to low participation by dog owners. Dog owners reported several reasons for not bringing their dogs to the vaccination posts. The most frequently reported reasons for non-attendance were lack of information (25%) and the inability to handle the dog (16%). For 37% of respondents, no clear reason was given for non-vaccination. Despite low coverage, the vaccination campaign in Bamako was relatively easy to implement, both in terms of logistics and organization. Almost half of the participating dog owners brought their pets on the first day of the campaign. Participatory stakeholder processes involving communities and local authorities are needed to identify effective communication channels and locally adapted vaccination strategies, which could include both central-point and door-to-door vaccination.

  2. Rabies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If your child has been bitten by an animal, take the following steps right away: Wash the bite area with soap and ... by an unknown dog, bat, rat, or other animal, contact your doctor immediately or ... treating your child right away with shots of human rabies immune globulin ...

  3. Memorial I.Rabi

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le DG H.Schopper ainsi que Norman Ramsey et le DG de l'Unesco rendent hommage à Isidor Rabi, grand scientifique et humaniste (1929-1988).Cette rencontre est organisée ensemble avec le Cern et l'Unesco.

  4. Rabies: ocular pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T

    1989-01-01

    Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. Images PMID:2920157

  5. Memorial I.Rabi

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-01

    Le DG H.Schopper ainsi que Norman Ramsey et le DG de l'Unesco rendent hommage à Isidor Rabi, grand scientifique et humaniste (1929-1988).Cette rencontre est organisée ensemble avec le Cern et l'Unesco.

  6. Bat Rabies in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  7. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation.

  8. Elimination of contaminating cap genes in AAV vector virions reduces immune responses and improves transgene expression in a canine gene therapy model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Halbert, C L; Lee, D; Butts, T; Tapscott, S J; Storb, R; Miller, A D

    2014-04-01

    Animal and human gene therapy studies utilizing AAV vectors have shown that immune responses to AAV capsid proteins can severely limit transgene expression. The main source of capsid antigen is that associated with the AAV vectors, which can be reduced by stringent vector purification. A second source of AAV capsid proteins is that expressed from cap genes aberrantly packaged into AAV virions during vector production. This antigen source can be eliminated by the use of a cap gene that is too large to be incorporated into an AAV capsid, such as a cap gene containing a large intron (captron gene). Here, we investigated the effects of elimination of cap gene transfer and of vector purification by CsCl gradient centrifugation on AAV vector immunogenicity and expression following intramuscular injection in dogs. We found that both approaches reduced vector immunogenicity and that combining the two produced the lowest immune responses and highest transgene expression. This combined approach enabled the use of a relatively mild immunosuppressive regimen to promote robust micro-dystrophin gene expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy-affected dogs. Our study shows the importance of minimizing AAV cap gene impurities and indicates that this improvement in AAV vector production may benefit human applications.

  9. [Rabies control in Brazil from 1980 to 1990].

    PubMed

    Schneider, M C; de Almeida, G A; Souza, L M; de Morares, N B; Diaz, R C

    1996-04-01

    The epidemiological situation of rabies in Brazil at the period of 1980 to 1990, when the National Program for Rabies Prevention was implemented on a national scale, and which yielded positive results, is presented. The main controlling actions carried out in order to achieve these results are also described. Rabies in Brasil registered a considerable decrease in human and canine cases (78% and 90%, respectively), half way through the series of analyses undertaken for this study. Towards the end of the decade, the disease began to recrudesce, several cases occurring in some parts of the country, mainly in the northeastern region, where 70% of the total number of infections for 1990 was recorded. Moreover, human rabies transmitted by bats experienced a considerable increase, accounting for 15.1% of the total. The Program, which is implemented by State and Municipal authorities. Covers the 350,000 people who are attacked by animals, and vaccinates approximately 9,000,000 animals every annually year. Epidemiological control is considered to be of basic importance, so that indicators for the definition of the areas of risk have been developed.

  10. [Comparative techniques for the diagnosis of rabies and its incidence in Tamaulipas in 1987].

    PubMed

    Martínez Burnes, J; Moguel Paz, A; Casar Solares, A; Vargas Méndez, G; Reyes Hernández, A; Aguirre Valenzuela, A; Zepeda Ginez, V

    1991-01-01

    Rabies in suspect cases was diagnosed by immunofluorescence, histopathology and biological tests in samples from government health centers in Tamaulipas, Mexico during 1987. Comparative analysis between the diagnostic results and the epidemiological survey was performed. Brain samples of 278 suspect animals were studied; 45 cases were positive to rabies (16.1%). The centers providing high number of samples and positive cases correlate with counties of high human and canine population density, however, the percentage of positive cases versus samples sent does not correlate with the same counties, therefore making it possible to establish high risk areas. During spring, an increase of positive samples were received possibly associated with the canine breeding season. Urban rabies is a real problem in Tamaulipas, expressed by 97.7% of positive canine samples, 63.6% males and 36.3% females of an average age of fifteen months and were primarily of native breeds. Only 22% of positive cases had been previously vaccinated against rabies. A 56.3% incidence reduction versus the last four years was observed. It was concluded that a reduction of false positive results is possible when using the 3 diagnostic procedures described.

  11. Implementation and monitoring of oral rabies vaccination of foxes in Kosovo between 2010 and 2013--an international and intersectorial effort.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, Boris; Goga, Izedin; Freuling, Conrad M; Fooks, Anthony R; Gjinovci, Valdet; Hulaj, Beqe; Horton, Daniel; Johnson, Nicholas; Muhaxhiri, Jeton; Recica, Ilir; David, Dan; O'Flaherty, Richard; Taylor, Nick; Wilsmore, Tony; Müller, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The European Union has used instrument for pre-accession (IPA) funds to provide technical assistance and supplies for the eradication, monitoring and control of rabies in several pre-accession countries. As a result, since 2010, multi-annual oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes for eliminating fox rabies have been launched in six Western Balkan countries. Here the implementation of the ORV programme in Kosovo, the smallest of the West Balkan countries, is described. Associated challenges under difficult political conditions, potential biases, and the results of rabies surveillance and monitoring of ORV campaigns (bait uptake and immunisation rates) since 2010 are reported.

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) about Rabies Prevention and Control: A Community Survey in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Maganga; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather M.; Sikana, Lwitiko; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite being entirely preventable, canine rabies still kills 55,000 people/year in developing countries. Information about local beliefs and practices can identify knowledge gaps that may affect prevention practices and lead to unnecessary deaths. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to rabies and its prevention and control amongst a cross-section of households (n = 5,141) in urban and rural areas of central, southern and northern Tanzania. Over 17% of respondents owned domestic dogs (average of 2.3 dogs/household),>95% had heard about rabies, and>80% knew that rabies is transmitted through dog bites. People who (1) had greater education, (2) originated from areas with a history of rabies interventions, (3) had experienced exposure by a suspect rabid animal, (4) were male and (5) owned dogs were more likely to have greater knowledge about the disease. Around 80% of respondents would seek hospital treatment after a suspect bite, but only 5% were aware of the need for prompt wound cleansing after a bite. Although>65% of respondents knew of dog vaccination as a means to control rabies, only 51% vaccinated their dogs. Determinants of dog vaccination included (1) being a male-headed household, (2) presence of children, (3) low economic status, (4) residing in urban areas, (5) owning livestock, (6) originating from areas with rabies interventions and (7) having purchased a dog. The majority of dog-owning respondents were willing to contribute no more than US$0.31 towards veterinary services. Conclusions/Significance We identified important knowledge gaps related to, and factors influencing the prevention and control of rabies in Tanzania. Increasing knowledge regarding wound washing, seeking post-exposure prophylaxis and the need to vaccinate dogs are likely to result in more effective prevention of rabies; however, greater engagement of the veterinary and medical sectors is also needed to ensure the

  13. Risk factors associated with travel to rabies endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Brookes, S M; Parsons, G; McElhinney, L M

    2003-01-01

    Increased travel to exotic destinations around the world is escalating the risk that an emerging virus may be imported into the UK. Rabies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any encephalitic illness presenting in an appropriate epidemiological context. Molecular diagnostic tests that can rapidly discriminate rabies from other suspected infections will influence the use of anti-rabies prophylaxis for potential contacts with the victim. In 2001, the UK had two confirmed human rabies cases, imported from the Philippines and Nigeria, respectively. In case one, hemi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (hn-RT-PCR) and automated sequencing confirmed the presence of rabies virus (RABV) within both the saliva and skin specimens within 36 h of sample submission. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis using a partial sequence of the nucleoprotein (N-) gene segment demonstrated that the virus was closely related to that of canine variants currently circulating in the Philippines. In the second case, the fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the diagnosis on post-mortem tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of two genomic segments of this isolate confirmed that it was a classical RABV (genotype 1) of the Africa 2 subgroup. These cases have highlighted the capability of molecular diagnostic tests for the rapid identification and subsequent genotyping of RABV to host and geographical location. In the first instance, rabies diagnosis often rests on clinical and epidemiological grounds. Negative tests, even late in the illness, do not exclude the diagnosis as these tests are never optimal and are entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. For this reason, rapid molecular detection and virus typing will be essential in considering the appropriate medical treatment regimen for a patient. In addition, an early diagnosis may decrease the number of unnecessary contacts with the

  14. Rabi, Snow, and "The Two Cultures"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Michael A.

    2003-04-01

    John Rigden in his biography of I. I. Rabi, "Rabi: Scientist and Citizen" (1987, 2000 with a new preface) includes an intriguing footnote concerning Rabi's influence on C. P. Snow. According to the footnote, when Snow and his son were visiting the Rabis in New York City, Rabi's wife heard Snow tell his son that Rabi was "the man who gave me [Snow] the idea for the two cultures." In this talk, after a brief overview of Rabi's views on science and society, the mutual influence between Rabi and Snow is explored. On the basis of chronology and an interpretation of Rabi's works (published and unpublished) as well as letters between Rabi and Snow, a case is made that Rabi could very well have been the man who gave Snow the idea for "The Two Cultures."

  15. Achieving Population-Level Immunity to Rabies in Free-Roaming Dogs in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Horton, Daniel L.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Schoeman, Johan P.; Restif, Olivier; Whay, Helen R.; Goddard, Amelia; Fooks, Anthony R.; Damriyasa, I. Made; Wood, James L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least two years to ensure

  16. Rabies vaccination in dogs using a dissolving microneedle patch.

    PubMed

    Arya, Jaya M; Dewitt, Kristopher; Scott-Garrard, Maya; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-10

    Because humans get rabies primarily through dog bites, stray dog population control and mass or mandatory vaccination of domestic dogs and other animals has virtually eliminated human rabies in industrialized countries. However, thousands of people in developing countries die of rabies each year due to the inability to control dog populations and implement mass vaccination because of financial, logistical and other challenges. The availability of an easier-to-administer and more cost-effective vaccine may help to address some of these issues. Here, we propose the use of dissolving microneedle patches for simple and potentially cost-effective rabies vaccination, and assess the safety and immunogenicity of microneedle patch vaccination using a rabies DNA vaccine in dogs. The vaccine was stable upon formulation and storage for at least 3weeks at 4°C in a microneedle patch. For vaccination, the patches were applied to the inner ear by hand without an applicator. Microneedle patches were well tolerated in the skin, with mild erythema, minimal wheal formation and complete resolution of skin reactions within 7days, and generated no systemic adverse events. Microneedle patches were at least as immunogenic as intramuscular injection at the same dose, as demonstrated by similar serum neutralizing antibody titers. A ten-fold lower vaccine dose administered by microneedle patch generated a weaker immune response compared to full-dose intramuscular vaccination. We conclude that dissolving microneedle patches may provide an innovative approach to mass vaccination of dogs.

  17. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe.

  18. The Mad Fox Disease: Rabies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about the control of rabies. Using both simplified sentence structure and vocabulary, it describes how rabies may be spread, its symptoms, its treatment, and ways it can be prevented. (FL)

  19. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-05

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination.

  20. Concomitant administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Verónica; Canales-Vargas, Erick J; Gress-Ortega, Luis R; Miller, Lowell A; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bender, Scott C; García-Reyna, Patricia; Ocampo-López, Juan; Slate, Dennis

    2013-09-13

    Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management. Enhanced public awareness is critical to reinforce responsible pet ownership. Surgical spaying and neutering remain important to prevent reproduction, but are impractical for achieving dog population management goals. GonaCon™, an anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, was initially tested in captive female dogs on the Navajo Nation, 2008. The MMH led this international collaborative study on an improved formulation of GonaCon™ in captive dogs with local representatives in Hidalgo, Mexico in 2011. This study contained 20 bitches assigned to Group A (6 control), Group B (7 GonaCon™), and Group C (7 GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine). Vaccines were delivered IM. Animals were placed under observation and evaluated during the 61-day trial. Clinically, all dogs behaved normally. No limping or prostration was observed, in spite of minor muscle atrophy post-mortem in the left hind leg of dogs that received GonaCon™. Two dogs that began the study pregnant give birth to healthy pups. Dogs that received a GonaCon™ injection had macro and microscopic lesions consistent with prior findings, but the adverse injection effects were less frequent and lower in intensity. Both vaccines were immunogenic based on significant increases in rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and anti-GnRH antibodies in treatment Groups B and C. Simultaneous administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in Group C did not affect immunogenicity. Progesterone was suppressed significantly in comparison to controls. Future studies that monitor fertility through multiple breeding cycles represent a research need to determine the

  1. Effective vaccination against rabies in puppies in rabies endemic regions.

    PubMed

    Morters, M K; McNabb, S; Horton, D L; Fooks, A R; Schoeman, J P; Whay, H R; Wood, J L N; Cleaveland, S

    2015-08-08

    In rabies endemic regions, a proportionally higher incidence of rabies is often reported in dogs younger than 12 months of age, which includes puppies less than 3 months of age; this presents a serious risk to public health. The higher incidence of rabies in young dogs may be the effect of low vaccination coverage in this age class, partly as a result of the perception that immature immune systems and maternal antibodies inhibit seroconversion to rabies vaccine in puppies less than three months of age. Therefore, to test this perception, the authors report the virus neutralising antibody titres from 27 dogs that were vaccinated with high quality, inactivated rabies vaccine aged three months of age and under as part of larger serological studies undertaken in Gauteng Province, South Africa, and the Serengeti District, Tanzania. All of these dogs seroconverted to a single dose of vaccine with no adverse reactions reported and with postvaccinal peak titres ranging from 2.0 IU/ml to 90.5 IU/ml. In light of these results, and the risk of human beings contracting rabies from close contact with puppies, the authors recommend that all dogs in rabies endemic regions, including those less than three months of age, are vaccinated with high quality, inactivated vaccine.

  2. Effective vaccination against rabies in puppies in rabies endemic regions

    PubMed Central

    Morters, M. K.; McNabb, S.; Horton, D. L.; Fooks, A. R.; Schoeman, J. P.; Whay, H. R.; Wood, J. L. N.; Cleaveland, S.

    2015-01-01

    In rabies endemic regions, a proportionally higher incidence of rabies is often reported in dogs younger than 12 months of age, which includes puppies less than 3 months of age; this presents a serious risk to public health. The higher incidence of rabies in young dogs may be the effect of low vaccination coverage in this age class, partly as a result of the perception that immature immune systems and maternal antibodies inhibit seroconversion to rabies vaccine in puppies less than three months of age. Therefore, to test this perception, the authors report the virus neutralising antibody titres from 27 dogs that were vaccinated with high quality, inactivated rabies vaccine aged three months of age and under as part of larger serological studies undertaken in Gauteng Province, South Africa, and the Serengeti District, Tanzania. All of these dogs seroconverted to a single dose of vaccine with no adverse reactions reported and with postvaccinal peak titres ranging from 2.0 IU/ml to 90.5 IU/ml. In light of these results, and the risk of human beings contracting rabies from close contact with puppies, the authors recommend that all dogs in rabies endemic regions, including those less than three months of age, are vaccinated with high quality, inactivated vaccine. PMID:26109286

  3. Monoclonal antibody characterization of rabies virus strains isolated in the River Plate Basin.

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Gury-Dhomen, F; Larghi, O P; Mena-Segura, C; Abramo, L

    1997-10-01

    In this study, 91 strains isolated in the River Plate Basin, South America, were examined from the epidemiological standpoint and with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the nucleocapsid of rabies virus. Such strains reacted to MAbs in accordance with nine different patterns (antigenic variants). Rabies virus was isolated from 49 cattle, 21 dogs, 11 non-haematophagous bats, four vampire bats, two foxes, two horses, one buffalo, and one human. Five of the variants had not been described previously. It was also found that two cases of rabies in wild foxes (Cerdocyon thous) which had attacked persons in the Province of Chaco, Argentina, had been caused by variants from dog and vampire bat, while two cases in frugivorous bats (Artibeus lituratus) from Argentina and Brazil, had been infected by vampire bat variants. In addition, symptoms shown by cattle infected with strains which reacted as originating in canine vectors, differed from those observed in bovines from which the variants isolated corresponded to vampire bats.

  4. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, often, the nervous systems of puppies and dogs. The virus also infects wild canids (e.g. ... How is Canine Distemper virus spread? Puppies and dogs usually become infected through airborne exposure to the ...

  5. Canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R

    1985-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the literature regarding canine malignant lymphoma. It includes a discussion of etiology, classification, systemic manifestations of disease, therapy, and supportive care for patient management.

  6. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  7. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Jessie L.; Yager, Pamela; Orciari, Lillian; Greenberg, Lauren; Wallace, Ryan; Hanlon, Cathleen A.; Blanton, Jesse D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During 2013, 53 reporting jurisdictions reported 5,865 rabid animals and 3 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 4.8% decrease from the 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human case reported in 2012. Ninety-two percent of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,898 raccoons (32.4%), 1,598 bats (27.2%), 1,447 skunks (24.7%), 344 foxes (5.9%), 247 cats (4.2%), 86 cattle (1.5%), and 89 dogs (1.5%). One human case was reported from Maryland. The infection was determined to have been transmitted via organ transplantation. Infection in the organ donor, a North Carolina resident, was retrospectively diagnosed. Both the organ donor and the organ recipient were infected with the raccoon rabies virus variant. The third human case, reported by Texas, involved a Guatemalan resident who was detained while crossing the US border. The infection was determined to be caused by a canine rabies virus variant that circulates in Central America. PMID:25356711

  8. Integrability of the Rabi Model

    SciTech Connect

    Braak, D.

    2011-09-02

    The Rabi model is a paradigm for interacting quantum systems. It couples a bosonic mode to the smallest possible quantum model, a two-level system. I present the analytical solution which allows us to consider the question of integrability for quantum systems that do not possess a classical limit. A criterion for quantum integrability is proposed which shows that the Rabi model is integrable due to the presence of a discrete symmetry. Moreover, I introduce a generalization with no symmetries; the generalized Rabi model is the first example of a nonintegrable but exactly solvable system.

  9. Magnetic protein microbead-aided indirect fluoroimmunoassay for the determination of canine virus specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqin; Ren, Li; Tu, Qin; Wang, Jianchun; Zhang, Yanrong; Li, Manlin; Liu, Rui; Wang, Jinyi

    2011-03-15

    Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus are common contagious viral diseases of dogs and many other carnivores, and pose a severe threat to the population dynamics of wild carnivores, as well as endangering carnivore conservation. However, clinical diagnosis of these diseases, especially canine distemper and canine parvovirus, is difficult because of the broad spectrum of symptoms that may be confused with other respiratory and enteric diseases of dogs. The most frequently used and proven techniques for diagnosing viral diseases include the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), mouse neutralisation test (MNT), and fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test. However, these methods still have some inherent limitations. In this study, a magnetic protein microbead-aided indirect fluoroimmunoassay was developed to detect canine virus specific antibodies, human rabies immunoglobulin, CDV McAbs, and CPV McAbs. In this assay, an avidin-biotin system was employed to combine magnetic microbeads and virus antigens (rabies virus, canine distemper virus, and canine parvovirus). Quantification of the targeted virus antibodies was analyzed through indirect fluoroimmunoassay using the specific antigen-antibody reaction, as well as their corresponding FITC-labeled detection antibodies (mouse anti-human IgG/FITC conjugate or rabbit anti-dog IgG/FITC conjugate). The results indicated that the fluorescence intensity increased when a higher concentration of the targeted analyte was used, but the control had almost no fluorescence, much like the conventional ELISA. For human rabies immunoglobulin, CDV McAbs, and CPV McAbs, the minimum detectable concentrations were 0.2 IU/mL, 0.3 ng/mL, and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. All of these results indicate that this assay can be employed to determine the presence of canine virus specific antibodies. In addition, the method devised here can be utilized as a general

  10. Rabies virus neuritic paralysis: immunopathogenesis of nonfatal paralytic rabies.

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, F; Cox, J H; Meyer, S; Dahme, E; Reddehase, M J

    1992-01-01

    Two pathogenetically distinct disease manifestations are distinguished in a murine model of primary rabies virus infection with the Evelyn-Rokitnicky-Abelseth strain, rabies virus neuritic paralysis (RVNP) and fatal encephalopathogenic rabies. RVNP develops with high incidence in immunocompetent mice after intraplantar infection as a flaccid paralysis restricted to the infected limb. The histopathologic correlate of this monoplegia is a degeneration of the myelinated motor neurons of the peripheral nerve involved. While, in this model, fatal encephalopathogenic rabies develops only after depletion of the CD4 subset of T lymphocytes and without contribution of the CD8 subset, RVNP is identified as an immunopathological process in which both the CD4 and CD8 subsets of T lymphocytes are critically implicated. Images PMID:1629964

  11. In-Depth Characterization of Live Vaccines Used in Europe for Oral Rabies Vaccination of Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mojzis, Miroslav; Dirbakova, Zuzana; Muizniece, Zita; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mutinelli, Franco; Matulova, Marta; Frolichova, Jitka; Rychlik, Ivan; Celer, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Although rabies incidence has fallen sharply over the past decades in Europe, the disease is still present in Eastern Europe. Oral rabies immunization of wild animal rabies has been shown to be the most effective method for the control and elimination of rabies. All rabies vaccines used in Europe are modified live virus vaccines based on the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) strain isolated from a naturally-infected dog in 1935. Because of the potential safety risk of a live virus which could revert to virulence, the genetic composition of three commercial attenuated live rabies vaccines was investigated in two independent laboratories using next genome sequencing. This study is the first one reporting on the diversity of variants in oral rabies vaccines as well as the presence of a mix of at least two different variants in all tested batches. The results demonstrate the need for vaccine producers to use new robust methodologies in the context of their routine vaccine quality controls prior to market release. PMID:26509266

  12. In-Depth Characterization of Live Vaccines Used in Europe for Oral Rabies Vaccination of Wildlife.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mojzis, Miroslav; Dirbakova, Zuzana; Muizniece, Zita; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mutinelli, Franco; Matulova, Marta; Frolichova, Jitka; Rychlik, Ivan; Celer, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Although rabies incidence has fallen sharply over the past decades in Europe, the disease is still present in Eastern Europe. Oral rabies immunization of wild animal rabies has been shown to be the most effective method for the control and elimination of rabies. All rabies vaccines used in Europe are modified live virus vaccines based on the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) strain isolated from a naturally-infected dog in 1935. Because of the potential safety risk of a live virus which could revert to virulence, the genetic composition of three commercial attenuated live rabies vaccines was investigated in two independent laboratories using next genome sequencing. This study is the first one reporting on the diversity of variants in oral rabies vaccines as well as the presence of a mix of at least two different variants in all tested batches. The results demonstrate the need for vaccine producers to use new robust methodologies in the context of their routine vaccine quality controls prior to market release.

  13. Novel Vaccines to Human Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Hildegund C. J.

    2009-01-01

    Rabies, the most fatal of all infectious diseases, remains a major public health problem in developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 55,000 people each year. Most fatal rabies cases, with more than half of them in children, result from dog bites and occur among low-income families in Southeast Asia and Africa. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available to prevent rabies. However, they have to be given repeatedly, three times for pre-exposure vaccination and four to five times for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). In cases of severe exposure, a regimen of vaccine combined with a rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) preparation is required. The high incidence of fatal rabies is linked to a lack of knowledge on the appropriate treatment of bite wounds, lack of access to costly PEP, and failure to follow up with repeat immunizations. New, more immunogenic but less costly rabies virus vaccines are needed to reduce the toll of rabies on human lives. A preventative vaccine used for the immunization of children, especially those in high incidence countries, would be expected to lower fatality rates. Such a vaccine would have to be inexpensive, safe, and provide sustained protection, preferably after a single dose. Novel regimens are also needed for PEP to reduce the need for the already scarce and costly RIG and to reduce the number of vaccine doses to one or two. In this review, the pipeline of new rabies vaccines that are in pre-clinical testing is provided and an opinion on those that might be best suited as potential replacements for the currently used vaccines is offered. PMID:19787033

  14. Evaluation of the single radial-immunodiffusion assay for measuring the glycoprotein content of rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mayner, R E; Needy, C F

    1987-01-01

    The glycoprotein content of rabies vaccines containing the Pitman-Moore strain of rabies virus was measured by the single radial immunodiffusion assay and correlated with vaccine potency. The variability of this assay was 6.3% for a single vaccine lot tested over a one-year period. Using sera prepared against rabies virus glycoprotein from different strains of virus, the assay gave different values. These differences could be eliminated by using a homologous vaccine strain as an internal reference. Single radial-immunodiffusion values for Pitman-Moore vaccines correlated with the manufacturers' NIH potency assay, but required a mathematical transformation to convert values from one assay to the other. Single radial-immunodiffusion values for Street Alabama Dufferin and Flury-LEP vaccines did not correlate with NIH values. Modification of the single radial immunodiffusion technique and the feasibility of using this assay for the determination of rabies vaccine potency are discussed.

  15. Diabolical effects of rabies encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Rabies is an acute encephalomyelitis in humans and animals caused by rabies virus (RABV) infection. Because the neuropathological changes are very mild in rabies, it has been assumed that neuronal dysfunction likely explains the severe clinical disease. Recently, degenerative changes have been observed in neuronal processes (dendrites and axons) in experimental rabies. In vitro studies have shown evidence of oxidative stress that is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent work has shown that the RABV phosphoprotein (P) interacts with mitochondrial Complex I leading to overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which results in injury to axons. Amino acids at positions 139 to 172 of the P are critical in this process. Rabies vectors frequently show behavioral changes. Aggressive behavior with biting is important for transmission of the virus to new hosts at a time when virus is secreted in the saliva. Aggression is associated with low serotonergic activity in the brain. Charlton and coworkers performed studies in experimentally infected striped skunks with skunk rabies virus and observed aggressive behavioral responses. Heavy accumulation of RABV antigen was found in the midbrain raphe nuclei, indicating that impaired serotonin neurotransmission from the brainstem may account for the aggressive behavior. We now have an improved understanding of how RABV causes neuronal injury and how the infection results in behavioral changes that promote viral transmission to new hosts.

  16. [Epidemiology and control of rabies].

    PubMed

    Schneider, L G

    1977-09-01

    The epidemiological criteria of the present sylvatic rabies epizootic are shown using the situation in the Federal Republic of Germany and its neighbouring countries as an example. It is demonstrated that the fox plays the leading role in transmitting the disease to other animal species and remains the main vector in the epizootic. Mustelids are of secondary importance. Cervides, rodents and domestic animals are of no concern in the spread of rabies. Rabies control measures have to be aimed at the population reduction of but one species, the fox, since the frequency of rabies among this species is primarily dependent on the population density. Other wild carnivores especially badgers should be spared. Intensified shooting of foxes as a single control measure has proven ineffective. According to the results obtained in Central Europe, the gassing of fox dens, where applicable, has proven to be the best single measure regularly resulting in a decrease of rabies cases. In individual instances this has led to a complete extinction of rabies. The oral immunization of foxes is not yet regarded as acceptable; large-scale success with this method is not to be expected.

  17. Potential for Rabies Control through Dog Vaccination in Wildlife-Abundant Communities of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C.; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2012-01-01

    Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse settings worldwide. However, concerns remain that coverage levels which have previously been sufficient might be insufficient in systems where transmission occurs both between and within populations of domestic dogs and other carnivores. To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination targeted at domestic dogs when wildlife also contributes to transmission, we applied a next-generation matrix model based on contract tracing data from the Ngorongoro and Serengeti Districts in northwest Tanzania. We calculated corresponding values of R0, and determined, for policy purposes, the probabilities that various annual vaccination targets would control the disease, taking into account the empirical uncertainty in our field data. We found that transition rate estimates and corresponding probabilities of vaccination-based control indicate that rabies transmission in this region is driven by transmission within domestic dogs. Different patterns of rabies transmission between the two districts exist, with wildlife playing a more important part in Ngorongoro and leading to higher recommended coverage levels in that district. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that an annual dog vaccination campaign achieving the WHO-recommended target of 70% will control rabies in both districts with a high level of certainty. Our results support the feasibility of controlling rabies in Tanzania through dog vaccination. PMID:22928056

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus isolated from canids in North and Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Débora Nunes; Carnieli, Pedro; Macedo, Carla Isabel; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; de Carvalho Ruthner Batista, Helena Beatriz; Rodrigues, Adriana Candido; Pereira, Patricia Mariano Cruz; Achkar, Samira Maria; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Kawai, Juliana Galera Castilho

    2017-01-01

    Cases of canine rabies continue to occur in North and Northeast Brazil, and the number of notifications of rabies cases in wild canids has increased as a result of the expansion of urban areas at the expense of areas with native vegetation. In light of this, we performed molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from dogs and Cerdocyon thous from various states in North and Northeast Brazil. In all, 102 samples from dogs (n = 56) and Cerdocyon thous (n = 46) collected between 2006 and 2012 were used. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the N gene of rabies virus were analyzed, and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of two distinct genetic lineages, one associated with canids and one with bats, and, within the canid cluster, two distinct sublineages circulating among dogs and Cerdocyon thous. In addition, phylogenetic groups associated with geographic region and fourteen cases of interspecific infection were observed among the isolates from canids. Our findings show that analysis of rabies virus lineages isolated from reservoirs such as canids must be constantly evaluated because the mutation rate is high.

  19. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  20. Immunization Against Rabies

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam, R. S.; Penistan, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    The methods used for both pre-exposure and post-exposure immunization against rabies were studied. In pre-exposure immunization duck embryo vaccine should be used. In post-exposure immunization either duck embryo or Semple-type vaccine appears to be effective in stimulating antibody production. Both vaccines may cause neurological sequelae. A dose of vaccine should be given 20-50 days after completion of the primary course of vaccination. Immune serum should be used in all severe exposures especially of the head and neck, and in individuals in whom the commencement of vaccination has been unduly delayed. In individuals who have been previously vaccinated reinforcing doses have been found to be effective even as long as 20 years after the primary vaccination. A tissue culture vaccine has been developed and is about to undergo field trials. PMID:6066820

  1. Canine gastritis.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  2. Immunogenicity and efficacy of an in-house developed cell-culture derived veterinarian rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kallel, Héla; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Loukil, Houssem; Trabelsi, Khaled; Snoussi, Mohamed Ali; Majoul, Samy; Rourou, Samia; Dellagi, Koussay

    2006-05-29

    The efficiency of an inactivated tissue culture rabies vaccine produced on BHK-21 cells, according to an in-house developed process, was evaluated and compared to a commercial cell-tissue culture vaccine (Rabisin). Fifteen experimental dogs from local common breed were duly conditioned during a quarantine period, then vaccinated via the subcutaneous route with 1 ml of either the tissue culture vaccine developed in-house or the commercial vaccine Rabisin. The immune response of each dog was monitored for 162 days. Serum-neutralizing antibodies titers to rabies virus were determined by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) which confirmed the strong response of dogs to both vaccines except one dog in the Rabisin group. The dogs were then challenged in the masseter muscle with a rabies street virus of canine origin. All vaccinated dogs except the single dog in the Rabisin group that failed to respond to the vaccine, survived the challenge. In contrast, 80% of animals in the control non-vaccinated group, developed rabies and died. A field vaccine trial was also conducted: 1,000 local dogs living in field conditions received one subcutaneous dose of the locally developed vaccine. Serum neutralizing antibody titers to rabies virus was determined by RFFIT at days 0, 60 and 360. Mean rabies neutralizing antibody titers were equal to 0.786, 3.73 and 1.55 IU/ml, respectively. The percentage of dogs with a neutralizing rabies antibody titer higher than the 0.5 IU/ml mandated WHO threshold, was 30%, 91.4% and 87.5% at day 0, 2 months and 1 year post-vaccination, respectively. These data demonstrate the efficiency of the in-house developed vaccine produced on BHK-21 cells in both experimental and field conditions and support its use in dog mass vaccination campaigns.

