Science.gov

Sample records for canis p140 orthologs

  1. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ) when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV), with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts. PMID:23231731

  2. Canis Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lesser Dog; abbrev. CMi, gen. Canis Minoris; area 183 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Gemini and Monoceros, and culminates at midnight in mid-January. It represents one of the two dogs of Orion (the Hunter), which dominates the sky to the west (the other dog being represented by Canis Major). Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  3. Endophilin A1 regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis and stability through interaction with p140Cap

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanrui; Wei, Mengping; Xiong, Ying; Du, Xiangyang; Zhu, Shaoxia; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jia-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are actin-rich membrane protrusions that are the major sites of excitatory synaptic input in the mammalian brain, and their morphological plasticity provides structural basis for learning and memory. Here we report that endophilin A1, with a well-established role in clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle endocytosis at the presynaptic terminal, also localizes to dendritic spines and is required for spine morphogenesis, synapse formation and synaptic function. We identify p140Cap, a regulator of cytoskeleton reorganization, as a downstream effector of endophilin A1 and demonstrate that disruption of their interaction impairs spine formation and maturation. Moreover, we demonstrate that knockdown of endophilin A1 or p140Cap impairs spine stabilization and synaptic function. We further show that endophilin A1 regulates the distribution of p140Cap and its downstream effector, the F-actin-binding protein cortactin as well as F-actin enrichment in dendritic spines. Together, these results reveal a novel function of postsynaptic endophilin A1 in spine morphogenesis, stabilization and synaptic function through the regulation of p140Cap. PMID:25771685

  4. p140Cap regulates memory and synaptic plasticity through Src-mediated and citron-N-mediated actin reorganization.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Daniele; Camera, Paola; Melani, Riccardo; Morello, Noemi; Russo, Isabella; Calcagno, Eleonora; Tomasoni, Romana; Bianchi, Federico; Berto, Gaia; Giustetto, Maurizio; Berardi, Nicoletta; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Matteoli, Michela; Di Stefano, Paola; Missler, Markus; Turco, Emilia; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Defilippi, Paola

    2014-01-22

    A major challenge in the neuroscience field is the identification of molecules and pathways that control synaptic plasticity and memory. Dendritic spines play a pivotal role in these processes, as the major sites of excitatory synapses in neuronal communication. Previous studies have shown that the scaffold protein p140Cap localizes into dendritic spines and that its knockdown negatively modulates spine shape in culture. However, so far, there is no information on its in vivo relevance. By using a knock-out mouse model, we here demonstrate that p140Cap is a key element for both learning and synaptic plasticity. Indeed, p140Cap(-/-) mice are impaired in object recognition test, as well as in LTP and in LTD measurements. The in vivo effects of p140Cap loss are presumably attenuated by noncell-autonomous events, since primary neurons obtained from p140Cap(-/-) mice show a strong reduction in number of mushroom spines and abnormal organization of synapse-associated F-actin. These phenotypes are most likely caused by a local reduction of the inhibitory control of RhoA and of cortactin toward the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. These events can be controlled by p140Cap through its capability to directly inhibit the activation of Src kinase and by its binding to the scaffold protein Citron-N. Altogether, our results provide new insight into how protein associated with dynamic microtubules may regulate spine actin organization through interaction with postsynaptic density components. PMID:24453341

  5. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  6. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite. PMID:26568991

  7. The spliceosomal phosphopeptide P140 controls the lupus disease by interacting with the HSC70 protein and via a mechanism mediated by gammadelta T cells.

    PubMed

    Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Décossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4(+) T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4(+) T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4(-)CD8(-)B220(+) T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on gammadelta T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4(+) T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity.

  8. Fatal Babesia canis canis infection in a splenectomized Estonian dog.

    PubMed

    Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-25

    A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness.

  9. Fatal Babesia canis canis infection in a splenectomized Estonian dog.

    PubMed

    Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness. PMID:26810086

  10. The adaptor proteins p140CAP and p130CAS as molecular hubs in cell migration and invasion of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, Paola; Leal, Maria Pilar Camacho; Tornillo, Giusy; Bisaro, Brigitte; Repetto, Daniele; Pincini, Alessandra; Santopietro, Emanuela; Sharma, Nanaocha; Turco, Emilia; Cabodi, Sara; Defilippi, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of molecular hubs upon integrin and growth factor stimulation represents a preferential way to transduce signals throughout the cell. Among the intracellular kinases that are responsive to integrin and growth factor activation, Src Family Kinases (SFKs) are crucial regulators of cell migration and invasion. Increasing evidence highlight the importance of adaptor proteins in these processes, based on their ability to create signalling platforms that control downstream signals. Among these adaptors we will discuss the molecular features of p130Cas and p140Cap proteins in terms of regulation of cell migration and invasion in normal and transformed cells. PMID:21994904

  11. Free-living jackals (Canis mesomelas)-potential reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia canis in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Price, J E; Karstad, L H

    1980-10-01

    Using a modified cell culture test, Ehrlichia canis was found in eight of 15 free-living jackals (Canis mesomelas) and 14 of 31 dogs owned by pastoral communities in the same areas of Kenya. Two cross-bred puppies inoculated with blood from infected jackals developed mild, transient clinical disease, and E. canis was recovered from the puppies. Tick species found on the jackals were similar to those found on the infected dogs. Ehrlichia canis was not found in eight spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) from these areas.

  12. Clonal inventory screens uncover monoclonality following serial transplantation of MGMT P140K-transduced stem cells and dose-intense chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Frank A; Sorg, Ursula R; Appelt, Jens-Uwe; Lachmann, Nico; Bleier, Stephanie; Roeder, Ingo; Kleff, Veronika; Flasshove, Michael; Zeller, W Jens; Allgayer, Heike; von Kalle, Christof; Fruehauf, Stefan; Moritz, Thomas; Laufs, Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    Gene transfer of mutant O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT(P140K)) into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) protects hematopoiesis from alkylating agents and allows efficient in vivo selection of transduced HSCs. However, insertional mutagenesis, high regenerative stress associated with selection, and the genotoxic potential of alkylating drugs represent considerable risk factors for clinical applications of this approach. Therefore, we investigated the long-term effect of MGMT(P140K) gene transfer followed by repetitive, dose-intensive treatment with alkylating agents in a murine serial bone marrow transplant model and assessed clonality of hematopoiesis up to tertiary recipients. The substantial selection pressure resulted in almost completely transduced hematopoiesis in all cohorts. Ligation-mediated PCR and next-generation sequencing identified several repopulating clones carrying vector insertions in distinct genomic regions that were ∼ 9 kb of size (common integration sites). Beside polyclonal reconstitution in the majority of the mice, we also detected monoclonal or oligoclonal repopulation patterns with HSC clones showing vector insertions in the Usp10 or Tubb3 gene. Interestingly, neither Usp10, Tubb3, nor any of the genes located in common integration sites have been linked to clonal expansion in previous preclinical or clinical gene therapy trials. However, a considerable number of these genes are involved in DNA damage response and cell fate decision pathways following cytostatic drug application. Thus, in summary, our study advocates ligation-mediated PCR and next generation sequencing as an effective and reliable method to identify gene products associated with clonal survival in specific experimental settings such as chemoselection using alkylating agents.

  13. BLASTO: a tool for searching orthologous groups.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Landweber, Laura F

    2007-07-01

    We present BLAST on Orthologous groups (BLASTO), a modified BLAST tool for searching orthologous group data. It treats each orthologous group as a unit and outputs a ranked list of orthologous groups instead of single sequences. By filtering out redundancy and putative paralogs, sequence comparisons to orthologous groups, instead of to single sequences in the database, can improve both functional prediction and phylogenetic inference. BLASTO computes the significance score of each orthologous group based on the individual BLAST hits in the orthologous group, using the number of taxa in the group as an optional weight. This allows users to control the species diversity of the orthologous groups. BLASTO incorporates the best-known multispecies ortholog databases, including NCBI Clusters of Orthologous Group, NCBI euKaryotic Orthologous Group database, OrthoMCL, MultiParanoid and TIGR Eukaryotic Gene Orthologues database, and offers a useful platform to integrate orthology information into functional inference and evolutionary studies of individual sequences. BLASTO is accessible online at http://oxytricha.princeton.edu/BlastO.

  14. Optimized lentiviral vectors for HIV gene therapy: multiplexed expression of small RNAs and inclusion of MGMT(P140K) drug resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Chung, Janet; Scherer, Lisa J; Gu, Angel; Gardner, Agnes M; Torres-Coronado, Monica; Epps, Elizabeth W; Digiusto, David L; Rossi, John J

    2014-05-01

    Gene therapy with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is a promising approach to engineering immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that may lead to a functional cure for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In support of this approach, we created lentiviral vectors with an engineered polycistronic platform derived from the endogenous MCM7 gene to express a diverse set of small antiviral RNAs and a drug resistance MGMT(P140K) marker. Multiple strategies for simultaneous expression of up to five RNA transgenes were tested. The placement and orientation of each transgene and its promoter were important determinants for optimal gene expression. Antiviral RNA expression from the MCM7 platform with a U1 promoter was sufficient to provide protection from R5-tropic HIV in macrophages and resulted in reduced hematopoietic toxicity compared with constructs expressing RNA from independent RNA polymerase III promoters. The addition of an HIV entry inhibitor and nucleolar TAR RNA decoy did not enhance antiviral potency over constructs that targeted only viral RNA transcripts. We also demonstrated selective enrichment of gene-modified cells in vivo using a humanized mouse model. The use of these less toxic, potent anti-HIV vectors expressing a drug selection marker is likely to enhance the in vivo efficacy of our stem cell gene therapy approach in treating HIV/AIDS.

  15. Standardised Benchmarking in the Quest for Orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Dalquen, Daniel A.; DeLuca, Todd; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Linard, Benjamin; Pereira, Cécile; Pryszcz, Leszek P.; Schreiber, Fabian; Sousa da Silva, Alan; Szklarczyk, Damian; Train, Clément-Marie; Bork, Peer; Lecompte, Odile; von Mering, Christian; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sjölander, Kimmen; Juhl Jensen, Lars; Martin, Maria J.; Muffato, Matthieu; Gabaldón, Toni; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Thomas, Paul D.; Sonnhammer, Erik; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The identification of evolutionarily related genes across different species—orthologs in particular—forms the backbone of many comparative, evolutionary, and functional genomic analyses. Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is thus essential. Yet the true evolutionary history of genes, required to ascertain orthology, is generally unknown. Furthermore, orthologs are used for very different applications across different phyla, with different requirements in terms of the precision-recall trade-off. As a result, assessing the performance of orthology inference methods remains difficult for both users and method developers. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards in orthology benchmarking and facilitate orthology benchmarking through an automated web-based service (http://orthology.benchmarkservice.org). Using this new service, we characterise the performance of 15 well-established orthology inference methods and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardised benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimal requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods. PMID:27043882

  16. Integrating Sequence Evolution into Probabilistic Orthology Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ikram; Sjöstrand, Joel; Andersson, Peter; Sennblad, Bengt; Lagergren, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Orthology analysis, that is, finding out whether a pair of homologous genes are orthologs - stemming from a speciation - or paralogs - stemming from a gene duplication - is of central importance in computational biology, genome annotation, and phylogenetic inference. In particular, an orthologous relationship makes functional equivalence of the two genes highly likely. A major approach to orthology analysis is to reconcile a gene tree to the corresponding species tree, (most commonly performed using the most parsimonious reconciliation, MPR). However, most such phylogenetic orthology methods infer the gene tree without considering the constraints implied by the species tree and, perhaps even more importantly, only allow the gene sequences to influence the orthology analysis through the a priori reconstructed gene tree. We propose a sound, comprehensive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo-based method, DLRSOrthology, to compute orthology probabilities. It efficiently sums over the possible gene trees and jointly takes into account the current gene tree, all possible reconciliations to the species tree, and the, typically strong, signal conveyed by the sequences. We compare our method with PrIME-GEM, a probabilistic orthology approach built on a probabilistic duplication-loss model, and MrBayesMPR, a probabilistic orthology approach that is based on conventional Bayesian inference coupled with MPR. We find that DLRSOrthology outperforms these competing approaches on synthetic data as well as on biological data sets and is robust to incomplete taxon sampling artifacts. PMID:26130236

  17. Record high Wolf, Canis lupus, pack density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a year-around Wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 km2 and a summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota Wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a Wolf pack on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

  18. Record high wolf, Canis lupus, pack density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a year-around wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 m2 and summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a wolf pack on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada.

  19. Standardized benchmarking in the quest for orthologs.

    PubMed

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Dalquen, Daniel A; DeLuca, Todd; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Linard, Benjamin; Pereira, Cécile; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Schreiber, Fabian; da Silva, Alan Sousa; Szklarczyk, Damian; Train, Clément-Marie; Bork, Peer; Lecompte, Odile; von Mering, Christian; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sjölander, Kimmen; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Martin, Maria J; Muffato, Matthieu; Gabaldón, Toni; Lewis, Suzanna E; Thomas, Paul D; Sonnhammer, Erik; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is essential for many comparative, evolutionary and functional genomic analyses, yet the true evolutionary history of genes is generally unknown and orthologs are used for very different applications across phyla, requiring different precision-recall trade-offs. As a result, it is difficult to assess the performance of orthology inference methods. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards and an automated web-based service to facilitate orthology benchmarking. Using this service, we characterize 15 well-established inference methods and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardized benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimum requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods. PMID:27043882

  20. Standardized benchmarking in the quest for orthologs.

    PubMed

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Dalquen, Daniel A; DeLuca, Todd; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Linard, Benjamin; Pereira, Cécile; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Schreiber, Fabian; da Silva, Alan Sousa; Szklarczyk, Damian; Train, Clément-Marie; Bork, Peer; Lecompte, Odile; von Mering, Christian; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sjölander, Kimmen; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Martin, Maria J; Muffato, Matthieu; Gabaldón, Toni; Lewis, Suzanna E; Thomas, Paul D; Sonnhammer, Erik; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is essential for many comparative, evolutionary and functional genomic analyses, yet the true evolutionary history of genes is generally unknown and orthologs are used for very different applications across phyla, requiring different precision-recall trade-offs. As a result, it is difficult to assess the performance of orthology inference methods. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards and an automated web-based service to facilitate orthology benchmarking. Using this service, we characterize 15 well-established inference methods and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardized benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimum requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods.

  1. Dermatophytosis of tiger caused by Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Takatori, K; Ichijo, S; Kurata, H

    1981-02-13

    Microsporum canis was isolated from the inflammatory skin lesions of a Bengal tiger in April, 1979. In clinical findings rounded area of alopecia, 3 to 8 cm in size was observed on the right haunch and the tail. The skin lesions were covered with thin scales, but the inflammatory changes were not severe. Findings, on physical examination, were unremarkable and the animal appeared healthy except for the skin lesions. The infected hairs were invaded by the fungal elements and arthroconidia were around the hair shaft. Cuticles and cortex of the infected hairs were brittle. They were evidently digested and were easily pulled out from the hair follicles. In mycological findings numerous and typical macroconidia were observed. By cross mating of a isolate from tiger and Nannizzia otae(-) strains, cleistothecia were produced. Both organic iodide and undecylenic acid ointment were effective for therapy. In this paper the dermatophytosis of tiger caused by M. canis is described.

  2. Dermatophytosis of tiger caused by Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Takatori, K; Ichijo, S; Kurata, H

    1981-02-13

    Microsporum canis was isolated from the inflammatory skin lesions of a Bengal tiger in April, 1979. In clinical findings rounded area of alopecia, 3 to 8 cm in size was observed on the right haunch and the tail. The skin lesions were covered with thin scales, but the inflammatory changes were not severe. Findings, on physical examination, were unremarkable and the animal appeared healthy except for the skin lesions. The infected hairs were invaded by the fungal elements and arthroconidia were around the hair shaft. Cuticles and cortex of the infected hairs were brittle. They were evidently digested and were easily pulled out from the hair follicles. In mycological findings numerous and typical macroconidia were observed. By cross mating of a isolate from tiger and Nannizzia otae(-) strains, cleistothecia were produced. Both organic iodide and undecylenic acid ointment were effective for therapy. In this paper the dermatophytosis of tiger caused by M. canis is described. PMID:7219512

  3. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

  4. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

  5. Canine vector-borne co-infections: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in the same host monocytes.

    PubMed

    Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon; Gal, Arnon; Aroch, Itamar

    2015-02-28

    The protozoon Hepatozoon canis and the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which cause canine hepatozoonosis and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Co-infection of the same host monocytes with H. canis and E. canis confirmed by molecular characterization of the infecting agents and quantitative assessment of co-infected cells is described for the first time in three naturally-infected dogs. Blood smear evaluation indicated that at least 50% of the leukocytes infected with H. canis gamonts contained E. canis morulae. Co-infection of the same host cell demonstrated in this report suggests that infection with one pathogen may permit or enhance invasion or prolonged cellular survival of the other. PMID:25560923

  6. The transmission of Babesia canis to the wild dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    PubMed

    Van Heerden, J

    1980-06-01

    Babesia canis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to 3 wild dogs Lycaon pictus and 4 black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas. Both wild dogs and black-backed jackals showed no clinical signs or clinical pathological evidence of disease. Trophozoites of Babesia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from both black-backed jackals and wild dogs to the domestic dog.

  7. The transmission of Babesia canis to the wild dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    PubMed

    Van Heerden, J

    1980-06-01

    Babesia canis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to 3 wild dogs Lycaon pictus and 4 black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas. Both wild dogs and black-backed jackals showed no clinical signs or clinical pathological evidence of disease. Trophozoites of Babesia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from both black-backed jackals and wild dogs to the domestic dog. PMID:7252967

  8. Inferring Orthologs: Open Questions and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of sequenced genomes and their comparisons, the detection of orthologs is crucial for reliable functional annotation and evolutionary analyses of genes and species. Yet, the dynamic remodeling of genome content through gain, loss, transfer of genes, and segmental and whole-genome duplication hinders reliable orthology detection. Moreover, the lack of direct functional evidence and the questionable quality of some available genome sequences and annotations present additional difficulties to assess orthology. This article reviews the existing computational methods and their potential accuracy in the high-throughput era of genome sequencing and anticipates open questions in terms of methodology, reliability, and computation. Appropriate taxon sampling together with combination of methods based on similarity, phylogeny, synteny, and evolutionary knowledge that may help detecting speciation events appears to be the most accurate strategy. This review also raises perspectives on the potential determination of orthology throughout the whole species phylogeny. PMID:26966373

  9. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  10. Assessment of orthologous splicing isoforms in human and mouse orthologous genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries have highlighted the fact that alternative splicing and alternative transcripts are the rule, rather than the exception, in metazoan genes. Since multiple transcript and protein variants expressed by the same gene are, by definition, structurally distinct and need not to be functionally equivalent, the concept of gene orthology should be extended to the transcript level in order to describe evolutionary relationships between structurally similar transcript variants. In other words, the identification of true orthology relationships between gene products now should progress beyond primary sequence and "splicing orthology", consisting in ancestrally shared exon-intron structures, is required to define orthologous isoforms at transcript level. Results As a starting step in this direction, in this work we performed a large scale human- mouse gene comparison with a twofold goal: first, to assess if and to which extent traditional gene annotations such as RefSeq capture genuine splicing orthology; second, to provide a more detailed annotation and quantification of true human-mouse orthologous transcripts defined as transcripts of orthologous genes exhibiting the same splicing patterns. Conclusions We observed an identical exon/intron structure for 32% of human and mouse orthologous genes. This figure increases to 87% using less stringent criteria for gene structure similarity, thus implying that for about 13% of the human RefSeq annotated genes (and about 25% of the corresponding transcripts) we could not identify any mouse transcript showing sufficient similarity to be confidently assigned as a splicing ortholog. Our data suggest that current gene and transcript data may still be rather incomplete - with several splicing variants still unknown. The observation that alternative splicing produces large numbers of alternative transcripts and proteins, some of them conserved across species and others truly species-specific, suggests that, still

  11. Ortholog-Finder: A Tool for Constructing an Ortholog Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Horiike, Tokumasa; Minai, Ryoichi; Miyata, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yoji; Tateno, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Orthologs are widely used for phylogenetic analysis of species; however, identifying genuine orthologs among distantly related species is challenging, because genes obtained through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and out-paralogs derived from gene duplication before speciation are often present among the predicted orthologs. We developed a program, “Ortholog-Finder,” to obtain ortholog data sets for performing phylogenetic analysis by using all open-reading frame data of species. The program includes five processes for minimizing the effects of HGT and out-paralogs in phylogeny construction: 1) HGT filtering: Genes derived from HGT could be detected and deleted from the initial sequence data set by examining their base compositions. 2) Out-paralog filtering: Out-paralogs are detected and deleted from the data set based on sequence similarity. 3) Classification of phylogenetic trees: Phylogenetic trees generated for ortholog candidates are classified as monophyletic or polyphyletic trees. 4) Tree splitting: Polyphyletic trees are bisected to obtain monophyletic trees and remove HGT genes and out-paralogs. 5) Threshold changing: Out-paralogs are further excluded from the data set based on the difference in the similarity scores of genuine orthologs and out-paralogs. We examined how out-paralogs and HGTs affected phylogenetic trees constructed for species based on ortholog data sets obtained by Ortholog-Finder with the use of simulation data, and we determined the effects of confounding factors. We then used Ortholog-Finder in phylogeny construction for 12 Gram-positive bacteria from two phyla and validated each node of the constructed tree by comparison with individually constructed ortholog trees. PMID:26782935

  12. Ortholog-Finder: A Tool for Constructing an Ortholog Data Set.

    PubMed

    Horiike, Tokumasa; Minai, Ryoichi; Miyata, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yoji; Tateno, Yoshio

    2016-01-18

    Orthologs are widely used for phylogenetic analysis of species; however, identifying genuine orthologs among distantly related species is challenging, because genes obtained through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and out-paralogs derived from gene duplication before speciation are often present among the predicted orthologs. We developed a program, "Ortholog-Finder," to obtain ortholog data sets for performing phylogenetic analysis by using all open-reading frame data of species. The program includes five processes for minimizing the effects of HGT and out-paralogs in phylogeny construction: 1) HGT filtering: Genes derived from HGT could be detected and deleted from the initial sequence data set by examining their base compositions. 2) Out-paralog filtering: Out-paralogs are detected and deleted from the data set based on sequence similarity. 3) Classification of phylogenetic trees: Phylogenetic trees generated for ortholog candidates are classified as monophyletic or polyphyletic trees. 4) Tree splitting: Polyphyletic trees are bisected to obtain monophyletic trees and remove HGT genes and out-paralogs. 5) Threshold changing: Out-paralogs are further excluded from the data set based on the difference in the similarity scores of genuine orthologs and out-paralogs. We examined how out-paralogs and HGTs affected phylogenetic trees constructed for species based on ortholog data sets obtained by Ortholog-Finder with the use of simulation data, and we determined the effects of confounding factors. We then used Ortholog-Finder in phylogeny construction for 12 Gram-positive bacteria from two phyla and validated each node of the constructed tree by comparison with individually constructed ortholog trees.

  13. "Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmor, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

  14. [Prevalence of ocular lesions in children seropositive to Toxocara canis].

    PubMed

    Sánchez T, Juan E; López G, Juan P; González N, Militza; Villaseca D, Eduardo; Manieu M, Denise; Roizen B, Alejandra; Noemí H, Isabel; Viovy A, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    Intraocular invasion by Toxocara canis is one of the most commonly recognized etiologies of uveitis and blindness in children. In order to estimate the prevalence of ocular lesions caused by toxocariasis in a pediatric referral hospital, we conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical charts of all children seropositive to Toxocara canis, who also had an eye exam between the years 2005 and 2009 at the Calvo Mackenna Children's Hospital in Santiago, Chile. We identified 175 children [mean age 6 years (range 0.66-15)] seropositive to Toxocara canis, who had dilated eye exam. Only one child [(0.57%); 95% CI, -0.55 - 1.69] had ophthalmoscopic findings compatible with Toxocara canis infection. The patient also suffered from decreased vision of the affected eye. The information gained from this study may be of useful for the implementation of algorithms for the ophthalmological examination of children seropositive to Toxocara canis in public hospitals in Chile. PMID:22051620

  15. Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2000-01-01

    I examine leadership in Wolf (Canis lupus) packs based on published observations and data gathered during summers from 1986 to 1998 studying a free-ranging pack of Wolves on Ellesmere Island that were habituated to my presence. The breeding male tended to initiate activities associated with foraging and travel, and the breeding female to initiate, and predominate in, pup care and protection. However, there was considerable overlap and interaction during these activities such that leadership could be considered a joint function. In packs with multiple breeders, quantitative information about leadership is needed.

  16. ZZ Canis Minoris as a symbiotic star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    The H-aplha and Na I D-line regions of the M6 giant star ZZ Canis Minoris (ZZ CMi) were observed with the Kitt Peak coude feed telescope and a CCD detector. It is shown that ZZ CMi has similar spectroscopic and photoproperties to the symbiotic star EG And. The data are used to argue for the classification of ZZ CMi as a symbiotic star despite its current listing in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS) as a semi-regular variable. The infrared magnitudes of ZZ CMi and the known symbiotic stars are compared in a table.

  17. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  18. Toxocara canis and the allergic process.

    PubMed

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira de; Castro, Cynthia Aparecida de; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl Filho, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-09-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  19. A New Orthology Assessment Method for Phylogenomic Data: Unrooted Phylogenetic Orthology.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Jesús A; Hormiga, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    Current sequencing technologies are making available unprecedented amounts of genetic data for a large variety of species including nonmodel organisms. Although many phylogenomic surveys spend considerable time finding orthologs from the wealth of sequence data, these results do not transcend the original study and after being processed for specific phylogenetic purposes these orthologs do not become stable orthology hypotheses. We describe a procedure to detect and document the phylogenetic distribution of orthologs allowing researchers to use this information to guide selection of loci best suited to test specific evolutionary questions. At the core of this pipeline is a new phylogenetic orthology method that is neither affected by the position of the root nor requires explicit assignment of outgroups. We discuss the properties of this new orthology assessment method and exemplify its utility for phylogenomics using a small insects dataset. In addition, we exemplify the pipeline to identify and document stable orthologs for the group of orb-weaving spiders (Araneoidea) using RNAseq data. The scripts used in this study, along with sample files and additional documentation, are available at https://github.com/ballesterus/UPhO. PMID:27189539

  20. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  1. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon

    2016-01-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  2. Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Gomez, José; Marié, Jean-Lou; Davoust, Bernard; Guigal, Pierre-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis is distributed globally, but its prevalence in Africa is poorly known. In the study reported herein, 27% of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from watchdogs in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, were positive for E. canis using quantitative real-time PCR. A new molecular strategy is proposed that can be used not only for epidemiological study, but also for the diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Our findings show for the first time the presence of E. canis using molecular tools in the Ivory Coast, providing direct evidence for the presence of this pathogen.

  3. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon; Park, Ki-Jong

    2016-06-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  4. Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony.

    PubMed

    Iglauer, F; Kunstýr, I; Mörstedt, R; Farouq, H; Wullenweber, M; Damsch, S

    1991-01-01

    This is the first description of a pathologic condition--arthritis in cats affecting mainly one joint, i.e. monarthritis--caused by Streptococcus canis (S. canis), of the Lancefield serologic group G. Six cases were recorded in a closed cat breeding colony during a 6 month period in 1988, and one additional case in 1990. Therapy with penicillin and streptomycin led to full recovery in four of six cases. The bacterium had been detected from different purulent processes sporadically--including one case of purulent arthritis in 1982--as a nosocomial infection since 1980, the year the breeding colony was established. A possible genetic predisposition (high inbreeding) may have contributed to the accumulation of the six cases in 1988. Although S. canis was isolated in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog, cat and man seem to be more frequently affected. There are some similarities between S. canis-arthritis in cat and man.

  5. Breeding season of wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12 deg. and 80 deg. N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

  6. Breeding season of Wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12?? and 80??N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

  7. First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.; Kurtz, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

  8. Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

  9. Molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis infecting dogs, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; Gury Dohmen, Federico E

    2016-07-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E. canis from canine samples of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We studied 223 blood samples of dogs submitted to our institute for CME diagnoses. The samples were initially screened for Anaplasmataceae family by PCR, resulting in 30 positive dogs (13.4%). Subsequently, positive DNAs were analyzed by nested PCR 16S rRNA specific for E. canis or Anaplasma platys, resulting in 15 (6.7%) and 16 (7.2%) positive dogs, respectively. For molecular characterization, samples positive for E. canis were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the dsb and p28 genes. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the dsb fragment resulted in 100% identity with others E. canis found in dogs from different regions of worldwide. The nucleotide sequences obtained for p28 gene resulted in 100% of identity with each other and closely with E. canis str. Jaboticabal (Brazil). Identity with others sequences of E. canis ranged from 76.9 to 79.7%. The occurrence of canine cases molecularly confirmed in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires highlights the need for more studies in order to understand epidemiological factors associated with CME, especially the disease transmission dynamic in South America given the existence of two lineages of R. sanguineus sensu lato with different vectorial capacity for transmission of E. canis. PMID:27236582

  10. Application the mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF technique for detection of Babesia canis canis infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adaszek, Łukasz; Banach, Tomasz; Bartnicki, Michał; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Łyp, Paweł; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to use rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics analyses for diagnosis of Babesia canis canis infections in dogs. The study was conducted on two groups of dogs--healthy dogs and dogs infected with B. canis canis which demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS technique revealed the presence of a protein fraction of 51-52 kDa in the blood serum of all the animals infected with the protozoa, which was not found in the serum of healthy dogs. The proteins are suspected to be disease markers, whereas the MALDI-TOF technique itself has high specificity and sensitivity and can be applied in analytical laboratories in the diagnosis of canine babesiosis.

  11. In vitro production of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigen.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Divyamol; Jeyathilakan, N; Abdul Basith, S; Senthilkumar, T M A

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). The present study describes collection of T. canis adult worm, collection and embryonation of T. canis eggs, hatching and separation of T. canis larvae, in vitro maintenance of T. canis second stage larvae for production of TES, concentration of culture fluid TES and yield of TES in correlation with various methods cited in literature. PMID:27605834

  12. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  13. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  14. Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Bannasch, M J; Bachmann, R; Byrne, B A; Hurley, K F

    2007-03-01

    Three independent, fatal outbreaks of Streptococcus canis infection occurred in a 2-year period in shelter cats. The outbreaks occurred in Northern California (Yolo County), Southern California (Kern County), and North Carolina (Guilford County). An estimation of the affected population is >150 cats among 3 affected shelters, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Among 20 cats submitted for necropsy there were 2 distinct pathologic presentations. The first (shelters 1 and 2) was skin ulceration and chronic respiratory infection that progressed, in some cats, to necrotizing sinusitis and meningitis. The second (shelter 3) was rapid progression from necrotizing fasciitis with skin ulceration to toxic shock-like syndrome, sepsis, and death. S canis was the sole pathogen identified in most cases. Whether hypervirulent S canis strains exist is unknown; there is little understanding of how these bacteria cause invasive disease in cats.

  15. Toxocara canis infection: Unusual trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michaël; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Baudouin, Véronique; Guillem, Colette; Peuchmaur, Michel; Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Infection by Toxocara canis can cause systemic vasculitis. We report here a unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) triggered by T. canis infection. An 8-year-old girl was treated with albendazole therapy for common toxocariasis, but she developed two weeks later, asthenia, fever, infiltrated maculopapular eruption of the face, peripheral vascular disease with necrosis of the fingers and inflammatory anemia with proteinuria. Anti-nuclear, anti-DNA and anti-Sm antibodies positivity, together with minimal change nephritis with mesangial exclusive IgM deposit on renal biopsy and clinical relapse after initially successful steroid therapy, led to the diagnosis of SLE. T. canis infection can trigger systemic lupus but must also be ruled out of the differential diagnosis given its association with autoimmunity. PMID:26147636

  16. Generalized Microsporum canis dermatophytosis in six Yorkshire terrier dogs.

    PubMed

    Cerundolo, Rosario

    2004-06-01

    Six Yorkshire terrier dogs with generalized, chronic dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis were seen over a 3-year period. Specific tests showed that they also had concurrent leishmaniosis (four cases), leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis (one case) or diabetes mellitus (one case). Although specific therapy for these infectious diseases was instituted and the dogs were treated systemically and topically with appropriate antifungal drugs, only partial clinical resolution of the dermatophytosis was achieved. M. canis infection resolved in the dog with diabetes mellitus after stabilizing the diabetes mellitus. Although immunological studies were not performed in these cases, it is theorized that the immune disregulation caused by leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis or diabetes mellitus may have favoured generalization of the infection and prevented favourable responses to appropriate treatment of the M. canis infection.

  17. Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Bannasch, M J; Bachmann, R; Byrne, B A; Hurley, K F

    2007-03-01

    Three independent, fatal outbreaks of Streptococcus canis infection occurred in a 2-year period in shelter cats. The outbreaks occurred in Northern California (Yolo County), Southern California (Kern County), and North Carolina (Guilford County). An estimation of the affected population is >150 cats among 3 affected shelters, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Among 20 cats submitted for necropsy there were 2 distinct pathologic presentations. The first (shelters 1 and 2) was skin ulceration and chronic respiratory infection that progressed, in some cats, to necrotizing sinusitis and meningitis. The second (shelter 3) was rapid progression from necrotizing fasciitis with skin ulceration to toxic shock-like syndrome, sepsis, and death. S canis was the sole pathogen identified in most cases. Whether hypervirulent S canis strains exist is unknown; there is little understanding of how these bacteria cause invasive disease in cats. PMID:17317801

  18. Biological activity of Paecilomyces genus against Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Ciarmela, M L; Sarmiento, P L; Minvielle, M C

    2000-10-01

    Saprophytic soil fungi can exert ovicidal and ovistatic effects on helminths with differing degrees of efficiency. The representatives of such fungi from temperate regions, Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson and P. marquandii (Masse) Hughes, exhibit recognized ovicidal activity on some nematodes. We evaluated the action in vitro of P. lilacinus and P. marquandii on the zoonotic canine roundworm eggs of Toxocara canis. Eggs exposed and unexposed to fungal samples were observed by both light and scanning electron microscopy on days 4, 7 and 14 post-inoculation. Ovicidal activity of P. lilacinus on T. canis eggs was considered to be high and that of P. marquandii to be intermediate.

  19. Identification of serum biomarkers in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis canis using a proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease that is caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. There are limited data on serum proteomics in dogs, and none of the effect of babesiosis on the serum proteome. The aim of this study was to identify the potential serum biomarkers of babesiosis using proteomic techniques in order to increase our understanding about disease pathogenesis. Results Serum samples were collected from 25 dogs of various breeds and sex with naturally occurring babesiosis caused by B. canis canis. Blood was collected on the day of admission (day 0), and subsequently on the 1st and 6th day of treatment. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of pooled serum samples of dogs with naturally occurring babesiosis (day 0, day 1 and day 6) and healthy dogs were run in triplicate. 2DE image analysis showed 64 differentially expressed spots with p ≤ 0.05 and 49 spots with fold change ≥2. Six selected spots were excised manually and subjected to trypsin digest prior to identification by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry on an Amazon ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass spectrometry data was processed using Data Analysis software and the automated Matrix Science Mascot Daemon server. Protein identifications were assigned using the Mascot search engine to interrogate protein sequences in the NCBI Genbank database. A number of differentially expressed serum proteins involved in inflammation mediated acute phase response, complement and coagulation cascades, apolipoproteins and vitamin D metabolism pathway were identified in dogs with babesiosis. Conclusions Our findings confirmed two dominant pathogenic mechanisms of babesiosis, haemolysis and acute phase response. These results may provide possible serum biomarker candidates for clinical monitoring of babesiosis and this study could serve as the basis for further proteomic investigations in canine babesiosis. PMID:24885808

  20. The epidemiology of rabies in Zimbabwe. 2. Rabies in jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas).

    PubMed

    Bingham, J; Foggin, C M; Wandeler, A I; Hill, F W

    1999-03-01

    The epidemiology of rabies in Canis adustus (the side-striped jackal) and Canis mesomelas (the black-backed jackal) in Zimbabwe is described using data collected from 1950-1996. Cases in the two species made up 25.2% of all confirmed cases, second only to domestic dogs. Since the species of jackal cases was not recorded on rabies submission forms, the country was divided into areas according to species dominance and jackal cases were assigned to either C. adustus or C. mesomelas dominant zones or a sympatric zone where the relative status of the species is not known. Jackal rabies in both species is maintained in the commercial farming sector. Jackal rabies in the C. adustus zone occurs as dense epidemics, which begin at a single focus and spread centrifugally. The foci were initiated by rabid dogs, but once initiated the epidemic is maintained by C. adustus independently of other species. The extent of outbreaks in the C. adustus zone was limited by geographical (landuse type and jackal species interface) boundaries. Jackal rabies in C. adustus zones showed two seasonal peaks with the main peak occurring during late summer and the second peak during winter. In the C. mesomelas zone jackal rabies was more sparse but it occurred during most years. C. mesomelas is also able to maintain rabies independently of other species, although the epidemiology of the disease in this species is unclear. Transmission of rabies cycles between the two jackal species zones does not appear to occur as epidemics terminate when crossing the C. adustus and C. mesomelas interface boundaries.

  1. An example of endurance in an old wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    An 11 to 13-year-old Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus arctos) was observed chasing a young Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) for 6 to 7 minutes and catching it. This provides an example of the degree of endurance of which an old wolf is capable.

  2. Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

  3. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

  4. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia.

    PubMed

    Manyarara, Rutendo; Tubbesing, Ulf; Soni, Minty; Noden, Bruce H

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories). The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6%) compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6%) (P = 0.00). Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017), with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia. PMID:26244587

  5. A case report of an epidermal papilloma in Mustelus canis.

    PubMed

    Wolke, R E; Murchelano, R A

    1976-04-01

    A white, raised mass present on the caudal fin of a smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis) was identified as an epidermal papilloma with areas suggestive of carcinoma in situ. When examined by electron microscopy no structures or particles of viral origin were apparent. PMID:933307

  6. Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.

  7. OrthoDisease: tracking disease gene orthologs across 100 species.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Kristoffer; Schreiber, Fabian; Thanintorn, Nattaphon; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2011-09-01

    Orthology is one of the most important tools available to modern biology, as it allows making inferences from easily studied model systems to much less tractable systems of interest, such as ourselves. This becomes important not least in the study of genetic diseases. We here review work on the orthology of disease-associated genes and also present an updated version of the InParanoid-based disease orthology database and web site OrthoDisease, with 14-fold increased species coverage since the previous version. Using this resource, we survey the taxonomic distribution of orthologs of human genes involved in different disease categories. The hypothesis that paralogs can mask the effect of deleterious mutations predicts that known heritable disease genes should have fewer close paralogs. We found large-scale support for this hypothesis as significantly fewer duplications were observed for disease genes in the OrthoDisease ortholog groups.

  8. Detection of genotype-specific Ehrlichia canis exposure in Brazilian dogs by TRP36 peptide ELISA.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Braga, Isis A; Taques, Isis I G G; McBride, Jere W

    2016-02-01

    We recently characterized a novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis based on the tandem repeat (TR) sequence of the TRP36 gene in Brazil. The TR amino acid sequence of the Brazilian (Br) genotype (ASVVPEAE) was divergent from the previously described US genotype (TEDSVSAPA) of E. canis. In this study, we developed an ELISA based on TRP36 TR synthetic peptides from both Br and US E. canis TRP36 genotypes to serologically detect and distinguish infections caused by these genotypes. Sera from 30 Brazilian dogs naturally infected with E. canis, sera from dogs experimentally infected E. canis (Jake and Cuiabá #1 strains) and E. chaffeensis (Arkansas strain) and 12 seronegative E. canis dogs were evaluated. Fifteen naturally infected Brazilian dogs had antibodies that reacted with the US TRP36 (n=9) or Br TRP36 (n=6) only, and 13 dogs had antibodies that reacted with both TPR36 peptides suggesting that these dogs were exposed to both genotypes. Most dogs (n=28) had antibodies that reacted with the highly conserved E. canis TRP19 peptide; however, two dogs had antibodies to E. canis TRP19, but did not have TRP36 antibodies, raising the possibility that another novel TRP36 genotype is circulating in Brazil. Our results demonstrate that synthetic peptides based on the TR region of E. canis TRP36 can be used to serologically distinguish infections or identify coinfections by different genotypes, and to determine the seroprevalence of various E. canis genotypes in Brazil.

