Sample records for cannulated screw fixation

  1. Biomechanical testing of bioabsorbable cannulated screws for slipped capital femoral epiphysis fixation.

    PubMed

    Kroeber, Markus W; Rovinsky, David; Haskell, Andrew; Heilmann, Moira; Llotz, Jeff; Otsuka, Norman

    2002-06-01

    This study compared cannulated 4.5-mm bioabsorbable screws made of self-reinforced poly-levolactic acid to cannulated 4.5-mm steel and titanium screws for resistance to shear stress and ability to generate compression in a polyurethane foam model of slipped capital femoral epiphysis fixation. The maximum shear stress resisted by the three screw types was similar (self-reinforced poly-levolactic acid 371 +/- 146 MPa, steel 442 +/- 43 MPa, and titanium 470 +/- 91 MPa). The maximum compression generated by both the self-reinforced poly-levolactic acid screw (68.5 +/- 3.3 N) and the steel screw (63.3 +/- 5.9 N) was greater than that for the titanium screw (3 +/- 1.4 N, P <.05). These data suggest cannulated self-reinforced poly-levolactic acid screws can be used in the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis because of their sufficient biomechanical strength.

  2. Mechanical and photoelastic analysis of conventional screws and cannulated screws for sagittal split osteotomy fixation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristina Jardelino de; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Rodrigues, Danillo Costa; Marchiori, Érica Cristina; Moreira, Roger Willian Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to use mechanical and photoelastic tests to compare the performance of cannulated screws with solid-core screws in sagittal split osteotomy fixation. Ten polyurethane mandibles, with a prefabricated sagittal split ramus osteotomy, were fixed with an L inverted technique and allocated to each group as follows: cannulated screw group (CSG), fixed with three 2.3-cannulated screws; and solid-core screw group (SCSG), fixed with three 2.3-solid-core screws. Vertical linear loading tests were performed. The differences between mean values were analyzed through T test for independent samples. The photoelastic test was carried out using a polariscope. The results revealed differences between the two groups only at 1 mm of displacement, in which the cannulated-screw revealed more resistance. Photoelastic test showed higher stress concentration close to mandibular branch in the solid-core group. Cannulated screws performed better than solid-core ones in a mechanical test at 1-mm displacement and photoelastic tests.

  3. [Biomechanical properties of bioabsorbable cannulated screws for surgical fixation of dislocated epiphysiolysis capitis femoris].

    PubMed

    Kröber, M W; Rovinsky, D; Lotz, J; Carstens, C; Otsuka, N Y

    2002-06-01

    Bioabsorbable materials are well suited for fixation of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) as they are resorbable, compatible with magnetic resonance imaging, and well tolerated by the pediatric population. We compared cannulated 4.5-mm bioabsorbable screws made of self-reinforced polylevolactic acid (SR-PLLA) to cannulated 4.5-mm steel and titanium screws for their resistance to shear stress and ability to generate compression in a polyurethane foam model of SCFE fixation. The maximum shear stress resisted by the three screw types was similar (SR-PLLA 371 +/- 146, steel 442 +/- 43, titanium 470 +/- 91 MPa, NS). The maximum compression generated by both the SR-PLLA screw (68.5 +/- 3.3 N) and the steel screw (63.3 +/- 5.9 N) was greater than that for the titanium screw (3.0 +/- 1.4 N, p < 0.05). These data suggest that cannulated SR-PLLA screws have sufficient biomechanical strength to be used in the treatment of SCFE.

  4. A novel injectable calcium phosphate-based nanocomposite for the augmentation of cannulated pedicle-screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haolin; Liu, Chun; Liu, Huiling; Bai, Yanjie; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Xuwen; Li, Chunde; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-augmented cannulated pedicle-screw fixation has been routinely performed for the surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. Despite its satisfactory clinical outcomes and prevalence, problems and complications associated with high-strength, stiff, and nondegradable PMMA have largely hindered the long-term efficacy and safety of pedicle-screw fixation in osteoporotic patients. To meet the unmet need for better bone cement for cannulated pedicle-screw fixation, a new injectable and biodegradable nanocomposite that was the first of its kind was designed and developed in the present study. The calcium phosphate-based nanocomposite (CPN) exhibited better anti-pullout ability and similar fluidity and dispersing ability compared to clinically used PMMA, and outperformed conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in all types of mechanical properties, injectability, and biodegradability. In term of axial pullout strength, the CPN-augmented cannulated screw reached the highest force of ~120 N, which was higher than that of PMMA (~100 N) and CPC (~95 N). The compressive strength of the CPN (50 MPa) was three times that of CPC, and the injectability of the CPN reached 95%. In vivo tests on rat femur revealed explicit biodegradation of the CPN and subsequent bone ingrowth after 8 weeks. The promising results for the CPN clearly suggest its potential for replacing PMMA in the application of cannulated pedicle-screw fixation and its worth of further study and development for clinical uses. PMID:28490878

  5. Open reduction and internal fixation of patellar fractures with tension band wiring through cannulated screws.

    PubMed

    Malik, Mudasir; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a relatively new technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures with tension band wiring (TBW) through parallel cannulated compression screws. A total of 30 patients with displaced transverse patellar fracture were enrolled in this prospective study. Of the 30 patients, 20 patients had trauma due to fall, 5 due to road traffic accident, 2 due to fall of heavy object on the knee, 2 due to forced flexion of knee, and 1 had fracture due to being beaten. All 30 patients were treated with vertical skin exposure, fracture open reduction, and internal fixation by anterior TBW through 4.0 mm cannulated screws. The postoperative rehabilitation protocol was standardized. The patients were followed postsurgery to evaluate time required for radiographic bone union, knee joint range of motion (ROM), loss of fracture reduction, material failure, and the overall functional result of knee using Bostman scoring. All the fractures healed radiologically, at an average time of 10.7 weeks (range, 8-12 weeks). The average ROM arc was 129.7 degrees (range, 115-140 degrees). No patient had loss of fracture reduction, implant migration, or material failure. The average Bostman score was 28.6 out of 30. Anterior TBW through cannulated screws for displaced transverse fractures is safe and effective alternative treatment. Good functional results and recovery can be expected. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Fixation of a split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau with a locking screw plate instead of cannulated screws would allow early weight bearing: a computational exploration.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Ion; Gelber, Pablo Eduardo; Chary, Gaetan; González-Ballester, Miguel A; Monllau, Juan Carlos; Noailly, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    To assess, with finite element (FE) calculations, whether immediate weight bearing would be possible after surgical stabilization either with cannulated screws or with a locking plate in a split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau (LTP). A split fracture of the LTP was recreated in a FE model of a human tibia. A three-dimensional FE model geometry of a human femur-tibia system was obtained from the VAKHUM project database, and was built from CT images from a subject with normal bone morphologies and normal alignment. The mesh of the tibia was reconverted into a geometry of NURBS surfaces. A split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau was reproduced by using geometrical data from patient radiographs. A locking screw plate (LP) and a cannulated screw (CS) systems were modelled to virtually reduce the fracture and 80 kg static body-weight was simulated. While the simulated body-weight led to clinically acceptable interfragmentary motion, possible traumatic bone shear stresses were predicted nearby the cannulated screws. With a maximum estimation of about 1.7 MPa maximum bone shear stresses, the Polyax system might ensure more reasonable safety margins. Split fractures of the LTP fixed either with locking screw plate or cannulated screws showed no clinically relevant IFM in a FE model. The locking screw plate showed higher mechanical stability than cannulated screw fixation. The locking screw plate might also allow full or at least partial weight bearing under static posture at time zero.

  7. Double fixation of displaced patella fractures using bioabsorbable cannulated lag screws and braided polyester suture tension bands.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Chang, Cao; Xin, Tang; Xing, Pei Fu; Tianfu, Yang; Gang, Zhong; Jian, Li

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a new double fixation technique for displaced patellar fractures using bioabsorbable cannulated lag screws and braided polyester suture tension bands. Fifteen patients (mean age of 46.2 years) with displaced transverse or comminuted patella fractures were enrolled in this prospective study. All of the patients were treated via the open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) procedure using bioabsorbable cannulated lag screws and braided polyester suture tension bands. The patients were followed post-surgery to evaluate (1) the time required for radiographic bone union, (2) the knee joint range of motion at the time of radiographic bone union, (3) the degree of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS), (4) the function of the knee using the Lysholm score and (5) the presence of any additional complications from the surgery. All of the patients were followed post-treatment for more than 1 year (range, 12-19 months; mean post-treatment follow up time, 14 months). The bone union of the fractures as seen radiographically occurred approximately 3 months from surgery in all cases without implant failure or redisplacement of the fractured site. The mean knee joint range of motion was from 0 to 134.6°, and the mean VAS score was 0.7 at the time of bone union. The mean Lysholm scores at the time of bone union and 12 months post-surgery were 86.7 and 95.7, respectively. No postoperative complications, such as infection, dislocation or breakage of the implants, were observed. Moreover, all of the patients returned to their previous activity level. This new double fixation technique using bioabsorbable cannulated lag screws and braided polyester suture tension bands resulted in satisfactory outcomes for patella fractures without any obvious complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Comparison of the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis with K-wires and cannulated titanium screws].

    PubMed

    Maus, U; Ihme, N; Niedhart, C; Abeler, E; Kochs, A; Gravius, S; Ohnsorge, J A K; Andereya, S

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is usually treated operatively, but there is still no consensus about the method to be used. Up to a 30 degrees degree of slipping, the epiphysis is normally fixed in situ. The aim of our study was to compare the intermediate results after fixation in situ by K-wires versus cannulated titanium screws (Königsee-Implantate, Königsee-Aschau, Germany). In this study 46 patients with SCFE grade I and II and mostly chronic slipping of the epiphysis were included. After fixation in situ and, if necessary, careful, closed reposition, the patients were clinically and radiologically followed-up for one year. The clinical results were documented by the score adapted from Heyman and Herndon. Furthermore, MRI scans were done to evaluate the vitality of the epiphysis pre- and postoperatively, when titanium screws were used. Clinical follow-up showed comparable results in the clinical scores after fixation by K-wires or cannulated titanium screws (3.13 +/- 1.02 vs. 3.10 +/- 1.01). After the treatment with titanium screws we saw a higher rate of abnormal gait (33.3 % vs. 19 %), a decreased rate of the positive Drehmann sign (10 % vs. 38 %) and a lower rate of revisions (16 % vs. 50 %) in comparison to K-wire fixation. After displacement of the K-wires we saw chondrolysis and prearthrosis in one case. Removal of the K-wires was done without any complications, while the removal of the cannulated titanium screws failed in 4 of 10 cases. The treatment of SCFE with K-wires and cannulated titanium screws showed comparable results in the clinical follow-up. The treatment with cannulated titanium screws reduces the number of necessary revisions, but the removal of the material is hindered. Because of the lower rate of complications we prefer in the meantime the use of cannulated steel screws.

  9. Internal Fixation of Transverse Patella Fractures Using Cannulated Cancellous Screws with Anterior Tension Band Wiring.

    PubMed

    Khan, I; Dar, M Y; Rashid, S; Butt, M F

    2016-07-01

    Aims : To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anterior tension band wiring technique using two cannulated cancellous screws in patients with transverse (AO34-C1) or transverse with mildly comminuted (AO34-C2) patellar fractures. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of 25 patients with transverse fracture or transverse fracture with mildly comminuted patella fractures. All the patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using two parallel cannulated screws and 18G stainless steel wire as per the tension band principle. Results : There were eighteen males (72%) and seven females (28%). The age group ranged from 24 to 58 years, with mean age of 38 years. The most common mode of injury was fall (72%) followed by road traffic accident (20%) and violent quadriceps contraction (8%). Transverse fracture was present in 60% and transverse fracture with mild comminution in 40% of patients. Mean time to achieve union was 10.7 weeks (range 8-12 weeks). Mean ROM at three months was 113.8 degree (90-130) and at final follow up this improved to 125.4 degrees (range 100-140). There was one case of knee stiffness and no case of implant failure was observed. Patients were evaluated using Bostman scoring, the mean score at three months being 26.04 which improved to 27.36 at the end of final follow up at one year. Conclusion : Cannulated cancellous screws with anterior tension band wiring is a safe, reliable and reproducible method in management of transverse patellar fractures, with less chances of implant failure and soft tissue irritation.

  10. A biomechanical evaluation of a cannulated compressive screw for use in fractures of the scaphoid.

    PubMed

    Rankin, G; Kuschner, S H; Orlando, C; McKellop, H; Brien, W W; Sherman, R

    1991-11-01

    The compressive force generated by a 3.5 mm ASIF cannulated cancellous screw with a 5 mm head was compared with that generated by a standard 3.5 mm ASIF screw (6 mm head), a 2.7 mm ASIF screw (5 mm head), and a Herbert screw. The screws were evaluated in the laboratory with the use of a custom-designed load washer (transducer) to the maximum compressive force generated by each screw until failure, either by thread stripping or by head migration into the specimen. Testing was done on paired cadaver scaphoids. To minimize the variability that occurs with human bone, and because of the cost and difficulty of obtaining human tissue specimens, a study was also done on polyurethane foam simulated bones. The 3.5 cannulated screw generated greater compressive forces than the Herbert screw but less compression than the 2.7 mm and 3.5 mm ASIF cortical screws. The 3.5 mm cannulated screw offers more rigid internal fixation for scaphoid fractures than the Herbert screw and gives the added advantage of placement over a guide wire.

  11. Perfusion pressure of a new cannulating fenestrated pedicle screw during cement augmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhirong; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Hao; Lu, Aiqing; Yang, Huilin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2018-06-18

    Cannulating fenestrated pedicle screws are effective for fixating osteoporotic vertebrae. However, a major limitation is the excessive pressure required to inject a sufficient amount of cement into the vertebral body through the narrow hole of a pedicle screw. We have recently proposed a new cannulating fenestrated pedicle screw with a large hole diameter and a matched inner pin for screw-strength maintenance. Our purpose was to determine whether the new screw can significantly reduce bone-cement perfusion pressure during cement augmentation, METHODS: Two different methods were used to examine perfusion pressure. Hagen-Poisseuille's flow model in a tube was used to calculate pressure drop in the bone-cement channel. Experimentally, both Newtonian silicone oil and bone-cement (polymethyl methacrylate) were tested using a cement pusher through the cannulating screw at a constant rate of 2 ml/min. The internal hollow portion of the screw was the bottleneck of the perfusion, and the new design significantly reduced the perfusion pressure. Specifically, perfusion pressure dropped by 59% (P < 0.05) when diameter size was doubled. The new design effectively improved the application of bone-cement augmentation with the ease of bone-cement perfusion, thereby enhancing operational safety. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Biomechanical Comparison of Inter-fragmentary Compression Pressures: Lag Screw versus Herbert Screw for Anterior Odontoid Screw Fixation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Park, Seong-Hyun; Seong, Ki-Woong; Cho, Dae-Chul

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare inter-fragmentary compression pressures after fixation of a simulated type II odontoid fracture with the headless compression Herbert screw and a half threaded cannulated lag screw. We compared inter-fragmentary compression pressures between 40- and 45-mm long 4.5-mm Herbert screws (n=8 and n=9, respectively) and 40- and 45-mm long 4.0-mm cannulated lag screws (n=7 and n=10, respectively) after insertion into rigid polyurethane foam test blocks (Sawbones, Vashon, WA, USA). A washer load cell was placed between the two segments of test blocks to measure the compression force. Because the total length of each foam block was 42 mm, the 40-mm screws were embedded in the cancellous foam, while the 45-mm screws penetrated the denser cortical foam at the bottom. This enabled us to compare inter-fragmentary compression pressures as they are affected by the penetration of the apical dens tip by the screws. The mean compression pressures of the 40- and 45-mm long cannulated lag screws were 50.48±1.20 N and 53.88±1.02 N, respectively, which was not statistically significant (p=0.0551). The mean compression pressures of the 40-mm long Herbert screw was 52.82±2.17 N, and was not statistically significant compared with the 40-mm long cannulated lag screw (p=0.3679). However, 45-mm Herbert screw had significantly higher mean compression pressure (60.68±2.03 N) than both the 45-mm cannulated lag screw and the 40-mm Herbert screw (p=0.0049 and p=0.0246, respectively). Our results showed that inter-fragmentary compression pressures of the Herbert screw were significantly increased when the screw tip penetrated the opposite dens cortical foam. This can support the generally recommended surgical technique that, in order to facilitate maximal reduction of the fracture gap using anterior odontoid screws, it is essential to penetrate the apical dens tip with the screw.

  13. Correlation Between Residual Displacement and Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head Following Cannulated Screw Fixation of Femoral Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Xu, Gui-Jun; Han, Zhe; Jiang, Xuan; Zhang, Cheng-Bao; Dong, Qiang; Ma, Jian-Xiong; Ma, Xin-Long

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce a new method for measuring the residual displacement of the femoral head after internal fixation and explore the relationship between residual displacement and osteonecrosis with femoral head, and to evaluate the risk factors associated with osteonecrosis of the femoral head in patients with femoral neck fractures treated by closed reduction and percutaneous cannulated screw fixation.One hundred and fifty patients who sustained intracapsular femoral neck fractures between January 2011 and April 2013 were enrolled in the study. All were treated with closed reduction and percutaneous cannulated screw internal fixation. The residual displacement of the femoral head after surgery was measured by 3-dimensional reconstruction that evaluated the quality of the reduction. Other data that might affect prognosis were also obtained from outpatient follow-up, telephone calls, or case reviews. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the intrinsic relationship between the risk factors and the osteonecrosis of the femoral head.Osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurred in 27 patients (18%). Significant differences were observed regarding the residual displacement of the femoral head and the preoperative Garden classification. Moreover, we found more or less residual displacement of femoral head in all patients with high quality of reduction based on x-ray by the new technique. There was a close relationship between residual displacement and ONFH.There exists limitation to evaluate the quality of reduction by x-ray. Three-dimensional reconstruction and digital measurement, as a new method, is a more accurate method to assess the quality of reduction. Residual displacement of the femoral head and the preoperative Garden classification were risk factors for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. High-quality reduction was necessary to avoid complications.

  14. [Intramedullary nailing combined with cannulated screw in treating femoral condyles fractures].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Hao; Long, Da-Fu; Li, Zheng-Wen; Tan, Ying-Dong

    2017-07-25

    To observe the clinical effects of retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screws in the treatment of femoral condylar fracture. From June 2009 to June 2015, 13 patients with femoral condyles fracture were treated by retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screws including 6 males and 7 females with an average age of 46.1 years old ranging from 16 to 76 years old. There were 10 cases of closed fractures, 3 cases of open fraetures. According to AO classification criteriam, 4 cases were type C1, 7 cases were type C2, 2 cases were type C3. Postoperative reduction of fracture and the knee joint function recovery were observed. All patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months with a mean of 24 months. X-ray examination showed that the union time of fracture was 18 to 24 weeks, 21 weeks on average. There were no cases of loosening, breakage of internal fixators and re-fracture. Hospital for Special Surgery(HSS) knee score was 90.07±4.99 at 1 year after the operation. The clinical efficacy for retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screw for the treatment of femoral condyles fracture was excellent. It can improve the anatomical reattachment rate and reduce the complications and promote the knee functional recovery.

  15. Screw fixation versus arthroplasty versus plate fixation for 3-part radial head fractures.

    PubMed

    Wu, P H; Shen, L; Chee, Y H

    2016-04-01

    To compare the outcome following headless compression screw fixation versus radial head arthroplasty versus plate fixation for 3-part Mason types III or IV radial head fracture. Records of 25 men and 16 women aged 21 to 80 (mean, 43.3) years who underwent fixation using 2 to 3 2-mm cannulated headless compression screws (n=16), radial head arthroplasty (n=13), or fixation with a 2-mm Synthes plate (n=12) for 3-part Mason types III or IV radial head and neck fracture were reviewed. Treatment option was decided by the surgeon based on the presence of associated injury, neurovascular deficit, and the Mason classification. Bone union, callus formation, and complications (such as heterotopic ossification, malunion, and nonunion) were assessed by an independent registrar or consultant using radiographs. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score and range of motion were assessed by an independent physiotherapist. The median age of the 3 groups were comparable. Associated injuries were most common in patients with arthroplasty, followed by screw fixation and plate fixation (61.5% vs. 50% vs. 33%, p=0.54). The median time to bone union was shorter after screw fixation than plate fixation (55 vs. 86 days, p=0.05). No patient with screw fixation had nonunion, but 4 patients with plate fixation had nonunion. The 3 groups were comparable in terms of the mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score (p=0.56) and the mean range of motion (p=0.45). The complication rate was highest after plate fixation, followed by screw fixation and arthroplasty (50% vs. 18.8% vs. 15.4%, p=0.048). Excluding 20 patients with associated injuries (8 in screw fixation, 8 in arthroplasty, and 4 in plate fixation), the 3 groups were comparable in terms of the median time to bone union (p=0.109), mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score (p=0.260), mean range of motion (p=0.162), and complication rate (p=0.096). Headless compression screw fixation is a viable option for 3-part radial head fracture. It achieves earlier bone union

  16. Comparison of reconstruction plate screw fixation and percutaneous cannulated screw fixation in treatment of Tile B1 type pubic symphysis diastasis: a finite element analysis and 10-year clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-He; Hong, Jian-Jun; Guo, Xiao-Shan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng

    2015-09-22

    The objective of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties and clinical outcomes of Tile B1 type pubic symphysis diastasis (PSD) treated by percutaneous cannulated screw fixation (PCSF) and reconstruction plate screw fixation (RPSF). Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to compare the biomechanical properties between PCSF and RPSF. CT scan data of one PSD patient were used for three-dimensional reconstructions. After a validated pelvic finite element model was established, both PCSF and RPSF were simulated, and a vertical downward load of 600 N was loaded. The distance of pubic symphysis and stress were tested. Then, 51 Tile type B1 PSD patients (24 in the PCSF group; 27 in the RPSF group) were reviewed. Intra-operative blood loss, operative time, and the length of the skin scar were recorded. The distance of pubic symphysis was measured, and complications of infection, implant failure, and revision surgery were recorded. The Majeed scoring system was also evaluated. The maximum displacement of the pubic symphysis was 0.408 and 0.643 mm in the RPSF and PCSF models, respectively. The maximum stress of the plate in RPSF was 1846 MPa and that of the cannulated screw in PCSF was 30.92 MPa. All 51 patients received follow-up at least 18 months post-surgery (range 18-54 months). Intra-operative blood loss, operative time, and the length of the skin scar in the PCSF group were significantly different than those in the RPSF group. No significant differences were found in wound infection, implant failure, rate of revision surgery, distance of pubic symphysis, and Majeed score. PCSF can provide comparable biomechanical properties to RPSF in the treatment of Tile B1 type PSD. Meanwhile, PCSF and RPSF have similar clinical and radiographic outcomes. Furthermore, PCSF also has the advantages of being minimally invasive, has less blood loss, and has shorter operative time and skin scar.

  17. A comparison of bicortical and intramedullary screw fixations of Jones' fractures.

    PubMed

    Husain, Zeeshan S; DeFronzo, Donna J

    2002-01-01

    Two different fixations for treatment of Jones' fracture were tested in bone models and cadaveric specimens to determine the differences in the stability of the constructs. A bicortical 3.5-mm cannulated cortical screw and an intramedullary 4.0-mm partially threaded cancellous screw were tested using physiologic loads with an Instron 8500 servohydraulic tensiometer (Instron Corporation, Canton, MA). In bone models, the bicortical construct (n = 5, 87+/-23 N) showed superior fixation strength (p = .0009) when compared to the intramedullary screw fixation (n = 5, 25+/-13 N). Cadaveric testing showed similar statistical significance (p = .0124) with the bicortical construct (n = 5, 152+/-71 N) having greater load resistance than the intramedullary screw fixation (n = 4, 29+/-20 N). In bone models, the bicortical constructs (23+/-9 N/mm) showed over twice the elastic modulus than the intramedullary screw fixations (9+/-4 N/mm) with statistical significance (p = .0115). The elastic modulus in the cadaveric group showed a similar pattern between the bicortical (19+/-17 N/mm) and intramedullary (9+/-6 N/mm) screw constructs. Analysis of the bicortical screw failure patterns revealed that screw orientation had a critical impact on fixation stability. The more distal the exit site of the bicortical screw was from the fracture site, the greater the load needed to displace the fixation.

  18. Cannulated screw and cable are superior to modified tension band in the treatment of transverse patella fractures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yun; Zhou, Fang; Ji, Hongquan; Zhang, Zhishan; Guo, Yan

    2011-12-01

    Although the modified tension band technique (eg, tension band supplemented by longitudinal Kirschner wires) has long been the mainstay for fixation of transverse fractures of the patella, it has shortcomings, such as bad reduction, loosening of implants, and skin irritation. We conducted a retrospective comparison of the modified tension band technique and the titanium cable-cannulated screw tension band technique. We retrospectively reviewed 101 patients aged 22 to 85 years (mean, 56.6 years) with AO/OTA 34-C1 fractures (n = 68) and 34-C2 fractures (n = 33). Fifty-two patients were in the modified tension band group and 49 were in the titanium cable-cannulated screw tension band group. Followup was at least 1 year (range, 1-3 years). Comparison criteria were fracture reduction, fracture healing time, and the Iowa score for knee function. The titanium cable-cannulated screw tension band group showed improved fracture reduction, reduced healing time, and better Iowa score, compared with the modified tension band group. In the modified tension band group, eight patients experienced wire migration, three of these requiring a second operation. There were no complications in the titanium cable-cannulated screw tension band group. The titanium cable-cannulated screw tension band technique showed superior results and should be considered as an alternative method for treatment of transverse patellar fractures. Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. 3D printing-based minimally invasive cannulated screw treatment of unstable pelvic fracture.

    PubMed

    Cai, Leyi; Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Chunhui; Lou, Yiting; Guo, Xiaoshan; Wang, Jianshun

    2018-04-04

    Open reduction and internal fixation of pelvic fractures could restore the stability of the pelvic ring, but there were several problems. Minimally invasive closed reduction cannulated screw treatment of pelvic fractures has lots advantages. However, how to insert the cannulated screw safely and effectively to achieve a reliable fixation were still hard for orthopedist. Our aim was to explore the significance of 3D printing technology as a new method for minimally invasive cannulated screw treatment of unstable pelvic fracture. One hundred thirty-seven patients with unstable pelvic fractures from 2014 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Based on the usage of 3D printing technology for preoperative simulation surgery, they were assigned to 3D printing group (n = 65) and control group (n = 72), respectively. These two groups were assessed in terms of operative time, intraoperative fluoroscopy, postoperative reduction effect, fracture healing time, and follow-up function. The effect of 3D printing technology was evaluated through minimally invasive cannulated screw treatment. There was no significant difference in these two groups with respect to general conditions, such as age, gender, fracture type, time from injury to operation, injury cause, and combined injury. Length of surgery and average number of fluoroscopies were statistically different for 3D printing group and the control group (p < 0.01), i.e., 58.6 vs. 72.3 min and 29.3 vs. 37 min, respectively. Using the Matta radiological scoring systems, the reduction was scored excellent in 21/65 cases (32.3%) and good in 30/65 cases (46.2%) for the 3D printing group, versus 22/72 cases (30.6%) scored as excellent and 36/72 cases (50%) as good for the control group. On the other hand, using the Majeed functional scoring criteria, there were 27/65 (41.5%) excellent and 26/65 (40%) good cases for the 3D printing group in comparison to 30/72 (41.7%) and 28/72 (38.9%) cases for the control group

  20. Revision rates and cumulative financial burden in patients treated with hemiarthroplasty compared to cannulated screws after femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Shields, Edward; Kates, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    This study compares re-operation rates and financial burden following the treatment of femoral neck fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty compared to non-displaced femoral neck fractures treated with cannulated screws. Data was retrospectively analyzed from a prospective database at a university hospital setting on patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty after femoral neck fractures and those with non-displaced femoral neck fractures treated with cannulated screws over a 7-year period. Re-operation rates were determined and financial data was analyzed. Charges refer to amounts billed by the hospital to insurance carriers, while costs refer to financial burden carried by the hospital during treatment. There were 491 femoral neck fractures (475 patients) that underwent hemiarthroplasty (HA) and 120 non-displaced fractures (119 patients) treated with cannulated screw (CannS) fixation. Both groups had similar age, sex, Charlson co-morbidity scores, pre-operative Parker mobility scores, and 12-month mortality. There were 29 (5.9 %) reoperations in the HA group and 16 (13.3 %) in the CannS group (P = 0.007). The majority of re-operations occurred within 12 months for both groups [21/29 (72 %) HA group; 15/16 (94 %) CannS group; P = 0.13]. Average hospital charges per patient for the index procedure were higher in the HA group ($17,880 ± 745) compared to the CannS group ($14,104 ± 5,047; P < 0.001). After accounting for additional procedures related to their initial surgical fixation, average hospital charges and costs remained higher in the HA group. Patients treated with hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures have lower re-operation rates than patients treated with cannulated screws for non-displaced femoral neck fractures, with 80 % of re-operations occurring in the first 12 months. Hospital charges and costs to the hospital for treating patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty were higher than patients treated with cannulated screws for the index procedure alone

  1. Effects on Subtalar Joint Stress Distribution After Cannulated Screw Insertion at Different Positions and Directions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cheng-song; Chen, Wan; Chen, Chen; Yang, Guang-hua; Hu, Chao; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects on subtalar joint stress distribution after cannulated screw insertion at different positions and directions. After establishing a 3-dimensional geometric model of a normal subtalar joint, we analyzed the most ideal cannulated screw insertion position and approach for subtalar joint stress distribution and compared the differences in loading stress, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength among lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion, traditional screw insertion, and ideal cannulated screw insertion. The screw insertion approach allowing the most uniform subtalar joint loading stress distribution was lateral screw insertion near the border of the talar neck plus medial screw insertion close to the ankle joint. For stress distribution uniformity, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength, lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was superior to traditional double-screw insertion. Compared with ideal cannulated screw insertion, slightly poorer stress distribution uniformity and better antirotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength were observed for lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion. Traditional single-screw insertion was better than double-screw insertion for stress distribution uniformity but worse for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was slightly worse for stress distribution uniformity than was ideal cannulated screw insertion but superior to traditional screw insertion. It was better than both ideal cannulated screw insertion and traditional screw insertion for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion is an approach with simple localization, convenient operation, and good safety. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Minimally invasive treatment of clavicular fractures with cannulated screw.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun-zhan; Zheng, Guo-hai; Zhao, Ke-yi

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate minimally invasive treatment of clavicular fractures with cannulated screw. Data of 65 patients who had undergone minimally invasive treatment with cannulated screws for clavicular fractures from April 2009 to October 2010 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of 65 patients with clavicular fractures who had been treated by the same surgeons with plates. In the study group, there were 41 males and 24 females, aged from 19-67 years (mean, 35.8 years). According to Craig's classification, there were 29 group 1 and 36 of group 2-II. Neer scores were used to evaluate shoulder function and radiographs to assess fracture union. The incision length was 4-5 cm in the cannulated screw group (CSG) and 10-11 cm in the reconstructive plate group (RPG). Radiographs showed bone union was achieved in both groups, the bone healing time being 13.2 ± 6.9 weeks in the CSG and 16.3 ± 8.7 weeks in the RPG. All patients were followed up for 6 to 20 months (average, 10.6 months). The average Neer score was 96.6 ± 3.4 in the CSG and 94.2 ± 5.8 in the RPG. In the CSG, screw loosening occurred in five, and fracture displacement in three. There was a significant difference in fracture healing time between two groups but not in Neer score. Minimally invasive treatment of clavicular fractures with cannulated screws has the advantages of minimal invasion, short bone healing time, good clinical outcomes, and being relatively inexpensive. © 2014 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Dynamic hip system blade versus cannulated compression screw for the treatment of femoral neck fractures: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Yu, Li; Tang, Xin; Liu, Mo-Zhen; Sun, Li-Zhong; Liu, Changjian; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Chang-Zhou

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of patients with femoral neck fractures treated with the dynamic hip system blade (DHS-BLADE) or cannulated compression screws. Eighty-six patients with femoral neck fractures were treated by closed reduction internal fixation with a DHS-BLADE (n = 42; 18 males and 24 females; mean age: 56.3 years (37-87)) or cannulated compression screws (n = 44; 20 males and 24 females; mean age: 53.8 years (26-83)) between March 2011 and August 2013. The groups were compared with Harris hip score, operation time, surgical blood loss, incision size, hospital stay, and related complications. The average follow-up time was 27 months (range, 24-36 months). There was no significant difference for the operation time, incision size, hospital stay, and Harris hip score between the groups. Also, no statistically significant differences in the rates of nonunion (4.5% vs. 0) and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (9.1% vs. 7.1%) were observed. However, the screw group experienced significantly less surgical blood loss (32.4 ± 24.7 ml) than the blade group (87.2 ± 46.6 ml; P = 0.041). The incidence of femoral neck shortening above 10 mm in the screw group was significantly higher than that in the blade group (15.9% vs. 2.4%, P = 0.031). The blade group had a significantly lower incidence of screw migration than the screw group (4.8% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.016). The DHS-BLADE and cannulated compression screws might be equally effective in terms of postoperative fracture union. However, the DHS-BLADE has advantages over cannulated compression screws for preventing femoral neck shortening, screw migration, and cut-out. Level III, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Cannulated lag screw combined with lateral supporting plate for treatment of Hoffa fracture of Letenneur type I and type III].

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Yang, Shuhua; Xiao, Baojun; Fu, Dehao

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of cannulated lag screws combined with lateral supporting plates in the treatment of Hoffa fracture of Letenneur type I and type III. Between May 2004 and April 2011, 11 patients with Hoffa fracture of Letenneur type I and type III were treated, including 6 males and 5 females with an average age of 36 years (range, 25-47 years). Factures were caused by traffic accident in 8 cases, by falling in 2 cases, and by the other in 1 case. Fracture involved the left knee in 7 patients and the right knee in 4 patients. According Letenneur's classification criteria, there were 7 type I fractures (6 lateral condyle fractures and 1 medial condyle fracture) and 4 type III fractures (3 lateral condyle fractures and 1 medial condyle fracture). Of 11 fractures, 9 were fresh fractures and 2 were old fractures. Two 6.5 mm cannulated lag screws combined with lateral supporting plates were used to fix fractures by anterolateral or anteromedial incision. All incisions achieved primary healing with no early complication. All patients were followed up 12-26 months (mean, 15 months). X-ray films showed bone healing with an average healing time of 15 weeks (range, 10-18 weeks). No loosening or breaking of internal fixator was observed; the removal time of internal fixation was 9-15 months (mean, 12 months). Accoding to Letenneur's functional assessment system, the results were excellent in 7 cases, good in 3 cases, and poor in 1 case at last follow-up. Cannulated lag screws combined with lateral supporting plates fixation is effective in treatment of Hoffa fracture of Letenneur type I and type III with a high union rate; anterolateral or anteromedial approach is the first choice for Hoffa fracture of type I and type III, especially for complicating by tibial plateau fracture or patella fracture.

  5. Image Guidance to Aid Pedicle Screw Fixation of a Lumbar Fracture-Dislocation Injury in a Toddler.

    PubMed

    Houten, John K; Nahkla, Jonathan; Ghandi, Shashank

    2017-09-01

    Pedicle screw fixation of the lumbar spine in children age <2 years is particularly challenging, as successful cannulation of the small pedicle dimensions requires a high level of precision and there are no implants specifically designed for the infant spine. Image-guided navigation is commonly used in adult spinal surgery and may be particularly helpful for the placement of spinal screws in areas where the bony anatomy is small and/or anatomically complex, as in the upper cervical area. A 19-month-old female presented with a fracture-dislocation injury of L1-2. Intraoperative imaging using the O-arm multidimensional imaging system was networked to a workstation, and neuronavigation was used to place pedicle instrumentation with 3.5-mm-diameter polyaxial screws designed for posterior cervical fixation. At a 48-month follow-up, the patient was neurologically intact, demonstrated normal physical development, and was engaging in normal physical activity for her age. Radiographs obtained approximately 4 years postsurgery showed no evidence of loss for fixation. Image-guided placement of pedicle screws may be a useful aid in achieving accurate and safe fixation in the small dimensions of the infant spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complicated sternal dehiscence: reconstruction with plates, cables, and cannulated screws.

    PubMed

    Voss, Bernhard; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Brockmann, Gernot; Krane, Markus; Will, Albrecht; Lange, Rüdiger

    2009-04-01

    Sternal dehiscence after median sternotomy can be a challenging problem in case of multiple fractures or infection. For sternal refixation, the principles of rigid plate and screw osteosynthesis gained from orthopedic surgery have been recommended by several authors. We present a new system for sternal reconstruction consisting of reconstruction plates, steel cables, and cannulated screws.

  7. A novel technique to prevent guide wire related complications while inserting the 4.0 mm cannulated screws.

    PubMed

    Qi, Bao-Chang; Ju, Wei-Na; Wang, Tie-Jun; Yu, Tie-Cheng; Zhao, Yi; Sun, Da-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cannulated screws (4.0 mm) provide inter-fragmentary compression and stability to fractures. A guide wire is used to define the screw trajectory and hold the fracture fragment while the screw is being inserted. The cannulated shaft typically accommodates a 1.25 mm guide pin. Since the guide pin is very slender and undergoes elastic deformation during insertion, there is a high probability of pin breakage. The authors have devised a new way to place the 4.0 mm cannulated screws in a manner that prevents the intraoperative complication of guide wire breakage. For this technique, predrilling was achieved using a 2.0 mm K-wire which was subsequently replaced with a 1.25 mm guide pin under the protection of sleeve. 4.0 mm cannulated screws were then inserted into a defined trajectory over the guide pin. Using the technique, over 20 patients were managed in our department over a period of two years without any complications. We have observed that patients treated with this method experience short operation time, combined with good clinical outcome and we recommend its use in cases where cannulated screw use is warranted.