  3. Immunogenicity of multi-epitope-based vaccine candidates administered with the adjuvant Gp96 against rabies.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yange; Liu, Ye; Yang, Limin; Qu, Hongren; Zhao, Jingyi; Hu, Rongliang; Li, Jing; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-04-01

    Rabies, a zoonotic disease, causes > 55,000 human deaths globally and results in at least 500 million dollars in losses every year. The currently available rabies vaccines are mainly inactivated and attenuated vaccines, which have been linked with clinical diseases in animals. Thus, a rabies vaccine with high safety and efficacy is urgently needed. Peptide vaccines are known for their low cost, simple production procedures and high safety. Therefore, in this study, we examined the efficacy of multi-epitope-based vaccine candidates against rabies virus. The ability of various peptides to induce epitope-specific responses was examined, and the two peptides that possessed the highest antigenicity and conservation, i.e., AR16 and hPAB, were coated with adjuvant canine-Gp96 and used to prepare vaccines. The peptides were prepared as an emulsion of oil in water (O/W) to create three batches of bivalent vaccine products. The vaccine candidates possessed high safety. Virus neutralizing antibodies were detected on the day 14 after the first immunization in mice and beagles, reaching 5-6 IU/mL in mice and 7-9 IU/mL in beagles by day 28. The protective efficacy of the vaccine candidates was about 70%-80% in mice challenged by a virulent strain of rabies virus. Thus, a novel multi-epitope-based rabies vaccine with Gp96 as an adjuvant was developed and validated in mice and dogs. Our results suggest that synthetic peptides hold promise for the development of novel vaccines against rabies.

  4. The potential of canine sentinels for reemerging Trypanosoma cruzi transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Chu, Lily Chou; Quispe-Machaca, Victor; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Mazuelos, Milagros Bastos; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, a vector-borne disease transmitted by triatomine bugs and caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people in the Americas. In Arequipa, Peru, indoor residual insecticide spraying campaigns are routinely conducted to eliminate Triatoma infestans, the only vector in this area. Following insecticide spraying, there is risk of vector return and reinitiation of parasite transmission. Dogs are important reservoirs of T. cruzi and may play a role in reinitiating transmission in previously sprayed areas. Dogs may also serve as indicators of reemerging transmission. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional serological screening to detect T. cruzi antibodies in dogs, in conjunction with an entomological vector collection survey at the household level, in a disease endemic area that had been treated with insecticide 13 years prior. Spatial clustering of infected animals and vectors was assessed using Ripley’s K statistic, and the odds of being seropositive for dogs proximate to infected colonies was estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 106 triatomine-infested houses (41.1%), and 45 houses infested with T. cruzi-infected triatomine insects (17.4%). Canine seroprevalence in the area was 12.3% (n=154); all seropositive dogs were 9 months old or older. We observed clustering of vectors carrying the parasite, but no clustering of seropositive dogs. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio between seropositivity to T. cruzi and proximity to an infected triatomine (≤50m) was 5.67 (95% CI: 1.12 – 28.74; p=0.036). Conclusions Targeted control of reemerging transmission can be achieved by improved understanding of T. cruzi in canine populations. Our results suggest that dogs may be useful sentinels to detect re-initiation of transmission following insecticide treatment. Integration of canine T. cruzi blood sampling into existing interventions for zoonotic disease control (e.g. rabies vaccination programs

  5. Dog ownership, abundance and potential for bat-borne rabies spillover in Chile.

    PubMed

    Astorga, F; Escobar, L E; Poo-Muñoz, D A; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral infectious disease that affects all mammals, including humans. Factors associated with the incidence of rabies include the presence and density of susceptible hosts and potential reservoirs. Currently, Chile is declared free of canine-related rabies, but there is an overpopulation of dogs within the country and an emergence of rabies in bats. Our objectives are to determine potential areas for bat-borne rabies spillover into dog populations expressed as a risk map, and to explore some key features of dog ownership, abundance, and management in Chile. For the risk map, our variables included a dog density surface (dog/km(2)) and a distribution model of bat-borne rabies presence. From literature review, we obtained dog data from 112 municipalities, which represent 33% of the total municipalities (339). At country level, based on previous studies the median human per dog ratio was 4.8, with 64% of houses containing at least one dog, and a median of 0.9 dog per house. We estimate a national median of 5.3 dog/km(2), and a median of 3680 dogs by municipality, from which we estimate a total population of 3.5×10(6) owned dogs. The antirabies vaccination presented a median of 21% of dogs by municipality, and 29% are unrestricted to some degree. Human per dog ratio have a significant (but weak) negative association with human density. Unrestricted dogs have a negative association with human density and income, and a positive association with the number of dogs per house. Considering dog density by municipality, and areas of potential bat-borne rabies occurrence, we found that 163 (∼48%) of Chilean municipalities are at risk of rabies spillover from bats to dogs. Risk areas are concentrated in urban settlements, including Santiago, Chile's capital. To validate the risk map, we included cases of rabies in dogs from the last 27 years; all fell within high-risk areas of our map, confirming the assertive risk prediction. Our results suggest that the use of

  6. Rabies vaccine. Developments employing molecular biology methods.

    PubMed

    Paolazzi, C C; Pérez, O; De Filippo, J

    1999-04-01

    Rabies vaccines produced by means of molecular biology are described. Recombinant vaccines employing either viruses as vectors (vaccinia, adenovirus, poxvirus, baculovirus, plant viruses) or a plasmid vector carrying the rabies virus glycoprotein gene are discussed. Synthetic peptide technology directed to rabies vaccine production is also presented.

  7. [Presence of urban rabies in Zulia State, Venezuela. Years 1996-2006].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Belkis; Panunzio, Amelia; Larreal, Yraima; Leal, Jenith; Villarroel, Francis; Parra, Irene; Velasco, Doris; Prieto, Yelitza

    2008-12-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease and in Zulia State, it constitutes a public health problem of a high social impact, due to the report of cases in human beings. In this study, the presence of urban rabies was determined in Zulia's State and its distribution was identified according to municipalities and affected species during 1996-2006. In the scope of a descriptive study, a documented revision of Zulia's State Zoonosis Regional Coordination registries for the period in study was carried out. A total occurrence of 1.033 rabies cases was observed, 1.017 were in animals and 16 in human beings. The biggest incidences were for Maracaibo (31.40%) and San Francisco (15.68%) municipalities. The type of predominant rabies was the urban one; the principal reservoir and transmitter was the canine one (91.60%). Of the reported cases in human beings, the biggest incidence was in in Maracaibo Municipality (37.5%) and the most affected age group was <15 years (81.2%). A low percentage in the coverage of vaccination was presented (33%). A high incidence of rabies is demonstrated in Zulia's State in spite of this being a preventable immune disease. A positive correlation was determined between the number of admissions and cases (rs=0.948 P<0.01). It is necessary to implement an effective control of the sources of infection and to support a minimal coverage of vaccination of 80% in canines and furthermore, to implement community education programs, to diminish the risk of infection and the occurrence of cases.

  8. Eliminating Bias

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how to eliminate bias from monitoring systems by instituting appropriate installation, operation, and quality assurance procedures. Provides links to download An Operator's Guide to Eliminating Bias in CEM Systems.

  9. Human Rabies - Puerto Rico, 2015.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, Ashley; Tran, Cuc; Dirlikov, Emilio; Zapata, María Ramos; Ryff, Kyle; Petersen, Brett; Sanchez, Anibal Cruz; Mayshack, Marrielle; Martinez, Laura Castro; Condori, Rene; Ellison, James; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Peña, Rafael González; Sanabria, Dario; Velázquez, Julio Cádiz; Thomas, Dana; García, Brenda Rivera

    2017-01-06

    On December 1, 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) was notified by a local hospital of a suspected human rabies case. The previous evening, a Puerto Rican man aged 54 years arrived at the emergency department with fever, difficulty swallowing, hand paresthesia, cough, and chest tightness. The next morning the patient left against medical advice but returned to the emergency department in the afternoon with worsening symptoms. The patient's wife reported that he had been bitten by a mongoose during the first week of October, but had not sought care for the bite. While being transferred to the intensive care unit, the patient went into cardiac arrest and died. On December 3, rabies was confirmed from specimens collected during autopsy. PRDH conducted an initial rapid risk assessment, and five family members were started on rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP).

  10. Rabies: the clinical features, management and prevention of the classic zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Warrell, Mary J; Warrell, David A

    2015-02-01

    The diagnosis of rabies encephalitis relies on awareness of the varied clinical features and eliciting a history of unusual contact with a mammal throughout the endemic area. The diagnosis is easily missed. Laboratory tests are not routine and only confirm clinical suspicion. Rabies infection carries a case fatality exceeding 99.9%. Palliation is appropriate, except for previously-vaccinated patients or those infected by American bats, for whom intensive care is probably indicated. However, as rabies vaccines are outstandingly effective, no one should die of dog-transmitted infection. Vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin are expensive and usually scarce in Asia and Africa. All travellers to dog rabies enzootic areas should be strongly encouraged to have pre-exposure immunisation before departure. There is no contraindication to vaccination but the cost can be prohibitive. Intradermal immunisation, using 0.1 ml and sharing vials of vaccine, is cheaper and is now permitted by UK regulations. Returning travellers may need post-exposure prophylaxis. Economical intradermal post-exposure vaccination is practicable and should be introduced into rural areas of Africa and Asia immediately. Eliminating rabies in dogs is now feasible and would dramatically reduce human mortality, if funds were made available. The high current economic burden of human prophylaxis would then be largely relieved.

  11. Operational performance and analysis of two rabies vaccination campaigns in N'Djamena, Chad.

    PubMed

    Léchenne, Monique; Oussiguere, Assandi; Naissengar, Kemdongarti; Mindekem, Rolande; Mosimann, Laura; Rives, Germain; Hattendorf, Jan; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2016-01-20

    Transmission of rabies from animals to people continues despite availability of good vaccines for both human and animal use. The only effective strategy to achieve elimination of dog rabies and the related human exposure is to immunize dogs at high coverage levels. We present the analysis of two consecutive parenteral dog mass vaccination campaigns conducted in N'Djamena in 2012 and 2013 to advocate the feasibility and effectiveness for rabies control through proof of concept. The overall coverage reached by the intervention was >70% in both years. Monthly reported rabies cases in dogs decreased by more than 90% within one year. Key points were a cooperative collaboration between the three partner institutions involved in the control program, sufficient information and communication strategy to access local leaders and the public, careful planning of the practical implementation phase and the effective motivation of staff. The dynamic and semi to non-restricted nature of dog populations in most rabies endemic areas is often considered to be a major obstacle to achieve sufficient vaccination coverage. However, we show that feasibility of dog mass vaccination is highly dependent on human determinants of dog population accessibility and the disease awareness of dog owners. Consequently, prior evaluation of the human cultural and socio-economic context is an important prerequisite for planning dog rabies vaccination campaigns.

  12. Benefit cost scenarios of potential oral rabies vaccination for skunks in California.

    PubMed

    Shwiff, Stephanie A; Sterner, Ray T; Hale, Robert; Jay, Michele T; Sun, Ben; Slate, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Scenario-based analyses were computed for benefits and costs linked with hypothetical oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns to contain or eliminate skunk-variant rabies in skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in California, USA. Scenario 1 assumed baiting eight zones (43,388 km(2) total) that comprised 73% of known skunk rabies locations in the state. Scenario 2 also assumed baiting these eight zones, but further assumed that added benefits would result from preventing the spread of skunk-variant rabies into Los Angeles County, USA. Scenarios assumed a fixed bait cost ($1.24 each) but varied campaigns (one, two and three annual ORV applications), densities of baits (37.5/km(2), 75/km(2) and 150/km(2)), levels of prevention (50%, 75%, and 100%), and contingency expenditures if rabies recurred (20%, 40%, and 60% of campaign costs). Prorating potential annual benefits during a 12-yr time horizon yielded benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) between 0.16 and 2.91 and between 0.34 and 6.35 for Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Economic issues relevant to potentially managing skunk-variant rabies with ORV are discussed.

  13. The phylogeography and spatiotemporal spread of south-central skunk rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Natalia A; Lemey, Philippe; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Mayes, Bonny C; Ellison, James A; Orciari, Lillian A; Hightower, Dillon; Taylor, Steven T; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    The south-central skunk rabies virus (SCSK) is the most broadly distributed terrestrial viral lineage in North America. Skunk rabies has not been efficiently targeted by oral vaccination campaigns and represents a natural system of pathogen invasion, yielding insights to rabies emergence. In the present study we reconstructed spatiotemporal spread of SCSK in the whole territory of its circulation using a combination of Bayesian methods. The analysis based on 241 glycoprotein gene sequences demonstrated that SCSK is much more divergent phylogenetically than was appreciated previously. According to our analyses the SCSK originated in the territory of Texas ~170 years ago, and spread geographically during the following decades. The wavefront velocity in the northward direction was significantly greater than in the eastward and westward directions. Rivers (except the Mississippi River and Rio Grande River) did not constitute significant barriers for epizootic spread, in contrast to deserts and mountains. The mean dispersal rate of skunk rabies was lower than that of the raccoon and fox rabies. Viral lineages circulate in their areas with limited evidence of geographic spread during decades. However, spatiotemporal reconstruction shows that after a long period of stability the dispersal rate and wavefront velocity of SCSK are increasing. Our results indicate that there is a need to develop control measures for SCSK, and suggest how such measure can be implemented most efficiently. Our approach can be extrapolated to other rabies reservoirs and used as a tool for investigation of epizootic patterns and planning interventions towards disease elimination.

  14. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Sergio; Cherry, Bryan; Eidson, Millicent

    2007-01-01

    Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV) are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS) in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP) (90.9%), animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%), and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%). The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529). Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits. PMID:17407559

  15. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare.

    PubMed

    Millien, Max F; Pierre-Louis, Jocelyne B; Wallace, Ryan; Caldas, Eduardo; Rwangabgoba, Jean M; Poncelet, Jean L; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J

    2015-01-01

    The American region has pledged to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies by 2015. As part of these efforts, we describe the findings of a desk and field mission review of Haiti's rabies situation by the end of 2013. While government officials recognize the importance of dog-mediated rabies control, and the national rabies plan adequately contemplates the basic capacities to that effect, regular and sufficient implementation, for example, of dog vaccination, is hampered by limited funding. Compounding insufficient funding and human resources, official surveillance figures do not accurately reflect the risk to the population, as evidenced by the large number of rabid dogs detected by focalized and enhanced surveillance activities conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR) and the Health and Population Ministry (MSPP) with the technical assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although international support is common, either in the form of on-the-ground technical support or donations of immunobiologicals, it is not comprehensive. In addition, there is limited coordination with MARNDR/MSPP and with other actors at the strategic or operational level due to human resources limitations. Given these findings, the 2015 elimination goal in the region is compromised by the situation in Haiti where control of the disease is not yet in sight despite the best efforts of the resolute national officials. More importantly, dog-mediated rabies is still a threat to the Haitian population.

  16. Serological responses of adult dogs to revaccination against distemper, parvovirus and rabies.

    PubMed

    Ottiger, H-P; Neimeier-Förster, M; Stärk, K D C; Duchow, K; Bruckner, L

    2006-07-01

    Serum antibody titres to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and rabies were measured in dogs that had not been revaccinated annually and compared with the titres in a control group of regularly vaccinated animals; 83 per cent (171 of 207) of the dogs vaccinated against CDV one or more years earlier had serum neutralising antibody titres equal to or greater than 16; 64 per cent (136 of 213) of the dogs vaccinated against CPV one or more years earlier had haemagglutination inhibiting titres equal to or greater than 80; and 59 per cent (46 of 78) of the dogs vaccinated against rabies two or more years earlier had serum neutralising antibody titres equal to or greater than 0.5 iu/ml. Three weeks after a single booster vaccination the dogs' antibody titres against CDV had increased above the threshold level in 94 per cent of the dogs, against CPV in 68 per cent, and against rabies in 100 per cent.

  17. Human Rabies in China, 1960-2014: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Wang, Liping; Yin, Wenwu; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies in China remains a public health problem. In 2014, nearly one thousand rabies-related deaths were reported while rabies geographic distribution has expanded for the recent years. This report used surveillance data to describe the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China including determining high-risk areas and seasonality to support national rabies prevention and control activities. Methods We analyzed the incidence and distribution of human rabies cases in mainland China using notifiable surveillance data from 1960–2014, which includes a detailed analysis of the recent years from 2004 to 2014. Results From 1960 to 2014, 120,913 human rabies cases were reported in mainland China. The highest number was recorded in 1981(0.7/100,000; 7037 cases), and in 2007(0.3/100,000; 3300 cases). A clear seasonal pattern has been observed with a peak in August (11.0% of total cases), Human rabies cases were reported in all provinces with a yearly average of 2198 from 1960 to 2014 in China, while the east and south regions were more seriously affected compared with other regions. From2004 to 2014, although the number of cases decreased by 65.2% since 2004 from 2651 to 924 cases, reported areas has paradoxically expanded from 162 prefectures to 200 prefectures and from southern to the central and northern provinces of China. Farmers accounted most of the cases (65.0%); 50–59 age group accounted for the highest proportion (20.5%), and cases are predominantly males with a male-to-female ratio of 2.4:1 on average. Conclusions Despite the overall steady decline of cases since the peak in 2007, the occurrence of cases in new areas and the spread trend were obvious in China in recent years. Further investigations and efforts are warranted in the areas have high rabies incidence to control rabies by interrupting transmission from dogs to humans and in the dog population. Furthermore, elimination of rabies should be eventually the ultimate goal for

  18. Delayed progression of rabies transmitted by a vampire bat.

    PubMed

    Katz, Iana Suly Santos; Fuoco, Natalia Langenfeld; Chaves, Luciana Botelho; Rodrigues, Adriana Candido; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Asano, Karen Miyuki

    2016-09-01

    Here, we compared the growth kinetics, cell-to-cell spread, and virus internalization kinetics in N2a cells of RABV variants isolated from vampire bats (V-3), domestic dogs (V-2) and marmosets (V-M) as well as the clinical symptoms and mortality caused by these variants. The replication rate of V-3 was significantly higher than those of V-2 and V-M. However, the uptake and spread of these RABV variants into N2a cells were inversely proportional. Nevertheless, V-3 had longer incubation and evolution periods. Our results provide evidence that the clinical manifestations of infection with bat RABV variant occur at a later time when compared to what was observed with canine and marmoset rabies virus variants.

  19. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  20. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission.

  1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis against rabies in children: safety of purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (Vaxirab N) when administered by intradermal route.

    PubMed

    Ravish, Haradanahalli S; Srikanth, Jayanthi; Ashwath Narayana, Doddabele Hanumanthaiah; Annadani, Rachana; Vijayashankar, Veena; Undi, Malatesh

    2013-09-01

    Animal bites in humans are a public health problem. Children are the most frequently exposed, representing 50% of human exposures in canine rabies infected areas. Pre-exposure vaccination using cell culture vaccines is a safe and effective method of preventing rabies among children in these highly endemic regions. The development of immunological memory after pre exposure vaccination has established long lasting immunity against rabies in humans. The present study assessed the safety of Purified Chick Embryo cell Rabies Vaccine (Vaxirab N) administered as a three-dose intradermal pre-exposure regimen on days 0, 7, and 21 in healthy volunteered children of 5-10 y age group from an urban poor locality in Bangalore, India. One hundred fifty three apparently healthy children of both sexes between 5 and 10 y of age were enrolled in the study and 123 (80.4%) completed all three doses. A total of 405 doses of intradermal vaccine was administered, among which 25 adverse reactions were reported from 17 children. The adverse reactions were pain at the injection site 15 (3.7%), redness 2 (0.5%), itching at the site of injection 1 (0.2%), fatigue 1 (0.2%), fever 3 (0.7%), myalgia 2 (0.5%) and allergy 1 (0.2%). All reactions subsided without any complication. In conclusion, pre exposure vaccination against rabies is a useful tool for protecting children living in highly endemic regions and Vaxirab N has proved to be safe and well tolerated by intradermal route among children.

  2. Pathogenicity of different rabies virus isolates and protection test in vaccinated mice.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Elenice M S; Nassar, Alessandra F C; Lara, Maria do Carmo C S H; Villalobos, Eliana C M; Sato, Go; Kobayashi, Yuki; Shoji, Youko; Itou, Takuya; Sakai, Takeo; Ito, Fumio H

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the pathogenicity of rabies virus isolated from bats and dogs, and to verify the efficacy of a commercial rabies vaccine against these isolates. For evaluation of pathogenicity, mice were inoculated by the intramuscular route (IM) with 500MICLD₅₀/0.03 mL of the viruses. The cross-protection test was performed by vaccinating groups of mice by the subcutaneous route and challenged through the intracerebral (IC) route. Isolates were fully pathogenic when inoculated by the IC route. When inoculated intramuscularly, the pathogenicity observed showed different death rates: 60.0% for the Desmodus rotundus isolate; 50.0% for dog and Nyctinomops laticaudatus isolates; 40.0% for Artibeus lituratus isolate; 9.5% Molossus molossus isolate; and 5.2% for the Eptesicus furinalis isolate. Mice receiving two doses of the vaccine and challenged by the IC route with the isolates were fully protected. Mice receiving only one dose of vaccine were partially protected against the dog isolate. The isolates from bats were pathogenic by the IC route in mice. However, when inoculated through the intramuscular route, the same isolates were found with different degrees of pathogenicity. The results of this work suggest that a commercial vaccine protects mice from infection with bat rabies virus isolates, in addition to a canine rabies virus isolate.

  3. Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles

    2009-01-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600

  4. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  5. Travel-Associated Rabies in Pets and Residual Rabies Risk, Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Gautret, Philippe; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Le Pen, Claude; Bourhy, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, countries in western Europe were declared free of rabies in nonflying mammals. Surveillance data for 2001–2013 indicate that risk for residual rabies is not 0 because of pet importation from countries with enzootic rabies. However, the risk is so low (7.52 × 10−10) that it probably can be considered negligible. PMID:27314463

  6. Human rabies and rabies in vampire and nonvampire bat species, Southeastern Peru, 2007.

    PubMed

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles; Montgomery, Joel M

    2009-08-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru.

  7. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Rabies virus binding at neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Burrage, T G; Tignor, G H; Smith, A L

    1985-04-01

    Morphological, immunocytochemical, biochemical, and immunological techniques have been used to describe rabies virus binding to a sub-cellular unit and molecular complex at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Early after infection in vivo, virus antigen and virus particles were found by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy in regions of high density acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at NMJs. One monoclonal antibody (alpha-Mab) to the alpha subunit of the AChR blocked attachment of radio-labeled rabies virus to cultured muscle cells bearing high density patches of AChR. A sub-cellular structure, resembling an array of AChR monomers, bound both rabies virus antigens and alpha-Mab. By immunoblotting with electrophoretically transferred motor endplate proteins, rabies virus proteins and alpha-Mab bound to two proteins of 43 000 and 110 000 daltons. A rabies virus glycoprotein antibody detected virus antigen bound to the 110 000 dalton protein. An auto-immune (anti-idiotypic) response followed immunization of mice with rabies virus glycoprotein antigen; the antibody was directed to the 110 000 dalton protein. This auto-antibody altered the kinetics of neutralization by rabies virus antibody and induced the formation of rabies virus antibody after inoculation of mice. These results define, at the neuromuscular junction, a rabies virus receptor which may be part of the acetylcholine receptor complex.

  9. The quantum Rabi model: solution and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiongtao; Zhong, Honghua; Batchelor, Murray T.; Lee, Chaohong

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a review of recent developments on various aspects of the quantum Rabi model. Particular emphasis is given on the exact analytic solution obtained in terms of confluent Heun functions. The analytic solutions for various generalisations of the quantum Rabi model are also discussed. Results are also reviewed on the level statistics and the dynamics of the quantum Rabi model. The article concludes with an introductory overview of several experimental realisations of the quantum Rabi model. An outlook towards future developments is also given.

  10. Rabies: Rare Human Infection - Common Questions.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Rodney E

    2015-12-01

    Rabies is an acute, rapidly progressive encephalitis that is almost always fatal. Prophylaxis is highly effective but economics limits disease control. The mechanism of death from rabies is unclear. It is poorly cytopathic and poorly inflammatory. Rabies behaves like an acquired metabolic disorder. There may be a continuum of disease severity. History of animal bite is rare. The diagnosis is often missed. Intermittent encephalopathy, dysphagia, hydrophobia and aerophobia, and focal paresthesias or myoclonic jerks suggest rabies. Laboratory diagnosis is cumbersome but sensitive. Treatment is controversial but survivors are increasingly reported, with good outcomes in 4 of 8 survivors.

  11. Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing the G Protein of Rabies Virus Protects Mice after Rabies Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Zhenhai; Huang, Junhua

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major public health threat around the world. Once symptoms appear, there is no effective treatment to prevent death. In this work, we tested a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) strain expressing the glycoprotein (G) of rabies (PIV5-G) as a therapy for rabies virus infection: we have found that PIV5-G protected mice as late as 6 days after rabies virus infection. PIV5-G is a promising vaccine for prevention and treatment of rabies virus infection. PMID:25552723

  12. Isidor I. Rabi and CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krige, John

    2005-06-01

    Isidor I. Rabi (1898 1988) is the acknowledged “father of CERN,” today one of the most important particle-physics laboratories in the world. I explore his motives for promoting the idea in 1950 that Western Europe should build a “Brookhaven” with national governments replacing universities. I unravel the many ways in which a major accelerator facility in Geneva, Switzerland, could both stimulate European science and serve the interests of the American scientific community. Rabi was careful to avoid giving any official support to steps then under way in Europe to build a research reactor, even though Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York, had one from the outset. I suggest that his main motive for doing so was that he wanted West Germany to be part of the collaborative venture. Rabi was well aware of the foreign-policy objectives of the U.S. State Department in the European theater in 1950, and he wanted to situate politically the new research center in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the postwar reconstruction of the continent, “remaking the Old World in the image of the New.”

  13. Twenty year experience of the oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in wildlife: a global review.

    PubMed

    Mähl, Philippe; Cliquet, Florence; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel; Fournials, Emma; Saint-Jean, Nathalie; Aubert, Michel; Rupprecht, Charles E; Gueguen, Sylvie

    2014-08-10

    The SAG2 vaccine (RABIGEN® SAG2) is a modified live attenuated rabies virus vaccine, selected from the SAD Bern strain in a two-step process of amino acid mutation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The strain is genetically stable and does not spread in vivo or induce a persistent infection. Its absence of residual pathogenicity was extensively demonstrated in multiple target and non target species (such as wild carnivores and rodent species), including non-human primates. The efficacy of SAG2 baits was demonstrated according to the EU requirements for the red fox and raccoon dog. The use of safe and potent rabies vaccines such as SAG2 largely contributed to the elimination of rabies in Estonia, France, Italy and Switzerland. Importantly, these countries were declared free of rabies after few years of oral vaccination campaigns with SAG2 baits distributed with an appropriate strategy. The excellent tolerance of the SAG2 vaccine has been confirmed in the field since its first use in 1993. No safety issues have been reported, and in particular no vaccine-induced rabies cases were diagnosed, after the distribution of more than 20 million SAG2 baits in Europe.

  14. Resolving the roles of immunity, pathogenesis, and immigration for rabies persistence in vampire bats

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, Julie C.; Streicker, Daniel G.; Altizer, Sonia; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-01-01

    Bats are important reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases, yet the mechanisms that allow highly virulent pathogens to persist within bat populations remain obscure. In Latin America, vampire-bat–transmitted rabies virus represents a key example of how such uncertainty can impede efforts to prevent cross-species transmission. Despite decades of agricultural and human health losses, control efforts have had limited success. To establish persistence mechanisms of vampire-bat–transmitted rabies virus in Latin America, we use data from a spatially replicated, longitudinal field study of vampire bats in Peru to parameterize a series of mechanistic transmission models. We find that single-colony persistence cannot occur. Instead, dispersal of bats between colonies, combined with a high frequency of immunizing nonlethal infections, is necessary to maintain rabies virus at levels consistent with field observations. Simulations show that the strong spatial component to transmission dynamics could explain the failure of bat culls to eliminate rabies and suggests that geographic coordination of control efforts might reduce transmission to humans and domestic animals. These findings offer spatial dynamics as a mechanism for rabies persistence in bats that might be important for the understanding and control of other bat-borne pathogens. PMID:24297874

  15. Resolving the roles of immunity, pathogenesis, and immigration for rabies persistence in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Julie C; Streicker, Daniel G; Altizer, Sonia; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-12-17

    Bats are important reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases, yet the mechanisms that allow highly virulent pathogens to persist within bat populations remain obscure. In Latin America, vampire-bat-transmitted rabies virus represents a key example of how such uncertainty can impede efforts to prevent cross-species transmission. Despite decades of agricultural and human health losses, control efforts have had limited success. To establish persistence mechanisms of vampire-bat-transmitted rabies virus in Latin America, we use data from a spatially replicated, longitudinal field study of vampire bats in Peru to parameterize a series of mechanistic transmission models. We find that single-colony persistence cannot occur. Instead, dispersal of bats between colonies, combined with a high frequency of immunizing nonlethal infections, is necessary to maintain rabies virus at levels consistent with field observations. Simulations show that the strong spatial component to transmission dynamics could explain the failure of bat culls to eliminate rabies and suggests that geographic coordination of control efforts might reduce transmission to humans and domestic animals. These findings offer spatial dynamics as a mechanism for rabies persistence in bats that might be important for the understanding and control of other bat-borne pathogens.

  16. Oncolytic virotherapy in veterinary medicine: current status and future prospects for canine patients.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep S; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Nolte, Ingo; Ogilvie, Gregory; Szalay, Aladar A

    2012-01-04

    Oncolytic viruses refer to those that are able to eliminate malignancies by direct targeting and lysis of cancer cells, leaving non-cancerous tissues unharmed. Several oncolytic viruses including adenovirus strains, canine distemper virus and vaccinia virus strains have been used for canine cancer therapy in preclinical studies. However, in contrast to human studies, clinical trials with oncolytic viruses for canine cancer patients have not been reported. An 'ideal' virus has yet to be identified. This review is focused on the prospective use of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of canine tumors - a knowledge that will undoubtedly contribute to the development of oncolytic viral agents for canine cancer therapy in the future.