  9. Detection of genotype-specific Ehrlichia canis exposure in Brazilian dogs by TRP36 peptide ELISA.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Braga, Isis A; Taques, Isis I G G; McBride, Jere W

    2016-02-01

    We recently characterized a novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis based on the tandem repeat (TR) sequence of the TRP36 gene in Brazil. The TR amino acid sequence of the Brazilian (Br) genotype (ASVVPEAE) was divergent from the previously described US genotype (TEDSVSAPA) of E. canis. In this study, we developed an ELISA based on TRP36 TR synthetic peptides from both Br and US E. canis TRP36 genotypes to serologically detect and distinguish infections caused by these genotypes. Sera from 30 Brazilian dogs naturally infected with E. canis, sera from dogs experimentally infected E. canis (Jake and Cuiabá #1 strains) and E. chaffeensis (Arkansas strain) and 12 seronegative E. canis dogs were evaluated. Fifteen naturally infected Brazilian dogs had antibodies that reacted with the US TRP36 (n=9) or Br TRP36 (n=6) only, and 13 dogs had antibodies that reacted with both TPR36 peptides suggesting that these dogs were exposed to both genotypes. Most dogs (n=28) had antibodies that reacted with the highly conserved E. canis TRP19 peptide; however, two dogs had antibodies to E. canis TRP19, but did not have TRP36 antibodies, raising the possibility that another novel TRP36 genotype is circulating in Brazil. Our results demonstrate that synthetic peptides based on the TR region of E. canis TRP36 can be used to serologically distinguish infections or identify coinfections by different genotypes, and to determine the seroprevalence of various E. canis genotypes in Brazil. PMID:26482949

  10. Defining orthologs and pangenome size metrics.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Emanuele; Fani, Renato; Fondi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Since the advent of ultra-massive sequencing techniques, the consequent drop-off in both price and time required made feasible the sequencing of increasingly more genomes from microbes belonging to the same taxonomic unit. Eventually, this led to the concept of pangenome, that is, the entire set of genes present in a group of representatives of the same genus/species, which, in turn, can be divided into core genome, defined as the set of those genes present in all the genomes under study, and a dispensable genome, the set of genes possessed only by one or a subset of organism. When analyzing a pangenome, an interesting point is to measure its size, thus estimating the gene repertoire of a given taxonomic group. This is usually performed counting the novel genes added to the overall pangenome when new genomes are sequenced and annotated. A pangenome can be also classified as open or close: in an open pangenome its size increases indefinitely when adding new genomes; thus sequencing additional strains will likely yield novel genes. Conversely, in a close pangenome, adding new genomes will not lead to the discovery of new coding capabilities. A central point in pangenomics is the definition of homology relationships between genes belonging to different genomes. This may turn into the search of those genes with similar sequences between different organisms (and including both paralogous and orthologous genes). In this chapter, methods for finding groups of orthologs between genomes and for estimating the pangenome size are discussed. Also, working codes to address these tasks are provided.

  11. OrthoDisease: a database of human disease orthologs.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kevin P; Westerlund, Isabelle; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2004-08-01

    One of the greatest promises of genome sequencing projects is to further the understanding of human diseases and to develop new therapies. Model organism genomes have been sequenced in parallel to human genomes to provide effective tools for the investigation of human gene function. Many of their genes share a common ancestry and function with human genes, and this is particularly true for orthologous genes. Here we present OrthoDisease, a comprehensive database of model organism genes that are orthologous to human disease genes. OrthoDisease was constructed by applying the Inparanoid ortholog detection algorithm to disease genes derived from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM). Pairwise whole genome/proteome comparisons between Homo sapiens and six other organisms were performed to identify ortholog clusters. OMIM numbers were extracted from the OMIM Morbid Map and were converted to gene sequences using the Locuslink mim2loc and loc2acc tables. These were mapped to Inparanoid ortholog clusters using Blast. The number of ortholog clusters in OrthoDisease with each respective species is currently: M. musculus, 1,354; D. melanogaster, 724; C. elegans, 533; A. thaliana, 398; S. cerevisiae, 290; and E. coli, 153. The database is accessible online at http://orthodisease.cgb.ki.se, and can be searched with disease or protein names. The web interface presents all ortholog clusters that include a selected disease gene. A capability to download the entire dataset is also provided.

  12. Functional prediction: identification of protein orthologs and paralogs.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, R.; Jeong, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    Orthologs typically retain the same function in the course of evolution. Using beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase family as a model, we demonstrate that orthologs can be confidently identified. The strategy is based on our recent findings that substitutions of only a few amino acid residues in these enzymes are sufficient to exchange substrate and coenzyme specificities. Hence, the few major specificity determinants can serve as reliable markers for determining orthologous or paralogous relationships. The power of this approach has been demonstrated by correcting similarity-based functional misassignment and discovering new genes and related pathways, and should be broadly applicable to other enzyme families. PMID:11206056

  13. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended. PMID:26732926

  14. Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Phillips, M.K.; Smith, D.W.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

  15. Acral lick dermatitis in a jackal (Canis aureus).

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Nyska, A

    1998-06-01

    Acral lick dermatitis was diagnosed in a 6-mo-old female jackal (Canis aureus) that was born and housed in a zoological garden in Hafez-Haim, Israel. Other dermatologic diseases were ruled out. Although the lesions were presumed to be psychogenic in origin, they resolved with topical therapy using an ointment containing benzocaine, neomycin sulfate, and hydrocortisone acetate. No recurrence has been observed. PMID:9732044

  16. Toxocara canis: Larvicidal activity of fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    Mata-Santos, Taís; D'Oca, Caroline da Ros Montes; Mata-Santos, Hílton Antônio; Fenalti, Juliana; Pinto, Nitza; Coelho, Tatiane; Berne, Maria Elisabeth; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; Scaini, Carlos James

    2016-02-01

    Considering the therapeutic potential of fatty acid amides, the present study aimed to evaluate their in vitro activity against Toxocara canis larvae and their cytotoxicity for the first time. Linoleylpyrrolidilamide was the most potent, with a minimal larvicidal concentration (MLC) of 0.05 mg/mL and 27% cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages C57BL/6 mice, as assessed by the MTT assay. PMID:26783180

  17. A new star-forming region in Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magakian, T. Yu.; Movsessian, T. A.; Bally, J.

    2016-07-01

    A new southern star-formation region, located at an estimated distance of ˜1.5 kpc in the Lynds 1664 dark cloud in Canis Major, is described. Lynds 1664 contains several compact star clusters, small stellar groups and young stars associated with reflection nebulae. Narrow-band H α and [S II] images obtained with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory reveal more than 20 new Herbig-Haro objects associated with several protostellar outflows.

  18. Comparative study of Microsporum canis isolates by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj

    2014-08-01

    Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing.

  19. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernandez, Giovanni; André, Marcos R; Munhoz, Thiago D; Faria, Joice M L; Machado, Rosangela Z; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    Hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease whose transmission to dogs occurs by ingestion of oocysts infected ticks or feeding on preys infested by infected ticks. Until now, there is no previous report of molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in dogs from Colombia. EDTA blood samples were collected from 91 dogs from central-western region of Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, and Villavicencio cities) and submitted to 18S rRNA Hepatozoon sp. PCR and blood smears confection. Phylogenetic analysis was used to access the identity of Hepatozoon species found in sampled dogs. From 91 sampled dogs, 29 (31.8%) were positive to Hepatozoon sp. (25 dogs were only positive in PCR, 1 was positive only in blood smears, and 3 were positive in both blood smears and PCR). After sequencing, the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA showed 100% of identity with Hepatozoon canis DNA isolates. The phylogenetic tree supported the identity of the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA, showing that the isolates from Colombia were placed in the same clade than other H. canis isolates from Venezuela, Spain, and Taiwan. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in dogs from Colombia.

  20. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, G; André, M R; Faria, J L M; Munhoz, T D; Hernandez-Rodriguez, M; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2012-05-25

    Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The present work aimed to detect the presence of E. canis and Babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in Colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. We also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Colombia. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies to E. canis and Babesia vogeli were found in 75 (82.4%) and 47 (51.6%) sampled dogs, respectively. Thirty-seven (40.6%) and 5 (5.5%) dogs were positive in PCR for E. canis and Babesia sp., respectively. After sequencing, amplicons showed 99% of identity with isolates of E. canis and B. vogeli. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA-Anaplasmataceae sequences and 18S rRNA-piroplasmid sequences supported the identity of the found E. canis and B. vogeli DNAs, respectively. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs in Colombia.

  1. Orthology for comparative genomics in the mouse genome database.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Mary E; Baldarelli, Richard M; Bello, Susan M; Ni, Li; McAndrews, Monica S; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A

    2015-08-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD) is the model organism database component of the mouse genome informatics system at The Jackson Laboratory. MGD is the international data resource for the laboratory mouse and facilitates the use of mice in the study of human health and disease. Since its beginnings, MGD has included comparative genomics data with a particular focus on human-mouse orthology, an essential component of the use of mouse as a model organism. Over the past 25 years, novel algorithms and addition of orthologs from other model organisms have enriched comparative genomics in MGD data, extending the use of orthology data to support the laboratory mouse as a model of human biology. Here, we describe current comparative data in MGD and review the history and refinement of orthology representation in this resource.

  2. Orthology for comparative genomics in the mouse genome database.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Mary E; Baldarelli, Richard M; Bello, Susan M; Ni, Li; McAndrews, Monica S; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A

    2015-08-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD) is the model organism database component of the mouse genome informatics system at The Jackson Laboratory. MGD is the international data resource for the laboratory mouse and facilitates the use of mice in the study of human health and disease. Since its beginnings, MGD has included comparative genomics data with a particular focus on human-mouse orthology, an essential component of the use of mouse as a model organism. Over the past 25 years, novel algorithms and addition of orthologs from other model organisms have enriched comparative genomics in MGD data, extending the use of orthology data to support the laboratory mouse as a model of human biology. Here, we describe current comparative data in MGD and review the history and refinement of orthology representation in this resource. PMID:26223881

  3. Antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens and the spotted fever group rickettsial antigens, in free-ranging jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) from Israel.

    PubMed

    Waner, T; Baneth, G; Strenger, C; Keysary, A; King, R; Harrus, S

    1999-03-31

    A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with the Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens, and the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae antigens in jackals in Israel (Canis aureus syriacus), to assess the possible role of the jackal in the epidemiology of these diseases. Fifty-three serum samples from jackals were assayed by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. Antibodies to E. canis were detected in 35.8% serum samples while 26.4% of the samples tested were positive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Twenty-six percent of the jackals tested were seropositive to E. phagocytophila, of which 5.7% were seropositive to E. phagocytophila alone without any seroreactivity to either E. canis or E. chaffeensis. Fifty-five percent of the jackals were seropositive to the SFG-rickettsiae antigens. The results suggest a high exposure rate of jackals in Israel to E. canis. Positive reactivity to E. chaffeensis was considered to be due to antigenic cross-reactions with E. canis. The study demonstrated for the first time the presence of E. phagocytophila antibodies in free-range jackals. The high incidence of antibodies to the SFG-rickettsiae and their relatively high antibody titers was suggestive of either recent or persistent infection. The possibility that jackals may play a role in the transmission of E. canis, E. phagocytophila and the SFG-rickettsiae for human and canine infections is discussed. PMID:10321583

  4. Antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens and the spotted fever group rickettsial antigens, in free-ranging jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) from Israel.

    PubMed

    Waner, T; Baneth, G; Strenger, C; Keysary, A; King, R; Harrus, S

    1999-03-31

    A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with the Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens, and the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae antigens in jackals in Israel (Canis aureus syriacus), to assess the possible role of the jackal in the epidemiology of these diseases. Fifty-three serum samples from jackals were assayed by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. Antibodies to E. canis were detected in 35.8% serum samples while 26.4% of the samples tested were positive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Twenty-six percent of the jackals tested were seropositive to E. phagocytophila, of which 5.7% were seropositive to E. phagocytophila alone without any seroreactivity to either E. canis or E. chaffeensis. Fifty-five percent of the jackals were seropositive to the SFG-rickettsiae antigens. The results suggest a high exposure rate of jackals in Israel to E. canis. Positive reactivity to E. chaffeensis was considered to be due to antigenic cross-reactions with E. canis. The study demonstrated for the first time the presence of E. phagocytophila antibodies in free-range jackals. The high incidence of antibodies to the SFG-rickettsiae and their relatively high antibody titers was suggestive of either recent or persistent infection. The possibility that jackals may play a role in the transmission of E. canis, E. phagocytophila and the SFG-rickettsiae for human and canine infections is discussed.

  5. Beyond the bounds of orthology: functional inference from metagenomic context.

    PubMed

    Vey, Gregory; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    The effectiveness of the computational inference of function by genomic context is bounded by the diversity of known microbial genomes. Although metagenomes offer access to previously inaccessible organisms, their fragmentary nature prevents the conventional establishment of orthologous relationships required for reliably predicting functional interactions. We introduce a protocol for the prediction of functional interactions using data sources without information about orthologous relationships. To illustrate this process, we use the Sargasso Sea metagenome to construct a functional interaction network for the Escherichia coli K12 genome. We identify two reliability metrics, target intergenic distance and source interaction count, and apply them to selectively filter the predictions retained to construct the network of functional interactions. The resulting network contains 2297 nodes with 10 072 edges with a positive predictive value of 0.80. The metagenome yielded 8423 functional interactions beyond those found using only the genomic orthologs as a data source. This amounted to a 134% increase in the total number of functional interactions that are predicted by combining the metagenome and the genomic orthologs versus the genomic orthologs alone. In the absence of detectable orthologous relationships it remains feasible to derive a reliable set of predicted functional interactions. This offers a strategy for harnessing other metagenomes and homologs in general. Because metagenomes allow access to previously unreachable microorganisms, this will result in expanding the universe of known functional interactions thus furthering our understanding of functional organization. PMID:20419183

  6. Beyond the bounds of orthology: functional inference from metagenomic context.

    PubMed

    Vey, Gregory; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    The effectiveness of the computational inference of function by genomic context is bounded by the diversity of known microbial genomes. Although metagenomes offer access to previously inaccessible organisms, their fragmentary nature prevents the conventional establishment of orthologous relationships required for reliably predicting functional interactions. We introduce a protocol for the prediction of functional interactions using data sources without information about orthologous relationships. To illustrate this process, we use the Sargasso Sea metagenome to construct a functional interaction network for the Escherichia coli K12 genome. We identify two reliability metrics, target intergenic distance and source interaction count, and apply them to selectively filter the predictions retained to construct the network of functional interactions. The resulting network contains 2297 nodes with 10 072 edges with a positive predictive value of 0.80. The metagenome yielded 8423 functional interactions beyond those found using only the genomic orthologs as a data source. This amounted to a 134% increase in the total number of functional interactions that are predicted by combining the metagenome and the genomic orthologs versus the genomic orthologs alone. In the absence of detectable orthologous relationships it remains feasible to derive a reliable set of predicted functional interactions. This offers a strategy for harnessing other metagenomes and homologs in general. Because metagenomes allow access to previously unreachable microorganisms, this will result in expanding the universe of known functional interactions thus furthering our understanding of functional organization.

  7. Berkeley PHOG: PhyloFacts orthology group prediction web server.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ruchira S; Meacham, Christopher; Samad, Bushra; Neyer, Christoph; Sjölander, Kimmen

    2009-07-01

    Ortholog detection is essential in functional annotation of genomes, with applications to phylogenetic tree construction, prediction of protein-protein interaction and other bioinformatics tasks. We present here the PHOG web server employing a novel algorithm to identify orthologs based on phylogenetic analysis. Results on a benchmark dataset from the TreeFam-A manually curated orthology database show that PHOG provides a combination of high recall and precision competitive with both InParanoid and OrthoMCL, and allows users to target different taxonomic distances and precision levels through the use of tree-distance thresholds. For instance, OrthoMCL-DB achieved 76% recall and 66% precision on this dataset; at a slightly higher precision (68%) PHOG achieves 10% higher recall (86%). InParanoid achieved 87% recall at 24% precision on this dataset, while a PHOG variant designed for high recall achieves 88% recall at 61% precision, increasing precision by 37% over InParanoid. PHOG is based on pre-computed trees in the PhyloFacts resource, and contains over 366 K orthology groups with a minimum of three species. Predicted orthologs are linked to GO annotations, pathway information and biological literature. The PHOG web server is available at http://phylofacts.berkeley.edu/orthologs/.

  8. Novel Papillomaviral Sequence Detected within Epidermal Plaques in a Wolf (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Myers, Sherry; Lockerbie, Betty; Wobeser, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe numerous pale plaques affecting the inguinal skin of a grey wolf (Canis lupus). Histologically, these were consistent with papillomaviral plaques. Immunohistochemistry confirmed papillomavirus antigens, and partial sequencing of the L1 gene suggests this is a novel papillomavirus most-closely related to Canis familiaris Papillomavirus 5. PMID:26540181

  9. Novel Papillomaviral Sequence Detected within Epidermal Plaques in a Wolf (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Myers, Sherry; Lockerbie, Betty; Wobeser, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe numerous pale plaques affecting the inguinal skin of a grey wolf (Canis lupus). Histologically, these were consistent with papillomaviral plaques. Immunohistochemistry confirmed papillomavirus antigens, and partial sequencing of the L1 gene suggests this is a novel papillomavirus most-closely related to Canis familiaris Papillomavirus 5.

  10. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2013-02-01

    The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

  11. Presence of antibodies to canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus type 1 in free-ranging jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas) in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J A; Bingham, J; Heath, R; Richards, B

    1999-09-01

    A survey of free-ranging jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas) in Zimbabwe was conducted to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1). Sera from 16 Canis adustus and 22 Canis mesomelas were collected from 1990 to 1993 from various regions of Zimbabwe and assayed by means of immunofluorescent techniques. Seroprevalence in C. adustus and C. mesomelas respectively were 50% and 63.6% for CDV, 12.5% and 18.2% for CPV and 37.5 and 9.1 for CAV-1. These results demonstrate that jackals are infected with these viruses and may act as reservoirs of them, although their susceptibility to the viruses is not known.

  12. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2013-02-01

    The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export.

  13. Acquisition and transmission of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) by the tick Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Rubini, A S; Paduan, K S; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B; O'Dwyer, L H

    2009-10-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of Hepatozoon canis by Amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. Two H. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with A. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. After feeding, two A. ovale females presented H. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days after removal of ticks from dogs. The oocysts had an average size of 244.34 microm x 255.46 microm. Three uninfected dogs were fed with ticks previously fed on the infected dogs. Only one dog became infected 32 days after oral inoculation, presenting circulating gametocytes, parasitemia less than 1%, and positive PCR confirmed to be H. canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. PMID:19501969

  14. Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Dentinger, Catherine M.; Jacob, Kathleen; Lee, Lillian V.; Mendez, Herman A.; Chotikanatis, Kobkul; McDonough, Patrick L.; Chico, David M.; De, Barun K.; Traxler, Rita M.; Campagnolo, Enzo R.; Schmitt, David; Guerra, Marta A.; Slavinski, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Contact with pathogenic Brucella spp. can lead to laboratory-acquired infections. We identified a pediatric B. canis case, the source, and other exposed persons. A three-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnea was hospitalized for 48 hours for bronchiolitis. After her admission blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed antimicrobials and recovered. B. canis was isolated from blood of the child's pet dog. Isolates from the child and the dog were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the puppy's infection. Thirty-one laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. This first report strongly suggesting B. canis transmission from a canine to a child in the United States highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness. PMID:25363807

  15. Systematic status of wild Canis in North-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Skulls of wild Canis collected 2003–2004 in north-central Texas are morphometrically similar to a series taken there and in nearby areas in 1964–1971, which was considered to represent a population of Coyotes (C. latrans) modified through introgression from Red Wolves (C. rufus). A few of the new specimens closely resemble small examples of Red Wolves. Such affinity is supported by authoritative examination of living and videotaped animals. The persistence of influence of Red Wolves, long after presumed extirpation through hybridization and human persecution, may be relevant to wolf conservation.

  16. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    PubMed

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982). PMID:25698875

  17. Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone.

  18. Toxocara canis: Molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion

    PubMed Central

    Maizels, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of ‘excretory–secretory’ products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in

  19. [Effects of household chemicals on infested Toxocara canis eggs].

    PubMed

    Shchuchinova, L D; Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S

    2013-01-01

    Six household chemicals were tested for effects on cultured Toxocara canis eggs in the mobile larval stage. The cleansing gel Comet (Double Effect) and its 10%, 25%, and 50% aqueous solutions have the most pronounced ovicidal and larvicidal effects under laboratory conditions (+19-22 degrees C). Domestos and Belizna (Bleach) are also effective. These agents are recommended for the disinvasion and washing of premises for canids: aviaries of dog-breeding centers; farms for silver and polar foxes; shelters for stray dogs; rooms in veterinary clinics; and apartments where domestic animals (dogs) are present. PMID:24640129

  20. Molecular characterization of DSC1 orthologs in invertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying-Jun; Yu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2012-05-01

    DSC1 and BSC1 are two founding members of a novel family of invertebrate voltage-gated cation channels with close structural and evolutionary relationships to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. In this study, we searched the published genome sequences for DSC1 orthologs. DSC1 orthologs were found in all 48 insect species, and in other invertebrate species belonging to phyla Mollusca, Cnidaria, Hemichordata and Echinodermata. However, DSC1 orthologs were not found in four arachnid species, Ixodes scapularis, Rhipicephalus microplus, Tetranychus urticae and Varroa destructor, two species in Annelida or any vertebrate species. We then cloned and sequenced NlSC1 and BmSC1 full-length cDNAs from the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and the silkworm (Bombyx mori), respectively. NlSC1 and BmSC1 share about 50% identity with DSC1, and the expression of NlSC1 and BmSC1 transcripts was most abundant in the head and antenna in adults. All DSC1 orthologs contain a unique and conserved DEEA motif, instead of the EEEE or EEDD motif in classical calcium channels or the DEKA motif in sodium channels. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that DSC1 and its orthologs form a separate group distinct from the classical voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels and constitute a unique family of cation channels. The DSC1/BSC1-family channels could be potential targets of new and safe insecticides for pest control. PMID:22321571

  1. Molecular characterization of DSC1 orthologs in invertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying-Jun; Yu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2012-05-01

    DSC1 and BSC1 are two founding members of a novel family of invertebrate voltage-gated cation channels with close structural and evolutionary relationships to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. In this study, we searched the published genome sequences for DSC1 orthologs. DSC1 orthologs were found in all 48 insect species, and in other invertebrate species belonging to phyla Mollusca, Cnidaria, Hemichordata and Echinodermata. However, DSC1 orthologs were not found in four arachnid species, Ixodes scapularis, Rhipicephalus microplus, Tetranychus urticae and Varroa destructor, two species in Annelida or any vertebrate species. We then cloned and sequenced NlSC1 and BmSC1 full-length cDNAs from the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and the silkworm (Bombyx mori), respectively. NlSC1 and BmSC1 share about 50% identity with DSC1, and the expression of NlSC1 and BmSC1 transcripts was most abundant in the head and antenna in adults. All DSC1 orthologs contain a unique and conserved DEEA motif, instead of the EEEE or EEDD motif in classical calcium channels or the DEKA motif in sodium channels. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that DSC1 and its orthologs form a separate group distinct from the classical voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels and constitute a unique family of cation channels. The DSC1/BSC1-family channels could be potential targets of new and safe insecticides for pest control.

  2. OGO: an ontological approach for integrating knowledge about orthology

    PubMed Central

    Miñarro-Gimenez, Jose Antonio; Madrid, Marisa; Fernandez-Breis, Jesualdo Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Background There exist several information resources about orthology of genes and proteins, and there are also systems for querying those resources in an integrated way. However, caveats with current approaches include lack of integration, since results are shown sequentially by resource, meaning that there is redundant information and the users are required to combine the results obtained manually. Results In this paper we have applied the Ontological Gene Orthology approach, which makes use of a domain ontology to integrate the information output from selected orthology resources. The integrated information is stored in a knowledge base, which can be queried through semantic languages. A friendly user interface has been developed to facilitate the search; consequently, users do not need to have knowledge on ontologies or ontological languages to obtain the relevant information. Conclusion The development and application of our approach allows users to retrieve integrated results when querying orthology information, providing a gene product-oriented output instead of a traditional information resource-oriented one. Besides this benefit for users, it also allows a better exploitation and management of orthology information and knowledge. PMID:19796397

  3. High throughput pyrosequencing technology for molecular differential detection of Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in canine blood samples.

    PubMed

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Kongklieng, Amornmas; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-06-01

    Canine babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by different hemopathogens. These diseases are causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The classic method for parasite detection and differentiation is based on microscopic observation of blood smears. The limitations of the microscopic method are that its performance requires a specially qualified person with professional competence, and it is ineffective in differentiating closely related species. This study applied PCR amplification with high throughput pyrosequencing for molecular differential detection of the following 4 hemoparasites common to tropical areas in dog blood samples: Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. PCR was initially used to amplify specific target regions of the ribosomal RNA genes of each parasite using 2 primer pairs that included 18S rRNA for protozoa (B. vogeli and H. canis) and 16S rRNA for rickettsia (E. canis and A. platys). Babesia vogeli and H. canis were discriminated using 9 nucleotide positions out of 30 base pairs, whereas E. canis and A. platys were differentiated using 15 nucleotide positions out of 34 base pairs that were determined from regions adjacent to 3' ends of the sequencing primers. This method provides a challenging alternative for a rapid diagnosis and surveillance of these tick-borne diseases in canines.

  4. Orthology detection combining clustering and synteny for very large datasets.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Marcus; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Doerr, Daniel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Thévenin, Annelyse; Stoye, Jens; Hartmann, Roland K; Prohaska, Sonja J; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of orthology relationships is an important step both in gene function prediction as well as towards understanding patterns of sequence evolution. Orthology assignments are usually derived directly from sequence similarities for large data because more exact approaches exhibit too high computational costs. Here we present PoFF, an extension for the standalone tool Proteinortho, which enhances orthology detection by combining clustering, sequence similarity, and synteny. In the course of this work, FFAdj-MCS, a heuristic that assesses pairwise gene order using adjacencies (a similarity measure related to the breakpoint distance) was adapted to support multiple linear chromosomes and extended to detect duplicated regions. PoFF largely reduces the number of false positives and enables more fine-grained predictions than purely similarity-based approaches. The extension maintains the low memory requirements and the efficient concurrency options of its basis Proteinortho, making the software applicable to very large datasets.

  5. OrthoDB: the hierarchical catalog of eukaryotic orthologs.

    PubMed

    Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Rahman, Nazim; Espinosa, Octavio; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

    2008-01-01

    The concept of orthology is widely used to relate genes across different species using comparative genomics, and it provides the basis for inferring gene function. Here we present the web accessible OrthoDB database that catalogs groups of orthologous genes in a hierarchical manner, at each radiation of the species phylogeny, from more general groups to more fine-grained delineations between closely related species. We used a COG-like and Inparanoid-like ortholog delineation procedure on the basis of all-against-all Smith-Waterman sequence comparisons to analyze 58 eukaryotic genomes, focusing on vertebrates, insects and fungi to facilitate further comparative studies. The database is freely available at http://cegg.unige.ch/orthodb.

  6. A WISE Census of Young Stellar Objects in Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Stapelfeldt, Karl L.; Sewiło, Marta

    2016-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we searched for young stellar objects (YSOs) in a 100 deg2 region centered on the lightly studied Canis Major star-forming region. Applying stringent magnitude cuts to exclude the majority of extragalactic contaminants, we find 144 Class I candidates and 335 Class II candidates. The sensitivity to Class II candidates is limited by their faintness at the distance to Canis Major (assumed as 1000 pc). More than half the candidates (53%) are found in 16 groups of more than four members, including four groups with more than 25 members each. The ratio of Class II to Class I objects, N II/N I, varies from 0.4 to 8.3 in just the largest four groups. We compare our results to those obtainable with combined Two Micron All Sky Survey and post-cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope data; the latter approach recovers missing Class II sources. Via a comparison to protostars characterized with the Herschel Space Observatory, we propose new WISE color criteria for flat-spectrum and Class 0 protostars, finding 80 and 7 of these, respectively. The distribution of YSOs in CMa OB1 is consistent with supernova-induced star formation, although the diverse N II/N I ratios are unexpected if this parameter traces age and the YSOs are due to the same supernova. Less massive clouds feature larger N II/N I ratios, suggesting that initial conditions play a role in determining this quantity.

  7. Toxocara canis: anthelmintic activity of quinone derivatives in murine toxocarosis.

    PubMed

    Mata-Santos, T; Mata-Santos, H A; Carneiro, P F; De Moura, K C G; Fenalti, J M; Klafke, G B; Cruz, L A X; Martins, L H R; Pinto, N F; Pinto, M C F R; Berne, M E A; Da Silva, P E A; Scaini, C J

    2016-04-01

    Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL(-1) concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0.05 mg mL(-1). The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug. PMID:26887285

  8. [Brucella canis endocarditis: first documented case in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Manias, Valeria; Nagel, Alicia; Mollerach, Analía; Mendosa, María A; Freyre, Hugo; Gómez, Abel; Ferrara, Elisa; Vay, Carlos; de Los A Méndez, Emilce

    2013-01-01

    We herein present the case of an adult male patient who consulted for lower extremity edema, a 2- month history of fever and oppressive chest pain radiating to the left arm. He referred neither contact with breeding animals nor consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. A diagnosis of endocarditis was confirmed by cardiac studies. Since the empirical treatment with cephalotin, ampicillin and gentamicin failed, the patient underwent aortic valve replacement. A total of four blood cultures were positive with a gram-negative rod. Bacterial identification was performed using the API 20 NE technique (bioMèrieux), the Phoenix automated method (BD) and conventional biochemical tests which were unable to classify the isolate as to genus and species. The strain was sent to the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" where it was identified as Brucella canis. The antimicrobial treatment was switched to doxycycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with good evolution of the patient. The clinical significance of this case report lies in the possible failure of the empiric antibiotic therapy administered for endocarditis, since B. canis did not respond to the conventional antimicrobial treatment for this pathology. PMID:23560789

  9. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P < 0.01) but gnathosoma and podosoma did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects. PMID:26688632

  10. Toxocara canis: anthelmintic activity of quinone derivatives in murine toxocarosis.

    PubMed

    Mata-Santos, T; Mata-Santos, H A; Carneiro, P F; De Moura, K C G; Fenalti, J M; Klafke, G B; Cruz, L A X; Martins, L H R; Pinto, N F; Pinto, M C F R; Berne, M E A; Da Silva, P E A; Scaini, C J

    2016-04-01

    Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL(-1) concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0.05 mg mL(-1). The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.

  11. Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicluna, P.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Wesson, R.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Kasper, M.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Wolf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Massive stars live short lives, losing large amounts of mass through their stellar wind. Their mass is a key factor determining how and when they explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements and dust. During the red supergiant phase, mass-loss rates increase prodigiously, but the driving mechanism has proven elusive. Here we present high-contrast optical polarimetric-imaging observations of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and its clumpy, dusty, mass-loss envelope, using the new extreme-adaptive-optics instrument SPHERE at the VLT. These observations allow us to make the first direct and unambiguous detection of submicron dust grains in the ejecta; we derive an average grain radius ~0.5 μm, 50 times larger than in the diffuse ISM, large enough to receive significant radiation pressure by photon scattering. We find evidence for varying grain sizes throughout the ejecta, highlighting the dynamical nature of the envelope. Grains with 0.5 μm sizes are likely to reach a safe distance from the eventual explosion of VY Canis Majoris; hence it may inject upwards of 10-2 M⊙ of dust into the ISM. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program 60.A-9368(A).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. OMA 2011: orthology inference among 1000 complete genomes.

    PubMed

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Schneider, Adrian; Gonnet, Gaston H; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    OMA (Orthologous MAtrix) is a database that identifies orthologs among publicly available, complete genomes. Initiated in 2004, the project is at its 11th release. It now includes 1000 genomes, making it one of the largest resources of its kind. Here, we describe recent developments in terms of species covered; the algorithmic pipeline--in particular regarding the treatment of alternative splicing, and new features of the web (OMA Browser) and programming interface (SOAP API). In the second part, we review the various representations provided by OMA and their typical applications. The database is publicly accessible at http://omabrowser.org.

  13. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing on embryonation of Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Houk, Alice E; Flick, George J; Lindsay, David S

    2014-07-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic nematode parasite that can be transmitted to humans by food or water contaminated with T. canis eggs from infected dog feces. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a useful alternative to thermal treatments to eliminate pathogens from foods. Most of the research on HPP has focused on prokaryotes, but little is known about its effects on eukaryotic organisms. We evaluated the ability of HPP to affect embryonation of T. canis eggs to test the hypothesis that HPP treatment can delay development of T. canis eggs. Efficacy of HPP was determined by using an embryonation assay on T. canis eggs from naturally infected puppies. For each treatment, 2500 T. canis eggs in tap water were placed in sealable plastic bags and subjected to 138-400 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60 s in a commercial HPP unit. We found that treatment with 300 or 400 MPa for 60 s killed 100% of eggs using embryonation as the standard. Treatment with 250, 241, and 207 MPa was less effective and killed 80%, 56%, and 8% of eggs, respectively. Results from this study suggest that HPP may be a useful treatment to protect foods from T. canis contamination.

  14. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    PubMed

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential. PMID:27344918

  15. Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Burak Selek, Mehmet; Baylan, Orhan; Kutlu, Ali; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis), a parasite which subsists in dog's intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU) to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis. In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB) WB test. We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13) of patients (n=73) with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109). Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa) were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity 12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day) increases seropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found 17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals. Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canis seropositivity in patients with CU.

  16. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico. PMID:26615872

  17. Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Burak Selek, Mehmet; Baylan, Orhan; Kutlu, Ali; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis), a parasite which subsists in dog's intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU) to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis. In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB) WB test. We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13) of patients (n=73) with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109). Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa) were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity 12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day) increases seropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found 17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals. Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canis seropositivity in patients with CU. PMID:26547714

  18. OrthoMCL: identification of ortholog groups for eukaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Stoeckert, Christian J; Roos, David S

    2003-09-01

    The identification of orthologous groups is useful for genome annotation, studies on gene/protein evolution, comparative genomics, and the identification of taxonomically restricted sequences. Methods successfully exploited for prokaryotic genome analysis have proved difficult to apply to eukaryotes, however, as larger genomes may contain multiple paralogous genes, and sequence information is often incomplete. OrthoMCL provides a scalable method for constructing orthologous groups across multiple eukaryotic taxa, using a Markov Cluster algorithm to group (putative) orthologs and paralogs. This method performs similarly to the INPARANOID algorithm when applied to two genomes, but can be extended to cluster orthologs from multiple species. OrthoMCL clusters are coherent with groups identified by EGO, but improved recognition of "recent" paralogs permits overlapping EGO groups representing the same gene to be merged. Comparison with previously assigned EC annotations suggests a high degree of reliability, implying utility for automated eukaryotic genome annotation. OrthoMCL has been applied to the proteome data set from seven publicly available genomes (human, fly, worm, yeast, Arabidopsis, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and Escherichia coli). A Web interface allows queries based on individual genes or user-defined phylogenetic patterns (http://www.cbil.upenn.edu/gene-family). Analysis of clusters incorporating P. falciparum genes identifies numerous enzymes that were incompletely annotated in first-pass annotation of the parasite genome.

  19. Classification of Babesia canis strains in Europe based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene from the Babesia canis Bc28 multigene family.

    PubMed

    Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P

    2015-07-30

    The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28 kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of

  20. Contraception has gone to the coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Marjorie J; Perkins, Elsey G; Asa, Cheryl; Skinner, Donal C

    2013-12-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are predators of livestock. Current management programs, primarily lethal control, are ineffective for long-term management of predation. Controlling reproduction of coyotes may reduce depredations if territory fidelity is maintained by breeding pairs. Surgical sterilization is successful in altering predatory behaviors of coyotes but may provide a challenge for field implementation. An alternative approach is the development of a one-time non-transferable chemical contraceptive. This research is investigating the efficacy of a single high dose treatment of a sustained release gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, deslorelin, on coyotes as a long term contraceptive. Male coyotes were administered 47 mg deslorelin subcutaneously. Preliminary data show full suppression of the reproductive axis for over 12 mo as indicated by complete absence of sperm.

  1. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  2. Primary lymphangiectasia in a dingo (Canis familiaris dingo).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Ludlow, Chris; Layton, Candace; Dennis, Jeff; Miller, Margaret

    2004-12-01

    A 3-yr-old intact male dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) presented with a 3-mo history of diarrhea. The diarrhea did not resolve with antibiotics or intestinal protectants. Fecal examination for parasites, fecal cultures, physical examination, and radiographs were unremarkable. Enteroscopic duodenal biopsies showed dilated lacteals without inflammation. Results of serum folate, cobalamin, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were normal. Low serum total protein and albumin combined with increased fecal levels of alpha-1 protease inhibitor suggested the diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum revealed dilated mucosal and submucosal lacteals without associated inflammation, confirming the diagnosis of primary lymphangiectasia. Currently, the dingo is being maintained with nutritional management. PMID:15732606

  3. Factors affecting the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species tree in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background As originally defined, orthologous genes implied a reflection of the history of the species. In recent years, many studies have examined the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species trees in bacteria. These studies have produced contradictory results that may have been influenced by orthologous gene misidentification and artefactual phylogenetic reconstructions. Here, using a method that allows the detection and exclusion of false positives during identification of orthologous genes, we address the question of whether putative orthologous genes within bacteria really reflect the history of the species. Results We identified a set of 370 orthologous genes from the bacterial order Rhizobiales. Although manifesting strong vertical signal, almost every orthologous gene had a distinct phylogeny, and the most common topology among the orthologous gene trees did not correspond with the best estimate of the species tree. However, each orthologous gene tree shared an average of 70% of its bipartitions with the best estimate of the species tree. Stochastic error related to gene size affected the concordance between the best estimated of the species tree and the orthologous gene trees, although this effect was weak and distributed unevenly among the functional categories. The nodes showing the greatest discordance were those defined by the shortest internal branches in the best estimated of the species tree. Moreover, a clear bias was evident with respect to the function of the orthologous genes, and the degree of divergence among the orthologous genes appeared to be related to their functional classification. Conclusion Orthologous genes do not reflect the history of the species when taken as individual markers, but they do when taken as a whole. Stochastic error affected the concordance of orthologous genes with the species tree, albeit weakly. We conclude that two important biological causes of discordance among orthologous genes are incomplete

  4. Relatedness of Streptococcus canis from canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed Central

    DeWinter, L M; Prescott, J F

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in dogs caused by Streptococcus canis has been reported by our laboratory. Since clonal expansion is thought to be partially responsible for the spread of invasive strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in humans, the relatedness of 15 isolates of S. canis from canine STSS and/or NF was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and biotyping; production of proteases and of a CAMP-like reaction were also examined. Only 2 of the 15 STSS and/or NF isolates were clonally related, suggesting that the emergence of canine STSS/NF is not the result of clonal expansion of one or more highly virulent strains of S. canis. All of the isolates produced proteases and demonstrated a CAMP-like reaction, which appear to be additional characteristics of S. canis. PMID:10369564

  5. Results from an indirect fluorescent antibody test using three different strains of Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Enara; Ayllón, Tania; Sainz, Angel; Amusategui, Inmaculada; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Tesouro, Miguel A

    2009-11-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test is usually performed to detect antibodies in dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis. In this work, results obtained using three different E. canis strains as antigen (a commercial antigen, the E. canis Oklahoma strain and the E. canis Madrid strain) were compared. One hundred and forty-nine serum samples obtained from dogs living in the centre of Spain were analysed. When qualitative results were evaluated, identical results were detected in 87.2% of samples for the three antigens tested. When comparing antibody titre results, differences between the Madrid strain and the commercial antigen, and between the Madrid and Oklahoma strains were statistically significant (P<0.0001). No differences were found when comparing the Oklahoma strain with the commercial antigen (P=0.562). Subtle intra-laboratory variations shown in this study suggest a higher sensitivity of the IFA test when an autochthonous strain is used as antigen.

  6. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary.