  8. Arthroscopy-assisted reduction of posteromedial tibial plateau fractures with buttress plate and cannulated screw construct.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Ying; Tsai, Min-Chain; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Chen, Yeung-Jen; Chan, Yi-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    To present the radiologic and clinical results of posteromedial fractures treated with arthroscopy-assisted reduction and buttress plate and cannulated screw fixation. Twenty-five patients with posteromedial tibial plateau fractures treated by the described technique were included in this study. According to the Schatzker classification, there were 5 type IV fractures (20%), 2 type V fractures (8%), and 18 type VI fractures (72%). The mean age at operation was 46 years (range, 21 to 79 years). The mean follow-up period was 86 months (range, 60 to 108 months). Clinical and radiologic outcomes were scored by the Rasmussen system. Subjective data were collected to assess swelling, difficulty climbing stairs, joint stability, ability to work and participate in sports, and overall patient satisfaction with recovery. Secondary osteoarthritis was diagnosed when radiographs showed a narrowed joint space in the injured knee at follow-up in comparison with the films taken at the time of injury. The mean postoperative Rasmussen clinical score was 25.9 (range, 18 to 29), and the mean radiologic score was 15.8 (range, 10 to 18). All 25 fractures achieved successful union, and 92% had good or excellent clinical and radiologic results. The 3 fracture types did not significantly differ in Rasmussen scores or rates of satisfactory results (P > .05). Secondary osteoarthritis was noted in 6 injured knees (24%). Arthroscopy-assisted reduction with buttress plate and cannulated screw fixation can restore posteromedial tibial plateau fractures of the knee with well-documented radiographic healing, good clinical outcomes, and low complication rates. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Percutaneous Facet Screw Fixation in the Treatment of Symptomatic Recurrent Lumbar Facet Joint Cyst: A New Technique

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: amorettinicolas@yahoo.fr; Gallo, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.gallo83@gmail.com; Bertrand, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: asbertrand3@hotmail.com

    We present a case of percutaneous treatment of symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst resistant to all medical treatments including facet joint steroid injection. Percutaneous transfacet fixation was then performed at L4–L5 level with a cannulated screw using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. The procedure time was 30 min. Using the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 9.5, preoperatively, to 0 after the procedure. At 6-month follow-up, an asymptomatic cystic recurrence was observed, which further reduced at the 1-year follow-up. Pain remained stable (VAS at 0) during all follow-ups. CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous cyst rupture associated with facet screw fixation couldmore » be an alternative to surgery in patients suffering from a symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst.« less

  10. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller than that of the screw fixation system. The maximal value of displacement (sum) in the plate-screw fixation system was 2.46 mm, which was lower than that in the screw fixation system (3.91 mm). The peak stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  11. 21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended to be inserted...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended to be inserted...

  13. Tendon transfer fixation: comparing a tendon to tendon technique vs. bioabsorbable interference-fit screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Sabonghy, Eric Peter; Wood, Robert Michael; Ambrose, Catherine Glauber; McGarvey, William Christopher; Clanton, Thomas Oscar

    2003-03-01

    Tendon transfer techniques in the foot and ankle are used for tendon ruptures, deformities, and instabilities. This fresh cadaver study compares the tendon fixation strength in 10 paired specimens by performing a tendon to tendon fixation technique or using 7 x 20-25 mm bioabsorbable interference-fit screw tendon fixation technique. Load at failure of the tendon to tendon fixation method averaged 279N (Standard Deviation 81N) and the bioabsorbable screw 148N (Standard Deviation 72N) [p = 0.0008]. Bioabsorbable interference-fit screws in these specimens show decreased fixation strength relative to the traditional fixation technique. However, the mean bioabsorbable screw fixation strength of 148N provides physiologic strength at the tendon-bone interface.

  14. Are two retrograde 3.5 mm screws superior to one 7.3 mm screw for anterior pelvic ring fixation in bones with low bone mineral density?

    PubMed Central

    Zderic, I.; Grechenig, S.; Richards, R. G.; Schmitz, P.; Gueorguiev, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Osteosynthesis of anterior pubic ramus fractures using one large-diameter screw can be challenging in terms of both surgical procedure and fixation stability. Small-fragment screws have the advantage of following the pelvic cortex and being more flexible. The aim of the present study was to biomechanically compare retrograde intramedullary fixation of the superior pubic ramus using either one large- or two small-diameter screws. Materials and Methods A total of 12 human cadaveric hemipelvises were analysed in a matched pair study design. Bone mineral density of the specimens was 68 mgHA/cm3 (standard deviation (sd) 52). The anterior pelvic ring fracture was fixed with either one 7.3 mm cannulated screw (Group 1) or two 3.5 mm pelvic cortex screws (Group 2). Progressively increasing cyclic axial loading was applied through the acetabulum. Relative movements in terms of interfragmentary displacement and gap angle at the fracture site were evaluated by means of optical movement tracking. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to identify significant differences between the groups Results Initial axial construct stiffness was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.463). Interfragmentary displacement and gap angle at the fracture site were also not statistically significantly different between the groups throughout the evaluated cycles (p ⩾ 0.249). Similarly, cycles to failure were not statistically different between Group 1 (8438, sd 6968) and Group 2 (10 213, sd 10 334), p = 0.379. Failure mode in both groups was characterised by screw cutting through the cancellous bone. Conclusion From a biomechanical point of view, pubic ramus stabilisation with either one large or two small fragment screw osteosynthesis is comparable in osteoporotic bone. However, the two-screw fixation technique is less demanding as the smaller screws deflect at the cortical margins. Cite this article: Y. P. Acklin, I. Zderic, S. Grechenig, R. G. Richards, P

  15. Biomechanical characteristics of fixation methods for floating pubic symphysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenhao; Zhou, Dongsheng; He, Yu

    2017-03-07

    Floating pubic symphysis (FPS) is a relatively rare injury caused by high-energy mechanisms. There are several fixation methods used to treat FPS, including external fixation, subcutaneous fixation, internal fixation, and percutaneous cannulated screw fixation. To choose the appropriate fixation, it is necessary to study the biomechanical performance of these different methods. The goal of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of six methods by finite element analysis. A three-dimensional finite element model of FPS was simulated. Six methods were used in the FPS model, including external fixation (Ext), subcutaneous rod fixation (Sub-rod), subcutaneous plate fixation (Sub-plate), superior pectineal plate fixation (Int-sup), infrapectineal plate fixation (Int-ifa), and cannulated screw fixation (Int-scr). Compressive and rotational loads were then applied in all models. Biomechanical characteristics that were recorded and analyzed included construct stiffness, micromotion of the fracture gaps, von Mises stress, and stress distribution. The construct stiffness of the anterior pelvic ring was decreased dramatically when FPS occurred. Compressive stiffness was restored by the three internal fixation and Sub-rod methods. Unfortunately, rotational stiffness was not restored satisfactorily by the six methods. For micromotion of the fracture gaps, the displacement was reduced significantly by the Int-sup and Int-ifa methods under compression. The internal fixation methods and Sub-plate method performed well under rotation. The maximum von Mises stress of the implants was not large. For the plate-screw system, the maximum von Mises stress occurred over the region of the fracture and plate-screw joints. The maximum von Mises stress appeared on the rod-screw and screw-bone interfaces for the rod-screw system. The present study showed the biomechanical advantages of internal fixation methods for FPS from a finite element view. Superior stabilization of

  16. Internal bone transport using a cannulated screw as a mounting device in the treatment of a post-infective ulnar defect.

    PubMed

    Tsitskaris, Konstantinos; Havard, Heledd; Bijlsma, Paulien; Hill, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Bone transport techniques can be used to address the segmental bone loss occurring after debridement for infection. Secure fixation of the bone transport construct to the bone transport segment can be challenging, particularly if the bone is small and osteopenic. We report a case of a segmental ulnar bone defect in a young child treated with internal bone transport using a cannulated screw as the mounting device. We found this technique particularly useful in the treatment of bone loss secondary to infection, where previous treatment and prolonged immobilisation had led to osteopenia. This technique has not been previously reported.

  17. Screw fixation of the syndesmosis: a cadaver model comparing stainless steel and titanium screws and three and four cortical fixation.

    PubMed

    Beumer, Annechien; Campo, Martin M; Niesing, Ruud; Day, Judd; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Swierstra, Bart A

    2005-01-01

    We assessed syndesmotic set screw strength and fixation capacity during cyclical testing in a cadaver model simulating protected weight bearing. Sixteen fresh frozen legs with artificial syndesmotic injuries and a syndesmotic set screw made of stainless steel or titanium, inserted through three or four cortices, were axially loaded with 800 N for 225,000 cycles in a materials testing machine. The 225,000 cycles equals the number of paces taken by a person walking in a below knee plaster during 9 weeks. Syndesmotic fixation failure was defined as: bone fracture, screw fatigue failure, screw pullout, and/or excessive syndesmotic widening. None of the 14 out of 16 successfully tested legs or screws failed. No difference was found in fixation of the syndesmosis when stainless steel screws were compared to titanium screws through three or four cortices. Mean lateral displacement found after testing was 1.05 mm (S.D. = 0.42). This increase in tibiofibular width exceeds values described in literature for the intact syndesmosis loaded with body weight. Based on this laboratory study it is concluded that the syndesmotic set screw cannot prevent excessive syndesmotic widening when loaded with a load comparable with body weight. Therefore, we advise that patients with a syndesmotic set screw in situ should not bear weight.

  18. An approximate model for cancellous bone screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Brown, C J; Sinclair, R A; Day, A; Hess, B; Procter, P

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a finite element (FE) model to identify parameters that affect the performance of an improved cancellous bone screw fixation technique, and hence potentially improve fracture treatment. In cancellous bone of low apparent density, it can be difficult to achieve adequate screw fixation and hence provide stable fracture fixation that enables bone healing. Data from predictive FE models indicate that cements can have a significant potential to improve screw holding power in cancellous bone. These FE models are used to demonstrate the key parameters that determine pull-out strength in a variety of screw, bone and cement set-ups, and to compare the effectiveness of different configurations. The paper concludes that significant advantages, up to an order of magnitude, in screw pull-out strength in cancellous bone might be gained by the appropriate use of a currently approved calcium phosphate cement.

  19. Enhancement of holding strength of cannulated screw supported with PMMA: a biomechanical study on femoral head [corrected].

    PubMed

    Zeynalov, Reşad; Ağır, İsmail; Akgülle, Ahmet Hamdi; Kocaoğlu, Barış; Yalçın, Mithat Selim

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the holding strength of cannulated screw with multiple holes on threaded area, supported with PMMA in femoral head. A total of 48 human femoral heads were divided into two groups after mineral density measurement with Q-CT. Seven-millimeter cannulated screws with multiple holes on threaded area supported with PMMA were used in the study group, while in the control group standard 7-mm cannulated screws were used. Each group was divided into three subgroups with eight femoral heads. Mineral density of each subgroup was equal to the other. Groups were compared in terms of pull-out, maximum extraction torque and cut-out. In pull-out group, maximum holding strength (N) was measured, while axial pull-out of 0.5 mm/sec applied with Instron. Results showed meaningful significant difference (p < 0.011) between two groups. In cut-out group, femoral heads were placed into Instron and loading was started from 5 N at 2 mm per minute at first, and it was continued until a failure, at least 5 mm, of implant was observed. Results showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between two groups. In maximum extraction group, 4° per second reverse torque (Nm) was applied with torque meter. Highest torque value was measured during extraction time, and results showed very significant difference (p < 0. 001) between two groups. The results of our new design of cannulated screw augmented with PMMA provided background data to clinical application.

  20. Percutaneous CT and Fluoroscopy-Guided Screw Fixation of Pathological Fractures in the Shoulder Girdle: Technical Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Garnon, Julien; Koch, Guillaume; Ramamurthy, Nitin; Caudrelier, Jean; Rao, Pramod; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Gangi, Afshin

    2016-09-01

    To review our initial experience with percutaneous CT and fluoroscopy-guided screw fixation of pathological shoulder-girdle fractures. Between May 2014 and June 2015, three consecutive oncologic patients (mean age 65 years; range 57-75 years) with symptomatic pathological shoulder-girdle fractures unsuitable for surgery and radiotherapy underwent percutaneous image-guided screw fixation. Fractures occurred through metastases (n = 2) or a post-ablation cavity (n = 1). Mechanical properties of osteosynthesis were adjudged superior to stand-alone cementoplasty in each case. Cannulated screws were placed under combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance with complementary radiofrequency ablation or cementoplasty to optimise local palliation and secure screw fixation, respectively, in two cases. Follow-up was undertaken every few weeks until mortality or most recent appointment. Four pathological fractures were treated in three patients (2 acromion, 1 clavicular, 1 coracoid). Mean size of associated lesion was 2.6 cm (range 1-4.5 cm). Technical success was achieved in all cases (100 %), without complications. Good palliation and restoration of mobility were observed in two cases at 2-3 months; one case could not be followed due to early post-procedural oncologic mortality. Percutaneous image-guided shoulder-girdle osteosynthesis appears technically feasible with good short-term efficacy in this complex patient subset. Further studies are warranted to confirm these promising initial results.

  1. Torsional stiffness after subtalar arthrodesis using second generation headless compression screws: Biomechanical comparison of 2-screw and 3-screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Markus; Glisson, Richard R; Matsumoto, Takumi; Hofstaetter, Stefan G; Easley, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    Subtalar joint arthrodesis is a common operative treatment for symptomatic subtalar arthrosis. Because excessive relative motion between the talus and calcaneus can delay or prohibit fusion, fixation should be optimized, particularly in patients at risk for subtalar arthrodesis nonunion. Tapered, fully-threaded, variable pitch screws are gaining popularity for this application, but the mechanical properties of joints fixed with these screws have not been characterized completely. We quantified the torsion resistance of 2-screw and 3-screw subtalar joint fixation using this type of screw. Ten pairs of cadaveric subtalar joints were prepared for arthrodesis and fixed using Acutrak 2-7.5 screws. One specimen from each pair was fixed with two diverging posterior screws, and the contralateral joint was fixed using two posterior screws and a third screw directed through the anterior calcaneus into the talar neck. Internal and external torsional loads were applied and joint rotation and torsional stiffness were measured at two torque levels. Internal rotation was significantly less in specimens fixed with three screws. No difference was detectable between 2-screw and 3-screw fixation in external rotation or torsional stiffness in either rotation direction. Both 2-screw and 3-screw fixation exhibited torsion resistance surpassing that reported previously for subtalar joints fixed with two diverging conventional lag screws. Performance of the tapered, fully threaded, variable pitch screws exceeded that of conventional lag screws regardless of whether two or three screws were used. Additional resistance to internal rotation afforded by a third screw placed anteriorly may offer some advantage in patients at risk for nonunion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of a new composite bioresorbable screw.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C A; Kuiper, J H; Kelly, C P

    2006-04-01

    A new bioresorbable composite cannulated screw has been developed for small bone fracture fixation. The LG ("Little Grafter") screw is manufactured from Biosteon, which is a composite of poly L-lactic acid and hydroxyapatite. This study aimed to compare interfragmentary compression generated by this new screw with conventional metal screws commonly used in scaphoid fracture fixation. Four small metallic screws were compared with the LG screw, using a bone model produced from rigid polyurethane foam. The screws included the Acutrak, Asnis III, Herbert and Herbert-Whipple screws. The mean maximum compression forces for the LG screw, the Asnis and the Acutrak were comparable (LG 32.3 N, Asnis 32.8 N, Acutrak 38.3 N), whereas those using the Herbert and the Herbert-Whipple screw were significantly lower (Herbert 21.8 N, Herbert-Whipple 19.9 N). The bioresorbable LG screw has been shown to have good compressive properties compared to commonly used small bone fragment compression screws.

  3. Percutaneous CT and Fluoroscopy-Guided Screw Fixation of Pathological Fractures in the Shoulder Girdle: Technical Report of 3 Cases

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: Guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: Nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com

    ObjectiveTo review our initial experience with percutaneous CT and fluoroscopy-guided screw fixation of pathological shoulder-girdle fractures.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2014 and June 2015, three consecutive oncologic patients (mean age 65 years; range 57–75 years) with symptomatic pathological shoulder-girdle fractures unsuitable for surgery and radiotherapy underwent percutaneous image-guided screw fixation. Fractures occurred through metastases (n = 2) or a post-ablation cavity (n = 1). Mechanical properties of osteosynthesis were adjudged superior to stand-alone cementoplasty in each case. Cannulated screws were placed under combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance with complementary radiofrequency ablation or cementoplasty to optimise local palliation and secure screw fixation, respectively, in two cases. Follow-up wasmore » undertaken every few weeks until mortality or most recent appointment.ResultsFour pathological fractures were treated in three patients (2 acromion, 1 clavicular, 1 coracoid). Mean size of associated lesion was 2.6 cm (range 1–4.5 cm). Technical success was achieved in all cases (100 %), without complications. Good palliation and restoration of mobility were observed in two cases at 2–3 months; one case could not be followed due to early post-procedural oncologic mortality.ConclusionPercutaneous image-guided shoulder-girdle osteosynthesis appears technically feasible with good short-term efficacy in this complex patient subset. Further studies are warranted to confirm these promising initial results.« less

  4. Biomechanical Comparison of External Fixation and Compression Screws for Transverse Tarsal Joint Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Latt, L Daniel; Glisson, Richard R; Adams, Samuel B; Schuh, Reinhard; Narron, John A; Easley, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Transverse tarsal joint arthrodesis is commonly performed in the operative treatment of hindfoot arthritis and acquired flatfoot deformity. While fixation is typically achieved using screws, failure to obtain and maintain joint compression sometimes occurs, potentially leading to nonunion. External fixation is an alternate method of achieving arthrodesis site compression and has the advantage of allowing postoperative compression adjustment when necessary. However, its performance relative to standard screw fixation has not been quantified in this application. We hypothesized that external fixation could provide transverse tarsal joint compression exceeding that possible with screw fixation. Transverse tarsal joint fixation was performed sequentially, first with a circular external fixator and then with compression screws, on 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs. The external fixator was attached in abutting rings fixed to the tibia and the hindfoot and a third anterior ring parallel to the hindfoot ring using transverse wires and half-pins in the tibial diaphysis, calcaneus, and metatarsals. Screw fixation comprised two 4.3 mm headless compression screws traversing the talonavicular joint and 1 across the calcaneocuboid joint. Compressive forces generated during incremental fixator foot ring displacement to 20 mm and incremental screw tightening were measured using a custom-fabricated instrumented miniature external fixator spanning the transverse tarsal joint. The maximum compressive force generated by the external fixator averaged 186% of that produced by the screws (range, 104%-391%). Fixator compression surpassed that obtainable with screws at 12 mm of ring displacement and decreased when the tibial ring was detached. No correlation was found between bone density and the compressive force achievable by either fusion method. The compression across the transverse tarsal joint that can be obtained with a circular external fixator including a tibial ring exceeds that

  5. Adjacent-segment disease after thoracic pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Agarwal, Prateek

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw fixation is a technique widely used to treat conditions ranging from spine deformity to fracture stabilization. Pedicle screws have been used traditionally in the lumbar spine; however, they are now being used with increasing frequency in the thoracic spine as a more favorable alternative to hooks, wires, or cables. Although safety concerns, such as the incidence of adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after cervical and lumbar fusions, have been reported, such issues in the thoracic spine have yet to be addressed thoroughly. Here, the authors review the literature on ASD after thoracic pedicle screw fixation and report their own experience specifically involving the use of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. METHODS Select references from online databases, such as PubMed (provided by the US National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health), were used to survey the literature concerning ASD after thoracic pedicle screw fixation. To include the authors' experience at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to determine the incidence of complications over a 13-year period in 123 consecutive adult patients who underwent thoracic pedicle screw fixation. Children, pregnant or lactating women, and prisoners were excluded from the review. By comparing preoperative and postoperative radiographic images, the occurrence of thoracic ASD and disease within the surgical construct was determined. RESULTS Definitive radiographic fusion was detected in 115 (93.5%) patients. Seven incidences of instrumentation failure and 8 lucencies surrounding the screws were observed. One patient was observed to have ASD of the thoracic spine. The mean follow-up duration was 50 months. CONCLUSIONS This long-term radiographic evaluation revealed the use of pedicle screws for thoracic fixation to be an effective stabilization modality. In particular, ASD seems to be less of a problem in the

  6. Mini-Fragment Fixation Is Equivalent to Bicortical Screw Fixation for Horizontal Medial Malleolus Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Adam M; Wolinsky, Philip R; Robbins, Michael A; Garcia, Tanya C; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2018-05-01

    Horizontal fractures of the medial malleolus occur through application of valgus or abduction force through the ankle that creates a tension failure of the medial malleolus. The authors hypothesize that mini-fragment T-plates may offer improved fixation, but the optimal fixation construct for these fractures remains unclear. Forty synthetic distal tibiae with identical osteotomies were randomized into 4 fixation constructs: (1) two parallel unicortical cancellous screws; (2) two parallel bicortical cortical screws; (3) a contoured mini-fragment T-plate with 2 unicortical screws in the fragment and 2 bicortical screws in the shaft; and (4) a contoured mini-fragment T-plate with 2 bicortical screws in the fragment and 2 unicortical screws in the shaft. Specimens were subjected to offset axial tension loading on a servohydraulic testing system and tracked using high-resolution video. Failure was defined as 2 mm of articular displacement. Analysis of variance followed by a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used to assess for differences between groups, with significance defined as P<.05. The mean stiffness (±SD) values of both mini-fragment T-plate constructs (239±83 N/mm and 190±37 N/mm) and the bicortical screw construct (240±17 N/mm) were not statistically different. The mean stiffness values of both mini-fragment T-plate constructs and the bicortical screw construct were higher than that of a parallel unicortical screw construct (102±20 N/mm). Contoured T-plate constructs provide stiffer initial fixation than a unicortical cancellous screw construct. The T-plate is biomechanically equivalent to a bicortical screw construct, but may be superior in capturing small fragments of bone. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(3):e395-e399.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Comparison of screw fixation with elastic fixation methods in the treatment of syndesmosis injuries in ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Mustafa; Donmez, Ferdi; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Cakmak, Selami; Mutlu, Serhat; Guler, Olcay

    2015-07-01

    17 patients with ankle syndesmosic injury were treated with a 4.5mm single cortical screw fixation (passage of screw 4 cortices) and 15 patients were treated with single-level elastic fixation material. All patients were evaluated according to the AOFAS ankle and posterior foot scale at the third, sixth and twelfth months after the fixation. The ankle range of movement was recorded together with the healthy side. The Student's t test was used for statistical comparisons. No statistical significant difference was observed between the AOFAS scores (p>0.05). The range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion motion of the elastic fixation group at the 6th and 12th months were significantly better compared to the screw fixation group (p<0.01). Elastic fixation is as functional as screw fixation in the treatment of ankle syndesmosis injuries. The unnecessary need of a second surgical intervention for removal of the fixation material is another advantageous aspect of this method of fixation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880 Section 872.4880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire...

  9. Adjustable patella grapple versus cannulated screw and cable technique for treatment of transverse patellar fractures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ning; Yang, Anli; Liu, Xiaodong; Cai, Feng; Liu, Liang; Chang, Shimin

    2014-03-01

    Although the cannulated screw and cable (CSC) tension band technique is an effective method for fixation of transverse patellar fractures, it has shortcomings, such as extensive soft tissue damage, osseous substance damage, and complex manipulation. We conducted a retrospective comparison of the adjustable patella grapple (APG) technique and the CSC tension band technique. We retrospectively reviewed 78 patients with transverse patellar fractures (45 in the APG group and 33 in the CSC group). Follow-up was 18 months. Comparison criteria were operation time, fracture reduction, fracture healing time, the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score for knee function, and complications. The APG group showed shorter operation time and equal fracture reduction, fracture healing time, and knee function compared with the CSC group. Eleven patients in the APG group experienced skin irritation generated by implants. There was no complication in the CSC group. The APG technique should be considered as an alternative method for treatment of transverse patellar fractures.

  10. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw-bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p < 0.02). We detected no significant correlation between bone mineral density and yield load in this setting. Conclusion Our results indicate that PMMA augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw-bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability.

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of bone screw fixation with a novel bone cement.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Tiina; Nuutinen, Juha-Pekka; Koistinen, Arto P; Kröger, Heikki; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2015-07-30

    Bone cement augmentation is commonly used to improve the fixation stability of orthopaedic implants in osteoporotic bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of novel bone cements on the stability of bone screw fixation by biomechanical testing and to compare them with a conventional Simplex(®)P bone cement and requirements of the standards. Basic biomechanical properties were compared with standard tests. Adhesion of bone cements were tested with polished, glass blasted and corundum blasted stainless steel surfaces. Screw pullout testing with/without cement was carried out using a synthetic bone model and cancellous and cortical bone screws. All the tested bone cements fulfilled the requirements of the standard for biomechanical properties and improved the screw fixation stability. Even a threefold increase in shear and tensile strength was achieved with increasing surface roughness. The augmentation improved the screw pullout force compared to fixation without augmentation, 1.2-5.7 times depending on the cement and the screw type. The good biomechanical properties of novel bone cement for osteoporotic bone were confirmed by experimental testing. Medium viscosity of the bone cements allowed easy handling and well-controlled penetration of bone cement into osteoporotic bone. By proper parameters and procedures it is possible to achieve biomechanically stable fixation in osteoporotic bone. Based on this study, novel biostable bone cements are very potential biomaterials to enhance bone screw fixation in osteoporotic bone. Novel bone cement is easy to use without hand mixing using a dual syringe and thus makes it possibility to use it as required during the operation.

  12. Mechanical comparison between lengthened and short sacroiliac screws in sacral fracture fixation: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Zhang, S; Sun, T; Wang, D; Lian, W; Tan, J; Zou, D; Zhao, Y

    2013-09-01

    To compare the stability of lengthened sacroiliac screw and standard sacroiliac screw for the treatment of unilateral vertical sacral fractures; to provide reference for clinical applications. A finite element model of Tile type C pelvic ring injury (unilateral Denis type II fracture of the sacrum) was produced. The unilateral sacral fractures were fixed with lengthened sacroiliac screw and sacroiliac screw in six different types of models respectively. The translation and angle displacement of the superior surface of the sacrum (in standing position on both feet) were measured and compared. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment is superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in the same sacral segment. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is superior to that of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment. The stability of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is markedly superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment. The vertical and rotational stability of lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation and sacroiliac screw fixation in S2 is superior to that of S1. In a finite element model of type C pelvic ring disruption, S1 and S2 lengthened sacroiliac screws should be utilized for the fixation as regularly as possible and the most stable fixation is the combination of the lengthened sacroiliac screws of S1 and S2 segments. Even if lengthened sacroiliac screws cannot be systematically used due to specific conditions, one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is recommended. No matter which kind of sacroiliac screw is used, if only one screw can be implanted, the fixation in S2 segment is more recommended

  13. Accurate and Simple Screw Insertion Procedure With Patient-Specific Screw Guide Templates for Posterior C1-C2 Fixation.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Taku; Higashiyama, Naoki; Kaneyama, Shuichi; Sumi, Masatoshi

    2017-03-15

    Prospective clinical trial of the screw insertion method for posterior C1-C2 fixation utilizing the patient-specific screw guide template technique. To evaluate the efficacy of this method for insertion of C1 lateral mass screws (LMS), C2 pedicle screws (PS), and C2 laminar screws (LS). Posterior C1LMS and C2PS fixation, also known as the Goel-Harms method, can achieve immediate rigid fixation and high fusion rate, but the screw insertion carries the risk of injury to neuronal and vascular structures. Dissection of venous plexus and C2 nerve root to confirm the insertion point of the C1LMS may also cause problems. We have developed an intraoperative screw guiding method using patient-specific laminar templates. Preoperative bone images of computed tomography (CT) were analyzed using three-dimensional (3D)/multiplanar imaging software to plan the trajectories of the screws. Plastic templates with screw guiding structures were created for each lamina using 3D design and printing technology. Three types of templates were made for precise multistep guidance, and all templates were specially designed to fit and lock on the lamina during the procedure. Surgery was performed using this patient-specific screw guide template system, and placement of the screws was postoperatively evaluated using CT. Twelve patients with C1-C2 instability were treated with a total of 48 screws (24 C1LMS, 20 C2PS, 4 C2LS). Intraoperatively, each template was found to exactly fit and lock on the lamina and screw insertion was completed successfully without dissection of the venous plexus and C2 nerve root. Postoperative CT showed no cortical violation by the screws, and mean deviation of the screws from the planned trajectories was 0.70 ± 0.42 mm. The multistep, patient-specific screw guide template system is useful for intraoperative screw navigation in posterior C1-C2 fixation. This simple and economical method can improve the accuracy of screw insertion, and reduce operation time and

  14. Fixation of displaced subcapital femoral fractures. Compression screw fixation versus double divergent pins.

    PubMed

    Christie, J; Howie, C R; Armour, P C

    1988-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients with displaced subcapital fractures of the femoral neck (Garden Grade III or IV) all under 80 years of age and independently mobile, were randomly allocated to fixation with either double divergent pins or a single sliding screw-plate device. The incidence of non-union and infection in the sliding screw-plate group was significantly higher, and we believe that when internal fixation is considered appropriate multiple pinning should be used. Mobility after treatment was disappointing in about half of the patients, and we feel that internal fixation can only be justified in patients who are physiologically well preserved and who maintain a high level of activity.

  15. Effect of screw fixation on acetabular component alignment change in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hayashi, Shinya; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Shingo; Shibanuma, Nao; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    The use of screws can enhance immediate cup fixation, but the influence of screw insertion on cup position has not previously been measured. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of intra-operative screw fixation on acetabular component alignment that has been inserted with the use of a navigation system. We used a navigation system to measure cup alignment at the time of press-fit and after screw fixation in 144 hips undergoing total hip arthroplasty. We also compared those findings with factors measured from postoperative radiographs. The mean intra-operative change of cup position was 1.78° for inclination and 1.81° for anteversion. The intra-operative change of anteversion correlated with the number of screws. The intra-operative change of inclination also correlated with medial hip centre. The insertion of screws can induce changes in cup alignment, especially when multiple screws are used or if a more medial hip centre is required for rigid acetabular fixation.

  16. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M.; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw–bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p < 0.02). We detected no significant correlation between bone mineral density and yield load in this setting. Conclusion Our results indicate that PMMA augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw–bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability. PMID:26835201

  17. Arthroscopic fixation of the clavicle shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jong-Ick; Yang, Hyo; Jin, Hong-Ki; Patel, Hiren Kirtibhai; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, In

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an arthroscopic technique for the fixation of clavicle shaft fractures. A viewing portal is made 2 cm anterior to the fracture site, and a working portal is made 2 cm lateral to the fracture site. The guide wire for a 4.0-mm cannulated screw is inserted through the fracture site to the medial fracture fragment under arthroscopic guidance. Through the medial fragment, the guide wire is delivered through the skin anteriorly. The fracture is reduced, and then, the guide wire is drilled back across the fracture site to the lateral fracture fragment. After confirming the reduction under arthroscopy, the appropriately sized cannulated screw is inserted after reaming. This arthroscopic technique would be useful for the precise reduction and minimal invasive fixation of clavicle shaft fractures. Preliminary results are encouraging, and further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the precise indications and limitations of the procedure.

  18. Development of a new technique for pedicle screw and Magerl screw insertion using a 3-dimensional image guide.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Seki, Shoji; Hori, Takeshi; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2012-11-01

    We developed a new technique for cervical pedicle screw and Magerl screw insertion using a 3-dimensional image guide. In posterior cervical spinal fusion surgery, instrumentation with screws is virtually routine. However, malpositioning of screws is not rare. To avoid complications during cervical pedicle screw and Magerl screw insertion, the authors developed a new technique which is a mold shaped to fit the lamina. Cervical pedicle screw fixation and Magerl screw fixation provide good correction of cervical alignment, rigid fixation, and a high fusion rate. However, malpositioning of screws is not a rare occurrence, and thus the insertion of screws has a potential risk of neurovascular injury. It is necessary to determine a safe insertion procedure for these screws. Preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans of 1-mm slice thickness were obtained of the whole surgical area. The CT data were imported into a computer navigation system. We developed a 3-dimensional full-scale model of the patient's spine using a rapid prototyping technique from the CT data. Molds of the left and right sides at each vertebra were also constructed. One hole (2.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 cm in length) was made in each mold for the insertion of a screw guide. We performed a simulated surgery using the bone model and the mold before operation in all patients. The mold was firmly attached to the surface of the lamina and the guide wire was inserted using the intraoperative image of lateral vertebra. The proper insertion point, direction, and length of the guide were also confirmed both with the model bone and the image intensifier in the operative field. Then, drilling using a cannulated drill and tapping using a cannulated tapping device were carried out. Eleven consecutive patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion surgery using this technique since 2009 are included. The screw positions in the sagittal and axial planes were evaluated by postoperative CT scan to check for

  19. Pedicle screw fixation in spinal disorders: a European view.

    PubMed

    Boos, N; Webb, J K

    1997-01-01

    Continuing controversy over the use of pedicular fixation in the United States is promoted by the lack of governmental approval for the marketing of these devices due to safety and efficacy concerns. These implants have meanwhile become an invaluable part of spinal instrumentation in Europe. With regard to the North American view, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews that consider the historical evolution of pedicle screw systems, the rationales for their application, and the clinical outcome from a European perspective. This literature review suggests that pedicular fixation is a relatively safe procedure and is not associated with a significantly higher complication risk than non-pedicular instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation provides short, rigid segmental stabilization that allows preservation of motion segments and stabilization of the spine in the absence of intact posterior elements, which is not possible with non-pedicular instrumentation. Fusion rates and clinical outcome in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures appear to be superior to that achieved using other forms of treatment. For the correction of spinal deformity (i.e., scoliosis, kyphosis, spondylolisthesis, tumor), pedicular fixation provides the theoretical benefit of rigid segmental fixation and of facilitated deformity correction by a posterior approach, but the clinical relevance so far remains unknown. In low-back pain disorders, a literature analysis of 5,600 cases of lumbar fusion with different techniques reveals a trend that pedicle screw fixation enhances the fusion rate but not clinical outcome. The most striking finding in the literature is the large range in the radiological and clinical results. For every single fusion technique poor and excellent results have been described. This review argues that European spine surgeons should begin to back up the evident benefits of pedicle screw systems for specific spinal disorders by controlled prospective clinical trials. This may

  20. Individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Dai, Jianhao; Zhang, Junxiang; Ma, Yichuan; Zhu, Guanghui; Shen, Junjie; Niu, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine is a difficult and high-risk procedure. The screw is difficult to place rapidly and accurately, and can lead to serious injury of spinal cord or vertebral artery. The aim of this study was to design an individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine. Methods Using CT thin slices data, we employed computer software to design the navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis). The upper cervical spine models and navigation templates were produced by 3D printer with equal proportion, two sets for each case. In one set (Test group), pedicle screws fixation were guided by the navigation template; in the second set (Control group), the screws were fixed under fluoroscopy. According to the degree of pedicle cortex perforation and whether the screw needed to be refitted, the fixation effects were divided into 3 types: Type I, screw is fully located within the vertebral pedicle; Type II, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is <1 mm, but with good internal fixation stability and no need to renovate; Type III, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is >1 mm or with the poor internal fixation stability and in need of renovation. Type I and Type II were acceptable placements; Type III placements were unacceptable. Results A total of 19 upper cervical spine and 19 navigation templates were printed, and 37 pedicle screws were fixed in each group. Type I screw-placements in the test group totaled 32; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 2; with an acceptable rate of 94.60%. Type I screw placements in the control group totaled 23; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 11, with an acceptable rate of 70.27%. The acceptability rate in test group was higher than the rate in control group. The operation time and fluoroscopic frequency for each screw were decreased, compared with control group. Conclusion The individualized 3D

  1. Individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Dai, Jianhao; Zhang, Junxiang; Ma, Yichuan; Zhu, Guanghui; Shen, Junjie; Niu, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    Pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine is a difficult and high-risk procedure. The screw is difficult to place rapidly and accurately, and can lead to serious injury of spinal cord or vertebral artery. The aim of this study was to design an individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine. Using CT thin slices data, we employed computer software to design the navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis). The upper cervical spine models and navigation templates were produced by 3D printer with equal proportion, two sets for each case. In one set (Test group), pedicle screws fixation were guided by the navigation template; in the second set (Control group), the screws were fixed under fluoroscopy. According to the degree of pedicle cortex perforation and whether the screw needed to be refitted, the fixation effects were divided into 3 types: Type I, screw is fully located within the vertebral pedicle; Type II, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is <1 mm, but with good internal fixation stability and no need to renovate; Type III, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is >1 mm or with the poor internal fixation stability and in need of renovation. Type I and Type II were acceptable placements; Type III placements were unacceptable. A total of 19 upper cervical spine and 19 navigation templates were printed, and 37 pedicle screws were fixed in each group. Type I screw-placements in the test group totaled 32; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 2; with an acceptable rate of 94.60%. Type I screw placements in the control group totaled 23; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 11, with an acceptable rate of 70.27%. The acceptability rate in test group was higher than the rate in control group. The operation time and fluoroscopic frequency for each screw were decreased, compared with control group. The individualized 3D printing navigation template for

  2. Screw Versus Plate Fixation for Chevron Osteotomy: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Boyd J; Fallat, Lawrence M; Kish, John P

    2016-01-01

    The chevron osteotomy is a popular procedure used for the correction of moderate hallux abducto valgus deformity. Fixation is typically accomplished with Kirschner wires or bone screws; however, in cystic or osteoporotic bone, these could be inadequate, resulting in displacement of the capital fragment. We propose using a locking plate and interfragmental screw for fixation of the chevron osteotomy that could reduce the healing time and decrease the incidence of displacement. We performed a retrospective cohort study for chevron osteotomies on 75 feet (73 patients). The control groups underwent fixation with 1 screw in 30 feet (40%) and 2 screws in 30 feet (40%). A total of 15 feet (20%) were included in the locking plate and interfragmental screw group. The patients were followed up until bone healing was achieved at a median of 7 (range 6 to 14) weeks. Our hypothesis was that those treated with the locking plate and interfragmental screw would have a faster healing time and fewer incidents of capital fragment displacement compared with the 1- or 2-screw groups. The corresponding mean intervals to healing for the 1-screw group was 7.71 ± 1.28 (range 6 to 10) weeks, for the 2-screw group was 7.27 ± 1.57 (range 6 to 14) weeks, and for the locking plate and interfragmental screw group was 7.01 ± 1.00 (range 6 to 9) weeks. One case of capital fragment displacement occurred in the single screw group and one in the 2-screw group. No displacement occurred in the locking plate and interfragmental screw group. Neither finding was statistically significant. However, we believe the locking plate and interfragmental screw could be a viable option in patients with osteoporotic and cystic bone changes for correction of hallux abducto valgus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. C1-C2 intra-articular screw fixation for atlantoaxial posterior stabilization.