  17. Strategic model of national rabies control in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Yeotaek; Kim, Bongjun; Lee, Ki Joong; Park, Donghwa; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyeoncheol; Park, Eunyeon; Lee, Hyeongchan; Bae, Chaewun; Oh, Changin; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is an important zoonosis in the public and veterinary healthy arenas. This article provides information on the situation of current rabies outbreak, analyzes the current national rabies control system, reviews the weaknesses of the national rabies control strategy, and identifies an appropriate solution to manage the current situation. Current rabies outbreak was shown to be present from rural areas to urban regions. Moreover, the situation worldwide demonstrates that each nation struggles to prevent or control rabies. Proper application and execution of the rabies control program require the overcoming of existing weaknesses. Bait vaccines and other complex programs are suggested to prevent rabies transmission or infection. Acceleration of the rabies control strategy also requires supplementation of current policy and of public information. In addition, these prevention strategies should be executed over a mid- to long-term period to control rabies. PMID:24427765

  18. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Robert V

    2002-05-01

    Human rabies is rare in the United States; however, an estimated 40,000 patients receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis each year. Misconceptions about the transmission of rabies are plentiful, particularly regarding bats. Most cases of human rabies caused by bat variants have no definitive history of animal bite. Three hypotheses are proposed and reviewed for the transmission of rabies from bats to human beings. They include nonbite transmission (including aerosol transmission), the alternate host hypothesis (an intermediate animal host that acquires rabies from a bat and then transmits rabies to human beings), and minimized or unrecognized bat bites. Nonbite transmission of rabies is very rare, and aerosol transmission has never been well documented in the natural environment. The known pathogenesis of rabies and available data suggest that all or nearly all cases of human rabies attributable to bats were transmitted by bat bites that were minimized or unrecognized by the patients.

  19. Elucidating the phylodynamics of endemic rabies virus in eastern Africa using whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Kirstyn; Marston, Denise A; Horton, Daniel L; Cleaveland, Sarah; Fooks, Anthony R; Kazwala, Rudovick; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Mtema, Zacharia J; Sikana, Lwitiko; Wilkie, Gavin; Biek, Roman; Hampson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Many of the pathogens perceived to pose the greatest risk to humans are viral zoonoses, responsible for a range of emerging and endemic infectious diseases. Phylogeography is a useful tool to understand the processes that give rise to spatial patterns and drive dynamics in virus populations. Increasingly, whole-genome information is being used to uncover these patterns, but the limits of phylogenetic resolution that can be achieved with this are unclear. Here, whole-genome variation was used to uncover fine-scale population structure in endemic canine rabies virus circulating in Tanzania. This is the first whole-genome population study of rabies virus and the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus in East Africa, providing important insights into rabies transmission in an endemic system. In addition, sub-continental scale patterns of population structure were identified using partial gene data and used to determine population structure at larger spatial scales in Africa. While rabies virus has a defined spatial structure at large scales, increasingly frequent levels of admixture were observed at regional and local levels. Discrete phylogeographic analysis revealed long-distance dispersal within Tanzania, which could be attributed to human-mediated movement, and we found evidence of multiple persistent, co-circulating lineages at a very local scale in a single district, despite on-going mass dog vaccination campaigns. This may reflect the wider endemic circulation of these lineages over several decades alongside increased admixture due to human-mediated introductions. These data indicate that successful rabies control in Tanzania could be established at a national level, since most dispersal appears to be restricted within the confines of country borders but some coordination with neighbouring countries may be required to limit transboundary movements. Evidence of complex patterns of rabies circulation within Tanzania necessitates the use of whole

  20. Emergency oral rabies vaccination of foxes in Italy in 2009-2010: identification of residual rabies foci at higher altitudes in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, P; Müller, T; Bonfanti, L; Marangon, S

    2012-04-01

    Following a resurgence of fox rabies in northeastern Italy in 2008-2009, two emergency oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns were performed in the Alpine mountain ranges in 2009 and 2010 using aerial distribution to prevent the disease from spreading further inland. Vaccine baits were distributed only below the freezing point altitude, 1000 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in December 2009-January 2010 and 1500 m a.s.l. in April-May 2010, to avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Spatial analysis unexpectedly identified fox rabies hotspots above the threshold altitudes, probably representing local residual rabies foci which may have contributed to maintaining the infectious cycle in areas not vaccinated at higher altitudes. Based on the results obtained, in May 2010, the second ORV campaign was extended to include threshold altitudes of up to 2300 m a.s.l. to eliminate residual foci. The observations made may help in the formulation of ORV strategies in countries sharing similar topographical features.

  1. Canine thymoma.

    PubMed

    Aronsohn, M

    1985-07-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog.

  2. Should travellers in rabies endemic areas receive pre-exposure rabies immunization?

    PubMed

    Phanuphak, P; Ubolyam, S; Sirivichayakul, S

    1994-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in 1,882 foreign travellers, 74% of which were Europeans, after being in Thailand for an average of 17 days, about the history of potential rabies exposure during their visits. Dog bite and dog lick were experienced in 1.3% and 8.9% of the travellers respectively. The exposed individuals tended to stay in Thailand longer and the incidents occurred mainly in cities rather than in the rural areas. Thirty-one (1.6%) of all travellers had a history of rabies vaccination, 9 as a result of dog bite or dog lick in Thailand whereas the remaining 22 had already received the vaccine prior to coming to Thailand. Such high prevalences of potential rabies exposure and rabies vaccination may justify the inclusion of rabies vaccine into the multiple vaccination program for travellers to rabies endemic countries. This was favoured by over half of the travellers interviewed.

  3. Determinants of Vaccination Coverage and Consequences for Rabies Control in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Arief, Riana A; Hampson, Katie; Jatikusumah, Andri; Widyastuti, Maria D W; Sunandar; Basri, Chaerul; Putra, Anak A G; Willyanto, Iwan; Estoepangestie, Agnes T S; Mardiana, I W; Kesuma, I K G N; Sumantra, I P; Doherty, Paul F; Salman, M D; Gilbert, Jeff; Unger, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining high vaccination coverage is key to successful rabies control, but mass dog vaccination can be challenging and population turnover erodes coverage. Declines in rabies incidence following successive island-wide vaccination campaigns in Bali suggest that prospects for controlling and ultimately eliminating rabies are good. Rabies, however, has continued to circulate at low levels. In the push to eliminate rabies from Bali, high coverage needs to be maintained across all areas of the island. We carried out door-to-door (DTD) questionnaire surveys (n = 10,352 dog-owning households) and photographic mark-recapture surveys (536 line transects, 2,597 observations of free-roaming dogs) in 2011-2012 to estimate dog population sizes and assess rabies vaccination coverage and dog demographic characteristics in Bali, Indonesia. The median number of dogs per subvillage unit (banjar) was 43 (range 0-307) for owned dogs estimated from the DTD survey and 17 (range 0-83) for unconfined dogs (including both owned and unowned) from transects. Vaccination coverage of owned dogs was significantly higher in adults (91.4%) compared to juveniles (<1 year, 43.9%), likely due to insufficient targeting of pups and from puppies born subsequent to vaccination campaigns. Juveniles had a 10-70 times greater risk of not being vaccinated in urban, suburban, and rural areas [combined odds ratios (ORs): 9.9-71.1, 95% CI: 8.6-96.0]. Free-roaming owned dogs were also 2-3 times more likely to be not vaccinated compared to those confined (combined Ors: 1.9-3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4), with more dogs being confined in urban (71.2%) than in suburban (16.1%) and rural areas (8.0%). Vaccination coverage estimates from transects were also much lower (30.9%) than household surveys (83.6%), possibly due to loss of collars used to identify the vaccination status of free-roaming dogs, but these unconfined dogs may also include dogs that were unowned or more difficult to vaccinate. Overall, coverage

  4. Determinants of Vaccination Coverage and Consequences for Rabies Control in Bali, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Arief, Riana A.; Hampson, Katie; Jatikusumah, Andri; Widyastuti, Maria D. W.; Sunandar; Basri, Chaerul; Putra, Anak A. G.; Willyanto, Iwan; Estoepangestie, Agnes T. S.; Mardiana, I. W.; Kesuma, I. K. G. N.; Sumantra, I. P.; Doherty, Paul F.; Salman, M. D.; Gilbert, Jeff; Unger, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining high vaccination coverage is key to successful rabies control, but mass dog vaccination can be challenging and population turnover erodes coverage. Declines in rabies incidence following successive island-wide vaccination campaigns in Bali suggest that prospects for controlling and ultimately eliminating rabies are good. Rabies, however, has continued to circulate at low levels. In the push to eliminate rabies from Bali, high coverage needs to be maintained across all areas of the island. We carried out door-to-door (DTD) questionnaire surveys (n = 10,352 dog-owning households) and photographic mark–recapture surveys (536 line transects, 2,597 observations of free-roaming dogs) in 2011–2012 to estimate dog population sizes and assess rabies vaccination coverage and dog demographic characteristics in Bali, Indonesia. The median number of dogs per subvillage unit (banjar) was 43 (range 0–307) for owned dogs estimated from the DTD survey and 17 (range 0–83) for unconfined dogs (including both owned and unowned) from transects. Vaccination coverage of owned dogs was significantly higher in adults (91.4%) compared to juveniles (<1 year, 43.9%), likely due to insufficient targeting of pups and from puppies born subsequent to vaccination campaigns. Juveniles had a 10–70 times greater risk of not being vaccinated in urban, suburban, and rural areas [combined odds ratios (ORs): 9.9–71.1, 95% CI: 8.6–96.0]. Free-roaming owned dogs were also 2–3 times more likely to be not vaccinated compared to those confined (combined Ors: 1.9–3.6, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4), with more dogs being confined in urban (71.2%) than in suburban (16.1%) and rural areas (8.0%). Vaccination coverage estimates from transects were also much lower (30.9%) than household surveys (83.6%), possibly due to loss of collars used to identify the vaccination status of free-roaming dogs, but these unconfined dogs may also include dogs that were unowned or more difficult to vaccinate

  5. Comparison of immune responses to attenuated rabies virus and street virus in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fa-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Wang, Shu-Chao; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal neurological disease caused by the neurotropic rabies virus (RABV). To investigate the innate immune response in the brain during rabies infection, key gene transcripts indicative of innate immunity in a mouse model system were measured using real-time RT-PCR. Mice were infected via the intracerebral or intramuscular route with either attenuated rabies virus (SRV9) or pathogenic rabies virus (BD06). Infection with SRV9 resulted in the early detection of viral replication and the rapid induction of innate immune response gene expression in the brain. BD06 infection elicited innate immune response gene expression during only the late stage of infection. We measured Na-fluorescein uptake to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which was enhanced during the early stage of SRV9 infection and significantly enhanced during the late stage of BD06 infection. Furthermore, early SRV9 replication increased the maturation and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells in the inguinal lymph nodes and initiated the generation of virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs), which cooperate with the innate immune response to eliminate virus from the CNS. However, BD06 infection did not stimulate VNA production; thus, the virus was able to evade the host immune response and cause encephalitis. The rabies virus phosphoprotein has been reported to counteract IFN activation. In an in vitro study of the relationship between IFN antagonism and RABV pathogenicity, we demonstrated that SRV9 more strongly antagonized IFN activity than did BD06. Therefore, there is no positive relationship between the IFN antagonist activity of the virus and its pathogenicity.

  6. Exploring reservoir dynamics: a case study of rabies in the Serengeti ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Hampson, Katie; Haydon, Daniel T.; Craft, Meggan; Dobson, Andy; Dushoff, Jonathan; Ernest, Eblate; Hoare, Richard; Kaare, Magai; Mlengeya, Titus; Mentzel, Christine; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Knowledge of infection reservoir dynamics is critical for effective disease control, but identifying reservoirs of multi-host pathogens is challenging. Here, we synthesize several lines of evidence to investigate rabies reservoirs in complex carnivore communities of the Serengeti ecological region in northwest Tanzania, where the disease has been confirmed in 12 carnivore species.Long-term monitoring data suggest that rabies persists in high-density domestic dog Canis familiaris populations (> 11 dogs km−2) and occurs less frequently in lower-density (< 5 dogs km−2) populations and only sporadically in wild carnivores.Genetic data show that a single rabies virus variant belonging to the group of southern Africa canid-associated viruses (Africa 1b) circulates among a range of species, with no evidence of species-specific virus–host associations.Within-species transmission was more frequently inferred from high-resolution epidemiological data than between-species transmission. Incidence patterns indicate that spill-over of rabies from domestic dog populations sometimes initiates short-lived chains of transmission in other carnivores.Synthesis and applications. The balance of evidence suggests that the reservoir of rabies in the Serengeti ecosystem is a complex multi-host community where domestic dogs are the only population essential for persistence, although other carnivores contribute to the reservoir as non-maintenance populations. Control programmes that target domestic dog populations should therefore have the greatest impact on reducing the risk of infection in all other species including humans, livestock and endangered wildlife populations, but transmission in other species may increase the level of vaccination coverage in domestic dog populations necessary to eliminate rabies. PMID:22427710

  7. Pathogen dynamics and morbidity of striped skunks in the absence of rabies.

    PubMed

    Gehrt, Stanley D; Kinsel, Michael J; Anchor, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Parasites have the potential to influence the population dynamics of mammalian hosts, either as a single devastating pathogen or as a community effect. Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are typically host to rabies, which often regulates population numbers. We assessed micro- and macroparasite dynamics in striped skunk populations in the absence of rabies, to determine if a single pathogen, or community, was responsible for a majority of skunk deaths. We monitored mortality due to pathogens, and prevalence of pathogens via serology and necropsy, in two populations of striped skunks in northern Illinois during 1998-2004. Transmissible pathogens requiring direct transmission (i.e., canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus) exhibited high annual variability in prevalence. In contrast, those pathogens employing a more indirect, environmental route of transmission (i.e., Leptospira interrogans and Toxoplasma gondii) appeared to exhibit relatively less annual variability in prevalence. Skunks were diagnosed with infections from an average of 4.08 (SD=2.52, n=32) species of endoparasites, with a range of 1-11. Macroparasite prevalence and intensity did not vary among seasons, or sex or age of host. Severe infections occurred with multiple parasite species, and patterns of aggregation suggested some parasite species, or more likely the parasite community, act as a limiting mechanism in skunk populations.

  8. A descriptive study of urban rabies during the civil war in Sierra Leone: 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Hatch, C; Sneddon, J; Jalloh, G

    2004-05-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effects of the breakdown in internal infrastructure on the incidence of canine-transmitted human rabies in urban areas of Sierra Leone during the course of the civil war between 1995 and 2001. Data from provincial hospitals in the Western Area and Southern Province indicated that there was a significant increase in the incidence of canine-transmitted urban human rabies chi2 = 39.63, p < 0.0001, particularly among children chi2 = 23.73, p < 0.0001, over the course of the war. In the Western Area in 2001, towards the end of the war, there was a significant increase in adult cases, which was reflected in the observed versus the expected chi2 ratio (70 versus 53). Interview-based questionnaire surveys in Freetown administered between 2001 and 2002 indicated that dogs were commonly kept for security reasons, and were largely unrestrained and unlicensed, regardless of the socioeconomic status of the owner. Virtually all dogs were unvaccinated and were mainly living in close proximity with humans. This study indicated that there is an urgent requirement for appropriate mass rabies vaccination campaigns for pet dogs and for campaigns to manipulate the urban habitat to control free-roaming and wandering but owned dog populations in Freetown and other urban areas in the provinces of Sierra Leone. Interview-based questionnaires administered in three districts of Freetown indicated a relatively high degree of uniformity in dog husbandry and veterinary care habits across a wide range of socioeconomic status categories in dog owners.

  9. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  10. Rabies in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  11. Rabies: Diagnosis in Animals and Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  12. Rabies: What Care Will I Receive?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  13. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  14. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region.

  15. The safety and efficacy of the oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in Indian stray dogs.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, F; Gurbuxani, J P; Pradhan, H K; Pattnaik, B; Patil, S S; Regnault, A; Begouen, H; Guiot, A L; Sood, R; Mahl, P; Singh, R; Meslin, F X; Picard, E; Aubert, M F A; Barrat, J

    2007-04-30

    India is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of human rabies throughout the world. Dogs are primarily responsible for rabies transmission. Among them, stray dogs play a major role in that country. Parenteral vaccination programmes are insufficient to eliminate rabies partly due to difficulties in establishing satisfactory immunisation coverage in the dog population in view of the high proportion of stray dogs. Oral vaccination may be a useful adjunct to parenteral vaccination by increasing dog vaccination coverage. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of Rabidog SAG2 bait were evaluated in Indian stray dogs in captivity. Safety of SAG2 was demonstrated by the absence of adverse clinical sign, salivary excretion and absence of replication of the vaccine strain in brain and salivary glands of 21 vaccinated dogs, even when immunodepressed. Efficacy was shown 109 days post-vaccination after challenge with a highly virulent street rabies virus which killed all five controls whereas all nine vaccinated dogs survived, despite the fact that only five out of nine had seroconverted before challenge.

  16. Experimentally induced rabies in four cats inoculated with a rabies virus isolated from a bat.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, C V; Rudd, R J; Abelseth, M K

    1986-04-01

    Four cats were inoculated IM with rabies virus isolated from the salivary gland of a naturally infected big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). The 4 cats developed clinical signs of rabies after a median incubation period of 42 days. The median duration of clinical illness was 5 days. Results of fluorescent antibody evaluation, mouse inoculation, and tissue culture isolation indicated large differences in virus concentrations in various areas of the CNS of individual cats. These differences also were observed between cats. Rabies virus was isolated from the salivary glands and saliva of 2 cats; urinary bladder was the only other nonneural tissue found infected. Our observations indicated that cat rabies can be caused by bat rabies virus; that cats thus infected have infectious saliva during aggressive behavior and can therefore transmit the disease; and that adequate specimens of hippocampus, cerebellum, and brain stem are essential for reliable determination of rabies infection. The findings support recommendations for regular rabies vaccination of cats, even in areas of rabies-free terrestrial mammals.

  17. Skunk rabies in California (1992-2003)--implications for oral rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Sterner, Ray T; Sun, Ben; Bourassa, Jean B; Hale, Robert L; Shwiff, Stephanie A; Jay, Michele T; Slate, Dennis

    2008-10-01

    Skunk-variant rabies is endemic in California (United States), and the development of oral vaccines and baits to vaccinate skunks is in progress. In 2003, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) began to quantify the impacts of skunk-variant rabies and to assess the feasibility of using oral rabies vaccination (ORV) as a containment measure. The CDPH rabies case data for skunks were spatially depicted and analyzed using a geographic information system. Statewide, rabid skunks (1992-2003) primarily occurred in seven physiographic regions: Central Coast, North Coast, North Sierra, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay and Delta, San Joaquin Valley, and South Sierra. Detailed analysis of rabid skunks in San Luis Obispo (SLO) and Santa Barbara (SB) counties showed that skunk rabies was endemic in the coastal plain of SLO County between 1992 and 2000, but only became epizootic in SB County during 2002. Despite the widespread distribution of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) throughout most of California, the skunk rabies variant has not been found in Los Angeles County since 1979. Results imply that future ORV campaigns for skunk-variant rabies in the Pacific Coastal Plain could deter spread from SLO into SB County, as well as deterring the reintroduction of skunk-variant rabies into southern California.

  18. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  19. Cloning of the canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA, mutation identification in canine MPS VII, and retroviral vector-mediated correction of MPS VII cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, J; Bouvet, A; DeSanto, C; Fyfe, J C; Xu, D; Wolfe, J H; Aguirre, G D; Patterson, D F; Haskins, M E; Henthorn, P S

    1998-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is an inherited disease resulting from deficient activity of the lysosomal acid hydrolase beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) and has been reported in humans, mice, cats, and dogs. To characterize canine MPS VII, we have isolated and sequenced the canine GUSB cDNA from normal and affected animals. A single nucleotide substitution was detected in the GUSB cDNA derived from MPS VII dogs. This guanosine to adenine base change at nucleotide position 559 in the canine cDNA sequence causes an arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid position 166. Introduction of the G to A substitution at position 559 in a mammalian expression vector containing the normal canine GUSB cDNA nearly eliminated the GUSB enzymatic activity, demonstrating that this mutation is the cause of canine MPS VII. A retroviral vector expressing the full-length canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA corrected the deficiency in MPS VII cells.

  20. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-11-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

  1. Assessment of Risk of Possible Exposure to Rabies among Processors and Consumers of Dog Meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Odeh, Leslie E.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan), by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale points. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, rabies knowledge, attitude and actions the respondents would take if exposure occurs. Associations between demographic variables and categorized knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using χ2 analysis. The relationship between non-categorized scores was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Also, 154 brain samples from slaughtered dogs (74 from Zaria and 80 from Kafanchan) were checked for rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Of the 160 respondents, 49 (30.6%) were involved in the slaughtering and sale of dog meat while 111(69.4%) were involved in handling and consumption of processed dog meat. Only 123(76.9%) knew that dogs are common source of rabies in Nigeria and 105(65.6%) knew that rabies affect humans. Also 110(68.8%) did not have adequate knowledge of the clinical signs of rabies. The level of knowledge, having positive attitudes and knowing acceptable practices were directly proportional to the level of education. Respondents from Kafanchan had higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes towards rabies than those from Zaria. There were significant correlations between knowledge and attitude scores (r=0.49) and between knowledge and practice scores (r=0.43) at p<0.001. Rabies antigen was detected in the brain of 6 (3.9%) of the slaughtered dogs. The findings indicate that processors and consumers of dog meat are deficient in

  2. Genetic strain modification of a live rabies virus vaccine widely used in Europe for wildlife oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, the main reservoir and vector of rabies has been the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Oral immunization of foxes with live vaccines, using attenuated rabies strains (SAD B19, SAD Bern), apathogenic mutants of an attenuated strain (SAG2) and the vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine (V-RG), has been shown to be the most effective method for the control and elimination of rabies. Among all vaccines currently used for wildlife oral vaccination, one vaccine (marketed as SAD Bern strain) has been widely used in Europe since 1992 with the distribution of 17million of baits in 2011. Because of the potential environmental safety risk of a live virus which could revert to virulence, the full genome sequencing of this vaccine was undertaken and the sequence was characterized and compared with those of referenced rabies viruses. The vaccine showed higher similarity to the strains belonging to the SAD B19 vaccine virus strains than to the SAD Bern vaccines. This study is the first one reporting on virus strain identity changes in this attenuated vaccine.

  3. Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Mueller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination. PMID:25811659

  4. [WHO recommended pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies using Japanese rabies vaccine].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Naoki; Takayama, Naohide; Suganuma, Akihiko

    2008-09-01

    After severe exposure to suspected rabid animal, WHO recommends a complete vaccine series using a potent effective vaccine that meets WHO criteria, and administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). RIG is not available globally, and is not marketed in Japan. If pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies is given, RIG is unnecessary even after severe exposure. It is thus important to give pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies to people who plan to go to rabies-endemic areas. In Japan, pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies consists of 3 doses of cell-culture rabies vaccine. The first two doses are given 4 weeks apart, and the third dose is given 6-12 months after the first dose, all of which are injected subcutaneously (standard regimen). People who plan to travel abroad to rabies-endemic areas may know of their destinations only 1 or 2 months in advance at best. Therefore, it is virtually impossible to complete the 3 dose regimen for rabies in Japan. Pre-exposure prophylaxis recommended by WHO consists of 3 doses given intramuscularly on days 0, 7, and 28, making it possible to complete pre-exposure prophylaxis in one month. This WHO recommended pre-exposure prophylaxis using Japanese cell-cultured rabies vaccine (PCEC-K) has not been studied, so we elected to fill the gap using PCEC-K, administered based on the WHO recommendation and examined its efficacy and safety. Subjects were 26 healthy volunteers with no previous rabies vaccination giving oral and written consent. Vaccine was administered on days 0, 7, and 28, and rabies antibody levels were tested on days 7, 28, and 42. On day 7, every antibody level was negative. On day 28, antibody levels were between 0.7-3.5 EU/ mL, with the exception of 3 cases still negative. On day 42, all cases, including the 3 negative cases, exceeded 1.6 EU/mL, providing sufficient protection against rabies. This result was not inferior compared to the standard regimen. Local adverse effects such as erythema and pain were noted, but none were

  5. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  6. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing..., safe and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  7. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing..., safe and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  8. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing..., safe and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  9. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  10. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing..., safe and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  11. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  12. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  13. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing..., safe and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  14. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be..., safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  15. Binding properties of monoclonal antibodies to rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Cusi, M G; Valensin, P E; Tollis, M; Bracci, L; Petreni, S; Soldani, P

    1991-07-01

    The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) obtained by immunizing mice with a tetradecapeptide corresponding to the 190-203 region of rabies virus glycoprotein, involved in binding to the acetylcholine receptor (AchR), displayed different specificities to different rabies virus strains. These mAbs, when used in immunofluorescence tests, allowed differentiation of wild rabies viruses from the attenuated ones.

  16. Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Death, Haiti, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Etheart, Melissa D.; Doty, Jeff; Monroe, Ben; Crowdis, Kelly; Augustin, Pierre Dilius; Blanton, Jesse; Fenelon, Natael

    2016-01-01

    Haiti has experienced numerous barriers to rabies control over the past decades and is one of the remaining Western Hemisphere countries to report dog-mediated human rabies deaths. We describe the circumstances surrounding a reported human rabies death in 2016 as well as barriers to treatment and surveillance reporting. PMID:27767911

  17. Pyrosequencing of the rabies virus glycoprotein gene to demonstrate absence of vaccine-associated rabies cases following oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Paola; De Battisti, Cristian; Marciano, Sabrina; Mutinelli, Franco; Capua, Ilaria; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Replication competent vaccines have been used successfully for the control of terrestrial rabies, mainly in wildlife; however, these vaccine strains occasionally may induce rabies. In this study, a pyrosequencing protocol for the rapid identification of vaccine-associated rabies viruses was applied to the 2008-2011 Italian epidemic. There was no evidence of vaccine-associated rabies cases following oral vaccination of foxes with the SAG2 and SADB19 vaccine strains.

  18. Ferret badger rabies origin and its revisited importance as potential source of rabies transmission in Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The frequent occurrence of ferret badger-associated human rabies cases in southeast China highlights the lack of laboratory-based surveillance and urges revisiting the potential importance of this animal in rabies transmission. To determine if the ferret badgers actually contribute to human and dog rabies cases, and the possible origin of the ferret badger-associated rabies in the region, an active rabies survey was conducted to determine the frequency of rabies infection and seroprevalence in dogs and ferret badgers. Methods A retrospective survey on rabies epidemics was performed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces in southeast China. The brain tissues from ferret badgers and dogs were assayed by fluorescent antibody test. Rabies virus was isolated and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The sera from ferret badgers and dogs were titrated using rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) test. Results The ferret badgers presented a higher percentage of rabies seroconversion than dogs did in the endemic region, reaching a maximum of 95% in the collected samples. Nine ferret badger-associated rabies viruses were isolated, sequenced, and were phylogenetically clustered as a separate group. Nucleotide sequence revealed 99.4-99.8% homology within the ferret badger isolates, and 83-89% homology to the dog isolates in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes in the same rabies endemic regions. Conclusions Our data suggest ferret badger-associated rabies has likely formed as an independent enzootic originating from dogs during the long-term rabies infestation in southeast China. The eventual role of FB rabies in public health remains unclear. However, management of ferret badger bites, rabies awareness and control in the related regions should be an immediate need. PMID:20691095

  19. Genetic characterisation of attenuated SAD rabies virus strains used for oral vaccination of wildlife.

    PubMed

    Geue, Lutz; Schares, Susann; Schnick, Christina; Kliemt, Jeannette; Beckert, Aline; Freuling, Conrad; Conraths, Franz J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Zanoni, Reto; Marston, Denise; McElhinney, Lorraine; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Tordo, Noel; Müller, Thomas

    2008-06-19

    The elimination of rabies from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Western Europe has been achieved by the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of wildlife with a range of attenuated rabies virus strains. With the exception of the vaccinia rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine (VRG), all strains were originally derived from a common ancestor; the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) field strain. However, after more than 30 years of ORV it is still not possible to distinguish these vaccine strains and there is little information on the genetic basis for their attenuation. We therefore sequenced and compared the full-length genome of five commercially available SAD vaccine viruses (SAD B19, SAD P5/88, SAG2, SAD VA1 and SAD Bern) and four other SAD strains (the original SAD Bern, SAD VA1, ERA and SAD 1-3670 Wistar). Nucleotide sequencing allowed identifying each vaccine strain unambiguously. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the currently used commercial attenuated rabies virus vaccines appear to be derived from SAD B19 rather than from SAD Bern. One commercially available vaccine virus did not contain the SAD strain mentioned in the product information of the producer. Two SAD vaccine strains appeared to consist of mixed genomic sequences. Furthermore, in-del events targeting A-rich sequences (in positive strand) within the 3' non-coding regions of M and G genes were observed in SAD-derivates developed in Europe. Our data also supports the idea of a possible recombination that had occurred during the derivation of the European branch of SAD viruses. If confirmed, this recombination event would be the first one reported among RABV vaccine strains.

  20. Rabies and rabies virus in wildlife in mainland China, 1990-2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihua; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong

    2014-08-01

    The number of wildlife rabies and wildlife-associated human and livestock rabies cases has increased in recent years, particularly in the southeast and northeast regions of mainland China. To better understand wildlife rabies and its role in human and livestock rabies, we reviewed what is known about wildlife rabies from the 1990s to 2013 in mainland China. In addition, the genetic diversity and phylogeny of available wildlife-originated rabies viruses (RABVs) were analyzed. Several wildlife species carry rabies including the bat, Chinese ferret badger, raccoon dog, rat, fox, and wolf. RABVs have been isolated or detected in the bat, Chinese ferret badger, raccoon dog, Apodemus, deer, and vole. Among them, the bat, Chinese ferret badger, and raccoon dog may play a role in the ecology of lyssaviruses in mainland China. All wildlife-originated RABVs were found to belong to genotype 1 RABV except for a bat-originated Irkut virus isolated in 2012. Several substitutions were found between the glycoprotein of wildlife-originated RABVs and vaccine strains. Whether these substitutions could affect the efficacy of currently used vaccines against infections caused by these wildlife-originated RABVs needs to be investigated further. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RABVs in the bat, Chinese ferret badger, and raccoon dog were distinct from local dog-originated RABVs, and almost all collected wildlife-originated isolates were associated with older China clades II to V, suggesting the possibility of wildlife reservoirs in mainland China through the ages.

  1. Risk-based cost modelling of oral rabies vaccine interventions for raccoon rabies.

    PubMed

    Recuenco, S; Eidson, M; Cherry, B; Johnson, G

    2009-02-01

    Distribution of oral rabies vaccine (ORV) is an effective but costly strategy to control raccoon rabies. Because of high costs, ORV for raccoon rabies in the U.S. has been limited primarily to epizootic areas, leaving extensive raccoon rabies regions without any ORV intervention. Several cost scenarios for ORV application in raccoon rabies enzootic and epizootic regions were modelled in New York State to obtain estimated costs of ORV baits per scenario and potential savings compared with a uniform ORV baiting strategy. These cost scenarios modelled at the census tract, level the application of ORV baits at different densities according to levels of risk defined by the observed number of raccoon rabies cases per km2 and the expected number of cases per km2 estimated with a Poisson regression model. Bait purchase costs were lower using the modelled cost scenarios than a uniform baiting strategy, for both the NYS enzootic region and the Long Island epizootic zone. The proportion of savings for the NYS enzootic region was 29.57%, and the proportion of savings for the Long Island epizootic zone was 38.9%. Use of these cost scenarios to determine bait distribution by rabies risk level should be considered to maximize efficacy and reduce costs of ORV interventions.