  7. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. PMID:26065623

  8. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health

  9. Brucella canis Is an Intracellular Pathogen That Induces a Lower Proinflammatory Response than Smooth Zoonotic Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Altamirano-Silva, Pamela; González-Espinoza, Gabriela; Medina, María-Concepción; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Bouza-Mora, Laura; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Wong, Melissa; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Rojas, Norman; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of dogs and a zoonotic risk. B. canis harbors most of the virulence determinants defined for the genus, but its pathogenic strategy remains unclear since it has not been demonstrated that this natural rough bacterium is an intracellular pathogen. Studies of B. canis outbreaks in kennel facilities indicated that infected dogs displaying clinical signs did not present hematological alterations. A virulent B. canis strain isolated from those outbreaks readily replicated in different organs of mice for a protracted period. However, the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12 in serum were close to background levels. Furthermore, B. canis induced lower levels of gamma interferon, less inflammation of the spleen, and a reduced number of granulomas in the liver in mice than did B. abortus. When the interaction of B. canis with cells was studied ex vivo, two patterns were observed, a predominant scattered cell-associated pattern of nonviable bacteria and an infrequent intracellular replicative pattern of viable bacteria in a perinuclear location. The second pattern, responsible for the increase in intracellular multiplication, was dependent on the type IV secretion system VirB and was seen only if the inoculum used for cell infections was in early exponential phase. Intracellular replicative B. canis followed an intracellular trafficking route undistinguishable from that of B. abortus. Although B. canis induces a lower proinflammatory response and has a stealthier replication cycle, it still displays the pathogenic properties of the genus and the ability to persist in infected organs based on the ability to multiply intracellularly. PMID:26438796

  10. Pattern of nipple use by puppies: A comparison of the dingo (Canis dingo) and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Hudson, Robyn; Rödel, Heiko G; Elizalde, Marise Trejo; Arteaga, Lourdes; Kennedy, Gerard A; Smith, Bradley P

    2016-08-01

    Surprisingly little information is available about the behavior of newborn mammals in the functionally vital context of suckling. We have previously reported notable differences in the pattern of nipple use by kittens of the domestic cat and puppies of the domestic dog. Whereas kittens rapidly develop a "teat order," with each individual using principally 1 or 2 particular nipples, puppies show no such pattern. We asked whether the more "chaotic" behavior seen in puppies of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) could be the result of relaxed selection due to domestication. In a first test of this hypothesis, we studied suckling behavior in 4 litters of wild-type captive dingoes (Canis dingo), a canid species that has inhabited the Australian mainland in substantial numbers for at least 5,000 years with minimal human influence. On all measures of individual puppies' behavior-time spent attached to nipples, lack of individual use of particular nipples and consequent absence of a teat order, lack of synchronized suckling with other littermates, lack of agonistic behavior-we found no differences between the 2 species. In conclusion, we suggest that the difference between the pattern of suckling behavior of kittens of the domestic cat (and other felids) and the domestic dog is not an artifact of domestication, but rather reflects phylogenetic differences between felids and canids as a consequence of their different lifestyles and associated patterns of parental care. These findings emphasize the need for comparative studies to avoid simplistic generalizations from 1 or 2 species across broad taxonomic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27135263

  11. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P < 0.01). Male ticks had a higher (P < 0.05) infection rate than female ticks (24.5 vs 13.5%). It is concluded that E. canis infection is present in both dogs and the brown dog ticks R. sanguineus in Yucatan, Mexico. PMID:26336286

  12. Enzymatic activity of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes from breeding rabbits with and without skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Coccioli, Carmela; Camarda, Antonio; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are zoophilic dermatophytes which can cause skin infections in animals and humans. The clinical expression of this infection strongly varies depending on host, fungal species as well as enzyme production. No comparative studies are available on the enzymatic activities of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from breeding rabbits. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the capability of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from rabbits both with and without lesions in producing different enzymes. The relationship of dermatophyte enzymatic activities and presence/absence of skin lesions has also been investigated. A total of 260 isolates of T. mentagrophytes and 25 isolates of M. canis sampled both from healthy and lesioned skin of rabbits, as well as from air samples of positive farms were examined. The results showed that T. mentagrophytes and M. canis from rabbits produce different enzymes. However, only elastase and gelatinase were linked to the appearance of lesions in T. mentagrophytes infections, whereas lipase in those by M. canis. PMID:22175244

  13. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid diagnosis of Babesia canis infections.

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Aysul, N; Liu, Z; Salih, D A; Karagenc, T; Beyer, D; Kullmann, B; Ahmed, J S; Seitzer, U

    2010-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are rising in interest due to global warming, which is believed to impact on the distribution of vectors into new areas thus influencing the occurrence and epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens. Babesia canis belongs to the Piroplasmidae and there are three described subspecies, namely B. canis canis, B. canis rossi and B. canis vogeli. They are each transmitted by a different tick-species, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. There are also differences in the geographical distribution and pathogenicity to dogs of each subspecies. In this study, we aimed to establish a rapid and easy to perform DNA-based test using loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect all three Babesia canis subspecies in one assay.

  14. Orthologs of macrophage migration inhibitory factor from parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jon J.; Cho, Yoonsang; Lolis, Elias; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic helminth infections are associated with modulation of host cellular immune responses, presumably to prolong parasite survival within the mammalian host. This phenomenon is attributed, at least in part, to the elaboration of parasite molecules, including orthologs of host cytokines and receptors, at the host–parasite interface. This review describes recent progress in the characterization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) orthologs from parasitic nematodes. The roles of these molecules in parasite developmental biology and pathogenesis are discussed. Further knowledge of the species-specific activities and three-dimensional structures of human and parasitic nematode MIF molecules should make them ideal targets for drug- and/or vaccine-based strategies aimed at nematode disease control. PMID:18603473

  15. Characterization of a Drosophila Ortholog of the Cdc7 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Robert; Hosler, Marcus R.; Gavande, Navnath S.; Ghosh, Arun K.; Weake, Vikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates components of the pre-replication complex during DNA replication initiation. Cdc7 is highly conserved, and Cdc7 orthologs have been characterized in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Cdc7 is activated specifically during late G1/S phase by binding to its regulatory subunit, Dbf4. Drosophila melanogaster contains a Dbf4 ortholog, Chiffon, which is essential for chorion amplification in Drosophila egg chambers. However, no Drosophila ortholog of Cdc7 has yet been characterized. Here, we report the functional and biochemical characterization of a Drosophila ortholog of Cdc7. Co-expression of Drosophila Cdc7 and Chiffon is able to complement a growth defect in yeast containing a temperature-sensitive Cdc7 mutant. Cdc7 and Chiffon physically interact and can be co-purified from insect cells. Cdc7 phosphorylates the known Cdc7 substrates Mcm2 and histone H3 in vitro, and Cdc7 kinase activity is stimulated by Chiffon and inhibited by the Cdc7-specific inhibitor XL413. Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells deficient for Cdc7 have a defect in two types of DNA replication, endoreplication and chorion gene amplification. However, follicle cells deficient for Chiffon have a defect in chorion gene amplification but still undergo endocycling. Our results show that Cdc7 interacts with Chiffon to form a functional Dbf4-dependent kinase complex and that Cdc7 is necessary for DNA replication in Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells. Additionally, we show that Chiffon is a member of an expanding subset of DNA replication initiation factors that are not strictly required for endoreplication in Drosophila. PMID:25451925

  16. Common introns within orthologous genes: software and application to plants.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Matthew D; Ru, Yuanbin; Brendel, Volker P

    2009-11-01

    The residence of spliceosomal introns within protein-coding genes can fluctuate over time, with genes gaining, losing or conserving introns in a complex process that is not entirely understood. One approach for studying intron evolution is to compare introns with respect to position and type within closely related genes. Here, we describe new, freely available software called Common Introns Within Orthologous Genes (CIWOG), available at http://ciwog.gdcb.iastate.edu/, which detects common introns in protein-coding genes based on position and sequence conservation in the corresponding protein alignments. CIWOG provides dynamic web displays that facilitate detailed intron studies within orthologous genes. User-supplied options control how introns are clustered into sets of common introns. CIWOG also identifies special classes of introns, in particular those with GC- or U12-type donor sites, which enables analyses of these introns in relation to their counterparts in the other genes in orthologous groups. The software is demonstrated with application to a comprehensive study of eight plant transcriptomes. Three specific examples are discussed: intron class conversion from GT- to GC-donor-type introns in monocots, plant U12-type intron conservation and a global analysis of intron evolution across the eight plant species.

  17. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  18. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  19. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  20. Inter-specific territoriality in a Canis hybrid zone: spatial segregation between wolves, coyotes, and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R

    2013-12-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) generally exhibit intraspecific territoriality manifesting in spatial segregation between adjacent packs. However, previous studies have found a high degree of interspecific spatial overlap between sympatric wolves and coyotes. Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are the most common wolf in and around Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada and hybridize with sympatric gray wolves and coyotes. We hypothesized that all Canis types (wolves, coyotes, and hybrids) exhibit a high degree of spatial segregation due to greater genetic, morphologic, and ecological similarities between wolves and coyotes in this hybrid system compared with western North American ecosystems. We used global positioning system telemetry and probabilistic measures of spatial overlap to investigate spatial segregation between adjacent Canis packs. Our hypothesis was supported as: (1) the probability of locating wolves, coyotes, and hybrids within home ranges ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) or core areas ([Formula: see text] < 0.01) of adjacent packs was low; and (2) the amount of shared space use was negligible. Spatial segregation did not vary substantially in relation to genotypes of adjacent packs or local environmental conditions (i.e., harvest regulations or road densities). We provide the first telemetry-based demonstration of spatial segregation between wolves and coyotes, highlighting the novel relationships between Canis types in the Ontario hybrid zone relative to areas where wolves and coyotes are reproductively isolated. Territoriality among Canis may increase the likelihood of eastern wolves joining coyote and hybrid packs, facilitate hybridization, and could play a role in limiting expansion of the genetically distinct APP eastern wolf population.

  1. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Microsporum canis Exposed to Berberine Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illimina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson’s disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

  2. Microarray gene expression analysis reveals major differences between Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati neurotoxocarosis and involvement of T. canis in lipid biosynthetic processes.

    PubMed

    Janecek, Elisabeth; Wilk, Esther; Schughart, Klaus; Geffers, Robert; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are globally occurring intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats with a high zoonotic potential. Migrating larvae in the CNS of paratenic hosts, including humans, may cause neurotoxocarosis resulting in a variety of neurological symptoms. Toxocara canis exhibits a stronger affinity to the CNS than T. cati, causing more severe neurological symptoms in the mouse model. Pathomechanisms of neurotoxocarosis as well as host responses towards the respective parasite are mostly unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the pathogenesis at a transcriptional level using whole genome microarray expression analysis and identify differences and similarities between T. canis- and T. cati-infected brains. Microarray analysis was conducted in cerebra and cerebella of infected C57Bl/6J mice 42daysp.i. revealing more differentially transcribed genes for T. canis- than T. cati-infected brains. In cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice, a total of 2304 and 1954 differentially transcribed genes, respectively, were identified whereas 113 and 760 differentially transcribed genes were determined in cerebra and cerebella of T. cati-infected mice. Functional annotation analysis revealed major differences in host responses in terms of significantly enriched biological modules. Up-regulated genes were mainly associated with the terms "immune and defence response", "sensory perception" as well as "behaviour/taxis" retrieved from the Gene Ontology database. These observations indicate a strong immune response in both infection groups with T. cati-infected brains revealing less severe reactions. Down-regulated genes in T. canis-infected cerebra and cerebella revealed a significant enrichment for the Gene Ontology term "lipid/cholesterol biosynthetic process". Cholesterol is a highly abundant and important component in the brain, representing several functions. Disturbances of synthesis as well as concentration changes may lead to

  3. Helminth parasites in the endangered Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, F; Piggott, K J; Bengui, T; Kubri, S B; Mastin, A; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Paris, M; Millar, R P; Macdonald, D W; Shiferaw, F; Craig, P S

    2015-07-01

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helminth eggs using a semi-quantitative volumetric dilution method with microscopy. We found that 66 of the 94 faecal samples (70.2%) contained eggs from at least one group of helminths, including Capillaria, Toxocara, Trichuris, ancylostomatids, Hymenolepis and taeniids. Eggs of Capillaria sp. were found most commonly, followed by Trichuris sp., ancylostomatid species and Toxocara species. Three samples contained Hymenolepis sp. eggs, which were likely artefacts from ingested prey species. Four samples contained taeniid eggs, one of which was copro-polymerase chain reaction (copro-PCR) and sequence positive for Echinococcus granulosus, suggesting a spillover from a domestic parasite cycle into this wildlife species. Associations between presence/absence of Capillaria, Toxocara and Trichuris eggs were found; and egg burdens of Toxocara and ancylostomatids were found to be associated with geographical location and sampling season. PMID:25007150

  4. Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

    2012-04-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n = 81 scats) and prey remains (n = 31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains. PMID:22448046

  5. Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus).

    PubMed

    Brzeski, Kristin E; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Waits, Lisette P; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-09-01

    In natural populations, the expression and severity of inbreeding depression can vary widely across taxa. Describing processes that influence the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression aid in our understanding of the evolutionary history of mating systems such as cooperative breeding and nonrandom mate selection. Such findings also help shape wildlife conservation theory because inbreeding depression reduces the viability of small populations. We evaluated the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression in a small, re-introduced population of red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina. Since red wolves were first re-introduced in 1987, pedigree inbreeding coefficients (f) increased considerably and almost every wild born wolf was inbred (average f = 0.154 and max f = 0.383). The large inbreeding coefficients were due to both background relatedness associated with few founders and numerous close relative matings. Inbreeding depression was most evident for adult body size and generally absent for direct fitness measures such as reproductive success and survival; no lethal equivalents (LE = 0.00) were detected in juvenile survival. The lack of strong inbreeding depression in direct measures of fitness could be due to a founder effect or because there were no outbred individuals for comparison. Our results highlight the variable expression of inbreeding depression across traits and the need to measure a number of different traits when evaluating inbreeding depression in a wild population. PMID:25060763

  6. Spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the region of Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of a pilot project of spectroscopic observations for planetary nebulae (PNe) and PN candidates in Canis Major, a sky region where the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy cannibalized by the Milky Way may be located. The spectra of seven objects were taken while testing the SALT spectrograph (South African Astronomical Observatory). All elemental abundances have been obtained by the T e method, where the electron temperature is calculated directly using the measured weak auroral [OIII] λ 4363 Å and/or [NII] λ 5755 Å lines. We have measured the intensities of all the detected emission lines and determined the abundances of oxygen and several other elements (N, Ne, S, Cl, C, and He) in all PNe. The radial velocity for one PN has been measured for the first time and the velocities for all of the remaining PNe have been measured with a considerably better accuracy than that of the previously published ones. The elemental abundances for three PNe have been calculated for the first time and the accuracies of determining the abundances for three others have been improved. The measured heavy-element abundance ratios (S/O, Ne/O, Cl/O) are in good agreement with their typical values for HII regions. Among the PNe studied, ESO 428-05 is the first and so far the most likely candidate for belonging to the remnants of a possible dwarf galaxy disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way.

  7. Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

  8. Lateralised behaviour in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Wells, Deborah L.

    2003-02-28

    Paw use on three tasks in 53 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) was studied to determine whether the animals exhibited a significant paw preference, and, if so, to explore the direction and strength of the dogs' preferred paw use, both within, and between, tasks. The influence of the dogs' sex on their paw preferences was also explored. The findings revealed that lateralised behaviour was strongly sex related. Male and female showed paw preferences at the level of the population but in opposite directions. Female dogs had a greater preference for using their right paw on all tasks, whilst males were more inclined to adopt their left paw. Analysis revealed significant positive relationships for two of a possible three intertask correlations. Overall, the findings suggest that there are two distinct populations of paw preference in the domestic dog that cluster around the animals' sex. It is recommended that further work be conducted to explore the influence of pre-training on dogs' paw preferences before generalisations regarding laterality in this species are drawn.

  9. Secreted dipeptidyl peptidases as potential virulence factors for Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Vermout, Sandy; Baldo, Aline; Tabart, Jérémy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Dermatophytoses caused by Microsporum canis are frequently encountered in cats and dogs; they are highly contagious and readily transmissible to humans. In this study, two single genes, respectively coding for dipeptidyl peptidases IV and V (DppIV and DppV), were isolated and characterized. Both proteins share homology with serine proteases of the S9 family, some of which display properties compatible with implication in pathogenic processes. Both genes are expressed in vivo in experimentally infected guinea-pigs and in naturally infected cats, and when the fungus is grown on extracellular matrix proteins as the sole nitrogen and carbon source. DppIV and V were produced as active recombinant proteases in the yeast Pichia pastoris; the apparent molecular weight of rDppV is 83 kDa, whereas rDppIV appears as a doublet of 95 and 98 kDa. Like other members of its enzymatic subfamily, rDppIV has an unusual ability to cleave Pro-X bonds. This activity does not enhance the solubilization of keratin by fungal secreted endoproteases, and the protease probably acts solely on small soluble peptides. RDppV showed no ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reactions in guinea-pigs, despite the known immunogenic properties of homologous proteins.

  10. Urbanization, Grassland, and Diet Influence Coyote (Canis latrans) Parasitism Structure.

    PubMed

    Watts, Alexander G; Lukasik, Victoria M; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Alexander, Shelley M

    2015-12-01

    Land use change can alter the ecological mechanisms that influence infectious disease exposure in animal populations. However, few studies have empirically integrated the environmental, spatial, and dietary patterns of wildlife epidemiology. We investigate how urbanization, habitat type, and dietary behavior are associated with coyote (Canis latrans) parasitism structure along a gradient of rural to urban land cover using multivariate redundancy analyses. Coyote fecal samples were collected in eight urban and six rural sites in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Parasite and diet components were identified using common flotation procedures and fecal dietary analysis, respectively. Redundancy analysis was used to identify the best land cover, connectivity, and dietary predictors. We tested for significance using multiple permutation tests and ANOVAs. Significant factors affecting enteric parasite prevalence included dietary and land cover factors (R (2) = 0.4130, P < 0.05). Variation in dietary behavior was observed between urban and rural sites (R (2) = 0.4712, P < 0.05), as anthropogenic diet items (i.e., garbage, crabapples) were strongly influenced by urbanization. Our research supports that developed habitat, grassland cover, and dietary choice interact to possibly influence the exposure of coyote hosts to enteric parasites and pioneers future investigation of disease ecology for natural populations in anthropogenic landscapes.

  11. Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene played a dominant role in sculpting the evolutionary histories of many high-latitude organisms. The refugial hypothesis argues that populations retracted during glacial maxima and were isolated in separate refugia. One prediction of this hypothesis is that populations inhabiting different refugia diverged and then, during interglacial periods, rapidly expanded into deglaciated regions. The range of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was modified by these expansion and contraction cycles in the late Pleistocene. Our analyses of variation of mitochondrial control region sequences corroborate previous microsatellite analyses supporting independent evolutionary histories for Coastal and Continental wolves in North America. Coastal wolves represent the remnants of a formerly widespread and diverse southern clade that expanded into coastal Southeast Alaska, likely in the early Holocene. In contrast, extant northern Continental populations appear to be admixed, composed of lineages independently arising from ancestors that persisted in either southern or northern (Beringia) refugia. This pattern of diversification suggests the possibility of 3 temporally independent colonizations of North America by wolves from Asia. Coastal wolves are the last vestige of a formerly widespread phylogroup that largely was extirpated in North America by humans during the last century. The independent phylogeographic history of these Coastal wolves has yet to be characterized. Their distinctiveness among North American wolf populations may warrant a reevaluation of their conservation status and management. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  12. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 and 1 : 100), enilconazole (1 : 100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite "dry bleach." Disinfectants were tested at a 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1 : 100), sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 or 1 : 100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens.

  13. Medical management of pyometra in three red wolves (Canis rufus).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kadie; Wolf, Karen N

    2013-12-01

    Pyometra is a serious, life-threatening disease of both domestic and non-domestic species often requiring ovariohysterectomy to preserve the life of the animal. Medical management of pyometra has been successful in domestic and non-domestic species, and the consideration of such treatment is of marked importance in a critically endangered species. Of the canids, the red wolf (Canis rufus) is second only to African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus) in terms of the prevalence of both cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. In this report, three red wolves were medically managed for pyometra. Aside from vaginal discharge, none of the wolves exhibited clinical signs, nor were there reflective inflammatory changes in the laboratory findings. All wolves received standard treatment for pyometra, including prostaglandin F2alpha and antibiotic therapy, while one wolf was more aggressively managed with uterine lavage. Pyometra recurred in two of the treated wolves, while the most aggressively managed wolf continues to show ultrasonographic resolution 2 yr posttreatment. Aggressive medical management of pyometra should be considered a treatment option in certain red wolf females, as it may preserve the animal's reproductive potential. PMID:24450062

  14. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    PubMed

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. PMID:25773058

  15. Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus).

    PubMed

    Brzeski, Kristin E; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Waits, Lisette P; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-09-01

    In natural populations, the expression and severity of inbreeding depression can vary widely across taxa. Describing processes that influence the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression aid in our understanding of the evolutionary history of mating systems such as cooperative breeding and nonrandom mate selection. Such findings also help shape wildlife conservation theory because inbreeding depression reduces the viability of small populations. We evaluated the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression in a small, re-introduced population of red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina. Since red wolves were first re-introduced in 1987, pedigree inbreeding coefficients (f) increased considerably and almost every wild born wolf was inbred (average f = 0.154 and max f = 0.383). The large inbreeding coefficients were due to both background relatedness associated with few founders and numerous close relative matings. Inbreeding depression was most evident for adult body size and generally absent for direct fitness measures such as reproductive success and survival; no lethal equivalents (LE = 0.00) were detected in juvenile survival. The lack of strong inbreeding depression in direct measures of fitness could be due to a founder effect or because there were no outbred individuals for comparison. Our results highlight the variable expression of inbreeding depression across traits and the need to measure a number of different traits when evaluating inbreeding depression in a wild population.

  16. Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

    2012-04-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n = 81 scats) and prey remains (n = 31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains.

  17. Medical management of pyometra in three red wolves (Canis rufus).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kadie; Wolf, Karen N

    2013-12-01

    Pyometra is a serious, life-threatening disease of both domestic and non-domestic species often requiring ovariohysterectomy to preserve the life of the animal. Medical management of pyometra has been successful in domestic and non-domestic species, and the consideration of such treatment is of marked importance in a critically endangered species. Of the canids, the red wolf (Canis rufus) is second only to African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus) in terms of the prevalence of both cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. In this report, three red wolves were medically managed for pyometra. Aside from vaginal discharge, none of the wolves exhibited clinical signs, nor were there reflective inflammatory changes in the laboratory findings. All wolves received standard treatment for pyometra, including prostaglandin F2alpha and antibiotic therapy, while one wolf was more aggressively managed with uterine lavage. Pyometra recurred in two of the treated wolves, while the most aggressively managed wolf continues to show ultrasonographic resolution 2 yr posttreatment. Aggressive medical management of pyometra should be considered a treatment option in certain red wolf females, as it may preserve the animal's reproductive potential.

  18. Urbanization, Grassland, and Diet Influence Coyote (Canis latrans) Parasitism Structure.

    PubMed

    Watts, Alexander G; Lukasik, Victoria M; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Alexander, Shelley M

    2015-12-01

    Land use change can alter the ecological mechanisms that influence infectious disease exposure in animal populations. However, few studies have empirically integrated the environmental, spatial, and dietary patterns of wildlife epidemiology. We investigate how urbanization, habitat type, and dietary behavior are associated with coyote (Canis latrans) parasitism structure along a gradient of rural to urban land cover using multivariate redundancy analyses. Coyote fecal samples were collected in eight urban and six rural sites in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Parasite and diet components were identified using common flotation procedures and fecal dietary analysis, respectively. Redundancy analysis was used to identify the best land cover, connectivity, and dietary predictors. We tested for significance using multiple permutation tests and ANOVAs. Significant factors affecting enteric parasite prevalence included dietary and land cover factors (R (2) = 0.4130, P < 0.05). Variation in dietary behavior was observed between urban and rural sites (R (2) = 0.4712, P < 0.05), as anthropogenic diet items (i.e., garbage, crabapples) were strongly influenced by urbanization. Our research supports that developed habitat, grassland cover, and dietary choice interact to possibly influence the exposure of coyote hosts to enteric parasites and pioneers future investigation of disease ecology for natural populations in anthropogenic landscapes. PMID:26122205

  19. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs.

  20. Genetic variability in Microsporum canis isolated from cats, dogs and humans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Fernanda V A; Farias, Marconi R; Bier, Daniele; de Andrade, Caroline P; de Castro, Luiza A; da Silva, Sérgio C; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2013-09-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical manifestations. M. canis is a zoophilic dermatophyte and the most frequent fungi isolated from dogs, cats and children in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of M. canis isolates from different animal species using two microsatellite markers, namely, McGT(13) and McGT(17), and to correlate the results with the clinical and epidemiological patient data in Brazil. The study included a global set of 102 M. canis strains, including 37 symptomatic cats, 35 asymptomatic cats, 19 human patients with tinea, 9 asymptomatic dogs and 2 symptomatic dogs. A total of 14 genotypes were identified, and 6 large populations were distinguished. There was no correlation between these multilocus genotypes and the clinical and epidemiological data, including the source, symptomatology, clinical picture, breed, age, sex, living conditions and geographic location. These results demonstrate that the use of microsatellite polymorphisms is a reliable method for the differentiation of M. canis strains. However, we were unable to demonstrate a shared clinical and epidemiological pattern among the same genotype samples. PMID:23551796

  1. A serological diagnostic survey for Brucella canis infection in Turkish patients with Brucellosis-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sayan, Murat; Erdenlig, Sevil; Stack, Judy; Kilic, Selcuk; Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Aksoy, Yavuz; Baklan, Ayhan; Etiler, Nilay

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of Brucella canis infection in humans is unknown in Turkey. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B. canis infection in human sera obtained from six regions in Turkey and comparatively evaluated the results obtained by agglutination-based techniques using standardized antigens made from B. canis. The patients (n = 1,746) presented with clinical symptoms that were similar to those of brucellosis. All patients who tested negative in the Rose Bengal test for the smooth Brucella strains (abortus, melitensis, and suis) were screened for evidence of B. canis infection using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT), the microagglutination test (MAT), and the 2-mercaptoethanol RSAT test (2ME-RSAT). Of the samples tested, 157 (8.9%), 68 (3.8%), and 66 (3.7%) were positive for B. canis, as determined by RSAT, MAT, and 2ME-RSAT, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RSAT were 100%, 94.6%, 42%, and 100%, respectively, and of MAT were 100%, 99.9%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. We recommend the routine use of MAT and 2ME-RSAT to check the sera of all patients with symptoms of brucellosis who are negative for brucellosis using a smooth Brucella antigen. PMID:22116333

  2. First record of autochthonous canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis in Romania.

    PubMed

    Morar, Doru; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Imre, Mirela; Ilie, Marius Stelian; Imre, Kálmán

    2015-06-01

    This case study describes the first genetically confirmed and clinically manifested autochthonous Ehrlichia canis infection in a 9-year-old female mixed-breed dog from Romania. Health screening of the dog included clinical examination, evaluation of stained peripheral blood smear and hematologic variables, as well as serologic testing and molecular analysis. Clinical signs included fever, apathy, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, and weakness. The microscopic examination of the blood smear and immunologic assays for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and E canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen yielded negative results. Hematologic abnormalities included moderate nonregenerative anemia, leucopenia with neutropenia, and moderate thrombocytopenia. The biochemical abnormalities identified were hypoalbuminemia, and mildly increased serum enzyme activities of AST and ALT. In addition, increased urea and creatinine levels associated with low urine specific gravity and proteinuria were also present. Nested PCR amplification of the partial E canis 16S rRNA gene demonstrated the presence of this rickettsial pathogen in the dog's blood, which subsequently was confirmed through sequencing based on the 100% homology with GenBank deposited E canis isolates. After specific treatment with doxycycline (10 mg/kg, orally, SID) for one month, the proteinuria, and hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities with the exception of mild azotemia resolved. This report supports the geographical expansion of canine ehrlichiosis caused by E canis in nonendemic regions of Europe. PMID:25867940

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P < 0.05, and OR > 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and <16 years old had higher seroprevalence to Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs. PMID:23844404

  4. Variation in reproductive traits of members of the genus Canis with special attention to the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Smith, Bradley; Coppinger, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We compare differences in the reproductive strategies of "free-living" dogs with their wild relatives in the genus Canis, of which the dog is a very recently evolved member. The members of this genus display a greater range of parental motor patterns than generally seen in other species of Carnivora, including pair-bonding and extended parental care; parents regurgitate to offspring and provision them with food for months to as long as a year. But the domestic dog does not routinely display these genus-typical behaviors. While this has generally been assumed to be a result of direct human intervention, humans have little reproductive control over the vast majority of domestic dogs. We analyze the low frequency of display of genus-typical behaviors and postulate that the dog's reproductive behaviors are an adaptation to permanent human settlement and the waste resources associated with it. Adaptation to this environment has decreased seasonality, increased the fecundity of unrestrained dogs and reduced the need for prolonged parental care. The consequences of greater fecundity and reduced parental care are compared to the reproductive behavior of other species of the genus. PMID:23124015

  5. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Galov, Ana; Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasić, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijančić, Tihomir; Bošković, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed origin of three wild-living canids showing anomalous phenotypic traits. Results indicated that these canids were hybrids between golden jackals and domestic dogs. One of them was a backcross to jackal and another one was a backcross to dog, confirming that golden jackal-domestic dog hybrids are fertile. The uniparental markers showed that the direction of hybridization, namely females of the wild species hybridizing with male domestic dogs, was common to most cases of canid hybridization. A melanistic 3bp-deletion at the K locus (β-defensin CDB103 gene), that was absent in reference golden jackal samples, but was found in a backcross to jackal with anomalous black coat, suggested its introgression from dogs via hybridization. Moreover, we demonstrated that MHC sequences, although rarely used as markers of hybridization, can be also suitable for the identification of hybrids, as long as haplotypes are exclusive for the parental species. PMID:27019731

  6. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasić, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijančić, Tihomir; Bošković, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed origin of three wild-living canids showing anomalous phenotypic traits. Results indicated that these canids were hybrids between golden jackals and domestic dogs. One of them was a backcross to jackal and another one was a backcross to dog, confirming that golden jackal–domestic dog hybrids are fertile. The uniparental markers showed that the direction of hybridization, namely females of the wild species hybridizing with male domestic dogs, was common to most cases of canid hybridization. A melanistic 3bp-deletion at the K locus (β-defensin CDB103 gene), that was absent in reference golden jackal samples, but was found in a backcross to jackal with anomalous black coat, suggested its introgression from dogs via hybridization. Moreover, we demonstrated that MHC sequences, although rarely used as markers of hybridization, can be also suitable for the identification of hybrids, as long as haplotypes are exclusive for the parental species. PMID:27019731

  7. Variation in reproductive traits of members of the genus Canis with special attention to the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Smith, Bradley; Coppinger, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We compare differences in the reproductive strategies of "free-living" dogs with their wild relatives in the genus Canis, of which the dog is a very recently evolved member. The members of this genus display a greater range of parental motor patterns than generally seen in other species of Carnivora, including pair-bonding and extended parental care; parents regurgitate to offspring and provision them with food for months to as long as a year. But the domestic dog does not routinely display these genus-typical behaviors. While this has generally been assumed to be a result of direct human intervention, humans have little reproductive control over the vast majority of domestic dogs. We analyze the low frequency of display of genus-typical behaviors and postulate that the dog's reproductive behaviors are an adaptation to permanent human settlement and the waste resources associated with it. Adaptation to this environment has decreased seasonality, increased the fecundity of unrestrained dogs and reduced the need for prolonged parental care. The consequences of greater fecundity and reduced parental care are compared to the reproductive behavior of other species of the genus.

  8. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Galov, Ana; Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasić, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijančić, Tihomir; Bošković, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed origin of three wild-living canids showing anomalous phenotypic traits. Results indicated that these canids were hybrids between golden jackals and domestic dogs. One of them was a backcross to jackal and another one was a backcross to dog, confirming that golden jackal-domestic dog hybrids are fertile. The uniparental markers showed that the direction of hybridization, namely females of the wild species hybridizing with male domestic dogs, was common to most cases of canid hybridization. A melanistic 3bp-deletion at the K locus (β-defensin CDB103 gene), that was absent in reference golden jackal samples, but was found in a backcross to jackal with anomalous black coat, suggested its introgression from dogs via hybridization. Moreover, we demonstrated that MHC sequences, although rarely used as markers of hybridization, can be also suitable for the identification of hybrids, as long as haplotypes are exclusive for the parental species.

  9. OrtholugeDB: a bacterial and archaeal orthology resource for improved comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Matthew D; Winsor, Geoffrey L; Laird, Matthew R; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of orthologs (homologous genes that diverged because of speciation) is an integral component of many comparative genomics methods. Although orthologs are more likely to have similar function versus paralogs (genes that diverged because of duplication), recent studies have shown that their degree of functional conservation is variable. Also, there are inherent problems with several large-scale ortholog prediction approaches. To address these issues, we previously developed Ortholuge, which uses phylogenetic distance ratios to provide more precise ortholog assessments for a set of predicted orthologs. However, the original version of Ortholuge required manual intervention and was not easily accessible; therefore, we now report the development of OrtholugeDB, available online at http://www.pathogenomics.sfu.ca/ortholugedb. OrtholugeDB provides ortholog predictions for completely sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes from NCBI based on reciprocal best Basic Local Alignment Search Tool hits, supplemented with further evaluation by the more precise Ortholuge method. The OrtholugeDB web interface facilitates user-friendly and flexible ortholog analysis, from single genes to genomes, plus flexible data download options. We compare Ortholuge with similar methods, showing how it may more consistently identify orthologs with conserved features across a wide range of taxonomic distances. OrtholugeDB facilitates rapid, and more accurate, bacterial and archaeal comparative genomic analysis and large-scale ortholog predictions.

  10. eggNOG: automated construction and annotation of orthologous groups of genes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Julien, Philippe; Kuhn, Michael; von Mering, Christian; Muller, Jean; Doerks, Tobias; Bork, Peer

    2008-01-01

    The identification of orthologous genes forms the basis for most comparative genomics studies. Existing approaches either lack functional annotation of the identified orthologous groups, hampering the interpretation of subsequent results, or are manually annotated and thus lag behind the rapid sequencing of new genomes. Here we present the eggNOG database ('evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups'), which contains orthologous groups constructed from Smith-Waterman alignments through identification of reciprocal best matches and triangular linkage clustering. Applying this procedure to 312 bacterial, 26 archaeal and 35 eukaryotic genomes yielded 43 582 course-grained orthologous groups of which 9724 are extended versions of those from the original COG/KOG database. We also constructed more fine-grained groups for selected subsets of organisms, such as the 19 914 mammalian orthologous groups. We automatically annotated our non-supervised orthologous groups with functional descriptions, which were derived by identifying common denominators for the genes based on their individual textual descriptions, annotated functional categories, and predicted protein domains. The orthologous groups in eggNOG contain 1 241 751 genes and provide at least a broad functional description for 77% of them. Users can query the resource for individual genes via a web interface or download the complete set of orthologous groups at http://eggnog.embl.de.

  11. Synergistic inhibition of the growth in vitro of Microsporum canis by miconazole and chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Perrins, N; Bond, R

    2003-04-01

    An agar dilution technique was used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of miconazole, chlorhexidine and a 1:1 combination of both agents for 10 isolates of Microsporum canis. For nine of 10 of the isolates, a combination of miconazole and chlorhexidine was more effective than either agent alone; fractional inhibitory concentration indices indicated a synergistic effect for five isolates and an additive effect for four. These results illustrate the potent antimycotic effect of miconazole and chlorhexidine against M. canis and are in accordance with previous clinical studies that showed the value of using miconazole and chlorhexidine shampoo in association with oral griseofulvin in the treatment of feline dermatophytosis caused by M. canis.

  12. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  13. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted.

  14. Tinea Corporis, Caused by Microsporum Canis - a Case Report From Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Kokollari, Fatime; Daka, Aferdita; Blyta, Ymrane; Ismajli, Fellanza; Haxhijaha-Lulaj, Kujtesa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tinea corporis (B35.6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans. This fact makes this pathogen both anthrophilic and zoophilic in nature. Microsporum canis is a communicable pathogen. Case report: We will report about a case, 22-year-old female, residing in a village, with typical changes of a mycotic infection caused by M. Canis. Dermatological description can be summarized with polymorphic erythematous, papulosquamous changes, erosions mainly on genital organ and spread to the thighs and lower abdomen which are accompanied with itching and burning. Diagnosis B35.6 was determined on the basis of clinical appearance complemented with anamnesis, microscopic examination and culture. The patient was treated successfully with general and local antimycotics and antibiotics. PMID:26622092

  15. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. PMID:24522164

  16. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted. PMID:25984773

  17. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination.

  18. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  19. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts. PMID:26345057

  20. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  1. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arathy D. S.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K.; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  2. Population identification of Sarcoptes hominis and Sarcoptes canis in China using DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Cao, ZhiGuo; Cheng, Juan; Hu, Li; Ma, JunXian; Yang, YuanJun; Wang, XiaoPeng; Zeng, JiHui; Wang, TianPing

    2015-03-01

    There has been no consistent conclusion on whether Sarcoptes mites parasitizing in humans and animals are the same species. To identify Sarcoptes (S.) hominis and S. canis in China, gDNA was extracted from individual mites (five from patients with scabies and five from dogs with mange) for amplification of rDNA ITS2, mtDNA 16S, and cox1 fragment sequences. Then, the sequences obtained were aligned with those from different hosts and geographical locations retrieved from GenBank and sequence analyses were conducted. Phylogenetic trees based on 317-bp mtDNA cox1 showed five distinctive branches (species) of Sarcoptes mites, four for S. hominis (S. hominis Chinese, S. nr. hominis Chinese, S. hominis Australian, and S. hominis Panamanian) and one for S. animal (S. animal). S. animal included mites from nine animal species, with S. canis China, S. canis Australia, and S. canis USA clustering as a subbranch. Further sequence divergence analysis revealed no overlap between intraspecific (≤ 2.6 %) and interspecific (2.6-10.5 %) divergences in 317-bp mtDNA cox1. However, overlap was detected between intra- and interspecific divergences in 311-bp rDNA ITS2 or 275-bp mtDNA 16S when the divergences exceeded 1.0 %, which resulted in failure in identification of Sarcoptes. The results showed that the 317-bp mtDNA cox1 could be used as a DNA barcode for molecular identification of Sarcoptes mites. In addition, geographical isolation was observed between S. hominis Chinese, S. hominis Australian, and S. hominis Panamanian, but not between all S. canis. S. canis and the other S. animal belonged to the same species. PMID:25547078

  3. Ehrlichia canis infection in a dog with no history of travel outside the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H E; Mugford, A R; Humm, K R; Kellett-Gregory, L M

    2013-08-01

    A two-year-old female neutered Tibetan terrier was referred following a one-month history of lethargy, inappetence and pancytopenia, which had been poorly responsive to immunosuppressive and fluoroquinolone treatment. The dog was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia and was found to be positive for Ehrlichia canis by both antibody titre measurement and polymerase chain reaction. The dog lived in London and had not travelled outside the UK. The dog was treated with doxycycline, prednisolone and ciclosporin, but died as a result of gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first reported case of Ehrlichia canis in a dog in the UK with no previous travel history.

  4. Assessing the prevalence of hybridization between sympatric Canis species surrounding the red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery area in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bohling, Justin H; Waits, Lisette P

    2011-05-01

    Predicting spatial patterns of hybridization is important for evolutionary and conservation biology yet are hampered by poor understanding of how hybridizing species can interact. This is especially pertinent in contact zones where hybridizing populations are sympatric. In this study, we examined the extent of red wolf (Canis rufus) colonization and introgression where the species contacts a coyote (C. latrans) population in North Carolina, USA. We surveyed 22,000km(2) in the winter of 2008 for scat and identified individual canids through genetic analysis. Of 614 collected scats, 250 were assigned to canids by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. Canid samples were genotyped at 6-17 microsatellite loci (nDNA) and assigned to species using three admixture criteria implemented in two Bayesian clustering programs. We genotyped 82 individuals but none were identified as red wolves. Two individuals had red wolf mtDNA but no significant red wolf nDNA ancestry. One individual possessed significant red wolf nDNA ancestry (approximately 30%) using all criteria, although seven other individuals showed evidence of red wolf ancestry (11-21%) using the relaxed criterion. Overall, seven individuals were classified as hybrids using the conservative criteria and 37 using the relaxed criterion. We found evidence of dog (C. familiaris) and gray wolf (C. lupus) introgression into the coyote population. We compared the performance of different methods and criteria by analyzing known red wolves and hybrids. These results suggest that red wolf colonization and introgression in North Carolina is minimal and provide insights into the utility of Bayesian clustering methods to detect hybridization.

  5. [Orthologs of arabidopsis CLAVATA 1 gene in cultivated Brassicaceae plants].