    PubMed

    Tokuhashi, Y; Matsuzaki, H; Shirasaki, Y; Tateishi, T

    2000-02-01

    A trial of a new posterior stabilization technique for atlantoaxial instability and a report of preliminary results. To describe a new posterior stabilization technique for atlantoxial instability. Magerl's transarticular screw fixation is an accepted technique for rigid atlantoaxial stabilization, which reportedly has yielded many good clinical results. However, the technique is technically demanding and poses a risk of injury to the nerves and veins. Eleven patients who had been treated with intra-articular screw fixation in combination with Halifax interlaminar clamp (OSTEONICS, Allendale, NJ) for atlantoaxial instability were observed. Results of their clinical examinations and biomechanical studies using resinous bones of a cervical spine model were reviewed. In all patients, occipital pain, neck pain, and neural deficit improved, and bony fusion with no correction loss was shown on radiography. To date, no vascular or neural complications have been found, and no instrumentation failures have occurred. In the biomechanical study, the Halifax with transarticular screw fixation had significantly greater flexion stiffness than the Halifax only or the Halifax with intra-articular screw fixation, but the torsion stiffness of the Halifax with intra-articular screw fixation was significantly greater than that of the other Halifax combinations. The preliminary results showed that this technique was effective in strengthening the rotational stability of the atlantoaxial fixation and was considered useful for atlantoaxial posterior stabilization.

  4. Comparison of two-transsacral-screw fixation versus triangular osteosynthesis for transforaminal sacral fractures.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyong S; Zamorano, David P; Wahba, George M; Garcia, Ivan; Bhatia, Nitin; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-09-01

    Transforaminal pelvic fractures are high-energy injuries that are translationally and rotationally unstable. This study compared the biomechanical stability of triangular osteosynthesis vs 2-transsacral-screw fixation in the repair of a transforaminal pelvic fracture model. A transforaminal fracture model was created in 10 cadaveric lumbopelvic specimens. Five of the specimens were stabilized with triangular osteosynthesis, which consisted of unilateral L5-to-ilium lumbopelvic fixation and ipsilateral iliosacral screw fixation. The remaining 5 were stabilized with a 2-transsacral-screw fixation technique that consisted of 2 transsacral screws inserted across S1. All specimens were loaded cyclically and then loaded to failure. Translation and rotation were measured using the MicroScribe 3D digitizing system (Revware Inc, Raleigh, North Carolina). The 2-transsacral-screw group showed significantly greater stiffness than the triangular osteosynthesis group (2-transsacral-screw group, 248.7 N/mm [standard deviation, 73.9]; triangular osteosynthesis group, 125.0 N/mm [standard deviation, 66.9]; P=.02); however, ultimate load and rotational stiffness were not statistically significant. Compared with triangular osteosynthesis fixation, the use of 2 transsacral screws provides a comparable biomechanical stability profile in both translation and rotation. This newly revised 2-transsacral-screw construct offers the traumatologist an alternative method of repair for vertical shear fractures that provides biplanar stability. It also offers the advantage of percutaneous placement in either the prone or supine position. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Cortical bone trajectory screw fixation versus traditional pedicle screw fixation for 2-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion: comparison of surgical outcomes for 2-level degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique is a new nontraditional pedicle screw (PS) insertion method. However, the biomechanical behavior of multilevel CBT screw/rod fixation remains unclear, and surgical outcomes in patients after 2-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using CBT screw fixation have not been reported. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine the clinical and radiological outcomes after 2-level PLIF using CBT screw fixation for 2-level degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DS) and to compare these outcomes with those after 2-level PLIF using traditional PS fixation. METHODS The study included 22 consecutively treated patients who underwent 2-level PLIF with CBT screw fixation for 2-level DS (CBT group, mean follow-up 39 months) and a historical control group of 20 consecutively treated patients who underwent 2-level PLIF using traditional PS fixation for 2-level DS (PS group, mean follow-up 35 months). Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system. Bony union was assessed by dynamic plain radiographs and CT images. Surgery-related complications, including symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD), were examined. RESULTS The mean operative duration and intraoperative blood loss were 192 minutes and 495 ml in the CBT group and 218 minutes and 612 ml in the PS group, respectively (p < 0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively). The mean JOA score improved significantly from 12.3 points before surgery to 21.1 points (mean recovery rate 54.4%) at the latest follow-up in the CBT group and from 12.8 points before surgery to 20.4 points (mean recovery rate 51.8%) at the latest follow-up in the PS group (p > 0.05). Solid bony union was achieved at 90.9% of segments in the CBT group and 95.0% of segments in the PS group (p > 0.05). Symptomatic ASD developed in 2 patients in the CBT group (9.1%) and 4 patients in the PS group (20.0%, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Two-level PLIF with CBT

  6. [Clinical application of atlas translaminar screws fixation in treatment of atlatoaxial instability].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoyou; Fu, Shijie; Shen, Huarui; Guan, Taiyuan; Xu, Ping

    2013-10-01

    To explore the effectiveness of fixation of atlas translaminar screws in the treatment of atlatoaxial instability. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 32 patients with atlatoaxial instability treated with atlantoaxial trans-pedicle screws between March 2007 and August 2009. Of them, 7 patients underwent atlas translaminar screws combined with axis transpedicle screws fixation because of fracture types, anatomic variation, and intraoperative reason, including 5 males and 2 females with an average age of 48.2 years (range, 35-69 years). A total of 9 translaminar screws were inserted. Injury was caused by traffic accident in 4 cases, falling from height in 2 cases, and crushing in 1 case. Two cases had simple odontoid fracture (Anderson type II), and 5 cases had odontoid fracture combined with other injuries (massa lateralis atlantis fracture in 2, atlantoaxial dislocation in 1, and Hangman fracture in 2). The interval between injury and operation was 4-9 days (mean, 6 days). The preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score was 8.29 +/- 1.60. The X-ray films showed good position of the screws. Healing of incision by first intention was obtained, and no patient had injuries of the spinal cord injury, nerve root, and vertebral artery. Seven cases were followed up 9-26 months (mean, 14 months). Good bone fusion was observed at 8 months on average (range, 6-11 months). No loosening, displacement, and breakage of internal fixation, re-dislocation and instability of atlantoaxial joint, or penetrating of pedicle screw into the spinal canal and the spinal cord occurred. The JOA score was significantly improved to 15.29 +/- 1.38 at 6 months after operation (t = 32.078, P = 0.000). Atlas translaminar screws fixation has the advantages of firm fixation, simple operating techniques, and relative safety, so it may be a remedial measure of atlatoaxial instability.

  7. Use of C2 spinous process screw for posterior cervical fixation as substitute for laminar screw in a patient with thin laminae

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kosei; Baba, Satoshi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2013-01-01

    Rigid screw fixation of C2 including transarticular screw and pedicle screw contain the risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury. On the other hand, translaminar screws are considered to be safer for patients with anomalous VA. But C2 translaminar screw placement was limited in patients who have thin laminas and there is marked variation in C2 laminar thickness. Appropriate C2 fixation method for a patient who has thin laminas and high-riding VA together was controversial. Here, we present a case of an elderly Asian woman who had thin laminas and high-riding VA together with progressive myelopathy to report a first case of C2 spinous process screw insertion. Although the stability and safety of C2 spinous process screw was reported in cadaver series, there was no clinical report to our knowledge. Spinous process screw can be an option of C2 fixation for patients with high-riding VA and severe degenerated cervical spines including thin C2 laminas. PMID:23814004

  8. Biomechanical Comparison Study of Three Fixation Methods for Proximal Chevron Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal in Hallux Valgus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Su; Young, Ki Won; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2017-01-01

    Background Fixation of proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy has been accomplished using K-wires traditionally and with a locking plate recently. However, both methods have many disadvantages. Hence, we developed an intramedullary fixation technique using headless cannulated screws and conducted a biomechanical study to evaluate the superiority of the technique to K-wire and locking plate fixations. Methods Proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy was performed on 30 synthetic metatarsal models using three fixation techniques. Specimens in group I were fixated with K-wires (1.6 mm × 2) and in group II with headless cannulated screws (3.0 mm × 2) distally through the intramedullary canal. Specimens in group III were fixated with a locking X-shaped plate (1.3-mm thick) and screws (2.5 mm × 4). Eight metatarsal specimens were selected from each group for walking fatigue test. Bending stiffness and dorsal angulation were measured by 1,000 repetitions of a cantilever bending protocol in a plantar to dorsal direction. The remaining two samples from each group were subjected to 5 mm per minute axial loading to assess the maximal loading tolerance. Results All samples in group I failed walking fatigue test while group II and group III tolerated the walking fatigue test. Group II showed greater resistance to bending force and smaller dorsal angulation than group III (p = 0.001). On the axial loading test, group I and group II demonstrated superior maximum tolerance to group III (54.8 N vs. 47.2 N vs. 28.3 N). Conclusions Authors have demonstrated proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy with intramedullary screw fixation provides superior biomechanical stability to locking plate and K-wire fixations. The new technique using intramedullary screw fixation can offer robust fixation and may lead to better outcomes in surgical treatment of hallux valgus. PMID:29201305

  9. Biomechanical Comparison Study of Three Fixation Methods for Proximal Chevron Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal in Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Hun Ki; Young, Ki Won; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2017-12-01

    Fixation of proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy has been accomplished using K-wires traditionally and with a locking plate recently. However, both methods have many disadvantages. Hence, we developed an intramedullary fixation technique using headless cannulated screws and conducted a biomechanical study to evaluate the superiority of the technique to K-wire and locking plate fixations. Proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy was performed on 30 synthetic metatarsal models using three fixation techniques. Specimens in group I were fixated with K-wires (1.6 mm × 2) and in group II with headless cannulated screws (3.0 mm × 2) distally through the intramedullary canal. Specimens in group III were fixated with a locking X-shaped plate (1.3-mm thick) and screws (2.5 mm × 4). Eight metatarsal specimens were selected from each group for walking fatigue test. Bending stiffness and dorsal angulation were measured by 1,000 repetitions of a cantilever bending protocol in a plantar to dorsal direction. The remaining two samples from each group were subjected to 5 mm per minute axial loading to assess the maximal loading tolerance. All samples in group I failed walking fatigue test while group II and group III tolerated the walking fatigue test. Group II showed greater resistance to bending force and smaller dorsal angulation than group III ( p = 0.001). On the axial loading test, group I and group II demonstrated superior maximum tolerance to group III (54.8 N vs. 47.2 N vs. 28.3 N). Authors have demonstrated proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy with intramedullary screw fixation provides superior biomechanical stability to locking plate and K-wire fixations. The new technique using intramedullary screw fixation can offer robust fixation and may lead to better outcomes in surgical treatment of hallux valgus.

  10. Monoaxial Pedicle Screws Are Superior to Polyaxial Pedicle Screws and the Two Pin External Fixator for Subcutaneous Anterior Pelvic Fixation in a Biomechanical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Rahul; Onwudiwe, Ndidi; Roth, Matthew; Sethi, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Comparison of monoaxial and polyaxial screws with the use of subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation. Methods. Four different groups each having 5 constructs were tested in distraction within the elastic range. Once that was completed, 3 components were tested in torsion within the elastic range, 2 to torsional failure and 3 in distraction until failure. Results. The pedicle screw systems showed higher stiffness (4.008 ± 0.113 Nmm monoaxial, 3.638 ± 0.108 Nmm Click-x; 3.634 ± 0.147 Nmm Pangea) than the exfix system (2.882 ± 0.054 Nmm) in distraction. In failure testing, monoaxial pedicle screw system was stronger (360 N) than exfixes (160 N) and polyaxial devices which failed if distracted greater than 4 cm (157 N Click-x or 138 N Pangea). The exfix had higher peak torque and torsional stiffness than all pedicle systems. In torsion, the yield strengths were the same for all constructs. Conclusion. The infix device constructed with polyaxial or monoaxial pedicle screws is stiffer than the 2 pin external fixator in distraction testing. In extreme cases, the use of reinforcement or monoaxial systems which do not fail even at 360 N is a better option. In torsional testing, the 2 pin external fixator is stiffer than the pedicle screw systems. PMID:24368943

  11. Monoaxial pedicle screws are superior to polyaxial pedicle screws and the two pin external fixator for subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation in a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Rahul; Onwudiwe, Ndidi; Roth, Matthew; Sethi, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Comparison of monoaxial and polyaxial screws with the use of subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation. Methods. Four different groups each having 5 constructs were tested in distraction within the elastic range. Once that was completed, 3 components were tested in torsion within the elastic range, 2 to torsional failure and 3 in distraction until failure. Results. The pedicle screw systems showed higher stiffness (4.008 ± 0.113 Nmm monoaxial, 3.638 ± 0.108 Nmm Click-x; 3.634 ± 0.147 Nmm Pangea) than the exfix system (2.882 ± 0.054 Nmm) in distraction. In failure testing, monoaxial pedicle screw system was stronger (360 N) than exfixes (160 N) and polyaxial devices which failed if distracted greater than 4 cm (157 N Click-x or 138 N Pangea). The exfix had higher peak torque and torsional stiffness than all pedicle systems. In torsion, the yield strengths were the same for all constructs. Conclusion. The infix device constructed with polyaxial or monoaxial pedicle screws is stiffer than the 2 pin external fixator in distraction testing. In extreme cases, the use of reinforcement or monoaxial systems which do not fail even at 360 N is a better option. In torsional testing, the 2 pin external fixator is stiffer than the pedicle screw systems.

  12. Suture Button Fixation Versus Syndesmotic Screws in Supination-External Rotation Type 4 Injuries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Neary, Kaitlin C; Mormino, Matthew A; Wang, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    In stress-positive, unstable supination-external rotation type 4 (SER IV) ankle fractures, implant selection for syndesmotic fixation is a debated topic. Among the available syndesmotic fixation methods, the metallic screw and the suture button have been routinely compared in the literature. In addition to strength of fixation and ability to anatomically restore the syndesmosis, costs associated with implant use have recently been called into question. This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of the suture button and determine whether suture button fixation is more cost-effective than two 3.5-mm syndesmotic screws not removed on a routine postoperative basis. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. Studies with the highest evidence levels in the available literature were used to estimate the hardware removal and failure rates for syndesmotic screws and suture button fixation. Costs were determined by examining the average costs for patients who underwent surgery for unstable SER IV ankle fractures at a single level-1 trauma institution. A decision analysis model that allowed comparison of the 2 fixation methods was developed. Using a 20% screw hardware removal rate and a 4% suture button hardware removal rate, the total cost for 2 syndesmotic screws was US$20,836 and the total effectiveness was 5.846. This yielded a total cost of $3564 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) over an 8-year time period. The total cost for suture button fixation was $19,354 and the total effectiveness was 5.904, resulting in a total cost of $3294 per QALY over the same time period. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to assess suture button fixation costs as well as screw and suture button hardware removal rates. Other possible treatment scenarios were also examined, including 1 screw and 2 suture buttons for operative fixation of the syndesmosis. To become more cost-effective, the screw hardware removal rate would have to be reduced to less than 10

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Osteosynthesis Screw Fixation in the Bone Stock: An Appropriate Method for Automatic Screw Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Wieding, Jan; Souffrant, Robert; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The use of finite element analysis (FEA) has grown to a more and more important method in the field of biomedical engineering and biomechanics. Although increased computational performance allows new ways to generate more complex biomechanical models, in the area of orthopaedic surgery, solid modelling of screws and drill holes represent a limitation of their use for individual cases and an increase of computational costs. To cope with these requirements, different methods for numerical screw modelling have therefore been investigated to improve its application diversity. Exemplarily, fixation was performed for stabilization of a large segmental femoral bone defect by an osteosynthesis plate. Three different numerical modelling techniques for implant fixation were used in this study, i.e. without screw modelling, screws as solid elements as well as screws as structural elements. The latter one offers the possibility to implement automatically generated screws with variable geometry on arbitrary FE models. Structural screws were parametrically generated by a Python script for the automatic generation in the FE-software Abaqus/CAE on both a tetrahedral and a hexahedral meshed femur. Accuracy of the FE models was confirmed by experimental testing using a composite femur with a segmental defect and an identical osteosynthesis plate for primary stabilisation with titanium screws. Both deflection of the femoral head and the gap alteration were measured with an optical measuring system with an accuracy of approximately 3 µm. For both screw modelling techniques a sufficient correlation of approximately 95% between numerical and experimental analysis was found. Furthermore, using structural elements for screw modelling the computational time could be reduced by 85% using hexahedral elements instead of tetrahedral elements for femur meshing. The automatically generated screw modelling offers a realistic simulation of the osteosynthesis fixation with screws in the adjacent

  14. Comparison of open reduction versus minimally invasive surgical approaches on screw position in canine sacroiliac lag-screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, Loïc M; Marturello, Danielle M; Guiot, Laurent P; Guillou, Reunan P; DeCamp, Charles E

    2016-07-19

    To compare accuracy and consistency of sacral screw placement in canine pelves treated for sacroiliac luxation with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO) techniques. Unilateral sacroiliac luxations created experimentally in canine cadavers were stabilized with an iliosacral lag screw applied via ORIF or MIO techniques (n = 10/group). Dorsoventral and craniocaudal screw angles were measured using computed tomography multiplanar reconstructions in transverse and dorsal planes, respectively. Ratios between pilot hole length and sacral width (PL/SW-R) were obtained. Data between groups were compared statistically (p <0.05). Mean screw angles (±SD) were greater in ORIF specimens in both transverse (p <0.001) and dorsal planes (p <0.004). Mean PL/SW-R was smaller (p <0.001) in the ORIF group, yet was greater than 60%. While pilot holes exited the first sacral end-plate in three of 10 ORIF specimens, the spinal canal was not violated in either group. This study demonstrates that MIO fixation of canine sacroiliac luxations provides more accurate and consistent sacral screw placement than ORIF. With proper techniques, iatrogenic neurological damage can be avoided with both techniques. The PL /SW-R, which relates to safe screw fixation, also demonstrates that screw penetration of at least 60% of the sacral width is achievable regardless of surgical approach. These findings, along with the limited dissection needed for accurate sacral screw placement, suggest that MIO of sacroiliac luxations is a valid alternative to ORIF.

  15. Axial loading screw fixation for chevron type osteotomies of the distal first metatarsal: a retrospective outcomes analysis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ryan M; Fallat, Lawrence M; Kish, John P

    2014-01-01

    The distal chevron osteotomy is a widely accepted technique for the treatment of hallux abductovalgus deformity. Although the osteotomy is considered to be stable, displacements of the capital fragment has been described. We propose a new method for fixation of the osteotomy involving the axial loading screw (ALS) used in addition to single screw fixation. We believe this method will provide a more mechanically stable construct. We reviewed the charts of 46 patients in whom 52 feet underwent a distal chevron osteotomy that was fixated with either 1 screw or 2 screws that included the ALS. We hypothesized that the ALS group would have fewer displacements and would heal more quickly than the single screw fixation group. We found that the group with ALS fixation had healed at a mean of 6.5 weeks and that the group with single screw fixation had healed at 9.53 weeks (p = .001). Also, 8 cases occurred of displacement of the capital fragment in the single screw, control group compared with 2 cases of displacement in the ALS group. However, this finding was not statistically significant. The addition of the ALS to single screw fixation allowed the patients to heal approximately 3 weeks earlier than single screw fixation alone. The ALS is a fixation option for the surgeon to consider when osseous correction of hallux abducto valgus is performed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty glenoid fixation: is there a benefit in using four instead of two screws?

    PubMed

    James, Jaison; Allison, Mari A; Werner, Frederick W; McBride, Devin E; Basu, Niladri N; Sutton, Levi G; Nanavati, Vipul N

    2013-08-01

    To allow osseous integration to occur and thus provide long-term stability, initial glenoid baseplate fixation must be sufficiently rigid. A major contributing factor to initial rigid fixation is baseplate screw fixation. Current baseplate designs use a 4-screw fixation construct. However, recent literature suggests adequate fixation can be achieved with fewer than 4 screws. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a 4-screw construct provides more baseplate stability than a 2-screw construct. A flat-backed glenoid baseplate with 4 screw hole options was implanted into 6 matched pairs of cadaver scapulas using standard surgical technique. Within each pair, 2 screws or 4 screws were implanted in a randomized fashion. A glenosphere was attached allowing cyclic loading in an inferior-to-superior direction and in an anterior-to-posterior direction. Baseplate motion was measured using 4 linear voltage displacement transducers evenly spaced around the glenosphere. There was no statistical difference in the average peak central displacements between fixation with 2 or 4 screws (P = .338). Statistical increases in average peak central displacement with increasing load (P < .001) and with repetitive loading (P < .002) were found. This study demonstrates no statistical difference in baseplate motion between 2-screw and 4-screw constructs. Therefore, using fewer screws could potentially lead to a reduction in operative time, cost, and risk, with no significant negative effect on overall implant baseplate motion. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors affecting the pullout strength of cancellous bone screws.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J R; Harrington, R M; Lee, K M; Anderson, P A; Tencer, A F; Kowalski, D

    1996-08-01

    Screws placed into cancellous bone in orthopedic surgical applications, such as fixation of fractures of the femoral neck or the lumbar spine, can be subjected to high loads. Screw pullout is a possibility, especially if low density osteoporotic bone is encountered. The overall goal of this study was to determine how screw thread geometry, tapping, and cannulation affect the holding power of screws in cancellous bone and determine whether current designs achieve maximum purchase strength. Twelve types of commercially available cannulated and noncannulated cancellous bone screws were tested for pullout strength in rigid unicellular polyurethane foams of apparent densities and shear strengths within the range reported for human cancellous bone. The experimentally derived pullout strength was compared to a predicted shear failure force of the internal threads formed in the polyurethane foam. Screws embedded in porous materials pullout by shearing the internal threads in the porous material. Experimental pullout force was highly correlated to the predicted shear failure force (slope = 1.05, R2 = 0.947) demonstrating that it is controlled by the major diameter of the screw, the length of engagement of the thread, the shear strength of the material into which the screw is embedded, and a thread shape factor (TSF) which accounts for screw thread depth and pitch. The average TSF for cannulated screws was 17 percent lower than that of noncannulated cancellous screws, and the pullout force was correspondingly less. Increasing the TSF, a result of decreasing thread pitch or increasing thread depth, increases screw purchase strength in porous materials. Tapping was found to reduce pullout force by an average of 8 percent compared with nontapped holes (p = 0.0001). Tapping in porous materials decreases screw pullout strength because the removal of material by the tap enlarges hole volume by an average of 27 percent, in effect decreasing the depth and shear area of the internal

  18. Enhanced bone screw fixation with biodegradable bone cement in osteoporotic bone model.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Tiina; Koistinen, Arto; Kröger, Heikki; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2012-09-27

    The purpose of this study was to study the potential of novel biodegradable PCL bone cement to improve bone screw fixation strength in osteoporotic bone. The biomechanical properties of bone cement (ε-polycaprolactone, PCL) and fixation strength were studied using biomechanical tests and bone screws fixed in an osteoporotic bone model. Removal torques and pullout strengths were assessed for cortical, self-tapping, and cancellous screws inserted in the osteoporotic bone model (polyurethane foam blocks with polycarbonate plate) with and without PCL bone cement. Open cell and cellular rigid foam blocks with a density of 0.12 g/cm3 were used in this model. Removal torques were significantly (more than six-fold) improved with bone cement for cancellous screws. Furthermore, the bone cement improved pullout strengths three to 12 times over depending on the screw and model material. Biodegradable bone cement turned out to be a very potential material to stabilize screw fixation in osteoporotic bone. The results warrant further research before safe clinical use, especially to clarify clinically relevant factors using real osteoporotic bone under human body conditions and dynamic fatigue testing for long-term performance.

  19. Single-screw Fixation of Adolescent Salter-II Proximal Humeral Fractures: Biomechanical Analysis of the "One Pass Door Lock" Technique.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark Carl; Redman, Christopher N; Mistovich, R Justin; Muriuki, Muturi; Sangimino, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    Pin fixation of Salter-II proximal humeral fractures in adolescents approaching skeletal maturity has potential complications that can be avoided with single-screw fixation. However, the strength of screw fixation relative to parallel and diverging pin fixation is unknown. To compare the biomechanical fixation strength between these fixation modalities, we used synthetic composite humeri, and then compared these results in composite bone with cadaveric humeri specimens. Parallel pinning, divergent pinning, and single-screw fixation repairs were performed on synthetic composite humeri with simulated fractures. Six specimens of each type were tested in axial loading and other 6 were tested in torsion. Five pair of cadaveric humeri were tested with diverging pins and single screws for comparison. Single-screw fixation was statistically stronger than pin fixation in axial and torsional loading in both composite and actual bone. There was no statistical difference between composite and cadaveric bone specimens. Single-screw fixation can offer greater stability to adolescent Salter-II fractures than traditional pinning. Single-screw fixation should be considered as a viable alternative to percutaneous pin fixation in transitional patients with little expected remaining growth.

  20. Plantar-to-dorsal compared to dorsal-to-plantar screw fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy: a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishn M; Parks, Brent G; Nguyen, Augustine; Schon, Lew C

    2005-10-01

    A change in screw orientation in fixing the chevron proximal first metatarsal osteotomy was noted anecdotally to improve fixation strength. The authors hypothesized that plantar-to-dorsal screw orientation would be more stable than the conventional dorsal-to-plantar screw orientation for fixation of the chevron osteotomy. The purpose of this study was to determine if the load-to-failure and stiffness of the chevron type proximal first metatarsal osteotomy stabilized using plantar-to-dorsal screw fixation were greater than with the more conventional dorsal-to-plantar screw fixation method. One foot from each of eight matched cadaver pairs was randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1) fixation with a dorsal-to-plantar lag screw or 2) fixation with a plantar-to-dorsal lag screw. A proximal chevron osteotomy was then created using standard technique and the metatarsal was fixed according to previously established method. The bone was potted in polyester resin, and the construct was fitted into a materials testing system machine in which load was applied to the plantar aspect of the metatarsal until failure. The two groups were compared using a two-tailed Student t test. The average load-to-failure and stiffness of the chevron osteotomy fixed with the plantar-to-dorsal lag screw were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the group fixed with more conventional dorsal-to-plantar lag screws. Plantar-to-dorsal screw orientation was more stable than the conventional dorsal-to-plantar screw orientation for fixation of the proximal chevron osteotomy. Plantar-to-dorsal screw orientation should be considered when using the chevron proximal first metatarsal osteotomy.

  1. Fixation of mandibular fractures with biodegradable plates and screws.

    PubMed

    Yerit, Kaan C; Enislidis, Georg; Schopper, Christian; Turhani, Dritan; Wanschitz, Felix; Wagner, Arne; Watzinger, Franz; Ewers, Rolf

    2002-09-01

    Little data exist regarding the use of biodegradable plates and screws for the internal fixation of human mandibular fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of biodegradable, self-reinforced poly-L-lactide plates and screws for the internal fixation of fractures of the human mandible. Twenty-two individuals (14 male, 8 female; average age, 26.3 years) with a variety of fracture patterns of the mandible underwent management with a biodegradable fixation system. After surgery, maxillomandibular fixation was applied in 3 cases. Images (panoramic radiograph, computed tomographic scan) were taken immediately after surgery and at the 4-week, 8-week, 12-week, and 24-week intervals. The follow-up period averaged 49.1 weeks (range, 22 to 78 weeks). Mucosal dehiscences over the resorbable devices were present in 2 patients. In 1 of these 2 cases, the material had to be replaced with titanium plates. Mucosal healing and consolidation of the fracture were normal in all other patients. Self-reinforced biodegradable osteosynthesis materials provide a reliable and sufficient alternative to conventional titanium plate systems.

  2. Reverse Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Fixation: A Biomechanical Comparison Study of Tibial Cross-Pin and Femoral Interference Screw Fixation.

    PubMed

    Lawley, Richard J; Klein, Samuel E; Chudik, Steven C

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical performance of tibial cross-pin (TCP) fixation relative to femoral cross-pin (FCP), femoral interference screw (FIS), and tibial interference screw (TIS) fixation. We randomized 40 porcine specimens (20 tibias and 20 femurs) to TIS fixation (group 1, n = 10), FIS fixation (group 2, n = 10), TCP fixation (group 3, n = 10), or FCP fixation (group 4, n = 10) and performed biomechanical testing to compare ultimate load, stiffness, yield load, cyclic displacement, and load at 5-mm displacement. We performed cross-pin fixation of the looped end and interference screw fixation of the free ends of 9-mm-diameter bovine extensor digitorum communis tendon grafts. Graft fixation constructs were cyclically loaded and then loaded to failure in line with the tunnels. Regarding yield load, FIS was superior to TIS (704 ± 125 N vs 504 ± 118 N, P = .002), TCP was superior to TIS (1,449 ± 265 N vs 504 ± 118 N, P < .001), and TCP was superior to FCP (1,449 ± 265 N vs 792 ± 397 N, P < .001). Cyclic displacement for FCP was superior to TCP. Cyclic displacement for TIS versus FIS showed no statistically significant difference (2.5 ± 1.0 mm vs 2.2 ± 0.6 mm, P = .298). Interference screw fixation consistently failed by graft slippage, whereas TCP fixation failed by tibial bone failure. FCP fixation failed by either femoral bone failure or failure elsewhere in the testing apparatus. Regarding yield load, TCP fixation performed biomechanically superior to the clinically proven FCP at time zero. Because TIS fixation shows the lowest yield strength, it represents the weak link, and combined TCP-FIS fixation theoretically would be biomechanically superior relative to combined FCP-TIS fixation with regard to yield load. Cyclic displacement showed a small difference in favor of FCP over TCP fixation and no difference between TIS and FIS. Time-zero biomechanics of TCP fixation paired with FIS fixation show that this method of fixation can be

  3. Surgical strategies to improve fixation in the osteoporotic spine: the effects of tapping, cement augmentation, and screw trajectory.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Craig A; Reiter, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ferris; Choma, Theodore J

    2014-02-01

    Study Design Biomechanical study of pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic bone. Objective To investigate whether it is better to tap or not tap osteoporotic bone prior to placing a cement-augmented pedicle screw. Methods Initially, we evaluated load to failure of screws placed in cancellous bone blocks with or without prior tapping as well as after varying the depths of tapping prior to screw insertion. Then we evaluated load to failure of screws placed in bone block models with a straight-ahead screw trajectory as well as with screws having a 23-degree cephalad trajectory (toward the end plate). These techniques were tested with nonaugmented (NA) screws as well as with bioactive cement (BioC) augmentation prior to screw insertion. Results In the NA group, pretapping decreased fixation strength in a dose-dependent fashion. In the BioC group, the tapped screws had significantly greater loads to failure (p < 0.01). Comparing only the screw orientation, the screws oriented at 23 degrees cephalad had a significantly higher failure force than their respective counterparts at 0 degrees (p < 0.01). Conclusions Standard pedicle screw fixation is often inadequate in the osteoporotic spine, but this study suggests tapping prior to cement augmentation will substantially improve fixation when compared with not tapping. Angulating screws more cephalad also seems to enhance aging spine fixation.

  4. Initial stability of cementless acetabular cups: press-fit and screw fixation interaction--an in vitro biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Tomonori; Kaku, Nobuhiro; Hara, Katsutoshi; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Press-fit and screw fixation are important technical factors to achieve initial stability of a cementless acetabular cup for good clinical results of total hip arthroplasty. However, how these factors affect one another in initial cup fixation remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mutual influence between press-fit and screw fixation on initial cup stability. Foam bone was subjected to exact hemispherical-shape machining to diameters of 48, 48.5 and 49 mm. A compressive force was applied to ensure seating of a 48-mm-diameter acetabular cup in the foam bone prior to testing. Screws were inserted in six different conditions and tightened in a radial direction at the same torque strength. Then, the socket was rotated with a twist-testing machine, and the torque value at the start of axial rotation between the socket and the foam bone was measured under each screw condition. The torque values for the 48-mm-diameter reaming were >20 N m higher than those for the 48.5- and 49-mm-diameter reaming in each screw condition, indicating that press-fit fixation is stronger than screw fixation. Meanwhile, torque values for the 48.5- and 49-mm-diameter reaming tended to increase with increasing the number of screws. According to our experiment, press-fit fixation of a cementless acetabular cup achieved rigid stability. Although the supplemental screws increased stability of the implant under good press-fit conditions, they showed little impact on whole-cup stability. In the case of insufficient press-fit fixation, cup stability depends on screw stability and increasing the number of additional screws increases cup stability.

  5. Continuous decompression of unicameral bone cyst with cannulated screws: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Brecelj, Janez; Suhodolcan, Lovro

    2007-09-01

    We determined the role of mechanical decompression in the resolution of unicameral bone cyst. A total of 69 children with unicameral bone cysts were treated either by (i) open curettage and bone grafting, (ii) steroid injection or (iii) cannulated screw insertion. During a mean follow-up of 69 months (range, 12-58), the cysts were evaluated by radiological criteria. The healing rates in the three groups were 25, 12 and 29% after the first treatment, and a further 50, 19 and 65% after the second. The study has demonstrated the advantages of the decompression technique for unicameral bone cysts over other treatment modalities studied.

  6. FAMI Screws for Mandibulo-Maxillary fixation in mandibular fracture treatment - Clinico-radiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kauke, Martin; Safi, Ali-Farid; Timmer, Marco; Nickenig, Hans-Joachim; Zöller, Joachim; Kreppel, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    Mandibulo-maxillary fixation (MMF) is indispensable for mandibular fracture treatment. Various means for MMF have been proposed, of which arch bars are widely considered to be the mainstay. However, disadvantages to this method have initiated a quest for an alternative, leading to the introduction of MMF screws. MMF screws have frequently been criticized for poor stability of fracture sites, root damage, hardware failure, and nerve damage. We retrospectively evaluate the FAMI (Fixation and Adaptation in Mandibular Injuries) screw in mandibular fracture treatment by scanning for clinically and radiologically visible complications. In total, 534 FAMI screws were used in the successful treatment of 96 males and 34 females. Condylar fractures were most commonly encountered, representing 120 of 241 fracture sites. 15 general fracture-related complications occurred, with the most common being nerve function impairment (3.8%) and postoperative malocclusion (4.6%). In nine cases (7%), clinically visible FAMI-screw-related complications occurred, with the most prevalent being screw loosening (2.3%) and mucosal signs of inflammation (3.1%). Duration of FAMI screws was associated with the occurrence of clinically visible complications (p = 0.042). Radiologically, clinically invisible dental hard tissue damage was noted in 21 individuals (16%). Therefore, FAMI screws seem to be a reliable and safe method for mandibulo-maxillary fixation. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomechanical comparison of locking plate and crossing metallic and absorbable screws fixations for intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Mei, Jiong; Niu, Wenxin; Zhang, Ming

    2016-09-01

    The locking plate and percutaneous crossing metallic screws and crossing absorbable screws have been used clinically to treat intra-articular calcaneal fractures, but little is known about the biomechanical differences between them. This study compared the biomechanical stability of calcaneal fractures fixed using a locking plate and crossing screws. Three-dimensional finite-element models of intact and fractured calcanei were developed based on the CT images of a cadaveric sample. Surgeries were simulated on models of Sanders type III calcaneal fractures to produce accurate postoperative models fixed by the three implants. A vertical force was applied to the superior surface of the subtalar joint to simulate the stance phase of a walking gait. This model was validated by an in vitro experiment using the same calcaneal sample. The intact calcaneus showed greater stiffness than the fixation models. Of the three fixations, the locking plate produced the greatest stiffness and the highest von Mises stress peak. The micromotion of the fracture fixated with the locking plate was similar to that of the fracture fixated with the metallic screws but smaller than that fixated with the absorbable screws. Fixation with both plate and crossing screws can be used to treat intra-articular calcaneal fractures. In general, fixation with crossing metallic screws is preferable because it provides sufficient stability with less stress shielding.

  8. [Tensile strength of bone fixation of hydroxyapatite coated Schanz screws of the Heidelberg External Fixation System (HEFS)--comparative torque measurements in clinical use and in cadaver tibia].

    PubMed

    Placzek, R; Deuretzbacher, G; Meiss, A L

    2002-12-01

    It is claimed in the literature that hydroxyapatite(HA)-coated screws of external fixators have superior fixation strength in bone, which is postulated to lead to a substantial decrease in loosening and infection rates. We report on a study of the maximum torque values developed while inserting and removing 30 HA-coated Schanz screws of 8 Heidelberg external fixation systems applied to the tibia to correct leg length differences and axial deformities. The infection rate was determined in accordance with defined criteria, and was found to be about 20% for the HA-coated screws. Screws without infection showed an extraction torque above insertion torque, screws with infection an extraction torque below. A significant correlation (p = 0.05) was seen between infection and decrease in fixation strength (quotient: loosening torque/tightening torque). To exclude the impact of such biological processes as osteointegration and bone remodelling, the clinical results were compared with the torques measured for coated and uncoated Schanz screws in a human cadaveric tibia. A significantly higher fixation strength in bone was found for HA-coated screws in comparison with uncoated screws (p = 0.002). These data warrant a clinical study directly comparing HA-coated and uncoated Schanz screws.

  9. Acromioclavicular Joint Fixation Using an Acroplate Combined With a Coracoclavicular Screw

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli Darestani, Reza; Ghaffari, Arash; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background Appropriate treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation is controversial. Acroplate fixation is one of the most common treatment methods of acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation. Based on the risk of re-dislocation after Acroplate fixation, we assumed that combined fixation with an Acroplate and a coracoclavicular screw helps improve the outcome. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to compare the outcome of ACJ dislocation treated with an Acroplate alone and in combination with coracoclavicular screw. Patients and Methods This study was carried out on 40 patients with ACJ dislocation types III to VI who were divided randomly into two equal groups: Acroplate group (P) and Acroplate in combination with coracoclavicular screw group (P + S). The screws were extracted 3-6 months postoperatively. The patients were followed for 1 year and Imatani’s score was calculated. Finally, the data were compared between the groups. Results The mean Imatani’s score was significantly higher in P + S group (83.4 ± 14.1) than P group (81.2 ± 10.3) (P < 0.001). The mean duration of surgery was the same in the two groups (59.8 ± 9.4 minutes in group P V.s 64.3 ± 10.9 minutes in group P + S; P = 0.169). There were no cases of re-dislocation, degenerative changes and ossification and all patients returned to their previous jobs or sporting activities. Conclusions Using a coracoclavicular screw combined with an Acroplate can improve the patients’ function after ACJ disruption without any significant increase in surgical duration. Authors recommend this technique in the fixation of ACJ dislocation. PMID:24396788

  10. Lag screw fixation of anterior mandibular fractures: a retrospective analysis of intraoperative and postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Tiwana, Paul S; Kushner, George M; Alpert, Brian

    2007-06-01

    To review, retrospectively, the outcomes of 102 patients who underwent lag screw technique fixation of fractures of the anterior mandible. A total of 102 consecutive, skeletally mature patients who have undergone open reduction internal fixation for fractures of the anterior mandible utilizing the lag screw technique were reviewed. All patients had a clinically mobile fracture between the mental foramina of the mandible. The patients were followed at usual postoperative intervals with shortest long-term follow-up of 2 months. Intraoperative and long-term postoperative outcomes including status of union, infection, and intraoperative surgical misadventure were recorded. Data from the 102 patients showed that there was 1 fixation failure due to inappropriate patient selection, 1 nonunion requiring bone grafting, 1 with infected screws but with union, 1 with an infected screw and delayed union treated conservatively, and 6 with broken drills from intraoperative surgical misadventures. Lag screw osteosynthesis of anterior mandibular fractures is a sensitive, facile, predictable, and relatively inexpensive method for internal fixation of indicated fractures. As with all methods of rigid internal fixation, most failures or complications are the result of operator judgment or technique.