  2. Rabi nutations in a ferromagnetic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart

    When electromagnetic radiation interacts with a two-level system, energy is transferred back and forth between the quantum system and the electromagnetic radiation at a rate defined by the Rabi frequency. This process takes place as long as coherence prevails, until steady state is reached. Rabi nutations have been observed in a variety of quantum systems (atomic vapors, semiconductors, superconducting qubits, etc.). Here, we observe Rabi nutations in an ultrathin ~10 Å perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB film. A hybrid ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) - time resolved magneto optical Kerr effect (TRMOKE) system is used for this observation. Namely, a strong optical pump pulse perturbs the precessing spin system after which a weak optical probe pulse is sent at different times to map its recovery until steady precessional motion is reached again. The responses at the different detunings of magnetic field away from resonance conditions readily indicate the occurrence of the Rabi nutations which are initiated by the pump arriving at t =0. Excellent agreement with the prediction given by the Rabi formula is found. The method we report presents a new approach to study dynamical phenomena in magnetic materials.

  3. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  4. Rabies in China: recommendations for control.

    PubMed Central

    Kureishi, A.; Xu, L. Z.; Wu, H.; Stiver, H. G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed are the results of 15 years' experience with rabies at You-An Infectious Disease Hospital, Beijing, China. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there are any epidemiological or clinical features of rabies that are unique to China and which might be important in developing a strategy to control it. During the period under study, 64 patients with rabies were admitted to You-An Hospital. Exposure to dogs was associated with 61 cases, two involving the handling of dog carcasses that were being prepared for meals. All of the exposures occurred in rural areas, and none of the patients received adequate prophylaxis. Patients with proximal sites of exposure and with severe injuries developed rabies after short incubation periods (P less than 0.05, and P less than 0.02, respectively). Failed vaccination was also associated with a short incubation period (P less than 0.05). Haematemesis occurred in 20 patients and was associated with shorter incubation periods (P less than 0.02), facial exposure sites (P = 0.021), and severe injuries (P = 0.047). A strategy to control rabies in China should include efforts to educate the public about handling the carcasses of stray dogs, in addition to the currently recommended strategy of controlling the dog population and of vaccinating domesticated animals. PMID:1394776

  5. Bat rabies--a Gordian knot?

    PubMed

    Freuling, Conrad; Vos, Ad; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although classical rabies is one of the earliest identified and best studied infectious diseases, there is still limited knowledge about lyssaviruses and their major natural hosts, bats. Focussing on bat rabies in Europe caused by European bat lyssaviruses 1 (EBLV-1) and 2, for instance the association of EBLV-1 to Eptesicus bats and EBLV-2 to Myotis daubentonii and M. dasycneme together with an apparent clustering of cases is one question still to be answered. Furthermore, the question whether EBLVs are less virulent or bats less susceptible is the key to the understanding of the disease. Accumulating evidence from experimental studies and field observations, however, has resulted in contradicting hypotheses. Serological surveys, using tools developed for classical rabies, are often used for bat rabies surveillance. However, such surveys are hampered by the lack of validated methods applicable for bat sera. Bats seem to play a prominent role as reservoir for viral pathogens and the unique biology of bats especially the immune response may contribute to this. Considering all known aspects, bat rabies seems to form a yet unsolvable entanglement, reminiscent of the ancient tale of the Gordian knot. In this manuscript we will not be able to untangle this knot, but we hope to offer some suggestions of where to start.

  6. Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-04-29

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  7. Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Animal Rabies in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D; Johnson, K O; Rosatte, R C; Hobbs, J L; Moore, S R; Rosella, L; Crowcroft, N S

    2015-08-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. The number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (Nunan et al., 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8, 214). In our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. The marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in the risk of human infection. A concomitant decrease in the number of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered was anticipated but failed to occur. The mean rate of RPEP, 13.9 RPEP administered per 100,000 persons, from 2001-2012 was approximately the same as the rate in the 1990 s. Two possible reasons that the rate of RPEP administration has not decreased include strict adherence to RPEP recommendations and administration of RPEP when it is not recommended. A reduction in the number of RPEP administered, consistent with the decrease in the animal rabies cases, would provide some financial savings for the government. Ideally, an increased use of the risk assessment approach in keeping with recent guidelines, rather than adhering to previous prescriptive recommendations for RPEP administration, coupled with a continuing low incidence of animal rabies cases will result in decreased, and yet appropriate, use of RPEP. Consideration should be given to identify how guidelines could be revised to more effectively target high-risk exposures and reduce the administration of RPEP for instances in which the risk of rabies virus exposure is exceedingly low.

  8. Oral rabies vaccination of raccoons and striped skunks with ONRAB® baits: multiple factors influence field immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, Julien; Rees, Erin E; Canac-Marquis, Pierre; Bélanger, Denise; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Séguin, Guylaine; Larrat, Sylvain; Lair, Stéphane; Landry, François; Côté, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    Multiple control methods have been used in North America to manage the spread of rabies caused by the raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies virus variant (RRVV). Recently, oral vaccination with ONRAB(®) vaccine baits, which contain an adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant, has been made available as an additional tool for rabies control. Our objectives were to estimate rabies antibody prevalence in wild-caught raccoons and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and identify factors influencing the probability of being antibody positive at the individual level in these species, following oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns in which ONRAB was distributed aerially in 2007-2009 in southern Québec, Canada. Following the aerial distribution of 43-155 ONRAB baits/km(2), the annual percentages of antibody-positive raccoons and skunks varied between 35% and 56% and 11% and 17%, respectively. In raccoons, the probability of being antibody positive was positively associated with age and density of ONRAB distributed, and influenced by the number of previous ORV campaigns conducted. Conversely, this probability was negatively associated with estimated abundance of raccoons in the trapping cell and proportion of residential areas near the raccoon capture location. None of the variables examined explained variation in the probability of being antibody positive in skunks. Our results indicate that the ONRAB density applied during ORV campaigns should be adjusted to account for variations in raccoon population density and presence of residential areas to increase the likelihood of creating an effective immunological barrier against RRVV. The high percentage of juvenile raccoons (annual mean =45 ± 3 [SE]%) and skunks (66 ± 2%) captured during post-ORV monitoring suggests that ORV campaigns should be conducted at least annually to account for the recruitment of naïve individuals into the populations. In Québec, the increasing use of ONRAB coincided with the elimination of rabies

  9. Polaritonic Rabi and Josephson Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Amir; Laussy, Fabrice P.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of coupled condensates is a wide-encompassing problem with relevance to superconductors, BECs in traps, superfluids, etc. Here, we provide a unified picture of this fundamental problem that includes i) detuning of the free energies, ii) different self-interaction strengths and iii) finite lifetime of the modes. At such, this is particularly relevant for the dynamics of polaritons, both for their internal dynamics between their light and matter constituents, as well as for the more conventional dynamics of two spatially separated condensates. Polaritons are short-lived, interact only through their material fraction and are easily detuned. At such, they bring several variations to their atomic counterpart. We show that the combination of these parameters results in important twists to the phenomenology of the Josephson effect, such as the behaviour of the relative phase (running or oscillating) or the occurence of self-trapping. We undertake a comprehensive stability analysis of the fixed points on a normalized Bloch sphere, that allows us to provide a generalized criterion to identify the Rabi and Josephson regimes in presence of detuning and decay. PMID:27452872

  10. Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions

    PubMed Central

    Pedernales, J. S.; Lizuain, I.; Felicetti, S.; Romero, G.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model in all parameter regimes by means of detuned bichromatic sideband excitations of a single trapped ion. We show that current setups can reproduce, in particular, the ultrastrong and deep strong coupling regimes of such a paradigmatic light-matter interaction. Furthermore, associated with these extreme dipolar regimes, we study the controlled generation and detection of their entangled ground states by means of adiabatic methods. Ion traps have arguably performed the first quantum simulation of the Jaynes-Cummings model, a restricted regime of the quantum Rabi model where the rotating-wave approximation holds. We show that one can go beyond and experimentally investigate the quantum simulation of coupling regimes of the quantum Rabi model that are difficult to achieve with natural dipolar interactions. PMID:26482660

  11. Vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Sota, C

    1988-01-01

    A short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the Americas is given. Based on information from the Animal Health Yearbook--a cooperative publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Office of Epizootics (OIE)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. An important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), mainly as a result of the use of effective vaccines that are now available and of the application of new technology to reduce the vampire bat population, the vector of the disease in cattle. The trials performed in Argentina and Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s provide enough evidence that many vaccines will protect cattle against bovine paralytic rabies. Results of these trials are presented.

  12. Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions.

    PubMed

    Pedernales, J S; Lizuain, I; Felicetti, S; Romero, G; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2015-10-20

    We propose the quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model in all parameter regimes by means of detuned bichromatic sideband excitations of a single trapped ion. We show that current setups can reproduce, in particular, the ultrastrong and deep strong coupling regimes of such a paradigmatic light-matter interaction. Furthermore, associated with these extreme dipolar regimes, we study the controlled generation and detection of their entangled ground states by means of adiabatic methods. Ion traps have arguably performed the first quantum simulation of the Jaynes-Cummings model, a restricted regime of the quantum Rabi model where the rotating-wave approximation holds. We show that one can go beyond and experimentally investigate the quantum simulation of coupling regimes of the quantum Rabi model that are difficult to achieve with natural dipolar interactions.

  13. Population Dynamics of Owned, Free-Roaming Dogs: Implications for Rabies Control

    PubMed Central

    Conan, Anne; Akerele, Oluyemisi; Simpson, Greg; Reininghaus, Bjorn; van Rooyen, Jacques; Knobel, Darryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a serious yet neglected public health threat in resource-limited communities in Africa, where the virus is maintained in populations of owned, free-roaming domestic dogs. Rabies elimination can be achieved through the mass vaccination of dogs, but maintaining the critical threshold of vaccination coverage for herd immunity in these populations is hampered by their rapid turnover. Knowledge of the population dynamics of free-roaming dog populations can inform effective planning and implementation of mass dog vaccination campaigns to control rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings We implemented a health and demographic surveillance system in dogs that monitored the entire owned dog population within a defined geographic area in a community in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. We quantified demographic rates over a 24-month period, from 1st January 2012 through 1st January 2014, and assessed their implications for rabies control by simulating the decline in vaccination coverage over time. During this period, the population declined by 10%. Annual population growth rates were +18.6% in 2012 and -24.5% in 2013. Crude annual birth rates (per 1,000 dog-years of observation) were 451 in 2012 and 313 in 2013. Crude annual death rates were 406 in 2012 and 568 in 2013. Females suffered a significantly higher mortality rate in 2013 than males (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.28–1.85). In the age class 0–3 months, the mortality rate of dogs vaccinated against rabies was significantly lower than that of unvaccinated dogs (2012: MRR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.05–0.21; 2013: MRR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.11–0.69). The results of the simulation showed that achieving a 70% vaccination coverage during annual campaigns would maintain coverage above the critical threshold for at least 12 months. Conclusions and Significance Our findings provide an evidence base for the World Health Organization’s empirically-derived target of 70% vaccination coverage

  14. The present and future of rabies vaccine in animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Kun; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Song, Jae-Young

    2013-01-01

    An effective strategy for preventing rabies consists of controlling rabies in the host reservoir with vaccination. Rabies vaccine has proven to be the most effective weapon for coping with this fatal viral zoonotic disease of warm-blooded animals, including human. Natural rabies infection of an individual is always associated with exposure to rabid animals, and the duration of clinical signs can vary from days to months. The incubation period for the disease depends on the site of the bite, severity of injury, and the amount of infecting virus at the time of exposure. The mortality of untreated cases in humans is 100%. Over the last 100 years, various rabies vaccines have been developed and used to prevent or control rabies in animals, such as modified live vaccine, inactivated rabies vaccine, and oral modified live vaccine. These have proved safe and efficacious worldwide. New-generation rabies vaccines, including recombinant rabies virus-based vaccines, vectored vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and plant vaccines, have been explored to overcome the limitations of conventional rabies vaccines. This article discusses current and next-generation rabies vaccines in animals.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of human rabies viruses in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Kobayashi, Yuji; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted by rabid animals to humans. Rabies is prevalent in all continents, with over 60% of human deaths occurring in Asia. Sri Lanka is a rabies-endemic country. This study shows that rabies afflicted more older individuals than children in Sri Lanka between 2008 and 2010. This novel finding indicates that older people in Sri Lanka should be more aware of the risk of rabies. Phylogenetic analyses of the rabies N and G genes showed that the Sri Lankan rabies viruses are distinct and probably originated from a single clone. The G-L noncoding region is highly diverse, and is suitable for the analysis of virus evolution within a country. A phylogenetic analysis of this region showed high diversity in the currently circulating Sri Lankan rabies viruses, which can be divided into seven clades. Some clades are unique to a specific geographic region, whereas others occur at multiple locations. This indicates that the movement of dogs, the main rabies-transmitting animal in Sri Lanka, is restricted in some areas but less limited in others. These data may help to formulate a more efficient rabies control program in Sri Lanka.

  16. Immunovirological correlates in human rabies treated with therapeutic coma.

    PubMed

    Hunter, M; Johnson, N; Hedderwick, S; McCaughey, C; Lowry, K; McConville, J; Herron, B; McQuaid, S; Marston, D; Goddard, T; Harkess, G; Goharriz, H; Voller, K; Solomon, T; Willoughby, R E; Fooks, A R

    2010-07-01

    A 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital and over the next 5 days developed a progressive encephalitis. Nuchal skin biopsy, analyzed using a Rabies TaqMan(c) PCR, demonstrated rabies virus RNA. She had a history in keeping with exposure to rabies whilst in South Africa, but had not received pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis. She was treated with a therapeutic coma according to the "Milwaukee protocol," which failed to prevent the death of the patient. Rabies virus was isolated from CSF and saliva, and rabies antibody was demonstrated in serum (from day 11 onwards) and cerebrospinal fluid (day 13 onwards). She died on day-35 of hospitalization. Autopsy specimens demonstrated the presence of rabies antigen, viral RNA, and viable rabies virus in the central nervous system.

  17. Rabies in Canada — History, Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Rosatte, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    Rabies first became evident in Canada during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. However, only a few sporadic outbreaks, mainly in domestic animals, were noted before 1945. Rabies in foxes spread into the Canadian provinces from the Arctic regions during the late 1940s. The disease gradually died out in most areas except Ontario. A second major outbreak, involving skunks, progressed from North Dakota into the Prairie provinces during the late 1950s and 1960s. Today, the major problem areas in Canada with respect to rabies are southern Ontario, which accounts for 85% of the Canadian diagnoses, and the Prairie provinces where rabies is enzootic in skunks. Rabies is rare in humans in Canada; however more than 40,000 cases have been reported in wild and domestic animals since 1958. Control of rabies is currently being undertaken through vaccination of domestic animals and wildlife, population reduction of wildlife vectors, and human preexposure rabies vaccination. PMID:17423026

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  19. Dynamical properties of the Rabi model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binglu; Zhou, Huili; Chen, Shujie; Xianlong, Gao; Wang, Kelin

    2017-02-01

    We study the dynamical properties of the quantum Rabi model using a systematic expansion method. Based on the observation that the parity symmetry of the Rabi model is kept during evolution of the states, we decompose the initial state and the time-dependent one into positive and negative parity parts expanded by superposition of the coherent states. The evolutions of the corresponding positive and the negative parities are obtained, in which the expansion coefficients in the dynamical equations are known from the derived recurrence relation.

  20. Article I: Prevention and education regarding rabies in human beings. National Working Group on Rabies Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, C A; Olson, J G; Clark, C J

    1999-11-01

    Substantial changes in the epizootic characteristics of rabies have transpired in the United States during the past 50 years. Traditional veterinary practices and public health recommendations have effectively controlled rabies in dogs and prevented associated human fatalities; however, they have been unable to adequately address the problem of rabies in wildlife. Attributable in part to a renewed focus on emerging infectious diseases, a conference was held at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993 to begin discussion focused on the reemergence of rabies and to formulate new suggestions for prevention and control of rabies in the United States. Three major working groups were formed from a national committee of professionals representing a broad array of biomedical disciplines. These groups concentrated on prevention of rabies in human beings, education, laboratory diagnosis of rabies, and rabies control in animals. The groups described the perceived minimum requirements to promote prevention and control of rabies in the United States into the next century. The following article describes the needs and recommendations identified by the prevention and education working group. Two other articles, scheduled for the Nov 15 and Dec 1, 1999 issues of JAVMA, will relay the needs and recommendations of the working groups on laboratory diagnosis of rabies and rabies in wildlife.

  1. A Novel Rabies Vaccine Based on a Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Rabies Virus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenhai; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Xiudan; Zhang, Guoqing; Ren, Guiping; Gnanadurai, Clement W.

    2013-01-01

    Untreated rabies virus (RABV) infection leads to death. Vaccine and postexposure treatment have been effective in preventing RABV infection. However, due to cost, rabies vaccination and treatment have not been widely used in developing countries. There are 55,000 human death caused by rabies annually. An efficacious and cost-effective rabies vaccine is needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is thought to contribute to kennel cough, and kennel cough vaccines containing live PIV5 have been used in dogs for many years. In this work, a PIV5-vectored rabies vaccine was tested in mice. A recombinant PIV5 encoding RABV glycoprotein (G) (rPIV5-RV-G) was administered to mice via intranasal (i.n.), intramuscular (i.m.), and oral inoculation. The vaccinated mice were challenged with a 50% lethal challenge dose (LD50) of RABV challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24) intracerebrally. A single dose of 106 PFU of rPIV5-RV-G was sufficient for 100% protection when administered via the i.n. route. The mice vaccinated with a single dose of 108 PFU of rPIV5-RV-G via the i.m. route showed very robust protection (90% to 100%). Intriguingly, the mice vaccinated orally with a single dose of 108 PFU of rPIV5-RV-G showed a 50% survival rate, which is comparable to the 60% survival rate among mice inoculated with an attenuated rabies vaccine strain, recombinant LBNSE. This is first report of an orally effective rabies vaccine candidate in animals based on PIV5 as a vector. These results indicate that rPIV5-RV-G is an excellent candidate for a new generation of recombinant rabies vaccine for humans and animals and PIV5 is a potential vector for oral vaccines. PMID:23269806

  2. A novel rabies vaccine based on a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 expressing rabies virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhai; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Xiudan; Zhang, Guoqing; Ren, Guiping; Gnanadurai, Clement W; Fu, Zhen F; He, Biao

    2013-03-01

    Untreated rabies virus (RABV) infection leads to death. Vaccine and postexposure treatment have been effective in preventing RABV infection. However, due to cost, rabies vaccination and treatment have not been widely used in developing countries. There are 55,000 human death caused by rabies annually. An efficacious and cost-effective rabies vaccine is needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is thought to contribute to kennel cough, and kennel cough vaccines containing live PIV5 have been used in dogs for many years. In this work, a PIV5-vectored rabies vaccine was tested in mice. A recombinant PIV5 encoding RABV glycoprotein (G) (rPIV5-RV-G) was administered to mice via intranasal (i.n.), intramuscular (i.m.), and oral inoculation. The vaccinated mice were challenged with a 50% lethal challenge dose (LD(50)) of RABV challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24) intracerebrally. A single dose of 10(6) PFU of rPIV5-RV-G was sufficient for 100% protection when administered via the i.n. route. The mice vaccinated with a single dose of 10(8) PFU of rPIV5-RV-G via the i.m. route showed very robust protection (90% to 100%). Intriguingly, the mice vaccinated orally with a single dose of 10(8) PFU of rPIV5-RV-G showed a 50% survival rate, which is comparable to the 60% survival rate among mice inoculated with an attenuated rabies vaccine strain, recombinant LBNSE. This is first report of an orally effective rabies vaccine candidate in animals based on PIV5 as a vector. These results indicate that rPIV5-RV-G is an excellent candidate for a new generation of recombinant rabies vaccine for humans and animals and PIV5 is a potential vector for oral vaccines.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of rabies in northern Colombia 1994-2003. Evidence for human and fox rabies associated with dogs.

    PubMed

    Páez, A; Saad, C; Núñez, C; Bóshell, J

    2005-06-01

    During the period 2000-2003, wild grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in northern Colombia became infected with rabies. In order to derive phylogenetic relationships between rabies viruses isolated in foxes, dogs and humans in this region, 902 nt cDNA fragments containing the G-L intergenic region and encoding the cytoplasmic domain of protein G and a fragment of protein L were obtained by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rabies viruses isolated in foxes, dogs and humans belonged to a single genetic variant. Speculative analysis together with epidemiological data indicated that rabies in foxes may have been due to contact with rabid dogs. Rabies transmission between dogs, wild foxes and humans may happen in natural conditions in northern Colombia. This finding is the first to suggest dog-to-fox rabies transmission in South America, and provides another example of dog rabies variants being able to successfully colonize wildlife hosts.

  4. Gap solitons in Rabi lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaopin; Malomed, Boris A.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a two-component one-dimensional system, which is based on two nonlinear Schrödinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with spatially periodic modulation of linear coupling ("Rabi lattice") and self-repulsive nonlinearity. The system may be realized in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate, whose components are resonantly coupled by a standing optical wave, as well as in terms of the bimodal light propagation in periodically twisted waveguides. The system supports various types of gap solitons (GSs), which are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. These include on- and off-site-centered solitons (the GSs of the off-site type are additionally categorized as spatially even and odd ones), which may be symmetric or antisymmetric, with respect to the coupled components. The GSs are chiefly stable in the first finite bandgap and unstable in the second one. In addition to that, there are narrow regions near the right edge of the first bandgap, and in the second one, which feature intricate alternation of stability and instability. Unstable solitons evolve into robust breathers or spatially confined turbulent modes. On-site-centered GSs are also considered in a version of the system that is made asymmetric by the Zeeman effect, or by birefringence of the optical waveguide. A region of alternate stability is found in the latter case too. In the limit of strong asymmetry, GSs are obtained in a semianalytical approximation, which reduces two coupled GPEs to a single one with an effective lattice potential.

  5. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

  6. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  7. Molecular epidemiology and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosis of infection with rabies virus in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muleya, Walter; Namangala, Boniface; Mweene, Aaron; Zulu, Luke; Fandamu, Paul; Banda, Douglas; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ishii, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The National Livestock Epidemiology and Information Center (NALEIC) in Zambia reported over 132 cases of canine rabies diagnosed by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) from 2004 to 2009. In this study, the lineage of rabies virus (RABV) in Zambia was determined by phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) gene sequences. Total RNA was extracted from 87-DFAT brain specimens out of which only 35 (40%) were positive on nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for each gene, and 26 being positive for both genes. Positive specimens for the N (n=33) and G (n=35) genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the N gene showed two phylogenetic clusters in Zambia belonging to the Africa 1b lineage present in eastern and southern Africa. While one cluster exclusively comprised Zambian strains, the other was more heterogeneous regarding the RABV origins and included strains from Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia. Phylogenetic analysis of the G gene revealed similar RABV strains in different hosts and regions of Zambia. We designed primers for reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay from the consensus sequence of the N gene in an attempt to improve the molecular diagnosis of RABV in Zambia. The specificity and reproducibility of the RT-LAMP assay was confirmed with actual clinical specimens. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay presented in this study may prove to be useful for routine diagnosis of rabies in Zambia.

  8. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  9. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching.

  10. Rabies in Ireland: a precarious freedom.

    PubMed

    Costello, J A

    1988-01-01

    The prolonged freedom from rabies enjoyed by Ireland is based on both its island location and the rigid enforcement of national legislation. The yachting tourist and the increased level of shipping activity in ports and harbours are a major threat of disease introduction. Mass media publicity and public awareness are the main safeguards necessary to protect the freedom of our island.

  11. Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shoufeng; Tang, Qing; Wu, Xianfu; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fei; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Ferret badger–associated human rabies cases emerged in China in 1994. We used a retrospective epidemiologic survey, virus isolation, laboratory diagnosis, and nucleotide sequencing to document its reemergence in 2002–2008. Whether the cause is spillover from infected dogs or recent host shift and new reservoir establishment requires further investigation. PMID:19523299

  12. Wildlife rabies control policy in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C; Fooks, A R

    2006-01-01

    Following the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001, the British government initiated a review and update of the Rabies Contingency Plan to ensure that the implementation of control policies was proportionate and based on operational efficiency and appropriate command structures (see http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/rabies/default.htm). Control of classical rabies in wildlife will primarily be based on emergency oral vaccination around the focal outbreak, in line with European recommended practice. However, theoretical and practical experience suggests that vaccination may not be the most effective means of control in high-density populations of foxes. In this scenario, and when the primary case has been identified, vaccination may be supplemented by culling in some circumstances. The theoretical basis for this will be discussed. In the event of an outbreak of rabies in wildlife, the government's control strategy will be supported by output from computer models, which will simulate various control strategies to optimise methods and areas of control, and human resources.

  13. First trials of oral vaccination with rabies SAG2 dog baits in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Boué, Franck; Demerson, Jean Michel; Fassi Fihri, Ouafaa; Yahia, Khadija Id Sidi; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Canine rabies is a serious health problem in Morocco and about 22 human deaths are reported yearly. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, Moroccan authorities evaluated oral rabies vaccine baits specially designed for dogs. Materials and Methods The study was performed in Tiflet area. The vaccine strain was SAG2, a modified live oral rabies vaccine strain. Each bait contained an aluminium/PVC capsule filled with a liquid. Two kinds of baits were used: placebo baits containing methylene blue as a topical marker and vaccine baits containing vaccine suspension. The study was performed according to recommended WHO strategies, i.e., door to door model (DDDM), hand-out and wildlife immunization model (WIM). The DDDM was performed in the rural area of Tiflet on 60 owned dogs. The hand-out strategy was tested on 15 stray dogs. The WIM was performed on 4 transects lines near Tiflet slaughterhouse and near the weekly traditional market location. Results Using the DDDM, 100% of owned dogs were attracted by the baits and 77% ate the bait. Using the hand-out model, 100% of dogs showed interest in baits and 46.7% took the baits. Using the WIM in stray dogs, up to 73% of baits disappeared and 68% of the capsules containing the SAG2 vaccine were found pierced, depending on the sites of distribution. Conclusion This pilot study showed that baits have a good palatability and that oral vaccination of both owned and stray dogs is feasible with baits specifically developed for dogs and with adapted strategy of distribution. PMID:25003096

  14. Epidemiological characteristics of human and animal rabies in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Zeynalova, S; Shikhiyev, M; Aliyeva, T; Ismayilova, R; Wise, E; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Rustamova, S; Quliyev, F; Whatmore, A M; Marshall, E S; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L

    2015-03-01

    The Caucasus is a region of geopolitical importance, in the gateway between Europe and Asia. This geographical location makes the region equally important in the epidemiology and control of transboundary infectious diseases such as rabies. Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus, and although rabies is notifiable and considered endemic, there is little information on the burden of human and animal rabies. Here, we describe a cross-disciplinary international collaboration aimed at improving rabies control in Azerbaijan. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from animal rabies cases for comparison with those from surrounding areas. Reported human and animal rabies cases between 2000 and 2010 were also reviewed and analysed by region and year. Comparison of rabies virus strains circulating in Azerbaijan demonstrates more than one lineage of rabies virus circulating concurrently in Azerbaijan and illustrates the need for further sample collection and characterization. Officially reported rabies data showed an increase in human and animal rabies cases, and an increase in animal bites requiring provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, since 2006. This is despite apparently consistent levels of dog vaccination and culling of stray dogs.

  15. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  16. [A case of bat rabies in a cat in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amasino, C F; Gury Dohmen, F; de Gaetano, J; Mena Segura, C; Palazzolo, A

    2003-12-01

    In the Central Laboratory of Public Health in Buenos Aires, rabies was detected in a cat that was brought in for diagnosis by its owners. The animal, which was displaying symptoms of the furious form of the disease, had attacked three people in the rural area of Chascomús, near the Rio de la Plata. All three of the people who had been bitten received the necessary treatment. The diagnosis was made using the fluorescent antibody test and the inoculation of mice and the results were communicated to the Zoonoses Division of the Ministry of Health. The virus was then typed at the Institute Pasteur of Buenos Aires using monoclonal antibodies, where it was found to be antigenic variant 4 of serotype 1, i.e., the type of virus usually found in insectivorous bats. This area has been free of the canine variant since 1984. This is the first known case in the province of Buenos Aires of a cat becoming infected with this type of virus. It confirms that there is a link between the air and terrestrial cycles of rabies in this area.

  17. Antigen profiling analysis of vaccinia virus injected canine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cecil, Alexander; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Adelfinger, Marion; Nolte, Ingo; Dandekar, Thomas; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe for the first time the use of dynamic boolean modeling for tumor growth prediction of vaccinia virus GLV-1h68-injected canine tumors including canine mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), canine mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), canine prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and canine soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). Additionally, the STSA-1 xenografted mice were injected with either LIVP 1.1.1 or LIVP 5.1.1 vaccinia virus strains.   Antigen profiling data of the four different vaccinia virus-injected canine tumors were obtained, analyzed and used to calculate differences in the tumor growth signaling network by type and tumor type. Our model combines networks for apoptosis, MAPK, p53, WNT, Hedgehog, TK cell, Interferon, and Interleukin signaling networks. The in silico findings conform with in vivo findings of tumor growth. Boolean modeling describes tumor growth and remission semi-quantitatively with a good fit to the data obtained for all cancer type variants. At the same time it monitors all signaling activities as a basis for treatment planning according to antigen levels. Mitigation and elimination of VACV- susceptible tumor types as well as effects on the non-susceptible type CT1258 are predicted correctly. Thus the combination of Antigen profiling and semi-quantitative modeling optimizes the therapy already before its start. PMID:25482233

  18. Human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits distributed for wildlife rabies management--Ohio, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-04-12

    Baits laden with oral rabies vaccines are important for the management of wildlife rabies in the United States. In August 2012, the Wildlife Services program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service began a field trial involving limited distribution of a new oral rabies vaccine bait in five states, including Ohio. The vaccine consisted of live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (AdRG1.3) (Onrab). A previously used oral rabies vaccine consisting of a live recombinant vaccinia vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) (Raboral V-RG), was distributed in other areas of Ohio. To monitor human contacts and potential vaccine virus exposure, surveillance was conducted by the Ohio Department of Health, local Ohio health agencies, and CDC. During August 23-September 7, 2012, a total of 776,921 baits were distributed in Ohio over 4,379 square miles (11,341 square kilometers). During August 24-September 12, a total of 89 baits were reported found by the general public, with 55 human contacts with baits identified (some contacts involved more than one bait). In 27 of the 55 human contacts, the bait was not intact, and a barrier (e.g., gloves) had not been used to handle the bait, leaving persons at risk for vaccine exposure and vaccine virus infection. However, no adverse events were reported. Continued surveillance of human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits and public warnings to avoid contact with baits are needed because of the potential for vaccine virus infection.