    PubMed

    Martynov, V V; Tsvetkov, I L; Khavkin, E E

    2004-01-01

    In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene is involved in maintaining the balance between the stem cells in the central zone of the stem apical meristem and the determined cells at its periphery. However, CLV1 has not been previously characterized in other Brassicaceae. Using the direct amplification of genomic DNA, we obtained a full-length CLV1 ortholog from canola plants (Brassica napus), and also three CLV1 fragments from rape (B. rapa), canola (B. napus), and false flax (Camelina sativa), which corresponded to the transmembrane domain and a part of the kinase domain of the CLAVATA1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the full-size CLV1 ortholog from B. napus were similar by 81 and 87% to the prototype gene from arabidopsis; in the case of shorter gene fragments, the similarity was as high as 91-93 and 98%, respectively. By their primary structure, the CLV1 genes in the Brassicaceae considerably differ from its putative structural homologs beyond this family.

  6. Efficacy of SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus).

    PubMed

    Bingham, J; Kappeler, A; Hill, F W; King, A A; Perry, B D; Foggin, C M

    1995-07-01

    Eight black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and seven side-striped jackals (Canis adustus) were given SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine by direct oral instillation. Three different vaccine doses were used: 10(6.3), 10(6.8) and 10(7.5) median tissue culture infectious doses. Two additional jackals were given vaccine in chicken heads. One group of jackals was challenged with a lethal dose of jackal-derived rabies virus 1 mo after vaccination and a second group 12 mo after vaccination. All 17 vaccinated jackals developed high and persistent serum neutralizing antibody titers. All challenged jackals resisted a lethal dose of rabies virus, whereas three control jackals given the same challenge succumbed to rabies.

  7. Efficacy of SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal (Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus).

    PubMed

    Bingham, J; Kappeler, A; Hill, F W; King, A A; Perry, B D; Foggin, C M

    1995-07-01

    Eight black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and seven side-striped jackals (Canis adustus) were given SAD (Berne) rabies vaccine by direct oral instillation. Three different vaccine doses were used: 10(6.3), 10(6.8) and 10(7.5) median tissue culture infectious doses. Two additional jackals were given vaccine in chicken heads. One group of jackals was challenged with a lethal dose of jackal-derived rabies virus 1 mo after vaccination and a second group 12 mo after vaccination. All 17 vaccinated jackals developed high and persistent serum neutralizing antibody titers. All challenged jackals resisted a lethal dose of rabies virus, whereas three control jackals given the same challenge succumbed to rabies. PMID:8592368

  8. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    PubMed

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island.

  9. Expression Pattern Similarities Support the Prediction of Orthologs Retaining Common Functions after Gene Duplication Events.

    PubMed

    Das, Malay; Haberer, Georg; Panda, Arup; Das Laha, Shayani; Ghosh, Tapas Chandra; Schäffner, Anton R

    2016-08-01

    The identification of functionally equivalent, orthologous genes (functional orthologs) across genomes is necessary for accurate transfer of experimental knowledge from well-characterized organisms to others. This frequently relies on automated, coding sequence-based approaches such as OrthoMCL, Inparanoid, and KOG, which usually work well for one-to-one homologous states. However, this strategy does not reliably work for plants due to the occurrence of extensive gene/genome duplication. Frequently, for one query gene, multiple orthologous genes are predicted in the other genome, and it is not clear a priori from sequence comparison and similarity which one preserves the ancestral function. We have studied 11 organ-dependent and stress-induced gene expression patterns of 286 Arabidopsis lyrata duplicated gene groups and compared them with the respective Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes to predict putative expressologs and nonexpressologs based on gene expression similarity. Promoter sequence divergence as an additional tool to substantiate functional orthology only partially overlapped with expressolog classification. By cloning eight A. lyrata homologs and complementing them in the respective four Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutants, we experimentally proved that predicted expressologs are indeed functional orthologs, while nonexpressologs or nonfunctionalized orthologs are not. Our study demonstrates that even a small set of gene expression data in addition to sequence homologies are instrumental in the assignment of functional orthologs in the presence of multiple orthologs. PMID:27303025

  10. Linking the potato genome to the Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://www.sgn.cornell.edu) and many of these have been placed in the genet...

  11. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  12. Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I

  13. Revisiting the concept of behavior patterns in animal behavior with an example from food-caching sequences in wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Gadbois, Simon; Sievert, Olivia; Reeve, Catherine; Harrington, F H; Fentress, J C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the history, conceptualization, and relevance of behavior patterns in modern ethology by explaining the evolution of the concepts of fixed action patterns and modal action patterns. We present the movement toward a more flexible concept of natural action sequences with significant degrees of (production and expressive) freedom. An example is presented with the food caching behavior of three Canidae species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Evolutionary, ecological, and neuroecological/neuroethological arguments are presented to explain the difference in levels of complexity and stereotypy between Canis and Vulpes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior.

  14. Revisiting the concept of behavior patterns in animal behavior with an example from food-caching sequences in wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Gadbois, Simon; Sievert, Olivia; Reeve, Catherine; Harrington, F H; Fentress, J C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the history, conceptualization, and relevance of behavior patterns in modern ethology by explaining the evolution of the concepts of fixed action patterns and modal action patterns. We present the movement toward a more flexible concept of natural action sequences with significant degrees of (production and expressive) freedom. An example is presented with the food caching behavior of three Canidae species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Evolutionary, ecological, and neuroecological/neuroethological arguments are presented to explain the difference in levels of complexity and stereotypy between Canis and Vulpes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25446624

  15. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaïa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections.

  16. Killing of a Muskox, Ovibos moschatus, by two Wolves, Canis lupus, and subsequent caching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed.

  17. Killing of a muskox, Ovibus moschatus, by two wolves, Canis lupis, and subsequent caching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed

  18. [Ultrastructural investigations on anionic surface sites of Brucella canis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Schiefer, H G; Krauss, H

    1977-11-01

    Anionic sites on the surface of Brucella canis were visualized in the electron microscope by staining with positively charged ferric oxide hydrosols in acetic acid (AI-reagent), or propanoic acid (PI-reagent), and with a polycationic ferritin derivative. With the AI-reagent, single or small aggregates of ferric oxide particles were bound to the cell surface of Br. canis, whereas, with the lipophilic PI-reagent, the microorganisms were heavily stained with focal aggregates of iron granules. The polycationic ferritin label was uniformly distributed over the entire cell surface of Br. canis. The ferritin label was not bound on the surface of the organisms after prior treatment with trichloroacetic acid or methanolic hydrochloric acid. Treatment with aqueous acetone, chloroform/methanol, diethyl ether, sodium deoxycholate, pronase, lysozyme, hyaluronidase, and sodium periodate neither influenced the morphology of the Brucella nor diminished their ionic binding sites. Our results indicate that the anionic sites on the cell surface of Br. canis may be carboxyl and phosphate groups of lipopolysaccharides.

  19. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, L. Y.; Devillard, S.; Boone, J. Q.; Hohenlohe, P. A.; White, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127 235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America. A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf × western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes-boreal wolves and eastern coyotes. Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America. PMID:26156129

  20. Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

  1. [Effects of disinfectants on Toxocara canis eggs (results of experimental studies)].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S; Shchuchinova, L D; Aliautdina, L V

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of disinfectants, such as desavid (brand name Desavid), delegol, DP-2T, sulfochloranthione, and hydrogen peroxide on Toxocara canis eggs in the pure culture, Desavid BAS on them in the household-fecal sludge, and sodium hypochlorite in the soil cover. Only desavid (brand name Desavid), delegol, and sodium hypochlorite have a marked ovicidal effect.

  2. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, L Y; Devillard, S; Boone, J Q; Hohenlohe, P A; White, B N

    2015-07-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127,235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America. A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf × western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes-boreal wolves and eastern coyotes. Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America.

  3. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  4. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  5. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  6. First identification of Trichinella sp. in golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Blaga, R; Gherman, C; Seucom, D; Cozma, V; Boireau, P

    2008-04-01

    Larvae of Trichinella sp. were identified in a golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Romania by both trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. The larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction biotyping method. This is the first report of Trichinella sp. in a jackal in Romania. PMID:18436679

  7. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05) as a consequence of lower iron levels. Ferritin and transferrin levels were higher in both phases (acute and subclinical) of the disease. The AOPP and FRAP levels increased in infected animals on the acute phase; however, the opposite occurred in the subclinical phase. We concluded that dogs naturally infected by E. canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology. PMID:26724737

  8. Serological survey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested serologic samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007–2013 for exposure to 8 canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota’s wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups...

  9. Characterization and differential expression analysis of Toxocara canis aquaporin-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong-Fang; Hu, Ling; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Li; Yin, Sha-Sha; Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is an intestinal nematode of canids with a worldwide distribution, causing an important but neglected parasitic zoonosis in humans. Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of water channel proteins, which function as membrane channels to regulate water homeostasis. In this study, the coding sequence of aquaporin-1 gene of T. canis (Tc-aqp-1) was cloned and characterized. The obtained Tc-aqp-1 coding sequence was 933 bp in length, which predicted to encode 311 amino acids. Two conserved asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs were identified in the multiple sequence alignments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the closest relationship between T. canis and Opisthorchis viverrini based on aquaporin-1 amino acid sequence. A structure was predicted with ligand binding sites predicted at H93, N95, N226, L94, I79, and I210 and with active sites predicted at I256 and G207. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations predicted its cellular component term of integral component of plasma membrane (GO: 0005887), molecular function term of channel activity (GO: 0015250), and biological process term of water transport (GO: 0006833). Tissue expression analysis revealed that the Tc-aqp-1 was highly expressed in the intestine of adult male. The findings of the present study provide the basis for further functional studies of T. canis aquaporin-1. PMID:27215210

  10. The Use of Ozonized Oil in the Treatment of Dermatophitosis Caused by Microsporum Canis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mímica, Lycia Mara Jenné

    2011-01-01

    The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte. PMID:24031632

  11. First description of natural Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infections in dogs from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, María Belén; Vezzani, Darío; Eyal, Osnat; Baneth, Gad

    2013-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family are vector transmitted agents that affect a variety of vertebrate hosts including the tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys, which cause canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively. These two infections, typically reported from tropical and sub-tropical regions, have not been previously reported in dogs from Argentina. A total of 86 blood samples from dogs with suspected rickettsial disease and 28 non-suspected dogs were studied. Analysis included evaluation of hematological findings, PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and sequencing of the positive PCR products. E. canis was detected in the blood of six dogs and A. platys in eighteen. All the dogs categorized as non-suspected were negative by PCR. Co-infection with Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli was documented. This first report of E. canis and A. platys infections in dogs from Argentina indicates that these tick-borne infections have a considerably broader range than previously recognized in South America. PMID:23273677

  12. BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A. Zevallos; dos Santos, Sergio Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice. PMID:25076438

  13. First identification of Trichinella sp. in golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Blaga, R; Gherman, C; Seucom, D; Cozma, V; Boireau, P

    2008-04-01

    Larvae of Trichinella sp. were identified in a golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Romania by both trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. The larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction biotyping method. This is the first report of Trichinella sp. in a jackal in Romania.

  14. Molecular Survey of Hepatozoon canis in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Imre, Mirela; Dudu, Andreea; Ilie, Marius S; Morariu, Sorin; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    Blood samples of 119 red foxes, originating from 44 hunting grounds of 3 western counties (Arad, Hunedoara, and Timiş) of Romania, have been examined for the presence of Hepatozoon canis infection using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Overall, 15 (12.6%) samples were found to be PCR-positive. Of the sampled hunting grounds, 29.5% (13/44) were found positive. Positive samples were recorded in all screened counties with the prevalence of 14.8% (9/61) in Arad, 9.8% (5/51) in Timiş, and 14.3% (1/7) in Hunedoara, respectively. No correlation was found (P > 0.05) between H. canis positivity and gender or territorial distribution of the infection. To confirm PCR results, 9 randomly selected amplicons were sequenced. The obtained sequences were identical to each other, confirmed the results of the conventional PCR, and showed 98-100% homology to other H. canis sequences. The results of the current survey support the role of red foxes as sylvatic reservoirs of H. canis in Romania.

  15. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, L Y; Devillard, S; Boone, J Q; Hohenlohe, P A; White, B N

    2015-07-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127,235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America. A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf × western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes-boreal wolves and eastern coyotes. Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America. PMID:26156129

  16. First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country. PMID:24985073

  17. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus

  18. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs. PMID:26233445

  19. Edgetic perturbation of a C. elegans BCL2 ortholog

    PubMed Central

    Dreze, Matija; Charloteaux, Benoit; Milstein, Stuart; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Yildirim, Muhammed A; Zhong, Quan; Svrzikapa, Nenad; Romero, Viviana; Laloux, Géraldine; Brasseur, Robert; Vandenhaute, Jean; Boxem, Mike; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Genes and gene products do not function in isolation but within highly interconnected “interactome” networks, modeled as graphs of nodes and edges representing macromolecules and interactions between them, respectively. We propose to investigate genotype-phenotype associations by methodical use of alleles that lack single interactions, while retaining all others, in contrast to genetic approaches designed to eliminate gene products completely. We describe an integrated strategy based on the reverse yeast two-hybrid system to isolate and characterize such edge-specific, or “edgetic” alleles. We establish a proof-of-concept with CED-9, a C. elegans BCL2 ortholog involved in apoptosis. Using ced-9 edgetic alleles, we uncover a new potential functional link between apoptosis and a centrosomal protein, demonstrating both the interest and efficiency of our strategy. This approach is amenable to higher throughput and is particularly applicable to interactome network analysis in organisms for which transgenesis is straightforward. PMID:19855391

  20. Split-alignment of genomes finds orthologies more accurately.

    PubMed

    Frith, Martin C; Kawaguchi, Risa

    2015-01-01

    We present a new pair-wise genome alignment method, based on a simple concept of finding an optimal set of local alignments. It gains accuracy by not masking repeats, and by using a statistical model to quantify the (un)ambiguity of each alignment part. Compared to previous animal genome alignments, it aligns thousands of locations differently and with much higher similarity, strongly suggesting that the previous alignments are non-orthologous. The previous methods suffer from an overly-strong assumption of long un-rearranged blocks. The new alignments should help find interesting and unusual features, such as fast-evolving elements and micro-rearrangements, which are confounded by alignment errors. PMID:25994148

  1. ncRNA orthologies in the vertebrate lineage.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Miguel; Vilella, Albert J; Muffato, Matthieu; Gordon, Leo; White, Simon; Flicek, Paul; Herrero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Annotation of orthologous and paralogous genes is necessary for many aspects of evolutionary analysis. Methods to infer these homology relationships have traditionally focused on protein-coding genes and evolutionary models used by these methods normally assume the positions in the protein evolve independently. However, as our appreciation for the roles of non-coding RNA genes has increased, consistently annotated sets of orthologous and paralogous ncRNA genes are increasingly needed. At the same time, methods such as PHASE or RAxML have implemented substitution models that consider pairs of sites to enable proper modelling of the loops and other features of RNA secondary structure. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis pipeline for the automatic detection of orthologues and paralogues for ncRNA genes. We focus on gene families represented in Rfam and for which a specific covariance model is provided. For each family ncRNA genes found in all Ensembl species are aligned using Infernal, and several trees are built using different substitution models. In parallel, a genomic alignment that includes the ncRNA genes and their flanking sequence regions is built with PRANK. This alignment is used to create two additional phylogenetic trees using the neighbour-joining (NJ) and maximum-likelihood (ML) methods. The trees arising from both the ncRNA and genomic alignments are merged using TreeBeST, which reconciles them with the species tree in order to identify speciation and duplication events. The final tree is used to infer the orthologues and paralogues following Fitch's definition. We also determine gene gain and loss events for each family using CAFE. All data are accessible through the Ensembl Comparative Genomics ('Compara') API, on our FTP site and are fully integrated in the Ensembl genome browser, where they can be accessed in a user-friendly manner. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org. PMID:26980512

  2. ncRNA orthologies in the vertebrate lineage

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Miguel; Vilella, Albert J.; Muffato, Matthieu; Gordon, Leo; White, Simon; Flicek, Paul; Herrero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Annotation of orthologous and paralogous genes is necessary for many aspects of evolutionary analysis. Methods to infer these homology relationships have traditionally focused on protein-coding genes and evolutionary models used by these methods normally assume the positions in the protein evolve independently. However, as our appreciation for the roles of non-coding RNA genes has increased, consistently annotated sets of orthologous and paralogous ncRNA genes are increasingly needed. At the same time, methods such as PHASE or RAxML have implemented substitution models that consider pairs of sites to enable proper modelling of the loops and other features of RNA secondary structure. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis pipeline for the automatic detection of orthologues and paralogues for ncRNA genes. We focus on gene families represented in Rfam and for which a specific covariance model is provided. For each family ncRNA genes found in all Ensembl species are aligned using Infernal, and several trees are built using different substitution models. In parallel, a genomic alignment that includes the ncRNA genes and their flanking sequence regions is built with PRANK. This alignment is used to create two additional phylogenetic trees using the neighbour-joining (NJ) and maximum-likelihood (ML) methods. The trees arising from both the ncRNA and genomic alignments are merged using TreeBeST, which reconciles them with the species tree in order to identify speciation and duplication events. The final tree is used to infer the orthologues and paralogues following Fitch's definition. We also determine gene gain and loss events for each family using CAFE. All data are accessible through the Ensembl Comparative Genomics (‘Compara’) API, on our FTP site and are fully integrated in the Ensembl genome browser, where they can be accessed in a user-friendly manner. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org PMID:26980512

  3. An orthology-based analysis of pathogenic protozoa impacting global health: an improved comparative genomics approach with prokaryotes and model eukaryote orthologs.

    PubMed

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; da Serra Cruz, Sérgio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antônio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Jucá, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M; Mattoso, Marta; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2014-08-01

    A key focus in 21(st) century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

  4. OrthoDB: a hierarchical catalog of animal, fungal and bacterial orthologs.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Robert M; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Li, Jia; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Kriventseva, Evgenia V

    2013-01-01

    The concept of orthology provides a foundation for formulating hypotheses on gene and genome evolution, and thus forms the cornerstone of comparative genomics, phylogenomics and metagenomics. We present the update of OrthoDB-the hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org). From its conception, OrthoDB promoted delineation of orthologs at varying resolution by explicitly referring to the hierarchy of species radiations, now also adopted by other resources. The current release provides comprehensive coverage of animals and fungi representing 252 eukaryotic species, and is now extended to prokaryotes with the inclusion of 1115 bacteria. Functional annotations of orthologous groups are provided through mapping to InterPro, GO, OMIM and model organism phenotypes, with cross-references to major resources including UniProt, NCBI and FlyBase. Uniquely, OrthoDB provides computed evolutionary traits of orthologs, such as gene duplicability and loss profiles, divergence rates, sibling groups, and now extended with exon-intron architectures, syntenic orthologs and parent-child trees. The interactive web interface allows navigation along the species phylogenies, complex queries with various identifiers, annotation keywords and phrases, as well as with gene copy-number profiles and sequence homology searches. With the explosive growth of available data, OrthoDB also provides mapping of newly sequenced genomes and transcriptomes to the current orthologous groups.

  5. Construction of an Ortholog Database Using the Semantic Web Technology for Integrative Analysis of Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis. PMID:25875762

  6. Construction of an ortholog database using the semantic web technology for integrative analysis of genomic data.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis.

  7. Construction of an ortholog database using the semantic web technology for integrative analysis of genomic data.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis. PMID:25875762

  8. Do Intron and Coding Sequences of Some Human-Mouse Orthologs Evolve as a Single Unit?

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel Angel; Rodrigo, José Ramón; Alonso, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    It has been previously suggested that both the coding and the associated non-coding sequences of some human-mouse orthologs could evolve as a single unit. This letter deals with the observation that between mouse and humans some orthologs change significantly their compositional features as an indication that the molecular evolution is a local process. Moreover, the data shown indicate that the coding and the intron sequences of these orthologs do not evolve independently but instead both undergo a concerted evolution, evolving as a single unit, from a compositional cluster in mouse to a different compositional cluster in human. PMID:27220874

  9. Identification of new 18S rRNA strains of Babesia canis isolated from dogs with subclinical babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Łyp, P; Adaszek, Ł; Furmaga, B; Winiarczyk, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis from naturally infected dogs in Poland with subclinical babesiosis by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from ten dogs with subclinical babesiosis. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products led to the identification of a new variant of Babesia canis, differing from the previously detected protozoa genotypes (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) with nucleotide substitutions in positions 150 and 151 of the tested gene fragment. The results indicate the emergence within the Polish territory of a new, previously unencountered Babesia canis genotype responsible for the development of subclinical babesiosis. PMID:26618590

  10. [THE DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF TOXOCARA CANIS EGGS IN THE NATURAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF GORNO-ALTAISK].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Shchuchinova, L D; Dovgalev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The time of development and survival of Toxocara canis eggs in the soil of Gorno-Altaisk was experimen- tally investigated in 2011-2014. In July 2011, T.canis eggs matured at 3-5-cm soil depths from the stage of 1-2 blastomeres to invading larva within 12 days at a daily average temperature of +23°C and at a relative humidity of 82%. At 3-5-cm soil depths, more than 70% of invaded T. canis eggs preserved their viability through- out the experimental period (4 years). The paper gives evidence for the seasonal survival of invaded T. canis eggs in relation of the length of soil stay. PMID:26152039

  11. Identification of new 18S rRNA strains of Babesia canis isolated from dogs with subclinical babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Łyp, P; Adaszek, Ł; Furmaga, B; Winiarczyk, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis from naturally infected dogs in Poland with subclinical babesiosis by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from ten dogs with subclinical babesiosis. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products led to the identification of a new variant of Babesia canis, differing from the previously detected protozoa genotypes (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) with nucleotide substitutions in positions 150 and 151 of the tested gene fragment. The results indicate the emergence within the Polish territory of a new, previously unencountered Babesia canis genotype responsible for the development of subclinical babesiosis.

  12. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate. PMID:25776544

  13. Early detection of Brucella canis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, L K; Bjork, J K; Gallup, J M; Boggiatto, P M; Bellaire, B H; Petersen, C A

    2014-02-01

    Canine brucellosis is a reportable zoonotic disease that can lead to canine reproductive losses and human infection through contact with infected urine or other genitourinary secretions. Although many locations require testing and euthanasia of positive dogs, current diagnosis is limited by the time required for seroconversion, for example, presence of B. canis-specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic ability of Brucella canis-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect B. canis in field samples prior to serological positivity for faster diagnosis and prevention of transmission within kennels or in households. Two kennels, one of which was located in the owner's home, were sampled following observation of suggestive clinical signs and positive serology of at least one dog. Specimens obtained were comparatively analysed via serology and qPCR analysis. 107 dogs were analysed for B. canis infection via qPCR: 105 via whole-blood samples, 65 via vaginal swab, six via urine and seven via genitourinary tract tissue taken at necropsy. Forty-five dogs were found to be infected with canine brucellosis via qPCR, of which 22 (48.89%) were seropositive. A statistically significant number (P = 0.0228) of qPCR-positive dogs, 5/25 (20.00%), seroconverted within a 30-day interval after initial serologic testing. As compared to serology, qPCR analysis of DNA from vaginal swabs had a sensitivity of 92.31% and specificity of 51.92%, and qPCR analysis of DNA from whole-blood samples had a sensitivity of 16.67% and specificity of 100%. B. canis outer membrane protein 25 DNA qPCR from non-invasive vaginal swab and urine samples provided early detection of B. canis infection in dogs prior to detection of antibodies. This assay provides a critical tool to decrease zoonotic spread of canine brucellosis, its associated clinical presentation(s), and emotional and economic repercussions.

  14. The transmission of canine ehrlichiosis to the Wild Dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and Black-backed Jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J

    1979-12-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to three Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus and three Black-backed Jackals Canis mesomelas. Wild Dogs showed symptoms of anorexia and depression as well as anaemia, leucopaenia and mild thrombocytopaenia. Black-backed Jackals were asymptomatic. Morulae of Ehrlichicia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from Black-backed Jackal to the domestic dog.

  15. The transmission of canine ehrlichiosis to the Wild Dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and Black-backed Jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J

    1979-12-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to three Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus and three Black-backed Jackals Canis mesomelas. Wild Dogs showed symptoms of anorexia and depression as well as anaemia, leucopaenia and mild thrombocytopaenia. Black-backed Jackals were asymptomatic. Morulae of Ehrlichicia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from Black-backed Jackal to the domestic dog. PMID:553960

  16. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    PubMed

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island. PMID:27177475

  17. Relationship between clinical manifestations and pulsed-field gel profiles of Streptococcus canis isolates from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kruger, E Freya; Byrne, Barbara A; Pesavento, Patricia; Hurley, Kate F; Lindsay, Leanne L; Sykes, Jane E

    2010-11-20

    Little is known regarding the degree of genotypic relatedness between Streptococcus canis isolates from dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether correlations existed between the genotypes of canine and feline S. canis isolates as determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and different clinical manifestations of disease. Eighty-two isolates of S. canis were examined that had been collected from dogs and cats presenting to the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) between 1998 and 2005. Associated clinical manifestations included sepsis, otitis, pyometra, skin infections, necrotizing fasciitis, respiratory disease, and urinary tract infections. In addition, 9 feline isolates from a southern California shelter that experienced an outbreak of S. canis infection manifesting as necrotizing fasciitis and death were examined. Bacterial isolates were characterized by PFGE analysis using the restriction enzyme SmaI. The relationships between banding patterns were analyzed using gel analysis software combined with visual interpretation. The feline shelter isolates of S. canis were 99% similar in bacterial PFGE profile. The remainder of samples had less than 80% similarity in PFGE banding patterns. The relatedness of the PFGE profile in the feline shelter isolates suggested a clonal origin. In the isolates from the VMTH population, there was no relationship between specific disease manifestations and PFGE profile. PFGE typing does not appear to be useful for identifying isolates associated with specific disease presentations; however may be more useful to identify outbreaks of S. canis infections or to detect clonal populations in outbreaks. PMID:20605376

  18. Beclin orthologs: integrative hubs of cell signaling, membrane trafficking, and physiology

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Beth; Liu, Rong; Dong, Xiaonan; Zhong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The Beclin family, including yeast Atg6 (autophagy related gene 6), its orthologs in higher eukaryotic species, and the more recently characterized mammalian-specific Beclin 2, are essential molecules in autophagy and other membrane-trafficking events. Extensive studies of Beclin orthologs have provided considerable insights into the regulation of autophagy, the diverse roles of autophagy in physiology and disease, and potential new strategies to modulate autophagy in a variety of clinical diseases. In this review we discuss the functions of Beclin 1 orthologs, the regulation of such functions by diverse cellular signaling pathways, and the effects of such regulation on downstream cellular processes including tumor suppression and metabolism. These findings suggest that Beclin orthologs serve as crucial molecules that integrate diverse environmental signals with membrane trafficking events to ensure optimal responses of the cell to stressful stimuli. PMID:26071895

  19. The OMA orthology database in 2015: function predictions, better plant support, synteny view and other improvements.

    PubMed

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Škunca, Nives; Glover, Natasha; Train, Clément-Marie; Sueki, Anna; Piližota, Ivana; Gori, Kevin; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Müller, Steven; Redestig, Henning; Gonnet, Gaston H; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The Orthologous Matrix (OMA) project is a method and associated database inferring evolutionary relationships amongst currently 1706 complete proteomes (i.e. the protein sequence associated for every protein-coding gene in all genomes). In this update article, we present six major new developments in OMA: (i) a new web interface; (ii) Gene Ontology function predictions as part of the OMA pipeline; (iii) better support for plant genomes and in particular homeologs in the wheat genome; (iv) a new synteny viewer providing the genomic context of orthologs; (v) statically computed hierarchical orthologous groups subsets downloadable in OrthoXML format; and (vi) possibility to export parts of the all-against-all computations and to combine them with custom data for 'client-side' orthology prediction. OMA can be accessed through the OMA Browser and various programmatic interfaces at http://omabrowser.org.

  20. The OMA orthology database in 2015: function predictions, better plant support, synteny view and other improvements.

    PubMed

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Škunca, Nives; Glover, Natasha; Train, Clément-Marie; Sueki, Anna; Piližota, Ivana; Gori, Kevin; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Müller, Steven; Redestig, Henning; Gonnet, Gaston H; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The Orthologous Matrix (OMA) project is a method and associated database inferring evolutionary relationships amongst currently 1706 complete proteomes (i.e. the protein sequence associated for every protein-coding gene in all genomes). In this update article, we present six major new developments in OMA: (i) a new web interface; (ii) Gene Ontology function predictions as part of the OMA pipeline; (iii) better support for plant genomes and in particular homeologs in the wheat genome; (iv) a new synteny viewer providing the genomic context of orthologs; (v) statically computed hierarchical orthologous groups subsets downloadable in OrthoXML format; and (vi) possibility to export parts of the all-against-all computations and to combine them with custom data for 'client-side' orthology prediction. OMA can be accessed through the OMA Browser and various programmatic interfaces at http://omabrowser.org. PMID:25399418

  1. SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

    2013-10-15

    At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

  2. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    CAPOCI, Isis Regina Grenier; da CUNHA, Michele Milano; BONFIM-MENDONÇA, Patricia de Souza; GHIRALDI-LOPES, Luciana Dias; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; KIOSHIMA, Erika Seki; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  3. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Cunha, Michele Milano da; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ghiraldi-Lopes, Luciana Dias; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Kioshima, Erika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment.

  4. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted.

  5. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  6. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis in free-living primates of the genus Callithrix.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Claudio; Barcelos, Rafael Mazioli; Mantovani, Cynthia; Carrizo, Juliana; Soares, Adriano Carlos; Moreira, Higo Nasser Sant'Anna; Maia, Natasha Lagos; da Silva, Fernanda de Fátima Rodrigues; e Silva, Vinícius Herold Dornelas; Boere, Vanner; e Silva, Ita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia are Gram-negative and coccoid-shaped microorganisms that cause ehrlichiosis - a serious infectious disease that often leads to death. These bacteria present a strong zoonotic potential and primates may act as reservoir hosts. This study involved a molecular analysis to detect these microorganisms in blood samples collected from nineteen primates of the genus Callithrix living free in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of the 19 primates was found to be infected with Ehrlichia canis. This finding points to a new wild host of E. canis with a strong potential for transmission to humans because of its increasing contact with people. This is the first report of Ehrlichia spp. in primate of the genus Callithrix. PMID:25909257

  7. Serum DHEA-S increases in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, M C H; Munhoz, T D; Catandi, P B; Freschi, C R; Palacios Junior, R J G; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2015-06-01

    Adrenocortical disturbances are expected in canine ehrlichiosis due to the immunological challenges caused by infection and consequent inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adrenocortical hormonal alterations in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis (n = 21) as positively confirmed by the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies (Dot-ELISA) and nested PCR (nPCR). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations were assessed via ELISA before and one hour after ACTH stimulation. Another 10 healthy dogs were subjected to the same stimulation protocol and used as controls. The results revealed that baseline and post-ACTH DHEA-S concentrations were significantly greater in sick dogs, regardless of gender, and this finding illustrates the stress induced by naturally acquired ehrlichiosis in dogs. PMID:25956636

  8. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Cunha, Michele Milano da; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ghiraldi-Lopes, Luciana Dias; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Kioshima, Erika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  9. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Ćirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  10. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

  11. Hepatitis associated with a Sarcocystis canis-like protozoan in a Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi).

    PubMed

    Yantis, D; Moeller, R; Braun, R; Gardiner, C H; Aguirre, A; Dubey, J P

    2003-12-01

    A Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) died in captivity at the National Marine Fisheries Service, Kewalo Basin Facility in Honolulu, Hawaii. The animal was icteric, and the liver was friable. Microscopic lesions were detected in the colon and liver. Colonic lesions included multifocal, necrohemorrhagic colitis associated with gram-negative bacilli. The liver lesions included random hepatic necrosis and cholestasis. Asexual stages of a Sarcocystis canis-like apicomplexan were detected in hepatocytes. The parasite divided by endopolygeny. Merozoites occasionally formed rosettes around a central residual body. Ultrastructurally, merozoites lacked rhoptries. This is the first report of S. canis infection in M. schauinslandi, which is an endangered pinniped in U.S. waters. PMID:14740925

  12. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

  13. Comment on "Tequila, a neurotrypsin ortholog, regulates long-term memory formation in Drosophila".

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Peter; Patthy, Laszlo

    2007-06-22

    Didelot et al. (Reports, 11 August 2006, p. 851) claimed that Drosophila Tequila (Teq) and human neurotrypsin are orthologs and concluded that deficient long-term memory after Teq inactivation indicates that neurotrypsin plays its essential role for human cognitive functions through a similar mechanism. Our analyses suggest that Teq and neurotrypsin are not orthologous, leading us to question their equivalent roles in higher brain function.

  14. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in North America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different Ehrlichia spp. in the south and central regions of the United States where vector-borne disease prevalence has been previously difficult to ascertain, particularly beyond the metropolitan areas. Methods Dog blood samples (n = 8,662) were submitted from 14 veterinary colleges, 6 private veterinary practices and 4 diagnostic laboratories across this region. Samples were tested for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii specific antibodies using peptide microtiter ELISAs. Results Overall, E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seroprevalence was 0.8%, 2.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. The highest E. canis seroprevalence (2.3%) was found in a region encompassing Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. E. chaffeensis seroreactivity was 6.6% in the central region (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma) and 4.6% in the southeast region (Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia). Seroreactivity to E. ewingii was also highest in the central region (14.6%) followed by the southeast region (5.9%). The geospatial pattern derived from E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seropositive samples was similar to previous reports based on E. chaffeensis seroreactivity in white-tailed deer and the distribution of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) cases reported by the CDC. Conclusions The results of this study provide the first large scale regional documentation of exposure to E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii in pet dogs, highlighting regional differences in seroprevalence and providing the basis for heightened awareness of these emerging vector-borne pathogens by veterinarians and public health agencies. PMID:22316160

  15. Serum concentrations of eicosanoids and lipids in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kučer, Nada; Kuleš, Josipa; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Brkljačić, Mirna; Crnogaj, Martina; Zivičnjak, Tatjana; Smit, Iva; Ceron, Jose Joaquin; Rafaj, Renata Barić

    2014-03-17

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease with world-wide significance caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia. The eicosanoids, as inflammatory mediators, are involved in the regulation of the immune response and inflammatory reaction. Metabolism of lipids is of great importance in babesiosis. In this study it was aimed to investigate the dynamics of serum concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), triglycerides, total cholesterol (Chol), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis and healthy dogs. Both groups were measured for all parameters on the admission day and on the first, second and seventh day of the disease. Dogs that were included in this study had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It was demonstrated that the level of LTB4, PGE2, TxB2 in dogs naturally infected with B. canis significantly changed during the disease. The level of LTB4 was significantly higher during the study, while the concentration of PGE2 was significantly higher second, third and seventh day of disease in relation with healthy dogs. The level of TxB2 was significantly lower at the beginning of the disease, but after seven days concentration was significantly higher. Both group of patients with SIRS and MODS had significantly higher level of LTB4. Substained high concentrations of PGE2 were observed in dogs with MODS after therapy but not in dogs with SIRS, and LTB4 followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, increases in TxB2 were only significant in dogs with SIRS. The lipid profile in naturally infected dogs with B. canis infection was significantly changed. Further studies are needed to assess the prognostic values of lipid mediators in dogs with B. canis infection, and the ability of these markers to predict the progress of SIRS and MODS.

  16. Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.

    2008-01-01

    Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

  17. Evidence of Zoonotic Transmission of Helicobacter canis Between Sheep and Human Contacts.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Maha A; Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Seleem, Aya

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter species are newly emerging bacteria with great public implications but till now its epidemiology is not fully understood; so, this study was conducted to investigate the possible role of ruminants in the epidemiology of these pathogens. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from 149 animals (76 sheep, 33 goats, 21 cattle, and 19 buffaloes) and stool specimens from 10 animal caretakers in intimate contact with the examined animals. All samples were examined for the presence of Helicobacter species through detection of Helicobacter genus specific 16S rRNA using PCR. Then, all positive Helicobacter spp. amplicons were sequenced to recognize their species through BLAST analysis at GenBank. The overall prevalence of Helicobacter spp. was 14.8% while the distribution among the different animals was 26.3%, 3%, 4.8%, and 0% in sheep, goats, cattle, and buffaloes respectively. Helicobacter canis was the predominant species and detected only in sheep (21%) and goats (3%). Moreover, Helicobacter winghamensis and Helicobacter canadensis were also detected in sheep but not in other animals, whereas the only positive bovine sample was identified as Helicobacter bovis. On the other hand, 4 out of 10 humans were positive for Helicobacter spp. and all sequences were identified as H. canis. The sequences identity matrix and phylogenetic analysis of H. canis sequences from humans and sheep contacts revealed that one human sequence was identical to that of sheep and making sister group clade, which prove the zoonotic transmission of this pathogen between sheep and human contacts. However, our findings highlight sheep as a potential reservoir for H. canis, further researches are needed to address the potential role of sheep in the food-borne transmission of such emerging pathogen. PMID:27529744

  18. Immunolocalization of arginine kinase (AK) in Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Rajapakse, R P V J; Yatawara, Lalani; Jayaweera, W R; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a member of the phosphagen kinase family. AK plays a major role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrates including nematodes. In the present study, we performed the direct immunofluorescence test to determine the immunolocalization of AK in different stages of the life cycle (eggs, larvae, and adult worms) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. Our results indicated variable levels of expression of AK in different stages. Moreover, strong fluorescence was observed in cleaving eggs than in dormant eggs. The highest activity of the enzyme was observed in the fully developed eggs. This may be due to high expression of AK in embryonic development, which is associated with increased energy demand due to cleavage and cellular differentiation. Surprisingly, expression of AK is significantly higher in the middle part and posterior end compared to anterior end of the larvae. In addition, AK is highly concentrated in cellular and metabolically active parts of the body such as hypodermis, muscle, intestine, ovaries, oviducts, and uterus, while it is absent in noncellular areas like cuticle. The present study revealed the presence of AK in T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum and that it plays a major role in energy metabolism of these nematodes. Interestingly, antiserum was prepared against the recombinant T. canis AK and reacts with the native AKs of T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum. AK levels could vary in relation to maximum potential rates of ATP turnover, oxidative capacity, and energy output. Further studies on subcellular localization of AK in these important helminths provide new information for researchers to develop effective anthelmintics against the parasites of veterinary and of public health importance.

  19. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera.

    PubMed

    Taira, K; Saeed, I; Permin, A; Kapel, C M O

    2004-05-01

    The potential zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infections from consumption of swine or poultry viscera containing larvae was assessed using a pig model. Two groups of six pigs were fed either fresh swine viscera (group FS) or poultry viscera (FP) containing around 3500 Toxocara larvae. Another two groups of six pigs were fed swine viscera (PS) or poultry viscera (PP) preserved at 4 degrees C for 1 week. All pigs were necropsied 14 days after the exposure. Liver white spots were counted and T. canis specific IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Larval burdens were assessed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, brain, tongue, and eyes. All recipient pigs exhibited several white spots on the liver surface and detectable antibody levels. Larvae were recovered predominantly from the lungs, but also from the mesenteric lymph nodes and the liver, a few larvae were found in the brain and tongue of the pigs. Two larvae were found in the eyes of two pigs in group FS. Mean percentages of total larval recoveries in groups FS, FP, PS, and PP were 75.3, 63.6, 42.6, and 18.8%, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of larvae were recovered from pigs given swine viscera than pigs given poultry viscera. The preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week caused a significant reduction in the larval infectivity overall, nevertheless, the recoveries remained substantial. The fact that larvae migrating in swine or poultry organs and tissues have high infectivity in pigs even after preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week, suggests that human infection with T. canis might easily occur following consumption of raw or undercooked dishes, either fresh or refrigerated, prepared from swine or poultry organs and tissues harbouring T. canis larvae. PMID:15110409

  20. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis.

  1. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  2. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Nowak, R.M.; Weisberg, S.

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970-1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  3. Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2013-09-01

    The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.