  11. Self-Reinforced Biodegradable Screw Fixation Compared With Titanium Screw Fixation in Mandibular Advancement

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, Timothy A.; Bell, R. Bryan; Phillips, Ceib; Proffit, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This report compares the skeletal stability and treatment outcomes of 2 similar cohorts undergoing bilateral sagittal osteotomies of the mandible for advancement. The study groups included patients stabilized with 2-mm self-reinforced polylactate (PLLDL 70/30), biodegradable screws (group B), and 2-mm titanium screws placed in a positional fashion (group T). Materials and Methods Sixty-nine patients underwent bilateral sagittal osteotomies of the mandibular ramus for advancement utilizing an identical technique. There were 34 patients in group B and 35 patients in group T. Each patient had preoperative, immediate postoperative, splint out, and 1-year postoperative cephalometric radiographs available for analysis. The method of analysis and treatment outcomes parameters are identical to those previously used. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed with means of fixation as the between-subject factor and time as the within subject factor. The level of significance was set at .01. Results There were no clinical failures in group T and a single failure in group B. The average difference in stability between the groups is small and subtly different at the mandibular angle. The data documented similarity of the postsurgical changes in the 2 groups with the only statistically significant difference being the vertical position of the gonion (P < .001) and the mandibular plane angle (P < .01) with greater upward remodeling at gonion in group T. Conclusions Two-mm self-reinforced PLLDL (70/30) screws can be used as effectively as 2-mm titanium screws to stabilize the mandible after bilateral sagittal osteotomies for mandibular advancement. The difference in 1-year stability and outcome is minimal. PMID:16360855

  12. The Biomechanical Properties of Pedicle Screw Fixation Combined With Trajectory Bone Cement Augmentation in Osteoporotic Vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haitao T; Zhang, Renjie J; Shen, Cailiang L; Dong, Fulong L; Li, Yong; Song, Peiwen W; Gong, Chen; Wang, Yijin J

    2016-03-01

    The biomechanics of pedicle screw fixation combined with trajectory cement augmentation with various filling volumes were measured by pull-out, periodic antibending, and compression fatigue tests. To investigate the biomechanical properties of the pedicle screw fixation combined with trajectory bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate) augmentation in osteoporotic vertebrae and to explore the optimum filling volume of the bone cement. Pedicle screw fixation is considered to be the most effective posterior fixation method. The decrease of the bone mineral density apparently increases the fixation failure risk caused by screw loosening and displacement. Trajectory bone cement augmentation has been confirmed to be an effective method to increase the bone intensity and could markedly increase the stability of the fixation interface. Sixteen elderly cadaveric 1-5 lumbar vertebral specimens were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The left and right vertebral pedicles were alternatively randomized for treatment in all groups, with the contralateral pedicles as control. The study groups included: group A (pedicle screw fixation with full trajectory bone cement augmentation), group B (75% filling), group C (50% filling), and group D (25% filling). Finally, the bone cement leakage and dispersion were assessed and the mechanical testing was conducted. The bone cement was well dispersed around the pedicle screw. The augmented bone intensity, pull-out strength, periodic loading times, and compression fatigue performance were markedly higher than those of the control groups. With the increase in trajectory bone cement, the leakage was also increased (P<0.05). The pull-out strength of the pedicle screw was increased with an increase in bone mineral density and trajectory bone cement. It peaked at 75% filling, with the largest power consumption. The optimal filling volume of the bone cement was 75% of the trajectory volume (about 1.03 mL). The use of excessive bone cement did not increase

  13. Clinical Outcomes of Posterior C1 and C2 Screw-Rod Fixation for Atlantoaxial Instability.

    PubMed

    Işik, Hasan Serdar; Sandal, Evren; Çağli, Sedat

    2017-06-14

    In this study, we aimed at sharing our experiences and contributing to the literature by making a retrospective analysis of the patients we operated with screw-rod system for atlantoaxial instability in our clinic. Archive files of adult patients, who were operated for posterior C1-C2 stabilization with screw and rod in our clinic between January 2006 and January 2016, were analyzed. 28 patients, who had pre and post-operative images, follow-up forms and who were followed for at least one year, were analyzed. Preoperative clinical and radiological records, preoperative observations, postoperative complications, and clinical responses were evaluated. The average age of 28 patients (F:13 M:19) was 44.7 (21-73). Fixation was performed with C1-C2 screw-rod system on the basis of the following diagnoses; type 2 odontoid fracture (16), basilar invagination (5), C1-C2 instability (5), and atlantoaxial subluxation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (2). Lateral mass screws were inserted at C1 segment. C2 screws inserted were bilateral pedicle in 12 cases, bilateral pars in 4, bilateral laminar in 8 and one side pars, one side laminar in 4 cases. There was no screw malposition. Neither implant failure nor recurrent instability was observed during follow-up. Significant clinical improvement was reported according to the assessments done with JOA and VAS scores. C1-C2 screw fixation is regarded as a more successful and safe method than other fixation methods in surgical treatment of atlantoaxial instability considering complications, success in reduction, fusion and fixation strength. C2 laminar screw technique is as successful as the other alternatives in fixation and fusion.

  14. 2D and 3D assessment of sustentaculum tali screw fixation with or without Screw Targeting Clamp.

    PubMed

    De Boer, A Siebe; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Vellekoop, Leonie; Knops, Simon P; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Verhofstad, Michael H J

    2017-12-01

    Precise placement of sustentaculum tali screw(s) is essential for restoring anatomy and biomechanical stability of the calcaneus. This can be challenging due to the small target area and presence of neurovascular structures on the medial side. The aim was to evaluate the precision of positioning of the subchondral posterior facet screw and processus anterior calcanei screw with or without a Screw Targeting Clamp. The secondary aim was to evaluate the added value of peroperative 3D imaging over 2D radiographs alone. Twenty Anubifix™ embalmed, human anatomic lower limb specimens were used. A subchondral posterior facet screw and a processus anterior calcanei screw were placed using an extended lateral approach. A senior orthopedic trauma surgeon experienced in calcaneal fracture surgery and a senior resident with limited experience in calcaneal surgery performed screw fixation in five specimens with and in five specimens without the clamp. 2D lateral and axial radiographs and a 3D recording were obtained postoperatively. Anatomical dissection was performed postoperatively as a diagnostic golden standard in order to obtain the factual screw positions. Blinded assessment of quality of fixation was performed by two surgeons. In 2D, eight screws were considered malpositioned when placed with the targeting device versus nine placed freehand. In 3D recordings, two additional screws were malpositioned in each group as compared to the golden standard. As opposed to the senior surgeon, the senior resident seemed to get the best results using the Screw Targeting Clamp (number of malpositioned screws using freehand was eight, and using the targeting clamp five). In nine out of 20 specimens 3D images provided additional information concerning target area and intra-articular placement. Based on the 3D assessment, five additional screws would have required repositioning. Except for one, all screw positions were rated equally after dissection when compared with 3D examinations

  15. Factors influencing interlocking screw failure in unreamed small diameter nails--a biomechanical study using a distal tibia fracture model.

    PubMed

    Weninger, Patrick; Schueller, Michael; Jamek, Michael; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie; Redl, Heinz; Tschegg, Elmar K

    2009-05-01

    Unreamed tibia nails with small diameters are increasingly used for fracture fixation. However, little is known about the fatigue strength of proximal and distal interlocking screws in those nails. To date, no data are available reporting on mechanical differences of solid compared to cannulated tibial nails. The aim of this study was to assess the fatigue strength of proximal and distal interlocking screws of solid and cannulated small diameter tibia nails. We created a distal tibia fracture model (AO/OTA 43 A3) using 16 Sawbones. After fracture stabilization with one of four different nail types (Expert Tibial Nail, VersaNail, T2 Tibial Nailing System, Connex), mechanical testing was performed in three loading series (40,000 cycles each) with incremental loads. Timing and type of interlocking screw failure were assessed. Interlocking screw failure was observed significantly earlier (after a mean interval of 57,042 cycles) in cannulated tibial nails (VersaNail, T2) compared to solid nails (after a mean interval of 88,415 cycles; P < 0.001). Proximal interlocking screw failure was recorded if oblique screws were used proximally (VersaNail, T2, Connex). No distal interlocking screw failure was recorded in the Connex nail. Two- and three-part fractures of proximal or distal interlocking screws were observed in all specimen. Proximal and distal interlocking screw failure has to be considered in small diameter nails in case of delayed fracture healing. To support our results, further experimental studies and clinical series are necessary.

  16. [Odontoid bending stiffness after anterior fixation with a single lag screw: biomechanical study].

    PubMed

    Buchvald, P; Čapek, L; Barsa, P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the experiment was to compare the bending stiffness of an intact odontoid process with bending stiffness after its simulated type II fracture was fixed with a single lag screw. The experiment was done with a desire to answer the question of whether a single osteosynthetic screw is sufficient for good fixation of a type II odontoid fracture. MATERIAL AND METHODS The C2 vertebrae of six cadavers were used. With simultaneous measurement of odontoid bending stiffness, the occurrence of a fracture (type IIA, Grauer's modification of the Anderson- D'Alonzo classification) was simulated using action exerted by a tearing machine in the direction perpendicular to the odontoid axis. Each odontoid fracture was subsequently treated by direct osteosynthesis with a single lag screw inserted in the axial direction by a standard surgical procedure in order to provide conditions similar to those achieved by routine surgical management. The treated odontoid process was subsequently subjected to the same tearing machine loading as applied to it at the start of the experiment. The bending stiffness measured was then compared with that found before the fracture occurred. The results were statistically evaluated by the t-test for paired samples at the level of significance α = 0.05. RESULTS The average value of bending stiffness for odontoid processes of intact vertebrae at the moment of fracture occurrence was 318.3 N/mm. After single axial lag screw fixation of the fracture, the average bending stiffness for the odontoid processes treated was 331.3 N/mm. DISCUSSION Higher values of bending stiffness after screw fixation were found in all specimens and, in comparison with the values recorded before simulated fractures, the increase was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The results of our measurements suggest that the single lag screw fixation of a type IIA odontoid fracture will provide better stability for the fracture fragment-C2 body complex on

  17. Measurement of Tip Apex Distance and Migration of Lag Screws and Novel Blade Screw Used for the Fixation of Intertrochanteric Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jesse Chieh-Szu; Chen, Hsin-Chang; Lai, Yu-Shu; Cheng, Cheng-Kung

    2017-01-01

    Fixation with a dynamic hip screw (DHS) is one of the most common methods for stabilizing intertrochanteric fractures, except for unstable and reverse oblique fracture types. However, failure is often observed in osteoporotic patients whereby the lag screw effectively 'cuts out' through the weak bone. Novel anti-migration blades have been developed to be used in combination with a lag screw ('Blade Screw') to improve the fixation strength in osteoporotic intertrochanteric fractures. An in-vitro biomechanical study and a retrospective clinical study were performed to evaluate lag screw migration when using the novel Blade Screw and a traditional threaded DHS. The biomechanical study showed both the Blade Screw and DHS displayed excessive migration (≥10 mm) before reaching 20,000 loading cycles in mild osteoporotic bone, but overall migration of the Blade Screw was significantly less (p ≤ 0.03). Among the patients implanted with a Blade Screw in the clinical study, there was no significant variation in screw migration at 3-months follow-up (P = 0.12). However, the patient's implanted with a DHS did display significantly greater migration (P<0.001) than those implanted with the Blade Screw. In conclusion, the Blade Screw stabilizes the bone fragments during dynamic loading so as to provide significantly greater resistance to screw migration in patients with mild osteoporosis.

  18. Pedicle screw-rod fixation: a feasible treatment for dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tellegen, Anna R; Willems, Nicole; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Meij, Björn P

    2015-12-07

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis is a common problem in large breed dogs. For severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, conservative treatment is often not effective and surgical intervention remains as the last treatment option. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the middle to long term outcome of treatment of severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with pedicle screw-rod fixation with or without evidence of radiological discospondylitis. Twelve client-owned dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis underwent pedicle screw-rod fixation of the lumbosacral junction. During long term follow-up, dogs were monitored by clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, force plate analysis, and by using questionnaires to owners. Clinical evaluation, force plate data, and responses to questionnaires completed by the owners showed resolution (n = 8) or improvement (n = 4) of clinical signs after pedicle screw-rod fixation in 12 dogs. There were no implant failures, however, no interbody vertebral bone fusion of the lumbosacral junction was observed in the follow-up period. Four dogs developed mild recurrent low back pain that could easily be controlled by pain medication and an altered exercise regime. Pedicle screw-rod fixation offers a surgical treatment option for large breed dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with or without evidence of radiological discospondylitis in which no other treatment is available. Pedicle screw-rod fixation alone does not result in interbody vertebral bone fusion between L7 and S1.

  19. [Atlanto-axial pedicle screw fixation through posterior approach for treatment of atlanto-axial joint instability].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chun-Guang; Liu, Xia-Jun; Wang, Xin-Hu; Wang, Jian-shun

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the therapeutic effects of the atlantoaxial pedicle screw system fixation in treatment of atlantoaxial instability. From June 2003 to March 2010, 32 patients with atlantoaxial instability were treated by atlantoaxial pedicle screw system fixation, included 21 males and 11 females wiht an average age of 42.5 years old ranging from 28 to 66 years. Among them, 18 cases were odontoid process fractures, 7 were congenital dissociate odontoid process, 4 were Jefferson fracture combined with odontoid fracture, 3 were rheumatic arthritis causing atlantoaxial instability. All patients suffered from the atlantoaxial subluxation and atlantoaxial instability. The JOA score ranged from 4 to 14 (means 9.1 +/- 0.3) before operation. The patients had some image examination including the X-ray of cervical vertebrae (include of dynamic position film), spiral CT 3D reconstruction and/or MRI. The position of pedicle screw system implantation,the angle of pedicle screw system implantation and screw length were measured. Operating skull traction. Operation undewent general anesthesia, implanted the pedicle screw, reduction and bone fusion under direct vision. The bone was fixated between posterior arch of atlas and lamina of axis by the lateral combination bended to posterior. One hundred and twenty-eight atlantoaxial pedicle screws were implanted in 32 patients. No patient had the injure of spinal cord, nerve root and vertebral artery. All patients were followed-up from 6 to 48 months (averaged 16 months). After operation, the JOA score ranged from 11 to 17 (averaged 15.9 +/- 0.2), improvement rate was 86.1%. The fracture of odontoid process were healing completely. All fusion bone were combinated. The internal fixation wasn't loosening and breaking. The atlantoaxial pedicle screw system fixation was effective method to treat atlantoaxial instability. The method had many advantages, such as provide rigid and short segment fixation, safe and simple, high fusion rate. The

  20. Percutaneous Intramedullary Screw Fixation of Distal Fibula Fractures: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Loukachov, Vladimir V; Birnie, Merel F N; Dingemans, Siem A; de Jong, Vincent M; Schepers, Tim

    The current reference standard for unstable ankle fractures is open reduction and internal fixation using a plate and lag screws. This approach requires extensive dissection and wound complications are not uncommon. The use of intramedullary screw fixation might overcome these issues. The aim of our study was to provide an overview of the published data regarding intramedullary screw fixation of fibula fractures combined with a small consecutive case series. We performed a search of published studies to identify the studies in which fibula fractures were treated with percutaneous intramedullary screw fixation. Additionally, all consecutive patients treated for an unstable ankle fracture in a level 1 trauma center using an intramedullary screw were retrospectively included. The literature search identified 6 studies with a total of 180 patients. Wound infection was seen in 1 patient (0.6%), anatomic reduction was achieved in 168 patients (93.3%), and a loss of reduction was seen in 2 patients (1.1%). Implant removal was deemed necessary in 3 patients (1.7%) and nonunion was seen is 2 patients (1.1%). A total of 11 patients, in whom no wound complications occurred, were included in our study. The follow-up duration was a minimum of 12 months. A secondary dislocation was seen in 1 patient, and delayed union was observed after 7.5 months in 1 other patient. In conclusion, intramedullary screw fixation is a safe and adequate method to use for fibula fractures, with a low risk of wound complications. Additional research regarding functional outcome is warranted. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioabsorbable versus metallic interference screws for graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Debieux, Pedro; Franciozi, Carlos E S; Lenza, Mário; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Magnussen, Robert A; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

    2016-07-24

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are frequently treated with surgical reconstruction with grafts, frequently patella tendon or hamstrings. Interference screws are often used to secure the graft in bone tunnels in the femur and tibia. This review examines whether bioabsorbable interference screws give better results than metal interference screws when used for graft fixation in ACL reconstruction. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of bioabsorbable versus metallic interference screws for graft fixation in ACL reconstruction. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, trial registers and reference lists of articles. Date of search: January 2016. We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials comparing bioabsorbable with metallic interferences screws in ACL reconstruction. The main outcomes sought were subjective-rated knee function, failure of treatment, and activity level. At least two review authors selected eligible trials, independently assessed risk of bias, and cross-checked data. Data were pooled whenever relevant and possible. Requests for further information were sent to the original study authors. We included 12 trials (11 randomised and one quasi-randomised) involving a total of 944 participants, and reporting follow-up results for 774. Participants in the 12 trials underwent ACL reconstruction with either hamstring tendon grafts (five trials) or patellar tendon grafts (seven trials). Trials participants were randomly allocated to bioabsorbable or metallic interference screws for graft fixation in both femur and tibia (seven trials); femur only (three trials); tibia only (one trial); location was not reported in the remaining trial. A variety of materials was used for the bioabsorbable screws, Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) being the most common. The metallic screws, where reported, were titanium.All trials were at high risk of

  2. Dual small fragment plating improves screw-to-screw load sharing for mid-diaphyseal humeral fracture fixation: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Kosmopoulos, Victor; Luedke, Colten; Nana, Arvind D

    2015-01-01

    A smaller humerus in some patients makes the use of a large fragment fixation plate difficult. Dual small fragment plate constructs have been suggested as an alternative. This study compares the biomechanical performance of three single and one dual plate construct for mid-diaphyseal humeral fracture fixation. Five humeral shaft finite element models (1 intact and 4 fixation) were loaded in torsion, compression, posterior-anterior (PA) bending, and lateral-medial (LM) bending. A comminuted fracture was simulated by a 1-cm gap. Fracture fixation was modelled by: (A) 4.5-mm 9-hole large fragment plate (wide), (B) 4.5-mm 9-hole large fragment plate (narrow), (C) 3.5-mm 9-hole small fragment plate, and (D) one 3.5-mm 9-hole small fragment plate and one 3.5-mm 7-hole small fragment plate. Model A showed the best outcomes in torsion and PA bending, whereas Model D outperformed the others in compression and LM bending. Stress concentrations were located near and around the unused screw holes for each of the single plate models and at the neck of the screws just below the plates for all the models studied. Other than in PA bending, Model D showed the best overall screw-to-screw load sharing characteristics. The results support using a dual small fragment locking plate construct as an alternative in cases where crutch weight-bearing (compression) tolerance may be important and where anatomy limits the size of the humerus bone segment available for large fragment plate fixation.

  3. Iliac screw fixation using computer-assisted computer tomographic image guidance: technical note.

    PubMed

    Shin, John H; Hoh, Daniel J; Kalfas, Iain H

    2012-03-01

    Iliac screw fixation is a powerful tool used by spine surgeons to achieve fusion across the lumbosacral junction for a number of indications, including deformity, tumor, and pseudarthrosis. Complications associated with screw placement are related to blind trajectory selection and excessive soft tissue dissection. To describe the technique of iliac screw fixation using computed tomographic (CT)-based image guidance. Intraoperative registration and verification of anatomic landmarks are performed with the use of a preoperatively acquired CT of the lumbosacral spine. With the navigation probe, the ideal starting point for screw placement is selected while visualizing the intended trajectory and target on a computer screen. Once the starting point is selected and marked with a burr, a drill guide is docked within this point and the navigation probe re-inserted, confirming the trajectory. The probe is then removed and the high-speed drill reinserted within the drill guide. Drilling is performed to a depth measured on the computer screen and a screw is placed. Confirmation of accurate placement of iliac screws can be performed with standard radiographs. CT-guided navigation allows for 3-dimensional visualization of the pelvis and minimizes complications associated with soft-tissue dissection and breach of the ilium during screw placement.

  4. Reconstruction of the lateral tibia plateau fracture with a third triangular support screw: A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Moran, Eduardo; Zderic, Ivan; Klos, Kajetan; Simons, Paul; Triana, Miguel; Richards, R Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Lenz, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Split fractures of the lateral tibia plateau in young patients with good bone quality are commonly treated using two minimally invasive percutaneous lag screws, followed by unloading of the knee joint. Improved stability could be achieved with the use of a third screw inserted either in the jail-technique fashion or with a triangular support screw configuration. The aim of this study was to investigate under cyclic loading the compliance and endurance of the triangular support fixation in comparison with the standard two lag-screw fixation and the jail technique. Lateral split fractures of type AO/OTA 41-B1 were created on 21 synthetic tibiae and subsequently fixed with one of the following three techniques for seven specimens: standard fixation by inserting two partially threaded 6.5 mm cannulated lag screws parallel to each other and orthogonal to the fracture plane; triangular support fixation-standard fixation with one additional support screw at the distal end of the fracture at 30° proximal inclination; and jail fixation-standard fixation with one additional orthogonal support screw inserted in the medial nonfractured part of the bone. Mechanical testing was performed under progressively increasing cyclic compression loading. Fragment displacement was registered via triggered radiographic imaging. Mean construct compliance was 3.847 × 10 -3  mm/N [standard deviation (SD) 0.784] for standard fixation, 3.838 × 10 -3  mm/N (SD 0.242) for triangular fixation, and 3.563 × 10 -3  mm/N (SD 0.383) for jail fixation, with no significant differences between the groups ( p  = 0.525). The mean numbers of cycles to 2 mm fragment dislocation, defined as a failure criterion, were 12,384 (SD 2267) for standard fixation, 17,708 (SD 2193) for triangular fixation, and 14,629 (SD 5194) for jail fixation. Triangular fixation revealed significantly longer endurance than the standard one ( p  = 0.047). Triangular support fixation enhanced interfragmentary

  5. Evaluation of different screw fixation techniques and screw diameters in sagittal split ramus osteotomy: finite element analysis method.

    PubMed

    Sindel, A; Demiralp, S; Colok, G

    2014-09-01

    Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) is used for correction of numerous congenital or acquired deformities in facial region. Several techniques have been developed and used to maintain fixation and stabilisation following SSRO application. In this study, the effects of the insertion formations of the bicortical different sized screws to the stresses generated by forces were studied. Three-dimensional finite elements analysis (FEA) and static linear analysis methods were used to investigate difference which would occur in terms of forces effecting onto the screws and transmitted to bone between different application areas. No significant difference was found between 1·5- and 2-mm screws used in SSRO fixation. Besides, it was found that 'inverted L' application was more successful compared to the others and that was followed by 'L' and 'linear' formations which showed close rates to each other. Few studies have investigated the effect of thickness and application areas of bicortical screws. This study was performed on both advanced and regressed jaws positions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Biomechanics of halo-vest and dens screw fixation for type II odontoid fracture.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C; Beauchman, Naseem N; Mo, Fred; Lawrence, Brandon D

    2009-03-01

    An in vitro biomechanical study of halo-vest and odontoid screw fixation of Type II dens fracture. The objective were to determine upper cervical spine instability due to simulated dens fracture and investigate stability provided by the halo-vest and odontoid screw, applied individually and combined. Previous studies have evaluated posterior fixation techniques for stabilizing dens fracture. No previous biomechanical study has investigated the halo-vest and odontoid screw for stabilizing dens fracture. A biofidelic skull-neck-thorax model was used with 5 osteoligamentous whole cervical spine specimens. Three-dimensional flexibility tests were performed on the specimens while intact, following simulated dens fracture, and following application of the halo-vest alone, odontoid screw alone, and halo-vest and screw combined. Average total neutral zone and total ranges of motion at C0/1 and C1/2 were computed for each experimental condition and statistically compared with physiologic motion limits, obtained from the intact flexibility test. Significance was set at P < 0.05 with a trend toward significance at P < 0.1. Type II dens fracture caused trends toward increased sagittal neutral zone and lateral bending range of motion at C1/2. Spinal motions with the dens screw alone could not be differentiated from physiologic limits. Significant reductions in motion were observed at C0/1 and C1/2 in flexion-extension and axial rotation due to the halo-vest, applied individually or combined with the dens screw. At C1/2, the halo-vest combined with the dens screw generally allowed the smallest average percentages of intact motion: 3% in axial rotation, 17% in flexion-extension, and 18% in lateral bending. The present reduction in C1/2 motion observed, due to the halo-vest and dens screw combined is similar to previously reported immobilization provided by the polyaxial screw/rod system and transarticular screw fixation combined with wiring. The present biomechanical data may be

  7. [Clinical application of atlantoaxial pedicle screw internal fixation for treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jun; Zhang, En-Zhong; Tan, Yuan-Chao; Zhou, Ji-Ping; Yao, Shu-Qiang; Jiang, Chuan-Jie; Cong, Pei-Yan

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of atlantoaxial pedicle screw internal fixation for treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation. Sixteen patients with atlantoaxial dislocation were treated from Dec. 2005 to June 2007, included 10 males and 6 females, aged from 38 to 45 years old (means 40.5 years). Among them 12 patients combined with nerve injury, according to ASIA grade: there were 3 cases in grade B, 5 cases in grade C, 4 cases in grade D. All patients received preoperative CT, radiograph and skull traction. Intraoperative posterior approach general spine pedicle screw-rod orthopaedics fixation system used and iliac bone block were implanted in space of posterior atlantal arch and axial vertebral plate. The outcome and complications were observed in the near future. There was no vascular or neural injury found. The patients were followed up for 12 to 24 months (means 18 months). All head pain, acid storm symptoms were improved after operation. According to the Odom's clinical efficacy evaluation standard, 12 cases were excellent, 4 were good. Eleven cases of 12 with nerve injury recovered significantly. By ASIA classification: 1 cases was in grade B, 2 cases were in grade C, 5 cases were in grade D, 4 cases were in grade E. No looseness or breakage of screw occurred. Bony fusion was achieved in all cases. Posterior approach atlantoaxial pedicle screw internal fixation have the advantages of direct screw placement, short-segment fusion, intraoperative reduction, fixation reliable, high fusion rate, and it can restablish the upper cervical vertebrae stability and help to recover the spinal cord and nerve function.

  8. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the double press- fit technique: an alternative to interference screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Halder, Andreas M; Ludwig, Silke; Neumann, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    Patellar tendon autograft fixation in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is commonly accomplished using interference screws. However, improper insertion of the screws may reduce primary stability, injure the posterior femoral cortex, or displace hardware into the joint. Even if placed properly, metallic screws interfere with postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. In case of revision surgery, removing screws may be difficult and leaves bone defects. Retrospective study. An arthroscopic technique was developed that achieves patellar tendon autograft fixation by press-fit without any supplemental internal fixation. Forty patients were examined clinically and by KT-1000 arthrometer 28.7 months (range, 22 to 40 months) postoperatively. The mean difference in side-to-side laxity was 1.3 mm (SD 2.2) and the results according to the IKDC score were as follows: 7 A, 28 B, 5 C, and 0 D. The double press-fit technique we present avoids all complications related to the use of interference screws and creates an ideal environment for osseous integration of the bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Concurrently, it achieves a stable fixation of the autograft and allows early functional rehabilitation. However, fixation strength depends on bone quality and the arthroscopic procedure is demanding.

  9. Relative stability of tension band versus two-cortex screw fixation for treating fifth metatarsal base avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    Husain, Z S; DeFronzo, D J

    2000-01-01

    This study assesses the strength of fixating avulsion fractures of the fifth metatarsal base with a 4.0-mm partially threaded cancellous screw crossing two cortices as compared to tension banding. Our data showed statistically significant fixation strength improvement over tension banding for avulsion fractures (p < 0.02) in both polystyrene foam models and fresh, nonpreserved frozen cadaveric samples. In cadavers, the screw fixations were able to withstand more than three times the load sustained by the tension band fixations. The study utilized the Instron 8500 tensiometer to apply physiologic loads to test the constructs until failure. The displacement and load data at failure show the limitations of both fixations. By increasing the load resistance while maintaining compression, the bicortical cancellous screw fixation created greater stability at the avulsion fracture of the fifth metatarsal base as compared to tension band stabilization.

  10. The Improvement of Bone-Tendon Fixation by Porous Titanium Interference Screw: A Rabbit Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-I; Chen, Chih-Yu; Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Chen, San-Yuan; Sun, Jui-Sheng

    2018-05-04

    The interference screw is a widely used fixation device in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgeries. Despite the generally satisfactory results, problems of using interference screws were reported. By using additive manufacturing (AM) technology, we developed an innovative titanium alloy (Ti 6 Al 4 V) interference screw with rough surface and inter-connected porous structure designs to improve the bone-tendon fixation. An innovative Ti 6 Al 4 V interference screws were manufactured by AM technology. In vitro mechanical tests were performed to validate its mechanical properties. Twenty-seven New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control and AM screw groups for biomechanical analyses and histological analysis at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively; while micro-CT analysis was performed at 12 weeks postoperatively. The biomechanical tests showed that the ultimate failure load in the AM interference screw group was significantly higher than that in the control group at all tested periods. These results were also compatible with the findings of micro-CT and histological analyses. In micro-CT analysis, the bone-screw gap was larger in the control group; while for the additive manufactured screw, the screw and bone growth was in close contact. In histological study, the bone-screw gaps were wider in the control group and were almost invisible in the AM screw group. The innovative AM interference screws with surface roughness and inter-connected porous architectures demonstrated better bone-tendon-implant integration, and resulted in stronger biomechanical characteristics when compared to traditional screws. These advantages can be transferred to future interference screw designs to improve their clinical performance. The AM interference screw could improve graft fixation and eventually result in better biomechanical performance of the bone-tendon-screw construct. The innovative AM interference screws can be transferred to future

  11. Prevention of arthrofibrosis after arthroscopic screw fixation of tibial spine fracture in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shital N; Myer, David; Eismann, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a major complication of tibial spine fracture treatment in children, potentially resulting in knee pain, quadriceps weakness, altered gait, decreased function, inability to return to sports, and long-term osteoarthritis. Thus, prevention rather than treatment of arthrofibrosis is desirable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an aggressive postoperative rehabilitation and early intervention approach to prevent permanent arthrofibrosis after tibial spine fracture treatment and to compare epiphyseal and transphyseal screws for fixation. A consecutive series of 24 patients younger than age 18 with displaced type II and III tibial spine fractures who underwent arthroscopic reduction and screw fixation between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Final range of motion was compared between patients with epiphyseal (n=12) and transphyseal (n=9) screws. One-third (4 of 12) of patients with epiphyseal screws underwent arthroscopic debridement and screw removal approximately 3 months postoperatively; 3 patients lacked 5° to 15° of extension, 1 experienced pain with extension, and 1 had radiographic evidence of screw pullout, loss of reduction, and resultant malunion. In the transphyseal screw group, 3 patients had 10° loss of extension, and all corrected after arthroscopic debridement and screw removal. The two groups did not significantly differ in time to hardware removal or return to sports or final range of motion. No growth disturbances were identified in patients after transphyseal screw removal. An aggressive approach of postoperative rehabilitation and early intervention after arthroscopic reduction and screw fixation of tibial spine fractures in children was successful in preventing permanent arthrofibrosis.

  12. Stress analysis in a pedicle screw fixation system with flexible rods in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsoo; Park, Won Man; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Lee, SuKyoung

    2010-01-01

    Breakage of screws has been one of the most common complications in spinal fixation systems. However, no studies have examined the breakage risk of pedicle screw fixation systems that use flexible rods, even though flexible rods are currently being used for dynamic stabilization. In this study, the risk of breakage of screws for the rods with various flexibilities in pedicle screw fixation systems is investigated by calculating the von Mises stress as a breakage risk factor using finite element analysis. Three-dimensional finite element models of the lumbar spine with posterior one-level spinal fixations at L4-L5 using four types of rod (a straight rod, a 4 mm spring rod, a 3 mm spring rod, and a 2 mm spring rod) were developed. The von Mises stresses in both the pedicle screws and the rods were analysed under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion moments of 10 Nm with a follower load of 400 N. The maximum von Mises stress, which was concentrated on the neck region of the pedicle screw, decreased as the flexibility of the rod increased. However, the ratio of the maximum stress in the rod to the yield stress increased substantially when a highly flexible rod was used. Thus, the level of rod flexibility should be considered carefully when using flexible rods for dynamic stabilization because the intersegmental motion facilitated by the flexible rod results in rod breakage.

  13. Role of Appositional Screw Fixation in Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis for Distal Tibial Fracture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyu-Hyun; Won, Yougun; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effect of interfragmentary appositional (gap-closing) screw fixation in minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for distal tibial fractures on the clinical and radiologic results. Prospective nonrandomized study. Level I trauma center. Sixty patients who were diagnosed as distal metadiaphyseal oblique or spiral tibial fracture without displaced articular fragment. Thirty patients (group A) of the 60 patients were treated with MIPO without appositional screw fixation, and the other 30 (group B) were treated with the screw. Radiologic union, clinical union, clinical functional score [American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score], and complications. The time for initial callus formation and radiologic union was significantly longer in group A than those in group B (76.8 vs. 58.0 days, P = 0.044; 409 vs. 258.7 days, P = 0.002, respectively). The rate of clinical union during 1 year was significantly higher in group B than in group A (P = 0.0063). Four nonunion patients in group A achieved bone union after placement of an additional bone graft. None of the patients in group B diagnosed with delayed union or nonunion (P < 0.001). None of the patients of both groups had malreduction, skin problems, or infection. Overall, the AOFAS score did not significantly differ between groups A and B (85.4 vs. 87.0, P = 0.43). The use of additional interfragmentary appositional screw fixation in distal tibia MIPO for the fixation of oblique or spiral fracture promoted callus formation and union rate compared with MIPO without appositional screw fixation. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. Cement Augmentation in Sacroiliac Screw Fixation Offers Modest Biomechanical Advantages in a Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, Georg; Dodd, Andrew E; Unno, Florence; Wong, Angus; Amiri, Shahram; Lefaivre, Kelly A; Guy, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Sacroiliac screw fixation in elderly patients with pelvic fractures is prone to failure owing to impaired bone quality. Cement augmentation has been proposed as a possible solution, because in other anatomic areas this has been shown to reduce screw loosening. However, to our knowledge, this has not been evaluated for sacroiliac screws. We investigated the potential biomechanical benefit of cement augmentation of sacroiliac screw fixation in a cadaver model of osteoporotic bone, specifically with respect to screw loosening, construct survival, and fracture-site motion. Standardized complete sacral ala fractures with intact posterior ligaments in combination with ipsilateral upper and lower pubic rami fractures were created in osteoporotic cadaver pelves and stabilized by three fixation techniques: sacroiliac (n = 5) with sacroiliac screws in S1 and S2, cemented (n = 5) with addition of cement augmentation, and transsacral (n = 5) with a single transsacral screw in S1. A cyclic loading protocol was applied with torque (1.5 Nm) and increasing axial force (250-750 N). Screw loosening, construct survival, and sacral fracture-site motion were measured by optoelectric motion tracking. A sample-size calculation revealed five samples per group to be required to achieve a power of 0.80 to detect 50% reduction in screw loosening. Screw motion in relation to the sacrum during loading with 250 N/1.5 Nm was not different among the three groups (sacroiliac: 1.2 mm, range, 0.6-1.9; cemented: 0.7 mm, range, 0.5-1.3; transsacral: 1.1 mm, range, 0.6-2.3) (p = 0.940). Screw subsidence was less in the cemented group (3.0 mm, range, 1.2-3.7) compared with the sacroiliac (5.7 mm, range, 4.7-10.4) or transsacral group (5.6 mm, range, 3.8-10.5) (p = 0.031). There was no difference with the numbers available in the median number of cycles needed until failure; this was 2921 cycles (range, 2586-5450) in the cemented group, 2570 cycles (range, 2500-5107) for the sacroiliac specimens, and

  15. Accuracy of screw fixation using the O-arm® and StealthStation® navigation system for unstable pelvic ring fractures.

    PubMed

    Takeba, Jun; Umakoshi, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Hironori; Annen, Suguru; Moriyama, Naoki; Nakabayashi, Yuki; Sato, Norio; Aibiki, Mayuki

    2018-04-01

    Screw fixation for unstable pelvic ring fractures is generally performed using the C-arm. However, some studies reported erroneous piercing with screws, nerve injuries, and vessel injuries. Recent studies have reported the efficacy of screw fixations using navigation systems. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the accuracy of screw fixation using the O-arm ® imaging system and StealthStation ® navigation system for unstable pelvic ring fractures. The participants were 10 patients with unstable pelvic ring fractures, who underwent screw fixations using the O-arm StealthStation navigation system (nine cases with iliosacral screw and one case with lateral compression screw). We investigated operation duration, bleeding during operation, the presence of complications during operation, and the presence of cortical bone perforation by the screws based on postoperative CT scan images. We also measured the difference in screw tip positions between intraoperative navigation screen shot images and postoperative CT scan images. The average operation duration was 71 min, average bleeding was 12 ml, and there were no nerve or vessel injuries during the operation. There was no cortical bone perforation by the screws. The average difference between intraoperative navigation images and postoperative CT images was 2.5 ± 0.9 mm, for all 18 screws used in this study. Our results suggest that the O-arm StealthStation navigation system provides accurate screw fixation for unstable pelvic ring fractures.

  16. Biomechanical considerations in slipped capital femoral epiphysis and insights into prophylactic fixation.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, E; Bellemore, J M; Cheng, T; Little, D G; Birke, O

    2017-04-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a deformity of the proximal femur secondary to widened and unstable physis. In stabilising the slip, gold standard treatments stop growth and involve premature physeal closure, which prevents the remodelling of the acquired deformity and creates a leg length discrepancy that may be significant in younger patients. We measured the impact of placing threaded screws across the proximal femoral physis by measuring the centre-trochanteric distance (CTD) and articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) in participants with or without prophylactic fixation. We then compared the mechanical performance of static (stainless and titanium cannulated Synthes screws) and potentially growing implants (Synthes SCFE screw and Pega Medical Free Gliding screw) in a validated synthetic bone model. In the review of 30 non-fixed and 60 fixated hips over a mean follow-up of 1.9 years, we have noted a significant difference in pre/post CTD and ATD, as well as the change in CTD and ATD over time. In the biomechanical study, the newer implants allowing growth (Synthes SCFE screw and Pega Medical Free Gliding screw) were both shown to be at least non-inferior. The primary deformity of a SCFE in itself alters hip mechanics. Also, as confirmed in this study, there is a secondary deformity that is created by static fixation and relative trochanteric overgrowth. To help remodel mild deformities and prevent secondary trochanteric overgrowth, growing implants seem to be non-inferior to the more standard means of fixation in static testing.