  19. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Velez, Jafet; Malaga, Carlos; Wandeler, Alexander I

    2008-01-01

    The mongoose is the principal reservoir for rabies on the island of Puerto Rico. This report describes a molecular epidemiological study of representative rabies viruses recovered from the island in 1997. Two closely related but distinct variants circulating in regionally localised parts of the island were identified. The lack of a monophyletic relationship of these viruses suggests that two independent incursions of rabies onto the island have occurred. Both of these Puerto Rican variants were closely related to a variant, known as the north central skunk strain, currently circulating in North American skunk populations and all are members of the cosmopolitan rabies lineage spread during the colonial period. However, the Puerto Rican viruses are clearly distinct from those presently circulating in mongooses in Cuba and which are epidemiologically closely linked to the Mexican dog rabies virus. This study clearly establishes the distinct origins of the rabies viruses now circulating on these two Caribbean islands.

  20. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Setien, A.; Loza-Rubio, E.; Salas-Rojas, M.; Brisseau, N.; Cliquet, F.; Pastoret, P. P.; Rojas-Dotor, S.; Tesoro, E.; Kretschmer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  1. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Gautret, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11,069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007-2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  2. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Setien, A; Loza-Rubio, E; Salas-Rojas, M; Brisseau, N; Cliquet, F; Pastoret, P P; Rojas-Dotor, S; Tesoro, E; Kretschmer, R

    2005-06-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion.

  3. Postexposure treatment and animal rabies, Ontario, 1958-2000.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Christopher P; Tinline, Rowland R; Honig, Janet M; Ball, David G A; Hauschildt, Peggy; LeBer, Charles A

    2002-02-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between animal rabies and postexposure treatment (PET) in Ontario by examining the introduction of human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) in 1980 and the initiation of an oral rabies vaccination program for wildlife in 1989. Introducing HDCV led to an immediate doubling of treatments. Both animal rabies and human treatments declined rapidly after the vaccination program was introduced, but human treatments have leveled off at approximately 1,000 per year.

  4. A spatial model to forecast raccoon rabies emergence.

    PubMed

    Recuenco, Sergio; Blanton, Jesse D; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2012-02-01

    Although raccoons are widely distributed throughout North America, the raccoon rabies virus variant is enzootic only in the eastern United States, based on current surveillance data. This variant of rabies virus is now responsible for >60% of all cases of animal rabies reported in the United States each year. Ongoing national efforts via an oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program are aimed at preventing the spread of raccoon rabies. However, from an epidemiologic perspective, the relative susceptibility of naïve geographic localities, adjacent to defined enzootic areas, to support an outbreak, is unknown. In the current study, we tested the ability of a spatial risk model to forecast raccoon rabies spread in presumably rabies-free and enzootic areas. Demographic, environmental, and geographical features of three adjacent states (Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania), which include distinct raccoon rabies free, as well as enzootic areas, were modeled by using a Poisson Regression Model, which had been developed from previous studies of enzootic raccoon rabies in New York State. We estimated susceptibility to raccoon rabies emergence at the census tract level and compared the results with historical surveillance data. Approximately 70% of the disease-free region had moderate to very high susceptibility, compared with 23% in the enzootic region. Areas of high susceptibility for raccoon rabies lie west of current ORV intervention areas, especially in southern Ohio and western West Virginia. Predicted high susceptibility areas matched historical surveillance data. We discuss model implications to the spatial dynamics and spread of raccoon rabies, and its application for designing more efficient disease control interventions.

  5. Prevalence of immunity presumed using rabies vaccination history and household factors associated with vaccination status among domestic dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hidano, Arata; Hayama, Yoko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rabies was eliminated in Japan over 50 years ago; however, the recent increase in the movement of humans and animals across the world highlights the potential threat of disease reentry into the country. The immune status against rabies among the dog population in Japan is not well known; thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dogs with effective immunity from the vaccination history using a web-based survey. We found that 76.9% (95% confidence interval, 75.8-78.1) of dogs in this study population belonged to the population in which 90% were assumed to have the internationally accepted antibody titer. We showed that dogs taken less frequently for walks were less likely to be vaccinated. Additionally, the frequency of encounters with other dogs during walks and the number of individuals in households were associated with vaccination history. To our knowledge, this study is the first report estimating the prevalence of dogs in Japan with effective immunity against rabies. Further, we identified the population with low vaccination coverage as well as the heterogeneous characteristics of vaccination history among the dog population. These findings contribute to the implementation of an efficient strategy for improving the overall vaccination coverage in Japan and the development of a quantitative risk assessment of rabies.

  6. Feasibility and efficacy of oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Marino, Jorgelina; Gordon, Christopher H; Bedin, Eric; Hussein, Alo; Regassa, Fekede; Banyard, Ashley; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-09-14

    Diseases are a major cause of population declines in endangered populations of several canid species. Parenteral vaccination efforts to protect Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis) from rabies have targeted the domestic dog reservoir, or the wolves themselves in response to confirmed outbreaks. Oral vaccination offers a more cost-efficient, safe and proactive approach to protect Ethiopian wolves and other threatened canids from rabies. Field trials of the oral vaccine Rabigen® SAG2Dog were undertaken in the Bale Mountains of southeastern Ethiopia. Four different bait types and three delivery methods were tested in twelve Ethiopian wolf packs, and the oral vaccine (using the preferred bait) was trialled in three packs. Vaccine uptake and immunization rates were measured through direct observations and in live-trapped animals through the assessment of biomarker levels and serological status. Commercial baits were never taken by wolves; goat meat baits had the highest uptake, compared to rodent and intestine baits. Targeted delivery from horseback and nocturnal delivery within a pack's territory performed favourably compared to random bait distribution. Bait uptake by non-target species was lowest during the nocturnal blind distribution. Of 21 wolves trapped after vaccination, 14 were positive for the biomarker iophenoxic acid (i.e. ingested the bait and most likely pierced the sachet with the vaccine). Of these, 86% (n=12/14) had levels considered sufficient to provide protective immunity to wildlife (⩾0.20IU/ml), and 50% (n=7/14) demonstrated antibody titres above the universally recognised threshold (⩾0.5IU/ml) -the baseline average was 0.09IU/ml (n=12 wolves). All but one of the wolves vaccinated in 2014 were alive 14months later. Our trials confirm the potential for SAG2, delivered in a goat meat bait, to effectively protect Ethiopian wolves against rabies, supporting the initiative for a more efficient and proactive approach to manage and eventually eliminate

  7. [Evolution of human anti-rabies vaccines from Pasteur to the present].

    PubMed

    Barme, M; Tsiang, H

    1995-05-01

    Since the first immunization of man against rabies in 1885 by Louis Pasteur, antirabies vaccine has been continuously improved. Treatment failures, clinical infections by the fixed virus, neuroparalytic accidents in connection with myelin were progressively eliminated. Vaccines can be standardized and accurately controlled. After the original spinal cord, adult or newborn animals brains, embryonated eggs, primary tissue cultures, diploid and permanent cell lines have been used for the vaccine production. Today, safe and potent vaccines are available. New products might be developed from the technology of genetic recombinants.

  8. Severe Abdominal Pain as the First Manifestation of Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rabies is an acute fatal viral disease that is generally transmitted from animals to humans following wild and domestic animal bites. The rabies virus enters the body from the area where the individual is bitten, and then the virus moves towards the brain and involves the nerves. Case Presentation: During the years 2001-2011, there have been 73 reported rabies cases. About 50,000 reported human deaths are annually due to rabies. The actual number of human deaths due to rabies in Asia especially India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are more than these numbers, since there is no advanced surveillance system for disease control to determine the actual number of infected and fatal human cases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, more than 10 million people who are bitten by animals are annually treated by prophylactic treatment regimens for rabies, worldwide. Conclusions: This paper reports on a case of human rabies with the first disease manifestation (severe abdominal pain). The patient reported extensive biting on his left leg by a dog. He had a slight fever of 38.1°C. It has been recommended that a careful history should be taken from patients for diagnosis of rabies disease. A complete history should be taken from patients for diagnosis of disease, because rabies could be wrong with various diseases with atypical symptoms. because various diseases with atypical symptoms or long incubation periods can visit. PMID:25485053

  9. Maxillary canine restoration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morris, G A; Lehman, G A

    1999-09-01

    The replacement of a single tooth with osseointegrated dental implants presents a unique challenge to both the prosthodontist and the surgeon. When anterior teeth are replaced, it is difficult to design an occlusal scheme that will direct forces down the long axis of an implant. This is especially true when the canine is involved. Wide-diameter implants offer advantages, such as increased surface area of implant to bone, stronger prosthetics, stronger implants, and less screw loosening or breakage when compared to standard-diameter implants. The single-stage technique is advantageous in terms of soft-tissue predictability, and it eliminates the need for second-stage surgery.

  10. Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, B A; King, R; Sheichat, N; Eventov, B; David, D

    2008-01-01

    Since 1956, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) have been the primary vectors maintaining wildlife rabies in Israel. Oral rabies vaccination of wild canids, initiated in 1998, resulted in near-elimination of the disease in wildlife by 2005. In 2005 and 2006, an outbreak of rabies was observed in stray dogs in the vaccinated area of the Golan Heights, with no cases in foxes or jackals. Epidemiological investigations showed that the infected dogs were from territories across the border. This was confirmed by molecular analysis, which showed that the virus was different from rabies isolates endemic to this area. The objective of this study was to determine bait acceptance and the feasibility of oral rabies vaccination in packs of livestock guardian dogs. Coated sachets and fishmeal polymer baits of Raboral V-RG (Merial, USA) were tested in five different test zones. Both formats were hand-fed to individual dogs and to dogs belonging to dog packs. Bait uptake and consumption were observed in each dog. The estimated efficacy of oral rabies vaccination was very low (a maximum of 28%). Vaccine delivery problems were observed in dogs belonging to packs, whereby dominant animals consumed multiple baits and in competitive situations baits were swallowed whole. The uncertainty of oral vaccination necessitated turning to other methods to control this outbreak: stray dogs were removed and herd dogs were vaccinated parenterally. This study showed that oral rabies vaccination of dogs in packs using baits designed for wildlife would not be effective. Possibly, different baits or steps to circumvent competition within the pack will make this approach feasible.

  11. Observations of sylvatic rabies in Northern Argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F

    2009-10-01

    During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected.

  12. Canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabrielle; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-07-01

    Vaccine-based prophylaxis has greatly helped to keep distemper disease under control. Notwithstanding, the incidence of canine distemper virus (CDV)-related disease in canine populations throughout the world seems to have increased in the past decades, and several episodes of CDV disease in vaccinated animals have been reported, with nation-wide proportions in some cases. Increasing surveillance should be pivotal to identify new CDV variants and to understand the dynamics of CDV epidemiology. In addition, it is important to evaluate whether the efficacy of the vaccine against these new strains may somehow be affected.

  13. Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.

    2016-01-01

    We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems. PMID:27941846

  14. Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions.

    PubMed

    Moya-Cessa, Héctor M

    2016-12-12

    We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems.

  15. Excitation of terahertz nanoantennas by Rabi waves

    SciTech Connect

    Slepyan, G. Ya.; Yerchak, Y. D.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Bass, F. G.

    2011-10-03

    Theoretical model of quantum dot ring, strongly coupled with classical electromagnetic field, is developed. We demonstrate, that tunnel current in the QD-ring has low-frequency component, excited by Rabi waves, propagating into the ring, and the ring can be considered as a candidate for role of terahertz magnetic loop antenna. The low-frequency current is inspired by the asymmetry of electron tunneling.

  16. Rabi splitting enhancement in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, James Henry, II

    The physics of the two-level atom has been the basis of research in atomic physics for much of the past several decades. One of the great successes of semiconductor physics has been its capability to mimic the phenomena of other physical systems. Many of the discoveries in atomic physics have prompted studies of the coupling between two-level atom-like structures and photonic system in semiconductor physics. Much of that work has investigated the optics of the energy exchange between atom-like systems and the electromagnetic field mode of the enclosing cavity. Since many applications of microcavities are governed by the control of the spontaneous emission from the structure, command of the emission relies on control of the coupling between the photonic and the excitonic modes of the system. When the energies of the interacting microcavity states are in resonance, the resulting degeneracy yields an energy split between the coincident modes. This energy split produces two branches of the resonant mixed states, which are called polaritons. The energy separation between the mixed state branches is called the vacuum Rabi splitting, Delta. The magnitude of the Rabi splitting is indicative of the coupling strength of the polariton modes. One of the major pursuits of this field has been to augment the control of the coupling strength between the cavity polariton modes. Comprehensive control over the polariton states, be it the modulation of the polariton energies or the suppression of one of the modes, is a key component in the development of microcavity devices. The goal of my thesis research was to discover a simple means to achieve control over the coupling between the photonic and excitonic modes of a microcavity. This entailed the parametric tuning of the Rabi splitting between the coupled modes of the microcavity. Furthermore, we hoped to attain the maximum possible Rabi splitting observed in GaAs/AlxGa1- xAs microcavities with quantum oscillators located only within

  17. [Possible exposure to rabies in anamnesis: rabies advice in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Beaujean, D J M A; van Ouwerkerk, I M S; Timen, A; Burgmeijer, R J F; Vermeer de Bondt, P E; van Steenbergen, J E

    2008-03-01

    Anamnestic incidences of four patients have highlighted the potential risk ofexposure to rabies. The first patient was a 30-year-old woman who rescued a bat from the mouth of her dog; it bit her on the right wrist. In the Netherlands, bats may be infected with the Lyssa virus. The Preparedness and Response Unit (PRU) of the Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIDC) advised human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and a full vaccination programme. The second patient was a 37-year-old woman, who caught a 'sick' squirrel and was subsequently bitten on her left hand. The advice was not to use post exposure prophylaxis since rabies is not prevalent amongst squirrels in the Netherlands. The third patient, a 55-year-old man, was bitten on his right calf by a dog in Sri Lanka. He was treated with HRIG and given the full vaccination course. The fourth patient was a 14-month-old boy who was scratched on the face by a cat in Turkey. He immediately received the first vaccination and upon return to the Netherlands was treated with HRIG and the other vaccinations. All patients remained without symptoms. A structured approach for risk assessment of each potential rabies incident is possible. It requires balancing a number of criteria: the species of animal, the endemicity of rabies in a country, the observed health or vaccination status of an animal, whether the animal can be tested for rabies, if the exposure was provoked or unprovoked, the type of injury and its location on the body of the injured, and the time interval between administration of HRIG and vaccine. In the Netherlands all health care providers are expected to perform a proper risk assessment. They may seek advice from regional health departments (Municipal Health Services), who, in turn, can be assisted by the PRU. HRIG and vaccine are only provided by the National Vaccine Institute in Bilthoven.

  18. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fry, Tricia; Van Dalen, Kaci; Hurley, Jerome; Nash, Paul

    2012-10-01

    RABORAL V-RG(®)a is a recombinant vaccine used in oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs for wildlife in the United States. Vaccination rates for raccoons are substantially lower than vaccination rates for gray foxes and coyotes. Research suggests that the low viscosity of the oral vaccine may preclude animals from receiving an effective dose when biting into the vaccine bait delivery system. We evaluated the possibility of using two benign compounds, chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC), to increase the viscosity of the vaccine and potentially act as adjuvants to improve the immune response in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Forty mildly sedated raccoons were orally vaccinated via needleless syringe with either RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), chitosan+RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), TMC+ RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), or no vaccine (n = 4), on day 0 and again on day 90. We collected sera every 2-4 wk for 4 mo and evaluated rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). Raccoons were considered responders if rVNA titers were ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Eleven of 12 raccoons vaccinated with TMC+RABORAL V-RG responded after one dose of vaccine, as did eight of 12 vaccinated with RABORAL V-RG, and three of 12 vaccinated with chitosan+ RABORAL V-RG. Our results suggest that the inclusion of an adjuvant, such as TMC, could increase vaccine efficacy to aid in controlling rabies virus spread in wildlife reservoirs.

  19. Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Rabies in Lorestan Province in West of Iran During 2004–2014 for Preventive Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Ali Chegeni; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Saki, Mohammad; Sharafi, Mohammad Mirza; Nasiri, Elham; Mokhayeri, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the progress made, animal bites and rabies are one of the important health problems in the country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites and rabies during 2004–2014 in Lorestan Province to prevent them in population of the province for the future prospective aspects. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, all those cases bitten in the province, during 2004 and 2014, were studied. The required information about the age, sex, the bitten organ, type of the invasive animal time, and location of the event were collected in questionnaires and then analyzed. Results: The total number of cases of animal rabies during the period of study was 43,892, shown at the rate of 223.23 in 100,000 people. Seventy-eight percent of animal bites in rural areas, 41.42% in the ages 10–29-year-old, 26.8% of cases were students, 56.77% leg bites, and 82.5% of dog bites. Four cases of human rabies were observed during this period. Conclusions: Rate of animal bites and rabies is high in Lorestan Province. Controlling animals such as dogs and cats in the province through training people at risk, especially among the students, rural areas and inter-sectorial coordination to eliminate stray animals should be considered over and over. Preventive actions to avoid bites are a priority. PMID:27688868

  20. An arctic fox rabies virus strain as the cause of human rabies in Russian Siberia.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, I V

    1999-01-01

    A case of human rabies in the arctic zone of Siberia is described. The victim was bitten by a wolf, but characterization of the isolate by monoclonal antibodies showed that it was an arctic fox virus strain. This discovery reaffirmed the value of strain typing rabies virus isolates in regions where this has not been done already: such characterization pertains to the identification of the reservoir host, to the natural history of the virus in the reservoir, and to future surveillance, post-exposure treatment, and public education in the region.

  1. Rabies vaccination at a virus-inoculated site as an alternative option to rabies immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kinjiro; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Sato, Yuichiro; Virojanapirom, Phatthamon; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-09-01

    Combined active and passive immunization has been established to be an optimal strategy for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Prompt administration of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) can reliably prevent the disease. However, RIG is unavailable and unaffordable in the majority of cases. On the basis of a model experiment using hamsters, we demonstrated that vaccine injection at the wound site in the same manner as administration of RIG provided protective efficacy that was not inferior to the current optimal PEP, a combination of vaccination and RIG. Further study is needed to determine whether it can replace the use of RIG.

  2. Apoptosis in canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Moro, L; de Sousa Martins, A; de Moraes Alves, C; de Araújo Santos, F G; dos Santos Nunes, J E; Carneiro, R A; Carvalho, R; Vasconcelos, A C

    2003-01-01

    Canine distemper is a systemic viral disease characterized by immunosuppression followed by secondary infections. Apoptosis is observed in several immunosuppressive diseases and its occurrence on canine distemper in vivo has not been published. In this study, the occurrence of apoptosis was determined in lymphoid tissues of thirteen naturally infected dogs and nine experimentally inoculated puppies. Healthy dogs were used as negative controls. Samples of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and brain were collected for histopathological purposes. Sections, 5 microm thick, of retropharingeal lymph nodes were stained by HE, Shorr, Methyl Green-Pyronin and TUNEL reaction. Shorr stained sections were further evaluated by morphometry. Canine distemper virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Retropharingeal lymph nodes of naturally and experimentally infected dogs had more apoptotic cells per field than controls. In addition, DNA from thymus of infected dogs were more fragmented than controls. Therefore, apoptosis is increased in lymphoid depletion induced by canine distemper virus and consequently play a role in the immunosuppression seen in this disease.

  3. Clinical canine dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Kristin M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide small animal veterinarians in private practice a guideline for interpretation of the most common findings in canine intraoral radiology. Normal oral and dental anatomy is presented. A brief review of variations of normal, common periodontal and endodontic pathology findings and developmental anomalies is provided.

  4. Evaluation of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Rabies Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ernest, Eblate; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    A direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) was evaluated under field and laboratory conditions to detect rabies virus antigen in frozen and glycerol-preserved field brain samples from northwestern Tanzania. Compared to the direct fluorescent antibody test, the traditional standard in rabies diagnosis, the dRIT was 100% sensitive and specific. PMID:16494761

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Six South African Rabies Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Phahladira, Baby; Marston, Denise A.; Wise, Emma L.; Ellis, Richard J.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    South African rabies viruses (RABVs) from dogs and jackals (canid viruses) are highly related and most likely originated from a single progenitor. RABV is the cause of most global human rabies cases. The complete genome sequences of 3 RABVs from South Africa and Zimbabwe are reported here. PMID:26430028

  6. CULTURING RABIES (HYDROPHOBIA) VIRUSES IN A DEVELOPING CHICKEN EMBRYO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report states that 19 successive passages of the rabies virus strain 83 through the brain of a chicken embryo and 6 passages through the yolk...sac are feasible. In the process of cultivation of the rabies virus in the organism of chicken embryo there was a variation-fixation of it; shortening

  7. Occurrence of rabies in a wolf population in northeastern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Weiler, G J; Garner, G W; Ritter, D G

    1995-01-01

    Nine Alaskan wolves (Canis lupus) were found dead during spring and summer 1985; five of seven animals tested for rabies virus were positive. The 1985 epizootic altered annual den use patterns by wolves in northeastern Alaska, but did not appear to affect population size. We propose that rabies in arctic wolves may be more common than previously thought.

  8. Rabies in the Masai Mara, Kenya: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Macharia, M J; King, A A

    1993-12-01

    A serosurvey of rabies antibodies among domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, n = 178), spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, n = 72) and African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus, n = 18) of the Masai Mara, Kenya, was carried out. Rabies antibodies were found in 9.6% of the domestic dog sera, but all wild dog and hyaena sera were negative. Rabies has been confirmed in this region among the above species as well as in a domestic cat (Felis catus) and a cow (Bos indicus) by fluorescent antibody tests (FAT) and/or histopathology. The disease was confirmed in three wild dogs in 1989 and in a fourth dog in early 1991. In 1992, a spotted hyaena attacked six people, one of whom died; the hyaena brain was positive for rabies. To date, rabies has been confirmed in one domestic cow (n = 22; 4.5%), one domestic cat (n = 9; 11.1%) and five domestic dogs (n = 32; 15.6%). The wild dog cases exhibited paralytic rabies whereas in the hyaena, domestic cat and domestic dogs furious rabies was observed. The dynamics of rabies in this ecosystem is not yet fully understood, but based on these preliminary data it is suspected that domestic dogs play a primary role in its maintenance.

  9. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  10. Modeling the transmission dynamics and control of rabies in China.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Shigui

    2017-04-01

    Human rabies was first recorded in ancient China in about 556 BC and is still one of the major public-health problems in China. From 1950 to 2015, 130,494 human rabies cases were reported in Mainland China with an average of 1977 cases per year. It is estimated that 95% of these human rabies cases are due to dog bites. The purpose of this article is to provide a review about the models, results, and simulations that we have obtained recently on studying the transmission of rabies in China. We first construct a basic susceptible, exposed, infectious, and recovered (SEIR) type model for the spread of rabies virus among dogs and from dogs to humans and use the model to simulate the human rabies data in China from 1996 to 2010. Then we modify the basic model by including both domestic and stray dogs and apply the model to simulate the human rabies data from Guangdong Province, China. To study the seasonality of rabies, in Section 4 we further propose a SEIR model with periodic transmission rates and employ the model to simulate the monthly data of human rabies cases reported by the Chinese Ministry of Health from January 2004 to December 2010. To understand the spatial spread of rabies, in Section 5 we add diffusion to the dog population in the basic SEIR model to obtain a reaction-diffusion equation model and determine the minimum wave speed connecting the disease-free equilibrium to the endemic equilibrium. Finally, in order to investigate how the movement of dogs affects the geographically inter-provincial spread of rabies in Mainland China, in Section 6 we propose a multi-patch model to describe the transmission dynamics of rabies between dogs and humans and use the two-patch submodel to investigate the rabies virus clades lineages and to simulate the human rabies data from Guizhou and Guangxi, Hebei and Fujian, and Sichuan and Shaanxi, respectively. Some discussions are provided in Section 7.

  11. Do canine parvoviruses affect canine neurons? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Schmidt, P

    2005-08-01

    In cats (most of which died from panleukopenia), cerebral neurons have recently been shown to be susceptible to canine parvovirus infection. In addition to positive immunostaining and distinct in situ hybridization signals, signs of neurodegeneration were identified by histopathology, mainly in the diencephalic area. Similar histological lesions of the diencephalic regions in dogs have also attracted attention; therefore, an immunohistochemical study was initiated to determine the possible infection of canine neurons with canine parvoviruses. The study was carried out on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue, with and without signs of neurodegeneration, from 40 dogs, most of them dying from parvovirus enteritis. Immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antiserum against canine parvoviruses, was negative in all 40 cases, suggesting that, unlike cats, canine parvoviruses do not seem capable of infecting canine neurons.

  12. Binding of rabies virus to purified Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Benson, R J; Klimowicz, D; Wilson, P T; Hawrot, E

    1986-12-01

    The binding of 125I- and 35S-labeled rabies virus (CVS strain) to affinity-purified acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo electric organ was demonstrated. The binding of rabies virus to the acetylcholine receptor increased with increasing receptor concentration, was dependent on the pH of the incubation medium, and was saturable with increasing virus concentration. Binding of radioactively labeled virus was effectively competed by unlabeled homologous virus particles. Binding of 35S-labeled rabies virus to the AChR was inhibited up to 50% by alpha-bungarotoxin and up to 30% by (+)-tubocurarine but was not affected by atropine. These results demonstrate direct binding of rabies virus to a well-defined neurotransmitter receptor, namely the acetylcholine receptor and indicate that at least a portion of the virus interaction occurs near the acetylcholine binding site on the receptor. These findings support the hypothesis that the acetylcholine receptor may serve as a rabies virus receptor in vivo.

  13. Rabbit anti-rabies immunoglobulins production and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjian; Liu, Qiongqiong; Feng, Xiaomin; Tang, Qi; Wang, Zhongcan; Li, Suqing; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin; Guan, Xiaohong

    2011-04-01

    Due to the disadvantages of human and equine rabies immunoglobulin, it is necessary to develop a substitute for HRIG and ERIG, especially for those people living in the developing countries. Because of higher affinity and lower immunogenicity of rabbit's immunoglobulins, anti-rabies immunoglobulins specific to rabies virus were produced in rabbits as a bioreactor, and had been characterized by ELISA, affinity assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), immunocytochemistry, rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). ELISA, affinity assay and IFA showed that rabbit RIG (RRIG) bound specifically to rabies virions. RFFIT result showed that RRIG has neutralization activity. This result was confirmed in vivo in a Kunming mouse challenge model and the protection rate of the treatment with RRIG was higher (25%) than that offered by HRIG when mice were challenged with a lethal RV dose. Our results demonstrate that RRIG is safe and efficacious as a candidate drug to replace rabies immunoglobulin in post-exposure prophylaxis.

  14. Probable Rabies Virus Transmission through Organ Transplantation, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Zhu, Wuyang; Zeng, Jun; He, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Li, Yu; Zhou, Shuwu; Mu, Di; Zhang, Kechun; Yu, Pengcheng; Li, Zhijian; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Xueqiong; Guo, Chun

    2016-01-01

    During July 2015, physicians at a hospital in Beijing, China, diagnosed rabies in 2 patients who had each received a kidney from a common organ donor who had died from acute progressive encephalitis of unknown cause. The patients had rabies incubation periods of 42 and 48 days. Altered mental status developed in both patients and progressively worsened to deep coma within 80 days after transplantation; both patients died. Two other transplant recipients received corneas but remained well after receiving timely rabies prophylaxis. An effective regulatory system for testing donors should be implemented to decrease the occurrence of donor-derived infectious diseases. In addition, health education should be improved to enhance public awareness of transplant-associated infectious diseases. Transplant recipients and other persons with exposure to organs or tissues from donors with rabies must be provided consistent health monitoring and follow-up, including rabies postexposure prophylaxis; any remaining organs and tissues must be quarantined and not transplanted. PMID:27331337

  15. [10 years' of production and use of human rabies immunoglobulin in Yugoslavia].

    PubMed

    Romić, M; Tomović, O; Medić, P; Pelević, S; Sindić, M; Popović, M; Gligorović, V; Bogdanović, G; Mitrović, M; Petrović, M; Stankov, S; Lazarević-Ivanc, L; Lalosević, V; Lalosević, D

    2001-01-01

    Application of the rabies immunoglobuline is a compulsory part of the prophylaxis of rabies in all severe, transdermal lesions caused by rabies infected animals. Sylvatic rabies has spread in the past few years throughout the whole Yugoslavia, and human cases of rabies have also been reported in other East European countries. In order to achieve the highest level of rabies prophylaxis, apart from postinfective rabies vaccination, it is necessary to provide passive immunization using specific antibodies against rabies. After successful immunization of the young, healthy volunteers in 1990, National Blood Transfusion Institute, in cooperation with the Pasteur Institute from Novi Sad, prepared the first quantities of immunized plasma by plasmapheresis procedure and human rabies immunoglobuline. Without national production, sufficient quantities of human rabies immunoglobuline could not be provided, since the price on the world market is rather high (over $1000 per patient).

  16. Molecular epidemiology of rabies epizootics in Colombia: evidence for human and dog rabies associated with bats.

    PubMed

    Páez, Andrés; Nũñez, Constanza; García, Clemencia; Bóshell, Jorge

    2003-04-01

    Three urban rabies outbreaks have been reported in Colombia during the last two decades, one of these is occurring in the Caribbean Region (northern Colombia), while the other two occurred almost simultaneously in Arauca (eastern Colombia) and in the Central Region and ended in 1997. In order to derive phylogenetic relationships between rabies viruses isolated in these three areas, 902 nt cDNA fragments encoding the cytoplasmic domain of protein G and a fragment of protein L were obtained by RT-PCR. These amplicons contained the G-L intergenic region and were sequenced to draw phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic analysis showed three distinct groups of viruses in the study sample. Colombian genetic variant I viruses were isolated in both Arauca and the Central Region. These viruses are apparently extinct in Colombia. Colombian genetic variant II viruses were isolated in the Caribbean Region and are still being transmitted in that area. The third group of viruses consists of viruses isolated from two insectivorous bats, three domestic dogs and a human. According to sequence analysis, the data here indicate that the isolates in this third group are bat rabies virus variants. This finding is the first that associates bats to rabies in Colombian dogs and humans, showing an unsuspected vector threatening animal and public health.

  17. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs.

  18. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  19. [Use of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning in the presence of a palatally-impacted canine].

    PubMed

    Waugh, Robert L

    2014-12-01

    Unerupted permanent canines can present orthodontists with special challenges. Conventional two-dimensional panoramic radiographs identify the presence or absence of unerupted canines and can only help approximate their locations, when used with various classification schemes in attempts to describe their locations and estimate treatment difficulties. This article suggests using three-dimensional cone beam CT imaging as a direct objective method of evaluation and treatment planning, thereby eliminating the need for using a subjective system of classifying palatally-impacted permanent canines.

  20. Vaccine-induced rabies in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes): isolation of vaccine virus in brain tissue and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Hostnik, Peter; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Rihtarič, Danijela; Toplak, Ivan; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-04-01

    Oral vaccination campaigns to eliminate fox rabies were initiated in Slovenia in 1995. In May 2012, a young fox (Vulpes vulpes) with typical rabies signs was captured. Its brain and salivary gland tissues were found to contain vaccine strain SAD B19. The Basic Logical Alignment Search Tool alignment of 589 nucleotides determined from the N gene of the virus isolated from the brain and salivary glands of the affected fox was 100% identical to the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain. Sequence analysis of the N and M genes (4,351 nucleotides) showed two nucleotide modifications at position 1335 (N gene) and 3114 (M gene) in the KC522613 isolate identified in the fox compared to SAD B19.