  4. Clinical babesiosis and molecular identification of Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Tomanovic, Snezana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2015-06-01

    Canine babesiosis is a frequent and clinically significant tick-borne disease. Sixty symptomatic dogs with clinical findings compatible with babesiosis were included in this study conducted in Serbia. After clinical examination, blood samples were taken for microscopic examination, complete blood count (CBC), Canine SNAP 4Dx Test, DNA analyses and sequencing. The main clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, fever, brown/red discoloration of urine, pale mucous membranes, icterus, splenomegaly, and vomiting. The main clinicopathological findings in Babesia infections were a slight to severe thrombocytopenia and a mild to very severe normocytic normochromic anaemia. Microscopic evaluation revealed 58 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 57 and 1 sample(s), respectively. No co-infections were found using SNAP test. Two Babesia species, B. canis (58/60) and B. gibsoni (2/60), were differentiated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Species identification was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of B. gibsoni samples and six randomly selected B. canis samples. All dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6.6 mg/kg of body weight), given intramuscularly twice at an interval of 14 days. This report presents the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni and B. canis, confirmed by DNA sequencing, in sick dogs from Serbia. PMID:26051258

  5. Determination of anthelmintic efficacy against Toxocara canis in dogs by use of capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Bowman, Dwight D

    2015-09-15

    Industry guidelines for anthelmintic testing call for postmortem inspection of animals to verify treatment efficacy. A previous study showed that capsule endoscopy (CE) can be performed on dogs in vivo to quantify hookworms in the small intestine. Adoption of a minimally invasive procedure such as this could reduce the need for necropsy in efficacy trials. The present study employed CE to enumerate Toxocara canis in dogs, with two main goals: to determine if multiple capsule examinations improves the accuracy of worm counts compared to a single examination, and to establish if the efficacy of an anthelmintic compound is the same whether calculated using CE or necropsy data. To avoid needless animal sacrifice, the study was carried out on beagle dogs already in a product development trial with a planned terminal endpoint. Dogs were infected by oral inoculation with T. canis eggs. Untreated control dogs (n=8) were evaluated by CE three times while dogs treated with test compounds (3 groups of 4) were examined only once. Utilizing either the average count or just the last complete capsule examination, a robust correlation was found between CE and postmortem numbers (r=0.94, p<0.001). Calculated anthelmintic efficacy was essentially identical for the two enumeration methods, ranging from 94% to 100% for the three research compounds. CE may therefore be a viable alternative to necropsy for T. canis parasiticide trials. PMID:26321133

  6. Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy.

  7. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D. Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L.; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis. PMID:25852228

  8. Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Cookston, M.; Stober, M.; Kayes, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2349964

  9. A phylogeny-based benchmarking test for orthology inference reveals the limitations of function-based validation.

    PubMed

    Trachana, Kalliopi; Forslund, Kristoffer; Larsson, Tomas; Powell, Sean; Doerks, Tobias; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Accurate orthology prediction is crucial for many applications in the post-genomic era. The lack of broadly accepted benchmark tests precludes a comprehensive analysis of orthology inference. So far, functional annotation between orthologs serves as a performance proxy. However, this violates the fundamental principle of orthology as an evolutionary definition, while it is often not applicable due to limited experimental evidence for most species. Therefore, we constructed high quality "gold standard" orthologous groups that can serve as a benchmark set for orthology inference in bacterial species. Herein, we used this dataset to demonstrate 1) why a manually curated, phylogeny-based dataset is more appropriate for benchmarking orthology than other popular practices and 2) how it guides database design and parameterization through careful error quantification. More specifically, we illustrate how function-based tests often fail to identify false assignments, misjudging the true performance of orthology inference methods. We also examined how our dataset can instruct the selection of a "core" species repertoire to improve detection accuracy. We conclude that including more genomes at the proper evolutionary distances can influence the overall quality of orthology detection. The curated gene families, called Reference Orthologous Groups, are publicly available at http://eggnog.embl.de/orthobench2. PMID:25369365

  10. Molecular epidemiology of rabies: focus on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) from northern South Africa.

    PubMed

    Zulu, G C; Sabeta, C T; Nel, L H

    2009-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabies viruses recovered from black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern South Africa were investigated to determine whether the black-backed jackal is an emerging maintenance host species for rabies in this region. A panel of 123 rabies viruses obtained from the two host species between 1980 and 2006 were characterised by nucleotide sequencing of the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein gene and the non-coding G-L intergenic region. Through phylogenetic analysis a viral cluster specific to black-backed jackals and spanning a 5-year period was delineated in western Limpopo. Virus strains associated with domestic dogs prevail in densely populated communal areas in north-eastern Limpopo and in south and eastern Mpumalanga. The data presented in this study indicated the likelihood that black-backed jackals are capable of sustaining rabies cycles independent of domestic dogs. It is proposed that wildlife rabies control strategies, in synergy with domestic animal vaccination should be considered for effective control of rabies in South Africa. PMID:19061924

  11. Molecular epidemiology of rabies: focus on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) from northern South Africa.

    PubMed

    Zulu, G C; Sabeta, C T; Nel, L H

    2009-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabies viruses recovered from black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern South Africa were investigated to determine whether the black-backed jackal is an emerging maintenance host species for rabies in this region. A panel of 123 rabies viruses obtained from the two host species between 1980 and 2006 were characterised by nucleotide sequencing of the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein gene and the non-coding G-L intergenic region. Through phylogenetic analysis a viral cluster specific to black-backed jackals and spanning a 5-year period was delineated in western Limpopo. Virus strains associated with domestic dogs prevail in densely populated communal areas in north-eastern Limpopo and in south and eastern Mpumalanga. The data presented in this study indicated the likelihood that black-backed jackals are capable of sustaining rabies cycles independent of domestic dogs. It is proposed that wildlife rabies control strategies, in synergy with domestic animal vaccination should be considered for effective control of rabies in South Africa.

  12. The plant Apolipoprotein D ortholog protects Arabidopsis against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Jean-Benoit F; Ouellet, Francois; Houde, Mario; Sarhan, Fathey

    2008-01-01

    Background Lipocalins are a large and diverse family of small, mostly extracellular proteins implicated in many important functions. This family has been studied in bacteria, invertebrate and vertebrate animals but little is known about these proteins in plants. We recently reported the identification and molecular characterization of the first true lipocalins from plants, including the Apolipoprotein D ortholog AtTIL identified in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. This study aimed to determine its physiological role in planta. Results Our results demonstrate that the AtTIL lipocalin is involved in modulating tolerance to oxidative stress. AtTIL knock-out plants are very sensitive to sudden drops in temperature and paraquat treatment, and dark-grown plants die shortly after transfer to light. These plants accumulate a high level of hydrogen peroxide and other ROS, which causes an oxidative stress that is associated with a reduction in hypocotyl growth and sensitivity to light. Complementation of the knock-out plants with the AtTIL cDNA restores the normal phenotype. On the other hand, overexpression enhances tolerance to stress caused by freezing, paraquat and light. Moreover, this overexpression delays flowering and maintains leaf greenness. Microarray analyses identified several differentially-regulated genes encoding components of oxidative stress and energy balance. Conclusion This study provides the first functional evidence that a plant lipocalin is involved in modulating tolerance to oxidative stress. These findings are in agreement with recently published data showing that overexpression of ApoD enhances tolerance to oxidative stress and increases life span in mice and Drosophila. Together, the three papers strongly support a similar function of lipocalins in these evolutionary-distant species. PMID:18671872

  13. The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  14. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.

  15. Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals.

  16. Identification and Expression Analysis of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Co-orthologs in Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Paul, Puneet; Keller, Mario; Einloft, Jens; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis involves a large inventory of proteinaceous and RNA cofactors. More than 250 ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) have been described in yeast. These factors are involved in multiple aspects like rRNA processing, folding, and modification as well as in ribosomal protein (RP) assembly. Considering the importance of RBFs for particular developmental processes, we examined the complexity of RBF and RP (co-)orthologs by bioinformatic assignment in 14 different plant species and expression profiling in the model crop Solanum lycopersicum. Assigning (co-)orthologs to each RBF revealed that at least 25% of all predicted RBFs are encoded by more than one gene. At first we realized that the occurrence of multiple RBF co-orthologs is not globally correlated to the existence of multiple RP co-orthologs. The transcript abundance of genes coding for predicted RBFs and RPs in leaves and anthers of S. lycopersicum was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). In combination with existing expression profiles, we can conclude that co-orthologs of RBFs by large account for a preferential function in different tissue or at distinct developmental stages. This notion is supported by the differential expression of selected RBFs during male gametophyte development. In addition, co-regulated clusters of RBF and RP coding genes have been observed. The relevance of these results is discussed. PMID:25698879

  17. Bioinformatics analysis of plant orthologous introns: identification of an intronic tRNA-like sequence.

    PubMed

    Akkuratov, Evgeny E; Walters, Lorraine; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Khandekar, Sushant; Crawford, Erin; Zirbel, Craig L; Leisner, Scott; Prakash, Ashwin; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

    2014-09-10

    Orthologous introns have identical positions relative to the coding sequence in orthologous genes of different species. By analyzing the complete genomes of five plants we generated a database of 40,512 orthologous intron groups of dicotyledonous plants, 28,519 orthologous intron groups of angiosperms, and 15,726 of land plants (moss and angiosperms). Multiple sequence alignments of each orthologous intron group were obtained using the Mafft algorithm. The number of conserved regions in plant introns appeared to be hundreds of times fewer than that in mammals or vertebrates. Approximately three quarters of conserved intronic regions among angiosperms and dicots, in particular, correspond to alternatively-spliced exonic sequences. We registered only a handful of conserved intronic ncRNAs of flowering plants. However, the most evolutionarily conserved intronic region, which is ubiquitous for all plants examined in this study, including moss, possessed multiple structural features of tRNAs, which caused us to classify it as a putative tRNA-like ncRNA. Intronic sequences encoding tRNA-like structures are not unique to plants. Bioinformatics examination of the presence of tRNA inside introns revealed an unusually long-term association of four glycine tRNAs inside the Vac14 gene of fish, amniotes, and mammals. PMID:25014137

  18. An Effective Big Data Supervised Imbalanced Classification Approach for Ortholog Detection in Related Yeast Species.

    PubMed

    Galpert, Deborah; Del Río, Sara; Herrera, Francisco; Ancede-Gallardo, Evys; Antunes, Agostinho; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin

    2015-01-01

    Orthology detection requires more effective scaling algorithms. In this paper, a set of gene pair features based on similarity measures (alignment scores, sequence length, gene membership to conserved regions, and physicochemical profiles) are combined in a supervised pairwise ortholog detection approach to improve effectiveness considering low ortholog ratios in relation to the possible pairwise comparison between two genomes. In this scenario, big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance between ortholog and nonortholog pair classes allow for an effective scaling solution built from two genomes and extended to other genome pairs. The supervised approach was compared with RBH, RSD, and OMA algorithms by using the following yeast genome pairs: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Schizosaccharomyces pombe as benchmark datasets. Because of the large amount of imbalanced data, the building and testing of the supervised model were only possible by using big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance. Evaluation metrics taking low ortholog ratios into account were applied. From the effectiveness perspective, MapReduce Random Oversampling combined with Spark SVM outperformed RBH, RSD, and OMA, probably because of the consideration of gene pair features beyond alignment similarities combined with the advances in big data supervised classification. PMID:26605337

  19. eggNOG v4.0: nested orthology inference across 3686 organisms.

    PubMed

    Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian; Trachana, Kalliopi; Roth, Alexander; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Rattei, Thomas; Creevey, Chris; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars J; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of various 'omics data, high-quality orthology assignment is crucial for evolutionary and functional genomics studies. We here present the fourth version of the eggNOG database (available at http://eggnog.embl.de) that derives nonsupervised orthologous groups (NOGs) from complete genomes, and then applies a comprehensive characterization and analysis pipeline to the resulting gene families. Compared with the previous version, we have more than tripled the underlying species set to cover 3686 organisms, keeping track with genome project completions while prioritizing the inclusion of high-quality genomes to minimize error propagation from incomplete proteome sets. Major technological advances include (i) a robust and scalable procedure for the identification and inclusion of high-quality genomes, (ii) provision of orthologous groups for 107 different taxonomic levels compared with 41 in eggNOGv3, (iii) identification and annotation of particularly closely related orthologous groups, facilitating analysis of related gene families, (iv) improvements of the clustering and functional annotation approach, (v) adoption of a revised tree building procedure based on the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the complete database of orthologous groups via a web interface, as well as through bulk download.

  20. An Effective Big Data Supervised Imbalanced Classification Approach for Ortholog Detection in Related Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Galpert, Deborah; del Río, Sara; Herrera, Francisco; Ancede-Gallardo, Evys; Antunes, Agostinho; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin

    2015-01-01

    Orthology detection requires more effective scaling algorithms. In this paper, a set of gene pair features based on similarity measures (alignment scores, sequence length, gene membership to conserved regions, and physicochemical profiles) are combined in a supervised pairwise ortholog detection approach to improve effectiveness considering low ortholog ratios in relation to the possible pairwise comparison between two genomes. In this scenario, big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance between ortholog and nonortholog pair classes allow for an effective scaling solution built from two genomes and extended to other genome pairs. The supervised approach was compared with RBH, RSD, and OMA algorithms by using the following yeast genome pairs: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Schizosaccharomyces pombe as benchmark datasets. Because of the large amount of imbalanced data, the building and testing of the supervised model were only possible by using big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance. Evaluation metrics taking low ortholog ratios into account were applied. From the effectiveness perspective, MapReduce Random Oversampling combined with Spark SVM outperformed RBH, RSD, and OMA, probably because of the consideration of gene pair features beyond alignment similarities combined with the advances in big data supervised classification. PMID:26605337

  1. An Effective Big Data Supervised Imbalanced Classification Approach for Ortholog Detection in Related Yeast Species.

    PubMed

    Galpert, Deborah; Del Río, Sara; Herrera, Francisco; Ancede-Gallardo, Evys; Antunes, Agostinho; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin

    2015-01-01

    Orthology detection requires more effective scaling algorithms. In this paper, a set of gene pair features based on similarity measures (alignment scores, sequence length, gene membership to conserved regions, and physicochemical profiles) are combined in a supervised pairwise ortholog detection approach to improve effectiveness considering low ortholog ratios in relation to the possible pairwise comparison between two genomes. In this scenario, big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance between ortholog and nonortholog pair classes allow for an effective scaling solution built from two genomes and extended to other genome pairs. The supervised approach was compared with RBH, RSD, and OMA algorithms by using the following yeast genome pairs: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Schizosaccharomyces pombe as benchmark datasets. Because of the large amount of imbalanced data, the building and testing of the supervised model were only possible by using big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance. Evaluation metrics taking low ortholog ratios into account were applied. From the effectiveness perspective, MapReduce Random Oversampling combined with Spark SVM outperformed RBH, RSD, and OMA, probably because of the consideration of gene pair features beyond alignment similarities combined with the advances in big data supervised classification.

  2. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs.

  3. Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon.

  4. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs. PMID:26152413

  5. Recombinant gp19 as a potential antigen for detecting anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in dog sera.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rômulo Silva de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Gonçales, Relber Aguiar; Lara, Ana Paula de Souza Stori de; Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2015-01-01

    The canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia canis, is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Some serological diagnostic techniques using immunodominant proteins of E. canis as antigens are available, but their specificities and sensitivities are questionable. Based on this, the objective of this study was to test the antigenic potential of the recombinant gp19 protein (rGP19) for subsequent use in diagnostic tests. The rGP19 expressed in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) C41 was recognized in the sera from experimentally infected dogs using ELISA and Western blotting. Thus, it was possible to obtain a promising antigen with the ability to differentiate between E. canis-positive and -negative animals, even 1 week after infection. PMID:26291145

  6. Modulation of IL-12 and IFNγ by probiotic supplementation promotes protection against Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    de Avila, L F D C; de Leon, P M M; de Moura, M Q; Berne, M E A; Scaini, C J; Leivas Leite, F P

    2016-05-01

    In this study, supplementation with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii promoted a reduction in intensity of infection by Toxocara canis and modulates cytokines mRNA expression in experimentally infected mice. IL-12 gene transcription had 40-fold increase in S. boulardii supplemented uninfected mice and sevenfold increase in supplemented infected mice comparing with not supplemented group. Regarding IFNγ, similar results were observed, since probiotic supplementation induced approximately 43-fold increase, but only in uninfected mice (P < 0·05). T. canis infection upregulated IL-10 expression while S. boulardii downregulated it and no change was observed for IL-4. Thus, based in these findings; we suggest that one possible mechanism responsible for S. boulardii protection effect against T. canis infection is by the modulation of cytokines expression, especially IL-12. PMID:26971490

  7. Toxocara canis glycans influence antigen recognition by mouse IgG1 and IgM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Długosz, Ewa; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sugar moieties of Toxocara canis glycoprotein antigens on their recognition by infected mouse antibodies was investigated in this study. Native TES and recombinant Toxocara mucins generated in Pichia pastoris yeast as well as their deglycosylated forms were used in ELISA. TES and recombinant mucins were equally recognized by T. canis infected mouse IgG1 antibodies. IgM immunoglobulins predominantly recognized TES antigens. Among mucins recognition of Tc-MUC-4 was the most significant. Deglycosylation of antigens resulted in significant loss of IgM and IgG1 reactivity to TES, mucins, Tc-MUC-3 and Tc-MUC-4. The presence of sugar moieties had no influence on IgE binding to native or recombinant T. canis antigens. Our results suggest that glycans are involved in epitope formation what should be taken into consideration in production of recombinant helminth antigens for diagnostic purposes. PMID:26751891

  8. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  9. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Test to the Diagnosis of Canine Brucellosis Caused by Brucella canis.

    PubMed

    Keid, L B; Diniz, J A; Oliveira, T M F S; Ferreira, H L; Soares, R M

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the performance of an immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis, comparing its results with that of the rapid slide agglutination test with and without the use of 2-mercaptoethanol and the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). The microbiological culture, PCR and clinical examination were used as reference. According to the results obtained in clinical examination, blood culture, culture of semen and vaginal swab and PCR in blood, semen and vaginal swab, a total of 102 dogs were divided into three groups: B. canis-infected dogs (Group 1), B. canis-non-infected dogs (Group 2) and dogs with suspected brucellosis (Group 3). The diagnostic sensitivity of RSAT, 2ME-RSAT, AGID and ICT in Group 1 was, respectively, 75%, 37.5%, 27.8% and 89.58%. The diagnostic specificity of RSAT, 2ME-RSAT, AGID and ICT in Group 2 was, respectively, 91%, 100%, 100%, and 100%. In dogs with suspected brucellosis, 9.67% were RSAT positive, none was positive by 2ME-RSAT, 3.22% were AGID positive and 6.45% were ICT positive. The main drawback concerning canine brucellosis diagnosis is the lack of a highly sensitive serological assay to be used as a screening test to the rapid identification of infected animals. The ICT showed a high diagnostic specificity and a diagnostic sensitivity value greater than that observed in the RSAT, 2ME-RSAT and AGID. However, 10.41% of infected dogs had negative results by ICT. These dogs were positive by microbiological culture and/or PCR, indicating active infection and consequently a higher potential of spreading Brucella. Although rapid and simple to perform, the ICT lacked sensitivity to be used as a screening test.

  10. Ovicidal activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R; Araujo, J M; Alves, C D F

    2010-04-19

    An assessment was made of the ovicidal activity of egg-parasitizing fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4) and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. The fungal isolates were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (2% WA) and stored at 25 degrees C for 10 days in an incubator, in the dark. The control group was comprised of Petri dishes without fungi, containing the 2%WA medium only. Later, 1000 embryonated eggs were placed on the surface of the plates with fungal isolates and also on the control plates, and were then incubated at 25 degrees C for 7, 14 and 21 days. At these intervals, the eggs were retrieved and underwent percentage assessment according to the following parameters: no changes; type 1 effect, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to eggshell, with visualization of hyphae adhered to eggshell; type 2 effect, lytic effect with morphological changes in embryo and eggshell, without hyphal penetration through the eggshell; type 3 effect, lytic effect with morphological changes in embryo and eggshell, with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All the fungal isolates showed ovicidal activity (type 3 effect) on T. canis eggs, with 13.8%, 20.5% and 20.3% of ovicidal activity using P. chlamydosporia isolate VC1 after 7, 14 and 21 days, whereas isolate VC4 showed 15.2%, 19.0% and 21.7% of ovicidal activity at the same time intervals. P. lilacinus showed ovicidal activity of 12.3%, 18.8% and 20.0% after 7, 14 and 21 days. P. chlamydosporia and P. lilacinus were effective in vitro on T. canis eggs and can be considered a potential candidate to biological controller of those nematodes. PMID:20097478

  11. Flotation and adherence characteristics of Toxocara canis and T. cati and a reliable method for recovering Toxocara eggs from soil.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Annika; Janecek, Elisabeth; Waindok, Patrick; Strube, Christina

    2016-08-30

    Toxocara canis and T. cati are worldwide distributed intestinal nematodes of canids and felids and pose a threat to public health due to possible clinical manifestations in humans. Different methods for detection of Toxocara eggs in soil have been described, but conducted studies deal with egg recovery rates of T. canis or "Toxocara spp." only whereas T. cati egg recovery has not been taken into consideration. Thus, flotation properties in sodium chloride solution and adherence characteristics to different substrates possibly coming into contact with Toxocara eggs before or during purification from soil were evaluated for both, T. canis and T. cati eggs. No significant difference was observed in flotation characteristics, but comparison of adherence properties revealed significantly less adherence of T. cati eggs on almost all evaluated substrates ("sand", side sealed bags, glass beaker, centrifuge tube) and different washing solutions (tap water, Tween(®) 80, Triton™ X-100). Mean adhesion rates of T. cati eggs ranged from 15.9% to 68.9%, those of T. canis eggs from 28.3% to 83.9%. While adherence of T. cati eggs on any substrate was significantly reduced when rinsing with Tween(®) 80 solution, no effect on T. canis eggs could be observed. Generally, Toxocara eggs adhere better on plastic than on glass. Evaluation of a method including only non-hazardous substances for purification of Toxocara eggs from soil resulted in a statistically significant higher recovery rate of T. canis (42.6% recovered eggs) compared to T. cati eggs (30.9% recovered eggs). As these percentages are above average for described methods to recover Toxocara eggs from soil, the presented method is considered reliable for prevalence studies. PMID:27523935

  12. Unusual behavior by Bison, Bison bison, toward Elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McIntyre, R.T.; Smith, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents are described of Bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young Elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off Elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the Bison knocked a wolf-wounded Elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

  13. Unusual behavior by bison, Bison bison, toward elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McIntyre, R.T.; Smith, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents are described of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the bison knocked a wolf-wounded elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

  14. Narrow-band, slowly varying decimetric radiation from the dwarf M flare star YZ Canis Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.; Willson, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of slowly varying radiation from the dwarf M star YZ Canis Minoris with a maximum flux density of 20 mJy and narrow-band frequency structure at frequencies near 1465 MHz are presented. Possible explanations for this radiation are examined. Thermal gyroresonant radiation would require impossibly large coronal loops and magnetic field strengths. The narrow-band structure cannot be explained by continuum emission processes such as thermal bremsstrahlung, thermal gyroresonant radiation, or nonthermal gyrosynchrotron radiation. Coherent burst mechanisms seem to be required.

  15. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

  16. Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

    2007-07-01

    Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

  17. The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

  18. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Morris, Aaron; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how often various prey animals are at risk of predation by Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). We used a system to monitor the presence during the day of two radio-collared Gray Wolves within 2 km of a radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a fawn or fawns in August 2013 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. We concluded that the fawn or fawns were at risk of predation by at least one wolf at least daily.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S.; Costa, Francisco B.; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations—one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)–were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America. PMID:26414283

  20. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S; Costa, Francisco B; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations-one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)-were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America. PMID:26414283

  1. OrthoVenn: a web server for genome wide comparison and annotation of orthologous clusters across multiple species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome wide analysis of orthologous clusters is an important component of comparative genomics studies. Identifying the overlap among orthologous clusters can enable us to elucidate the function and evolution of proteins across multiple species. Here, we report a web platform named OrthoVenn that i...

  2. Expression Pattern Similarities Support the Prediction of Orthologs Retaining Common Functions after Gene Duplication Events1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Haberer, Georg; Panda, Arup; Das Laha, Shayani; Ghosh, Tapas Chandra; Schäffner, Anton R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of functionally equivalent, orthologous genes (functional orthologs) across genomes is necessary for accurate transfer of experimental knowledge from well-characterized organisms to others. This frequently relies on automated, coding sequence-based approaches such as OrthoMCL, Inparanoid, and KOG, which usually work well for one-to-one homologous states. However, this strategy does not reliably work for plants due to the occurrence of extensive gene/genome duplication. Frequently, for one query gene, multiple orthologous genes are predicted in the other genome, and it is not clear a priori from sequence comparison and similarity which one preserves the ancestral function. We have studied 11 organ-dependent and stress-induced gene expression patterns of 286 Arabidopsis lyrata duplicated gene groups and compared them with the respective Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes to predict putative expressologs and nonexpressologs based on gene expression similarity. Promoter sequence divergence as an additional tool to substantiate functional orthology only partially overlapped with expressolog classification. By cloning eight A. lyrata homologs and complementing them in the respective four Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutants, we experimentally proved that predicted expressologs are indeed functional orthologs, while nonexpressologs or nonfunctionalized orthologs are not. Our study demonstrates that even a small set of gene expression data in addition to sequence homologies are instrumental in the assignment of functional orthologs in the presence of multiple orthologs. PMID:27303025

  3. eggNOG v3.0: orthologous groups covering 1133 organisms at 41 different taxonomic ranges.

    PubMed

    Powell, Sean; Szklarczyk, Damian; Trachana, Kalliopi; Roth, Alexander; Kuhn, Michael; Muller, Jean; Arnold, Roland; Rattei, Thomas; Letunic, Ivica; Doerks, Tobias; Jensen, Lars J; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Orthologous relationships form the basis of most comparative genomic and metagenomic studies and are essential for proper phylogenetic and functional analyses. The third version of the eggNOG database (http://eggnog.embl.de) contains non-supervised orthologous groups constructed from 1133 organisms, doubling the number of genes with orthology assignment compared to eggNOG v2. The new release is the result of a number of improvements and expansions: (i) the underlying homology searches are now based on the SIMAP database; (ii) the orthologous groups have been extended to 41 levels of selected taxonomic ranges enabling much more fine-grained orthology assignments; and (iii) the newly designed web page is considerably faster with more functionality. In total, eggNOG v3 contains 721,801 orthologous groups, encompassing a total of 4,396,591 genes. Additionally, we updated 4873 and 4850 original COGs and KOGs, respectively, to include all 1133 organisms. At the universal level, covering all three domains of life, 101,208 orthologous groups are available, while the others are applicable at 40 more limited taxonomic ranges. Each group is amended by multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees and broad functional descriptions are provided for 450,904 orthologous groups (62.5%).

  4. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE.

    PubMed

    Mata-Santos, Taís; Pinto, Nitza França; Mata-Santos, Hilton Antônio; De Moura, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; Carvalho, Tatiane Dos Santos; Del Rio, Karina Pena; Pinto, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; Martins, Lourdes Rodrigues; Fenalti, Juliana Montelli; Da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds. PMID:26200958

  5. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  6. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape.

  7. Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

    2013-10-01

    We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream.

  8. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

  9. The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

    2005-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

  10. Ecological changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the ice age megafaunal extinctions.

    PubMed

    Meachen, Julie A; Janowicz, Adrianna C; Avery, Jori E; Sadleir, Rudyard W

    2014-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did.

  11. Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

    2013-10-01

    Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment.

  12. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE.

    PubMed

    Mata-Santos, Taís; Pinto, Nitza França; Mata-Santos, Hilton Antônio; De Moura, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; Carvalho, Tatiane Dos Santos; Del Rio, Karina Pena; Pinto, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; Martins, Lourdes Rodrigues; Fenalti, Juliana Montelli; Da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  13. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    PubMed Central

    MATA-SANTOS, Taís; PINTO, Nitza França; MATA-SANTOS, Hilton Antônio; DE MOURA, Kelly Gallan; CARNEIRO, Paula Fernandes; CARVALHO, Tatiane dos Santos; DEL RIO, Karina Pena; PINTO, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; MARTINS, Lourdes Rodrigues; FENALTI, Juliana Montelli; DA SILVA, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; SCAINI, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitroactivity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds. PMID:26200958

  14. Ecological Changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in Response to the Ice Age Megafaunal Extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Meachen, Julie A.; Janowicz, Adrianna C.; Avery, Jori E.; Sadleir, Rudyard W.

    2014-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13–29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8–10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary – from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did. PMID:25551387

  15. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  16. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species.

  17. Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo

    2014-06-01

    Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana.

  18. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species. PMID:27358768

  19. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Jnawali, Shant R.; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal’s Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal’s entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  20. Ecological changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the ice age megafaunal extinctions.

    PubMed

    Meachen, Julie A; Janowicz, Adrianna C; Avery, Jori E; Sadleir, Rudyard W

    2014-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did. PMID:25551387

  1. Effects of irradiation on the biology of the infective larvae of Toxocara canis in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Barriga, O.O.; Myser, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    Mice were infected with either 2000 normal or irradiated embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and the number of larvae in their livers, lungs, brains, and carcasses investigated at 5, 20, and 33 days of infection. Mortality of mice infected with normal eggs was 33% between day 4 and 8 postinfection but there was no mortality among mice infected with irradiated eggs. Irradiation with 60, 90, or 150 kr of X-rays inhibited the migration of larvae from the livers and lungs and their accumulation in brain and carcass in proportion to the irradiation dose. By day 33 of infection, the ratio of larvae in liver and lungs to larvae in brain and carcass was 0.16 in normal mice, 0.42 in 60-kr mice, 0.98 in 90-kr mice, and 23.3 in 150-kr mice. Irradiated larvae, particularly those migrating through the peritoneal cavity, died faster than normal larvae until day 20. Irradiation favored survival after day 20. By days 20 and 33 postinfection the total parasite load was 29% and 8%, respectively, of the administered dose in control mice, 18% and 12% in 60-kr mice, 8% and 4% in 90-kr mice, and 0.9% and 0.3% in 150-kr mice. Irradiation of infective T. canis larvae, then, reduces their pathogenicity, inhibits their migration from liver and lungs, kills some of the parasites during the first 3 weeks of infection, but favors their late survival in the host.

  2. Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVI Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Matei, Horea; Cox, Guy C; Romeo, Tony; Mironescu, Eugen; Kuchel, Philip W

    2010-04-01

    As part of a programme of comparative measurements of Pd (diffusional water permeability) the RBCs (red blood cells) from dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and greyhound dog (Canis familiaris) were studied. The morphologies of the dingo and greyhound RBCs [examined by light and SEM (scanning electron microscopy)] were found to be very similar, with regard to aspect ratio and size; the mean diameters were estimated to be the same (approximately 7.2 microm) for both dingo and greyhound RBCs. The water diffusional permeability was monitored by using an Mn2+-doping 1H NMR technique at 400 MHz. The Pd (cm/s) values of dingo and greyhound RBCs were similar: 6.5 x 10(-3) at 25 degrees C, 7.5 x 10(-3) at 30 degrees C, 10 x 10(-3) at 37 degrees C and 11.5 x 10(-3) at 42 degrees C. The inhibitory effect of a mercury-containing SH (sulfhydryl)-modifying reagent PCMBS (p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate) was investigated. The maximal inhibition of dingo and greyhound RBCs was reached in 15-30 min at 37 degrees C with 2 mmol/l PCMBS. The values of maximal inhibition were in the range 72-74% when measured at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C, and approximately 66% at 37 degrees C. The lowest value of Pd (corresponding to the basal permeability to water) was approximately 2-3 x 10(-3) cm/s in the temperature range 25-37 degrees C. The Ea,d (activation energy of water diffusion) was 25 kJ/mol for dingo RBC and 23 kJ/mol for greyhound RBCs. After incubation with PCMBS, the values of Ea,d increased, reaching 46-48 kJ/mol in the condition of maximal inhibition of water exchange. The electrophoretograms of membrane polypeptides of the dingo and greyhound RBCs were compared and seen to be very similar. We postulate that the RBC parameters reported in the present study are characteristic of all canine species and, in particular in the two cases presented here, these parameters have not been changed by the peculiar Australian habitat over the millennia (as in the case of the dingo) or over

  3. Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVI Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Matei, Horea; Cox, Guy C; Romeo, Tony; Mironescu, Eugen; Kuchel, Philip W

    2010-03-08

    As part of a programme of comparative measurements of Pd (diffusional water permeability) the RBCs (red blood cells) from dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and greyhound dog (Canis familiaris) were studied. The morphologies of the dingo and greyhound RBCs [examined by light and SEM (scanning electron microscopy)] were found to be very similar, with regard to aspect ratio and size; the mean diameters were estimated to be the same (approximately 7.2 microm) for both dingo and greyhound RBCs. The water diffusional permeability was monitored by using an Mn2+-doping 1H NMR technique at 400 MHz. The Pd (cm/s) values of dingo and greyhound RBCs were similar: 6.5 x 10(-3) at 25 degrees C, 7.5 x 10(-3) at 30 degrees C, 10 x 10(-3) at 37 degrees C and 11.5 x 10(-3) at 42 degrees C. The inhibitory effect of a mercury-containing SH (sulfhydryl)-modifying reagent PCMBS (p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate) was investigated. The maximal inhibition of dingo and greyhound RBCs was reached in 15-30 min at 37 degrees C with 2 mmol/l PCMBS. The values of maximal inhibition were in the range 72-74% when measured at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C, and approximately 66% at 37 degrees C. The lowest value of Pd (corresponding to the basal permeability to water) was approximately 2-3 x 10(-3) cm/s in the temperature range 25-37 degrees C. The Ea,d (activation energy of water diffusion) was 25 kJ/mol for dingo RBC and 23 kJ/mol for greyhound RBCs. After incubation with PCMBS, the values of Ea,d increased, reaching 46-48 kJ/mol in the condition of maximal inhibition of water exchange. The electrophoretograms of membrane polypeptides of the dingo and greyhound RBCs were compared and seen to be very similar. We postulate that the RBC parameters reported in the present study are characteristic of all canine species and, in particular in the two cases presented here, these parameters have not been changed by the peculiar Australian habitat over the millennia (as in the case of the dingo) or over

  4. In silico mapping of Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers in the potato genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are useful for genetic mapping across diverse taxa, including the Solanaceae. We amplified over 300 COS markers from diverse set of Solanum germplasm, sequenced them and aligned into the whole genome sequence of potato. We also mapped a set of COS markers genetic...

  5. Computer identification of snoRNA genes using a Mammalian Orthologous Intron Database

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Alexei; Stombaugh, Jesse; Harr, Michael W.; Yu, Saihua; Nasalean, Lorena; Shepelev, Valery

    2005-01-01

    Based on comparative genomics, we created a bioinformatic package for computer prediction of small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) genes in mammalian introns. The core of our approach was the use of the Mammalian Orthologous Intron Database (MOID), which contains all known introns within the human, mouse and rat genomes. Introns from orthologous genes from these three species, that have the same position relative to the reading frame, are grouped in a special orthologous intron table. Our program SNO.pl searches for conserved snoRNA motifs within MOID and reports all cases when characteristic snoRNA-like structures are present in all three orthologous introns of human, mouse and rat sequences. Here we report an example of the SNO.pl usage for searching a particular pattern of conserved C/D-box snoRNA motifs (canonical C- and D-boxes and the 6 nt long terminal stem). In this computer analysis, we detected 57 triplets of snoRNA-like structures in three mammals. Among them were 15 triplets that represented known C/D-box snoRNA genes. Six triplets represented snoRNA genes that had only been partially characterized in the mouse genome. One case represented a novel snoRNA gene, and another three cases, putative snoRNAs. Our programs are publicly available and can be easily adapted and/or modified for searching any conserved motifs within mammalian introns. PMID:16093549

  6. OrthoSelect: a web server for selecting orthologous gene alignments from EST sequences.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Fabian; Wörheide, Gert; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2009-07-01

    In the absence of whole genome sequences for many organisms, the use of expressed sequence tags (EST) offers an affordable approach for researchers conducting phylogenetic analyses to gain insight about the evolutionary history of organisms. Reliable alignments for phylogenomic analyses are based on orthologous gene sequences from different taxa. So far, researchers have not sufficiently tackled the problem of the completely automated construction of such datasets. Existing software tools are either semi-automated, covering only part of the necessary data processing, or implemented as a pipeline, requiring the installation and configuration of a cascade of external tools, which may be time-consuming and hard to manage. To simplify data set construction for phylogenomic studies, we set up a web server that uses our recently developed OrthoSelect approach. To the best of our knowledge, our web server is the first web-based EST analysis pipeline that allows the detection of orthologous gene sequences in EST libraries and outputs orthologous gene alignments. Additionally, OrthoSelect provides the user with an extensive results section that lists and visualizes all important results, such as annotations, data matrices for each gene/taxon and orthologous gene alignments. The web server is available at http://orthoselect.gobics.de.

  7. Infection with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in two lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Tarragona, Evelina L; De Salvo, M Nazarena; Mangold, Atilio J; Nava, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Natural infection with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks belonging to the tropical and temperate lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato from Argentina was evaluated. Samples were tested for Ehrlichia canis infection by PCR assays using 16S rRNA, dsb and p28 gene, while detection of A. platys was performed with 16S rRNA and groESL gene. The assignment of the ticks to each lineage was corroborated with 16S rDNA sequences. All ticks infected with E. canis and A. platys belonged to the tropical lineage. These results constitute the first record of E. canis infection in R. sanguineus s.l ticks from Argentina. No ticks from the temperate lineage were found to be infected with E. canis, coinciding with previous studies performed in Argentina and Uruguay where E. canis infection was not detected in R. sanguineus s.l from the temperate lineage. Because the presence of the tropical lineage of R. sanguineus s.l has been documented in tropical areas of northern Argentina between 22° and 24° of south latitude, the findings of this work indicate that transmission of E. canis and A. platys to dogs by R. sanguineus s.l probably occurs along this region. PMID:26100492

  8. Evaluation of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs of Missouri, including serologic status to Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia equi and Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Stockham, S L; Schmidt, D A; Curtis, K S; Schauf, B G; Tyler, J W; Simpson, S T

    1992-01-01

    Canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis was diagnosed in 37 dogs by finding ehrlichial morulae in 0.1 to 26.2% of their blood neutrophils and eosinophils. All 37 dogs had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. Titer to Ehrlichia canis was determined in sera from 31 of the 37 dogs; 25 dogs had titer ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. In the other 6 dogs, titer to E canis was less than 1:10. The most common hematologic abnormality in these dogs, other than rickettsiemia, was thrombocytopenia. Granulocytes infected with ehrlichial organisms were not found in another 10 dogs that had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. Of these 10 dogs, 3 had titer to E canis ranging from 1:40 to 1:320. Titer in the other 7 dogs was less than 1:10. Ehrlichial morulae were not found in the granulocytes of 18 healthy dogs. Of these 18 dogs, 9 had titer to E canis ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. Titer in the other 9 dogs was less than 1:10 Titer to Borrelia burgdorferi was determined in dogs with granulocytic ehrlichiosis, arthritic dogs without detected rickettsiemia, and in healthy dogs. Low titer determined by 2 laboratories was considered to be nonspecific reaction in all 3 groups of dogs and, thus, did not indicate that the arthritic disorders were attributable to canine borreliosis. PMID:1539918

  9. Interactions of Brown Bears, Ursus arctos, and Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Schoen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

  10. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  11. Kinetics and avidity of anti-Toxocara antibodies (IgG) in rabbits experimentally infected with Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Bin, Lundia Luara Cavalcante; Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Laposy, Cecília Braga; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Roldán, William Henry; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the kinetics and avidity of anti-Toxocara antibodies (IgG) in rabbits experimentally infected with embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. Seventeen four month old New Zealand White rabbits were distributed into two groups. In the experimental group, twelve rabbits were infected orally with 1,000 embryonated T. canis eggs. A second group (n = 5), uninfected, was used as a control. Serum samples were collected for analysis on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 post-infection (DPI). An indirect ELISA test was performed to evaluate the reactivity index (RI) of IgG anti-T. canis antibodies and to calculate the avidity index (AI). The animals showed seroconversion from the 14th DPI, with high AI (over 50%) except for one animal, which presented an intermediate AI. At 60 DPI, all the animals were seropositive and maintained a high AI. The data indicated that specific IgG antibodies formed early (14 DPI) in rabbits infected with T. canis, with a high avidity index that persisted throughout the course of the infection. PMID:27027550

  12. Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

  13. Identification of the virB operon genes encoding the type IV secretion system, in Colombian Brucella canis isolates.

    PubMed

    de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Juan Jacobo; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Martínez-Garro, Juliana; Olivera-Angel, Martha

    2013-04-12

    Canine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella canis. The establishment of intracellular replicative niches of B. canis is mediated by proteins secreted by the type IV secretion system, which is encoded by the virB operon. The characterization of such genes has been conducted in other species of the genus, but not in B. canis. We report the design of a multiplex PCR test for the detection of the virB operon genes of B. canis. Primers for each of the 12 genes were designed and evaluated using bioinformatics tools. A multiplex PCR assay was standardized and applied to 36 isolates obtained from infected dogs of Aburrá Valley kennels, as well to the Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella ovis DNA strains. As a result of the in silico design, a pair of primers for each gene was selected. All species and isolates evaluated showed evidence of the presence of the entire virB operon. PMID:23290573

  14. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory–secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. PMID:26033026

  15. Assessing the evolutionary rate of positional orthologous genes in prokaryotes using synteny data

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Frédéric; Lespinet, Olivier; Labedan, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparison of completely sequenced microbial genomes has revealed how fluid these genomes are. Detecting synteny blocks requires reliable methods to determining the orthologs among the whole set of homologs detected by exhaustive comparisons between each pair of completely sequenced genomes. This is a complex and difficult problem in the field of comparative genomics but will help to better understand the way prokaryotic genomes are evolving. Results We have developed a suite of programs that automate three essential steps to study conservation of gene order, and validated them with a set of 107 bacteria and archaea that cover the majority of the prokaryotic taxonomic space. We identified the whole set of shared homologs between two or more species and computed the evolutionary distance separating each pair of homologs. We applied two strategies to extract from the set of homologs a collection of valid orthologs shared by at least two genomes. The first computes the Reciprocal Smallest Distance (RSD) using the PAM distances separating pairs of homologs. The second method groups homologs in families and reconstructs each family's evolutionary tree, distinguishing bona fide orthologs as well as paralogs created after the last speciation event. Although the phylogenetic tree method often succeeds where RSD fails, the reverse could occasionally be true. Accordingly, we used the data obtained with either methods or their intersection to number the orthologs that are adjacent in for each pair of genomes, the Positional Orthologous Genes (POGs), and to further study their properties. Once all these synteny blocks have been detected, we showed that POGs are subject to more evolutionary constraints than orthologs outside synteny groups, whichever the taxonomic distance separating the compared organisms. Conclusion The suite of programs described in this paper allows a reliable detection of orthologs and is useful for evaluating gene order conservation in

  16. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M; Braun, Caroline L; Davis, Lawrence C; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

    2015-04-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surprising because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  17. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T.; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M.; Braun, Caroline L.; Davis, Lawrence C.; Kanost, Michael R.; Gorman, Maureen J.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surpring because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  18. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J

    2012-12-01

    Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between

  19. Tinea faciei due to microsporum canis in children: a survey of 46 cases in the District of Cagliari (Italy).

    PubMed

    Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytoses are frequent in children, but involvement of the facial skin has peculiar aspects that should be considered a separate entity: tinea faciei. Microsporum canis infection in tinea faciei has not been widely documented. To review cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children diagnosed at the Dermatology Clinic, University of Cagliari. Between 1990 and 2009, all children with dermatophyte infections of the facial skin were recruited for the study after parental consent. Diagnosis was made through direct microscopic and cultural examination. Age, sex, clinical form, illness duration, identified dermatophyte, source of infection, and treatment were recorded. Forty-six cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children aged 11 months to 15 years (29 male/17 female) were diagnosed. In 42 (91.3%) children, the illness was the result of contact with pets, and 4 (8.7%) cases resulted from contact with children affected by tinea capitis due to M. canis. Clinical manifestations were typical ringworm in 34 (74%) patients, whereas in 12 (26%) cases, atypical forms mimicking atopic dermatitis, impetigo, lupus erythematosus, and periorificial dermatitis were observed. In 18 (39%) cases, involvement of the vellus hair follicle was documented as ectothrix invasion. Topical or systemic antifungal therapy was effective in all patients. Tinea faciei shows a complex spectrum of differential diagnosis and age-related variations with respect to other superficial dermatophytosis. M. canis is the main organism responsible in children residing in Cagliari, capitol city of Sardinia, Italy. Close collaboration with veterinary and educational programs within infant communities are required for adequate prevention.