  17. Percutaneous cannulated screw fixation of sacral fractures and sacroiliac joint disruptions with CT-controlled guidewires performed by interventionalists: single center experience in treating posterior pelvic instability.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J; Marzi, Ingo; Zangos, Stephan; Wichmann, Julian L; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Mack, Martin G; Schmidt, Sven; Eichler, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate minimally invasive sacroiliac screw fixation for treatment of posterior pelvic instability with the help of CT controlled guidewires, assess its accuracy, safety and effectiveness, and discuss potential pitfalls. 100 guidewires and hollow titan screws were inserted in 38 patients (49.6±19.5 years) suffering from 35 sacral fractures and/or 16 sacroiliac joint disruptions due to 33 (poly-)traumatic, 2 osteoporotic and 1 post-infectious conditions. The guidewire and screw positions were analyzed in multiplanar reconstructions. The mean minimal distance between guidewire and adjacent neural foramina was 4.5±2.01mm, with a distinctly higher precision in S1 than S2. Eight guidewires showed cortical contacts, resulting in a total of 2% mismatched screws with subsequent wall violation. The fracture gaps were reduced from 3.6±0.53mm to 1.2±0.54mm. During follow-up 3 cases of minor iatrogenic sacral impaction (<5mm) due to the bolting and 2 cases of screw loosening were observed. Interventional time was 84.0min with a mean of 2.63 screws per patient whilst acquiring a mean of 93.7 interventional CT-images (DLP 336.7mGycm). The treatment of posterior pelvic instability with a guidewire-based screw insertion technique under CT-imaging results in a very high accuracy and efficacy with a low complication rate. Careful attention should be drawn to radiation levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Screw-blade fixation systems in Pauwels three femoral neck fractures: a biomechanical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Matthias; Altgassen, Simon; Maier, Klaus-Jürgen; Gradl-Dietsch, Gertraud; Kaczmarek, Chris; Nebelung, Sven; Klos, Kajetan; Kim, Bong-Sung; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Horst, Klemens; Buecking, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    To reduce mechanical complications after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures, improved fixation techniques have been developed including blade or screw-anchor devices. This biomechanical study compares different fixation systems used for treatment of unstable femoral neck fractures with evaluation of failure mode, load to failure, stiffness, femoral head rotation, femoral neck shortening and femoral head migration. Standardized Pauwels type 3 fractures (AO/OTA 31-B2) with comminution were created in 18 biomechanical sawbones using a custom-made sawguide. Fractures were stabilized using either SHS-Screw, SHS-Blade or Rotationally Stable Screw-Anchor (RoSA). Femurs were positioned in 25 degrees adduction and ten degrees posterior flexion and were cyclically loaded with an axial sinusoidal loading pattern of 0.5 Hz, starting with 300 N, with an increase by 300 N every 2000 cycles until bone-implant failure occurred. Mean failure load for the Screw-Anchor fixation (RoSA) was 5100 N (IQR 750 N), 3900 N (IQR 75 N) for SHS-Blade and 3000 N (IQR 675 N; p = 0.002) for SHS-Screw. For SHS-Screw and SHS-Blade we observed fracture displacement with consecutive fracture collapse as the main reason for failure, whereas RoSA mainly showed a cut-out under high loadings. Mean stiffness at 1800 N was 826 (IQR 431) N/mm for SHS-Screw, 1328 (IQR 441) N/mm for SHS-Blade and 1953 (IQR 617) N/mm for RoSA (p = 0.003). With a load of 1800 N (SHS-Screw 12° vs. SHS-Blade 7° vs. RoSA 2°; p = 0.003) and with 2700 N (24° vs. 15° vs. 3°; p = 0.002) the RoSA implants demonstrated a higher rotational stability and had the lowest femoral neck shortening (p = 0.002), compared with the SHS groups. At the 2700 N load point, RoSA systems showed a lower axial (p = 0.019) and cranial (p = 0.031) femoral head migration compared to the SHS-Screw. In our study, the new Screw-Anchor fixation (RoSA) was superior to the comparable SHS implants regarding rotational

  19. Patella Fracture Fixation with Suture and Wire: you Reap what you Sew

    PubMed Central

    Egol, Kenneth; Howard, Daniel; Monroy, Alexa; Crespo, Alexander; Tejwani, Nirmal; Davidovitch, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Operative fixation of displaced inferior pole patella fractures has now become the standard of care. This study aims to quantify clinical, radiographic and functional outcomes, as well as identify complications in a cohort of patients treated with non-absorbable braided suture fixation for inferior pole patellar fractures. These patients were then compared to a control group of patients treated for mid-pole fractures with K-wires or cannulated screws with tension band wiring. Methods In this IRB approved study, we identified a cohort of patients who were diagnosed and treated surgically for a displaced patella fracture. Demographic, injury, and surgical information were recorded. All patients were treated with a standard surgical technique utilizing non-absorbable braided suture woven through the patellar tendon and placed through drill holes to achieve reduction and fracture fixation. All patients were treated with a similar post-operative protocol and followed up at standard intervals. Data were collected concurrently at follow up visits. For purpose of comparison, we identified a control cohort with middle third patella fractures treated with either k-wires or cannulated screws and tension band technique. Patients were followed by the treating surgeon at regular follow-up intervals. Outcomes included self-reported function and knee range of motion compared to the uninjured side. Results Forty-nine patients with 49 patella fractures identified retrospectively were treated over 9 years. This cohort consisted of 31 females (63.3%) and 18 males (36.7%) with an average age of 57.1 years (range 26 - 88 years). Patients had an average BMI of 26.48 (range 19 - 44.08). Thirteen patients with inferior pole fractures underwent suture fixation and 36 patients with mid-pole fractures underwent tension band fixation (K-wire or cannulated screws with tension band). In the suture cohort, one fracture failed open repair (7.6%), which was revised again with sutures

  20. Patella fracture fixation with suture and wire: you reap what you sew.

    PubMed

    Egol, Kenneth; Howard, Daniel; Monroy, Alexa; Crespo, Alexander; Tejwani, Nirmal; Davidovitch, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Operative fixation of displaced inferior pole patella fractures has now become the standard of care. This study aims to quantify clinical, radiographic and functional outcomes, as well as identify complications in a cohort of patients treated with non-absorbable braided suture fixation for inferior pole patellar fractures. These patients were then compared to a control group of patients treated for mid-pole fractures with K-wires or cannulated screws with tension band wiring. In this IRB approved study, we identified a cohort of patients who were diagnosed and treated surgically for a displaced patella fracture. Demographic, injury, and surgical information were recorded. All patients were treated with a standard surgical technique utilizing non-absorbable braided suture woven through the patellar tendon and placed through drill holes to achieve reduction and fracture fixation. All patients were treated with a similar post-operative protocol and followed up at standard intervals. Data were collected concurrently at follow up visits. For purpose of comparison, we identified a control cohort with middle third patella fractures treated with either k-wires or cannulated screws and tension band technique. Patients were followed by the treating surgeon at regular follow-up intervals. Outcomes included self-reported function and knee range of motion compared to the uninjured side. Forty-nine patients with 49 patella fractures identified retrospectively were treated over 9 years. This cohort consisted of 31 females (63.3%) and 18 males (36.7%) with an average age of 57.1 years (range 26-88 years). Patients had an average BMI of 26.48 (range 19-44.08). Thirteen patients with inferior pole fractures underwent suture fixation and 36 patients with mid-pole fractures underwent tension band fixation (K-wire or cannulated screws with tension band). In the suture cohort, one fracture failed open repair (7.6%), which was revised again with sutures and progressed to union. Of the 36

  1. Biomechanical Strength of Retrograde Fixation in Proximal Third Scaphoid Fractures.

    PubMed

    Daly, Charles A; Boden, Allison L; Hutton, William C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-04-01

    Current techniques for fixation of proximal pole scaphoid fractures utilize antegrade fixation via a dorsal approach endangering the delicate vascular supply of the dorsal scaphoid. Volar and dorsal approaches demonstrate equivalent clinical outcomes in scaphoid wrist fractures, but no study has evaluated the biomechanical strength for fractures of the proximal pole. This study compares biomechanical strength of antegrade and retrograde fixation for fractures of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A simulated proximal pole scaphoid fracture was produced in 22 matched cadaveric scaphoids, which were then assigned randomly to either antegrade or retrograde fixation with a cannulated headless compression screw. Cyclic loading and load to failure testing were performed and screw length, number of cycles, and maximum load sustained were recorded. There were no significant differences in average screw length (25.5 mm vs 25.6 mm, P = .934), average number of cyclic loading cycles (3738 vs 3847, P = .552), average load to failure (348 N vs 371 N, P = .357), and number of catastrophic failures observed between the antegrade and retrograde fixation groups (3 in each). Practical equivalence between the 2 groups was calculated and the 2 groups were demonstrated to be practically equivalent (upper threshold P = .010). For this model of proximal pole scaphoid wrist fractures, antegrade and retrograde screw configuration have been proven to be equivalent in terms of biomechanical strength. With further clinical study, we hope surgeons will be able to make their decision for fixation technique based on approaches to bone grafting, concern for tenuous blood supply, and surgeon preference without fear of poor biomechanical properties.

  2. Tapping insertional torque allows prediction for better pedicle screw fixation and optimal screw size selection.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Dmitriev, Anton E; Luhmann, Scott J

    2013-08-01

    There is currently no reliable technique for intraoperative assessment of pedicle screw fixation strength and optimal screw size. Several studies have evaluated pedicle screw insertional torque (IT) and its direct correlation with pullout strength. However, there is limited clinical application with pedicle screw IT as it must be measured during screw placement and rarely causes the spine surgeon to change screw size. To date, no study has evaluated tapping IT, which precedes screw insertion, and its ability to predict pedicle screw pullout strength. The objective of this study was to investigate tapping IT and its ability to predict pedicle screw pullout strength and optimal screw size. In vitro human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. Twenty fresh-frozen human cadaveric thoracic vertebral levels were prepared and dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry scanned for bone mineral density (BMD). All specimens were osteoporotic with a mean BMD of 0.60 ± 0.07 g/cm(2). Five specimens (n=10) were used to perform a pilot study, as there were no previously established values for optimal tapping IT. Each pedicle during the pilot study was measured using a digital caliper as well as computed tomography measurements, and the optimal screw size was determined to be equal to or the first size smaller than the pedicle diameter. The optimal tap size was then selected as the tap diameter 1 mm smaller than the optimal screw size. During optimal tap size insertion, all peak tapping IT values were found to be between 2 in-lbs and 3 in-lbs. Therefore, the threshold tapping IT value for optimal pedicle screw and tap size was determined to be 2.5 in-lbs, and a comparison tapping IT value of 1.5 in-lbs was selected. Next, 15 test specimens (n=30) were measured with digital calipers, probed, tapped, and instrumented using a paired comparison between the two threshold tapping IT values (Group 1: 1.5 in-lbs; Group 2: 2.5 in-lbs), randomly assigned to the left or right pedicle on each

  3. Radiographic study of the fifth metatarsal for optimal intramedullary screw fixation of Jones fracture.

    PubMed

    Ochenjele, George; Ho, Bryant; Switaj, Paul J; Fuchs, Daniel; Goyal, Nitin; Kadakia, Anish R

    2015-03-01

    Jones fractures occur in the relatively avascular metadiaphyseal junction of the fifth metatarsal (MT), which predisposes these fractures to delayed union and nonunion. Operative treatment with intramedullary (IM) screw fixation is recommended in certain cases. Incorrect screw selection can lead to refractures, nonunion, and cortical blowout fractures. A better understanding of the anatomy of the fifth MT could aid in preoperative planning, guide screw size selection, and minimize complications. We retrospectively identified foot computed tomographic (CT) scans of 119 patients that met inclusion criteria. Using interactive 3-dimensional (3-D) models, the following measurements were calculated: MT length, "straight segment length" (distance from the base of the MT to the shaft curvature), and canal diameter. The diaphysis had a lateroplantar curvature where the medullary canal began to taper. The average straight segment length was 52 mm, and corresponded to 68% of the overall length of the MT from its proximal end. The medullary canal cross-section was elliptical rather than circular, with widest width in the sagittal plane and narrowest in coronal plane. The average coronal canal diameter at the isthmus was 5.0 mm. A coronal diameter greater than 4.5 mm at the isthmus was present in 81% of males and 74% of females. To our knowledge, this is the first anatomic description of the fifth metatarsal based on 3-D imaging. Excessive screw length could be avoided by keeping screw length less than 68% of the length of the fifth metatarsal. A greater than 4.5 mm diameter screw might be needed to provide adequate fixation for most study patients since the isthmus of the medullary canal for most were greater than 4.5 mm. Our results provide an improved understanding of the fifth metatarsal anatomy to guide screw diameter and length selection to maximize screw fixation and minimize complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Biomechanical analysis comparing three C1-C2 transarticular screw salvaging fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Potluri, Tejaswy; Goel, Vijay K; Foster, Scott; Faizan, Ahmad; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2010-02-15

    This is an in vitro biomechanical study. To compare the biomechanical stability of the 3 C1-C2 transarticular screw salvaging fixation techniques. Stabilization of the atlantoaxial complex is a challenging procedure because of its complicated anatomy. Many posterior stabilization techniques of the atlantoaxial complex have been developed with C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation been the current gold standard. The drawback of using the transarticular screws is that it has a potential risk of vertebral artery injury due to a high riding transverse foramen of C2 vertebra, and screw malposition. In such cases, it is not recommended to proceed with inserting the contralateral transarticular screw and the surgeon should find an alternative to fix the contralateral side. Many studies are available comparing different atlantoaxial stabilization techniques, but none of them compared the techniques to fix the contralateral side while using the transarticular screw on one side. The current options are C1 lateral mass screw and short C2 pedicle screw or C1 lateral mass screw and C2 intralaminar screw, or C1-C2 sublaminar wire. Nine fresh human cervical spines with intact ligaments (C0-C4) were subjected to pure moments in the 6 loading directions. The resulting spatial orientations of the vertebrae were recorded using an Optotrak 3-dimensional Motion Measurement System. Measurements were made sequentially for the intact spine after creating type II odontoid fracture and after stabilization with unilateral transarticular screw placement across C1-C2 (TS) supplemented with 1 of the 3 transarticular salvaging techniques on the contralateral side; C1 lateral mass screw and C2 pedicle screw (TS+C1LMS+C2PS), C1 lateral mass and C2 intralaminar screw (TS+C1LMS+C2ILS), or sublaminar wire (TS + wire). The data indicated that all the 3 stabilization techniques significantly decreased motion when compared to intact in all the loading cases (left/right lateral bending, left/right axial

  5. Severe fixed cervical kyphosis treated with circumferential osteotomy and pedicle screw fixation using an anterior-posterior-anterior surgical sequence.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Kotani, Yoshihisa; Sudo, Hideki; Takahata, Masahiko

    2013-11-01

    Surgical treatment for severe circumferentially fixed cervical kyphosis has been challenging. Both anterior and posterior releases are necessary to provide the cervical mobility necessary for fusion in a corrected position. In two case reports, we describe the circumferential osteotomy of anterior-posterior-anterior surgical sequence, and the efficacy of this technique when cervical pedicle screw fixation for severe fixed cervical kyphosis is used. Etiology of fixed cervical kyphosis was unknown in one patient and neurofibromatosis in one patient. Both patients had severe fixed cervical kyphosis as determined by cervical radiographs and underwent circumferential osteotomy and fixation via an anterior-posterior-anterior surgical sequence and correction of kyphosis by pedicle screw fixation. Severe fixed cervical kyphosis was treated successfully by the use of circumferential osteotomy and pedicle screw fixation. The surgical sequence described in this report is a reasonable approach for severe circumferentially fixed cervical kyphosis and short segment fixation can be achieved using pedicle screws. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-designed posterior atlas polyaxial lateral mass screw-plate fixation for unstable atlas fracture.

    PubMed

    He, Baorong; Yan, Liang; Zhao, Qinpeng; Chang, Zhen; Hao, Dingjun

    2014-12-01

    Most atlas fractures can be effectively treated nonoperatively with external immobilization unless there is an injury to the transverse atlantal ligament. Surgical stabilization is most commonly achieved using a posterior approach with fixation of C1-C2 or C0-C2, but these treatments usually result in loss of the normal motion of the C1-C2 and C0-C1 joints. To clinically validate feasibility, safety, and value of open reduction and fixation using an atlas polyaxial lateral mass screw-plate construct in unstable atlas fractures. Retrospective review of patients who sustained unstable atlas fractures treated with polyaxial lateral mass screw-plate construct. Twenty-two patients with unstable atlas fractures who underwent posterior atlas polyaxial lateral mass screw-plate fixation were analyzed. Visual analog scale, neurologic status, and radiographs for fusion. From January 2011 to September 2012, 22 patients with unstable atlas fractures were treated with this technique. Patients' charts and radiographs were reviewed. Bone fusion, internal fixation placement, and integrity of spinal cord and vertebral arteries were assessed via intraoperative and follow-up imaging. Neurologic function, range of motion, and pain levels were assessed clinically on follow-up. All patients were followed up from 12 to 32 months, with an average of 22.5±18.0 months. A total of 22 plates were placed, and all 44 screws were inserted into the atlas lateral masses. The mean duration of the procedure was 86 minutes, and the average estimated blood loss was 120 mL. Computed tomography scans 9 months after surgery confirmed that fusion was achieved in all cases. There was no screw or plate loosening or breakage in any patient. All patients had well-preserved range of motion. No vascular or neurologic complication was noted, and all patients had a good clinical outcome. An open reduction and posterior internal fixation with atlas polyaxial lateral mass screw-plate is a safe and effective

  7. Correction of complex equino cavo varus foot deformity in skeletally mature patients by Ilizarov external fixation versus staged external-internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled; El Moatasem, El Hussein; El Shazly, Ossama

    2011-12-01

    Complex foot deformity is a multi-planar foot deformity with many etiologic factors. Different corrective procedures using Ilizarov external fixation have been described which include, soft tissue release, V-osteotomy, multiple osteotomies and triple fusion. In this study we compare the results of two groups of skeletally mature patients with complex foot deformity who were treated by two different protocols. The first group (27 patients, 29 feet) was treated by triple fusion fixed by Ilizarov external fixator until union. The second group (29 patients, 30 feet), was treated by triple fusion with initial fixation by Ilizarov external fixation until correction of the deformity was achieved clinically, and then the Ilizarov fixation was replaced by internal fixation using percutaneous screws. Both groups were compared as regard the surgical outcome and the incidence of complications. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding duration of external fixation and duration of casting with shorter duration in the group 2. Also there was statistically significant difference between both groups regarding pin tract infection with less incidence in group 2. Early removal of Ilizarov external fixation after correction of the deformity and percutaneous internal fixation using 6.5 cannulated screws can shorten the duration of treatment and be more comfortable for the patient with a low risk of recurrence or infection. Copyright © 2010 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paradoxical tunnel enlargement after ACL reconstruction with hamstring autografts when using β-TCP containing interference screws for tibial aperture fixation- prospectively comparative study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joon Ho; Lee, Eun Su; Lee, Byung Hoon

    2017-09-16

    Tibial aperture fixation with a bioabsorbable interference screw is a popular fixation method in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). An interference screw containing β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to improve bony integration and biocompatibility was recently introduced. This study aims to compare the clinical outcomes and radiological results of tunnel enlargement effect between the 2 bioabsorbable fixative devices of pure poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) interference screws and β-TCP-containing screws, for tibial interference fixation in ACLR using hamstring autografts. Eighty consecutive patients who had undergone double-bundle ACLR between 2011 to 2012 were prospectively reviewed and randomly divided into two groups based on the type of tibial interference screw: 28 were assigned to the pure PLLA screw group (Group A), while the other 29 were assigned to the β-TCP-containing screw fixation group (Group B). Clinical evaluations and radiological analyses were conducted in both groups with a minimum 2- year follow-up. There was no significant difference in subjective or objective clinical outcome between the 2 groups. In radiological analyses, the use of a β-TCP-containing screw reduced tunnel widening in the portion of the tunnel with screw engagement compared to the pure PLLA screw, while the use of a β-TCP-containing screw resulted in greater tunnel enlargement in the proximal portion of the tunnel without screw engagement than use of a pure PLLA screw. Use of a β-TCP-containing interference screw in tibial aperture fixation reduced tunnel enlargement in the vicinity of the screw, whereas greater enlargement occurred proximal to the screw end relative to use of a pure PLLA interference screw. These paradoxical enlargements in use of β-TCP containing screws suggest that for reducing tunnel enlargement, the length of the interference screw should be as fit as possible with tunnel length in terms of using soft grafts. II, Prospectively comparative

  9. Reciprocal Changes in Sagittal Alignment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Following Strategic Pedicle Screw Fixation.

    PubMed

    Dumpa, Srikanth Reddy; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Aiyer, Siddharth N; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Rajasekaran, S

    2018-04-01

    Retrospective observational study. To analyze the effect of low-density (LD) strategic pedicle screw fixation on the correction of coronal and sagittal parameters in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. LD screw fixation achieves favorable coronal correction, but its effect on sagittal parameters is not well established. AIS is often associated with decreased thoracic kyphosis (TK), and the use of multi-level pedicle screws may result in further flattening of the sagittal profile. A retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients with AIS to compare coronal and sagittal parameters preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up. All patients underwent posterior correction via LD strategic pedicle screw fixation. Radiographs were analyzed for primary Cobb angle (PCA), coronal imbalance, cervical sagittal angle (CSA), TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), C7 plumb line, spino-sacral angle, curve flexibility, and screw density. PCA changed significantly from 57.6°±13.9° to 19°±8.4° ( p <0.0001) with 67% correction, where the mean curve flexibility was 41% and screw density was 68%. Regional sagittal parameters did not change significantly, including CSA (from 10.76° to 10.56°, p =0.893), TK (from 24.4° to 22.8°, p =0.145), and LL (from 50.3° to 51.1°, p =0.415). However, subgroup analysis of the hypokyphosis group (<10°) and the hyperkyphosis group (>40°) showed significant correction of TK ( p <0.0001 in both). Sacro-pelvic parameters showed a significant decrease of PT and increase of SS, suggesting a reduction in pelvic retroversion SS (from 37° to 40°, p =0.0001) and PT (from 15° to 14°, p =0.025). LD strategic pedicle screw fixation provides favorable coronal correction and improves overall sagittal sacro-pelvic parameters. This technique does not cause significant flattening of TK and results in a favorable restoration of TK in patients with hypokyphosis or hyperkyphosis.

  10. Reciprocal Changes in Sagittal Alignment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Following Strategic Pedicle Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Dumpa, Srikanth Reddy; Aiyer, Siddharth N.; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Rajasekaran, S

    2018-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective observational study. Purpose To analyze the effect of low-density (LD) strategic pedicle screw fixation on the correction of coronal and sagittal parameters in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Overview of Literature LD screw fixation achieves favorable coronal correction, but its effect on sagittal parameters is not well established. AIS is often associated with decreased thoracic kyphosis (TK), and the use of multi-level pedicle screws may result in further flattening of the sagittal profile. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients with AIS to compare coronal and sagittal parameters preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up. All patients underwent posterior correction via LD strategic pedicle screw fixation. Radiographs were analyzed for primary Cobb angle (PCA), coronal imbalance, cervical sagittal angle (CSA), TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), C7 plumb line, spino-sacral angle, curve flexibility, and screw density. Results PCA changed significantly from 57.6°±13.9° to 19°±8.4° (p <0.0001) with 67% correction, where the mean curve flexibility was 41% and screw density was 68%. Regional sagittal parameters did not change significantly, including CSA (from 10.76° to 10.56°, p =0.893), TK (from 24.4° to 22.8°, p =0.145), and LL (from 50.3° to 51.1°, p =0.415). However, subgroup analysis of the hypokyphosis group (<10°) and the hyperkyphosis group (>40°) showed significant correction of TK (p <0.0001 in both). Sacro-pelvic parameters showed a significant decrease of PT and increase of SS, suggesting a reduction in pelvic retroversion SS (from 37° to 40°, p =0.0001) and PT (from 15° to 14°, p =0.025). Conclusions LD strategic pedicle screw fixation provides favorable coronal correction and improves overall sagittal sacro-pelvic parameters. This technique does not cause significant flattening of TK and results in a favorable restoration of TK in

  11. Influence of Hydroxyapatite Stick on Pedicle Screw Fixation in Degenerative Lumbar Spine: Biomechanical and Radiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Ji-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyup

    2017-07-01

    A prospective, within-patient, left-right comparative study. To evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyapatite (HA) stick augmentation method by comparing the insertional torque of the pedicle screw in osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic patients. Unsatisfactory clinical outcomes after spine surgery in osteoporotic patients are related to pedicle screw loosening or pull-outs. HA, as a bone graft extender, has a possibility to enhance the fixation strength at the bone-screw interface. From November 2009 to December 2010, among patients who required bilateral pedicle screw fixation for lumbar spine surgery, 22 patients were enrolled, who recieved unilateral HA stick augmentation and completed intraoperative insertional torque measurement of each pedicle screws. On the basis of preoperative evaluation of bone mineral density, patients with osteoporosis had 2 HA sticks inserted unilaterally, and 1 stick for patients without osteoporosis. Pedicle screw loosening and pull-outs were assessed using 12-month postoperative CT scans and follow-up radiographs. Clinical evaluation was done preoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively, based on Visual Analog Scale score, Oswestry Disability Index, and Short Form-36 Health Survey. Regardless of bone mineral density, the average torque value of all pedicle screws with HA stick insertion (HA stick inserted group) was significantly higher than that of all pedicle screws without HA insertion (control group) (P<0.0001). Same results were seen in the HA stick inserted subgroups and the control subgroups within both of the osteoporosis group (P=0.009) and the nonosteoporosis group (P=0.0004). There was no statistically significant difference of the rate of pedicle screw loosening in between the HA stick inserted group and the control group. Clinical evaluation also showed no statistically significant difference in between patients with loosening and those without. The enhancement of initial pedicle screw fixation strength in osteoporotic patients

  12. ACL reconstruction using bone-patella tendon-bone autograft: press-fit technique vs. interference screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Sarzaeem, M M; Najafi, F; Razi, M; Najafi, M A

    2014-07-01

    The gold standard in ACL reconstructions has been the bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft fixed with interference screws. This prospective, randomized clinical trial aimed to compare two methods of fixation for BPTB grafts: press-fit fixation vs. interference screw, over a 12-month follow-up interval. 158 patients with an average age of 29.8 years, between 2011 and 2012, were treated for torn ACL. 82 patients underwent reconstruction with BPTB autograft with a press fit fixation technique, and in 76 cases an interference screw was used. At the time of final follow-up, 71 patients in press-fit group and 65 patients in interference screw group were evaluated in terms of return to pre-injury activity level, pain, knee stability, range of motion, IKDC score and complications. At 12-month follow-up, 59 (83 %) and 55 (85 %) in press-fit and screw group, respectively had good-to-excellent IKDC score (p > 0.05). The mean laxity assessed using a KT-1000 arthrometer improved to 2.7 and 2.5 mm in press-fit and screw group, respectively. Regarding Lachman and pivot shift test, there was a statistically significant improvement in the integrity of the ACL in both the groups, but no significant differences was noted between groups. There were no significant differences in terms of femur circumference difference, effusion, knee range of motion, pain and complications. The press-fit technique is an efficient procedure. Its outcome was comparable with the interference screw group. Furthermore it has unlimited bone-to-bone healing, no need for removal of hardware, ease for revision and cost effectiveness.

  13. Lateral mass screw-rod fixation of the cervical spine: a prospective clinical series with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Deen, H Gordon; Birch, Barry D; Wharen, Robert E; Reimer, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Lateral mass plating has become the technique of choice for posterior cervical fixation. Although these systems are safe and reliable, they can be difficult to use in patients with abnormal cervical anatomy; screw placement can be compromised by the fixed hole spacing of the plate; screw back-out and other forms of implant failure can occur; and extension across the cervicothoracic junction can be problematic. To report a series of patients undergoing posterior cervical stabilization with a polyaxial screw-rod construct and to investigate whether this new system offers any advantages over existing methods of fixation. A prospective study evaluating clinical and radiographic parameters in a consecutive series of patients treated with this technique. There were 21 patients in the study group. The surgical indication was cervical spondylosis in 14, trauma in 2, postsurgical kyphosis in 2 and 1 case each of congenital cervicothoracic stenosis, C7-T1 pseudarthrosis and basilar invagination with brainstem compression. Clinical indicators included age, gender, neurologic status, surgical indication and number of levels stabilized. Note was made of whether laminectomy and concomitant anterior reconstructive surgery were performed. Radiographic indicators included early postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan to check for screw placement and plain radiographs at subsequent visits. The participants in this study underwent posterior cervical stabilization using lateral mass screw-rod fixation. Clinical and radiographic assessment was carried out immediately after surgery, and 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. One-year follow-up was obtained in all cases. A total of 212 screws were implanted in 21 patients. Fixation was carried out over an average of 5.5 spinal segments (range, 2 to 11). The system was successfully implanted in all patients despite the presence of coronal and sagittal plane deformities and/or lateral mass abnormalities in the majority of cases. This system

  14. Comparison of clinical results between novel percutaneous pedicle screw and traditional open pedicle screw fixation for thoracolumbar fractures without neurological deficit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Zhao, Qinpeng; Hao, Dingjun; Chang, Zhen; Liu, Shichang; Yin, Xinhua

    2018-06-16

    To compare the efficacy and safety of novel percutaneous minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation and traditional open surgery for thoracolumbar fractures without neurological deficit. Sixty adult patients with single thoracolumbar fracture between June 2014 and June 2016 were recruited in this study, randomly divided into open fixation group (group A) or minimally invasive percutaneous fixation group (group B). Clinical and surgical evaluation including surgery time, blood losses, radiation times, hospital stay, and complication were performed. The two groups of patients with pre-operative and last follow-up anterior height ratio of fracture vertebral, Cobb angle of fracture vertebral, and VAS score of back pain were compared. All patients completed valid follow-ups, with an average time period of 15.4 months (12-26 months). Group B achieved much better results in time of operation, intra-operative blood loss, and length of stay than group A (P < 0.05). Group A was significantly better than group B in the times of radiation (P < 0.05). The VAS score was significantly lower in group B than in group A at three days after the operation (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the anterior height ratio of fracture vertebral, Cobb angle, and VAS score in the last follow-up (P > 0.05). No injured nerve or other severe complications occurred in both groups; one of the patients from group A had back and loin pain lasting for about one month, which resolved after analgesia and functional training. There was no significant difference between the two groups in incidence of complications. Novel percutaneous pedicle screws with angle reset function can achieve the same effect as traditional open pedicle screw fixation in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures without nerve injuries. Percutaneous minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation has the characteristics of shorter operative time, less bleeding, and less pain, but

  15. Treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts in children: review of literature and results using a cannulated screw for continuous decompression of the cyst.

    PubMed

    Saraph, Vinay; Zwick, Ernst-Bernhard; Maizen, Claudia; Schneider, Frank; Linhart, Wolfgang E

    2004-01-01

    Nine unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus in children were managed surgically using the technique of continuous decompression with titanium cannulated cancellous screws. The average age of the patients at surgery was 12.8 years. At follow-up a minimum of 2 years after surgery, eight cysts showed complete healing; one patient showed healing with residuals. Irritation at the screw insertion site necessitated early removal of the screw in one patient; implant-related problems were not observed in the other patients. Patients were allowed to bear weight after surgery. Implant extraction was performed after full consolidation of the cyst and was uneventful in all patients. A review of the literature and the different treatment modalities used for managing calcaneal cysts is also presented.

  16. Biomechanical comparison of four C1 to C2 rigid fixative techniques: anterior transarticular, posterior transarticular, C1 to C2 pedicle, and C1 to C2 intralaminar screws.

    PubMed

    Lapsiwala, Samir B; Anderson, Paul A; Oza, Ashish; Resnick, Daniel K

    2006-03-01

    We performed a biomechanical comparison of several C1 to C2 fixation techniques including crossed laminar (intralaminar) screw fixation, anterior C1 to C2 transarticular screw fixation, C1 to 2 pedicle screw fixation, and posterior C1 to C2 transarticular screw fixation. Eight cadaveric cervical spines were tested intact and after dens fracture. Four different C1 to C2 screw fixation techniques were tested. Posterior transarticular and pedicle screw constructs were tested twice, once with supplemental sublaminar cables and once without cables. The specimens were tested in three modes of loading: flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. All tests were performed in load and torque control. Pure bending moments of 2 nm were applied in flexion-extension and lateral bending, whereas a 1 nm moment was applied in axial rotation. Linear displacements were recorded from extensometers rigidly affixed to the C1 and C2 vertebrae. Linear displacements were reduced to angular displacements using trigonometry. Adding cable fixation results in a stiffer construct for posterior transarticular screws. The addition of cables did not affect the stiffness of C1 to C2 pedicle screw constructs. There were no significant differences in stiffness between anterior and posterior transarticular screw techniques, unless cable fixation was added to the posterior construct. All three posterior screw constructs with supplemental cable fixation provide equal stiffness with regard to flexion-extension and axial rotation. C1 lateral mass-C2 intralaminar screw fixation restored resistance to lateral bending but not to the same degree as the other screw fixation techniques. All four screw fixation techniques limit motion at the C1 to 2 articulation. The addition of cable fixation improves resistance to flexion and extension for posterior transarticular screw fixation.

  17. Biomechanical study of four kinds of percutaneous screw fixation in two types of unilateral sacroiliac joint dislocation: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihai; Peng, Ye; Du, Chengfei; Tang, Peifu

    2014-12-01

    To compare the biomechanical stability of four different kinds of percutaneous screw fixation in two types of unilateral sacroiliac joint dislocation. Finite element models of unstable Tile type B and type C pelvic ring injuries were created in this study. Modelling was based on fixation with a single S1 screw (S1-1), single S2 screw (S2-1), two S1 screws (S1-2) and a combination of a single S1 and a single S2 screw (S1–S2). The biomechanical test of two types of pelvic instability (rotational or vertical) with four types of percutaneous fixation were compared. Displacement, flexion and lateral bend (in bilateral stance) were recorded and analyzed. Maximal inferior translation (displacement) was found in the S2-1 group in type B and C dislocations which were 1.58 mm and 1.90 mm, respectively. Maximal flexion was found in the S2-1 group in type B and C dislocations which were 1.55° and 1.95°, respectively. The results show that the flexion from most significant angulation to least is S2-1, S1-1, S1-2, and S1–S2 in type B and C dislocations. All the fixations have minimal lateral bend. Our findings suggest single screw S1 fixation should be adequate fixation for a type B dislocation. For type C dislocations, one might consider a two screw construct (S1–S2) to give added biomechanical stability if clinically indicated.

  18. Changes in the syndesmotic reduction after syndesmotic screw fixation for ankle malleolar fractures: One-year longitudinal evaluations using computer tomography.

    PubMed

    Endo, Jun; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Saito, Masahiko; Morikawa, Tsuguo; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Sasho, Takahisa

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate time-dependent changes in the syndesmotic reduction after syndesmotic screw fixation and one year after screw removal for ankle malleolar fractures, and to assess whether the incidence of syndesmotic malreduction changes depending on the measurement method. We assessed twenty patients who underwent syndesmotic screw fixation for ankle fractures. The syndesmotic screws were removed after six weeks of the fracture surgery. Syndesmotic reduction was assessed within two weeks of the fracture surgery and one year after the screw removal using the axial computer tomographic images. Side-to-side differences in the anterior and posterior tibiofibular distances, anteroposterior fibular translation, and fibular rotation were measured. The mean anterior tibiofibular distance was 0.7mm after syndesmotic fixation. It increased to 1.9mm at one year after screw removal (p=0.002). After syndesmotic fixation, four ankles had malreduction of the anterior tibiofibular distance, including three ankles with widening and one with overtightening. At one year, eight ankles had malreduction, all of whom had widening. The other measurement values did not change over time (0.1mm vs. 0.6mm for the posterior tibiofibular distance, 0.2mm vs. 0.3mm for the anteroposterior fibular translation, and 0.7° vs. 0° for the fibular rotation). The incidences of malreduction were significantly different depending on the definition of malreduction, ranging from 10% to 50% after syndesmotic fixation (p=0.01) and from 20% to 60% at one year after screw removal (p=0.02). The anterior tibiofibular distance widened after one year of syndesmotic screw removal. The incidence of malreduction varied depending on the measurement method. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    2016-01-11

    Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation. Eight orthopaedic surgeons performed the experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of this device. Each surgeon performed guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation in six synthetic femurs: three times with the new device and three times with the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic time, operative time and surgeon satisfaction were evaluated. In the operations with the new adjustable drill guide, the fluoroscopic and operative times were significantly lower than the operations with the conventional technique (p < 0.05). The mean score for the level of satisfaction of this device was also statistically significantly better (p = 0.02) than the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic and operative times with the new adjustable drill guide were reduced for multiple screw fixation of femoral neck fracture and the satisfaction of the surgeons was good.

  20. Radiofrequency-activated PMMA-augmentation through cannulated pedicle screws: A cadaver study to determine the biomechanical benefits in the osteoporotic spine.

    PubMed

    Karius, T; Deborre, C; Wirtz, D C; Burger, C; Prescher, A; Fölsch, A; Kabir, K; Pflugmacher, R; Goost, H

    2017-01-01

    PMMA-augmentation of pedicle screws strengthens the bone-screw-interface reducing cut-out risk. Injection of fluid cement bears a higher risk of extravasation, with difficulty of application because of inconsistent viscosity and limited injection time. To test a new method of cement augmentation of pedicle screws using radiofrequency-activated PMMA, which is suspected to be easier to apply and have less extravasations. Twenty-seven fresh-frozen human cadaver lumbar spines were divided into 18 osteoporotic (BMD ≤ 0.8 g/cm2) and 9 non-osteoporotic (BMD > 0.8 g/cm2) vertebral bodies. Bipedicular cannulated pedicle screws were implanted into the vertebral bodies; right screws were augmented with ultra-high viscosity PMMA, whereas un-cemented left pedicle screws served as negative controls. Cement distribution was controlled with fluoroscopy and CT scans. Axial pullout forces of the screws were measured with a material testing machine, and results were analyzed statistically. Fluoroscopy and CT scans showed that in all cases an adequately big cement depot with homogenous form and no signs of extravasation was injected. Pullout forces showed significant differences (p < 0.001) between the augmented and non-augmented pedicle screws for bone densities below 0.8 g/cm2 (661.9 N ± 439) and over 0.8 g/cm2 (744.9 N ± 415). Pullout-forces were significantly increased in osteoporotic as well as in non-osteoporotic vertebral bodies without a significant difference between these groups using this standardized, simple procedure with increased control and less complications like extravasation.