  1. Rabies: Knowledge and Practices Regarding Rabies in Rural Communities of the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa; Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas

    2016-01-01

    Background The occurrence of outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in Brazil in 2004 and 2005 reinforced the need for further research into this zoonosis. Studies of knowledge and practices related to the disease will help to define strategies for the avoidance of new cases, through the identification of gaps that may affect the preventive practices. Methodology/Principal findings A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 681 residents of twelve communities of northeastern Pará state involved in the 2004 and 2005 outbreaks mentioned above. The objective was to evaluate the local knowledge and practices related to the disease. We found a highly significant difference (p<0.0001) in the knowledge of rabies among education levels, indicating that education is a primary determinant of knowledge on this disease. More than half of the respondents (63%) recognized the seriousness of the zoonosis, and 50% were aware of the importance of bats for its transmission, although few individuals (11%) were familiar with the symptoms, and only 40% knew methods of prevention. Even so, 70% of pet owners maintained their animals vaccinated, and 52% of the respondents bitten by bats had received post-exposure vaccination. Most of the respondents (57%) reported being familiarized with rabies through informal discussions, and only a few (23%) mentioned public health agents as the source of their information. Conclusion/Significance We identified many gaps in the knowledge and practices of the respondents regarding rabies. This may be the result of the reduced participation of public health agents in the transfer of details about the disease. The lack of knowledge may be a direct determinant in the occurrence of new outbreaks. Given these findings, there is a clear need for specific educational initiatives involving the local population and the public health entities, with the primary aim of contributing to the prevention of rabies. PMID:26927503

  2. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  3. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    PubMed

    Minyoo, Abel B; Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul; Lankester, Felix

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere.

  4. Alum adjuvanted rabies DNA vaccine confers 80% protection against lethal 50 LD50 rabies challenge virus standard strain.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajni; Kaur, Manpreet; Saxena, Ankur; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2017-03-03

    Rabies is a serious concern world-wide. Despite availability of rabies vaccines for long; their efficacy, safety, availability and cost effectiveness has been a tremendous issue. This calls for improvement of rabies vaccination strategies. DNA vaccination has immense potential in this regard. The DNA vaccine pgp.LAMP-1 conferred 60% protection to BALB/c mice against 20 LD50 rabies challenge virus standard (CVS) strain challenge. Upon supplementation with Emulsigen-D, the vaccine formulation conferred complete protection against lethal challenge. To assess the feasibility of this vaccine formulation for human use, it was tested along with other FDA approved adjuvants, namely, Alum, Immuvac, Montanide ISA720 VG. Enhanced immune response correlated with high IgG antibody titer, Th2 biased response with a high level of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs) and IgG1/IgG2a ratio >1, observed upon alum supplementation of the rabies DNA vaccine. The total IgG antibody titer was 2IU/ml and total RVNA titer was observed to be 4IU/ml which is eight times higher than the minimum protective titer recommended by WHO. Furthermore, it conferred 80% protection against challenge with 50 LD50 of the rabies CVS strain, conducted in compliance with the potency test for rabies recommended by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA. Previously, we have established pre-clinical safety of this vaccine as per the guidelines of Schedule Y, FDA as well as The European Agency for evaluation of Medicinal Products. The vaccine showed no observable toxicity at the site of injection as well as at systemic level in Wistar rats when administered with 10X recommended dose. Therefore, supplementation of rabies DNA vaccine, pgp.LAMP-1 with alum would lead to development of a non-toxic, efficacious, stable and affordable vaccine that can be used to combat high numbers of fatal rabies infections tormenting developing countries.

  5. Ecology of rabies in Southern Rhodesia

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, J. S.

    1954-01-01

    The spread of rabies since 1950 in Southern Rhodesia is described, and its probable causes analysed; the outbreak is attributed chiefly to the vast domestic-dog population, but cases have been noted among many other species of animal. The difficulties encountered in enforcing general control measures are discussed; however, the advent of Flury-strain avianized vaccine has allowed of a successful inoculation campaign which, in spite of some failure in immunization, is satisfactorily controlling the disease in most of the areas involved. PMID:13182596

  6. The quantization of the Rabi Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, Eva R. J.; Arvanitidis, Athanasios; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2017-03-01

    The Rabi Hamiltonian addresses the proverbial paradigmatic case of a two-level fermionic system coupled to a single bosonic mode. It is expressed by a system of two coupled first-order differential equations in the complex field, which may be rewritten in a canonical form under the Birkhoff transformation. The transformation gives rise to leapfrog recurrence relations, from which the eigenvalues and eigenvectors could be obtained. The interesting feature of this approach is that it generates integer quantum numbers, which rationalize the spectrum by relating the solutions to the Juddian baselines. The relationship with Braak’s integrability claim (Braak 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 100401) is discussed.

  7. Rabi flopping induces spatial demixing dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, E; Strobel, H; Zibold, T; Gross, C; Malomed, B A; Kevrekidis, P G; Oberthaler, M K

    2011-11-04

    We experimentally investigate the mixing and demixing dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of a linear coupling between two internal states. The observed amplitude reduction of the Rabi oscillations can be understood as a result of demixing dynamics of dressed states as experimentally confirmed by reconstructing the spatial profile of dressed state amplitudes. The observations are in quantitative agreement with numerical integration of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations without free parameters, which also reveals the criticality of the dynamics on the symmetry of the system. Our observations demonstrate new possibilities for changing effective atomic interactions and studying critical phenomena.

  8. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  9. Vaccination of small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) against rabies.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Jesse D; Meadows, Anastasia; Murphy, Staci M; Manangan, Jamie; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Faber, Marie-Luise; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-07-01

    Oral vaccination of free-ranging wildlife is a promising technique in rabies control. The small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) is an important reservoir of rabies on several Caribbean islands, but no vaccines have been evaluated for this species. Captive mongooses were used to test the safety and efficacy of the commercially licensed vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) recombinant vaccine and a newly developed genetically engineered oral rabies virus vaccine (SPBNGA-S). In one study using V-RG, no vaccinated animals developed detectable rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies, and all but one died after experimental challenge with rabies virus. In contrast, all animals given SPBNGA-S demonstrated seroconversion within 7 to 14 days after vaccination and survived rabies virus challenge. On the basis of these preliminary results indicating the greater efficacy of SPBNGA-S vs. V-RG vaccine, additional investigations will be necessary to determine the optimal dose and duration of vaccination, as well as incorporation of the SPBNGA-S vaccine into edible bait.

  10. Design and generation of recombinant rabies virus vectors

    PubMed Central

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Callaway, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies viruses, negative-strand RNA viruses, infect neurons through axon terminals and spread transsynaptically in a retrograde direction between neurons. Rabies viruses whose glycoprotein (G) gene is deleted from the genome cannot spread across synapses. Complementation of G in trans, however, enables transsynaptic spreading of G-deleted rabies viruses to directly-connected, presynaptic neurons. Recombinant rabies viruses can encode genes of interest for labeling cells, controlling gene expression, and monitoring or manipulating neural activity. Cre-dependent or bridge-protein-mediated transduction and single-cell electroporation via EnvA/TVA or EnvB/TVB system allow cell-type-specific or single-cell-specific targeting. These rabies virus-based approaches permit the linking of connectivity to cell morphology and circuit function for particular cell types or single cells. Here we describe methods for construction of rabies viral vectors, recovery of G-deleted rabies viruses from cDNA, amplification of the viruses, pseudotyping them with EnvA or EnvB, and concentration and titration of the viruses. The entire protocol takes 6–8 weeks. PMID:23887178

  11. [Technical guideline for human rabies prevention and control (2016)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Li, Y; Chen, R F; Tao, X Y; Yu, P C; Cao, S C; Li, L; Chen, Z H; Zhu, W Y; Yin, W W; Li, Y H; Wang, C L; Yu, H J

    2016-02-01

    In order to promote the prevention and control programs on rabies in our country, to regulate the prevention and disposition of rabies and to reduce the deaths caused by rabies, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has organized a panel of experts, in the reference with Guidelines issued by WHO, American Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and the latest research progress from home and abroad, and compiled this document-"Technical Guidelines for Human Rabies Prevention and Control (2016)". The Guidelines conducted a systematic review on the etiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology of rabies and provided evidence on varieties, mechanisms, effects, side-effects and security of rabies vaccine, as well as on other preparations on passive immunity of its kind, on methods related to prevention and disposition of exposure etc, finally to have come up with the recommendation on the above mentioned various techniques. The guidelines will be used by staff working on prevention and control of rabies from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels, from the departments of outpatient and divisions of infection and emergency control in all the medical institutions. The guideline will be updated and revised, following the research progress from home and abroad.

  12. Epidemiological situation of rabies in Lithuania from 1990 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Zienius, D; Bagdonas, J; Dranseika, A

    2003-05-19

    The epidemiological situation of rabies was investigated in Lithuania. Over the last decade, 2277 cases of rabies were registered among wild and domestic animals (mean number of cases per districts was 44). The highest distribution of rabies was found in the districts of Lazdijai and Utena (116 and 81 cases, respectively), and the lowest in the Svencioniai and Zarasai districts (one and eight cases, respectively). It was found that rabies among wildlife comprised 54% with the majority of cases being registered in foxes (626 cases, 27%) followed by raccoon dogs (470 cases, 21%). Within the last 3 years, cases of rabies among foxes and raccoon dogs increased significantly (three and six times, respectively), compared with the period from 1990 to 1997. Among domestic animals, 46% cases of rabies were registered, with cattle comprising 27%, and the cases among cats and dogs at 9 and 8%, respectively. During the period from 1993 to 1997 in Lithuania, 11,385 of humans were attacked by domestic and wild animals, and 21,173 humans were vaccinated against rabies for prophylactic reasons. Our survey has shown that, during the period from 1997 to 2000, the number of people attacked has increased drastically-31,348 (60%), but only 8021 (18%) of them were vaccinated.

  13. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  14. Is the acetylcholine receptor a rabies virus receptor?

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Burrage, T G; Smith, A L; Crick, J; Tignor, G H

    1982-01-08

    Rabies virus was found on mouse diaphragms and on cultured chick myotubes in a distribution coinciding with that of the acetylcholine receptor. Treatment of the myotubes with alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine before the addition of the virus reduced the number of myotubes that became infected with rabies virus. These findings together suggest that acetylcholine receptors may serve as receptors for rabies virus. The binding of virus to acetylcholine receptors, which are present in high density at the neuromuscular junction, would provide a mechanism whereby the virus could be locally concentrated at sites in proximity to peripheral nerves facilitating subsequent uptake and transfer to the central nervous system.

  15. Rabi oscillations in extreme ultraviolet ionization of atomic argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flögel, Martin; Durá, Judith; Schütte, Bernd; Ivanov, Misha; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations in nonlinear ionization of argon by an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser field produced by high-harmonic generation. We monitor the formation of A r2 + as a function of the time delay between the XUV pulse and an additional near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse, and show that the population of an A r+* intermediate resonance exhibits strong modulations both due to an NIR laser-induced Stark shift and XUV-induced Rabi cycling between the ground state of A r+ and the A r+* excited state. Our experiment represents a direct experimental observation of a Rabi-cycling process in the XUV regime.

  16. Evolutionary history of African mongoose rabies.

    PubMed

    Van Zyl, N; Markotter, W; Nel, L H

    2010-06-01

    Two biotypes or variants of rabies virus (RABV) occur in southern Africa. These variants are respectively adapted to hosts belonging to the Canidae family (the canid variant) and hosts belonging to the Herpestidae family (the mongoose variant). Due to the distinct host adaptation and differences in epidemiology and pathogenesis, it has been hypothesized that the two variants were introduced into Africa at different times. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular phylogeny of representative RABV isolates of the mongoose variant towards a better understanding of the origins of this group. The study was based on an analysis of the full nucleoprotein and glycoprotein gene sequences of a panel of 27 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of this dataset confirmed extended evolutionary adaptation of isolates in specific geographic areas. The evolutionary dynamics of this virus variant was investigated using Bayesian methodology, allowing for rate variation among viral lineages. Molecular clock analysis estimated the age of the African mongoose RABV to be approximately 200 years old, which is in concurrence with literature describing rabies in mongooses since the early 1800 s.

  17. Human rabies--South Carolina, 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-08-16

    On December 3, 2011, a South Carolina woman visited a local emergency department (ED) with an overnight history of shortness of breath, diaphoresis, chills, and intermittent paresthesia. The patient was transferred to a referral hospital, where she became comatose and developed multiorgan failure. The patient did not report a history of an animal bite. However, family members subsequently revealed that bats had been observed in the patient's home during the previous summer. Family members also reported that the patient had sought information on bat removal from a local county service, but was not advised of the risk for rabies associated with bat exposures and was not referred for public health consultation. CDC confirmed infection with a rabies virus variant associated with Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) on December 14, after which the patient received hospice care. She died on December 19. This report summarizes the patient's clinical course and the associated public health investigation. This case highlights the importance of strong partnerships among public health officials and diverse non-health-care partners to ensure appropriate referral of persons exposed to bats in their homes for prompt and appropriate risk assessment, postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) recommendations, and information on safe, effective, and humane bat exclusion methods.

  18. Rabies challenge of captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) following oral administration of a live vaccinia-vectored rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Grosenbaugh, Deborah A; Maki, Joanne L; Rupprecht, Charles E; Wall, Debra K

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-four adult striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were administered the raccoon product formulation of Rabies Vaccine, Live Vaccinia-Vectored (Raboral V-RG, Merial Limited, Athens, Georgia, USA), either by oral instillation or in vaccine-filled coated sachets either as single or multiple doses. A control group remained unvaccinated. Twenty-three of the skunks were challenged 116 days postvaccination with rabies virus (skunk isolate). Six of six naive skunks succumbed to challenge. Four of six skunks that received the vaccine by oral instillation survived challenge. The skunks that did not survive failed to seroconvert following vaccination. None of the skunks that accepted multiple doses of the vaccine offered in coated sachets survived challenge, nor were rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) detected in the sera. Likewise, none of the five skunks ingesting a single sachet developed VNA against rabies. However, in this group one skunk did survive rabies challenge. This preliminary study showed that the vaccinia-vectored oral rabies vaccine Raboral V-RG, as formulated for use in raccoons, is capable of protecting a percentage of skunks against rabies. However, although the fishmeal-coated sachets were readily consumed, subsequent challenge of these animals revealed poor vaccine delivery efficiency.

  19. First European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox teeth following oral rabies vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Demerson, Jean-Michel; Andrieu, Sabrina; Cliquet, Florence

    2012-10-01

    The first European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox (Vulpes vulpes) tooth samples was organized by the European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies. Performance and procedures implemented by member states were compared. These techniques are widely used to monitor bait uptake in European oral rabies vaccination campaigns. A panel of five red fox half-mandibles comprising one weak positive juvenile sample, two positive adult samples, one negative juvenile sample, and one negative adult sample were sent, along with a technical questionnaire, to 12 laboratories participating on a voluntary basis. The results of only three laboratories (25%) were 100% correct. False-negative results were more frequently seen in weak positive juvenile samples (58%) but were infrequent in positive adult samples (4%), probably due to differences in the ease of reading the two groups of teeth. Four laboratories (44%) had correct results for age determination on all samples. Ages were incorrectly identified in both adult and juvenile samples, with 11 and 17% of discordant results, respectively. Analysis of the technical questionnaires in parallel with test results suggested that all laboratories cutting mandible sections between the canine and first premolar obtained false results. All the laboratories using longitudinal rather than transverse sections and those not using a mounting medium also produced false results. Section thickness appeared to affect the results; no mistakes were found in laboratories using sections <150 μm thick. Factors having a potential impact on the success of laboratories were discussed, and recommendations proposed. Such interlaboratory trials underline the importance of using standardized procedures for biomarker detection in oral rabies vaccination campaigns. Several changes can be made to improve analysis quality and increase the comparability of bait uptake frequencies among member states.

  20. Rabies control in rural Africa: Evaluating strategies for effective domestic dog vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kaare, M.; Lembo, T.; Hampson, K.; Ernest, E.; Estes, A.; Mentzel, C.; Cleaveland, S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective vaccination campaigns need to reach a sufficient percentage of the population to eliminate disease and prevent future outbreaks, which for rabies is predicted to be 70%, at a cost that is economically and logistically sustainable. Domestic dog rabies has been increasing across most of sub-Saharan Africa indicating that dog vaccination programmes to date have been inadequate. We compare the effectiveness of a variety of dog vaccination strategies in terms of their cost and coverage in different community settings in rural Tanzania. Central-point (CP) vaccination was extremely effective in agro-pastoralist communities achieving a high coverage (>80%) at a low cost (US$5/dog) and inadequate (<20% coverage); combined approaches using CP and either house-to-house vaccination or trained community-based animal health workers were most effective with coverage exceeding 70%, although costs were still high (>US$6 and >US$4/dog, respectively). No single vaccination strategy is likely to be effective in all populations and therefore alternative approaches must be deployed under different settings. CP vaccination is cost-effective and efficient for the majority of dog populations in rural Tanzania and potentially elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas a combination strategy is necessary in remote pastoralist communities. These results suggest that rabies control is logistically feasible across most of the developing world and that the annual costs of effective vaccination campaigns in Tanzania are likely to be affordable. PMID:18848595

  1. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    PubMed

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  2. Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain.

  3. Human rabies deaths in Africa: breaking the cycle of indifference.

    PubMed

    Dodet, Betty; Tejiokem, Mathurin C; Aguemon, Abdou-Rahman; Bourhy, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease has mobilized the international community against this deadly disease. However, rabies, another deadly disease, is greatly affecting the African continent, with an estimated 25 000 deaths every year. And yet, the disease can be prevented by a vaccine, if necessary with immunoglobulin, even when administered after exposure to the rabies virus. Rabies victims die because of neglect and ignorance, because they are not aware of these life-saving biologicals, or because they cannot access them or do not have the money to pay for them. Breaking the cycle of indifference of rabies deaths in humans in Africa should be a priority of governments, international organizations and all stakeholders involved.

  4. Naturally Acquired Rabies Virus Infections in Wild-Caught Bats

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, Paul; Rudd, Robert; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-caught and apparently healthy Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus fuscus, respectively, were positive for rabies virus (RV) antigen. Conversely, 92% of the grounded T. brasiliensis were positive for RV. Serology performed on captive colony and sick bats reveal an immune response to rabies. This work illustrates the complex interplay between immunity, disease state, and the conundrum of RV maintenance in bats. PMID:21923271

  5. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2003.

    PubMed

    Krebs, John W; Mandel, Eric J; Swerdlow, David L; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-12-15

    During 2003, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the CDC. This represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. More than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). The relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons (36.7%), 2,112 skunks (29.4%), 1,212 bats (16.9%), 456 foxes (6.4%), 321 cats (4.5%), 117 dogs (1.6%), and 98 cattle (1.4%). Compared with cases reported in 2002, the number of cases reported in 2003 decreased among all reporting groups with the exception of cats, dogs, equids, and swine. Ten of the 19 states with enzootic rabies in raccoons, the District of Columbia, and New York City reported decreases in the numbers of rabid raccoons during 2003. Tennessee reported 4 cases of indigenous rabies in raccoons during 2003, becoming the 20th state where rabies in raccoons is known to be enzootic. On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2003 decreased by 13.2% from those reported in 2002. Texas again reported the greatest number (n = 620) of rabid skunks during 2003, as well as the greatest overall state total of rabies cases (909). As in 2002, Texas did not report any cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote variant of the rabies virus, but did report 61 cases associated with the gray fox variant of the virus (compared with 65 cases in 2002). The 1,212 cases of rabies reported in bats during 2003 represented a decline of nearly 12% from the previous year's record high of 1,373 cases for this group of mammals. Cases of rabies reported in foxes.and raccoons declined 10.2% and 8.9%, respectively, during 2003. Rabies among sheep and goats decreased from 15 cases in 2002 to 12 cases in 2003, whereas cases reported in cats, dogs, and equids increased 74

  6. [The campaign against rabies--history and the present state].

    PubMed

    Matouch, O

    1996-03-01

    Rabies is one of the oldest known infectious diseases and with regard to its present prevalence it still remains an important zoonosis. In the submitted paper the author presents data on the historical development of scientific findings on rabies, the important part played by Louis Pasteur and his pupils, the development of the position as regards rabies in the Czech Republic in the past and present time and the role of different animal species. At present we can define in Europe five basic ecological biovariants of rabies associated with specific vector animal species. The role of a dominant vector is held in this country by the fox. Anti-infectious provisions are concentrated mainly on the oral immunization of foxes, preventive immunization of domestic animals and therapeutic and prophylactic provisions in man. In antirabies prophylaxis highly immunogenic and safe tissue vaccines are preferred.

  7. Naturally acquired rabies virus infections in wild-caught bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, April; Gordy, Paul; Rudd, Robert; Jarvis, Jodie A; Bowen, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-caught and apparently healthy Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus fuscus, respectively, were positive for rabies virus (RV) antigen. Conversely, 92% of the grounded T. brasiliensis were positive for RV. Serology performed on captive colony and sick bats reveal an immune response to rabies. This work illustrates the complex interplay between immunity, disease state, and the conundrum of RV maintenance in bats.

  8. Typing of the rabies virus in Chile, 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Yung, V; Favi, M; Fernandez, J

    2012-12-01

    In Chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008. A total of 612 RABV isolates were tested using a panel with eight monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein (N-mAbs) for antigenic typing, and a product of 320-bp of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced from 99 isolates. Typing of the isolates revealed six different antigenic variants but phylogenetic analysis identified four clusters associated with four different bat species. Tadarida brasiliensis bats were confirmed as the main reservoir. This methodology identified several independent rabies enzootics maintained by different species of insectivorous bats in Chile.

  9. Quantum Rabi model in the Brillouin zone with ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felicetti, Simone; Rico, Enrique; Sabin, Carlos; Ockenfels, Till; Koch, Johannes; Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin; Solano, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The quantum Rabi model describes the interaction between a two-level quantum system and a single bosonic mode. We propose a method to perform a quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model, introducing an implementation of the two-level system provided by the occupation of Bloch bands in the first Brillouin zone by ultracold atoms in tailored optical lattices. The effective qubit interacts with a quantum harmonic oscillator implemented in an optical dipole trap. Our realistic proposal allows one to experimentally investigate the quantum Rabi model for extreme parameter regimes, which are not achievable with natural light-matter interactions. When the simulated wave function exceeds the validity region of the simulation, we identify a generalized version of the quantum Rabi model in a periodic phase space.

  10. Rabies: What If I Receive Treatment Outside the United States?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  11. What Is the Rabies Risk for My Pet?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  12. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Rabies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  13. Rabies Exposure: When Should I Seek Medical Attention?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  14. Vaccinating the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus against rabies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M F; Martorelli, L F A; Aires, C C; Barros, R F; Massad, E

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the previous work of indirect oral rabies immunization of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) maintained in captivity, which demonstrated the immunogenicity of the V-RG vaccine (Vaccinia-Rabies Glycoprotein) and indicated that although the results had been encouraging, a new method for concentrating the vaccine should be tested in order to avoid vaccine loss and increase the survival proportion of bats after rabies challenge. In this study, three groups of seven bats each were tested with vaccine concentrated by ultrafiltration through a cellulose membrane. The vaccine was homogenized in Vaseline paste and applied to the back of one vector bat, which was then reintroduced into its group. A dose of 10(5.0) MICLD(50) rabies virus was used by intramuscular route to challenge the bats postvaccination. The survival proportion in the three groups after the challenge was 71.4%, 71.4% and 100%.

  15. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2000. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    PubMed

    2000-07-14

    The purpose of this Compendium is to provide rabies information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Immunization procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  16. Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2001. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    PubMed

    2001-05-25

    The purpose of this compendium is to provide rabies information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Vaccination procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  17. Compendium of Animal Rabies Control, 1999. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    PubMed

    1999-04-02

    The purpose of this Compendium is to provide information on rabies control to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Immunization procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  18. Protection of Non-Human Primates against Rabies with an Adenovirus Recombinant Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H. C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. PMID:24503087

  19. Preliminary evaluation of Raboral V-RG® oral rabies vaccine in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Follmann, Erich; Ritter, Don; Swor, Rhonda; Dunbar, Mike; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-10-01

    We tested the Raboral V-RG® recombinant oral rabies vaccine for its response in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus), the reservoir of rabies virus in the circumpolar North. The vaccine, which is currently the only licensed oral rabies vaccine in the United States, induced a strong antibody response and protected foxes against a challenge of 500,000 mouse intracerebral lethal dose 50% of an Arctic rabies virus variant. However, one unvaccinated control fox survived challenge with rabies virus, either indicating a high resistance of Arctic foxes to rabies infection or a previous exposure that induced immunity. This preliminary study suggested that Raboral V-RG vaccine may be efficacious in Arctic foxes.

  20. Evolutionary History of Rabies in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L.; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007–2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the

  1. STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF RABIES IN INSECTIVOROUS BATS

    PubMed Central

    Sulkin, S. Edward; Krutzsch, Philip H.; Allen, Rae; Wallis, Craig

    1959-01-01

    Studies on the pathogenesis of rabies in two species of experimentally infected insectivorous Chiroptera, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida mexicana), a quasi hibernator, and the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), a deep hibernator, provided evidence that brown adipose tissue may serve as an extraneural site for storage and multiplication of rabies virus. Although the Mexican free-tailed bat proved to be relatively insusceptible to experimental rabies infection, virus was demonstrated in the brown fat of 22 per cent of those animals shown to be infected by viral assay in white Swiss mice. Rabies infection in this species was most evident 20 to 40 days after intramuscular inoculation of virus. Rabies virus was found to be widely distributed in the little brown myotis 9 to 26 days following inoculation and virus concentrations in some of the tissues approached the level of the stock mouse brain virus suspension used in inoculating these bats. The shorter incubation period and higher virus titers in the tissues assayed reflect the increased susceptibility of Myotis lucifugus as compared with the Mexican free-tailed bat. Virus was demonstrated in the brown fat of 30 per cent of the experimentally infected Myotis. In the experimentally infected Myotis lucifugus and in the Syrian hamster which is highly susceptible to rabies infection, rabies virus was isolated more frequently from the brown fat than from the salivary gland indicating that in a susceptible host brown adipose tissue may be as frequent a site of viral proliferation as salivary gland. Since rabies virus was found to persist for long periods of time in the brown fat of experimentally infected bats and was occasionally demonstrated in this tissue alone, it is suggested that brown adipose tissue provides a mechanism by which these animals may serve as reservoirs for this agent in nature. The possibility that similar mechanisms may be involved in the maintenance of other viral agents during interepidemic

  2. Transmission of rabies by bats in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Victor

    1954-01-01

    This article reviews the literature dealing with the role of haematophagous bats in the spread of rabies among cattle in Latin America since 1911, when the association between Desmodontidae and rabies epizootics in Brazil was first suspected. Efforts to control the problem by destruction of the vectors and vaccination of bovines are described, and the suitability of chick-embryo vaccine is considered. PMID:13182599

  3. A generic rabies risk assessment tool to support surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The continued spread of rabies in Indonesia poses a risk to human and animal populations in the remaining free islands, as well as the neighbouring rabies-free countries of Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Here we describe the development of a generic risk assessment tool which can be used to rapidly determine the vulnerability of rabies-free islands, so that scarce resources can be targeted to surveillance activities and the sensitivity of surveillance systems increased. The tool was developed by integrating information on the historical spread of rabies, anthropological studies, and the opinions of local animal health experts. The resulting tool is based on eight critical parameters that can be estimated from the literature, expert opinion, observational studies and information generated from routine surveillance. In the case study presented, results generated by this tool were most sensitive to the probability that dogs are present on private and fishing boats and it was predicted that rabies-infection (one infected case) might occur in a rabies-free island (upper 95% prediction interval) with a volume of 1000 boats movements. With 25,000 boat movements, the median of the probability distribution would be equal to one infected case, with an upper 95% prediction interval of six infected cases. This tool could also be used at the national-level to guide control and eradication plans. An initial recommendation from this study is to develop a surveillance programme to determine the likelihood that boats transport dogs, for example by port surveillance or regularly conducted surveys of fisherman and passenger ferries. However, the illegal nature of dog transportation from rabies-infected to rabies-free islands is a challenge for developing such surveillance.

  4. Animal and Rabies Control in Joint Operations Areas (Working Paper)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-13

    vaccination program (Meslin 2007). Mixed populations of free-ranging dogs, cats, foxes, jackals , or other wildlife species makes U.S. FOBs in JOAs a...prime venue for oral rabies vaccination. Species that are difficult to trap, such as jackals , can be specifically targeted for oral rabies...vaccination. Anecdotal reports from various vector control and preventive medicine groups in Iraq indicate that packs of jackals exist in particular

  5. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-11-07

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  6. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  7. Modeling the Geographic Spread of Rabies in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Zou, Lan; Jin, Zhen; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate how the movement of dogs affects the geographically inter-provincial spread of rabies in Mainland China, we propose a multi-patch model to describe the transmission dynamics of rabies between dogs and humans, in which each province is regarded as a patch. In each patch the submodel consists of susceptible, exposed, infectious, and vaccinated subpopulations of both dogs and humans and describes the spread of rabies among dogs and from infectious dogs to humans. The existence of the disease-free equilibrium is discussed, the basic reproduction number is calculated, and the effect of moving rates of dogs between patches on the basic reproduction number is studied. To investigate the rabies virus clades lineages, the two-patch submodel is used to simulate the human rabies data from Guizhou and Guangxi, Hebei and Fujian, and Sichuan and Shaanxi, respectively. It is found that the basic reproduction number of the two-patch model could be larger than one even if the isolated basic reproduction number of each patch is less than one. This indicates that the immigration of dogs may make the disease endemic even if the disease dies out in each isolated patch when there is no immigration. In order to reduce and prevent geographical spread of rabies in China, our results suggest that the management of dog markets and trades needs to be regulated, and transportation of dogs has to be better monitored and under constant surveillance. PMID:26020234

  8. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance.

    PubMed

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Farnsworth, Matthew L; O'Shea, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Smith, David L; Stanley, Thomas R; Ellison, Laura E; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-21

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  9. Possible rabies exposures in Peace Corps volunteers, 2011.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kira; Jentes, Emily S; Charles, Myrna; Johnson, Katherine J; Petersen, Brett; Lamias, Mark J; Blanton, Jesse D; Sotir, Mark J; Brunette, Gary W

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed Peace Corps Medical Officers (PCMOs) to determine the frequency of and responses to possible rabies exposures of U.S. Peace Corps volunteers (PCVs). Surveys were sent to 56 PCMOs serving in countries with moderate or high rabies vaccine recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), of which 38 (68%) responded. Thirty-seven PCMOs reported that, of 4,982 PCVs, 140 (3%) experienced possible rabies exposures. Of these, 125 (89%) had previously received rabies vaccination, 129 (92%) presented with adequately cleansed wounds, and 106 (76%) were deemed to require and were given post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Of 35 respondents, 30 (86%) reported that rabies vaccine was always accessible to PCVs in their country within 24 hours. Overall, the Peace Corps is successful at preventing and treating possible rabies exposures. However, this study identified a few gaps in policy implementation. The Peace Corps should continue and strengthen efforts to provide education, preexposure vaccination, and PEP to PCVs.