  20. A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

    2013-11-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity.

  1. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J

    2012-12-01

    Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between

  2. MBGD update 2015: microbial genome database for flexible ortholog analysis utilizing a diverse set of genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Ikuo; Mihara, Motohiro; Nishide, Hiroyo; Chiba, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    The microbial genome database for comparative analysis (MBGD) (available at http://mbgd.genome.ad.jp/) is a comprehensive ortholog database for flexible comparative analysis of microbial genomes, where the users are allowed to create an ortholog table among any specified set of organisms. Because of the rapid increase in microbial genome data owing to the next-generation sequencing technology, it becomes increasingly challenging to maintain high-quality orthology relationships while allowing the users to incorporate the latest genomic data available into an analysis. Because many of the recently accumulating genomic data are draft genome sequences for which some complete genome sequences of the same or closely related species are available, MBGD now stores draft genome data and allows the users to incorporate them into a user-specific ortholog database using the MyMBGD functionality. In this function, draft genome data are incorporated into an existing ortholog table created only from the complete genome data in an incremental manner to prevent low-quality draft data from affecting clustering results. In addition, to provide high-quality orthology relationships, the standard ortholog table containing all the representative genomes, which is first created by the rapid classification program DomClust, is now refined using DomRefine, a recently developed program for improving domain-level clustering using multiple sequence alignment information. PMID:25398900

  3. MBGD update 2015: microbial genome database for flexible ortholog analysis utilizing a diverse set of genomic data.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Ikuo; Mihara, Motohiro; Nishide, Hiroyo; Chiba, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    The microbial genome database for comparative analysis (MBGD) (available at http://mbgd.genome.ad.jp/) is a comprehensive ortholog database for flexible comparative analysis of microbial genomes, where the users are allowed to create an ortholog table among any specified set of organisms. Because of the rapid increase in microbial genome data owing to the next-generation sequencing technology, it becomes increasingly challenging to maintain high-quality orthology relationships while allowing the users to incorporate the latest genomic data available into an analysis. Because many of the recently accumulating genomic data are draft genome sequences for which some complete genome sequences of the same or closely related species are available, MBGD now stores draft genome data and allows the users to incorporate them into a user-specific ortholog database using the MyMBGD functionality. In this function, draft genome data are incorporated into an existing ortholog table created only from the complete genome data in an incremental manner to prevent low-quality draft data from affecting clustering results. In addition, to provide high-quality orthology relationships, the standard ortholog table containing all the representative genomes, which is first created by the rapid classification program DomClust, is now refined using DomRefine, a recently developed program for improving domain-level clustering using multiple sequence alignment information.

  4. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: increased exposure through consumption of marine prey.

    PubMed

    McGrew, Ashley K; Ballweber, Lora R; Moses, Sara K; Stricker, Craig A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; O'Hara, Todd M

    2014-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome database and standardized classification system for Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Duleba, Anna; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Malyarchuk, Boris; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    To contribute to the complete mitogenome database of the species Canis lupus familiaris and shed more light on its origin, we have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of 120 modern dogs from worldwide populations. Together with all the previously published mitogenome sequences of acceptable quality, we have reconstructed a global phylogenetic tree of 555 C. l. familiaris mitogenomes and standardized haplogroup nomenclature. The phylogenetic tree presented here and available online at http://clf.mtdna.tree.cm.umk.pl/ could be further used by forensic and evolutionary geneticists as well cynologists, for data quality control and unambiguous haplogroup classification. Our in-depth phylogeographic analysis of all C. l. familiaris mitogenomes confirmed that domestic dogs may have originated in East Asia during the Mesolithic and Upper Paleolithic time periods and started to expand to other parts of the world during Neolithic times. PMID:26218982

  6. Photometry, polarimetry, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry of the enigmatic Wolf-Rayet star EZ Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, Carmelle; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Drissen, Laurent; Lamontagne, Robert; Seggewiss, Wilhelm; Niemela, Virpi S.; Cerruti, Miguel A.; Barrett, Paul; Bailey, Jeremy; Garcia, Jorge

    1992-01-01

    New observations of the peculiar Wolf-Rayet star EZ Canis Majoris collected since 1987 are presented, and photometric, polarimetric, spectroscopic, and spectropolarimetric data are discussed. Linear polarization data are well fitted with an eccentric binary model where an additional free parameter is included to allow for epoch-dependent changes of the geometrical electron distribution in the W-R envelope. This yields a set of basic parameters, including an eccentricity e = 0.39 +/- 0.02 and an orbital inclination i = 114 deg +/- 3 deg. The spectroscopic data show global profile variations for all three observed strong emission lines He II 5412 A, C IV 5807 A, and He I 5876 A. Radial velocities of the lines vary with the 3.766-day period. Radially expanding inhomogeneities are superposed on the line profiles and variable polarization in the lines is observed.

  7. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and the radial arm maze: spatial memory and serial position effects.

    PubMed

    Craig, Marlyse; Rand, Jacquie; Mesch, Rita; Shyan-Norwalt, Melissa; Morton, John; Flickinger, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated spatial memory in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) through the use of a radial arm maze. The study consisted of a total of three separate experiments. In the first two experiments, the ability of the dogs to successfully remember previously unentered arms was evaluated. The third experiment was similar to the first two, but also examined the nature of the serial position effect. Performance in all three experiments was better than expected solely by random choices. Dogs showed a much better memory for spatial locations presented earlier in a spatial list compared with those presented in the middle. Based on the present results, we suggest that the radial arm maze assesses canine spatial memory and that dogs show a primacy effect.

  8. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: increased exposure through consumption of marine prey.

    PubMed

    McGrew, Ashley K; Ballweber, Lora R; Moses, Sara K; Stricker, Craig A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; O'Hara, Todd M

    2014-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

  9. The breakfast effect: dogs (Canis familiaris) search more accurately when they are less hungry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Holly C; Bender, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of a morning meal (breakfast) by dogs (Canis familiaris) would affect search accuracy on a working memory task following the exertion of self-control. Dogs were tested either 30 or 90 min after consuming half of their daily resting energy requirements (RER). During testing dogs were initially required to sit still for 10 min before searching for hidden food in a visible displacement task. We found that 30 min following the consumption of breakfast, and 10 min after the behavioral inhibition task, dogs searched more accurately than they did in a fasted state. Similar differences were not observed when dogs were tested 90 min after meal consumption. This pattern of behavior suggests that breakfast enhanced search accuracy following a behavioral inhibition task by providing energy for cognitive processes, and that search accuracy decreased as a function of energy depletion. PMID:23032958

  10. Yellowstone wolf (Canis lupus) denisty predicted by elk (Cervus elaphus) biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a higher prey biomass density in the form of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) than any other system of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) and prey reported. Therefore, it is important to determine whether that wolf–prey system fits a long-standing model relating wolf density to prey biomass. Using data from 2005 to 2012 after elk population fluctuations dampened 10 years subsequent to wolf reintroduction, we found that NR prey biomass predicted wolf density. This finding and the trajectory of the regression extend the validity of the model to prey densities 19% higher than previous data and suggest that the model would apply to wolf–prey systems of even higher prey biomass.

  11. Relationship between paw preference strength and noise phobia in Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Branson, N J; Rogers, L J

    2006-08-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between degree of lateralization and noise phobia in 48 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) by scoring paw preference to hold a food object and relating it to reactivity to the sounds of thunderstorms and fireworks, measured by playback and a questionnaire. The dogs without a significant paw preference were significantly more reactive to the sounds than the dogs with either a left-paw or right-paw preference. Intense reactivity, therefore, is associated with a weaker strength of cerebral lateralization. The authors note the similarity between their finding and the weaker hand preferences shown in humans suffering extreme levels of anxiety and suggest neural mechanisms that may be involved.

  12. Following human pointing: Where do dogs (Canis familiaris) look at to find food?

    PubMed

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are notably skillful in following cues from people (e.g., pointing gestures). However, not much is known about the processing of information available during such tasks. We here focus on one of the earliest of such processes, namely attention. The goal of the present work was to describe variations in dogs' attention towards diverse targets while they solve an object choice task with human pointing. The direction of subjects' gaze was measured in the period comprising one second before and two seconds after the experimenter called the dog and simultaneously performed a static distal pointing gesture towards the correct bowl. We did two consecutive training phases: acquisition and extinction. Dogs spent more time watching the pointer than the pointing gesture itself and the correct than the incorrect bowl. Indeed, the time spent watching the correct bowl was the best predictor of correct choices across phases. We discuss the relevance of these findings for the process of local enhancement.

  13. Relationship between paw preference strength and noise phobia in Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Branson, N J; Rogers, L J

    2006-08-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between degree of lateralization and noise phobia in 48 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) by scoring paw preference to hold a food object and relating it to reactivity to the sounds of thunderstorms and fireworks, measured by playback and a questionnaire. The dogs without a significant paw preference were significantly more reactive to the sounds than the dogs with either a left-paw or right-paw preference. Intense reactivity, therefore, is associated with a weaker strength of cerebral lateralization. The authors note the similarity between their finding and the weaker hand preferences shown in humans suffering extreme levels of anxiety and suggest neural mechanisms that may be involved. PMID:16893254

  14. Intense extreme ultraviolet emission from the B star Epsilon Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John V.; Vedder, Peter W.; Welsh, Barry Y.

    1993-01-01

    We report the discovery of the brightest nonsolar source of EUV emission: the B2 II star Epsilon Canis Majoris. This source has been detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite's all-sky photometric survey. It is approximately 30 times brighter at 600 A than the predicted emission from the hot white dwarf star HZ 43, previously believed to be the brightest EUV source. We have fitted a simple B star photospheric model to the observed broadband EUV fluxes to explain this emission. Assuming a stellar temperature of 25,000 K and a gravity (log g) of 3.3, we derive an interstellar hydrogen column density of 1.05 +/- 0.05 x 10 exp 18/sq cm over the 187 pc to the star. This corresponds to a line-of-sight number density of hydrogen, of 0.002/cu cm, which is comparable to values found in the rarefied Local Bubble region which surrounds the sun.

  15. [Population, distribution and food composition of wolves (Canis lupus) at Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu-Yi; Zhang, Li-Jia; Wang, An-Meng; Bater; Nasendelger; Yuan, Li; Bao, Wei-Dong

    2011-04-01

    To provide initial value for population restoration and management of wolves (Canis lupus) in the wild, line transect survey and fecal analysis method were used to study the population ecology of wolf at Saihanwula National Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia. The results revealed that the population number was at least seven within the reserve and population density was 4.18+/-2.88 individual per 100 km2. The wolf population was mainly distributed in Shengshan and Qinyunshan core areas; active sites appeared mostly along mountain ridges, roads and valleys at Shengshan and mountain ridges at Qinyunshan. Hare (Lepus capensis) and plants occurred frequently in the food composition of wolf scats. Food types varied between years but not seasons (Winter-Spring and Summer-Autumn).

  16. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organismsand biomagnifies within food-webs. Graywolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure inwolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 graywolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S).Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

  17. Serologic survey for cross-species pathogens in urban coyotes (Canis latrans), Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Malmlov, Ashley; Breck, Stewart; Fry, Tricia; Duncan, Colleen

    2014-10-01

    Abstract As coyotes (Canis latrans) adapt to living in urban environments, the opportunity for cross-species transmission of pathogens may increase. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to pathogens that are either zoonotic or affect multiple animal species in urban coyotes in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado, USA, in 2012. We assayed for antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, canine distemper virus, rabies virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Yersinia pestis, and serotypes of Leptospira interrogans. Overall, 84% of the animals had antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, 44% for canine distemper virus, 20% for T. gondii (IgG), 28% for Y. pestis, and 4% for L. interrogans serotype Grippotyphosa. No neutralizing antibodies were detected to rabies virus, T. gondii (IgM), or L. interrogans serotypes other than Grippotyphosa. With 88% of animals exposed to at least one pathogen, our results suggest that coyotes may serve as important reservoirs and sentinels for etiologic agents.

  18. Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Poessel, Sharon A; Breck, Stewart W; Fox, Karen A; Gese, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used in urban areas to control rodent pests and are responsible for secondary poisoning in many nontarget wildlife species. We tested the livers of five coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, US, for anticoagulant rodenticides. All five livers were positive for brodifacoum, with values ranging from 95 ppb to 320 ppb, and one liver was positive for bromadiolone, with a value of 885 ppb. Both of these rodenticides are second-generation anticoagulants, which are more potent and more likely to cause secondary poisoning than first-generation anticoagulants due to their accumulation and persistence in the liver. We concluded that exposure to these rodenticides may have caused the death of at least two of the five coyotes, and urban coyotes in our study area are commonly exposed to rodenticides.

  19. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  20. Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Boyd, D K; Pletscher, D H

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious canine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. Pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. In these three packs, adult pack members had CPV titers > or = 1,600 or CD titers > or = 1,250. In packs that successfully raised pups, CPV and CD titers were low. We propose that CPV or CD may have caused some pup mortalities. PMID:8028116

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.

    PubMed

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

    2013-10-18

    Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

  2. [Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region. PMID:21874583

  3. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Sugiyama, Kazue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) by using scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex exhibited a crown-like shape with several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was U-shaped. The filiform papillae on the lingual body had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of one large and several small conical papillae. The fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body had a smooth surface. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae was not hollow and did not have processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad with many processes on the surface. The connective tissue core of the vallate papillae had many ditches. Thus, the tongue of the black-backed jackal more closely resembles that of the bush dog than those of the raccoon dog or fox. PMID:25274405

  4. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Some 30 y after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, wintering deer still have not recolonized the area. From 1976 to 2004, we aerially radio-tracked wolves there during 250 h and recorded 2 deer (in 1985 and 2000) killed or eaten by wolves during February and March. We observed no other deer or deer sign, but regularly observed deer, deer sign and wolf-killed deer in adjacent wolf-pack territories. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

  5. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans Isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Sérgio; Monte, Leonardo G; De Oliveira, Natasha R; Collares, Thais F; Roloff, Bárbara C; Gomes, Charles K; Hartwig, Daiane D; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2015-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes from the genus Leptospira, which includes 20 species and more than 300 serovars. Canines are important hosts of pathogenic leptospires and can transmit the pathogen to humans via infected urine. Here, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil. The isolated strain was characterized by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis as L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. In addition, the isolate was recognized by antibodies from human and canine serum samples previously tested by microscopic agglutination test. Ultimately, the expression of membrane-associated antigens (LipL32 and leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins) from pathogenic leptospires using monoclonal antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In conclusion, identification of new strains of Leptospira can help in the diagnosis and control of leptospirosis. PMID:26100241

  6. Diphyllobothrium sp. in Canis familiaris from the subtropical area of Argentina (Puerto Iguazú, Misiones).

    PubMed

    Rivero, María R; Motta, Carlos E; Salas, Martín M; Chiaretta, Alicia; Salomón, Oscar D

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first finding of Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs in Canis familiaris (domestic dog) from Puerto Iguazú, a subtropical city of Misiones province, Argentina. In 2013, two positive cases of Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs were detected during an annual parasitological survey of dogs. Dog feces were collected in vials containing 10% formalin and processed using Telemann's sedimentation and Sheather's flotation techniques. The two cases were detected in rural areas of the municipality. Since Misiones is not a part of the endemic area of diphyllobothriasis and given the fact that it is located in the three-border area of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, we consider this finding of great importance to public health. We stress the need for updating the current knowledge about the life cycle of these parasites considering the range of intermediate and definitive hosts, their zoonotic potential, and the epidemiological situation in non-endemic areas. PMID:26210607

  7. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

  8. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Sugiyama, Kazue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) by using scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex exhibited a crown-like shape with several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was U-shaped. The filiform papillae on the lingual body had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of one large and several small conical papillae. The fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body had a smooth surface. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae was not hollow and did not have processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad with many processes on the surface. The connective tissue core of the vallate papillae had many ditches. Thus, the tongue of the black-backed jackal more closely resembles that of the bush dog than those of the raccoon dog or fox.

  9. [Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region.

  10. Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.

    PubMed

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

    2013-10-18

    Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union.

  11. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  12. Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Poessel, Sharon A; Breck, Stewart W; Fox, Karen A; Gese, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used in urban areas to control rodent pests and are responsible for secondary poisoning in many nontarget wildlife species. We tested the livers of five coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, US, for anticoagulant rodenticides. All five livers were positive for brodifacoum, with values ranging from 95 ppb to 320 ppb, and one liver was positive for bromadiolone, with a value of 885 ppb. Both of these rodenticides are second-generation anticoagulants, which are more potent and more likely to cause secondary poisoning than first-generation anticoagulants due to their accumulation and persistence in the liver. We concluded that exposure to these rodenticides may have caused the death of at least two of the five coyotes, and urban coyotes in our study area are commonly exposed to rodenticides. PMID:25380355

  13. Serologic survey for cross-species pathogens in urban coyotes (Canis latrans), Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Malmlov, Ashley; Breck, Stewart; Fry, Tricia; Duncan, Colleen

    2014-10-01

    Abstract As coyotes (Canis latrans) adapt to living in urban environments, the opportunity for cross-species transmission of pathogens may increase. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to pathogens that are either zoonotic or affect multiple animal species in urban coyotes in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado, USA, in 2012. We assayed for antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, canine distemper virus, rabies virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Yersinia pestis, and serotypes of Leptospira interrogans. Overall, 84% of the animals had antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, 44% for canine distemper virus, 20% for T. gondii (IgG), 28% for Y. pestis, and 4% for L. interrogans serotype Grippotyphosa. No neutralizing antibodies were detected to rabies virus, T. gondii (IgM), or L. interrogans serotypes other than Grippotyphosa. With 88% of animals exposed to at least one pathogen, our results suggest that coyotes may serve as important reservoirs and sentinels for etiologic agents. PMID:25121408

  14. Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry

    PubMed Central

    Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear. Methodology/ Principal Findings We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites) in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves. PMID:18841199

  15. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).

  16. De novo RNA-Seq and functional annotation of Sarcoptes scabiei canis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Yang, YuanJun; Niu, DongLing; Wang, RuiLing; Cheng, Juan; Yang, Fan

    2016-07-01

    The transcriptomic data of Sarcoptes is still lacking in the public database due to the difficulty in extracting high-quality RNA from tiny mites with thick chitin. In this study, total RNA was extracted from live Sarcoptes mites for quality assessment, RNA-Seq, functional annotation, and coding region (CD) prediction and verification. The results showed that the sample JMQ-lngm was qualified for cDNA library construction. Firstly, Agilent 2100 detection showed that the RNA baseline was smooth and the 18S peak was single. Second, the Illumina platform generated 65.78M clean reads and 20,826 unigenes with 35.43M were assembled, occupying 62.98 % of the 56.26M genome. In total, 15,034 unigenes were annotated in seven functional databases. Finally, 13,122 CDs were detected in the 20,826 unigenes, of which 70 complete CDs were matched with Sarcoptes manually in non-redundant nucleotide (NT). Three CDs with indels ≥10 bp were verified. Those results indicated that peritrophin sequences of JMQ-lngm missed 35 bp during the assembly; the pressure-sensitive sodium channel sequences of all the six Sarcoptes scabiei canis isolates were confirmed to be 90 bp shorter than that of a Sarcoptes scabiei hominis isolate; three introns remained in PH chlorine ion channel gating sequences of JMQ-lngm. Moreover, the allergen gene prediction for JMQ-lngm indicated that 61 unigenes were matched with 19 allergen genes of Dermatophagoides, of which Der 1, Der 3, Der 8, and Der 10 had been confirmed in NT. In conclusion, this study successfully completed the RNA-Seq and functional annotation of S. s. canis for the first time, which provides molecular data for future studies on the identification and pathogenic genes of Sarcoptidae. PMID:26997341

  17. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species. PMID:24291157

  18. EFFICACY OF NITAZOXANIDE AGAINST Toxocara canis: LARVAL RECOVERY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos; Assis, Jesiel Maurício Lemos; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) against toxocariasis was investigated in an experimental murine model and results were compared to those obtained using mebendazole. Sixty male BALB/c mice, aged six to eight weeks-old, were divided into groups of 10 each; fifty were orally infected with 300 larvaed eggs of T. canis and grouped as follows, G I: infected untreated mice; G II: infected mice treated with MBZ (15 mg/kg/day) 10 days postinfection (dpi); G III: infected mice treated with NTZ (20 mg/kg/day) 10 dpi; G IV: infected mice treated with MBZ 60 dpi; G V: infected mice treated with NTZ 60 dpi; GVI: control group comprising uninfected mice. Mice were bled via retro-orbital plexus on four occasions between 30 and 120 dpi. Sera were processed using the ELISA technique to detect IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies. At 120 dpi, mice were sacrificed for larval recovery in the CNS, liver, lungs, kidneys, eyes and carcass. Results showed similar levels of anti- Toxocara IgG antibodies among mice infected but not submitted to treatment and groups treated with MBZ or NTZ, 10 and 60 dpi. Larval recovery showed similar values in groups treated with NTZ and MBZ 10 dpi. MBZ showed better efficacy 60 dpi, with a 72.6% reduction in the parasite load compared with NTZ, which showed only 46.5% reduction. We conclude that administration of these anthelmintics did not modify the humoral response in experimental infection by T. canis. No parasitological cure was observed with either drug; however, a greater reduction in parasite load was achieved following treatment with MBZ. PMID:26422159

  19. Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

    2014-05-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues.

  20. Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

  1. Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

    2014-05-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues. PMID:24318516

  2. Canine babesiosis in Romania due to Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli: a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Buzatu, Catalin Marius; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2012-05-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide. In Romania, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in the last few years, with a wide variety of clinical signs, ranging from mild, nonspecific illness to peracute collapse, and even death. Traditionally, a Babesia infection in dogs is diagnosed based on the morphologic appearance of the intraerythrocytic piroplasms observed in peripheral blood smears. To date, no data on genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs has been documented for Romania. Therefore, a molecular survey on natural Babesia infections of dogs in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssRNA gene was performed. A total number of 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of Babesia DNA. Blood samples were collected from 11 dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and microscopically proven positive for Babesia and from a group of five asymptomatic dogs, not tested microscopically for Babesia, which were included in the study for comparative analysis. The piroplasm-specific PCR amplifying the partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed Babesia spp. infection in all 11 samples from dogs with clinical babesiosis, and in one of the clinically normal dogs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis in all clinically affected dogs and Babesia vogeli in one clinically normal dog. This is the first molecular evidence of B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Romania. The results of the study provide basic information toward a better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Romania and will help to promote an effective control program.

  3. Sequence variability of Rhizobiales orthologs and relationship with physico-chemical characteristics of proteins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromosomal orthologs can reveal the shared ancestral gene set and their evolutionary trends. Additionally, physico-chemical properties of encoded proteins could provide information about functional adaptation and ecological niche requirements. Results We analyzed 7080 genes (five groups of 1416 orthologs each) from Rhizobiales species (S. meliloti, R. etli, and M. loti, plant symbionts; A. tumefaciens, a plant pathogen; and B. melitensis, an animal pathogen). We evaluated their phylogenetic relationships and observed three main topologies. The first, with closer association of R. etli to A. tumefaciens; the second with R. etli closer to S. meliloti; and the third with A. tumefaciens and S. meliloti as the closest pair. This was not unusual, given the close relatedness of these three species. We calculated the synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) substitution rates of these orthologs, and found that informational and metabolic functions showed relatively low dN rates; in contrast, genes from hypothetical functions and cellular processes showed high dN rates. An alternative measure of sequence variability, percentage of changes by species, was used to evaluate the most specific proportion of amino acid residues from alignments. When dN was compared with that measure a high correlation was obtained, revealing that much of evolutive information was extracted with the percentage of changes by species at the amino acid level. By analyzing the sequence variability of orthologs with a set of five properties (polarity, electrostatic charge, formation of secondary structures, molecular volume, and amino acid composition), we found that physico-chemical characteristics of proteins correlated with specific functional roles, and association of species did not follow their typical phylogeny, probably reflecting more adaptation to their life styles and niche preferences. In addition, orthologs with low dN rates had residues with more positive values of polarity

  4. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    PubMed Central

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p<0.000), followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40%) (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003), domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33%) (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025) and military dogs (2.5%). Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%), T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p<0.000), gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p<0.014), housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75), p<0.000) with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067) and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to 7

  5. Uneven seasonal distribution of Babesia canis and its two 18S rDNA genotypes in questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in urban habitats.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Kartali, Kitti; Takács, Nóra; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported from cities in Central Europe that clinical cases of canine babesiosis are most frequent in spring time, despite the fact that the peak activity of Dermacentor reticulatus (the vector of Babesia canis) is during autumn. The present study was initiated to evaluate the seasonal distribution of B. canis-infected D. reticulatus ticks in this context. In two habitats of Budapest 852 D. reticulatus adults were collected between August, 2014 and June, 2015. Among the molecularly analysed 413 ticks 8.2% were PCR positive for piroplasms. Both formerly reported 18S rDNA genotypes of B. canis: ("A" and "B") were identified. In habitat-1 B. canis-infected ticks were detected only in spring. Similarly, in habitat-2 B. canis-infected ticks occurred significantly more frequently during winter and spring than in the autumn (24.6% vs. 1.4%), and their monthly distribution showed significant negative correlation with tick size. The prevalence of infected ticks was the highest (43.5%) in late February. In addition, a month-dependent time-shift was noted in the appearance of the two B. canis 18S rDNA genotypes: the less pathogenic "A" predominating earlier, and the more pathogenic "B" later. It is known from literature that D. reticulatus individuals that moult to adult in the spring are smaller in size. Thus, the above results suggest that in urban habitats the occurrence of B. canis-infected ticks (or their questing activity) is more likely, when there are freshly emerged adults in the population, i.e. early in the questing season. It was also observed that the temporal distribution of D. reticulatus ticks carrying different B. canis genotypes was not random. PMID:27009915

  6. Comparison of the effect of the chosen species of saprotrophic fungi on the development of Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Jaborowska-Jarmoluk, Magdalena; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to compare the antagonistic interaction between saprotrophic soil fungi and embryonic development of geohelminths Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum. The experimental cultures were fertilized eggs of T.canis and A. suum incubated together with mycelium of strains: Fusarium culmorum, Metarhizium anisopliae,Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Trichoderma viride and Trichothecium roseum. In the control cultures the eggs of both nematode species were incubated without fungi. The experiment was conducted at temp. 26°C for 60 days. Compared with the control, all of the tested species of fungi significantly extended the embryonic development of both T. canis and A. suum. Most inhibitory effect on the rate of embryonic development of T. canis and A. suum had three fungal species: P. fumosoreus, M. anisopliae and T. viride. Compared with the control, on the 60th day of incubation in the presence of each of the tested fungal species, a larger percentage (p<0.05) of morphological abnormalities was stated in developing embryos of T. canis (49–69%) than in A. suum (15.1–67.7%). Among the examined fungal species, only incubation with P. fumosoroseus resulted in significantly greater (p<0.05) incidence of embryonic malformations(embryopathies) in T. canis, as compared with A. suum. Also the percentage of dead larvae of T. canis in the control and in cultures with fungi (12% and 100%, respectively) was significantly higher in comparison with A. suum (0.5% and 10.3–36%, respectively). The highest percentage of non-viable larvae of A. suum was found in the presence of P.fumosoroseus, and the lowest in the presence of M. anisopliae. Findings may indicate that T. canis eggs are more sensitive to antagonistic interaction of the examined fungal strains than A. suum eggs. PMID:25281819

  7. Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in two subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wolves (Canis lupus), and husky dogs (Canis familiaris) as potential definitive hosts.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A; Evans, L

    2006-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of Sarcocystis spp. infecting 2 subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting Newfoundland and Labrador and its potential definitive hosts. Muscle samples of caribou were obtained, primarily from hunters, and feces of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus), from trappers, and Husky dogs (Canis familiaris), from owners. Histological sections of muscle and flotation methods for feces were used for parasitic detection. Sarcocystis sp. infected more than 50% of barren-ground caribou (R. t. tarandus) from 4 locations in Newfoundland, but it was significantly greater in the north, where 99% of woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) from Labrador harbored the infection. Sporocysts were observed in 27 of 32 red foxes from eastern and northern Newfoundland, whereas 15 of 15 wolves and 22 of the 38 Husky dogs were infected. Wolves and red foxes probably acquired the infection through scavenging, and Husky dogs, from meat they were fed.

  8. orthoFind Facilitates the Discovery of Homologous and Orthologous Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mier, Pablo; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    Finding homologous and orthologous protein sequences is often the first step in evolutionary studies, annotation projects, and experiments of functional complementation. Despite all currently available computational tools, there is a requirement for easy-to-use tools that provide functional information. Here, a new web application called orthoFind is presented, which allows a quick search for homologous and orthologous proteins given one or more query sequences, allowing a recurrent and exhaustive search against reference proteomes, and being able to include user databases. It addresses the protein multidomain problem, searching for homologs with the same domain architecture, and gives a simple functional analysis of the results to help in the annotation process. orthoFind is easy to use and has been proven to provide accurate results with different datasets. Availability: http://www.bioinfocabd.upo.es/orthofind/. PMID:26624019

  9. Identifying significant associations of orthologous simple sequence repeats with gene ontologies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Pai, Tun-Wen; Chuang, Chia-Sheng; Huang, Jhen-Li; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), also known as microsatellites, regulate gene functions. SSR mutations in a disease gene may cause various genetic disorders. To identify putative functional SSRs, a web-based system, Gene Ontology SSR Hierarchy (GOSH), was developed to facilitate discovery of significant associations between SSRs and Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Using the GO hierarchy term structure, GOSH assists users with selecting functional or biological gene subsets. Significant SSR patterns are retrieved and identified via comprehensive overrepresentation analysis within a target gene subset and by comparing results with orthologous genes. Pattern relationships between different biological subsets or supersets can be observed by using the GO hierarchy structure directly. GOSH also supports GO searching through identified significant SSR patterns and all GO terms possessing such patterns are listed for consultation. GOSH is the first comprehensive and efficient online mining tool for discovering significant orthologous SSR patterns in GO terms and is available at http://gosh.cs.ntou.edu.tw/.

  10. A collection of amino acid replacement matrices derived from clusters of orthologs.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rolf; Loomis, William F

    2005-11-01

    Sequence divergence among orthologous proteins was characterized with 34 amino acid replacement matrices, sequence context analysis, and a phylogenetic tree. The model was trained on very large datasets of aligned protein sequences drawn from 15 organisms including protists, plants, Dictyostelium, fungi, and animals. Comparative tests with models currently used in phylogeny, i.e., with JTT+gamma+/-F and WAG+gamma+/-F, made on a test dataset of 380 multiple alignments containing protein sequences from all five of the major taxonomic groups mentioned, indicate that our model should be preferred over the JTT+gamma+/-F and WAG+gamma+/-F models on datasets similar to the test dataset. The strong performance of our model of orthologous protein sequence divergence can be attributed to its ability to better approximate amino acid equilibrium frequencies to compositions found in alignment columns.

  11. PhyME: a software tool for finding motifs in sets of orthologous sequences.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Saurabh

    2007-01-01

    Discovery of transcription factor binding sites is a crucial and challenging problem in bioinformatics. Several computational tools have been developed for this problem, popularly known as the motif-finding problem. PhyME is an ab initio motif-finding algorithm, which finds overrepresented motifs in input sequences while accounting for their evolutionary conservation in orthologs of those sequences. Here, we describe the usage of this algorithm, publicly available as a Linux-based implementation. PMID:17993682

  12. Analysis of orthologous retrovirus-like elements in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Sawby, R; Wichman, H A

    1997-01-01

    Three loci in the genome of the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, were examined for the presence or absence of orthologous copies of the retrovirus-like element mys using polymerase chain reaction. We examined these loci in 28 mice collected throughout the P. leucopus species range. Mys insertions were present in only one of the individuals examined at the mys-1 and mys-7 loci. Conversely, the mys-6 element was found in several individuals, but the presence of this element was limited to northern latitudes. Because the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a given element are expected to be identical at the time of retrotransposition into the genome, and to accumulate changes over evolutionary time, within-element LTR sequence comparisons can be used to estimate the relative age of insertions. Within-element LTR differences are greater in mys-6 than in mys-1 or mys-7. The LTRs from orthologous mys-6 elements of six mice were sequenced. The alignment revealed 13 of the 22 differences between the right and left LTRs that were shared by all orthologous mys-6 sites, suggesting that relative to its time of insertion into the genome, mys-6 has only recently spread across the northern part of the species range.

  13. Differential transcriptional regulation of orthologous dps genes from two closely related heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Stensjö, Karin

    2015-03-01

    In cyanobacteria, DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps) play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative and nutritional stresses. In this study, we have characterized the cell-type specificity and the promoter regions of two orthologous dps genes, Npun_R5799 in Nostoc punctiforme and alr3808 in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. A transcriptional start site (TSS), identical in location to the previously identified proximal TSS of alr3808, was identified for Npun_R5799 under both combined nitrogen supplemented and N2-fixing growth conditions. However, only alr3808 was also transcribed from a second distal TSS. Sequence homologies suggest that the promoter region containing the distal TSS is not conserved upstream of orthologous genes among heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. The analysis of promoter GFP-reporter strains showed a different role in governing cell-type specificity between the proximal and distal promoter of alr3808. We here confirmed the heterocyst specificity of the distal promoter of alr3808 and described a very early induction of its expression during proheterocyst differentiation. In contrast, the complete promoters of both genes were active in all cells. Even though Npun_R5799 and alr3808 are orthologs, the regulation of their respective expression differs, indicating distinctions in the function of these cyanobacterial Dps proteins depending on the strain and cell type.

  14. Exploring Peptide Ligase Orthologs in Actinobacteria-Discovery of Pseudopeptide Natural Products, Ketomemicins.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kawata, Junpei; Noike, Motoyoshi; Satoh, Yasuharu; Furihata, Kazuo; Dairi, Tohru

    2016-06-17

    We recently identified a novel peptide ligase (PGM1), an ATP-grasp-ligase, that catalyzes amide bond formation between (S)-2-(3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-guanidinoacetic acid and ribosomally supplied oligopeptides in pheganomycin biosynthesis. This was the first example of an ATP-grasp-ligase utilizing peptides as nucleophiles. To explore the potential of this type of enzyme, we performed a BLAST search and identified many orthologs. The orthologs of Streptomyces mobaraensis, Salinispora tropica, and Micromonospora sp. were found in similar gene clusters consisting of six genes. To probe the functions of these genes, we heterologously expressed each of the clusters in Streptomyces lividans and detected novel and structurally similar pseudotripeptides in the broth of all transformants. Moreover, a recombinant PGM1 ortholog of Micromonospora sp. was demonstrated to be a novel dipeptide ligase catalyzing amide bond formation between amidino-arginine and dipeptides to yield tripeptides; this is the first report of a peptide ligase utilizing dipeptides as nucleophiles.

  15. Rock, paper, scissors: harnessing complementarity in ortholog detection methods improves comparative genomic inference.

    PubMed

    Maher, M Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D

    2015-04-01

    Ortholog detection (OD) is a lynchpin of most statistical methods in comparative genomics. This task involves accurately identifying genes across species that descend from a common ancestral sequence. OD methods comprise a wide variety of approaches, each with their own benefits and costs under a variety of evolutionary and practical scenarios. In this article, we examine the proteomes of ten mammals by using four methodologically distinct, rigorously filtered OD methods. In head-to-head comparisons, we find that these algorithms significantly outperform one another for 38-45% of the genes analyzed. We leverage this high complementarity through the development MOSAIC, or Multiple Orthologous Sequence Analysis and Integration by Cluster optimization, the first tool for integrating methodologically diverse OD methods. Relative to the four methods examined, MOSAIC more than quintuples the number of alignments for which all species are present while simultaneously maintaining or improving functional-, phylogenetic-, and sequence identity-based measures of ortholog quality. Further, this improvement in alignment quality yields more confidently aligned sites and higher levels of overall conservation, while simultaneously detecting of up to 180% more positively selected sites. We close by highlighting a MOSAIC-specific positively selected sites near the active site of TPSAB1, an enzyme linked to asthma, heart disease, and irritable bowel disease. MOSAIC alignments, source code, and full documentation are available at http://pythonhosted.org/bio-MOSAIC.