  1. Evaluation of a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography of scaphoid fixation screws.

    PubMed

    Filli, Lukas; Marcon, Magda; Scholz, Bernhard; Calcagni, Maurizio; Finkenstädt, Tim; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) of scaphoid fixation screws. FDCT has gained interest in imaging small anatomic structures of the appendicular skeleton. Angiographic C-arm systems with flat detectors allow fluoroscopy and FDCT imaging in a one-stop procedure emphasizing their role as an ideal intraoperative imaging tool. However, FDCT imaging can be significantly impaired by artefacts induced by fixation screws. Following ethical board approval, commercially available scaphoid fixation screws were inserted into six cadaveric specimens in order to fix artificially induced scaphoid fractures. FDCT images corrected with the algorithm were compared to uncorrected images both quantitatively and qualitatively by two independent radiologists in terms of artefacts, screw contour, fracture line visibility, bone visibility, and soft tissue definition. Normal distribution of variables was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In case of normal distribution, quantitative variables were compared using paired Student's t tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for quantitative variables without normal distribution and all qualitative variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistically significant differences. Metal artefacts were significantly reduced by the correction algorithm (p < 0.001), and the fracture line was more clearly defined (p < 0.01). The inter-observer reliability was "almost perfect" (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.001). The prototype correction algorithm in FDCT for metal artefacts induced by scaphoid fixation screws may facilitate intra- and postoperative follow-up imaging. Flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) is a helpful imaging tool for scaphoid fixation. The correction algorithm significantly reduces artefacts in FDCT induced by scaphoid fixation screws. This may facilitate intra

  2. Fracture healing using degradable magnesium fixation plates and screws.

    PubMed

    Chaya, Amy; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Verdelis, Kostas; Noorani, Sabrina; Costello, Bernard J; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Internal bone fixation devices made with permanent metals are associated with numerous long-term complications and may require removal. We hypothesized that fixation devices made with degradable magnesium alloys could provide an ideal combination of strength and degradation, facilitating fracture fixation and healing while eliminating the need for implant removal surgery. Fixation plates and screws were machined from 99.9% pure magnesium and compared with titanium devices in a rabbit ulnar fracture model. Magnesium device degradation and the effect on fracture healing and bone formation were assessed after 4 weeks. Fracture healing with magnesium device fixation was compared with that of titanium devices using qualitative histologic analysis and quantitative histomorphometry. Micro-computed tomography showed device degradation after 4 weeks in vivo. In addition, 2-dimensional micro-computed tomography slices and histologic staining showed that magnesium degradation did not inhibit fracture healing or bone formation. Histomorphology showed no difference in bone-bridging fractures fixed with magnesium and titanium devices. Interestingly, abundant new bone was formed around magnesium devices, suggesting a connection between magnesium degradation and bone formation. Our results show potential for magnesium fixation devices in a loaded fracture environment. Furthermore, these results suggest that magnesium fixation devices may enhance fracture healing by encouraging localized new bone formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Analysis of reason and strategy for the failure of posterior pedicle screw short-segment internal fixation on thoracolumbar fractures].

    PubMed

    Xing, Jin-Ming; Peng, Wen-Ming; Shi, Chu-Yun; Xu, Lei; Pan, Qi-Huao

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the reason and strategy for failure of posterior pedicle screw short-segment internal fixation on thoracolumbar fractures. From March 2008 to December 2010,the clinical data of 18 patients with thoracolumbar fracture failed in posterior pedicle screw short-segment internal fixation were retrospectively analyzed. There were 11 males and 7 females with an average age of 37.2 years (ranged, 19 to 63). The time from the first operation to complication occurrence was from 6 to 44 months with an average of 14.3 months. Of them,fusion failure was in 7 cases (combined with screw breakage in 4 cases), the progressive neuro-dysfunction was in 5 cases,the progressive lumbodorsal pain was in 6 cases. All 18 patients with kyphosis were treated with anterior internal fixation remaining posterior fixation (9 cases) and anterior internal fixation after posterior fixation removal (9 cases). All the patients were followed up from 18 to 50 months with an average of 30.5 months. No intetnal fixation loosening and breakage were found, moreover, X-ray and lamellar CT showed bone healing well. Preoperative, postoperative at 3 months and at final follow-up, ODI score was respectively 31.6+/-5.1, 8.6+/-5.7, 8.3+/-3.2; VAS score was respectively 7.2+/-2.3, 2.3+/-0.7, 2.1+/-1.1; kyphosis angle was respectively (-21.2/-+7.8 degreeso, (-5.3+/-6.8 degrees ), (-5.8+/-7.8 )degrees. Compared with preoperative data ,above-listed items had obviously ameliorated(P<0.05). Treatment of thoracolumbar fracture with posterior pedicle screw short-segment internal fixation may result in the complications such as bone nonunion ,internal fixation breakage and progressive kyphosis. Anterior reconstruction may be a good strategy for the failure of posterior operation.

  4. Improving the trajectory of transpedicular transdiscal lumbar screw fixation with a computer-assisted 3D-printed custom drill guide

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhen-Xuan; Wang, Jian-Shun; Lin, Zhong-Ke; Ni, Wen-Fei; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Transpedicular transdiscal screw fixation is an alternative technique used in lumbar spine fixation; however, it requires an accurate screw trajectory. The aim of this study is to design a novel 3D-printed custom drill guide and investigate its accuracy to guide the trajectory of transpedicular transdiscal (TPTD) lumbar screw fixation. Dicom images of thirty lumbar functional segment units (FSU, two segments) of L1–L4 were acquired from the PACS system in our hospital (patients who underwent a CT scan for other abdomen diseases and had normal spine anatomy) and imported into reverse design software for three-dimensional reconstructions. Images were used to print the 3D lumbar models and were imported into CAD software to design an optimal TPTD screw trajectory and a matched custom drill guide. After both the 3D printed FSU models and 3D-printed custom drill guide were prepared, the TPTD screws will be guided with a 3D-printed custom drill guide and introduced into the 3D printed FSU models. No significant statistical difference in screw trajectory angles was observed between the digital model and the 3D-printed model (P > 0.05). Our present study found that, with the help of CAD software, it is feasible to design a TPTD screw custom drill guide that could guide the accurate TPTD screw trajectory on 3D-printed lumbar models. PMID:28717599

  5. [Biodegradable screw versus a press-fit bone plug fixation for ACL reconstruction: a prospective randomized study].

    PubMed

    Geiges, B; von Falck, C; Knobloch, K; Haasper, C; Meller, R; Krettek, C; Hankemeier, S; Brand, J; Jagodzinski, M

    2013-02-01

    Press-fit fixation of a tendon graft has been advocated in order to achieve tendon to bone healing. Fixation of a tendon graft with a porous bone scaffold limits bone tunnel enlargement compared with a biodegradable interference screw fixation. Between 2005 and 2006, 20 patients (17 men, 3 women) were enrolled in this study for primary reconstruction of the ACL. Patients were randomized to either obtain graft fixation in the tibial tunnel by means of an interference screw (I) or a press-fit fixation with a porous bone cylinder (P). Three months after surgery, a CT scan of the knee was performed and tunnel enlargement was analysed in the coronal and sagittal planes for the proximal, middle and distal thirds of the tunnel. After 6 months, 1 and 2 years, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Tegner and Lysholm scores of both groups were compared. The bone tunnel enlargement was 106.9±10.9% for group P and 121.9±9.0% for group I (P<0.02) in the AP plane and 102.8±15.2% vs 121.5±10.1% in the coronal plane (P<0.01). IKDC, Tegner, and Lysholm scores improved in both groups from pre- to postoperative assessment without significant differences between the two groups. There was a trend to higher knee stability in group P after 3 months (0.6±1.4 mm vs 1.81±.5 mm, P=0.08). Both interference screw and a press-fit fixation lead to a high number of good or very good outcomes after ACL reconstruction. Tibial press-fit fixation decreases the amount of proximal bone tunnel enlargement. Press-fit fixation decreases the amount of proximal bone tunnel enlargement and improves bone to tendon contact.

  6. Anterior transarticular C1-C2 fixation with contralateral screw insertion: a report of two cases and technical note.

    PubMed

    Lvov, Ivan; Grin, Andrey; Kaykov, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vladimir; Krylov, Vladimir

    2017-08-08

    Anterior transarticular fixation of the C1-C2 vertebrae is a well-known technique that involves screw insertion through the body of the C2 vertebra into the lateral masses of the atlas through an anterior transcervical approach. Meanwhile, contralateral screw insertion has been previously described only in anatomical studies. We describe two case reports of the clinical application of this new technique. In Case 1, the patient was diagnosed with an unstable C1 fracture. The clinical features of the case did not allow for any type of posterior atlantoaxial fusion, Halo immobilization, or routine anterior fixation using the Reindl and Koller techniques. The possible manner of screw insertion into the anterior third of the right lateral mass was via a contralateral trajectory, which was performed in this case. Case 2 involved a patient with neglected posteriorly dislocated dens fracture who could not lie in the prone position due to concomitant cardiac pathology. Reduction of atlantoaxial dislocation was insufficient, even after scar tissue resection at the fracture, while transdental fusion was not possible. Considering the success of the previous case, atlantoaxial fixation was performed through the small approach, using the Reindl technique and contralateral screw insertion. These two cases demonstrate the potential of anterior transarticular fixation of C1-C2 vertebrae in cases where posterior atlantoaxial fusion is not achievable. This type of fixation can be performed through a single approach if one screw is inserted using the Reindl technique and another is inserted via a contralateral trajectory.

  7. Paravertebral foramen screw fixation for posterior cervical spine fusion: biomechanical study and description of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Maki, Satoshi; Aramomi, Masaaki; Matsuura, Yusuke; Furuya, Takeo; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Iijima, Yasushi; Saito, Junya; Suzuki, Takane; Mannoji, Chikato; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Koda, Masao

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Fusion surgery with instrumentation is a widely accepted treatment for cervical spine pathologies. The authors propose a novel technique for subaxial cervical fusion surgery using paravertebral foramen screws (PVFS). The authors consider that PVFS have equal or greater biomechanical strength than lateral mass screws (LMS). The authors' goals of this study were to conduct a biomechanical study of PVFS, to investigate the suitability of PVFS as salvage fixation for failed LMS, and to describe this novel technique. METHODS The authors harvested 24 human cervical spine vertebrae (C3-6) from 6 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens from donors whose mean age was 84.3 ± 10.4 years at death. For each vertebra, one side was chosen randomly for PVFS and the other for LMS. For PVFS, a 3.2-mm drill with a stopper was advanced under lateral fluoroscopic imaging. The drill stopper was set to 12 mm, which was considered sufficiently short not to breach the transverse foramen. The drill was directed from 20° to 25° medially so that the screw could purchase the relatively hard cancellous bone around the entry zone of the pedicle. The hole was tapped and a 4.5-mm-diameter × 12-mm screw was inserted. For LMS, 3.5-mm-diameter × 14-mm screws were inserted into the lateral mass of C3-6. The pullout strength of each screw was measured. After pullout testing of LMS, a drill was inserted into the screw hole and the superior cortex of the lateral mass was pried to cause a fracture through the screw hole, simulating intraoperative fracture of the lateral mass. After the procedure, PVFS for salvage (sPVFS) were inserted on the same side and pullout strength was measured. RESULTS The CT scans obtained after screw insertion revealed no sign of pedicle breaching, violation of the transverse foramen, or fracture of the lateral mass. A total of 69 screws were tested (23 PVFS, 23 LMS, and 23 sPVFS). One vertebra was not used because of a fracture that occurred while the specimen was

  8. Increased wound complication with intramedullary screw fixation of clavicle fractures: Is it thermal necrosis?

    PubMed

    Domos, Peter; Tytherleigh-Strong, Graham; Van Rensburg, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Adult mid-shaft clavicle fractures are common injuries. For displaced fractures, open reduction with plate or intramedullary (IM) fixation is the widely used techniques. All methods have their own potential drawbacks, especially related to local soft tissue complications. There is little information about outcome and management of local wound complications after clavicle fracture fixations. Ninety-seven patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation, 17 were treated with IM screw fixation and 80 with plate fixation. Wound complication occurred in eight patients (8.2%) and rates differed significantly between IM and plate fixations (29.4% vs. 3.8%). Patients were assessed on average 58.3 months with visual analogue pain scores (VASs), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and QuickDash (QD) score. Five patients had wound breakdown and three patients had wound erythema. In seven patients with stable fixation, it was possible to "dress and suppress" with average 3 weeks of oral antibiotics. One patient had unstable fixation and required longer antibiotic treatment with early screw removal. One patient developed a chronic discharging wound, requiring debridement and later plate removal. At final follow-up, all wounds remained healed, bony union was achieved in all. The average scores were: VAS 1, OSS 46, and QD 4.5. Good function with dry healed wound and united clavicle can be achieved. Further studies are required to investigate the difference in soft tissue complication rates, which may be due to the IM technique of retrograde drilling with a guide wire and due to aseptic thermal bone necrosis, rather than true infection.

  9. Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Posterior Pedicle Screw Fixation: Two-Year Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Min; Kim, Ho Joong; Lee, Se Yeon; Chang, Bong Soon; Lee, Choon Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2018-05-01

    We prospectively assessed the early radiographic and clinical outcomes (minimum follow-up of 2 years) of robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation (Robot-PSF) and conventional freehand pedicle screw fixation (Conv-PSF). Patients were randomly assigned to Robot-PSF (37 patients) or Conv-PSF (41 patients) for posterior interbody fusion surgery. The Robot-PSF group underwent minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation using a pre-planned robot-guided screw trajectory. The Conv-PSF underwent screw fixation using the freehand technique. Radiographic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) was measured on plain radiographs, and clinical outcomes were measured using visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores regularly after surgery. The two groups had similar values for radiographic ASD, including University California at Los Angeles grade, vertebral translation, angular motion, and loss of disc height (p=0.320). At final follow-up, both groups had experienced significant improvements in back VAS, leg VAS, and ODI scores after surgery (p<0.001), although inter-group differences were not significant for back VAS (p=0.876), leg VAS (p=0.429), and ODI scores (p=0.952). In the Conv-PSF group, revision surgery was required for two of the 25 patients (8%), compared to no patients in the Robot-PSF group. There were no significant differences in radiographic ASD and clinical outcomes between Robot-PSF and Conv-PSF. Thus, the advantages of robot-assisted surgery (accurate pedicle screw insertion and minimal facet joint violation) do not appear to be clinically significant. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  10. Pedicle screw cement augmentation. A mechanical pullout study on different cement augmentation techniques.

    PubMed

    Costa, Francesco; Ortolina, Alessandro; Galbusera, Fabio; Cardia, Andrea; Sala, Giuseppe; Ronchi, Franco; Uccelli, Carlo; Grosso, Rossella; Fornari, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    Pedicle screws with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cement augmentation have been shown to significantly improve the fixation strength in a severely osteoporotic spine. However, the efficacy of screw fixation for different cement augmentation techniques remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the difference in pullout strength between different cement augmentation techniques. Uniform synthetic bones simulating severe osteoporosis were used to provide a platform for each augmentation technique. In all cases a polyaxial screw and acrylic cement (PMMA) at medium viscosity were used. Five groups were analyzed: I) only screw without PMMA (control group); II) retrograde cement pre-filling of the tapped area; III) cannulated and fenestrate screw with cement injection through perforation; IV) injection using a standard trocar of PMMA (vertebroplasty) and retrograde pre-filling of the tapped area; V) injection through a fenestrated trocar and retrograde pre-filling of the tapped area. Standard X-rays were taken in order to visualize cement distribution in each group. Pedicle screws at full insertion were then tested for axial pullout failure using a mechanical testing machine. A total of 30 screws were tested. The results of pullout analysis revealed better results of all groups with respect to the control group. In particular the statistical analysis showed a difference of Group V (p = 0.001) with respect to all other groups. These results confirm that the cement augmentation grants better results in pullout axial forces. Moreover they suggest better load resistance to axial forces when the distribution of the PMMA is along all the screw combining fenestration and pre-filling augmentation technique. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of internal fixation of fractures in porotic bone. Principles, technologies and procedures using locked plate screws.

    PubMed

    Perren, S M; Linke, B; Schwieger, K; Wahl, D; Schneider, E

    2005-01-01

    Fractures of the bones of elderly people occur more often and have a more important effect because of a generally diminished ability to coordinate stance and walking. These fractures occur at a lower level of load because of lack of strength of the porotic bone. Prompt recovery of skeletal support function is essential to avoid respiratory and circulatory complications in the elderly. To prevent elderly people from the risks of being bedridden, demanding internal fixation of fractures is required. The weak porotic bone and the high level of uncontrolled loading after internal fixation pose complex problems. A combination of several technical elements of design, application and aftercare in internal fixation are proposed. Internal fixators with locked screws improve the biology and the mechanics of internal fixation. When such fixators are used as elevated splints they may stimulate early callus formation because of their flexibility, the limit of flexibility being set by the demands of resistance and function of the limb. Our own studies of triangulation of locked screws have demonstrated their beneficial effects and unexpected limitations.

  12. Tibial Inlay Press-fit Fixation Versus Interference Screw in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Max; Büermann, Sarah; Calliess, Tilman; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Hurschler, Christof; Jagodzinski, Michael; Petri, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) by a tibial press-fit fixation of the patellar tendon with an accessory bone plug is a promising approach because no foreign materials are required. Until today, there is no data about the biomechanical properties of such press-fit fixations. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical qualities of a bone plug tibial inlay technique with the commonly applied interference screw of patellar tendon PCL grafts. Twenty patellar tendons including a bone block were harvested from ten human cadavers. The grafts were implanted into twenty legs of adult German country pigs. In group P, the grafts were attached in a press-fit technique with accessory bone plug. In group S, the grafts were fixed with an interference screw. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. The constructs were biomechanically analyzed in cyclic loading between 60 and 250 N for 500 cycles recording elongation. Finally, ultimate failure load and failure mode were analyzed. Ultimate failure load was 598.6±36.3 N in group P and 653.7±39.8 N in group S (not significant, P>0.05). Elongation during cyclic loading between the 1(st) and the 20(th) cycle was 3.4±0.9 mm for group P and 3.1±1 mm for group S. Between the 20(th) and the 500(th) cycle, elongation was 4.2±2.3 mm in group P and 2.5±0.9 mm in group S (not significant, P>0.05). This is the first study investigating the biomechanical properties of tibial press-fit fixation of the patellar tendon with accessory bone plug in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The implant-free tibial inlay technique shows equal biomechanical characteristics compared to an interference screw fixation. Further in vivo studies are desirable to compare the biological behavior and clinical relevance of this fixation device.

  13. MIS Single-position Lateral and Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation: Feasibility and Perioperative Results.

    PubMed

    Blizzard, Daniel J; Thomas, J Alex

    2018-03-15

    Retrospective review of prospectively collected data of the first 72 consecutive patients treated with single-position one- or two-level lateral (LLIF) or oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLLIF) with bilateral percutaneous pedicle screw and rod fixation by a single spine surgeon. To evaluate the clinical feasibility, accuracy, and efficiency of a single-position technique for LLIF and OLLIF with bilateral pedicle screw and rod fixation. Minimally-invasive lateral interbody approaches are performed in the lateral decubitus position. Subsequent repositioning prone for bilateral pedicle screw and rod fixation requires significant time and resources and does not facilitate increased lumbar lordosis. The first 72 consecutive patients (300 screws) treated with single-position LLIF or OLLIF and bilateral pedicle screws by a single surgeon between December 2013 and August 2016 were included in the study. Screw accuracy and fusion were graded using computed tomography and several timing parameters were recorded including retractor, fluoroscopy, and screw placement time. Complications including reoperation, infection, and postoperative radicular pain and weakness were recorded. Average screw placement time was 5.9 min/screw (standard deviation, SD: 1.5 min; range: 3-9.5 min). Average total operative time (interbody cage and pedicle screw placement) was 87.9 minutes (SD: 25.1 min; range: 49-195 min). Average fluoroscopy time was 15.0 s/screw (SD: 4.7 s; range: 6-25 s). The pedicle screw breach rate was 5.1% with 10/13 breaches measured as < 2 mm in magnitude. Fusion rate at 6-months postoperative was 87.5%. Two (2.8%) patients underwent reoperation for malpositioned pedicle screws with subsequent resolution of symptoms. The single-position, all-lateral technique was found to be feasible with accuracy, fluoroscopy usage, and complication rates comparable with the published literature. This technique eliminates the time and staffing associated with

  14. Biomechanical comparison of cemented versus non-cemented anterior screw fixation in type II odontoid fractures in the elderly: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Rehousek, Petr; Jenner, Edward; Holton, James; Czyz, Marcin; Capek, Lukas; Henys, Petr; Kulvajtova, Marketa; Krbec, Martin; Skala-Rosenbaum, Jiri

    2018-05-18

    Odontoid process fractures are the most common injuries of the cervical spine in the elderly. Anterior screw stabilization of type II odontoid process fractures improves survival and function in these patients but may be complicated by failure of fixation. The present study aimed to determine whether cement augmentation of a standard anterior screw provides biomechanically superior fixation of type II odontoid fractures in comparison with a non-cemented standard screw. Twenty human cadaveric C2 vertebrae from elderly donors (mean age 83 years) were obtained. Anderson and D'Alonzo type IIa odontoid fracture was created by transverse osteotomy, and fluoroscopy-guided anterior screw fixation was performed. The specimens were divided into two matched groups. The cemented group (n=10) had radiopaque high viscosity polymethylmethacrylate cement injected via Jamshidi needle into the base of the odontoid process. The other group was not augmented. A V-shaped punch was used for loading the odontoid in an anteroposterior direction until failure. The failure state was defined as screw cutout or 5% force decrease. Mean failure load and bending stiffness were calculated. The mean failure load for the cemented group was 352±12 N compared with 168±23 N for the non-cemented group (p<.001). The mean initial stiffness of the non-cemented group was 153±19 N/mm compared with 195±29 N/mm for the cemented group (p<.001) CONCLUSIONS: Cement augmentation of an anterior standard screw fixation of type II odontoid process fractures in elderly patients significantly increased load to failure under anteroposterior load in comparison with non-augmented fixation. This may be a valuable technique to reduce failure of fixation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones using bioabsorbable screws.

    PubMed

    Mageed, M; Steinberg, T; Drumm, N; Stubbs, N; Wegert, J; Koene, M

    2018-03-01

    Fractures involving the proximal one-third of the splint bone are relatively rare and are challenging to treat. A variety of management techniques have been reported in the literature. The aim of this retrospective case series was to describe the clinical presentation and evaluate the efficacy of bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws in internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones in horses. The medical records, diagnostic images and outcome of all horses diagnosed with a proximal fracture of the splint bones and treated with partial resection and internal fixation of the proximal stump using bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. Eight horses met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were no complications encountered during screw placement or postoperatively. Six horses returned to full work 3 months after the operation and two horses remained mildly lame. On follow-up radiographs 12 months postoperatively (n = 2) the screws were not completely absorbed. The screws resulted in a cone-shaped radiolucency, which was progressively replaced from the outer margins by bone sclerosis. The use of bioabsorbable screws for fixation of proximal fractures of the splint bone appears to be a safe and feasible technique and may offer several advantages over the use of traditional metallic implants. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis: a new technique using bioabsorbable interference screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Pascal; Krishnan, Sumant G; Coste, Jean-Sebastien; Walch, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    To report a new technique of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis using bioabsorbable interference screw fixation and the early results. Prospective, nonrandomized study. The principle of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis is simple: after biceps tenotomy, the tendon is exteriorized and doubled on a suture; the biceps tendon is then pulled into a humeral socket (7 or 8 mm x 25 mm) drilled at the top of the bicipital groove, and fixed using a bioabsorbable interference screw (8 or 9 mm x 25 mm) under arthroscopic control. 43 patients treated with this technique between 1997 and 1999 were followed-up for at least 1 year. The technique was indicated in 3 clinical situations: (1) with arthroscopic cuff repair (3 cases), (2) in case of isolated pathology of the biceps tendon with an intact cuff (6 cases), and (3) as an alternative to biceps tenotomy in patients with massive, degenerative and irreparable cuff tears (34 cases). The biceps pathology was tenosynovitis (4 cases), prerupture (15 cases), subluxation (11 cases), and luxation (13 cases). The absolute Constant score improved from 43 points preoperatively to 79 points at review (P <.005). There was no loss of elbow movement and biceps strength was 90% of the strength of the other side. Two patients, operated on early in the series, presented with a rupture of the tenodesis. In both cases the bicipital tendon was very friable and the diameter of the screw proved to be insufficient (7 mm). No neurologic or vascular complications occurred. Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis using bioabsorbable screw fixation is technically possible and gives good clinical results. This technique can be used in cases of isolated pathologic biceps tendon or a cuff tear. A very thin, fragile, almost ruptured biceps tendon is the technical limit of this arthroscopic technique.

  17. Effect of augmentation techniques on the failure of pedicle screws under cranio-caudal cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Bostelmann, Richard; Keiler, Alexander; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Scholz, Armin; Cornelius, Jan Frederick; Schmoelz, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Augmentation of pedicle screws is recommended in selected indications (for instance: osteoporosis). Generally, there are two techniques for pedicle screw augmentation: inserting the screw in the non cured cement and in situ-augmentation with cannulated fenestrated screws, which can be applied percutaneously. Most of the published studies used an axial pull out test for evaluation of the pedicle screw anchorage. However, the loading and the failure mode of pullout tests do not simulate the cranio-caudal in vivo loading and failure mechanism of pedicle screws. The purpose of the present study was to assess the fixation effects of different augmentation techniques (including percutaneous cement application) and to investigate pedicle screw loosening under physiological cyclic cranio-caudal loading. Each of the two test groups consisted of 15 vertebral bodies (L1-L5, three of each level per group). Mean age was 84.3 years (SD 7.8) for group 1 and 77.0 years (SD 7.00) for group 2. Mean bone mineral density was 53.3 mg/cm 3 (SD 14.1) for group 1 and 53.2 mg/cm 3 (SD 4.3) for group 2. 1.5 ml high viscosity PMMA bone cement was used for all augmentation techniques. For test group 1, pedicles on the right side of the vertebrae were instrumented with solid pedicle screws in standard fashion without augmentation and served as control group. Left pedicles were instrumented with cannulated screws (Viper cannulated, DePuy Spine) and augmented. For test group 2 pedicles on the left side of the vertebrae were instrumented with cannulated fenestrated screws and in situ augmented. On the right side solid pedicle screws were augmented with cement first technique. Each screw was subjected to a cranio-caudal cyclic load starting at 20-50 N with increasing upper load magnitude of 0.1 N per cycle (1 Hz) for a maximum of 5000 cycles or until total failure. Stress X-rays were taken after cyclic loading to evaluate screw loosening. Test group 1 showed a significant higher number of

  18. Treatment of stress fracture of the olecranon in throwing athletes with internal fixation through a small incision

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The present study is a report of retrospective case series of stress fracture of the olecranon. Six patients presented posterior elbow pain in throwing in baseball and softball, but fracture was not diagnosed in radiographs. We detected stress fracture of the olecranon using computed tomographic (CT) scan and treated the patient with internal fixation with a headless cannulated double threaded screw through a small skin incision. All patients returned to competitive level without elbow complaints after the operation. When throwing athletes present with unusual posterior elbow pain and no significant findings on radiographs, a CT scan examination should be performed. We recommend surgical treatment of internal fixation with a screw through a small skin incision, as a good option for stress fracture of the olecranon in order to allow early return to sports activity in competitive athletes. PMID:23241173

  19. Clinical comparative analysis on unstable pelvic fractures in the treatment with percutaneous sacroiliac screws and sacroiliac joint anterior plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, C-L

    2014-01-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy of unstable pelvic fractures in the treatment with percutaneous sacroiliac screws and sacroiliac joint anterior plate fixation. 64 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were selected in the hospital from January 2008 to June 2011, and were randomly divided into two groups.(32 patients with sacroiliac anterior plate fixation as the control group, and another 32 patients with percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation as the observation group). The perioperative period clinical indicators, postoperative Matta score, postoperative Majeed function score of all patients were compared and analyzed. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, wound total length, postoperative fever time, duration of hospitalization in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group. The complication rate (3.1%) in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (21.9%). The rate of Matta score excellent (96.9%) in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (81.2%) after the treatment. The rate of Majeed function score excellent (93.8%) in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (75%) after the treatment. Percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation in the treatment of unstable pelvic fractures has less injury, less bleeding, less pain and rapid recovery which is a safe and effective minimally invasive operation method. The clinical curative effect of percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation is better than anterior plate fixation for the treatment of sacroiliac joint. The full preparation before the surgery and patients with positive can substantially reduce the occurrence of complications rate.

  20. The Feasibility of Two Screws Anterior Fixation for Type II Odontoid Fracture Among Arabs.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Yousef; Kombar, Osama Rabie; Al-Saeed, Osama; Aleidan, Aljarrah; Samir, Ahmed; Esmaeel, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Retrospective, cross-sectional study. To evaluate the feasibility of two screws anterior fixation of the odontoid process among Arab adults. Anterior screw fixation is the treatment of choice for type II odontoid fractures. In order to perform the procedure safely, the diameter of the odontoid process should be wide enough to allow for the placement of one or two screws. A retrospective review of 156 computed tomography scans of the cervical spine was done. The included patients were Arabs, adults (at least 18 years old), and had no evidence of upper cervical spine trauma, deformity, infection, tumor, or surgery. The minimum external transverse diameter (METD), minimum internal transverse diameter (MITD), minimum external anteroposterior diameter (MEAD), and minimum internal anteroposterior diameter (MIAD) of the odontoid process were measured. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered as the cutoff level of statistical significance. Our study included 94 (60.3%) males and 62 (39.7%) females. The mean age of the subjects was 37.8 ± 16.9 years (range 18-85). The mean values of the METD, MITD, MEAD, and MIAD were 8.7 ± 1.0 mm, 6.0 ± 1.1 mm, 10.3 ± 1.0 mm, and 7.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. Men had larger diameters compared to women. This was statistically significant for METD (P = 0.035) and MEAD (P < 0.001). The METD was <9.0 mm in 95 (60.9%) subjects, while the MITD was <8.0 mm in 153 (98.1%) subjects. These findings were not significantly different between males and females. Two screws anterior fixation of type II odontoid fracture is not feasible among the majority of Arabs. 3.

  1. Combined circular external fixation and open reduction internal fixation with pro-syndesmotic screws for repair of a diabetic ankle fracture

    PubMed Central

    Facaros, Zacharia; Ramanujam, Crystal L.; Stapleton, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The surgical management of ankle fractures among the diabetic population is associated with higher complication rates compared to the general population. Efforts toward development of better methods in prevention and treatment are continuously evolving for these injuries. The presence of peripheral neuropathy and the possible development of Charcot neuroarthropathy in this high risk patient population have stimulated much surgical interest to create more stable osseous constructs when open reduction of an ankle fracture/dislocation is required. The utilization of multiple syndesmotic screws (pro-syndesmotic screws) to further stabilize the ankle mortise has been reported by many foot and ankle surgeons. In addition, transarticular Steinmann pins have been described as an adjunct to traditional open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) of the ankle to better stabilize the talus, thus minimizing risk of further displacement, malunion, and Charcot neuroarthropathy. The authors present a unique technique of ORIF with pro-syndesmotic screws and the application of a multi-plane circular external fixator for management of a neglected diabetic ankle fracture that prevented further deformity while allowing a weight-bearing status. This techniqu may be utilized for the management of complex diabetic ankle fractures that are prone to future complications and possible limb loss. PMID:22396812

  2. No effect of additional screw fixation of a cementless, all-polyethylene press-fit socket on migration, wear, and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Minten, Michiel J M; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Spruit, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Additional screw fixation of the all-polyethylene press-fit RM cup (Mathys) has no additional value for migration, in the first 2 years after surgery. However, the medium-term and long-term effects of screw fixation remain unclear. We therefore evaluated the influence of screw fixation on migration, wear, and clinical outcome at 6.5 years using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Patients and methods - This study involved prolonged follow-up from a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT). We analyzed RSA radiographs taken at baseline and at 1-, 2-, and 6.5-year follow-up. Cup migration and wear were assessed using model-based RSA software. Wear was calculated as translation of the femoral head model in relation to the cup model. Total translation, rotation, and wear were calculated mathematically from results of the orthogonal components. Results - 27 patients (15 with screw fixation and 12 without) were available for follow-up at 6.5 (5.6-7.2) years. Total translation (0.50 mm vs. 0.56 mm) and rotation (1.01 degrees vs. 1.33 degrees) of the cup was low, and was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Wear increased over time, and was similar between the 2 groups (0.58 mm vs. 0.53 mm). Wear rate (0.08 mm/year vs. 0.09 mm/year) and clinical outcomes were also similar. Interpretation - Our results indicate that additional screw fixation of all-polyethylene press-fit RM cups has no additional value regarding medium-term migration and clinical outcome. The wear rate was low in both groups.

  3. Risks to the Superior Gluteal Neurovascular Bundle During Iliosacral and Transsacral Screw Fixation: A Computed Tomogram Arteriography Study.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Jed; Collinge, Cory A

    2017-12-01

    Iliosacral (IS) and transsacral (TS) screws are popular techniques to repair complicated injuries to the pelvis. The anatomy of the superior gluteal neurovasculature (SG NV bundle) is well described as running along the posterior ilium, providing innervation and perfusion to important abductor muscles. The method of pelvis fixation least likely to injure the SG NV bundle is unknown. Twenty uninjured patients with a contrasted computed tomogram of the pelvis and lower extremities (CTA) were evaluated. Starting points for an S1 IS screw and S1 and S2 TS screws were estimated on the "ghost" lateral CTA image for those pelvi with safe corridors (>9 mm diameter). The distance from the projected screw to the SG artery was measured. A distance of <3.65 mm (half of a 7.3-mm screw's diameter) was considered likely for NV bundle injury. Of 40 pelvi CTAs (single sides), 10 pelvi (25%) were determined to be inappropriate for an S1 TS screw. The average distances from the screw starting point and the artery were 25.3 mm (±9.2) for S1 IS, 12.4 mm (±9.0) for S1 TS, and 23.5 mm (±10.7) for S2 TS screws, respectively. Ten S1 TS screws (25%) and no S1 IS or S2 TS screws were projected to have caused injury to the SG NV bundle (P < 0.001). Inserting S1 IS and S2 TS screws put the SG NV anatomy at significantly less risk than S1 TS screws. This information may aid in choosing the "best" fixation option for patients with pelvic ring trauma requiring surgery.

  4. Unilateral lag screw fixation of isolated non-union atlas lateral mass fracture: a new technical note.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Majid Reza; Kiani, Arash; Rezaei, Hamid

    2018-01-15

    We describe a novel and new technique of posterior unilateral lag screw fixation of non-union atlas lateral mass fracture. A 46-year-old man presented with cervical pain and tenderness after a vehicle turn over accident and he was diagnosed to have left atlas lateral mass fracture. He was initially treated by immobilization using Minerva orthosis. About 2 months later, he developed severe neck pain and limitation of motion and thus he was scheduled for operation due to non-union atlas lateral mass fracture. A 28 mm lag screw was inserted under anterior-posterior and lateral fluoroscopic views. The entrance point was at the dorsal aspect of left atlas posterior arc at its junction to the lateral mass, and by using the trajectory of 10 degrees medial and 22 degrees cephalad fracture reduction was achieved. Unilateral lag screw fixation of atlas fractures is an appropriate, safe and effective surgical technique for the management of unilateral atlas fractures.

  5. Clinical results of the re-fixation of a Chevron olecranon osteotomy using an intramedullary cancellous screw and suture tension band.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Marc L; Dezillie, Marleen; Hoendervangers, Yvette; Eygendaal, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Exposure of the distal humerus in case of an articular fracture is often performed through a Chevron osteotomy of the olecranon. Several options have been described for re-fixation of the Chevron osteotomy. Pull-out of the hard-wear is often seen as complication. In this study, an evaluation of the re-fixation of the Chevron osteotomy through a cancellous screw and suture tension band was performed. The data of 19 patients in whom a Chevron osteotomy was re-fixated with a cancellous screw in combination with a suture tension band were used. Evaluation was performed by assessment of the post-operative X-rays and documentation of complications. In all 19 cases, evaluation of the post-operative X-rays showed complete consolidation without dislocation or other complications. Re-fixation of a Chevron osteotomy of the olecranon with a large cancellous screw with a suture tension band provides adequate stability to result in proper healing of the osteotomy in primary cases when early post-operative mobilisation is allowed. Complications as pull-out of the hard-wear were not reported.