  10. The current state of rabies prevention in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lontai, I

    1997-01-01

    In Europe, from the late 1970s, the main reservoirs of rabies virus have been wild animals, mainly foxes, except in Turkey, where dog rabies account for almost all cases. Between 1977 and 1994, 198 human rabies cases were reported in Europe. In most of these cases vaccination had not been performed. In Europe, both tissue culture and nerve tissue vaccines are used with or without rabies immunoglobulin or serum, though the tissue culture vaccines have largely replaced the nerve tissue vaccines. In Hungary, where immune serum or immunoglobulin is not prescribed, no cases of human rabies among actively vaccinated individuals have been reported in the last 40 years of observation. There have, however, been two cases in which the cat, the source of infection, proved to be negative for rabies using both the fluorescent antibody and mouse inoculation tests, and therefore vaccination either did not start or was interrupted. These cases clearly question the recommendation, that a report from a reliable laboratory, indicating negative results justify cessation of treatment.

  11. Intake and stability of a rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Maciulskis, P; Lukauskas, K; Milius, J; Jacevicius, E; Kiudulas, V; Jokimas, J; Pockevicius, A

    2008-01-01

    The intake and stability of rabies vaccine baits were studied over a two week period under field conditions. High intake of vaccine baits was observed in the spring and autumn. In the spring, the intake of vaccine baits lasted almost two weeks while in the autumn vaccine baits were consumed over the first days following distribution. Differences in bait stability were observed after exposure to ambient temperatures. Baits were more stable in a forest environment than on the edge of a forest. Deformation and disintegration of bait casing occurred with some baits at the beginning of trial. Rainy weather was probably detrimental to bait casing stability. Vaccine titres were stable for nine days in the forest and six days on the edge of a forest in the spring, while results of the study make it possible to predict that vaccine titres may have decreased rapidly in the autumn. Laboratory results on bait stability were different from those obtained in the field.

  12. Epidemic and maintenance of rabies in Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) indicated by epidemiology and the molecular signatures of rabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Ye; Hou, Yanli; Zhao, Jinghui; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Hu, Rongliang

    2013-06-01

    An epidemic of Chinese ferret badger-associated human rabies was investigated in Wuyuan county, Jiangxi province and rabies viruses isolates from ferret badgers in different districts in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces were sequenced with their nucleotides and amino acids and aligned for epidemiological analysis. The results showed that the human rabies in Wuyuan are only associated with ferret badger bites; the rabies virus can be isolated in a high percentage of ferret badgers in the epidemic areas in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces; the isolates share the same molecular features in nucleotides and have characteristic amino acid signatures, i.e., 2 sites in the nucleoprotein and 3 sites in the glycoprotein, that are distinct from virus isolates from dogs in the same region. We conclude that rabies in Chinese ferret badgers has formed an independent transmission cycle and ferret badgers may serve as another important rabies reservoir independent of dog rabies in China.

  13. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  14. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  15. Population Structure of Two Rabies Hosts Relative to the Known Distribution of Rabies Virus Variants in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Elizabeth W.; Renshaw, Benjamin; Clement, Christopher J.; Himschoot, Elizabeth A.; Hundertmark, Kris J.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    For pathogens that infect multiple species the distinction between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts is often difficult. In Alaska, three variants of the arctic rabies virus exist with distinct spatial distributions. We test the hypothesis that rabies virus variant distribution corresponds to the population structure of the primary rabies hosts in Alaska, arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and red foxes (V. vulpes) in order to possibly distinguish reservoir and spill over hosts. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and nine microsatellites to assess population structure in those two species. mtDNA structure did not correspond to rabies virus variant structure in either species. Microsatellite analyses gave varying results. Bayesian clustering found 2 groups of arctic foxes in the coastal tundra region, but for red foxes it identified tundra and boreal types. Spatial Bayesian clustering and spatial principal components analysis identified 3 and 4 groups of arctic foxes, respectively, closely matching the distribution of rabies virus variants in the state. Red foxes, conversely, showed eight clusters comprising 2 regions (boreal and tundra) with much admixture. These results run contrary to previous beliefs that arctic fox show no fine-scale spatial population structure. While we cannot rule out that the red fox is part of the maintenance host community for rabies in Alaska, the distribution of virus variants appears to be driven primarily by the artic fox Therefore we show that host population genetics can be utilized to distinguish between maintenance and spillover hosts when used in conjunction with other approaches. PMID:26661691

  16. Population structure of two rabies hosts relative to the known distribution of rabies virus variants in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Elizabeth W; Renshaw, Benjamin; Clement, Christopher J; Himschoot, Elizabeth A; Hundertmark, Kris J; Hueffer, Karsten

    2016-02-01

    For pathogens that infect multiple species, the distinction between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts is often difficult. In Alaska, three variants of the arctic rabies virus exist with distinct spatial distributions. We tested the hypothesis that rabies virus variant distribution corresponds to the population structure of the primary rabies hosts in Alaska, arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to possibly distinguish reservoir and spillover hosts. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and nine microsatellites to assess population structure in those two species. mtDNA structure did not correspond to rabies virus variant structure in either species. Microsatellite analyses gave varying results. Bayesian clustering found two groups of arctic foxes in the coastal tundra region, but for red foxes it identified tundra and boreal types. Spatial Bayesian clustering and spatial principal components analysis identified 3 and 4 groups of arctic foxes, respectively, closely matching the distribution of rabies virus variants in the state. Red foxes, conversely, showed eight clusters comprising two regions (boreal and tundra) with much admixture. These results run contrary to previous beliefs that arctic fox show no fine-scale spatial population structure. While we cannot rule out that the red fox is part of the maintenance host community for rabies in Alaska, the distribution of virus variants appears to be driven primarily by the arctic fox. Therefore, we show that host population genetics can be utilized to distinguish between maintenance and spillover hosts when used in conjunction with other approaches.

  17. Rabies virus interaction with various cell lines is independent of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Reagan, K J; Wunner, W H

    1985-01-01

    Rabies virus infects most cells in vitro. The presence of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the plasma membrane of various cell lines is not an obligate factor for rabies virus susceptibility of those cells.

  18. Infection of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum of a skunk experimentally infected with street rabies virus.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, A C; Phelan, C C; Rossiter, J P

    2000-01-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus and glial cell infection is not prominent in the central nervous system (CNS). Paraffin-embedded tissues from the cerebella of skunks experimentally infected with either a skunk salivary gland isolate of street rabies virus or the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus were examined with immunoperoxidase staining for rabies virus antigen by using an anti-rabies virus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody. A skunk infected with street rabies virus showed prominent infection of Bergmann glia. Although infected Purkinje cells were observed, they usually demonstrated a relatively small amount of antigen in their perikarya. A CVS-infected skunk showed many intensely labeled Purkinje cells and a relatively small number of infected Bergmann glia. These findings indicate that although rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus, street rabies virus strains do not always demonstrate strict neuronotropism in the central nervous system. Images Figure 1. PMID:11041500

  19. Skunk and raccoon rabies in the eastern United States: temporal and spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Marta A; Curns, Aaron T; Rupprecht, Charles E; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Krebs, John W; Childs, James E

    2003-09-01

    Since 1981, an epizootic of raccoon rabies has spread throughout the eastern United States. A concomitant increase in reported rabies cases in skunks has raised concerns that an independent maintenance cycle of rabies virus in skunks could become established, affecting current strategies of wildlife rabies control programs. Rabies surveillance data from 1981 through 2000 obtained from the health departments of 11 eastern states were used to analyze temporal and spatial characteristics of rabies epizootics in each species. Spatial analysis indicated that epizootics in raccoons and skunks moved in a similar direction from 1990 to 2000. Temporal regression analysis showed that the number of rabid raccoons predicted the number of rabid skunks through time, with a 1-month lag. In areas where the raccoon rabies virus variant is enzootic, spatio-temporal analysis does not provide evidence that this rabies virus variant is currently cycling independently among skunks.

  20. Infection of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum of a skunk experimentally infected with street rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A C; Phelan, C C; Rossiter, J P

    2000-10-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus and glial cell infection is not prominent in the central nervous system (CNS). Paraffin-embedded tissues from the cerebella of skunks experimentally infected with either a skunk salivary gland isolate of street rabies virus or the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus were examined with immunoperoxidase staining for rabies virus antigen by using an anti-rabies virus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody. A skunk infected with street rabies virus showed prominent infection of Bergmann glia. Although infected Purkinje cells were observed, they usually demonstrated a relatively small amount of antigen in their perikarya. A CVS-infected skunk showed many intensely labeled Purkinje cells and a relatively small number of infected Bergmann glia. These findings indicate that although rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus, street rabies virus strains do not always demonstrate strict neuronotropism in the central nervous system.

  1. Evaluation of the first oral rabies vaccination campaign of the red foxes in Greece.

    PubMed

    Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Tasioudi, Konstantia E; Tzani, Myrsini; Konstantinidis, Athanasios; Plevraki, Aikaterini; Iliadou, Peristera; Kostoglou, Petroula; Kaimaras, Dimitrios; Doudounakis, Spyridon; Mangana-Vougiouka, Olga

    2016-01-02

    Following the late 2012 recurrence of rabies in wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central and north-western Greece, the first oral fox vaccination campaign co-financed by the European Union (EU) and the Greek state budget, was implemented. Initially, it involved 24 regional units of the Greek territory during the period October-December 2013. Vaccine-baits were aerially distributed by fixed-wing aircrafts. Vaccines were scattered along parallel flight paths 500m apart in order to optimize aerial missions and achieve homogeneous distribution. A geographical information system was used to objectively evaluate bait distribution. This system identified areas of inadequate bait density that would require additional flights. A total number of 1,504,821 baits were distributed covering an area of 54,584.29km(2). To assess the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaign a monitoring program was introduced, which entailed examination of serum samples and canine teeth derived from red foxes collected in the field. The laboratory analysis revealed 60% seropositivity and detection of tetracycline biomarker in 70% of the foxes tested.

  2. Recombinant rabies virus expressing IFNα1 enhanced immune responses resulting in its attenuation and stronger immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifei; Tian, Qin; Xu, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xianfeng; Luo, Jun; Mo, Weiyu; Peng, Jiaojiao; Niu, Xuefeng; Luo, Yongwen; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that type 1 interferons (IFNs) exert multiple biological effects on both innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, we investigated the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing canine interferon α1 (rHEP-CaIFNα1). It was shown that Kun Ming (KM) mice that received a single intramuscular immunization with rHEP-CaIFNα1 had an earlier increase and a higher level of virus-neutralizing antibody titers compared with immunization of the parent HEP-Flury. A challenge experiment further confirmed that more mice that were immunized with rHEP-CaIFNα1 survived compared with mice immunized with the parent virus. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that rHEP-CaIFNα1 induced a stronger innate immune response, especially the type 1 IFN response. Flow cytometry was conducted to show that rHEP-CaIFNα1 recruited more activated B cells in lymph nodes and CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood, which is beneficial to achieve virus clearance in the early infective stage.

  3. Rabies in an Arctic fox on the Svalbard archipelago, Norway, January 2011.

    PubMed

    Orpetveit, I; Ytrehus, B; Vikoren, T; Handeland, K; Mjos, A; Nissen, S; Blystad, H; Lund, A

    2011-02-17

    We report a case of rabies in an Arctic fox. In January 2011 a fox attacked dogs belonging to a meteorological station in the Svalbard archipelago, Norway. Rabies virus was detected in the fox's brain post-mortem. The dogs had been vaccinated against rabies and their antibody levels were protective. Post-exposure prophylaxis was administered to staff at the station. Rabies vaccination is recommended for inhabitants and visitors to the Arctic who may be in contact with wild animals.

  4. Improved PCR Methods for Detection of African Rabies and Rabies-Related Lyssaviruses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Coertse, Jessica; Weyer, Jacqueline; Nel, Louis H.; Markotter, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Eleven different lyssavirus species, four of which occur on the African continent, are presently recognized. These viruses cause rabies, the burden of which is highest in the developing world, where routine laboratory diagnosis is often not available. From an epidemiological and control perspective, it is necessary that diagnostic methods detect the diversity of lyssaviruses present in different regions of the world. A published and widely used heminested reverse transcription-PCR (hnRT-PCR) was evaluated for its ability to detect a panel of diverse African lyssaviruses. Due to the limitations experienced for this assay, an alternative hnRT-PCR was developed. The new assay was found to be accurate and sensitive in the detection of African lyssavirus RNA in a variety of clinical specimens. The assay was further adapted to a real-time PCR platform to allow rapid, one-step, quantitative, and single-probe detection, and an internal control for the verification of sample preparation was included. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was 10 RNA copies per reaction, with inter- and intra-assay variability below 4%. Subsequently, in demonstrating utility, both assays were successfully applied to antemortem rabies diagnosis in humans. We believe that the quantitative real-time PCR assay could find application as a routine confirmatory test for rabies diagnosis in the future and that it will serve as a valuable research tool in the biology of African lyssaviruses. Alternatively, the hnRT-PCR assay can be used in laboratories that do not have access to expensive real-time PCR equipment for sensitive diagnosis of lyssaviruses. PMID:20810772

  5. 77 FR 49409 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental... with the proposed field trial to test the safety and efficacy of an experimental oral rabies vaccine....3 wildlife rabies vaccine in New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Vermont, and West Virginia,...

  6. 76 FR 56731 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental... rabies vaccination field trial in West Virginia. Based on its finding of no significant impact, the... be prepared. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Dennis Slate, Rabies Program Coordinator,...

  7. 78 FR 49444 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an... relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Vermont, ] and West.... Richard Chipman, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive, Suite 7,...

  8. Rabies Virus Maintained by Dogs in Humans and Terrestrial Wildlife, Ceará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Cecília C.; de Morais, Nélio B.; Carrieri, Maria Luíza; Rolim, Benedito N.; Silva, Lucia M.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Durigon, Edison L.; de Mattos, Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Rabies viruses circulating in Ceará, Brazil, were identified by molecular analysis to be related to variants maintained by dogs, bats, and other wildlife. Most of these viruses are associated with human rabies cases. We document the emergence of a rabies virus variant responsible for an independent epidemic cycle in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). PMID:17326958

  9. Rabies vaccination compliance following introduction of the triennial vaccination interval--the Texas experience.

    PubMed

    Rogers, C L

    2011-06-01

    In 2003 the Texas Board of Health approved a modification to the Texas Administrative Code that permitted pet owners to have their dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) vaccinated against rabies every 3 years, provided a triennial vaccine was used. The change had been opposed by hundreds in the veterinary community, some concerned that its implementation would be followed by a decrease in rabies vaccination rates. To determine if this decrease had occurred, rabies vaccination rates for 4 years before and after migration to the 3-year vaccination interval were examined. Data for dogs and cats, ≥ 4 months of age, were collected from the Texas Department of Health Rabies Incident Report database. Each animal's record included its current rabies vaccination status. The number of animals that were currently vaccinated against rabies was tallied and the percent vaccinated was calculated. From 1999 through 2002, 46% of dogs were vaccinated against rabies. From 2004 through 2007, 56% of dogs were vaccinated against rabies. From 1999 to 2002, 18% of cats were vaccinated against rabies. From 2004 to 2007, 30% of cats were vaccinated against rabies. There has been a significant increase in the numbers of dogs (P < 0.001), and cats (P < 0.001), vaccinated against rabies since the introduction of the triennial vaccination interval. This observational study documents the positive changes in rabies vaccination rates following migration from a 1-year to 3-year vaccination interval.

  10. Negative effects of a disulfide bond mismatch in anti-rabies G protein single-chain antibody variable fragment FV57.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ye; Gu, Tiejun; Zhang, Xizhen; Jiang, Chunlai; Yuan, Ruosen; Li, Zhuang; Wang, Dandan; Chen, Xiaoxu; Wu, Chunlai; Chen, Yan; Wu, Yongge; Kong, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Rabies virus (RV) causes a fatal infectious disease requiring efficient post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which includes a rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv), a small engineered antibody fragment derived from an antibody variable heavy chain and light chain, has the potential to replace the current application of RIG. In previous studies, we constructed and evaluated an anti-rabies virus G protein scFv (FV57) based on the monoclonal antibody CR57. Of the five cysteines in FV57, four are linked in intra-chain disulfide bonds (Cys-VH28/Cys-VH98 and Cys-VL16/Cys-VL84), and one is free (Cys-VL85). However, the thiol in Cys-VL85 neighboring Cys-VL84 in the CDR3 of the light chain is likely to mismatch with the thiol in Cys-VL16 during the renaturing process. In order to study effects of the mismatched disulfide bond, Cys-VL85 and Cys-VL84 of FV57 were mutated to serine to construct mutants FV57(VL85S) and FV57(VL84S). Furthermore, the disulfide bonds in the light chain of FV57, FV57(VL85S) and FV57(VL84S) were deleted by mutating Cys-VL16 to serine. All mutants were prepared and evaluated along with the original FV57. The results indicated that the mismatched disulfide bond of FV57 linking the light chain FR1 and CDR3 would confer deleterious negative effects on its activity against RV, likely due to spatial hindrance in the light chain CDR3. Moreover, avoidance of the disulfide bond mismatch provided an additional 30% protective efficacy against RV infection in the mouse RV challenge model. Thus, modifications of FV57 to eliminate the disulfide bond mismatch may provide a candidate therapeutic agent for effective PEP against rabies.

  11. Noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications (incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain) and result in a more popular procedure. This study builds upon previously reported ex vivo tissue studies by exploring acute and short-term chronic in vivo canine studies. Isolation of the canine vas was achieved using a conventional vas ring clamp method. No perforation of the scrotal skin was necessary to occlude the vas. Laser radiation with a wavelength of 1075 nm, average power of 11.2 W, 500-ms pulse duration, 0.5 Hz pulse rate, and 3-mm-diameter spot was synchronized with cryogen spray cooling of the scrotal skin surface in a total of 8 dogs (n = 16 vasa) for a treatment time of 60 s. Burst pressure measurements were conducted at Days 0 and 21 (n = 8 vasa each day) to quantify the strength of vas closure. The vas was successfully thermally occluded in 15/16 (94%) procedures with 14/15 (93%) vas recording burst pressures above ejaculation pressure. One vas was not present, and another vas recorded a bursting pressure below ejaculation pressure. The coagulated vas bursting pressure averaged 283 +/- 34 mm Hg at Day 0 and 260 +/- 77 mm Hg at Day 21, significantly higher than reported vas ejaculation pressures of 136 +/- 29 mm Hg. Minor scrotal skin burns were observed during the recovery period. Noninvasive thermal occlusion of the vas is feasible in an in vivo canine model. Elimination of minor skin burns and longer term chronic in vivo canine studies are needed to confirm azospermia after vas occlusion without recanalization.

  12. The phylodynamics of the rabies virus in the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Lukashev, Alexander N.; Poleshchuk, Elena M.; Dedkov, Vladimir G.; Tkachev, Sergey E.; Sidorov, Gennadiy N.; Karganova, Galina G.; Galkina, Irina V.; Shchelkanov, Mikhail Yu.; Shipulin, German A.

    2017-01-01

    Near complete rabies virus N gene sequences (1,110 nt) were determined for 82 isolates obtained from different regions of Russia between 2008 and 2016. These sequences were analyzed together with 108 representative GenBank sequences from 1977–2016 using the Bayesian coalescent approach. The timing of the major evolutionary events was estimated. Most of the isolates represented the steppe rabies virus group C, which was found over a vast geographic region from Central Russia to Mongolia and split into three groups (C0-C2) with discrete geographic prevalence. A single strain of the steppe rabies virus lineage was isolated in the far eastern part of Russia (Primorsky Krai), likely as a result of a recent anthropogenic introduction. For the first time the polar rabies virus group A2, previously reported in Alaska, was described in the northern part of European Russia and at the Franz Josef Land. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all currently circulating rabies virus groups in the Russian Federation were introduced within the few last centuries, with most of the groups spreading in the 20th century. The dating of evolutionary events was highly concordant with the historical epidemiological data. PMID:28225771

  13. Efficacy of Favipiravir (T-705) in Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Noguchi, Kazuko; Komeno, Takashi; Furuta, Yousuke; Nishizono, Akira

    2016-04-15

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and no antiviral drugs for RABV are currently available. We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant, 3-4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved morbidity and mortality among RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 hour after inoculation. T-705 significantly reduced the rate of virus positivity in the brain. Furthermore, the effectiveness of T-705 was comparable to that of equine rabies virus immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against RABV and may serve as a potential alternative to rabies immunoglobulin in rabies postexposure prophylaxis.

  14. Antigenic diversity and distribution of rabies virus in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Hernández-Rodríguez, Gustavo; Juárez-Islas, Victor; Meléndez-Félix, Alejandra; Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Velázquez-Monroy, Oscar; Flisser, Ana

    2002-03-01

    Rabies remains a public health problem in the Americas because of the great diversity of wild reservoirs that maintain the virus in nature. Here we report the antigenic characterization of 254 rabies viruses isolated from 148 nonreservoir and 106 reservoir hosts collected in 27 states of Mexico. Nine out of 11 antigenic variants previously reported in the United States were detected in Mexico by using the limited panel of monoclonal antibodies donated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some rabies virus variants were isolated from their natural reservoirs, which were also taxonomically identified. Terrestrial reservoirs included stray dogs with V1, Urocyon cineroargenteus (gray foxes) with V7, and two subspecies of Spilogale putorius (spotted skunks) with different viral variants (V8 and V10). Aerial hosts included Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana and Desmodus rotundus, which harbored V9 and V4 and harbored V11, respectively. All variants, with the exception of V9, were isolated from nonreservoir hosts, while V3, V4, and V5 were not isolated from their natural reservoirs but only from livestock. Rabies virus antigenic typing allowed us to determine rabies reservoirs and their distribution in Mexico, data which will probably improve prevention and control of the illness in humans and in the reservoir hosts.

  15. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  16. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  17. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  19. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  20. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  1. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  2. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  3. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  4. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  5. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Laura; Biggeri, Annibale; Carbone, Sabrina; Musella, Vincenzo; Catelan, Dolores; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Background Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts) by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both a perennial nuisance and an important health issue. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares and sandpits may be an important source of human infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of both canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and presence of canine parasitic elements, with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A regular grid of sub-areas (1 km × 700 m) was overlaid on the city map using a Geographical Information System (GIS). In each sub-area the straightest 1 km transect was drawn and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Between February and May 2005 canine faeces were counted along the 1 km transects in 143 sub-areas, and 415 canine faecal samples were collected and submitted to coprological examinations. Negative binomial regression models and Gaussian random effects models were used to analyze the association between faeces count and human population density taking into account for extraPoisson variability. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between positivity to parasitic elements and number of canine faeces. Results Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6%) contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9%) canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between positivity to parasitic

  6. Antigen profiling analysis of vaccinia virus injected canine tumors: oncolytic virus efficiency predicted by boolean models.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Alexander; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Adelfinger, Marion; Nolte, Ingo; Dandekar, Thomas; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe for the first time the use of dynamic boolean modeling for tumor growth prediction of vaccinia virus GLV-1h68-injected canine tumors including canine mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), canine mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), canine prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and canine soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). Additionally, the STSA-1 xenografted mice were injected with either LIVP 1.1.1 or LIVP 5.1.1 vaccinia virus strains.   Antigen profiling data of the four different vaccinia virus-injected canine tumors were obtained, analyzed and used to calculate differences in the tumor growth signaling network by type and tumor type. Our model combines networks for apoptosis, MAPK, p53, WNT, Hedgehog, TK cell, Interferon, and Interleukin signaling networks. The in silico findings conform with in vivo findings of tumor growth. Boolean modeling describes tumor growth and remission semi-quantitatively with a good fit to the data obtained for all cancer type variants. At the same time it monitors all signaling activities as a basis for treatment planning according to antigen levels. Mitigation and elimination of VACV- susceptible tumor types as well as effects on the non-susceptible type CT1258 are predicted correctly. Thus the combination of Antigen profiling and semi-quantitative modeling optimizes the therapy already before its start.

  7. Persistence of Rabies Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies after Vaccination of Rural Population following Vampire Bat Rabies Outbreak in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Rita; Jusot, Viviane; Houillon, Guy; Rasuli, Anvar; Martorelli, Luzia; Kataoka, Ana Paula; Mechlia, Mohamed Ben; Le Guern, Anne-Sophie; Rodrigues, Liliam; Assef, Rhomero; Maestri, Alvino; Bosch-Castells, Valérie; Tordo, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Background Animal control measures in Latin America have decreased the incidence of urban human rabies transmitted by dogs and cats; currently most cases of human rabies are transmitted by bats. In 2004–2005, rabies outbreaks in populations living in rural Brazil prompted widespread vaccination of exposed and at-risk populations. More than 3,500 inhabitants of Augusto Correa (Pará State) received either post-exposure (PEP) or pre-exposure (PrEP) prophylaxis. This study evaluated the persistence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) annually for 4 years post-vaccination. The aim was to evaluate the impact of rabies PrEP and PEP in a population at risk living in a rural setting to help improve management of vampire bat exposure and provide additional data on the need for booster vaccination against rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings This prospective study was conducted in 2007 through 2009 in a population previously vaccinated in 2005; study participants were followed-up annually. An RVNA titer >0.5 International Units (IU)/mL was chosen as the threshold of seroconversion. Participants with titers ≤0.5 IU/mL or Equivalent Units (EU)/mL at enrollment or at subsequent annual visits received booster doses of purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). Adherence of the participants from this Amazonian community to the study protocol was excellent, with 428 of the 509 (84%) who attended the first interview in 2007 returning for the final visit in 2009. The long-term RVNA persistence was good, with 85–88.0% of the non-boosted participants evaluated at each yearly follow-up visit remaining seroconverted. Similar RVNA persistence profiles were observed in participants originally given PEP or PrEP in 2005, and the GMT of the study population remained >1 IU/mL 4 years after vaccination. At the end of the study, 51 subjects (11.9% of the interviewed population) had received at least one dose of booster since their vaccination in 2005. Conclusions

  8. Influence of oral rabies vaccine bait density on rabies seroprevalence in wild raccoons.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Andrew C; Krogwold, Roger A; Wittum, Thomas E; Rupprecht, Charles E; Algeo, Timothy P; Slate, Dennis; Smith, Kathleen A; Hale, Robert L; Nohrenberg, Gary A; Lovell, Charles D; Niezgoda, Mike; Montoney, Andrew J; Slemons, Richard D

    2009-11-27

    The effect of different oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait densities (75, 150, and 300 baits/km(2)) on the seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs) in raccoons (Procyon lotor) was assessed at a 15% seroprevalence difference threshold in rural areas of northeast Ohio. Results (n=588 raccoons) indicated that seropositivity for RVNAs was associated with both bait density and bait campaign frequency. Associations were not detected for raccoon gender, age, or macro-habitat. The odds of being seropositive were greater for raccoons originating from 300 bait/km(2) treatment areas relative to those coming from the 75 bait/km(2) areas (odds ratio [OR]=4.4, probability [P]<0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.4-7.9), while accounting for cumulative ORV campaigns. No statistical advantage in seroprevalence was detected when comparing 150-75 baits/km(2). These results indicate that a relatively extreme bait density when evenly distributed may be necessary to obtain a significant increase in seroprevalence. Higher bait densities may be more appropriate and less costly to address focused outbreaks than labor intensive trap-vaccinate-release and local population reduction campaigns. Finally, dramatic increases in seroprevalence of RVNA were not observed in raccoons between sequential, semi-annual campaigns, yet cumulative ORV campaigns were associated with gradual increases in seroprevalence.

  9. Rabi multi-sector reservoir simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Bruijnzeels, C.; O`Halloran, C.

    1995-12-31

    To ensure optimum ultimate recovery of the 46 meter thick oil rim of the Rabi Field in Gabon, a full field simulation model was required. Due to it`s size and complexity, with local cusping, coning and geological circumstances dominating individual well behavior, a single full field model would be too large for existing hardware. A method was developed to simulate the full field with 5 separate sector models, whilst allowing the development in one sector model to have an effect on the boundary conditions of another sector. In this manner, the 13 x 4.5 km field could be simulated with a horizontal well spacing down to 175 meter. This paper focuses on the method used to attach single 3-phase tank cells to a sector simulation grid in order to represent non-simulated parts of the field. It also describes the history matching methodology and how to run a multisector model in forecasting mode. This method can be used for any reservoir, where size and complexity require large reservoir simulation models that normally could not be modeled within the constraints of available computer facilities. Detailed studies can be conducted on specific parts of a field, whilst allowing for dynamic flow and pressure effects caused by the rest of the field.

  10. PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RABIES VIRUS IN FERRET BADGERS ASSOCIATED WITH A RABIES OUTBREAK IN TAIWAN.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hue-Ying; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Inoue, Satoshi; Chan, Fang-Tse; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Pang, Victor Fei

    2016-01-01

    Until Rabies virus (RABV) infection in Taiwan ferret badgers (TWFB; Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) was diagnosed in mid-June 2013, Taiwan had been considered rabies free for >50 yr. Although rabies has also been reported in ferret badgers in China, the pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigens of ferret badger-associated rabies have not been described. We performed a comprehensive pathologic study and molecular detection of rabies virus in three necropsied rabid TWFBs and evaluated archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of six other TWFBs necropsied during 2004 and 2012. As in other RABV-infected species, the characteristic pathologic changes in TWFBs were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, and the formation of typical intracytoplasmic Negri bodies, with the brain stem most affected. There was also variable spongiform degeneration, primarily in the perikaryon of neurons and neuropil, in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brain stem. In nonnervous system tissues, representative lesions included adrenal necrosis and lymphocytic interstitial sialadenitis. Immunohistochemical staining and fluorescent antibody test demonstrated viral antigens in the perikaryon of the neurons and axonal or dendritic processes throughout the nervous tissue and in the macrophages in various tissues. Similar to raccoons (Procyon lotor) and skunks (Mephitidae), the nervous tissue of rabid TWFBs displayed widely dispersed lesions, RABV antigens, and large numbers of Negri bodies. We traced the earliest rabid TWFB case back to 2004.

  11. Feasibility of reducing rabies immunoglobulin dosage for passive immunization against rabies: results of In vitro and In vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ashwin, Belludi Yajaman; Sudarshan, Sampada

    2013-09-01

    Passive immunization is a crucial parameter for prevention of human rabies. Presently as World Health Organization (WHO) strongly advocates local infiltration of rabies immunoglobulin in and around the bite wound, we feel that there is no basis for calculating the dose of immunoglobulin based on body weight. Keeping this in view we conducted both in vitro and in vivo studies to know whether the dose of immunoglobulin can be reduced and still obtain complete neutralization of the virus. In vitro neutralization studies were conducted using CVS strain of virus and BHK 21 cells. In vivo experiments were conducted in 4 weeks old Swiss albino mice by initial challenge with CVS followed by infiltration with increasing dilutions of either human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIG). In vitro studies showed that a dose of 100 FFD 50 of CVS was neutralized by increasing dilution of both HRIG and ERIG and 100% neutralization was observed with HRIG and ERIG in as low quantities as 0.025 IU. In mice studies there was 100% survival of mice infiltrated with 0.025 IU of both HRIG and ERIG compared with 100% mortality in mice infiltrated with normal saline. These results suggest that it is possible to reduce the dose of rabies immunoglobulins by at least 16 times the presently advocated dose. These findings needs to be further evaluated using larger animal models and street viruses prevalent in nature but cannot serve as recommendations for use of RIG for passive immunization in humans.