  16. Pleurochrysome: A Web Database of Pleurochrysis Transcripts and Orthologs Among Heterogeneous Algae

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Shoko; Takatsuka, Yukiko; Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Takano, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Suda, Kunihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Yokoyama, Koji; Shibata, Daisuke; Tabata, Satoshi; Yano, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Pleurochrysis is a coccolithophorid genus, which belongs to the Coccolithales in the Haptophyta. The genus has been used extensively for biological research, together with Emiliania in the Isochrysidales, to understand distinctive features between the two coccolithophorid-including orders. However, molecular biological research on Pleurochrysis such as elucidation of the molecular mechanism behind coccolith formation has not made great progress at least in part because of lack of comprehensive gene information. To provide such information to the research community, we built an open web database, the Pleurochrysome (http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/phapt/), which currently stores 9,023 unique gene sequences (designated as UNIGENEs) assembled from expressed sequence tag sequences of P. haptonemofera as core information. The UNIGENEs were annotated with gene sequences sharing significant homology, conserved domains, Gene Ontology, KEGG Orthology, predicted subcellular localization, open reading frames and orthologous relationship with genes of 10 other algal species, a cyanobacterium and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This sequence and annotation information can be easily accessed via several search functions. Besides fundamental functions such as BLAST and keyword searches, this database also offers search functions to explore orthologous genes in the 12 organisms and to seek novel genes. The Pleurochrysome will promote molecular biological and phylogenetic research on coccolithophorids and other haptophytes by helping scientists mine data from the primary transcriptome of P. haptonemofera. PMID:26746174

  17. wALADin Benzimidazoles Differentially Modulate the Function of Porphobilinogen Synthase Orthologs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is a potential drug target in several human pathogens. wALADin1 benzimidazoles have emerged as species-selective PBGS inhibitors against Wolbachia endobacteria of filarial worms. In the present study, we have systematically tested wALADins against PBGS orthologs from bacteria, protozoa, metazoa, and plants to elucidate the inhibitory spectrum. However, the effect of wALADin1 on different PBGS orthologs was not limited to inhibition: several orthologs were stimulated by wALADin1; others remained unaffected. We demonstrate that wALADins allosterically modulate the PBGS homooligomeric equilibrium with inhibition mediated by favoring low-activity oligomers, while 5-aminolevulinic acid, Mg2+, or K+ stabilized high-activity oligomers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBGS could be inhibited or stimulated by wALADin1 depending on these factors and pH. We have defined the wALADin chemotypes responsible for either inhibition or stimulation, facilitating the design of tailored PBGS modulators for potential application as antimicrobial agents, herbicides, or drugs for porphyric disorders. PMID:24568185

  18. Differential transcriptional regulation of orthologous dps genes from two closely related heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Stensjö, Karin

    2015-03-01

    In cyanobacteria, DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps) play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative and nutritional stresses. In this study, we have characterized the cell-type specificity and the promoter regions of two orthologous dps genes, Npun_R5799 in Nostoc punctiforme and alr3808 in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. A transcriptional start site (TSS), identical in location to the previously identified proximal TSS of alr3808, was identified for Npun_R5799 under both combined nitrogen supplemented and N2-fixing growth conditions. However, only alr3808 was also transcribed from a second distal TSS. Sequence homologies suggest that the promoter region containing the distal TSS is not conserved upstream of orthologous genes among heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. The analysis of promoter GFP-reporter strains showed a different role in governing cell-type specificity between the proximal and distal promoter of alr3808. We here confirmed the heterocyst specificity of the distal promoter of alr3808 and described a very early induction of its expression during proheterocyst differentiation. In contrast, the complete promoters of both genes were active in all cells. Even though Npun_R5799 and alr3808 are orthologs, the regulation of their respective expression differs, indicating distinctions in the function of these cyanobacterial Dps proteins depending on the strain and cell type. PMID:25663155

  19. Simultaneous prediction of enzyme orthologs from chemical transformation patterns for de novo metabolic pathway reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Yasuo; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Kotera, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Metabolic pathways are an important class of molecular networks consisting of compounds, enzymes and their interactions. The understanding of global metabolic pathways is extremely important for various applications in ecology and pharmacology. However, large parts of metabolic pathways remain unknown, and most organism-specific pathways contain many missing enzymes. Results: In this study we propose a novel method to predict the enzyme orthologs that catalyze the putative reactions to facilitate the de novo reconstruction of metabolic pathways from metabolome-scale compound sets. The algorithm detects the chemical transformation patterns of substrate–product pairs using chemical graph alignments, and constructs a set of enzyme-specific classifiers to simultaneously predict all the enzyme orthologs that could catalyze the putative reactions of the substrate–product pairs in the joint learning framework. The originality of the method lies in its ability to make predictions for thousands of enzyme orthologs simultaneously, as well as its extraction of enzyme-specific chemical transformation patterns of substrate–product pairs. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method by applying it to some ten thousands of metabolic compounds, and analyze the extracted chemical transformation patterns that provide insights into the characteristics and specificities of enzymes. The proposed method will open the door to both primary (central) and secondary metabolism in genomics research, increasing research productivity to tackle a wide variety of environmental and public health matters. Availability and Implementation: Contact: maskot@bio.titech.ac.jp PMID:27307627

  20. OrthoDB v8: update of the hierarchical catalog of orthologs and the underlying free software.

    PubMed

    Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Tegenfeldt, Fredrik; Petty, Tom J; Waterhouse, Robert M; Simão, Felipe A; Pozdnyakov, Igor A; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

    2015-01-01

    Orthology, refining the concept of homology, is the cornerstone of evolutionary comparative studies. With the ever-increasing availability of genomic data, inference of orthology has become instrumental for generating hypotheses about gene functions crucial to many studies. This update of the OrthoDB hierarchical catalog of orthologs (http://www.orthodb.org) covers 3027 complete genomes, including the most comprehensive set of 87 arthropods, 61 vertebrates, 227 fungi and 2627 bacteria (sampling the most complete and representative genomes from over 11,000 available). In addition to the most extensive integration of functional annotations from UniProt, InterPro, GO, OMIM, model organism phenotypes and COG functional categories, OrthoDB uniquely provides evolutionary annotations including rates of ortholog sequence divergence, copy-number profiles, sibling groups and gene architectures. We re-designed the entirety of the OrthoDB website from the underlying technology to the user interface, enabling the user to specify species of interest and to select the relevant orthology level by the NCBI taxonomy. The text searches allow use of complex logic with various identifiers of genes, proteins, domains, ontologies or annotation keywords and phrases. Gene copy-number profiles can also be queried. This release comes with the freely available underlying ortholog clustering pipeline (http://www.orthodb.org/software).

  1. An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Subelj, M; Marinko, J Svetičič; Učakar, V

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school.

  2. Agglutinins to Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp, with particular reference to Brucella canis, in wild animals of southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, A S; Kelly, V P; Baker, E F

    1977-11-01

    The prevalence of agglutinins to Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp, particularly Brucella canis, was determined in 269 wild animals (14 species) in southern Texas. Serologic evidence of coxiellosis and brucellosis, including B canis infection, was shown for coyotes, raccoons, opossums, badgers, jackrabbits, and feral hogs. Using the microagglutination test, the seroprevalence of C burnetii, phases I and II (titer greater than or equal to 4) was 4.1 and 27.9%, respectively. For brucella agglutinins, prevalence rates were 7.1, 8.9, and 6.7%, as determined by the brucellosis card test, the rapid slide agglutination test, and the salt 2-mercaptoethanol tube agglutination (titer greater than or equal to 50) test, respectively.

  3. [Synergy between ajoene and ketoconazole in isolates of Microsporum canis. A preliminary study using fractional inhibitory concentration technique (FIC)].

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Eliades; Maniscalchi, Maria Teresa; Espinoza, Druvic Lemus

    2008-09-30

    Fungal infections are probably the most frequent infectious diseases affecting human being. Resistance to different anti-fungal drugs, and their bioavailability in the infection site, represent a problem for treatment. Looking for effective solutions, combination of two or more antifungal drugs to obtain an additive effect or synergic effect that potent antifungal activity has been investigated. In this study, the effect (additive, antagonist or synergistic) of ajoene and ketoconazole combination was evaluated in the growth and proliferation of filamentous fungi. Interactions in vitro were investigated in three isolates of Microsporum canis through a preliminary study using micro dilution, according to recommendations of NCCLS M-38A, with several modifications. Results obtained for CIF of each isolates studied (CIF = 0.18 0.36 microM), demonstrate that exists a very potent synergistic effect, when they are combined, and it represents a hope for future clinic trials to treat resilient fungal infections caused by M. canis.

  4. The in vitro effect of prolactin on the growth, motility and expression of prolactin receptors in larvae of Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Güitrón, L E; Morales-Montor, J; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Nava-Castro, K E; Ramírez-Álvarez, H; Moreno-Méndoza, N A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2016-07-15

    The in vitro effect of prolactin (PRL) on the growth and motility of Toxocara canis larvae was assessed. Additionally, the expression and location of prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs) were determined in the larvae. Larvae of T. canis were incubated with different concentrations of PRL for different periods of time. The stimulated larvae accelerated their enlargement and increased their motility. The mean percentage of PRL-R+ cells in non-stimulated larvae, measured by flow cytometry was 7.3±0.3%. Compared with non-stimulated larvae, the mean fluorescence intensity (p<0.05) increased in larvae incubated with 40ng/mL of PRL for 10 days. A 465-bp length fragment was amplified from larvae gDNA by PCR. The sequence of this fragment showed 99% similarity with the gene fragment that codes for the PRL-R of the domestic dog. A high concentration of PRL-Rs was immune-located in the posterior region of the larval intestine; therefore, the intestinal cells in this region were most likely the targets for this hormone. Based on these results, PRL-Rs were identified in T. canis larvae, and the in vitro stimulation with PRL increased the number of these receptors, accelerated the growth and modified the activity of larvae. All of the above suggest that T. canis larvae are evolutionarily adapted to recognize the PRL of their definitive host and furthermore might explain the reactivation of tissue-arrested larvae during the gestation of bitches, which does not occur in gestating females of other species.

  5. Coyote, Canis latrans, use of commercial sunflower, Helianthus spp., Seeds as a food source in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Telesco, D.J.; Roy, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Food habits of Coyotes (Canis latrans) were determined by analysis of scats collected in western Kansas in 1996. Mammals were the most frequently occurring food of Coyotes (100% of scats), followed by plants (39%), insects (30%) and birds (9%). Commercial sunflower (Helianthus spp.) seeds were found in 9 of 23 scats. When present, they composed a high volume of individual scats (X= 31%). Substantial use of commercial sunflower seeds as a food source by Coyotes has not been previously documented.

  6. Urine-marking and ground-scratching by free-ranging Arctic Wolves, Canis lupus arctos, in summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Urine-marking and ground-scratching were observed in an Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus) pack on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, during 16 summers between 1986 and 2005. All previously known urination postures and ground-scratching by breeding males and females were seen, and incidence of marking and scratching was greatest when non-pack wolves were present. Observations of urine-marking of food remains supported the conclusion from a captive Wolf study that such marking signals lack of edible food.

  7. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  8. Detection of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia vogeli, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the Brain of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Cardinot, Cinthya B; Silva, José E S; Yamatogi, Ricardo S; Nunes, Cáris M; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Rafael F C; Junior, João P Araujo; Marcondes, Mary

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Leishmania infantum and possible co-infection with Anaplasma platys , Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis , and Toxoplasma gondii in the brain of 24 dogs naturally infected by L. infantum . A total of 24 mongrel adult dogs (22 clinically affected, 2 with neurological signs, and 2 subclinically infected) aged between 2 and 5 yr, naturally infected by visceral leishmaniasis, were selected. Fragments from meninges, frontal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles and fourth ventricle were collected, mixed, and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in 95.8% (23/24) of the infected dogs, including the subclinically infected. A total of 14/24 (58.3%) dogs were co-infected by E. canis and L. infantum , 4/24 (16.7%) were co-infected by E. canis , B. vogeli, and L. infantum , 2/24 (8.3%) were co-infected by B. vogeli and L. infantum , and 1/24 (4.2%) dog was co-infected by E. canis , B. vogeli, T. gondii , and L. infantum . All 24 brain samples tested negative for A. platys . These results demonstrate that L. infantum is able to penetrate into the brain parenchyma, either alone or in association to other zoonotic pathogens. In addition, qPCR could be considered for adequate evaluation of Leishmania in the brain tissue of dogs with neurological signs that have died. PMID:26765523

  9. The in vitro effect of prolactin on the growth, motility and expression of prolactin receptors in larvae of Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Güitrón, L E; Morales-Montor, J; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Nava-Castro, K E; Ramírez-Álvarez, H; Moreno-Méndoza, N A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2016-07-15

    The in vitro effect of prolactin (PRL) on the growth and motility of Toxocara canis larvae was assessed. Additionally, the expression and location of prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs) were determined in the larvae. Larvae of T. canis were incubated with different concentrations of PRL for different periods of time. The stimulated larvae accelerated their enlargement and increased their motility. The mean percentage of PRL-R+ cells in non-stimulated larvae, measured by flow cytometry was 7.3±0.3%. Compared with non-stimulated larvae, the mean fluorescence intensity (p<0.05) increased in larvae incubated with 40ng/mL of PRL for 10 days. A 465-bp length fragment was amplified from larvae gDNA by PCR. The sequence of this fragment showed 99% similarity with the gene fragment that codes for the PRL-R of the domestic dog. A high concentration of PRL-Rs was immune-located in the posterior region of the larval intestine; therefore, the intestinal cells in this region were most likely the targets for this hormone. Based on these results, PRL-Rs were identified in T. canis larvae, and the in vitro stimulation with PRL increased the number of these receptors, accelerated the growth and modified the activity of larvae. All of the above suggest that T. canis larvae are evolutionarily adapted to recognize the PRL of their definitive host and furthermore might explain the reactivation of tissue-arrested larvae during the gestation of bitches, which does not occur in gestating females of other species. PMID:27270387

  10. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 μL) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  11. Serum cortisol concentrations in captive tamed and untamed black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and translocated dogs.

    PubMed

    Van Heerden, J; Bertschinger, H J

    1982-12-01

    Serum cortisol levels were found to be higher in a group of captive untamed black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) than in a group of tame black-backed jackals. Repeated venipuncture of domestic dogs in an accustomed environment did not result in a rise in serum cortisol levels. Translocation of these dogs to a new environment resulted in a rapid but transient rise in serum cortisol levels.

  12. Host surveys, ixodid tick biology and transmission scenarios as related to the tick-borne pathogen, Ehrlichia canis

    PubMed Central

    Stich, R. W.; Schaefer, John J.; Bremer, William G.; Needham, Glen R.; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2008-01-01

    The ehrlichioses have been subject to increasing interest from veterinary and public health perspectives, but experimental studies of these diseases and their etiologic agents can be challenging. Ehrlichia canis, the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, is relatively well characterized and offers unique advantages and opportunities to study interactions between a monocytotropic pathogen and both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Historically, advances in tick-borne disease control strategies have typically followed explication of tick-pathogen-vertebrate interactions, thus it is reasonable to expect novel, more sustainable approaches to control of these diseases as the transmission of their associated infections are investigated at the molecular through ecological levels. Better understanding of the interactions between E. canis and its canine and tick hosts would also elucidate similar interactions for other Ehrlichia species as well as the potential roles of canine sentinels, reservoirs and models of tick-borne zoonoses. This article summarizes natural exposure studies and experimental investigations of E. canis in the context of what is understood about biological vectors of tick-borne Anaplasmataceae. PMID:18963493

  13. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of some essential oils against feline isolates of Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, L; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Leonardi, M; Pisseri, F; Mancianti, F

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of dermatophytoses due to Microsporum canis is cumbersome and relapses can occur. Volatile essential oils (EOs) obtained from plants would seem to represent suitable tools to contrast mycoses both in human and animals. The anti-M. canis activity of some EOs chemically characterized was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Eleven feline isolates of M. canis were tested by microdilution against EOs extracted from Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Illicium verum and Citrus limon. A mixture composed by 5% O. vulgare, 5% R. officinalis and 2% T. serpillum, in sweet almond oil was administered to seven infected, symptomatic cats. T. serpillum and O. vulgare showed the lowest MICs, followed by I. verum, R. officinalis and C. limon. The assay performed on mixture showed that antimycotic activity of each component was enhanced. Four out of seven treated cats recovered both clinically and culturally. T. serpillum and O. vulgare EOs showed a strong antifungal activity. Preliminary data suggest a possible application in managing feline microsporiasis. Considering the potential zoonotic impact of this infection, the use of alternative antimycotic compounds would be of aid to limit the risk of environmental spreading of arthrospores. PMID:23518021

  14. Development of an in vitro, isolated, infected spore testing model for disinfectant testing of Microsporum canis isolates.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A; Deboer, Douglas J; Volk, Lynn M; Sparkes, Andrew; Robinson, Ann

    2004-06-01

    The isolated infected hair model is a commonly used technique to test the fungicidal efficacy of topical therapies against Microsporum canis. The most commonly used model uses mats of infective hairs, and results from various laboratories have differed. The objectives of this study were to develop a method to produce spores for testing when only mycelial forms were available and to develop a semiquantitative testing method that used only infective spores from hairs, and not pooled hair samples for testing. Ten isolates of M. canis were used in this study. Juvenile guinea pigs were easily infected using mycelial forms of M. canis and large numbers of spores were easily harvested for testing. Eight dilutions of disinfectants were tested. Fungal culture data were evaluated using an endpoint dilution at which there was 100% fungicidal activity, i.e. no growth on the plates. The 10 samples showed identical results. Chlorhexidine and Virkon(R) S were ineffective even when used at x4 the manufacturer's recommended dilution. Lime sulphur (1 : 33), enilconazole (20 microL mL(-1)), and bleach (1 : 10) were consistently effective when used at the recommended dilution. In addition, lime sulphur and enilconazole were 100% fungicidal even when the recommended concentration was diluted 1 : 4 or x4 as dilute as recommended.

  15. Antibodies to selected canine pathogens and infestation with intestinal helminths in golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shamir, M; Yakobson, B; Baneth, G; King, R; Dar-Verker, S; Markovics, A; Aroch, I

    2001-07-01

    Blood and fecal samples, collected from 46 healthy adult free-ranging golden jackals captured in two different locations in Israel, were examined. A serological Study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of circulating antibodies reacting with four common canine pathogens: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum. Faecal flotation and haematological tests were also performed. The seroprevalence of CPV, E. canis, CDV, and L. infantum were 72.3% (34/47), 54.3% (25/46), 52.2% (24/46), and 6.5% (3/46) respectively. Faecal flotation tests revealed a high prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum (13/17, 76%) and a low prevalence of Dipilidium caninum infestation. Examination of blood smears revealed Hepatazoon canis gamonts in one jackal. Golden jackals are among the most common free-ranging carnivores in Israel and neighboring countries. Their habitats are in proximity to densely populated areas and they bear close phylogenic relation to the domestic dog. These facts, combined with the high prevalence of the jackals' exposure to the major canine pathogens demonstrated in this study, suggest that they may serve as a reservoir for the transmission of certain diseases to domestic dogs. PMID:11409931

  16. Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanoff, Dmitry V.; Wolsan, Mieczysław; Marciszak, Adrian

    2014-08-01

    The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in Węże 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from Węże 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in Węże 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals.

  17. Toxocara canis: potential activity of natural products against second-stage larvae in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Reis, Mariana; Trinca, Alcione; Ferreira, Maria José U; Monsalve-Puello, Ana R; Grácio, Maria Amélia A

    2010-10-01

    The anthelmintic activity of extracts from Chenopodiumambrosioides, Pycnanthusangolensis and Nutridesintox was in vitro and in vivo investigated, against Toxocaracanis larvae. The in vitro assays results showed that the aqueous extract of Nutridesintox was the most effective, followed by C. ambrosioides extracts, hexane, dichloromethane and the infusion. P. angolensis extracts showed a lower anthelmintic activity compared to the other natural products. For the in vivo assays, Nutridesintox, the hexane extract and the infusion of C. ambrosioides were administered orally to T. canis-infected mice, in single doses, during three consecutive days. The efficacy was evaluated on the 17th day post-infection, not only by counting T. canis larvae in the tissues but also by ELISA detection of IgM and IgG antibodies and histological analysis of liver and lungs. The different treatments did not reduce the larvae burden and had no influence on the antibodies dynamic. Interestingly, a reduction on the inflammatory infiltrates was observed in the liver and lung sections of the group treated with the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides. In conclusion, the hexane extract of C. ambrosioides is of further research interest, as it showed an anthelmintic activity in vitro and a reduction on the inflammatory reaction produced by the infection of T. canis larvae in vivo.

  18. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State. PMID:25909253

  19. Development of an in vitro, isolated, infected spore testing model for disinfectant testing of Microsporum canis isolates.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A; Deboer, Douglas J; Volk, Lynn M; Sparkes, Andrew; Robinson, Ann

    2004-06-01

    The isolated infected hair model is a commonly used technique to test the fungicidal efficacy of topical therapies against Microsporum canis. The most commonly used model uses mats of infective hairs, and results from various laboratories have differed. The objectives of this study were to develop a method to produce spores for testing when only mycelial forms were available and to develop a semiquantitative testing method that used only infective spores from hairs, and not pooled hair samples for testing. Ten isolates of M. canis were used in this study. Juvenile guinea pigs were easily infected using mycelial forms of M. canis and large numbers of spores were easily harvested for testing. Eight dilutions of disinfectants were tested. Fungal culture data were evaluated using an endpoint dilution at which there was 100% fungicidal activity, i.e. no growth on the plates. The 10 samples showed identical results. Chlorhexidine and Virkon(R) S were ineffective even when used at x4 the manufacturer's recommended dilution. Lime sulphur (1 : 33), enilconazole (20 microL mL(-1)), and bleach (1 : 10) were consistently effective when used at the recommended dilution. In addition, lime sulphur and enilconazole were 100% fungicidal even when the recommended concentration was diluted 1 : 4 or x4 as dilute as recommended. PMID:15214954

  20. Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Dmitry V; Wolsan, Mieczysław; Marciszak, Adrian

    2014-08-01

    The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in Węże 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from Węże 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in Węże 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals. PMID:24969730

  1. Antibodies to selected canine pathogens and infestation with intestinal helminths in golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shamir, M; Yakobson, B; Baneth, G; King, R; Dar-Verker, S; Markovics, A; Aroch, I

    2001-07-01

    Blood and fecal samples, collected from 46 healthy adult free-ranging golden jackals captured in two different locations in Israel, were examined. A serological Study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of circulating antibodies reacting with four common canine pathogens: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum. Faecal flotation and haematological tests were also performed. The seroprevalence of CPV, E. canis, CDV, and L. infantum were 72.3% (34/47), 54.3% (25/46), 52.2% (24/46), and 6.5% (3/46) respectively. Faecal flotation tests revealed a high prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum (13/17, 76%) and a low prevalence of Dipilidium caninum infestation. Examination of blood smears revealed Hepatazoon canis gamonts in one jackal. Golden jackals are among the most common free-ranging carnivores in Israel and neighboring countries. Their habitats are in proximity to densely populated areas and they bear close phylogenic relation to the domestic dog. These facts, combined with the high prevalence of the jackals' exposure to the major canine pathogens demonstrated in this study, suggest that they may serve as a reservoir for the transmission of certain diseases to domestic dogs.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Zarnke, R; Thomas, N J; Wong, S K; Van Bonn, W; Briggs, M; Davis, J W; Ewing, R; Mense, M; Kwok, O C H; Romand, S; Thulliez, P

    2003-10-30

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT > or =1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) [corrected] 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus). PMID:14580799

  3. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

    1997-01-01

    From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (< 3 months old) had antibodies against CPV. Presence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) was associated with the age of the coyote, with 88%, 54%, 23%, and 0% prevalence among adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Prevalence of CDV antibodies declined over time from 100% in 1989 to 33% in 1992. The prevalence of canine infectious hepatitis (ICH) virus antibodies was 97%, 82%, 54%, and 33%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. The percentage of coyotes with ICH virus antibodies also declined over time from a high of 100% in 1989 to 31% in 1992, and 42% in 1993. Prevalence of antibodies against Yersinia pestis was 86%, 33%, 80%, and 7%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively, and changed over time from 57% in 1991 to 0% in 1993. The prevalence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis was 21%, 17%, 10%, and 20%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. No coyotes had serologic evidence of exposure to brucellosis, either Brucella abortus or Brucella canis. No coyotes were seropositive to Leptospira interrogans (serovars canicola, hardjo, and icterohemorrhagiae). Prevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans serovar pomona was 7%, 0%, 0%, and 9%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Antibodies against L. interrogans serovar grippotyphosa were present in 17% of adults and 0% of yearlings, old pups, and young pups. Many infectious canine pathogens (CPV, CDV, ICH virus) are prevalent in coyotes in Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months

  4. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

    1997-01-01

    From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (< 3 months old) had antibodies against CPV. Presence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) was associated with the age of the coyote, with 88%, 54%, 23%, and 0% prevalence among adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Prevalence of CDV antibodies declined over time from 100% in 1989 to 33% in 1992. The prevalence of canine infectious hepatitis (ICH) virus antibodies was 97%, 82%, 54%, and 33%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. The percentage of coyotes with ICH virus antibodies also declined over time from a high of 100% in 1989 to 31% in 1992, and 42% in 1993. Prevalence of antibodies against Yersinia pestis was 86%, 33%, 80%, and 7%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively, and changed over time from 57% in 1991 to 0% in 1993. The prevalence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis was 21%, 17%, 10%, and 20%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. No coyotes had serologic evidence of exposure to brucellosis, either Brucella abortus or Brucella canis. No coyotes were seropositive to Leptospira interrogans (serovars canicola, hardjo, and icterohemorrhagiae). Prevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans serovar pomona was 7%, 0%, 0%, and 9%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Antibodies against L. interrogans serovar grippotyphosa were present in 17% of adults and 0% of yearlings, old pups, and young pups. Many infectious canine pathogens (CPV, CDV, ICH virus) are prevalent in coyotes in Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months

  5. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  6. Efficacy of selamectin against adult flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis) on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    McTier, T L; Jones, R L; Holbert, M S; Murphy, M G; Watson, P; Sun, F; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin was evaluated in eight controlled studies (4 in dogs, 4 in cats) to determine the efficacy of a single topical unit dose providing the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) against Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis fleas on dogs and against C. felis on cats. In addition, the effect of bathing on the efficacy of selamectin against C. felis was evaluated. Identical studies were performed in Beagles and domestic shorthaired cats. For each study, animals were allocated randomly to treatments of 8-12 animals each. All studies (dog studies A, B, C, and D and cat studies A, B, C, and D) evaluated the efficacy of selamectin without bathing. In addition, study C in both dogs and cats evaluated efficacy with a shampoo bath at 24h after dosing, and study D evaluated the efficacy of selamectin with water soaking at 2h after dosing or with a shampoo bath at 2-6h after dosing. Dog study B evaluated efficacy against C. canis, whereas all other studies used C. felis. In each study, selamectin was administered on day 0 as a topical dose that was applied directly to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Dogs and cats were infested with approximately 100 viable unfed C. felis or C. canis on days 4, 11, 18, and 27. On days 7, 14, 21, and 30, approximately 72h after infestation, a comb count of the number of viable fleas present on each animal was made. For C. felis and C. canis for dogs and cats, compared with controls, selamectin achieved significant reductions in geometric mean adult flea comb counts of > or =98.9% on days 7, 14, and 21 in all eight studies. On day 30, the reduction for C. felis remained at or above 98.0%. This included the dogs and cats that were soaked with water or bathed with shampoo at 2, 6, or 24h after treatment. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the flea counts from selamectin-treated animals in these studies, regardless of bathing status. On day 30, a significant

  7. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lübke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

  8. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis DNA in naturally infected dogs using the p30 gene.

    PubMed

    Pinhanelli, V C; Costa, P N M; Silva, G; Aguiar, D M; Silva, C M L; Fachin, A L; Marins, M

    2015-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a common tick-borne disease caused by the rickettsial bacterium Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). In view of the different stages and variable clinical signs of CME, which can overlap with those of other infections, a conclusive diagnosis can more readily be obtained by combining clinical and hematological evaluations with molecular diagnostic methods. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the p30 gene of E. canis was developed. The assay was developed using DNA extracted from E. canis-infected cultures of the macrophage cell line DH82 and samples from dogs testing positive for E. canis DNA by PCR. The LAMP assay was compared to a p30-based PCR assay, using DNA extracted from EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples of 137 dogs from an endemic region in Brazil. The LAMP assay was sensitive enough to detect a single copy of the target gene, and identified 74 (54.0%) E. canis DNA-positive samples, while the p30 PCR assay detected 50 positive samples (36.5%) among the field samples. Agreement between the two assays was observed in 42 positive and 55 negative samples. However, 32 positive samples that were not detected by the PCR assay were identified by the LAMP assay, while eight samples identified as E. canis-positive by PCR showed negative results in LAMP. The developed E. canis LAMP assay showed the potential to maximize the use of nucleic acid tests in a veterinary clinical laboratory, and to improve the diagnosis of CME. PMID:26782434

  9. Growth of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ferrolho, Joana; Simpson, Jennifer; Hawes, Philippa; Zweygarth, Erich; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2016-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by Ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. The disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family Canidae worldwide. E. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line DH82 and in non-vector Ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from its natural vector. Here we report infection and limited propagation of E. canis in the tick cell line RSE8 derived from the vector R. sanguineus s.l., and successful propagation through six passages in a cell line derived from the experimental vector Dermacentor variabilis. In addition, using bacteria semi-purified from I. scapularis cells we attempted to infect a panel of cell lines derived from non-vector species of the tick genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus with E. canis and, for comparison, the closely-related Ehrlichia ruminantium, causative agent of heartwater in ruminants. Amblyomma and non-vector Dermacentor spp. cell lines appeared refractory to infection with E. canis but supported growth of E. ruminantium, while some, but not all, cell lines derived from Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus spp. ticks supported growth of both pathogens. We also illustrated and compared the ultrastructural morphology of E. canis in DH82, RSE8 and I. scapularis IDE8 cells. This study confirms that E. canis, like E. ruminantium, is able to grow not only in cell lines derived from natural and experimental tick vectors but also in a wide range of other cell lines derived from tick species not known to transmit this pathogen. PMID:26837859

  10. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in soil and fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati), two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR) targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum). The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD) in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits. PMID:23216873

  11. Multilocus sequence analysis of Streptococcus canis confirms the zoonotic origin of human infections and reveals genetic exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Pinho, M D; Matos, S C; Pomba, C; Lübke-Becker, A; Wieler, L H; Preziuso, S; Melo-Cristino, J; Ramirez, M

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection.

  12. Helper effects on pup lifetime fitness in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus)

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Amanda M.; Adams, Jennifer; Beyer, Arthur; Steury, Todd D.; Waits, Lisette; Murray, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary maintenance of cooperative breeding systems is thought to be a function of relative costs and benefits to breeders, helpers and juveniles. Beneficial effects of helpers on early-life survivorship and performance have been established in several species, but lifetime fitness benefits and/or costs of being helped remain unclear, particularly for long-lived species. We tested for effects of helpers on early- and late-life traits in a population of reintroduced red wolves (Canis rufus), while controlling for ecological variables such as home-range size and population density. We found that the presence of helpers in family groups was positively correlated with pup mass and survival at low population density, but negatively correlated with mass/size at high density, with no relation to survival. Interestingly, mass/size differences persisted into adulthood for both sexes. While the presence of helpers did not advance age at first reproduction for pups of either sex, females appeared to garner long-term fitness benefits from helpers through later age at last reproduction, longer reproductive lifespan and a greater number of lifetime reproductive events, which translated to higher lifetime reproductive success. In contrast, males with helpers exhibited diminished lifetime reproductive performance. Our findings suggest that while helper presence may have beneficial short-term effects in some ecological contexts, it may also incur long-term sex-dependent costs with critical ramifications for lifetime fitness. PMID:20961897

  13. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES FOR SELECTED CANINE PATHOGENS AMONG WOLVES (CANIS LUPUS) FROM THE ALASKA PENINSULA, USA.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dominique E; Benson, Anna-Marie

    2016-07-01

    We collected blood samples from wolves ( Canis lupus ) on the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, US, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine parainfluenza (CPI), canine parvovirus (CPV), Neospora caninum , and Toxoplasma gondii . Detected antibody prevalence was 90% for CAV, 28% for CCV, 12% for CDV, 93% for CHV, 0% for CPI, 20% for CPV, 0% for N. caninum, and 86% for T. gondii . Prevalence of CCV antibodies suggested a seasonal pattern with higher prevalence during spring (43%) than in fall (11%). Prevalence of CCV antibodies also declined during the 6-yr study with high prevalence during spring 2006-08 (80%, n=24) and low prevalence during spring 2009-11 (4%, n=24). Prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies were highly variable in the study area during 2006-11. Results suggested that some pathogens might be enzootic on the Alaska Peninsula (e.g., CAV and CHV) while others may be epizootic (e.g., CCV, N. caninum , T. gondii ). PMID:27195683

  14. The importance of crossroads in faecal marking behaviour of the wolves (Canis lupus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barja, Isabel; Miguel, Francisco Javier; Bárcena, Felipe

    2004-10-01

    For wolves (Canis lupus) scats play an important function in territorial marking behaviour. Depositing scats at strategic sites such as crossroads and on conspicuous substrates probably increases their effectiveness as visual and olfactory marks. It is therefore likely that scats will be deposited, and will accumulate, at particular crossroads where the probability of being detected by other wolves is greatest. To check this hypothesis, a wolf population in NW Spain was studied for two consecutive years, from May 1998 to March 2000, and the spatial distribution of 311 scats detected along roads (both at and away from crossroads) was analysed. This study was conducted over an area of 12,000 ha in Montes do Invernadeiro Natural Park. The results confirm that wolves preferably deposit their scats at crossroads (60.1%) and on conspicuous substrates (72.1%). Significantly more scats were found at intersections with numerous, easily passable roads connecting distant territories. Thus, wolves preferably deposit their faeces at crossroads with high accessibility and driveability. The larger the surface area of the crossroads, the more scats were found. Crossroads are therefore highly strategic points that facilitate the detection of scats.

  15. Following human pointing: Where do dogs (Canis familiaris) look at to find food?

    PubMed

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are notably skillful in following cues from people (e.g., pointing gestures). However, not much is known about the processing of information available during such tasks. We here focus on one of the earliest of such processes, namely attention. The goal of the present work was to describe variations in dogs' attention towards diverse targets while they solve an object choice task with human pointing. The direction of subjects' gaze was measured in the period comprising one second before and two seconds after the experimenter called the dog and simultaneously performed a static distal pointing gesture towards the correct bowl. We did two consecutive training phases: acquisition and extinction. Dogs spent more time watching the pointer than the pointing gesture itself and the correct than the incorrect bowl. Indeed, the time spent watching the correct bowl was the best predictor of correct choices across phases. We discuss the relevance of these findings for the process of local enhancement. PMID:27060225

  16. Legacy lost: genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Vilà, Carles; Wayne, Robert K

    2005-01-01

    By the mid 20th century, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) was exterminated from most of the conterminous United States (cUS) and Mexico. However, because wolves disperse over long distances, extant populations in Canada and Alaska might have retained a substantial proportion of the genetic diversity once found in the cUS. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 34 pre-extermination wolves and found that they had more than twice the diversity of their modern conspecifics, implying a historic population size of several hundred thousand wolves in the western cUS and Mexico. Further, two-thirds of the haplotypes found in the historic sample are unique. Sequences from Mexican grey wolves (C. l. baileyi) and some historic grey wolves defined a unique southern clade supporting a much wider geographical mandate for the reintroduction of Mexican wolves than currently planned. Our results highlight the genetic consequences of population extinction within Ice Age refugia and imply that restoration goals for grey wolves in the western cUS include far less area and target vastly lower population sizes than existed historically.

  17. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  18. Survey of necropsy results in captive red wolves (Canis rufus), 1992-1996.

    PubMed

    Acton, A E; Munson, L; Waddell, W T

    2000-03-01

    Through the Red Wolf Species Survival Plan, the captive red wolf (Canis rufus) population was developed with the intent of reestablishing wild populations. One part of the plan was a survey for diseases that might occur as a result of population homogeneity or that might impede breeding success and reintroduction. For this survey, complete necropsies and histopathologic analyses were performed on 62 red wolves from 1992 to 1996. Major causes of 22 neonatal deaths were parental trauma, parasitic pneumonia, and septicemia. Common neonatal lesions included pododermatitis and systemic ascariasis. Cardiovascular anomalies and systemic parasitism were found in two juveniles. Causes of death in the 38 adults included conspecific trauma, neoplasia, or gastrointestinal diseases such as necrotizing enteritis, intestinal perforation, and gastric volvulus. Lymphosarcoma represented 50% of the fatal neoplasms. Three adults died from cardiovascular failure or hyperthermia during handling, and several adults were euthanized for suspected genetic diseases. Overall, the captive population had few significant health problems, but population fitness might be improved by continued removal of potentially deleterious genes from the breeding population and by modifying the husbandry of neonates and adults.

  19. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  20. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species.

  1. Evolution in coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the megafaunal extinctions.

    PubMed

    Meachen, Julie A; Samuels, Joshua X

    2012-03-13

    Living coyotes modify their behavior in the presence of larger carnivores, such as wolves. However, little is known about the effects of competitor presence or absence on morphological change in coyotes or wolves over long periods of time. We examined the evolution of coyotes and wolves through time from the late Pleistocene, during which many large carnivorous species coexisted as predators and competitors, to the Recent; this allowed us to investigate evolutionary changes in these species in response to climate change and megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. We measured postcranial skeletal morphologies of wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) from Pleistocene-aged tar deposits, as well as early, mid, and recent Holocene populations of both. We found few morphological differences between Pleistocene and Holocene wolf populations. Conversely, we found many differences in coyotes: Pleistocene coyotes were larger and more robust than Holocene populations. However, within 1,000 y of the megafaunal extinctions, coyotes are morphologically indistinguishable from modern populations. We cannot attribute these differences directly to climate change because modern coyotes do not follow Bergmann's rule, which states body size increases with decreasing temperature. Instead, we suggest that Pleistocene coyotes may have been larger and more robust in response to larger competitors and a larger-bodied prey base. Although we cannot separate competition from predator-prey interactions, this study indicates that the effects of biotic interactions can be detected in the fossil record. PMID:22371581

  2. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, R.O.; Jacobs, A.K.; Drummer, T.D.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997-1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

  3. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Rolf O.; Jacobs, Amy K.; Drummer, Thomas D.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997–1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

  4. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  5. Canis lupus familiaris involved in the transmission of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Junrong; Xi, Jinxiao; Yang, Jinchuan; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Li, Jicheng; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Duan, Ran; Yang, Haoshu; Li, Kewei; Cui, Zhigang; Qi, Meiying; Jing, Huaiqi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate canines carrying pathogens associated with human illness, we studied their roles in transmitting and maintaining pathogenic Yersinia spp. We examined different ecological landscapes in China for the distribution of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in Canis lupus familiaris, the domestic dog. The highest number of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was shown from the tonsils (6.30%), followed by rectal swabs (3.63%) and feces (1.23%). Strains isolated from plague free areas for C. lupus familiaris, local pig and diarrhea patients shared the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, indicating they may be from the same clone and the close transmission source of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica infections in these areas. Among 226 dogs serum samples collected from natural plague areas of Yersinia pestis in Gansu and Qinghai Provinces, 49 were positive for F1 antibody, while the serum samples collected from plague free areas were all negative, suggested a potential public health risk following exposure to dogs. No Y. enterocolitica or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from canine rectal swabs in natural plague areas. Therefore, pathogenic Yersinia spp. may be regionally distributed in China.

  6. First regional evaluation of nuclear genetic diversity and population structure in northeastern coyotes ( Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Monzón, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of eastern coyotes ( Canis latrans) are based on one of two strategies: sampling many individuals using one or very few molecular markers, or sampling very few individuals using many genomic markers. Thus, a regional analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in eastern coyotes using many samples and several molecular markers is lacking. I evaluated genetic diversity and population structure in 385 northeastern coyotes using 16 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A region-wide analysis of population structure revealed three primary genetic populations, but these do not correspond to the same three subdivisions inferred in a previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. More focused geographic analyses of population structure indicated that ample genetic structure occurs in coyotes from an intermediate contact zone where two range expansion fronts meet. These results demonstrate that genotyping several highly heterozygous SNPs in a large, geographically dense sample is an effective way to detect cryptic population genetic structure. The importance of SNPs in studies of population and wildlife genomics is rapidly increasing; this study adds to the growing body of recent literature that demonstrates the utility of SNPs ascertained from a model organism for evolutionary inference in closely related species.