  6. CT-Guided Transfacet Pedicle Screw Fixation in Facet Joint Syndrome: A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Manfré, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Axial microinstability secondary to disc degeneration and consequent chronic facet joint syndrome (CFJS) is a well-known pathological entity, usually responsible for low back pain (LBP). Although posterior lumbar fixation (PIF) has been widely used for lumbar spine instability and LBP, complications related to wrong screw introduction, perineural scars and extensive muscle dissection leading to muscle dysfunction have been described. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of facet joints zygapophyseal nerves conventionally used for pain treatment fails in approximately 21% of patients. We investigated a “covert-surgery” minimal invasive technique to treat local spinal instability and LBP, using a novel fully CT-guided approach in patients with axial instability complicated by CFJS resistant to radioablation, by introducing direct fully or partially threaded transfacet screws (transfacet fixation - TFF), to acquire solid arthrodesis, reducing instability and LBP. The CT-guided procedure was well tolerated by all patients in simple analogue sedation, and mean operative time was approximately 45 minutes. All eight patients treated underwent clinical and CT study follow-up at two months, revealing LBP disappearance in six patients, and a significant reduction of lumbar pain in two. In conclusion, CT-guided TFF is a fast and safe technique when facet posterior fixation is needed. PMID:25363265

  7. [Clinical application of percutaneous iliosacral screws combined with pubic ramus screws in Tile B pelvic fracture].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Fei; Lin, Kui-Ran; Zhao, Dai-Jie; Zhang, Song-Qin; Feng, Sheng-Kai; Li, Chen

    2017-03-25

    To investigate the application and effect of minimally invasive percutaneous anterior pelvic pubic ramus screw fixation in Tile B fractures. A retrospective review was conducted on 56 patients with posterior pelvic ring injury combined with fractures of anterior pubic and ischiadic ramus treated between May 2010 and August 2015, including 31 males and 25 females with an average age of 36.8 years old ranging from 35 to 65 years old. Based on the Tile classification, there were 13 cases of Tile B1 type, 28 cases of Tile B2 type and 15 cases of Tile B3 type. Among them, 26 patients were treated with sacroiliac screws combined with external fixation (external fixator group) and the other 30 patients underwent sacroiliac screw fixation combined with anterior screw fixation (pubic ramus screw group). Postoperative complications, postoperative ambulation time, fracture healing, blood loss, Majeed pelvic function score and visual analogue scale(VAS) were compared between two groups. Fifty-four patients were followed up from 3 to 24 months with a mean of 12 months. There were no significant difference in the peri-operative bleeding and operation time between two groups( P >0.05). The postoperative activity time and fracture healing time of pubic ramus screw group were shorter than those of the external fixator group, the differences were statistically significant( P <0.05). The Majeed score, VAS score of pubic ramus screw group were higher than those of the external fixator group, the differences were statistically significant( P <0.05). The incidence of postoperative complications of pubic ramus screw was lower than that of the external fixator group, the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.05). Percutaneous iliosacral screws fixation combined with the pubic ramus screw is an effective and safty treatment method to the Tile B pelvic fracture. It has advantages of early ambulation, relief of the pain and few complications.

  8. Unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures: treatment by internal fixation using AO mini-fragment plates and screws.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Mohammad Umar; Farooq, Muneer Ahmad; Rasool, Altaf Ahmad; Kawoosa, Altaf Ahmad; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dhar, Shabir Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Accurate open reduction and internal fixation for metacarpal and phalangeal fractures of the hand is required in less than 5% of the patients; otherwise, closed treatment techniques offer satisfactory results in most of these cases as these fractures are stable either before or after closed reduction. AO mini-fragment screws and plates, when used in properly selected cases, can provide rigid fixation, allowing early mobilization of joints and hence good functional results while avoiding problems associated with protruding K-wires and immobilization. The advantages of such internal fixation urged us to undertake such a study in our state where such hand injuries are commonly seen. Forty patients with 42 unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using AO mini-fragment screws and plates over a period of three years in a prospective manner. The overall results were good in 78.5% of cases, fair in 19% of cases and poor in 2.5% of cases, as judged according to the criteria of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. This technique is a reasonable option for treating unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures as it provides a highly rigid fixation, which is sufficient to allow early mobilization of the adjacent joints, thus helping to achieve good functional results.

  9. Anterior cervical plate fixation with the titanium hollow screw plate system. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Suh, P B; Kostuik, J P; Esses, S I

    1990-10-01

    Morscher, of Switzerland, has developed an anterior cervical spine plate system (THSP) that does not require screw purchase of the posterior cortex. This design eliminates potential neurologic complications usually associated with the anterior plate system, but maintains the mechanical advantages of internal fixation. The authors reviewed 13 consecutive patients in whom the THSP system was applied. Indications for the use of this device included acute trauma in three patients, trauma of more than 6 weeks' duration in five patients, and spondylosis in five patients. Fifteen plates and 58 screws were placed, with no screws purchasing the posterior cortex. Postoperative immobilization varied from no immobilization to four-poster brace. With a mean follow-up of 13 months, all 13 patients went on to fusion. One patient had screws placed in the disc rather than in bone and went on to malunion. In all other patients, radiographs did not demonstrate screw migration, screw-bone lucency, graft dislodgement, or malunion. No patient suffered neurologic injury as a result of this device. The THSP system facilitates reliable fusion with minimal complications. Its use should be considered in multilevel anterior spine defects, posttraumatic cervical kyphosis, and cervical fractures with posterior disruption requiring anterior fusion.

  10. Optimal baseplate rotational alignment for locking-screw fixation in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a three-dimensional computer-aided design study.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Byron F; Hebert, Casey T; Azar, Frederick M; Mihalko, William M; Throckmorton, Thomas W

    2015-09-01

    Baseplate loosening in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) remains a concern. Placing peripheral screws into the 3 pillars of the densest scapular bone is believed to optimize baseplate fixation. Using a 3-dimensional computer-aided design (3D CAD) program, we investigated the optimal rotational baseplate alignment to maximize peripheral locking-screw purchase. Seventy-three arthritic scapulae were reconstructed from computed tomography images and imported into a 3D CAD software program along with representations of an RTSA baseplate that uses 4 fixed-angle peripheral locking screws. The baseplate position was standardized, and the baseplate was rotated to maximize individual and combined peripheral locking-screw purchase in each of the 3 scapular pillars. The mean ± standard error of the mean positions for optimal individual peripheral locking-screw placement (referenced in internal rotation) were 6° ± 2° for the coracoid pillar, 198° ± 2° for the inferior pillar, and 295° ± 3° for the scapular spine pillar. Of note, 78% (57 of 73) of the screws attempting to obtain purchase in the scapular spine pillar could not be placed without an in-out-in configuration. In contrast, 100% of coracoid and 99% of inferior pillar screws achieved full purchase. The position of combined maximal fixation was 11° ± 1°. These results suggest that approximately 11° of internal rotation is the ideal baseplate position for maximal peripheral locking-screw fixation in RTSA. In addition, these results highlight the difficulty in obtaining optimal purchase in the scapular spine. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Neck Screw and Conventional Fixation Techniques in Mandibular Condyle Fractures Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Conci, Ricardo Augusto; Tomazi, Flavio Henrique Silveira; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Fritscher, Guilherme Genehr; Heitz, Claiton

    2015-07-01

    To compare the mechanical stress on the mandibular condyle after the reduction and fixation of mandibular condylar fractures using the neck screw and 2 other conventional techniques according to 3-dimensional finite element analysis. A 3-dimensional finite element model of a mandible was created and graphically simulated on a computer screen. The model was fixed with 3 different techniques: a 2.0-mm plate with 4 screws, 2 plates (1 1.5-mm plate and 1 2.0-mm plate) with 4 screws, and a neck screw. Loads were applied that simulated muscular action, with restrictions of the upper movements of the mandible, differentiation of the cortical and medullary bone, and the virtual "folds" of the plates and screws so that they could adjust to the condylar surface. Afterward, the data were exported for graphic visualization of the results and quantitative analysis was performed. The 2-plate technique exhibited better stability in regard to displacement of fractures, deformity of the synthesis materials, and minimum and maximum tension values. The results with the neck screw were satisfactory and were similar to those found when a miniplate was used. Although the study shows that 2 isolated plates yielded better results compared with the other groups using other fixation systems and methods, the neck screw could be an option for condylar fracture reduction. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The risk of translaminar screw fixation to the transverse foramen of the lower cervical spine: a computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ganggang; Ji, Wei; Huang, Zucheng; Liu, Junhao; Chen, Jianting; Zhu, Qingan

    2017-04-21

    Translaminar screw fixation (TSF) of the axis is considered as an efficient, safe and simple surgical procedure, however the study of the potential risk of TSF to the transverse foramen in lower cervical spine is lacked. Head-neck CT images of 60 patients were included in this study. Maximum screw length, laminar thickness, the screw angle and the laminar height were measured. The feasibility of 3.5-mm diameter screw fixation and the potential risk of transverse foramen injury was analyzed. The TSF was safe at C3 and C4, but risky to the transverse foraman at a rate of 8.7% at C5 (0% on the left side and 20% on the right side), 33.3% at C6 (24.4% on the left side and 42.9% on the right side). C7 had the highest 77.8% rate (65.5% on the left side and 89.8% on the right side). The safe screw length was 27.7 mm at C3, 27.4 mm at C4, 28.0 mm at C5, 25.6 mm at C6 and 25.5 mm at C7, respectively. The present study showed that translaminar screw could place the transverse foramen of C5-C7 at risk. Preoperative CT scanning was necessary for safe screw placement.

  13. Arthroscopically assisted treatment of lateral tibial plateau fractures in skiers: use of a cannulated reduction system.

    PubMed

    Holzach, P; Matter, P; Minter, J

    1994-08-01

    A prospective study was performed on 16 patients with lateral tibial plateau fractures. All injuries were associated with alpine or cross-country skiing. Included in the study were those patients with an articular surface depression of > or = 2 mm with radiographic findings consistent with the AO/ASIF classification of tibial plateau fractures (41 B2.2/B3.1). A combined procedure was performed with arthroscopic visualization of the knee joint and utilization of a cannulated plateau elevator. All fractures were reduced with this device with subsequent autogenous bone graft and, when indicated, transverse cancellous lag screw fixation. Follow-up was 1-6.5 years for the 16 patients, with all but two reporting resumption of activity to preinjury levels.

  14. Biomechanical in vitro - stability testing on human specimens of a locking plate system against conventional screw fixation of a proximal first metatarsal lateral displacement osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Heino; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina; Hurschler, Christof; Seehaus, Frank; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Waizy, Hazibullah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine resistance to angulation and displacement of the internal fixation of a proximal first metatarsal lateral displacement osteotomy, using a locking plate system compared with a conventional crossed screw fixation. Seven anatomical human specimens were tested. Each specimen was tested with a locking screw plate as well as a crossed cancellous srew fixation. The statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test. The level of significance was p = 0.05. We found larger stability about all three axes of movement analyzed for the PLATE than the crossed screws osteosynthesis (CSO). The Friedman test showed statistical significance at a level of p = 0.05 for all groups and both translational and rotational movements. The results of our study confirm that the fixation of the lateral proximal first metatarsal displacement osteotomy with a locking plate fixation is a technically simple procedure of superior stability.

  15. Analysis of initial fixation strength of press-fit fixation technique in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A comparative study with titanium and bioabsorbable interference screw using porcine lower limb.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Chul; Jo, Hyunchul; Bae, Tae-Soo; Jang, Jin Dae; Seong, Sang Cheol

    2003-03-01

    We performed a controlled laboratory study to evaluate the initial fixation strength of press-fit technique. Forty porcine lower limbs were used and divided into four groups according to the method of fixation; group 1 (press-fit+1.4 mm), in which the diameter difference between the bone plug and the femoral tunnel was 1.4 mm; group 2 (press-fit+1.4 mm, 30 degrees), in which the diameter difference was the same with group 1, but the tensile loading axis was 30 degrees away from the long axis of the femoral tunnel; group 3 (titanium), in which a titanium interference screw was used for fixation; group 4 (bioabsorbable), in which a bioabsorbable interference screw was used for fixation. The graft in the press-fit group was harvested with a hollow oscillating saw with inner diameter of 9.4 mm to obtain consistent and completely circular shape of the bone plug. The femoral tunnel with diameter of 8 mm was drilled at the original ACL insertion. Following the bone plug insertion into the femoral tunnel and applying a preload of 20 N, the specimen underwent 500 loading cycles between 0 and 2 mm of displacement. Thereafter the specimen was loaded to failure. There was no fixation site failure during the cyclic loading test. Significant differences in the stiffness, linear load, or failure mode among the groups were not found. The average ultimate failure load of group 1 and group 2 were not significantly different from those of group 3 and group 4. The press-fit groups demonstrated sufficient fixation strength for the rehabilitation and interference screw groups. The completely circular shape of the bone plug and increased diameter difference between the bone plug and the femoral tunnel seemed to contribute to the strong fixation.

  16. Displaced Neer Type IIB distal-third clavicle fractures-Long-term clinical outcome after plate fixation and additional screw augmentation for coracoclavicular instability.

    PubMed

    Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Boesmueller, Sandra; Binder, Harald; Bukaty, Adam; Tiefenboeck, Michael M; Joestl, Julian; Hofbauer, Marcus; Ostermann, Roman C

    2017-01-23

    Unstable Neer Type IIB fractures require meticulous surgical treatment. Thus, the aim of this study was to present long-term outcomes after plate fixation and minimally invasive coracoclavicular (CC) stabilization using screw fixation. A consecutive series of patients with unstable Neer Type IIB displaced clavicle fractures, treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with a plate and additional screw fixation for coracoclavicular ligament instability, was reviewed in order to determine long-term clinical and radiological outcome. Seven patients, six males and one female, with a mean age of 37 ± 8 years (median: 36 years; range, 28-51 years), were evaluated. At latest follow-up, after a mean of 67 months (range, 11-117 months), patients presented with the following mean scores: DASH: 0.57, ASES: 98.81, UCLA: 34.29, VAS: 0.43, Simple Shoulder Test: 11.57. However, two complications were observed: one case of implant loosening and one non-union. There were no differences observed between the CC distances comparing postoperative X-rays to those in final follow-up. In 25% of our patients early postoperative complications occurred. In all patients reoperation was necessary to remove the implanted screw. The results of the present study indicate that the treatment of Neer Type IIB lateral clavicle fractures with ORIF using a plate and additional CC screw fixation, leads to satisfying clinical and radiological outcomes in the long-term. However, considering an early postoperative complication rate of 25% and a 100% rate of secondary surgery due to removal of the CC screw does not seem to justify this technique anymore.

  17. Effect of screw position on load transfer in lumbar pedicle screws: A non-idealized finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Anna G. U. S.; Baek, Seungwon; Kelly, Brian P.; Crawford, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Angled screw insertion has been advocated to enhance fixation strength during posterior spine fixation. Stresses on a pedicle screw and surrounding vertebral bone with different screw angles were studied by finite element analysis during simulated multidirectional loading. Correlations between screw-specific vertebral geometric parameters and stresses were studied. Angulations in both the sagittal and axial planes affected stresses on the cortical and cancellous bones and the screw. Pedicle screws pointing laterally (vs. straight or medially) in the axial plane during superior screw angulation may be advantageous in terms of reducing the risk of both screw loosening and screw breakage. PMID:27454197

  18. The insertional torque of a pedicle screw has a positive correlation with bone mineral density in posterior lumbar pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Lee, J-H; Park, J W; Shin, Y H

    2012-01-01

    In patients with osteoporosis there is always a strong possibility that pedicle screws will loosen. This makes it difficult to select the appropriate osteoporotic patient for a spinal fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and the magnitude of torque required to insert a pedicle screw. To accomplish this, 181 patients with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine were studied prospectively. Each underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and intra-operative measurement of the torque required to insert each pedicle screw. The levels of torque generated in patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia were significantly lower than those achieved in normal patients. Positive correlations were observed between BMD and T-value at the instrumented lumbar vertebrae, mean BMD and mean T-value of the lumbar vertebrae, and mean BMD and mean T-value of the proximal femur. The predictive torque (Nm) generated during pedicle screw insertion was [-0.127 + 1.62 × (BMD at the corresponding lumbar vertebrae)], as measured by linear regression analysis. The positive correlation between BMD and the maximum torque required to insert a pedicle screw suggests that pre-operative assessment of BMD may be useful in determining the ultimate strength of fixation of a device, as well as the number of levels that need to be fixed with pedicle screws in patients who are suspected of having osteoporosis.

  19. Semi-rigid screws provide an auxiliary option to plate working length to control interfragmentary movement in locking plate fixation at the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Mark; Duda, Georg N; Haas, Norbert P; Trepczynski, Adam; Döbele, Stefan; Höntzsch, Dankward; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Märdian, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Extent and orientation of interfragmentary movement (IFM) are crucially affecting course and quality of fracture healing. The effect of different configurations for implant fixation on successful fracture healing remain unclear. We hypothesize that screw type and configuration of locking plate fixation profoundly influences stiffness and IFM for a given load in a distal femur fracture model. Simple analytical models are presented to elucidate the influence of fixation configuration on construct stiffness. Models were refined with a consistent single-patient-data-set to create finite-element femur models. Locking plate fixation of a distal femoral 10mm-osteotomy (comminution model) was fitted with rigid locking screws (rLS) or semi-rigid locking screws (sLS). Systematic variations of screw placements in the proximal fragment were tested. IFM was quantitatively assessed and compared for different screw placements and screw types. Different screw allocations significantly affect IFM in a locking plate construct. LS placement of the first screw proximal to the fracture (plate working length, PWL) has a significant effect on axial IFM (p < 0.001). Replacing rLS with sLS caused an increase (p < 0.001) of IFM under the plate (cis-cortex) between +8.4% and +28.1% for the tested configurations but remained constant medially (<1.1%, trans-cortex). Resultant shear movements markedly increased at fracture level (p < 0.001) to the extent that plate working length increased. The ratio of shear/axial IFM was found to enhance for longer PWL. sLS versus rLS lead to significantly smaller ratios of shear/axial IFM at the cis-cortex for PWL of ≥ 62 mm (p ≤ 0.003). Mechanical frame conditions can be significantly influenced by type and placement of the screws in locking plate osteosynthesis of the distal femur. By varying plate working length stiffness and IFM are modulated. Moderate axial and concomitantly low shear IFM could not be achieved through changes in screw placement

  20. Comparing Different Surgical Techniques for Addressing the Posterior Malleolus in Supination External Rotation Ankle Fractures and the Need for Syndesmotic Screw Fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengnai; Collier, Rachel C; Hill, Brian W; Slinkard, Nathaniel; Ly, Thuan V

    Trimalleolar ankle fractures are unstable injuries with possible syndesmotic disruption. Recent data have described inherent morbidity associated with screw fixation of the syndesmosis, including the potential for malreduction, hardware irritation, and post-traumatic arthritis. The posterior malleolus is an important soft tissue attachment for the posterior inferior syndesmosis ligament. We hypothesized that fixation of a sizable posterior malleolar (PM) fracture in supination external rotation type IV (SER IV) ankle fractures would act to stabilize the syndesmosis and minimize or eliminate the need for trans-syndesmotic fixation. A retrospective review of trimalleolar ankle fractures surgically treated from October 2006 to April of 2011 was performed. A total of 143 trimalleolar ankle fractures were identified, and 97 were classified as SER IV. Of the 97 patients, 74 (76.3%) had a sizable PM fragment. Syndesmotic fixation was required in 7 of 34 (20%) and 27 of 40 (68%), respectively, when the PM was fixed versus not fixed (p = .0002). When the PM was indirectly reduced using an anterior to posterior screw, 7 of 15 patients (46.7%) required syndesmotic fixation compared with none of 19 patients when the PM fragment was fixated with direct posterior lateral plate fixation (p = .0012). Fixation of the PM fracture in SER IV ankle fractures can restore syndesmotic stability and, thus, lower the rate of syndesmotic fixation. We found that fixation of a sizable PM fragment in SER IV or equivalent injuries through posterolateral plating can eliminate the need for syndesmotic screw fixation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Application of anterior percutaneous screw fixation in treatment of odontoid process fractures in aged people].

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Dou, Hai-cheng; Ni, Wen-fei; Huang, Qi-shan; Wang, Xiang-yang; Xu, Hua-zi; Chi, Yong-long

    2011-03-01

    To explore the efficacy of anterior percutaneous screw fixation in the treatment of odontoid process fractures in aged people. From February 2001 to April 2009, 15 elderly patients with odontoid fracture were treated with anterior percutaneous screw fixation,including 13 males and 2 females; the average age was 69.3 years (ranged, 60 to 86 years). According to Anderson classification, there were 10 patients with type II fractures (type II A in 7 cases, type II B in 3 cases, based on Eysel and Roosen classification), 4 patients with shallow type III fractures, 1 patient with deep type III fractures. Thirteen patients were fresh fractures, 2 patients were obsolete fractures. All patients had varying degrees of neck or shoulder pain, and limit activity of neck. There were 4 patients with neural symptoms including 2 grade D and 2 grade C according to Frankel classification. All the patients were followed up and were assessed by radiology. Clinical examination included neck activity, neurological function and the degree of neck pain. Radiology examinations including anteroposterior, lateral, open mouth position and flexion-extension radiographs of cervical vertebra were performed. After surgery, all patients were followed up,and the duration ranged from 6 to 60 months (averaged 31.3 months). Two patients died of other diseases during the follow-up period (18 and 22 months after surgery respectively). All patients got satisfactory results, and all screws were in good position. As the screw was too long, esophagus was compressed by screw tail in one case. One case showed fibrous union, 12 cases had achieved solid bony union, 2 cases showed nonunion without clinical symptoms. The rotation of neck in 3 cases was mildly limited,the neck function of the remaining patients were normal. Four patients with symptoms nerve injuries improved after operation (Frankel E in 3 cases, Frankel D in 1 case). The symptom of neck pain had a significant improvement after surgery (P < 0

  2. Clinical results of hamstring autografts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comparison of femoral knot/press-fit fixation and interference screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wei-Pin; Lee, Chian-Her; Huang, Chang-Hung; Chen, Chih-Hwa; Chuang, Tai-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of femoral knot/press-fit anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with conventional techniques using femoral interference screws. Among patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with hamstring autografts, 73 were treated with either a femoral knot/press-fit technique (40 patients, group A) or femoral interference screw fixation (33 patients, group B). The clinical results of the 2 groups were retrospectively compared. The inclusion criteria were primary ACL reconstruction in active patients. The exclusion criteria were fractures, multiligamentous injuries, patients undergoing revision, or patients with contralateral ACL-deficient knees. In the femoral knot/press-fit technique, semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were prepared as 2 loops with knots. After passage through a bottleneck femoral tunnel, the grafts were fixed with a press-fit method (grafts' knots were stuck in the bottleneck of the femoral tunnel). A tie with Mersilene tape (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) over a bone bridge for each tendon loop and an additional bioabsorbable interference screw were used for tibial fixation. The mean follow-up period was 38 months (range, 24 to 61 months). A significant improvement in knee function and symptoms was reported in most patients, as shown by improved Tegner scores, Lysholm knee scores, and International Knee Documentation Committee assessments (P < .01). The results of instrumented laxity testing, thigh muscle assessment, and radiologic assessment were clearly improved when compared with the preoperative status (P < .01). No statistically significant difference in outcomes could be observed between group A and group B (P = not significant). In this nonrandomized study, femoral knot/press-fit ACL reconstruction did not appear to provide increased anterior instability compared with that of conventional femoral interference screw ACL reconstruction. Favorable outcomes with regard to knee stability and patient

  3. Dynamic locking screw improves fixation strength in osteoporotic bone: an in vitro study on an artificial bone model.

    PubMed

    Pohlemann, Tim; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Agarwal, Yash; Wahl, Dieter; Sprecher, Christoph; Schwieger, Karsten; Lenz, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The novel dynamic locking screw (DLS) was developed to improve bone healing with locked-plate osteosynthesis by equalising construct stiffness at both cortices. Due to a theoretical damping effect, this modulated stiffness could be beneficial for fracture fixation in osteoporotic bone. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the DLS at the screw-bone interface was investigated in an artificial osteoporotic bone model and compared with conventional locking screws (LHS). Osteoporotic surrogate bones were plated with either a DLS or a LHS construct consisting of two screws and cyclically axially loaded (8,500 cycles, amplitude 420 N, increase 2 mN/cycle). Construct stiffness, relative movement, axial screw migration, proximal (P) and distal (D) screw pullout force and loosening at the bone interface were determined and statistically evaluated. DLS constructs exhibited a higher screw pullout force of P 85 N [standard deviation (SD) 21] and D 93 N (SD 12) compared with LHS (P 62 N, SD 28, p = 0.1; D 57 N, SD 25, p < 0.01) and a significantly lower axial migration over cycles compared with LHS (p = 0.01). DLS constructs showed significantly lower axial construct stiffness (403 N/mm, SD 21, p < 0.01) and a significantly higher relative movement (1.1 mm, SD 0.05, p < 0.01) compared with LHS (529 N/mm, SD 27; 0.8 mm, SD 0.04). Based on the model data, the DLS principle might also improve in vivo plate fixation in osteoporotic bone, providing enhanced residual holding strength and reducing screw cutout. The influence of pin-sleeve abutment still needs to be investigated.

  4. Additive manufactured push-fit implant fixation with screw-strength pull out.

    PubMed

    van Arkel, Richard J; Ghouse, Shaaz; Milner, Piers E; Jeffers, Jonathan R T

    2017-10-11

    Additive manufacturing offers exciting new possibilities for improving long-term metallic implant fixation in bone through enabling open porous structures for bony ingrowth. The aim of this research was to investigate how the technology could also improve initial fixation, a precursor to successful long-term fixation. A new barbed fixation mechanism, relying on flexible struts was proposed and manufactured as a push-fit peg. The technology was optimized using a synthetic bone model and compared with conventional press-fit peg controls tested over a range of interference fits. Optimum designs, achieving maximum pull-out force, were subsequently tested in a cadaveric femoral condyle model. The barbed fixation surface provided more than double the pull-out force for less than a third of the insertion force compared to the best performing conventional press-fit peg (p < 0.001). Indeed, it provided screw-strength pull out from a push-fit device (1,124 ± 146 N). This step change in implant fixation potential offers new capabilities for low profile, minimally invasive implant design, while providing new options to simplify surgery, allowing for one-piece push-fit components with high levels of initial stability. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by WileyPeriodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 9999:1-11, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by WileyPeriodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society.

  5. Biomechanical In Vitro - Stability Testing on Human Specimens of a Locking Plate System Against Conventional Screw Fixation of a Proximal First Metatarsal Lateral Displacement Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Heino; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina; Hurschler, Christof; Seehaus, Frank; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Waizy, Hazibullah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine resistance to angulation and displacement of the internal fixation of a proximal first metatarsal lateral displacement osteotomy, using a locking plate system compared with a conventional crossed screw fixation. Materials and Methodology: Seven anatomical human specimens were tested. Each specimen was tested with a locking screw plate as well as a crossed cancellous srew fixation. The statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test. The level of significance was p = 0.05. Results: We found larger stability about all three axes of movement analyzed for the PLATE than the crossed screws osteosynthesis (CSO). The Friedman test showed statistical significance at a level of p = 0.05 for all groups and both translational and rotational movements. Conclusion: The results of our study confirm that the fixation of the lateral proximal first metatarsal displacement osteotomy with a locking plate fixation is a technically simple procedure of superior stability. PMID:22675409

  6. A 3D navigation template for guiding a unilateral lumbar pedicle screw with contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation: a study protocol for multicentre randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhen-Xuan; He, Wei; He, Shao-Qi; Lin, Sheng-Lei; Huang, Zhe-Yu; Tang, Hong-Chao; Ni, Wen-Fei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Ai-Min

    2017-07-21

    The incidence of lumbar disc degeneration disease has increased in recent years. Lumbar interbody fusion using two unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar facet screw fixation has advantages of minimal invasiveness and lower costs compared with the traditional methods. Moreover, a method guided by a three-dimensional (3D) navigation template may help us improve the surgical accuracy and the success rate. This is the first randomised study using a 3D navigation template to guide a unilateral lumbar pedicle screw with contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation. Patients who meet the criteria of the surgery will be randomly divided into experimental groups and control groups by a computer-generated randomisation schedule. We will preoperatively design an individual 3D navigation template using CATIA software and MeditoolCreate. The following primary outcomes will be collected: screw angles compared with the optimal screw trajectories in 3D digital images, length of the wound incision, operative time, intraoperative blood loss and complications. The following secondary outcomes will be collected: visual analogue scale (VAS) for back pain, VAS for leg pain and the Oswestry Disability Index. These parameters will be evaluated on day 1 and then 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. The study has been reviewed and approved by the institutional ethics review board of the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. The results will be presented at scientific communities and peer-reviewed journals. ChiCTR-IDR-17010466. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Comparative fixation methods of cervical disc arthroplasty versus conventional methods of anterior cervical arthrodesis: serration, teeth, keels, or screws?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Bryan W; Hu, Nianbin; Zorn, Candace M; McAfee, Paul C

    2010-02-01

    Using a synthetic vertebral model, the authors quantified the comparative fixation strengths and failure mechanisms of 6 cervical disc arthroplasty devices versus 2 conventional methods of cervical arthrodesis, highlighting biomechanical advantages of prosthetic endplate fixation properties. Eight cervical implant configurations were evaluated in the current investigation: 1) PCM Low Profile; 2) PCM V-Teeth; 3) PCM Modular Flange; 4) PCM Fixed Flange; 5) Prestige LP; 6) Kineflex/C disc; 7) anterior cervical plate + interbody cage; and 8) tricortical iliac crest. All PCM treatments contained a serrated implant surface (0.4 mm). The PCM V-Teeth and Prestige contained 2 additional rows of teeth, which were 1 mm and 2 mm high, respectively. The PCM Modular and Fixed Flanged devices and anterior cervical plate were augmented with 4 vertebral screws. Eight pullout tests were performed for each of the 8 conditions by using a synthetic fixation model consisting of solid rigid polyurethane foam blocks. Biomechanical testing was conducted using an 858 Bionix test system configured with an unconstrained testing platform. Implants were positioned between testing blocks, using a compressive preload of -267 N. Tensile load-to-failure testing was performed at 2.5 mm/second, with quantification of peak load at failure (in Newtons), implant surface area (in square millimeters), and failure mechanisms. The mean loads at failure for the 8 implants were as follows: 257.4 +/- 28.54 for the PCM Low Profile; 308.8 +/- 15.31 for PCM V-Teeth; 496.36 +/- 40.01 for PCM Modular Flange; 528.03+/- 127.8 for PCM Fixed Flange; 306.4 +/- 31.3 for Prestige LP; 286.9 +/- 18.4 for Kineflex/C disc; 635.53 +/- 112.62 for anterior cervical plate + interbody cage; and 161.61 +/- 16.58 for tricortical iliac crest. The anterior plate exhibited the highest load at failure compared with all other treatments (p < 0.05). The PCM Modular and Fixed Flange PCM constructs in which screw fixation was used exhibited

  8. Self-designed femoral neck guide pin locator for femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shengli; Wang, Ziping; Wang, Minghui; Wu, Zuming; Wang, Xiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Closed reduction and fixation with 3 cannulated screws is a widely accepted surgery for the treatment of femoral neck fractures. However, how to obtain optimal screw placement remains unclear. In the current study, the authors designed a guide pin positioning system for femoral neck fracture cannulated screw fixation and examined its application value by comparing it with freehand guide needle positioning and with general guide pin locator positioning provided by equipment manufacturers. The screw reset rate, screw parallelism, triangle area formed by the link line of the entry point of 3 guide pins, and maximum vertical load bearing of the femoral neck after internal fixation were recorded. As expected, the triangle area was largest in the self-designed positioning group, followed by the general positioning group and the freehand positioning group. The difference among the 3 groups was statistically significant (P<.05). Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs showed that the screws were more parallel in the self-designed positioning group and general positioning group compared with the freehand positioning group (P<.05). The screw reset rate in the self-designed positioning group was significantly lower than that in the general positioning group and the freehand positioning group (P<.05). Maximum bearing load among the 3 groups was equivalent, showing no statistically significant difference (P>.05). The authors’ self-designed guide pin positioning system has the potential to accurately insert cannulated screws in femoral neck fractures and may reduce bone loss and unnecessary radiation.

  9. 7-year follow-up after open reduction and internal screw fixation in Bennett fractures.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Franck Marie Patrick; Jenzer, Achat; Hüsler, Rolf; Kiermeir, David; Bignion, Dietmar; Unglaub, Frank; Vögelin, Esther

    2012-07-01

    Bennett fractures are unstable, and, with inadequate treatment, lead to osteoarthritis, weakness and loss of function of the first carpometacarpal joint. This study focuses on long-term functional and radiological outcomes after open reduction and internal fixation. Between June 1997 and December 2005, 24 patients with Bennett fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation with screws at our center. Radiological and functional assessments including range of motion of the thumb and pinch and grip strength were performed 4 months post-procedure and at the long-term follow-up, on average 83 months after surgery. Reduction of the Bennett fracture was maintained as it was at the time of the procedure in 96 % of the cases when fixation with two lag screws was performed. At the 4-month follow-up, mean pinch and grip strength reached 92 ± 3 and 89 ± 4 % of the contralateral side, respectively. Long-term follow-up demonstrated no correlation between the accuracy of the fracture reduction and the development of post-traumatic arthritis. Good clinical results could be observed, if successful reduction of the fracture was achieved and maintained. However, there was no correlation between the accuracy of the fracture reduction considering a gap and step <2 mm and the development of arthritis.

  10. Conservative treatment of a mandibular condyle fracture: Comparing intermaxillary fixation with screws or arch bar. A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, B; Blankestijn, J; van der Ploeg, T; Tuinzing, D B; Forouzanfar, T

    2015-06-01

    A mandibular condyle fracture can be treated conservatively by intermaxillary fixation (IMF) or by open reposition and internal fixation (ORIF). Many IMF-modalities can be chosen, including IMF-screws (IMFS). This prospective multi-centre randomised clinical trial compared the use of IMFS with the use of arch bars in the treatment of mandibular condyle fractures. The study population consisted of 50 patients (mean age: 31.8 years). Twenty-four (48%) patients were allocated in the IMFS group. Twenty-six (52%) patients were assigned to the arch bars group. In total 188 IMF-screws were used (5-12 screws per patient, mean 7.83 screws per patient). All pain scores were lower in the IMFS group. Three patients developed a malocclusion (IFMS-group: one patient, arch bars-group: two patients). Mean surgical time was significantly shorter in the IMFS group (59 vs. 126 min; p<0.001). There were no needlestick injuries (0%) in the IMFS group and eight (30.7%) in the arch bars group (p=0.003). One IMF-screw fractured on insertion (0.53%), one (0.53%) screw was inserted into a root. Six (3.2%) screws loosened spontaneously in four patients. Mucosal disturbances were seen in 22 patients, equally divided over both groups. Considering the advantages and the disadvantages of IMFS, and observing the results of this study, the authors conclude that IMFS provide a superior method for IMF. IMFS are safer for the patients and surgeons. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anterior cervical pedicle screw and plate fixation using fluoroscope-assisted pedicle axis view imaging: a preliminary report of a new cervical reconstruction technique

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Fumihiko; Ito, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Machino, Masaaki

    2009-01-01

    Anterior procedures in the cervical spine are feasible in cases having anterior aetiologies such as anterior neural compression and/or severe kyphosis. Halo vests or anterior plates are used concurrently for cases with long segmental fixation. Halo vests are bothersome and anterior plate fixation is not adequately durable. We developed a new anterior pedicle screw (APS) and plate fixation procedure that can be used with fluoroscope-assisted pedicle axis view imaging. Six patients (3 men and 3 women; mean age, 54 years) with anterior multisegmental aetiology were included in this study. Their original diagnoses comprised cervical myelopathy and/or radiculopathy (n = 4), posterior longitudinal ligament ossification (n = 1) and post-traumatic kyphosis (n = 1). All patients underwent anterior decompression and strut grafting with APS and plate fixation. Mean operative time was 192 min and average blood loss was 73 ml. Patients were permitted to ambulate the next day with a cervical collar. Local sagittal alignment was characterised by 3.5° of kyphosis preoperatively, which improved to 6.8° of lordosis postoperatively and 5.2° of lordosis at final follow-up. Postoperative improvement and early bony union were observed in all cases. There was no serious complication except for two cases of dysphagia. Postoperative imaging demonstrated screw exposure in one screw, but no pedicle perforation. APS and plate fixation is useful in selected cases of multisegmental anterior reconstruction of cervical spine. However, the adequate familiarity and experience with both cervical pedicle screw fixation and the imaging technique used for visualising the pedicle during surgery are crucial for this procedure. PMID:19343377

  12. [Treatment of linguiform calcaneus fracture by close nail-pry reduction and internal fixation with hollow screws].

    PubMed

    Tu, Shu-Qiang; Huang, Ke-Di; Shuai, Yong-Ming; Xu, Nan-Yun; Yuan, Qiu-Wen; Guo, Jian

    2012-06-01

    To study the curative effects of close nail-pry reduction and internal fixation with hollow screws for treatment of linguiform calcaneus fracture. From May 2006 to October 2009,32 patients (35 feet) with linguiform calcaneus fracture were treated by close nail-pry reduction and internal fixation with hollow screws, including 23 males and 9 females ranging in age from 25 to 46 years, with a mean of 37.6 years. According to Paley classification, 3 cases were Paley II a, and 29 cases were Paley II b. All cases were close fractures. The time from injury to operation was 3 to 10 days after most swelling subsided. Böhler angle and Gissane angle were measured by X-ray before and after operation. The therapeutic effect was assessed according to ZHANG Tie-liang's foot score. All the patients were followed-up for 6 to 18 months, with a mean of 12 months. All fractures gained bone healing. The time of fracture healing averaged 12 months. The fractures healed completely and no infection occurred. According to ZHANG Tie-liang's foot scale, the postoperative function was excellent in 18 feet, good in 10 feet, moderate in 5 feet and poor in 2 feet. The Böhler angle and Gissane angle were significant improved after treatment (P < 0.01). The surgical method of close nail-pry reduction and internal fixation with hollow screws for treatment of linguiform calcaneus fracture can regain the foot function, with minimal injury, fewer complications, earlier recovery and lower costs.

  13. Immediate percutaneous sacroiliac screw insertion for unstable pelvic fractures: is it safe enough?

    PubMed

    Acker, A; Perry, Z H; Blum, S; Shaked, G; Korngreen, A

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of immediate and delayed percutaneous sacroiliac screws surgery for unstable pelvic fractures, regarding technical results and complication rate. Retrospective study. The study was conducted at the Soroka University Medical center, Beer Sheva, Israel, which is a level 1 trauma Center. 108 patients with unstable pelvic injuries were operated by the orthopedic department at the Soroka University Medical Center between the years 1999-2010. A retrospective analysis found 50 patients with immediate surgery and 58 patients with delayed surgery. Preoperative and postoperative imaging were analyzed and data was collected regarding complications. All patients were operated on by using the same technique-percutaneous fixation of sacroiliac joint with cannulated screws. The study's primary outcome measure was the safety and quality of the early operation in comparison with the late operation. A total of 156 sacroiliac screws were inserted. No differences were found between the immediate and delayed treatment groups regarding technical outcome measures (P value = 0.44) and complication rate (P value = 0.42). The current study demonstrated that immediate percutaneous sacroiliac screw insertion for unstable pelvic fractures produced equally good technical results, in comparison with the conventional delayed operation, without additional complications.