  12. Observation of Broadband Time-Dependent Rabi Shifting in Microplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, Ryan; Filin, Alex; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.

    2009-11-13

    Coherent broadband radiation in the form of Rabi sidebands is observed when a ps probe laser propagates through a weakly ionized, electronically excited microplasma generated in the focus of an intense pump beam. The sidebands arise from the interaction of the probe beam with pairs of excited states of a constituent neutral atom via the probe-induced Rabi oscillation. Sideband shifting of >90 meV from the probe carrier frequency results in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands are controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse; with amplitude and shift in agreement with the predictions of a time-dependent generalized Rabi cycling model.

  13. Reemergence of rabies in the southern Han river region, Korea.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-07-01

    Recently, 11 cases of animal rabies were reported in the southern region (Suwon and Hwaseong cities) of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The cases were temporally separated into two cases in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in spring 2012 and nine cases in domestic animals and wildlife in winter 2012-13. All carcasses were submitted for histopathologic examination and viral antigen identification. Sequences of the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein-large polymerase protein intergenic noncoding loci of the 11 strains were determined and compared with published reference sequences. All rabies strains were closely related to the Gangwon strains isolated in 2008-09, suggesting that the rabies virus strains isolated in Gyeonggi were introduced from Gangwon Province.

  14. [Viruses without boundaries--risk of rabies during travel].

    PubMed

    Hatz, Ch

    2003-10-01

    Rabies infection is a rare, but real threat to travellers and longterm residents in endemic areas. Preexposure vaccination is recommended for persons travelling to or staying in remote endemic areas, especially for children, as well as for professionally exposed persons in the field and in the laboratory. Three doses of a cell culture vaccine on days 0.7 and 21 or 28, followed by another dose on day 365, provide a basic protection which needs to be boostered by 2-3 doses after each potential rabies contact. Postexposure treatment includes thorough cleansing with soap, water and a disinfectant, and tetanus booster if needed. Cases without previous vaccination receive active plus passive protection from cell culture vaccine at days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 30, and preferably human rabies immune globulins (20 IU/kg BW) on day 0, injected around the site of the bite.

  15. Multiphoton Rabi oscillations between highly excited Stark states of potassium

    SciTech Connect

    He Yonglin

    2011-11-15

    We have applied a nonperturbative resonant theory to study the Rabi frequency of microwave multiphoton transitions between two Rydberg states of potassium in a static electric field. The Stark electric dipole moments used to calculate the Rabi frequency are determined by the Stark states' wave functions, which are obtained by the diagonalization method. The frequencies of the Rabi oscillations are in good agreement with either experimental ones or ones calculated by the time-dependent close-coupling method and the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we are able to show that the size of avoided crossings between the (n+2)s and (n,3) states can be predicted from the Stark electric dipole moment and the difference of the two Stark states' energy at a given resonance.

  16. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2012.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jessie L; Wallace, Ryan; Orciari, Lillian; Hightower, Dillon; Yager, Pamela; Blanton, Jesse D

    2013-09-15

    SUMMARY-During 2012, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human rabies case to the CDC, representing a 2.1% increase from the 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human cases reported in 2011. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,953 raccoons (31.7%), 1,680 bats (27.3%), 1,539 skunks (25.0%), 340 foxes (5.5%), 257 cats (4.2%), 115 cattle (1.9%), and 84 dogs (1.4%). Compared with 2011, there was a substantial increase in the number of rabid cattle reported. One case of rabies involving a human was reported from California after the patient died abroad. The infection was determined to be a result of a rabies virus variant associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, with exposure occurring in California.

  17. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    PubMed

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy.

  18. Bats, cats, and rabies in an urban community.

    PubMed

    Hoff, G L; Mellon, G F; Thomas, M C; Giedinghagen, D H

    1993-10-01

    Bats are the primary vectors of rabies in humans in the United States. In the urban environment they generally are found within buildings where they may bite people or be attacked by cats or dogs. Given the high probability that any bat that bites a person may be rabid, antirabies prophylaxis should be administered as soon as possible after the incident. This should not be delayed pending laboratory results on the bat. Children should be taught to avoid contact with moribund bats. Cats are more likely to be involved with rabid bats than dogs, but they are less likely to be vaccinated against rabies. The occasional rabid cat in an urban community may have acquired its infection from a bat. Therefore, it is vital that communities enforce rabies vaccination for cats as well as dogs.

  19. Excited-state quantum phase transition in the Rabi model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Ricardo; Hwang, Myung-Joong; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-08-01

    The Rabi model, a two-level atom coupled to a harmonic oscillator, can undergo a second-order quantum phase transition (QPT) [M.-J. Hwang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 180404 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.180404]. Here we show that the Rabi QPT accompanies critical behavior in the higher-energy excited states, i.e., the excited-state QPT (ESQPT). We derive analytic expressions for the semiclassical density of states, which show a logarithmic divergence at a critical energy eigenvalue in the broken symmetry (superradiant) phase. Moreover, we find that the logarithmic singularities in the density of states lead to singularities in the relevant observables in the system such as photon number and atomic polarization. We corroborate our analytical semiclassical prediction of the ESQPT in the Rabi model with its numerically exact quantum mechanical solution.

  20. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  1. Factors influencing the antibody response of dogs vaccinated against rabies.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lorna J; Lunt, Mark; Barnes, Annette; McElhinney, Lorraine; Fooks, Anthony R; Baxter, David N; Ollier, William E R

    2007-12-12

    Since 2000, there has been a legal requirement in the UK that dogs and cats should have an effective rabies vaccination with demonstrable sero-conversion if their owners wish to avoid quarantine on re-entry to the UK. In 2002, 10,483 rabies titres were determined on dogs at the VLA. Statistical analyses assessed the efficacy of each vaccine within different dog breeds. Animal size, age, breed, sampling time and vaccine had significant effects on pass rates and median titres. Our data suggests that a general relationship between animal size and level of antibody response exists and smaller sized dogs elicited higher antibody levels than larger breeds of dog. It was not however, only the magnitude of response immediately following vaccination but also the duration of immunity that varied between breeds of dog. Another observation was that young animals, less than 1-year of age, generated a lower antibody response to rabies vaccination than adults. Considerably higher failure rates were also observed for different vaccines tested. Regression analysis revealed that two vaccines performed equally well, and significantly better than the others tested. The variation in antibody response relating to length of interval of sampling following vaccination is not unexpected and presumably relates to the response kinetics for primary vaccination. These data need to be placed in perspective in order to minimise the risk of rabies being re-introduced into a rabies-free country, especially in the consideration of removing the requirement for serological testing for rabies vaccinated dogs that participate in pet travel schemes.

  2. Imported Human Rabies Cases Worldwide, 1990–2012

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Philippe; Parola, Phillipe; Brouqui, Phillipe; Gautret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Sixty cases of human rabies in international travelers were reviewed from 1990–2012. A significant proportion of the cases were observed in migrants or their descendants when emigrating from their country of origin or after a trip to visit friends and relatives or for other reasons (43.3%). The cases were not necessarily associated with long-term travel or expatriation to endemic countries; moreover, cases were observed in travelers after short trips of two weeks or less. A predominance of male patients was observed (75.0%). The proportion of children was low (11.7%). Cases from India and Philippines were frequent (16 cases/60). In a significant proportion of cases (51.1%), diagnosis was challenging, with multiple missed diagnoses and transfers from ward to ward before the final diagnosis of rabies. Among the 28 patients whose confirmed diagnosis was obtained ante-mortem, the mean time between hospitalization and diagnosis was 7.7 days (median time: 6.0 days, range 2–30) including four cases with a diagnosis delayed by 15 or more days. In five cases, a patient traveled through one or more countries before ultimately being hospitalized. Three factors played a role in delaying the diagnosis of rabies in a number of cases: (i) a low index of suspicion for rabies in countries where the disease has been eradicated for a long time or is now rare, (ii) a negative history of animal bites or exposure to rabies, and (iii) atypical clinical presentation of the disease. Clinical symptomatology of rabies is complex and commonly confuses physicians. Furthermore, failure in diagnosing imported cases in more developed countries is most likely related to the lack of medical familiarity with even the typical clinical features of the disease. PMID:23658853

  3. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  4. Contrasting landscape epidemiology of two sympatric rabies virus strains.

    PubMed

    Barton, Heather D; Gregory, Andrew J; Davis, Rolan; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Wisely, Samantha M

    2010-07-01

    Viral strain evolution and disease emergence are influenced by anthropogenic change to the environment. We investigated viral characteristics, host ecology, and landscape features in the rabies-striped skunk disease system of the central Great Plains to determine how these factors interact to influence disease emergence. We amplified portions of the N and G genes of rabies viral RNA from 269 samples extracted from striped skunk brains throughout the distribution of two different rabies strains for which striped skunks were the reservoir. Because the distribution of these two strains overlapped on the landscape and were present in the same host population, we could evaluate how viral properties influenced epidemiological patterns in the area of sympatry. We found that South Central Skunk rabies (SCSK) exhibited intense purifying selection and high infectivity, which are both characteristics of an epizootic virus. Conversely, North Central Skunk rabies (NCSK) exhibited relaxed purifying selection and comparatively lower infectivity, suggesting the presence of an enzootic virus. The host population in the area of sympatry was highly admixed, and skunks among allopatric and sympatric areas had similar effective population sizes. Spatial analysis indicated that landscape features had minimal influence on NCSK movement across the landscape, but those same features were partial barriers to the spread of SCSK. We conclude that NCSK and SCSK have different epidemiological properties that interact differently with both host and landscape features to influence rabies spread in the central Great Plains. We suggest a holistic approach for future studies of emerging infectious diseases that includes studies of viral properties, host characteristics, and spatial features.

  5. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein–protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets. PMID:27872612

  6. Modeling disease elimination.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Kevin; Francombe, Paula

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the elimination of mortality from heart disease and cancer was modelled mathematically to allow for the effect of other competing causes of death. The model allows for potential dependence between heart disease or cancer and other causes of death by using cupola functions, which analyse the individual risk itself and the dependence structure between causes of death by using correlation coefficients. As the strength of these risk associations is unknown, the study investigated both full positive and negative dependence and compared this with no dependence. Depending upon the degree and type of correlation assumed, positive or negative, the life expectancy at birth is increased by between 3 months and 6.5 years if cancer mortality was eliminated, and between 5 months and 7.5 years in the case of heart disease. In addition, estimates of these effects on life insurance premia can be made with the greatest reduction for women with the elimination of cancer mortality. These figures provide a range of improvements in life expectancy and the consequent effect on life insurance risk premium rates which elimination of either of these important diseases would produce.

  7. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  8. Genomic Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus 19

    PubMed Central

    Tisza, Michael J.; Yuan, Hang; Schlegel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that individual papillomas (warts) are caused by infection with individual papillomavirus types. Deep sequencing of virions extracted from a canine oral papilloma revealed the presence of canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1), CPV2, and a novel canine papillomavirus, CPV19. This suggests that papillomas sometimes harbor multiple viral species. PMID:27932663

  9. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  10. Animal-associated exposure to rabies virus among travelers, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Harvey, Kira; Pandey, Prativa; Lim, Poh Lian; Leder, Karin; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Shaw, Marc; McDonald, Susan C; Schwartz, Eli; Esposito, Douglas H; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Among travelers, rabies cases are rare, but animal bites are relatively common. To determine which travelers are at highest risk for rabies, we studied 2,697 travelers receiving care for animal-related exposures and requiring rabies postexposure prophylaxis at GeoSentinel clinics during 1997-2012. No specific demographic characteristics differentiated these travelers from other travelers seeking medical care, making it challenging to identify travelers who might benefit from reinforced pretravel rabies prevention counseling. Median travel duration was short for these travelers: 15 days for those seeking care after completion of travel and 20 days for those seeking care during travel. This finding contradicts the view that preexposure rabies vaccine recommendations should be partly based on longer travel durations. Over half of exposures occurred in Thailand, Indonesia, Nepal, China, and India. International travelers to rabies-endemic regions, particularly Asia, should be informed about potential rabies exposure and benefits of pretravel vaccination, regardless of demographics or length of stay.

  11. A model of the rabies virus glycoprotein active site.

    PubMed

    Rustici, M; Bracci, L; Lozzi, L; Neri, P; Santucci, A; Soldani, P; Spreafico, A; Niccolai, N

    1993-06-01

    The glycoprotein from the neurotropic rabies virus shows a significant homology with the alpha neurotoxin that binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The crystal structure of the alpha neurotoxins suggests that the Arg 37 guanidinium group and the Asp 31 side-chain carboxylate of the erabutoxin have stereochemical features resembling those of acetylcholine. Conformational studies on the Asn194-Ser195-Arg196-Gly197 tetrapeptide, an essential part of the binding site of the rabies virus glycoprotein, indicate that the side chains of Asn and Arg could also mimic the acetylcholine structure. This observation is consistent with the recently proposed mechanism of the viral infection.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Mongolia, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Inoue, Satoshi; Tuya, Nasan; Dulam, Purevtseren; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Sugiura, Naoko; Okutani, Akiko; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Kotaki, Akira; Yamada, Akio

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of rabies virus (RABV) in Mongolia based on the nucleotide sequences of viral N gene. A total of 24 rabies-positive samples from seven different domestic and wild animal species collected in western and central Mongolia between 2005 and 2008 were examined for their N gene sequences. The results showed that the endemic Mongolian RABVs could be divided into two different groups closely related to the Steppe-type and Arctic-like viruses isolated in Russia.

  13. Human Rabies: A Reemerging Disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in persons. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  14. Zagreb Regimen, an Abbreviated Intramuscular Schedule for Rabies Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. PMID:25392012

  15. Inverted pendulum state of a polariton Rabi oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronova, N. S.; Elistratov, A. A.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Exciton-photon beats known as polariton Rabi oscillations in semiconductor microcavities are usually excited by short pulses of light. We consider a different pumping scheme, assuming a cw pumping of the Rabi oscillator from an exciton reservoir. We account for the initial pulse of light setting the phase, exciton decay due to exciton-phonon and exciton-exciton scattering, photon leakage, and blueshift of the exciton resonance due to interactions. We find nontrivial stationary solutions reminiscent of the Kapitza pendulum, where polaritons are accumulated at the upper branch while the lower branch empties.

  16. Vacuum Rabi splitting in a semiconductor circuit QED system.

    PubMed

    Toida, H; Nakajima, T; Komiyama, S

    2013-02-08

    Vacuum Rabi splitting is demonstrated in a GaAs double quantum dot system coupled with a coplanar waveguide resonator. The coupling strength g, the decoherence rate of the quantum dot γ, and the decay rate of the resonator κ are derived, assuring distinct vacuum Rabi oscillation in a strong coupling regime [(g,γ,κ)≈(30,25,8.0) MHz]. The magnitude of decoherence is consistently interpreted in terms of the coupling of electrons to piezoelectric acoustic phonons in GaAs.

  17. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers.

  18. Emergence of a sylvatic enzootic formosan ferret badger-associated rabies in Taiwan and the geographical separation of two phylogenetic groups of rabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, K J; Hsu, W C; Chuang, W C; Chang, J C; Tu, Y C; Tsai, H J; Liu, H F; Wang, F I; Lee, S H

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan had been declared rabies-free in humans and domestic animals for five decades until July 2013, when surprisingly, three Formosan ferret badgers (FB) were diagnosed with rabies. Since then, a variety of wild carnivores and other wildlife species have been found dead, neurologically ill, or exhibiting aggressive behaviors around the island. To determine the affected animal species, geographic areas, and environments, animal bodies were examined for rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The viral genomes from the brains of selected rabid animals were sequenced for the phylogeny of rabies viruses (RABV). Out of a total of 1016 wild carnivores, 276/831 (33.2%) Formosan FBs were FAT positive, with occasional biting incidents in 1 dog and suspected spillover in 1 house shrew. All other animals tested, including dogs, cats, bats, mice, house shrews, and squirrels, were rabies-negative. The rabies was badger-associated and confined to nine counties/cities in sylvatic environments. Phylogeny of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes from 59 Formosan FB-associated RABV revealed them to be clustered in two distinct groups, TWI and TWII, consistent with the geographic segregation into western and eastern Taiwan provided by the Central Mountain Range and into northern rabies-free and central-southern rabies-affected regions by a river bisecting western Taiwan. The unique features of geographic and genetic segregation, sylvatic enzooticity, and FB-association of RABV suggest a logical strategy for the control of rabies in this nation.

  19. The neural cell adhesion molecule is a receptor for rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Thoulouze, M I; Lafage, M; Schachner, M; Hartmann, U; Cremer, H; Lafon, M

    1998-09-01

    Previous reports strongly suggest that, in addition to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, rabies virus can use other, as-yet-unidentified receptors. We found that laboratory cell lines susceptible to rabies virus infection express the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (CD56) on their surface, whereas resistant cells do not, supporting the idea that NCAM could be a rabies virus receptor. We observed that (i) incubation with rabies virus decreases the surface expression of NCAM; (ii) treatment of susceptible cells with heparan sulfate, a ligand for NCAM, or with NCAM antibodies significantly reduces the rabies virus infection; and (iii) preincubation of rabies virus inoculum with soluble NCAM protein as a receptor decoy drastically neutralizes the capacity of rabies virus to infect susceptible cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that transfection of resistant L fibroblasts with the NCAM-encoding gene induces rabies virus susceptibility whereas absence of NCAM in the primary cortical cell cultures prepared from NCAM-deficient mice reduces the rabies virus infection and virus production. This provides evidence that NCAM is an in vitro receptor for the rabies virus. Moreover, the in vivo relevance for the use of NCAM as a receptor was demonstrated by the infection of NCAM-deficient mice, in which rabies mortality was delayed and brain invasion by rabies virus was drastically restricted. Our results showed that NCAM, which is expressed mainly in the adult nervous system, plays an important role in rabies infection. However, it cannot be excluded that receptors other than NCAM are utilized. Thus, the description of NCAM as a new rabies virus receptor would be another example of the use by viruses of more than one receptor to gain entry into the host.

  20. Molecular Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Bats in Mexico and Other Countries of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A.; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species. PMID:16672396

  1. Rabies Control and Treatment: From Prophylaxis to Strategies with Curative Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shimao; Guo, Caiping

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is an acute, fatal, neurological disease that affects almost all kinds of mammals. Vaccination (using an inactivated rabies vaccine), combined with administration of rabies immune globulin, is the only approved, effective method for post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies in humans. In the search for novel rabies control and treatment strategies, live-attenuated viruses have recently emerged as a practical and promising approach for immunizing and controlling rabies. Unlike the conventional, inactivated rabies vaccine, live-attenuated viruses are genetically modified viruses that are able to replicate in an inoculated recipient without causing adverse effects, while still eliciting robust and effective immune responses against rabies virus infection. A number of viruses with an intrinsic capacity that could be used as putative candidates for live-attenuated rabies vaccine have been intensively evaluated for therapeutic purposes. Additional novel strategies, such as a monoclonal antibody-based approach, nucleic acid-based vaccines, or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) interfering with virus replication, could further add to the arena of strategies to combat rabies. In this review, we highlight current advances in rabies therapy and discuss the role that they might have in the future of rabies treatment. Given the pronounced and complex impact of rabies on a patient, a combination of these novel modalities has the potential to achieve maximal anti-rabies efficacy, or may even have promising curative effects in the future. However, several hurdles regarding clinical safety considerations and public awareness should be overcome before these approaches can ultimately become clinically relevant therapies. PMID:27801824

  2. Utility of real-time Taqman PCR for antemortem and postmortem diagnosis of human rabies.

    PubMed

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Mahadevan, Anita; Reddy, Vijayalakshmi; Belludi, Ashwin Yajaman; Shankar, Susarla Krishna

    2014-10-01

    Rabies, a fatal zoonotic viral encephalitis remains a neglected disease in India despite a high disease burden. Laboratory confirmation is essential, especially in patients with paralytic rabies who pose a diagnostic dilemma. However, conventional tests for diagnosis of rabies have several limitations. In the present study the utility of a real-time TaqMan PCR assay was evaluated for antemortem/postmortem diagnosis of rabies. Human clinical samples received for antemortem rabies diagnosis (CSF, saliva, nuchal skin biopsy, serum), and samples obtained postmortem from laboratory confirmed rabies in humans (brain tissue, CSF, serum) and animals (brain tissue) were included in the study. All CSF and sera were tested for rabies viral neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and all samples (except sera) were processed for detection of rabies viral RNA by real-time TaqMan PCR. All the 29 (100%) brain tissues from confirmed cases of human and animal rabies, and 11/14 (78.5%) CSF samples obtained postmortem from confirmed human rabies cases were positive by real-time TaqMan PCR. Rabies viral RNA was detected in 5/11 (45.4%) CSF samples, 6/10 (60%) nuchal skin biopsies, and 6/7 (85.7%) saliva samples received for antemortem diagnosis. Real-time TaqMan PCR alone could achieve antemortem rabies diagnosis in 11/13 (84.6%) cases; combined with RVNA detection in CSF antemortem rabies diagnosis could be achieved in all 13 (100%) cases. Real-time TaqMan PCR should be made available widely as an adjunctive test for diagnosis of human rabies in high disease burden countries like India.

  3. Molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in Mexico and other countries of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-05-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species.

  4. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  5. Canine "honing" in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L O

    1990-06-01

    The maxillary canines of Australopithecus afarensis show a distal wear facet that extends from the apex of the crown to a point near the distal cingulum. Although these facets bear a superficial resemblance to the honing facets found on the projecting portions of the canines of other anthropoids, a more detailed examination provided in this paper shows that they are not homologous or functionally equivalent. The facets are not related to the use of the maxillary canine as a weapon or as an additional masticatory surface. Instead, their presence in A. afarensis represented a blunting or dulling of the posterior edge of C so that its occlusion with P3 would be consistent with cheek tooth occlusion.

  6. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas. PMID:27918691

  7. Mandibular canine index in establishing sex identity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shishir; Nagabhushana, D; Rao, B Balaji; Mamatha, G P

    2002-01-01

    An investigation study on sex identity through mandibular canine index directed to detect sexual dimorphism using the Mesio-Distal width of mandibular permanent canines and inter canine and inter canine arch width in the mandible was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere. 360 patients were subjected to the mesio-distal measurement and inter canine arch width. Males were detected correctly in 83.3% and in females 81%. They were statistically significant and the related literatures reviewed.

  8. Minding Rachlin's eliminative materialism.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist ontology of science, but without eliminating the phenomenology of consciousness. This view implies that to be judged human, machines not only must exhibit complicated temporally structured patterns of behavior, but also must have first-person conscious experience. Although confirming machine sentience is likely to be problematic, extended contact with a machine that results in a person interacting with it as if it were conscious could reasonably lead to the conclusion that for all intents and purposes it is.

  9. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J.J

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist ontology of science, but without eliminating the phenomenology of consciousness. This view implies that to be judged human, machines not only must exhibit complicated temporally structured patterns of behavior, but also must have first-person conscious experience. Although confirming machine sentience is likely to be problematic, extended contact with a machine that results in a person interacting with it as if it were conscious could reasonably lead to the conclusion that for all intents and purposes it is. PMID:22942531

  10. Automobile dirty smoke eliminator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.

    1981-08-04

    An automobile dirty smoke eliminator is disclosed which mainly consists of two oval tin plates externally, and upper and lower exhaust pipes , left and right support plates, a blade, a discharge chamber, a discharge pipe, etc. internally. The principle of the present invention mainly consists in making use of the effect of mixing water and gas to entirely eliminate automobile dirty smoke. When the dirty smoke (exhaust gas) of automobile enters into the lower exhaust pipe of the present invention, the blade at the outlet of said lower exhaust pipe submerged in water is impacted by the compression force derived from the engine exhaust stroke so as to generate a mixture of said water and exhaust gas and to form a whirlpool having many buddles. The effect of walls of left and right support plates promote the toxin in the said dirty smoke (Exhaust gas) automatically to deposit in the said water. The surplus toxin is discharged through the upper exhaust pipe and then mixed with the water to form a colorless, odorless nontoxious fog-like vapor which exhausts through the discharge pipe in order to achieve the best result of eliminating the said dirty smoke (Exhaust gas).

  11. Canine tooth size variability in primates.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, G

    1989-01-01

    I present an analysis of canine tooth size variability in male and female primates. The coefficient of variation (CV = SD X 100/mean) as an index of canine size variability proved to be dependent on mean canine size in males and, to a lower extent, in females. Therefore, variability tends to increase with increasing values of mean canine size. Using residuals from the regression of log SD on log mean canine size in male and female primates, I analysed the contribution of diet, habitat and mating system to canine size variability. Habitat and mating system are known to influence to a certain extent the degree of sexual dimorphism in canine size. Given the well-known relationship between sexual dimorphism and phenotypic variability, it was suggested that these factors might influence variability in canine size. Everything else being equal, males of polygynous species are characterized by more variable canine sizes than males of monogamous species. Habitat and diet did not contribute to the level of variability observed in either males or females. It is proposed that a high level of variability in canine size may be related to the likelihood that enlarged canines evolved as a result of male-male competition for mates in polygynous species.

  12. Rabies virus binding to cellular membranes measured by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Chester, J; Benson, R J; Hawrot, E; Tignor, G H; Smith, A L

    1985-05-01

    The binding of rabies virus to cellular membranes was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Virus binding to membranes adsorbed to the wells of microtiter plates was detected with rabies virus antibody and alkaline phosphatase-linked second antibody. The greatest degree of binding was to myotube, neuroblastoma, and salivary gland membranes; intermediate levels occurred in striated muscle and nerve membranes; and low levels of binding were found in other membranes, including those of most parenchymal organs. Binding of rabies virus to myotube membranes was saturable, dependent on pH (with an optimum of pH 6.0), facilitated by the divalent cations Ca++, Mn++, and Mg++, and was temperature dependent. Binding was greatly reduced by inactivation of virus with beta-propiolactone or treatment of virus with trypsin. In embryonic chick myotubes, total acetylcholine receptor content and acetylcholinesterase activity undergo marked changes during development, first increasing and then decreasing at the time of hatching. Binding of rabies virus followed a similar pattern, indicating that the virus may interact with the acetylcholine receptor or other surface molecules undergoing similar developmental changes.

  13. Home and abroad: vets' role in dealing with rabies.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Manuela

    2014-11-29

    Manuela Herrera reports on a session at the BVA Congress which discussed the contributions that vets can make to tackling rabies, and how the profession can be at the forefront of a One Health approach to saving the lives of animals and people.

  14. Overwintering of Rabies Virus in Silver Haired Bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, April D.; Morgan, Shannon M. D.; Dupuis, Michelle; Poulliott, Craig E.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Franchini, Rhianna; Clobridge, Anne; Rudd, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Silver-haired bats, (Lasionycteris noctivagans) are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. Despite the species rarity, the L. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (RABV) in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the US. Unlike big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), L. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. It is unknown if RABV can overwinter in hibernating L. noctivagans or is only maintained in members of this taxa that migrate to warmer climates. To better understand RABV overwintering in this species, L. noctivagans were inoculated intramuscularly with either a homologous RABV (L. noctivagans Virus 1) or one of two heterologous RABV (Eptesicus fuscus Virus 2 and Myotis lucifugus Virus 1). Five days following inoculation, L. noctivagans were placed in a hibernation chamber for 6 weeks. Our results demonstrate that rabies virus can overwinter in L. noctivagans yet the incubation period was extended 6 weeks when compared to bats maintained at ambient temperatures. Additionally, we found that the longer the incubation period, the greater the viral dissemination to the salivary glands. Similar to our previous studies, L. noctivagans were most susceptible to a homologous variant. In summary, we found that RABV incubation is extended following a subcutaneous exposure or maintenance in hibernation and longer incubation times increase dissemination and potential for transmission. PMID:27195489

  15. Aspects of rabies epidemiology in Tsumkwe District, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, K; Esterhuysen, J; Stander, P; Van Heerden, J

    1997-03-01

    Aspects of rabies epidemiology were investigated in the Tsumkwe District, Namibia, during December 1993 and January 1994. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey for rabies antibodies was carried out in domestic (n = 70) and wild dogs [Lycaon pictus (n = 6)]. An overall seroprevalence rate of 30% was found in domestic dogs, but it must be borne in mind that seroconversion can result from infections from either rabies or rabies-related viruses. Older dogs were more likely to be seropositive and there was spatial and temporal clustering of seropositivity. No wild dogs were found seropositive. A demographic survey of the domestic-dog population in the area showed that the total dog-population size was 132, or 0.027 dogs per km2. The dog population consisted mainly of young dogs with a median age of 1.5 years, and had a female bias of 0.63 males per female. Questionnaire surveys suggested that spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) and black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) were the most common larger carnivores found in and around villages, and that dogs were kept mainly for guarding.

  16. Innate immune responses in raccoons after raccoon rabies virus infection.

    PubMed

    Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Sribalachandran, Hariharan; Rosatte, Rick; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Kyle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic wildlife diseases pose significant health risks not only to their primary vectors but also to humans and domestic animals. Rabies is a lethal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RV). This RNA virus can infect a range of terrestrial mammals but each viral variant persists in a particular reservoir host. Active management of these host vectors is needed to minimize the negative impacts of this disease, and an understanding of the immune response to RV infection aids strategies for host vaccination. Current knowledge of immune responses to RV infection comes primarily from rodent models in which an innate immune response triggers activation of several genes and signalling pathways. It is unclear, however, how well rodent models represent the immune response of natural hosts. This study investigates the innate immune response of a primary host, the raccoon, to a peripheral challenge using the raccoon rabies virus (RRV). The extent and temporal course of this response during RRV infection was analysed using genes predicted to be upregulated during infection (IFNs; IFN regulatory factors; IL-6; Toll like receptor-3; TNF receptor). We found that RRV activated components of the innate immune system, with changes in levels of transcripts correlated with presence of viral RNA. Our results suggest that natural reservoirs of rabies may not mimic the immune response triggered in rodent models, highlighting the need for further studies of infection in primary hosts.

  17. Comparison of suburban vaccine distribution strategies to control raccoon rabies.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Jason R; Bigler, Laura L; Curtis, Paul D; Lein, Donald H; Lembo, Arthur J

    2008-10-01

    Helicopters and hand baiting are commonly used to distribute vaccine-laden baits to help control raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies in suburban landscapes, but these techniques may be labor intensive, costly, or unavailable in some areas. We tested conventional baiting strategies against polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) bait stations in Erie County (New York, USA) during July and August 2003-05. Hand, helicopter, and bait station treatments were randomly assigned to six 25-km(2) suburban study sites. To estimate the proportion of raccoons that ingested baits, tooth and blood samples from 954 raccoons were collected and examined for tetracycline biomarker and rabies-neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Overall, 38% (358/954) of the raccoons in Erie County tested positive for tetracycline; 16% (155/954) tested seropositive for rabies virus. Year of study significantly impacted biomarker prevalence; fewer raccoons tested positive for tetracycline in 2004. Probability of seropositivity increased with raccoon age. No statistically significant differences existed between baiting strategies and frequencies of biomarker and antibody-positive raccoons across all years combined. Thus, bait stations could be used as part of an integrated rabies control strategy.

  18. The Relevance of Rabies to Today’s Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    aspects of such diseases as typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever , lym- phogranuloma venereum, lymphocytic choriomenin- gitis, rabies