  7. Evolution in coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the megafaunal extinctions.

    PubMed

    Meachen, Julie A; Samuels, Joshua X

    2012-03-13

    Living coyotes modify their behavior in the presence of larger carnivores, such as wolves. However, little is known about the effects of competitor presence or absence on morphological change in coyotes or wolves over long periods of time. We examined the evolution of coyotes and wolves through time from the late Pleistocene, during which many large carnivorous species coexisted as predators and competitors, to the Recent; this allowed us to investigate evolutionary changes in these species in response to climate change and megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. We measured postcranial skeletal morphologies of wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) from Pleistocene-aged tar deposits, as well as early, mid, and recent Holocene populations of both. We found few morphological differences between Pleistocene and Holocene wolf populations. Conversely, we found many differences in coyotes: Pleistocene coyotes were larger and more robust than Holocene populations. However, within 1,000 y of the megafaunal extinctions, coyotes are morphologically indistinguishable from modern populations. We cannot attribute these differences directly to climate change because modern coyotes do not follow Bergmann's rule, which states body size increases with decreasing temperature. Instead, we suggest that Pleistocene coyotes may have been larger and more robust in response to larger competitors and a larger-bodied prey base. Although we cannot separate competition from predator-prey interactions, this study indicates that the effects of biotic interactions can be detected in the fossil record.

  8. A Hepatozoon species genetically distinct from H. canis infecting spotted hyenas in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    East, Marion L; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Ludwig, Arne; Goller, Katja; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Schares, Gereon; Thierer, Dagmar; Hofer, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Health monitoring of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, revealed Hepatozoon infection in all of 11 immature individuals examined following death from natural causes. Hepatozoon infection was probably an important factor contributing to mortality in two cases that exhibited clinical signs of ataxia, lethargy, ocular discharge, retching, and labored breathing before death. Whether Hepatozoon infection contributed to six deaths from fire, probable lion predation and unknown causes could not be determined. Four deaths from infanticide and starvation were unlikely to be associated with Hepatozoon infection. Histologic examination revealed lung tissue infected with cyst-like structures containing protozoan stages in all eight cases examined and interstitial pneumonia in most cases. Systemic spread of infection to several organs was found in three cases. Alignment of a 426 bp sequence from the parasite's 18s rRNA gene revealed a Hepatozoon species identical to that recently described from two domestic cats in Spain and only 7 bp substitutions when a 853 bp sequence was aligned to this cat Hepatozoon species. Previous reports of infection of wild carnivores in eastern and southern Africa with an unspecified Hepatozoon species similar in appearance to H. canis may have involved the species described in this study.

  9. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES FOR SELECTED CANINE PATHOGENS AMONG WOLVES (CANIS LUPUS) FROM THE ALASKA PENINSULA, USA.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dominique E; Benson, Anna-Marie

    2016-07-01

    We collected blood samples from wolves ( Canis lupus ) on the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, US, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine parainfluenza (CPI), canine parvovirus (CPV), Neospora caninum , and Toxoplasma gondii . Detected antibody prevalence was 90% for CAV, 28% for CCV, 12% for CDV, 93% for CHV, 0% for CPI, 20% for CPV, 0% for N. caninum, and 86% for T. gondii . Prevalence of CCV antibodies suggested a seasonal pattern with higher prevalence during spring (43%) than in fall (11%). Prevalence of CCV antibodies also declined during the 6-yr study with high prevalence during spring 2006-08 (80%, n=24) and low prevalence during spring 2009-11 (4%, n=24). Prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies were highly variable in the study area during 2006-11. Results suggested that some pathogens might be enzootic on the Alaska Peninsula (e.g., CAV and CHV) while others may be epizootic (e.g., CCV, N. caninum , T. gondii ).

  10. Molecular evidence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from South Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Wijnveld, Michiel; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    To monitor the emergence of thermophilic, Mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern Hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. Golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. Dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both D. reticulatus and D. marginatus nymphs, unlike previously reported. Subadults of three ixodid species were selected for reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis to screen their vector potential for 40 pathogens/groups. Results were negative for Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. Investigation of D. marginatus nymphs revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia massiliae and Borrelia afzelii for the first time in this tick species. These findings broaden the range of those tick-borne agents, which are typically transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but may also have Dermacentor spp. as potential or alternative vectors. Ehrlichiacanis was also newly detected in Ixodes canisuga larvae from red foxes. In absence of transovarial transmission in ticks this implies that Eurasian red foxes may play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:23439290

  11. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran. PMID:23656910

  12. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase. PMID:23941681

  13. Habitat selection by a focal predator (Canis lupus) in a multiprey ecosystem of the northern Rockies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Large predators respond to land cover and physiography that maximize the likelihood of encountering prey. Using locations from global positioning system-collared wolves (Canis lupus), we examined whether land cover, vegetation productivity or change, or habitat-selection value for ungulate prey species themselves most influenced patterns of selection by wolves in a large, intact multiprey system of northern British Columbia. Selection models based on land cover, in combination with topographical features, consistently outperformed models based on indexes of vegetation quantity and quality (using normalized difference vegetation index) or on selection value to prey species (moose [Alces americanus], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], and Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Wolves generally selected for shrub communities and high diversity of cover across seasons and avoided conifer stands and non-vegetated areas and west aspects year-round. Seasonal selection strategies were not always reflected in use patterns, which showed highest frequency of use in riparian, shrub, and conifer classes. Patterns of use and selection for individual wolf packs did not always conform to global models, and appeared related to the distribution of land cover and terrain within respective home ranges. Our findings corroborate the biological linkages between wolves and their habitat related to ease of movement and potential prey associations. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Hyperhidrosis in Naïve Purpose-Bred Beagle Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

    2011-01-01

    This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs. PMID:21640037

  15. Isotopic investigation of niche partitioning among native carnivores and the non-native coyote (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Warsen, Scott A; Frair, Jacqueline L; Teece, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    We employed stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes within a hypothetico-deductive framework to explore potential resource partitioning among terrestrial mammalian carnivores. Isotope values were acquired using guard hair samples from bobcat (Lynx rufus), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Adirondack Park, NY, USA. Enrichment along the δ(13)C axis was expected to reflect the use of human sources of food (reflecting a corn subsidy), and by extension tolerance for human-modified environments, whereas enrichment along the δ(15)N axis was expected to reflect a higher level of carnivory (i.e. amount of animal-based protein in the diet) - two mechanisms by which these now sympatric species may achieve a dynamic coexistence. Although bobcats were the only obligate carnivore, all four species shared a similar δ(15)N space. In contrast, bobcat had a lower and distinct δ(13)C signature compared to foxes, consistent with the a priori expectation of bobcats being the species least tolerant of human activities. Isotope signatures for coyotes, which colonized the region in the 1920s, overlapped all three native carnivores, bobcats the least, gray fox the most, indicating their potential competitive influence on this suite of native carnivores.

  16. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  17. Coyote (Canis latrans) mammalian prey diet shifts in response to seasonal vegetation change.

    PubMed

    Seamster, Virginia A; Waits, Lisette P; Macko, Stephen A; Shugart, Herman H

    2014-01-01

    Drylands typically have strong seasonal variation in rainfall and primary productivity. This study examines the effects of seasonal change in grass-derived resource availability on the base of the food chain of a mammalian predator. Seasonal changes in live grass cover were measured in two vegetation types at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, USA. Non-invasive genetic sampling of scat was used to identify individuals in the local coyote (Canis latrans) population. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of hair removed from scats of 45 different coyotes was used to assess seasonal variation in the diet of mammalian coyote prey that came from C4 grasses. Live grass cover increased from the spring to the summer and fall; contribution of C4 grasses to the diet of mammalian coyote prey increased from the summer to the fall and was higher in grassland areas. There were significant differences in the seasonal patterns in the prey diet between grassland and shrubland areas.

  18. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans)

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment. PMID:26636258

  19. Cranial and dental abnormalities of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Three skulls of captive-raised female endangered red wolves (Canis rufus) exhibited severe malocclusion of the jaws. Cranial and dental abnormalities (including crowding of upper toothrows, and an extra tooth behind the lower left M3 in one of the three mandibles) were also evident. Ratios of alveolar length of maxillary toothrow to maximum width across the outer sides of crowns of P4 were significantly different (p=0.008) compared to unaffected skulls. Significant differences were also evident when ratios of maximum width across inner edges of alveoli of P1 to alveolar length of maxillary toothrow and maximum width across outer sides of crowns of P4 were compared between the two groups. Although the three skulls all exhibited malocclusion, the abnormality expressed itself differently in relation to the effects to each skull. Captive inbreeding may increase the probability and frequency of expressing these anomalies, although inbreeding coefficients calculated for the wolves expressing malocclusion were not considered high (0.0313-0.0508). A wild female red wolf specimen captured in 1921 in Arkansas also exhibited the malocclusion, although not as severely as in the captive females. This demonstrates that this trait was present in wild populations prior to, and not a result of, the captive breeding program.

  20. Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in breeds of the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although many herbivores and omnivores have been shown to balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable foods, study of this ability has been relatively neglected in carnivores, largely on the assumption that prey are less variable in nutrient composition than the foods of herbivores and omnivores and such mechanisms therefore unnecessary. We performed diet selection studies in 5 breeds of adult dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to determine whether these domesticated carnivores regulate macronutrient intake. Using nutritional geometry, we show that the macronutrient content of the diet was regulated to a protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of approximately 30%:63%:7% by energy, a value that was remarkably similar across breeds. These values, which the analysis suggests are dietary target values, are based on intakes of dogs with prior experience of the respective experimental food combinations. On initial exposure to the diets (i.e., when naive), the same dogs self-selected a diet that was marginally but significantly lower in fat, suggesting that learning played a role in macronutrient regulation. In contrast with the tight regulation of macronutrient ratios, the total amount of food and energy eaten was far higher than expected based on calculated maintenance energy requirements. We interpret these results in relation to the evolutionary history of domestic dogs and compare them to equivalent studies on domestic cats. PMID:23243377

  1. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections. PMID:27078664

  2. The spectroscopic orbit of the K-giant binary γ Canis Minoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekel, F. C.; Williamson, M. H.; Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Pourbaix, D.

    2013-03-01

    We have determined an improved orbit for the bright, evolved, double lined binary γ Canis Minoris. The system has an orbital period of 389.31 days and an eccentricity of 0.2586. We have revised the secondary to primary mass ratio to 0.987. The spectral types of the primary and secondary are K4 III and K1: III, respectively, and the components have a V magnitude difference of 2.2. Orbital fits to the Hipparcos astrometry are not definitive, but they suggest an orbital inclination of ˜ 66o, which produces masses of 1.88 and 1.85 M⊙ for the components. A comparison with evolutionary tracks results in an age of 1.3 Gyr. STELLA very low amplitude radial velocity residuals of the secondary indicate a period of 278 days. We interpret this as the rotation period of the secondary, detectable because of star spots rotating in and out of view. This period is nearly identical to the pseudosynchronous rotation period of the star. The primary is rotating more slowly than its pseudosynchronous rate. Based partly on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated with IAC.

  3. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  4. Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in breeds of the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Hewson-Hughes, Victoria L; Colyer, Alison; Miller, Andrew T; McGrane, Scott J; Hall, Simon R; Butterwick, Richard F; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2013-01-01

    Although many herbivores and omnivores have been shown to balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable foods, study of this ability has been relatively neglected in carnivores, largely on the assumption that prey are less variable in nutrient composition than the foods of herbivores and omnivores and such mechanisms therefore unnecessary. We performed diet selection studies in 5 breeds of adult dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to determine whether these domesticated carnivores regulate macronutrient intake. Using nutritional geometry, we show that the macronutrient content of the diet was regulated to a protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of approximately 30%:63%:7% by energy, a value that was remarkably similar across breeds. These values, which the analysis suggests are dietary target values, are based on intakes of dogs with prior experience of the respective experimental food combinations. On initial exposure to the diets (i.e., when naive), the same dogs self-selected a diet that was marginally but significantly lower in fat, suggesting that learning played a role in macronutrient regulation. In contrast with the tight regulation of macronutrient ratios, the total amount of food and energy eaten was far higher than expected based on calculated maintenance energy requirements. We interpret these results in relation to the evolutionary history of domestic dogs and compare them to equivalent studies on domestic cats. PMID:23243377

  5. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  6. First report of captive New Guinea dingo (Canis dingo hallstromi) den-digging and parental behavior.

    PubMed

    Koler-Matznick, Janice; Stinner, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    New Guinea dingoes (NGDs) (Canis dingo hallstromi; Troughton [1957] Proc Roy Soc new South Wells 1955-1956:93-94) have been kept in zoos since 1956. Almost nothing is known of their wild behavior. These observations of a captive pair are the first documentation of natal den-digging and parental behavior for this taxon. The main den, excavated near the top of a 1.5 m hill, consisted of a rounded chamber about 50.8 cm deep, with an entrance about 30.5 cm high and 40.6 cm wide. The dam frequently moved the pups from the natal den to secondary locations for short periods during the day and then back to the den, starting when the pups were 2 weeks old. When the pups were between 5 and 12 weeks of age, both parents regularly regurgitated for them. The sire expressed escalating threat behavior toward the male pup starting when the pup was 5 months old, and the female began threatening the female pups at about 6 months of age. Rejection of same-sex offspring is usual for captive NGDs as the next breeding season approaches. PMID:21154450

  7. Dispersal of wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1969-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gese, E.M.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the dispersal patterns of radio-collared wolves (Canis lupus) from 21 packs in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, from 1969 to 1989. A total of 316 wolves (542 wolf-years) were captured, radio-collared, and followed during 21 years of radio-tracking; 75 were identified as dispersers. Both sexes dispersed equally. Of the adults, yearlings, and pups, 8, 75, and 16%, respectively, dispersed. Most dispersers left when they were 11-12 months old, only a few wolves dispersing as adults. Dispersal occurred mainly in February-April and October-November. Adults dispersed short distances into nearby territories, but yearlings and pups dispersed both short and long distances. Yearling and pup dispersal rates were highest when the wolf population was increasing or decreasing and low when the population was stable. Adults had the highest pairing and denning success, yearlings had moderate pairing and low denning success, and pups had low pairing and denning success. Yearlings and pups that dispersed a short distance had a higher success of settling in a new territory, likely reflecting available vacancies in nearby territories. Thirty-five percent of the known-age wolves remained in their natal territory for >2 years; two wolves were known to have remained for >7 years. The relative weight of pups at capture apparently did not affect their age or success of dispersal or the tendency to disperse.

  8. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment.

  9. Evolution in coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the megafaunal extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Meachen, Julie A.; Samuels, Joshua X.

    2012-01-01

    Living coyotes modify their behavior in the presence of larger carnivores, such as wolves. However, little is known about the effects of competitor presence or absence on morphological change in coyotes or wolves over long periods of time. We examined the evolution of coyotes and wolves through time from the late Pleistocene, during which many large carnivorous species coexisted as predators and competitors, to the Recent; this allowed us to investigate evolutionary changes in these species in response to climate change and megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. We measured postcranial skeletal morphologies of wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) from Pleistocene-aged tar deposits, as well as early, mid, and recent Holocene populations of both. We found few morphological differences between Pleistocene and Holocene wolf populations. Conversely, we found many differences in coyotes: Pleistocene coyotes were larger and more robust than Holocene populations. However, within 1,000 y of the megafaunal extinctions, coyotes are morphologically indistinguishable from modern populations. We cannot attribute these differences directly to climate change because modern coyotes do not follow Bergmann's rule, which states body size increases with decreasing temperature. Instead, we suggest that Pleistocene coyotes may have been larger and more robust in response to larger competitors and a larger-bodied prey base. Although we cannot separate competition from predator-prey interactions, this study indicates that the effects of biotic interactions can be detected in the fossil record. PMID:22371581

  10. Tonal vocalizations in the red wolf (Canis rufus): potential functions of nonlinear sound production.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jennifer N; Anderson, Rita E

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to further understanding of the function of nonlinear vocalizations in red wolves (Canis rufus) by examining the acoustic, structural, and contextual characteristics of nonlinear sounds as compared to linear sounds. Video recordings of captive wolves from a breeding facility were analyzed. The acoustic nature of sound units was consistent with that of other social canids. The sound units included high-frequency squeaks (2600-9500 Hz) and low-frequency wuhs (160-1600 Hz) occurring either as separate units or in combination as nonlinear units (squeak-wuh frequency jumps, biphonations, squeaks with sidebands) and frequency jumps within squeaks. These low-amplitude sounds occurred in trains of 1-30 units that were classified as squeak vocalizations (49%), wuh vocalizations (19%), and nonlinear vocalizations (any combination including one or more nonlinear units, 32%). Nonlinear vocalizations transitioned directionally from high-frequency units to mixed-frequency units which has implications for the study of sound production and function. Wolves squeaked most often when oriented toward others, implying a solicitation function, while wuh vocalizations were more common during social interactions. Nonlinear vocalizations occurred most often during penmate-play or when oriented toward neighbors, indicating that nonlinear sound production may signal an increase in arousal.

  11. Helper effects on pup lifetime fitness in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus).

    PubMed

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Adams, Jennifer; Beyer, Arthur; Steury, Todd D; Waits, Lisette; Murray, Dennis L

    2011-05-01

    The evolutionary maintenance of cooperative breeding systems is thought to be a function of relative costs and benefits to breeders, helpers and juveniles. Beneficial effects of helpers on early-life survivorship and performance have been established in several species, but lifetime fitness benefits and/or costs of being helped remain unclear, particularly for long-lived species. We tested for effects of helpers on early- and late-life traits in a population of reintroduced red wolves (Canis rufus), while controlling for ecological variables such as home-range size and population density. We found that the presence of helpers in family groups was positively correlated with pup mass and survival at low population density, but negatively correlated with mass/size at high density, with no relation to survival. Interestingly, mass/size differences persisted into adulthood for both sexes. While the presence of helpers did not advance age at first reproduction for pups of either sex, females appeared to garner long-term fitness benefits from helpers through later age at last reproduction, longer reproductive lifespan and a greater number of lifetime reproductive events, which translated to higher lifetime reproductive success. In contrast, males with helpers exhibited diminished lifetime reproductive performance. Our findings suggest that while helper presence may have beneficial short-term effects in some ecological contexts, it may also incur long-term sex-dependent costs with critical ramifications for lifetime fitness.

  12. Physical Properties and Evolution of the Eclipsing Binary System XZ Canis Minoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poochaum, R.; Komonjinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.

    2010-07-01

    This research aims to study the eclipse binary system so that its physical properties and evolution can be determined and used as an example to teach high school astronomy. The study of an eclipsing binary system XZ Canis Minoris (XZ CMi) was done at Sirindhorn Observatory, Chiang Mai University using a 0.5-meter reflecting telescope with CCD photometric system (2184×1417 pixel) in B V and R bands of UVB System. The data obtained were used to construct the light curve for each wavelength band and to compute the times of its light minima. New elements were derived using observations with linear to all available minima. As a result, linear ephemeris is HDJmin I = .578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121+2450 515.321 26+/-0.001 07 E, and the new orbital period of XZ CMi is 0.578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121 day. The values obtained were used with the previously published times of minima to get O-C curve of XZ CMi. The result revealed that the orbital period of XZ CMi is continuously decreased at a rate of 0.007 31+/-0.000 57 sec/year. This result indicates that the binary stars are moving closer continuously. From the O-C residuals, there is significant change to indicate the existence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle on the star. However, further analysis of the physical properties of XZ CMi is required.

  13. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections.

  14. Molecular evidence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from South Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Wijnveld, Michiel; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    To monitor the emergence of thermophilic, Mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern Hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. Golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. Dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both D. reticulatus and D. marginatus nymphs, unlike previously reported. Subadults of three ixodid species were selected for reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis to screen their vector potential for 40 pathogens/groups. Results were negative for Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. Investigation of D. marginatus nymphs revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia massiliae and Borrelia afzelii for the first time in this tick species. These findings broaden the range of those tick-borne agents, which are typically transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but may also have Dermacentor spp. as potential or alternative vectors. Ehrlichiacanis was also newly detected in Ixodes canisuga larvae from red foxes. In absence of transovarial transmission in ticks this implies that Eurasian red foxes may play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis.

  15. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  16. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase.

  17. NO EXCESS OF RR LYRAE STARS IN THE CANIS MAJOR OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Mateu, Cecilia; Vivas, A. Katherina; Abad, Carlos; Zinn, Robert; Miller, Lissa R. E-mail: vivas@cida.ve E-mail: robert.zinn@yale.edu

    2009-05-15

    Our multi-epoch survey of {approx}20 deg{sup 2} of the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity has detected only 10 RR Lyrae stars (RRLS). We show that this number is consistent with the number expected from the Galactic halo and thick disk populations alone, leaving no excess that can be attributed to the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy that some authors have proposed as the origin of the CMa overdensity. If this galaxy resembles the dSph satellites of the Milky Way (MW) and of M31 and has the putative M{sub V} {approx} -14.5, our survey should have detected several tens of RRLS. Even if M{sub V} {approx}< -12, the expected excess is {approx}>10, which is not observed. Either the old stellar population of this galaxy has unique properties or, as others have argued before, the CMa overdensity is produced by the thin and thick disk and spiral arm populations of the MW and not by a collision with a dSph satellite galaxy.

  18. Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in breeds of the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Hewson-Hughes, Victoria L; Colyer, Alison; Miller, Andrew T; McGrane, Scott J; Hall, Simon R; Butterwick, Richard F; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2013-01-01

    Although many herbivores and omnivores have been shown to balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable foods, study of this ability has been relatively neglected in carnivores, largely on the assumption that prey are less variable in nutrient composition than the foods of herbivores and omnivores and such mechanisms therefore unnecessary. We performed diet selection studies in 5 breeds of adult dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to determine whether these domesticated carnivores regulate macronutrient intake. Using nutritional geometry, we show that the macronutrient content of the diet was regulated to a protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of approximately 30%:63%:7% by energy, a value that was remarkably similar across breeds. These values, which the analysis suggests are dietary target values, are based on intakes of dogs with prior experience of the respective experimental food combinations. On initial exposure to the diets (i.e., when naive), the same dogs self-selected a diet that was marginally but significantly lower in fat, suggesting that learning played a role in macronutrient regulation. In contrast with the tight regulation of macronutrient ratios, the total amount of food and energy eaten was far higher than expected based on calculated maintenance energy requirements. We interpret these results in relation to the evolutionary history of domestic dogs and compare them to equivalent studies on domestic cats.

  19. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  20. First regional evaluation of nuclear genetic diversity and population structure in northeastern coyotes ( Canis latrans)

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of eastern coyotes ( Canis latrans) are based on one of two strategies: sampling many individuals using one or very few molecular markers, or sampling very few individuals using many genomic markers. Thus, a regional analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in eastern coyotes using many samples and several molecular markers is lacking. I evaluated genetic diversity and population structure in 385 northeastern coyotes using 16 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A region-wide analysis of population structure revealed three primary genetic populations, but these do not correspond to the same three subdivisions inferred in a previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. More focused geographic analyses of population structure indicated that ample genetic structure occurs in coyotes from an intermediate contact zone where two range expansion fronts meet. These results demonstrate that genotyping several highly heterozygous SNPs in a large, geographically dense sample is an effective way to detect cryptic population genetic structure. The importance of SNPs in studies of population and wildlife genomics is rapidly increasing; this study adds to the growing body of recent literature that demonstrates the utility of SNPs ascertained from a model organism for evolutionary inference in closely related species. PMID:25075291

  1. Coyote (Canis latrans) mammalian prey diet shifts in response to seasonal vegetation change.

    PubMed

    Seamster, Virginia A; Waits, Lisette P; Macko, Stephen A; Shugart, Herman H

    2014-01-01

    Drylands typically have strong seasonal variation in rainfall and primary productivity. This study examines the effects of seasonal change in grass-derived resource availability on the base of the food chain of a mammalian predator. Seasonal changes in live grass cover were measured in two vegetation types at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, USA. Non-invasive genetic sampling of scat was used to identify individuals in the local coyote (Canis latrans) population. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of hair removed from scats of 45 different coyotes was used to assess seasonal variation in the diet of mammalian coyote prey that came from C4 grasses. Live grass cover increased from the spring to the summer and fall; contribution of C4 grasses to the diet of mammalian coyote prey increased from the summer to the fall and was higher in grassland areas. There were significant differences in the seasonal patterns in the prey diet between grassland and shrubland areas. PMID:24999056

  2. First regional evaluation of nuclear genetic diversity and population structure in northeastern coyotes ( Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Monzón, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of eastern coyotes ( Canis latrans) are based on one of two strategies: sampling many individuals using one or very few molecular markers, or sampling very few individuals using many genomic markers. Thus, a regional analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in eastern coyotes using many samples and several molecular markers is lacking. I evaluated genetic diversity and population structure in 385 northeastern coyotes using 16 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A region-wide analysis of population structure revealed three primary genetic populations, but these do not correspond to the same three subdivisions inferred in a previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. More focused geographic analyses of population structure indicated that ample genetic structure occurs in coyotes from an intermediate contact zone where two range expansion fronts meet. These results demonstrate that genotyping several highly heterozygous SNPs in a large, geographically dense sample is an effective way to detect cryptic population genetic structure. The importance of SNPs in studies of population and wildlife genomics is rapidly increasing; this study adds to the growing body of recent literature that demonstrates the utility of SNPs ascertained from a model organism for evolutionary inference in closely related species. PMID:25075291

  3. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment. PMID:26636258

  4. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  5. Effects of fasting and refeeding on body composition of captive gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreeger, T.J.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the effects of fasting and refeeding on body composition in 9 captive adult gray wolves, Canis lupus (6 males, 3 females), during May-June 1995. Body composition was estimated by the technique of tritiated water dilution. Wolves were immobilized and weighed, baseline blood samples were taken, tritiated water was injected, and additional blood samples were taken before fasting, after 10 d of fasting, and again after 2 d of refeeding. Male wolves lost 8% (P = 0.0001) and females lost 7% body mass (P = 0.01) during the 10 d. Males lost 54% of this mass in water, 28% in fat, and 18% in protein/ash; females lost 58% in water, 20% in fat, and 22% in protein/ash. Upon refeeding, male wolves consumed an average of 6.8 kg (15.3% body mass) of deer meat per day and females consumed 6.4 kg (18.7% body mass). All wolves regained their initial mass. Males regained 24% of this mass in water, 70% in fat, and 6% in protein/ash; females regained 35% in water, 51% in fat, and 14% in protein/ash. This study provided evidence that after prolonged fasting, captive wolves could quickly and efficiently regain lost body mass after refeeding.

  6. Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Swenson, Cheryl L.; Bailey, Chris J.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Nelson, Nathan C.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wickes, Brian L.; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  7. Characterization of AtSTOP1 orthologous genes in tobacco and other plant species.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Yoshinao; Ito, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Imaizumi, Ryujiro; Aoki, Toshio; Komatsu, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Aluminum (Al) and proton (H⁺) tolerances are essential traits for plants to adapt to acid soil environments. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these tolerances are mediated by a zinc-finger transcription factor, SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (AtSTOP1), which regulates the transcription of multiple genes critical for tolerance to both stressors. Here, the functions of orthologous proteins (STOP1-like proteins) in other plant species were characterized by reverse genetics analyses and in planta complementation assays. RNA interference of a gene for NtSTOP1 repressed Al and H⁺ tolerances of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) roots. Tobacco roots released citrate in response to Al, concomitant with the up-regulated transcription of an ortholog of an Al tolerance gene encoding a citrate-transporting multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein. The RNA interference repression of NtSTOP1 blocked this process and also repressed the transcription of another orthologous gene for Al tolerance, ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3, which encodes a prokaryote-type transporter. These results demonstrated that NtSTOP1 regulates Al tolerance in tobacco through the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The in planta complementation assays revealed that other plant species, including woody plants, a legume, and a moss (Physcomitrella patens), possess functional STOP1-like proteins that can activate several H⁺ and Al-tolerance genes in Arabidopsis. Knocking out the gene encoding the STOP1-like protein decreased the Al tolerance of P. patens. Together, our results strongly suggest that transcriptional regulation by STOP1-like proteins is evolutionarily conserved among land plants and that it confers the ability to survive in acid soils through the transcriptional regulation of Al- and H⁺-tolerance genes.

  8. Increasing the precision of orthology-based complex prediction through network alignment

    PubMed Central

    Aloy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular assemblies play an important role in almost all cellular processes. However, despite several large-scale studies, our current knowledge about protein complexes is still quite limited, thus advocating the use of in silico predictions to gather information on complex composition in model organisms. Since protein–protein interactions present certain constraints on the functional divergence of macromolecular assemblies during evolution, it is possible to predict complexes based on orthology data. Here, we show that incorporating interaction information through network alignment significantly increases the precision of orthology-based complex prediction. Moreover, we performed a large-scale in silico screen for protein complexes in human, yeast and fly, through the alignment of hundreds of known complexes to whole organism interactomes. Systematic comparison of the resulting network alignments to all complexes currently known in those species revealed many conserved complexes, as well as several novel complex components. In addition to validating our predictions using orthogonal data, we were able to assign specific functional roles to the predicted complexes. In several cases, the incorporation of interaction data through network alignment allowed to distinguish real complex components from other orthologous proteins. Our analyses indicate that current knowledge of yeast protein complexes exceeds that in other organisms and that predicting complexes in fly based on human and yeast data is complementary rather than redundant. Lastly, assessing the conservation of protein complexes of the human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae, we discovered that its complexes repertoire is different from that of eukaryotes, suggesting new points of therapeutic intervention, whereas targeting the pathogen’s Restriction enzyme complex might lead to adverse effects due to its similarity to ATP-dependent metalloproteases in the human host. PMID:24918034

  9. Orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana of the Hsp70 interacting protein Hip.

    PubMed

    Webb, M A; Cavaletto, J M; Klanrit, P; Thompson, G A

    2001-07-01

    The Hsp70-interacting protein Hip binds to the adenosine triphosphatase domain of Hsp70, stabilizing it in the adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ligated conformation and promoting binding of target polypeptides. In mammalian cells, Hip is a component of the cytoplasmic chaperone heterocomplex that regulates signal transduction via interaction with hormone receptors and protein kinases. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana revealed 2 genes encoding Hip orthologs. The deduced sequence of AtHip-1 consists of 441 amino acid residues and is 42% identical to human Hip. AtHip-1 contains the same functional domains characterized in mammalian Hip, including an N-terminal dimerization domain, an acidic domain, 3 tetratricopeptide repeats flanked by a highly charged region, a series of degenerate GGMP repeats, and a C-terminal region similar to the Sti1/Hop/p60 protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of AtHip-2 consists of 380 amino acid residues. AtHip-2 consists of a truncated Hip-like domain that is 46% identical to human Hip, followed by a C-terminal domain related to thioredoxin. AtHip-2 is 63% identical to another Hip-thioredoxin protein recently identified in Vitis labrusca (grape). The truncated Hip domain in AtHip-2 includes the amino terminus, the acidic domain, and tetratricopeptide repeats with flanking charged region. Analyses of expressed sequence tag databases indicate that both AtHip-1 and AtHip-2 are expressed in A thaliana and that orthologs of Hip are also expressed widely in other plants. The similarity between AtHip-1 and its mammalian orthologs is consistent with a similar role in plant cells. The sequence of AtHip-2 suggests the possibility of additional unique chaperone functions.

  10. OrthoVenn: a web server for genome wide comparison and annotation of orthologous clusters across multiple species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Chen, Guoping; Gu, Yong Q.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide analysis of orthologous clusters is an important component of comparative genomics studies. Identifying the overlap among orthologous clusters can enable us to elucidate the function and evolution of proteins across multiple species. Here, we report a web platform named OrthoVenn that is useful for genome wide comparisons and visualization of orthologous clusters. OrthoVenn provides coverage of vertebrates, metazoa, protists, fungi, plants and bacteria for the comparison of orthologous clusters and also supports uploading of customized protein sequences from user-defined species. An interactive Venn diagram, summary counts, and functional summaries of the disjunction and intersection of clusters shared between species are displayed as part of the OrthoVenn result. OrthoVenn also includes in-depth views of the clusters using various sequence analysis tools. Furthermore, OrthoVenn identifies orthologous clusters of single copy genes and allows for a customized search of clusters of specific genes through key words or BLAST. OrthoVenn is an efficient and user-friendly web server freely accessible at http://probes.pw.usda.gov/OrthoVenn or http://aegilops.wheat.ucdavis.edu/OrthoVenn. PMID:25964301

  11. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species. PMID:24570169

  12. The impact of gene duplication, insertion, deletion, lateral gene transfer and sequencing error on orthology inference: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dalquen, Daniel A; Altenhoff, Adrian M; Gonnet, Gaston H; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The identification of orthologous genes, a prerequisite for numerous analyses in comparative and functional genomics, is commonly performed computationally from protein sequences. Several previous studies have compared the accuracy of orthology inference methods, but simulated data has not typically been considered in cross-method assessment studies. Yet, while dependent on model assumptions, simulation-based benchmarking offers unique advantages: contrary to empirical data, all aspects of simulated data are known with certainty. Furthermore, the flexibility of simulation makes it possible to investigate performance factors in isolation of one another.Here, we use simulated data to dissect the performance of six methods for orthology inference available as standalone software packages (Inparanoid, OMA, OrthoInspector, OrthoMCL, QuartetS, SPIMAP) as well as two generic approaches (bidirectional best hit and reciprocal smallest distance). We investigate the impact of various evolutionary forces (gene duplication, insertion, deletion, and lateral gene transfer) and technological artefacts (ambiguous sequences) on orthology inference. We show that while gene duplication/loss and insertion/deletion are well handled by most methods (albeit for different trade-offs of precision and recall), lateral gene transfer disrupts all methods. As for ambiguous sequences, which might result from poor sequencing, assembly, or genome annotation, we show that they affect alignment score-based orthology methods more strongly than their distance-based counterparts.

  13. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  14. OrthoVenn: a web server for genome wide comparison and annotation of orthologous clusters across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Chen, Guoping; Gu, Yong Q

    2015-07-01

    Genome wide analysis of orthologous clusters is an important component of comparative genomics studies. Identifying the overlap among orthologous clusters can enable us to elucidate the function and evolution of proteins across multiple species. Here, we report a web platform named OrthoVenn that is useful for genome wide comparisons and visualization of orthologous clusters. OrthoVenn provides coverage of vertebrates, metazoa, protists, fungi, plants and bacteria for the comparison of orthologous clusters and also supports uploading of customized protein sequences from user-defined species. An interactive Venn diagram, summary counts, and functional summaries of the disjunction and intersection of clusters shared between species are displayed as part of the OrthoVenn result. OrthoVenn also includes in-depth views of the clusters using various sequence analysis tools. Furthermore, OrthoVenn identifies orthologous clusters of single copy genes and allows for a customized search of clusters of specific genes through key words or BLAST. OrthoVenn is an efficient and user-friendly web server freely accessible at http://probes.pw.usda.gov/OrthoVenn or http://aegilops.wheat.ucdavis.edu/OrthoVenn.

  15. The PhyloFacts FAT-CAT web server: ortholog identification and function prediction using fast approximate tree classification.

    PubMed

    Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Samad, Bushra; Dineen, David; Meacham, Christopher; Sjölander, Kimmen

    2013-07-01

    The PhyloFacts 'Fast Approximate Tree Classification' (FAT-CAT) web server provides a novel approach to ortholog identification using subtree hidden Markov model-based placement of protein sequences to phylogenomic orthology groups in the PhyloFacts database. Results on a data set of microbial, plant and animal proteins demonstrate FAT-CAT's high precision at separating orthologs and paralogs and robustness to promiscuous domains. We also present results documenting the precision of ortholog identification based on subtree hidden Markov model scoring. The FAT-CAT phylogenetic placement is used to derive a functional annotation for the query, including confidence scores and drill-down capabilities. PhyloFacts' broad taxonomic and functional coverage, with >7.3 M proteins from across the Tree of Life, enables FAT-CAT to predict orthologs and assign function for most sequence inputs. Four pipeline parameter presets are provided to handle different sequence types, including partial sequences and proteins containing promiscuous domains; users can also modify individual parameters. PhyloFacts trees matching the query can be viewed interactively online using the PhyloScope Javascript tree viewer and are hyperlinked to various external databases. The FAT-CAT web server is available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/fatcat/.

  16. OrthoMaM v8: a database of orthologous exons and coding sequences for comparative genomics in mammals.

    PubMed

    Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Scornavacca, Celine; Romiguier, Jonathan; Belkhir, Khalid; Galtier, Nicolas; Delsuc, Frédéric; Ranwez, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Comparative genomic studies extensively rely on alignments of orthologous sequences. Yet, selecting, gathering, and aligning orthologous exons and protein-coding sequences (CDS) that are relevant for a given evolutionary analysis can be a difficult and time-consuming task. In this context, we developed OrthoMaM, a database of ORTHOlogous MAmmalian Markers describing the evolutionary dynamics of orthologous genes in mammalian genomes using a phylogenetic framework. Since its first release in 2007, OrthoMaM has regularly evolved, not only to include newly available genomes but also to incorporate up-to-date software in its analytic pipeline. This eighth release integrates the 40 complete mammalian genomes available in Ensembl v73 and provides alignments, phylogenies, evolutionary descriptor information, and functional annotations for 13,404 single-copy orthologous CDS and 6,953 long exons. The graphical interface allows to easily explore OrthoMaM to identify markers with specific characteristics (e.g., taxa availability, alignment size, %G+C, evolutionary rate, chromosome location). It hence provides an efficient solution to sample preprocessed markers adapted to user-specific needs. OrthoMaM has proven to be a valuable resource for researchers interested in mammalian phylogenomics, evolutionary genomics, and has served as a source of benchmark empirical data sets in several methodological studies. OrthoMaM is available for browsing, query and complete or filtered downloads at http://www.orthomam.univ-montp2.fr/.

  17. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Riccardo; Van Deynze, Allen; Portis, Ezio; Rotino, Giuseppe L.; Toppino, Laura; Hill, Theresa; Ashrafi, Hamid; Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant, pepper, and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage. Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits. The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5–0.7 Mbp. Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation. In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10%) affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in orthologous

  18. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Riccardo; Van Deynze, Allen; Portis, Ezio; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Toppino, Laura; Hill, Theresa; Ashrafi, Hamid; Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant, pepper, and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage. Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits. The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5-0.7 Mbp. Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation. In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10%) affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in orthologous

  19. Semantic integration of information about orthologs and diseases: the OGO system.

    PubMed

    Miñarro-Gimenez, Jose Antonio; Egaña Aranguren, Mikel; Martínez Béjar, Rodrigo; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Madrid, Marisa

    2011-12-01

    Semantic Web technologies like RDF and OWL are currently applied in life sciences to improve knowledge management by integrating disparate information. Many of the systems that perform such task, however, only offer a SPARQL query interface, which is difficult to use for life scientists. We present the OGO system, which consists of a knowledge base that integrates information of orthologous sequences and genetic diseases, providing an easy to use ontology-constrain driven query interface. Such interface allows the users to define SPARQL queries through a graphical process, therefore not requiring SPARQL expertise.

  20. Cloning and characterization of multigenes encoding the immunodominant 30-kilodalton major outer membrane proteins of Ehrlichia canis and application of the recombinant protein for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, N; Unver, A; Zhi, N; Rikihisa, Y

    1998-09-01

    A 30-kDa major outer membrane protein of Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is the major antigen recognized by both naturally and experimentally infected dog sera. The protein cross-reacts with a serum against a recombinant 28-kDa protein (rP28), one of the outer membrane proteins of a gene (omp-1) family of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Two DNA fragments of E. canis were amplified by PCR with two primer pairs based on the sequences of E. chaffeensis omp-1 genes, cloned, and sequenced. Each fragment contained a partial 30-kDa protein gene of E. canis. Genomic Southern blot analysis with the partial gene probes revealed the presence of multiple copies of these genes in the E. canis genome. Three copies of the entire gene (p30, p30-1, and p30a) were cloned and sequenced from the E. canis genomic DNA. The open reading frames of the two copies (p30 and p30-1) were tandemly arranged with an intergenic space. The three copies were similar but not identical and contained a semivariable region and three hypervariable regions in the protein molecules. The following genes homologous to three E. canis 30-kDa protein genes and the E. chaffeensis omp-1 family were identified in the closely related rickettsiae: wsp from Wolbachia sp. , p44 from the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, msp-2 and msp-4 from Anaplasma marginale, and map-1 from Cowdria ruminantium. Phylogenetic analysis among the three E. canis 30-kDa proteins and the major surface proteins of the rickettsiae revealed that these proteins are divided into four clusters and the two E. canis 30-kDa proteins are closely related but that the third 30-kDa protein is not. The p30 gene was expressed as a fusion protein, and the antibody to the recombinant protein (rP30) was raised in a mouse. The antibody reacted with rP30 and a 30-kDa protein of purified E. canis. Twenty-nine indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA)-positive dog plasma specimens strongly recognized the rP30 of E. canis. To evaluate whether the r