  14. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  15. Biodegradable screw versus a press-fit bone plug fixation for hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Jagodzinski, Michael; Geiges, Bjoern; von Falck, Christian; Knobloch, Karsten; Haasper, Carl; Brand, Juergen; Hankemeier, Stefan; Krettek, Christian; Meller, Rupert

    2010-03-01

    Press-fit fixation of a tendon graft has been advocated to achieve tendon-to-bone healing. Fixation of hamstring tendon grafts with a porous bone scaffold limits bone tunnel enlargement compared with a biodegradable interference screw fixation. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods Between 2005 and 2006, 20 patients (17 men, 3 women) with a primary reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomized to obtain graft fixation in the tibial tunnel either by means of an interference screw (I) or a press-fit fixation with a porous bone cylinder (P). At 3 months after surgery, a computed tomography (CT) scan of the knee was performed, and tunnel enlargement was analyzed in the coronal and sagittal planes for the proximal, middle, and distal thirds of the tunnel. After 6 months and 1 and 2 years, radiographs of the knee in the sagittal and coronal plane were analyzed for bone tunnel widening. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Tegner, and Lysholm scores of both groups were compared after 1 and 2 years. The bone tunnel enlargement determined by CT was 106.9% + or - 10.9% for group P and 121.9% + or - 9.0% for group I (P < .02) in the anteroposterior (AP) plane and 102.8% + or - 15.2% versus 121.5% + or - 10.1% in the coronal plane (P <.01). The IKDC, Tegner, and Lysholm scores improved in both groups from preoperatively to postoperatively without significant differences between the 2 groups. There was a trend to higher knee stability in group P after 3 months (0.6 + or - 1.4 mm vs 1.8 + or - 1.5 mm; P = .08). Both interference screw and a press-fit fixation lead to a high number of good or very good outcomes after ACL reconstruction. Tibial press-fit fixation decreases the amount of proximal bone tunnel enlargement.

  16. Simple New Screw Insertion Technique without Extraction for Broken Pedicle Screws.

    PubMed

    Kil, Jin-Sang; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-05-01

    Spinal transpedicular screw fixation is widely performed. Broken pedicle screw rates range from 3%-7.1%. Several techniques have been described for extraction of broken pedicle screws. However, most of these techniques require special instruments. We describe a simple, modified technique for management of broken pedicle screws without extraction. No special instruments or drilling in an adjacent pedicle are required. We used a high-speed air drill with a round burr. With C-arm fluoroscopy guidance, the distal fragment of a broken pedicle screw was palpated using free-hand technique through the screw entry hole. A high-speed air drill with a round burr (not a diamond burr) was inserted through the hole. Drilling began slowly and continued until enough space was obtained for new screw insertion. Using this space, we performed new pedicle screw fixation medially alongside the distal fragment of the broken pedicle screw. We performed the insertion with a previously used entry hole and pathway in the pedicle. The same size pedicle screw was used. Three patients were treated with this modified technique. New screw insertion was successful in all cases after partial drilling of the distal broken pedicle screw fragment. There were no complications, such as screw loosening, dural tears, or root injury. We describe a simple, modified technique for management of broken pedicle screws without extraction. This technique is recommended in patients who require insertion of a new screw. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Posterior Titanium Screw Fixation without Debridement of Infected Tissue for the Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spontaneous Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis

    PubMed Central

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Nasi, Davide; Nocchi, Niccolo; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; di Somma, Lucia; Colasanti, Roberto; Vaira, Carmela; Benigni, Roberta; Liverotti, Valentina; Scerrati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The aim of our study was to analyze the safety and effectiveness of posterior pedicle screw fixation for treatment of pyogenic spondylodiscitis (PSD) without formal debridement of the infected tissue. Overview of Literature Posterior titanium screw fixation without formal debridement of the infected tissue and anterior column reconstruction for the treatment of PSD is still controversial. Methods From March 2008 to June 2013, 18 patients with PSD underwent posterior titanium fixation with or without decompression, according to their neurological deficit. Postero-lateral fusion with allograft transplantation alone or bone graft with both the allogenic bone and the autologous bone was also performed. The outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and the Frankel grading system for neurological status. Normalization both of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was adopted as criterion for discontinuation of antibiotic therapy and infection healing. Segmental instability and fusion were also analyzed. Results At the mean follow-up time of 30.16 months (range, 24–53 months), resolution of spinal infection was achieved in all patients. The mean CRP before surgery was 14.32±7.9 mg/dL, and at the final follow-up, the mean CRP decreased to 0.5±0.33 mg/dL (p <0.005). Follow-up computed tomography scan at 12 months after surgery revealed solid fusion in all patients. The VAS before surgery was 9.16±1.29 and at the final follow-up, it improved to 1.38±2.03, which was statistically significant (p <0.05). Eleven patients out of eighteen (61.11%) with initial neurological impairment had an average improvement of 1.27 grades at the final follow-up documented with the Frankel grading system. Conclusions Posterior screw fixation with titanium instrumentation was safe and effective in terms of stability and restoration of neurological impairment. Fixation also rapidly reduced back pain

  18. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw internal fixation device (INFIX) vs external fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Esquivel, Amanda O; Jin, Xin; Yang, King H; Onwudiwe, Ndidi A; Vaidya, Rahul

    2012-09-27

    We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX). This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX) and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation). Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01) at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017) at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  19. Functional outcomes following syndesmotic fixation: A comparison of screws retained in situ versus routine removal - Is it really necessary?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Adam; Street, Julia; Kealey, David; McDonald, Sinead; Stevenson, Mike

    2013-12-01

    Syndesmotic disruption can occur in up to 20% of ankle fractures and is more common in Weber Type C injuries. Syndesmotic repair aims to restore ankle stability. Routine removal of syndesmosis screws is advocated to avoid implant breakage and adverse functional outcome such as pain and stiffness, but conflicting evidence exists to support this. The aim of the current study is to determine whether functional outcome differs in patients who had syndesmosis screws routinely removed, compared to those who did not, and whether a cost benefit exists if removal of screws is not routinely necessary. A retrospective review of consecutive syndesmosis repairs was performed from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 in a single regional trauma centre. We identified 91 patients who had undergone open reduction internal fixation of an ankle fracture with placement of a syndesmosis screw at index procedure. As many as 69 patients were eligible for the study as defined by the inclusion criteria and they completed a validated functional outcome questionnaire. The functional outcomes of patients with 'retained screws' and 'removed screws' were analysed and compared using the Olerud Molander Ankle Score (OMAS). A total of 63 patients responded with a mean follow-up period of 31 months (range 10-43 months). Of those patients, 43 underwent routine screw removal whilst 20 had screws left in situ. The groups were comparable considering age, gender and follow-up time. The 'retained' group scored higher mean OMAS scores, 81.5±19.3 compared to 75±12.9 in the 'removed' group (p=0.107). The retained group achieved higher functional scores in each of the OMAS domains as well as experiencing less pain. When adjusted for gender, the findings were found to be statistically significant (p=0.046). Our study has shown that retained-screw fixation does not significantly impair functional capacity, with additional cost-effectiveness. We therefore advocate that syndesmosis screws be left in situ and

  20. [Anterior odontoid screw fixation using intra-operative cone-beam computed tomography and navigation].

    PubMed

    Castro-Castro, Julián

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to asses the value of intraoperative cone-beam CT (O-arm) and stereotactic navigation for the insertion of anterior odontoid screws. this was a retrospective review of patients receiving surgical treatment for traumatic odontoid fractures during a period of 18 months. Procedures were guided with O-arm assistance in all cases. The screw position was verified with an intraoperative CT scan. Intraoperative and clinical parameters were evaluated. Odontoid fracture fusion was assessed on postoperative CT scans obtained at 3 and 6 months' follow-up Five patients were included in this series; 4 patients (80%) were male. Mean age was 63.6 years (range 35-83 years). All fractures were acute type ii odontoid fractures. The mean operative time was 116minutes (range 60-160minutes). Successful screw placement, judged by intraoperative computed tomography, was attained in all 5 patients (100%). The average preoperative and postoperative times were 8.6 (range 2-22 days) and 4.2 days (range 3-7 days) respectively. No neurological deterioration occurred after surgery. The rate of bone fusion was 80% (4/5). Although this initial study evaluated a small number of patients, anterior odontoid screw fixation utilizing the O-arm appears to be safe and accurate. This system allows immediate CT imaging in the operating room to verify screw position. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Transarticular screw fixation of C1-2 for the treatment of arthropathy-associated occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Pakzaban, Peyman

    2011-02-01

    Two patients with occipital neuralgia due to severe arthropathy of the C1-2 facet joint were treated using atlantoaxial fusion with transarticular screws without decompression of the C-2 nerve root. Both patients experienced immediate postoperative relief of occipital neuralgia. The resultant motion elimination at C1-2 eradicated not only the movement-evoked pain, but also the paroxysms of true occipital neuralgia occurring at rest. A possible pathophysiological explanation for this improvement is presented in the context of the ignition theory of neuralgic pain. This represents the first report of C1-2 transarticular screw fixation for the treatment of arthropathy-associated occipital neuralgia.

  2. Delayed Union of a Sacral Fracture: Percutaneous Navigated Autologous Cancellous Bone Grafting and Screw Fixation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Huegli, R. W.; Messmer, P.; Jacob, A. L.

    2003-09-15

    Delayed or non-union of a sacral fracture is a serious clinical condition that may include chronic pain, sitting discomfort, gait disturbances, neurological problems, and inability to work. It is also a difficult reconstruction problem. Late correction of the deformity is technically more demanding than the primary treatment of acute pelvic injuries. Open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF), excision of scar tissue, and bone grafting often in a multi-step approach are considered to be the treatment of choice in delayed unions of the pelvic ring. This procedure implies the risk of neurological and vascular injuries, infection, repeated failure of union, incomplete correctionmore » of the deformity, and incomplete pain relief as the most important complications. We report a new approach for minimally invasive treatment of a delayed union of the sacrum without vertical displacement. A patient who suffered a Malgaigne fracture (Tile C1.3) was initially treated with closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation (CRPF) of the posterior pelvic ring under CT navigation and plating of the anterior pelvic ring. Three months after surgery he presented with increasing hip pain caused by a delayed union of the sacral fracture. The lesion was successfully treated percutaneously in a single step procedure using CT navigation for drilling of the delayed union, autologous bone grafting, and screw fixation.« less

  3. Transarticular fixation with cortical screws combined with dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy as surgical treatment of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in 17 dogs: clinical and computed tomography follow-up.

    PubMed

    Golini, Lorenzo; Kircher, Patrick R; Lewis, Fraser I; Steffen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    To describe clinical outcome and technical outcome assessed using computed tomography (CT) in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) treated by dorsal laminectomy, partial discectomy, and transarticular screw fixation. Retrospective observational case series. Dogs with DLSS (n = 17). Dogs with neurologic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings compatible with DLSS treated by dorsal laminectomy, partial discectomy and transarticular screw fixation were enrolled. Pre- and postoperative neurologic status was compared. Lumbosacral (LS) angle in extension and misalignment in preoperative MRI were compared with the postoperative CT. Residual mobility of the LS joint after fixation was also evaluated. Status of screws, presence of new bone formation over screw heads/articular facets and presence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) were assessed. Median CT follow-up was 12 months. Clinical improvement was seen in 13 dogs, 2 dogs had intermittent LS pain, and 2 dogs needed revision surgery. In 5 dogs, screws were either pulled out or broken. Reduction of LS angle in extension and misalignment was achieved. Residual mobility of the LS segment was present and ASD was not recognized. Transarticular screw fixation in dogs with DLSS is associated with a considerable number of technical failures and does not result in rigid stabilization; however, this did not significantly adversely influence clinical outcome. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. [Unstable thorax fixation with bioabsorbable plates and screws. Presentation of some cases].

    PubMed

    Nolasco-de la Rosa, Ana Lilia; Mosiñoz-Montes, Roberto; Matehuala-García, Jesús; Román-Guzmán, Edgardo; Quero-Sandoval, Fidel; Reyes-Miranda, Alma Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Flail chest is managed with mechanical ventilation or inhalation therapy, and analgesia. Mechanical ventilations carry risks by themselves and disengage with the external fixators so they must be operated to improve lung ventilatory mechanics and cleaning. Little has been published on the use of bioabsorbable material and its evolution in the setting of flail chest. A material that did had to be retired, that presented the malleability of titanium and its inflammatory reaction was minimal and could be handled in both adults and children was investigated. Here is shown a descriptive study of patients with flail chest under rib fixation with plates and bioabsorbable screws. 18 cases are presented, aged 33-74 years, three with bilateral flail chest; fixation was performed between days 1-21 of the accident. In cases that showed no fractures pelvic limbs, gait next day restarted fi ng in all cases improved mechanical ventilation, pain decreased, none has so far presented reaction material. Flail chest has a high (16.3%) mortality when no management provides the pathophysiology of the condition (pain, poor mechanical ventilation, alveolar edema-pulmonary contusion). The use of bioabsorbable material has no side effects attributable to material which is another option for rib fixation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  5. Feasibility of Modified Anterior Odontoid Screw Fixation: Analysis of a New Trajectory Using 3-Dimensional Simulation Software.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Lian; Chen, Qi; Wang, Hao-Li; Xu, Hua-Zi; Tian, Nai-Feng

    2018-05-03

    Anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) has been suggested as the optimal treatment for type II and some shallow type III odontoid fractures. However, only the classical surgical trajectory is available; no newer entry points or trajectories have been reported. We evaluated the anatomic feasibility of a new trajectory for AOSF using 3-dimensional (3D) screw insertion simulation software (Mimics). Computed tomography (CT) scans of patients (65 males and 59 females) with normal cervical structures were obtained consecutively, and the axes were reconstructed in 3 dimensions by Mimics software. Then simulated operations were performed using 2 new entry points below the superior articular process using bilateral screws of different diameters (group 1: 4 mm and 4 mm; group 2: 4 mm and 3.5 mm; group 3: 3.5 mm and 3.5 mm). The success rates and the required screw lengths were recorded and analyzed. The success rates were 79.03% for group 1, 95.16% for group 2, and 98.39% for group 3. The success rates for groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly, and both were significantly better than the rate for group 1. The success rate was much higher in males than in females in group 1, but the success rate was similar in males and females in the other 2 groups. Screw lengths did not differ significantly among the 3 groups, but an effect of sex was apparent. Our modified trajectory is anatomically feasible for fixation of anterior odontoid fractures, but further anatomic experiments and clinical research are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Medial malleolar fractures: a biomechanical study of fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Fowler, T Ty; Pugh, Kevin J; Litsky, Alan S; Taylor, Benjamin C; French, Bruce G

    2011-08-08

    Fracture fixation of the medial malleolus in rotationally unstable ankle fractures typically results in healing with current fixation methods. However, when failure occurs, pullout of the screws from tension, compression, and rotational forces is predictable. We sought to biomechanically test a relatively new technique of bicortical screw fixation for medial malleoli fractures. Also, the AO group recommends tension-band fixation of small avulsion type fractures of the medial malleolus that are unacceptable for screw fixation. A well-documented complication of this technique is prominent symptomatic implants and secondary surgery for implant removal. Replacing stainless steel 18-gauge wire with FiberWire suture could theoretically decrease symptomatic implants. Therefore, a second goal was to biomechanically compare these 2 tension-band constructs. Using a tibial Sawbones model, 2 bicortical screws were compared with 2 unicortical cancellous screws on a servohydraulic test frame in offset axial, transverse, and tension loading. Second, tension-band fixation using stainless steel wire was compared with FiberWire under tensile loads. Bicortical screw fixation was statistically the stiffest construct under tension loading conditions compared to unicortical screw fixation and tension-band techniques with FiberWire or stainless steel wire. In fact, unicortical screw fixation had only 10% of the stiffness as demonstrated in the bicortical technique. In a direct comparison, tension-band fixation using stainless steel wire was statistically stiffer than the FiberWire construct. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. The Free-Hand Technique for S2-Alar-Iliac Screw Placement: A Safe and Effective Method for Sacropelvic Fixation in Adult Spinal Deformity.

    PubMed

    Shillingford, Jamal N; Laratta, Joseph L; Tan, Lee A; Sarpong, Nana O; Lin, James D; Fischer, Charla R; Lehman, Ronald A; Kim, Yongjung J; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2018-02-21

    Spinopelvic fixation is an integral part of achieving solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction, especially in deformity procedures requiring substantial correction or long-segment constructs. Traditional S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screw-placement techniques utilize fluoroscopy, increasing operative time and radiation exposure to the patient and surgeon. We describe a novel free-hand technique for S2AI screw placement in patients with adult spinal deformity. We reviewed the records of 45 consecutive patients who underwent spinopelvic fixation performed with use of S2AI screws by the senior surgeon and various fellows or residents over a 12-month period (2015 to 2016). In each case, the S2AI screws were placed utilizing a free-hand technique without fluoroscopic or image guidance. Screw position and accuracy were assessed by intraoperative O-arm imaging and analyzed using 3-dimensional interactive manipulation of computed tomography images. A total of 100 screws were placed, 51 by the senior surgeon and 49 by trainees. The mean patient age was 57.4 ± 12.7 years at the time of surgery; 37 (82.2%) of the patients were female. Preoperative diagnoses included adult idiopathic scoliosis (n = 19), adult degenerative scoliosis (n = 15), flatback syndrome (n = 2), fixed sagittal imbalance (n = 6), and distal junctional kyphosis (n = 3). Five (5%) of the screws were placed with moderate to severe cortical breaches, all of which perforated the pelvis posteriorly, with no clinically notable neurovascular or visceral complications. The breach rate did not differ significantly between the senior surgeon and trainees. The free-hand technique for S2AI screw placement, when performed in a standardized manner, was demonstrated to be safe and reliable in constructs requiring spinopelvic fixation. The accuracy of screw placement relies on visible and palpable anatomic landmarks that obviate the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy or image guidance, potentially reducing operative time

  8. Sagittal imbalance treated with L5 pedicle subtraction osteotomy with short lumbar fusion from L4 to sacrum using four screws into L4 for enhanced fixation two additional vertebral screws: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Kuenzang; Otsuki, Bungo; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Tanida, Shimei; Masamoto, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2018-02-07

    To report on suggested technique with four screws in a single vertebra (two pedicle screws and two direct vertebral body screws) for enhanced fixation with just one level cranially to a pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). A 60-year-old woman underwent L4/5 fusion surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Two years later, she was unable to stand upright even for a short time because of lumbar kyphosis caused by subsidence of the fusion cage and of Baastrup syndrome in the upper lumbar spine [sagittal vertical axis (SVA) of 114 mm, pelvic incidence of 75°, and lumbar lordosis (LL) of 41°]. She underwent short-segment fusion from L4 to the sacrum with L5 pedicle subtraction osteotomy. We reinforced the construct with two vertebral screws at L4 in addition to the conventional L4 pedicle screws. After the surgery, her sagittal parameters were improved (SVA, 36 mm; LL, 54°). Two years after the corrective surgery, she maintained a low sagittal vertical axis though high residual pelvic tilt indicated that the patient was still compensating for residual sagittal misalignment. PSO surgery for sagittal imbalance usually requires a long fusion at least two levels above and below the osteotomy site to achieve adequate stability and better global alignment. However, longer fixation may decrease the patients' quality of life and cause a proximal junctional failure. Our novel technique may shorten the fixation area after osteotomy surgery. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  9. Metallic artifacts from internal scaphoid fracture fixation screws: comparison between C-arm flat-panel, cone-beam, and multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Finkenstaedt, Tim; Morsbach, Fabian; Calcagni, Maurizio; Vich, Magdalena; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Alkadhi, Hatem; Runge, Val M; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare image quality and extent of artifacts from scaphoid fracture fixation screws using different computed tomography (CT) modalities and radiation dose protocols. Imaging of 6 cadaveric wrists with artificial scaphoid fractures and different fixation screws was performed in 2 screw positions (45° and 90° orientation in relation to the x/y-axis) using multidetector CT (MDCT) and 2 flat-panel CT modalities, C-arm flat-panel CT (FPCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT), the latter 2 with low and standard radiation dose protocols. Mean cartilage attenuation and metal artifact-induced absolute Hounsfield unit changes (= artifact extent) were measured. Two independent radiologists evaluated different image quality criteria using a 5-point Likert-scale. Interreader agreements (Cohen κ) were calculated. Mean absolute Hounsfield unit changes and quality ratings were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Artifact extent was significantly smaller for MDCT and standard-dose FPCT compared with CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P < 0.05). No significant differences in artifact extent among different screw types and scanning positions were noted (P > 0.05). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose protocols showed equal ratings for screw bone interface, fracture line, and trabecular bone evaluation (P = 0.06, 0.2, and 0.2, respectively) and performed significantly better than FPCT low- and CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P < 0.05). Good interreader agreement was found for image quality comparisons (Cohen κ = 0.76-0.78). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose acquisition showed comparatively less metal-induced artifacts and better overall image quality compared with FPCT low-dose and both CBCT acquisitions. Flat-panel CT may provide sufficient image quality to serve as a versatile CT alternative for postoperative imaging of internally fixated wrist fractures.

  10. Safety screw fixation technique in a case of coracoid base fracture with acromioclavicular dislocation and coracoid base cross-sectional size data from a computed axial tomography study.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yoshiteru; Hirano, Tetsuya; Miyatake, Katsutoshi; Fujii, Koji; Takeda, Yoshitsugu

    2014-07-01

    Coracoid base fracture accompanied by acromioclavicular joint dislocation with intact coracoclavicular ligaments is a rare injury. Generally, an open reduction with screw fixation is the first treatment choice, as it protects the important structures around the coracoid process. This report presents a new technique of screw fixation for coracoid base fracture and provides anatomic information on cross-sectional size of the coracoid base obtained by computed tomography (CT). An axial image of the coracoid base was visualized over the neck of the scapula, and a guidewire was inserted into this circle under fluoroscopic guidance. The wire was inserted easily into the neck of scapula across the coracoid base fracture with imaging in only 1 plane. In addition, 25 measurements of the coracoid base were made in 25 subjects on axial CT images. Average length of the long and short axes at the thinnest part of the coracoid base was 13.9 ± 2.0 mm (range 10.6-17.0) and 10.5 ± 2.2 mm (6.6-15.1), respectively. This new screw fixation technique and measurement data on the coracoid base may be beneficial for safety screw fixation of coracoid base fracture.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  12. The self adapting washer for lag screw fixation of mandibular fractures: finite element analysis and preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Terheyden, H; Mühlendyck, C; Feldmann, H; Ludwig, K; Härle, F

    1999-02-01

    Besides rigid fixation, lag screws have distinct advantages compared with plates in appropriate indications in mandibular fractures. However, in current lag screw systems, the relatively small area of the screw head has to transfer the tensile force which can exceed 1000 N in the symphysis, to the thin cortical bone plate. Countersinking, which is obligatory in most systems, will weaken the cortical plate. Finite element analysis (FEA) revealed that load in this situation can exceed the normal tensile strength of metal and bone. Consequently, a new washer was constructed which both increased the supporting surface and did not require countersinking. The washer is self adapting (SAW) to the cortical plate in a defined position, forming a ball and socket joint with the screw head. Using the FEA model, a ten-fold reduction in load on bone and metal was observed with the new washer. In a miniature pig mandibular symphysis fracture model, the clinical applicability and a favourable histological reaction were demonstrated, compared with conventional lag screw designs.

  13. Temporary Iliac Fixation to Salvage an Acute L4 Chance Fracture: Following Pedicle Screw Fixation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Lewis, Stephen J

    2017-03-01

    A case report. The aim of this study was to describe a technique of temporary distal fixation to the ilium to salvage an acute L4 fracture following a T3-L4 kyphoscoliosis correction. Pedicle fracture is a possible complication in pedicle screw fixation for scoliosis, which may lead to postoperative instability, resulting in loss of fixation and pseudoarthrosis. This report highlights the salvage treatment of a chance fracture that occurred in the lower instrumented vertebra following deformity correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) without sacrificing further distal motion segments. A retrospective chart and radiograph review of a 13-year-old female who underwent surgical treatment for correction of AIS was performed. Following a T3-L4 correction with apical posterior column releases, an L4 Chance fracture with loss of distal fixation occurred on post-op day 3. Following an unsuccessful salvage with an infralaminar hook, a second revision was performed replacing the hook and adding bilateral temporary fixation to the ilium connected to the distal ends of the main rods through side-to-side connectors. The temporary fixation was removed 6 months later with successful healing of the fracture maintenance of the scoliosis correction at 2-year follow-up. Temporary extension of the construct to the ilium was successfully utilized in this case to salvage an acute L4 Chance fracture that occurred following a T3 to L4 construct for kyphoscoliosis. With this technique, successful reduction and healing of the fracture occurred with maintenance of the deformity correction without the need to fuse further distal segments. 4.

  14. Comparison of effects of different screw materials in the triangle fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Gok, Kadir; Inal, Sermet; Gok, Arif; Gulbandilar, Eyyup

    2017-05-01

    In this study, biomechanical behaviors of three different screw materials (stainless steel, titanium and cobalt-chromium) have analyzed to fix with triangle fixation under axial loading in femoral neck fracture and which material is best has been investigated. Point cloud obtained after scanning the human femoral model with the three dimensional (3D) scanner and this point cloud has been converted to 3D femoral model by Geomagic Studio software. Femoral neck fracture was modeled by SolidWorks software for only triangle configuration and computer-aided numerical analyses of three different materials have been carried out by AnsysWorkbench finite element analysis (FEA) software. The loading, boundary conditions and material properties have prepared for FEA and Von-Misses stress values on upper and lower proximity of the femur and screws have been calculated. At the end of numerical analyses, the best advantageous screw material has calculated as titanium because it creates minimum stress at the upper and lower proximity of the fracture line.

  15. Comparison of calcaneal fixation of a retrograde intramedullary nail with a fixed-angle spiral blade versus a fixed-angle screw.

    PubMed

    Klos, Kajetan; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Schwieger, Karsten; Fröber, Rosemarie; Brodt, Steffen; Hofmann, Gunther O; Windolf, Markus; Mückley, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Retrograde intramedullary nailing is an established technique for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA). In poor bone stock (osteoporosis, neuroarthropathy), device fixation in the hindfoot remains a problem. Fixed-angle spiral-blade fixation of the nail in the calcaneus could be useful. In seven matched pairs of human below-knee specimens, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined, and TTCA was performed with an intramedullary nail (Synthes Hindfoot Arthrodesis Nail HAN Expert Nailing System), using a conventional screw plus a fixed-angle spiral blade versus a conventional screw plus a fixed-angle screw, in the calcaneus. The constructs were subjected to quasi-static loading (dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, varus/valgus, rotation) and to cyclic loading to failure. Parameters studied were construct neutral zone (NZ) and range of motion (ROM), and number of cycles to failure. With dorsiflexion/plantarflexion loading, the screw-plus-spiral-blade constructs had a significantly smaller ROM in the quasi-static test (p = 0.028) and early in the cyclic test (p = 0.02); differences in the other parameters were not significant. There was a significant correlation between BMD and cycles to failure for the two-screw constructs (r = 0.94; p = 0.002) and for the screw-plus-spiral-blade constructs (r = 0.86; p = 0.014). In TTCA with a HAN Expert Nailing System, the use of a calcaneal spiral blade can further reduce motion within the construct. This may be especially useful in poor bone stock. Results obtained in this study could be used to guide the operating surgeon's TTCA strategy.

  16. Anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament anatomical repair and augmentation versus trans-syndesmosis screw fixation for the syndesmotic instability in external-rotation type ankle fracture with posterior malleolus involvement: A prospective and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Xia, Ronggang; Cheng, Tao; Luo, Congfeng

    2016-07-01

    Syndesmosis injury is common in external-rotation type ankle fractures (ERAF). Trans-syndesmosis screw fixation, the gold-standard treatment, is currently controversial for its complications and biomechanical disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method of anatomically repairing the anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) and augmentation with anchor rope system to treat the syndesmotic instability in ERAF with posterior malleolus involvement and to compare its clinical outcomes with that of trans-syndesmosis screw fixation. 53 ERAFs with posterior malleolus involvement received surgery, and the syndesmosis was still unstable after fracture fixation. They were randomised into screw fixation group and AITFL anatomical repair with augmentation group. Reduction quality, syndesmosis diastasis recurrence, pain (VAS score), time back to work, Olerud-Molander ankle score and range of motion (ROM) of ankle were investigated. Olerud-Molander score in AITFL repair group and screw group was 90.4 and 85.8 at 12-month follow-up (P>0.05). Plantar flexion was 31.2° and 34.3° in repair and screw groups (P=0.04). Mal-reduction happened in 5 cases (19.2%) in screw group while 2 cases (7.4%) in repair group. Postoperative syndesmosis re-diastasis occurred in 3 cases in screw group while zero in repair group (P>0.05). Pain score was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Overall complication rate and back to work time were 26.9% and 3.7% (P=0.04), 7.15 months and 5.26 months (P=0.02) in screw group and repair group, respectively. For syndesmotic instability in ERAF with posterior malleolus involvement, the method of AITFL anatomical repair and augmentation with anchor rope system had an equivalent functional outcome and reduction, earlier rehabilitation and less complication compared with screw fixation. It can be selected as an alternative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A computed tomographic anatomical study of the upper sacrum. Application for a user guide of pelvic fixation with iliosacral screws in adult spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Dubory, Arnaud; Bouloussa, Houssam; Riouallon, Guillaume; Wolff, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Widely used in traumatic pelvic ring fractures, the iliosacral (IS) screw technique for spino-pelvic fixation remains anecdotal in adult spinal deformity. The objective of this study was to assess anatomical variability of the adult upper sacrum and to provide a user guide of spino-pelvic fixation with IS screws in adult spinal deformity. Anatomical variability of the upper sacrum according to age, gender, height and weight was sought on 30 consecutive pelvic CT-scans. Thus, a user guide of spino-pelvic fixation with IS screws was modeled and assessed on ten CT-scans as described below. Two invariable landmarks usable during the surgical procedure were defined: point A (corresponding to the connector binding the IS screw to the spinal rod), equidistant from the first posterior sacral hole and the base of the S1 articular facet and 10 mm-embedded into the sacrum; point B (corresponding to the tip of the IS screw) located at the junction of the anterior third and middle third of the sacral endplate in the sagittal plane and at the middle of the endplate in the coronal plane. Point C corresponded to the intersection between the A-B direction and the external facet of the iliac wing. Three-dimensional reconstructions modeling the IS screw optimal direction according to the A-B-C straight line were assessed. Age had no effect on the anatomy of the upper sacrum. The distance between the base of the S1 superior articular facet and the top of the first posterior sacral hole was correlated with weight (r = 0.6; 95% CI [0.6-0.9]); p < 0.001). Sacral end-plate thickness increased for male patients (p < 0.001) and was strongly correlated with height (r = 0.6; 95% CI [0.29-0.75]); p < 0.001) and weight (r = 0.8; 95% CI [0.6-0.9]); p < 0.001). The thickness of the inferior part of the S1 vertebral body increased in male patients (p < 0.001). Other measured parameters slightly varied according to gender, height and weight. Simulating the described technique of

  18. Temporary short-segment pedicle screw fixation for thoracolumbar burst fractures: comparative study with or without vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Aono, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keisuke; Tobimatsu, Hidekazu; Nagamoto, Yukitaka; Takenaka, Shota; Furuya, Masayuki; Chiaki, Horii; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2017-08-01

    Short-segment posterior spinal instrumentation for thoracolumbar burst fracture provides superior correction of kyphosis by an indirect reduction technique, but it has a high failure rate. The purpose of the study we report here was to compare outcomes for temporary short-segment pedicle screw fixation with vertebroplasty and for such fixation without vertebroplasty. This is a prospective multicenter comparative study. We studied 62 consecutive patients with thoracolumbar burst fracture who underwent short-segment posterior instrumentation using ligamentotaxis with Schanz screws with or without vertebroplasty. Radiological parameters (Cobb angle on standing lateral radiographs) were used. Implants were removed approximately 1 year after surgery. Neurologic function, kyphotic deformity, canal compromise, and fracture severity were evaluated prospectively. After surgery, all patients with neurologic deficit had improvement equivalent to at least one grade on the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale and had fracture union. Kyphotic deformity was reduced significantly, and reduction of the vertebrae was maintained with and without vertebroplasty, regardless of load-sharing classification. Although no patient required additional anterior reconstruction, kyphotic change was observed at disc level mainly after implant removal with or without vertebroplasty. Temporary short-segment fixation yielded satisfactory results in the reduction and maintenance of fractured vertebrae with or without vertebroplasty. Kyphosis recurrence may be inevitable because adjacent discs can be injured during the original trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Modified chevron osteotomy with lateral release and screw fixation for treatment of severe hallux deformity].

    PubMed

    Hofstaetter, S G; Schuh, R; Trieb, K; Trnka, H J

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the clinical and radiological results of the Chevron osteotomy with screw fixation and distal soft tissue release up to an intermetatarsal angle of 19°. Furthermore, the results are presented for patients over the age of 70 years, and whether or not there is a higher complication rate. 86 feet of patients between 23 and 81 years were included in the study. Apart from the overall group, a group with an intermetatarsal angle of 16° to 19° and a group of patients over 70 years old were eavaluated. They were evaluated preoperatively and at follow-up after an average of 3.3 years according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score. The AOFAS score showed a significant improvement from 55 points preoperatively to 90 points at follow-up. The preoperative hallux valgus angle decreased significantly from 32° to 5° and the preoperative intermetatarsal angle decreased from 14° to 6°. Patient satisfaction in the overall group was rated in 92 % as excellent or good. Also, the patient group with 16° to 19° angles and the patients over 70 years showed a significant improvement of clinical and radiological parameters. The complication rate was very low in all groups. The results show that the Chevron osteotomy is a very good surgical technique with few complications for the correction of splay foot with hallux valgus deformity. We showed that by using the modified technique with a long plantar arm, an excessive soft tissue release and screw fixation, the indication can be extended up to an intermetatarsal angle of 19° when using screw fixation. Furthermore the patients over 70 years of age showed a significant improvement of clinical and radiological parameters without serious complications such as avascular necrosis or dislocation of the metatarsal head. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Morphology study of thoracic transverse processes and its significance in pedicle-rib unit screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin-gang; Cai, Jin-fang; Sun, Jian-min; Jiang, Zhen-song

    2015-03-01

    Thoracic transverse process is an important anatomic structure of the spine. Several anatomic studies have investigated the adjacent structures of the thoracic transverse process. But there is still a blank on the morphology of the thoracic transverse processes. The purpose of the cadaveric study is to investigate the morphology of thoracic transverse processes and to provide morphology basis for the pedicle-rib unit (extrapedicular) screw fixation method. Forty-five adult dehydrated skeletons (T1-T10) were included in this study. The length, width, thickness, and the tilt angle (upward and backward) of the thoracic transverse process were measured. The data were then analyzed statistically. On the basis of the morphometric study, 5 fresh cadavers were used to place screws from transverse processes to the vertebral body in the thoracic spine, and then observed by the naked eye and on computed tomography scans. The lengths of thoracic transverse processes were between 16.63±1.59 and 18.10±1.95 mm; the longest was at T7, and the shortest was at T10. The widths of thoracic transverse processes were between 11.68±0.80 and 12.87±1.48 mm; the widest was at T3, and the narrowest was at T7. The thicknesses of thoracic transverse processes were between 7.86±1.24 and 10.78±1.35 mm; the thickest was at T1, and the thinnest was at T7. The upward tilt angles of thoracic transverse processes were between 24.9±3.1 and 3.0±1.56 degrees; the maximal upward tilt angle was at T1, and the minimal upward tilt angle was at T7. The upward tilt angles of T1 and T2 were obviously different from the other thoracic transverse processes (P<0.01). The backward tilt angles of thoracic transverse processes gradually increased from 24.5±2.91 degrees at T1 to 64.5±5.12 degrees at T10. The backward tilt angles were significantly different between each other, except between T5 and T6. In the validation study, screws were all placed successfully from transverse processes to the vertebrae of

  1. [The Postero-Lateral Approach--An Alternative to Closed Anterior-Posterior Screw Fixation of a Dislocated Postero-Lateral Fragment of the Distal Tibia in Complex Ankle Fractures].

    PubMed

    von Rüden, C; Hackl, S; Woltmann, A; Friederichs, J; Bühren, V; Hierholzer, C

    2015-06-01

    The dislocated posterolateral fragment of the distal tibia is considered as a key fragment for the successful reduction of comminuted ankle fractures. The reduction of this fragment can either be achieved indirectly by joint reduction using the technique of closed anterior-posterior screw fixation, or directly using the open posterolateral approach followed by plate fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome after stabilization of the dislocated posterolateral tibia fragment using either closed reduction and screw fixation, or open reduction and plate fixation via the posterolateral approach in complex ankle fractures. In a prospective study between 01/2010 and 12/2012, all mono-injured patients with closed ankle fractures and dislocated posterolateral tibia fragments were assessed 12 months after osteosynthesis. Parameters included: size of the posterolateral tibia fragment relative to the tibial joint surface (CT scan, in %) as an indicator of injury severity, unreduced area of tibial joint surface postoperatively, treatment outcome assessed by using the "Ankle Fracture Scoring System" (AFSS), as well as epidemiological data and duration of the initial hospital treatment. In 11 patients (10 female, 1 male; age 51.6 ± 2.6 years [mean ± SEM], size of tibia fragment 42.1 ± 2.5 %) the fragment fixation was performed using a posterolateral approach. Impaired postoperative wound healing occurred in 2 patients of this group. In the comparison group, 12 patients were treated using the technique of closed anterior-posterior screw fixation (10 female, 2 male; age 59.5 ± 6.7 years, size of tibia fragment 45.9 ± 1.5 %). One patient of this group suffered an incomplete lesion of the superficial peroneal nerve. Radiological evaluation of the joint surface using CT scan imaging demonstrated significantly less dislocation of the tibial joint surface following the open posterolateral approach (0.60 ± 0.20 mm) compared to the closed

  2. Advantages of Direct Insertion of a Straight Probe Without a Guide Tube During Anterior Odontoid Screw Fixation of Odontoid Fractures.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hoon; Kang, Dong-Ho; Lee, Moon Kyu; Yoo, Byoungwoo; Jung, Sang Ku; Hwang, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jeoung Hee; Oh, Sunkyu; Lee, Eun Jung; Jeon, Sang Ryong; Roh, Sung Woo; Rhim, Seung Chul

    2016-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to compare the anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) with a guide tube or with a straight probe. AOSF associates with several complications, including malpositioning, fixation loss, and screw breakage. Screw pull-out from the C2 body is the most common complication. All consecutive patients with type II or rostral shallow type III odontoid fractures who underwent AOSFs during the study period were enrolled retrospectively. The guide-tube AOSF method followed the standard published method except C3 body and C2-3 disc annulus rimming was omitted to prevent disc injury; instead, the guide tube was anchored at the anterior inferior C2 vertebra corner. After 2 screw pull-outs, the guide-tube cohort was analyzed to identify the cause of instrument failure. Thereafter, the straight-probe method was developed. A guide tube was not used. A small pilot hole was made on the most anterior side of the inferior endplate, followed by insertion of a 2.5 mm straight probe through the C2 body. Non-union and instrument failure rates and screw-direction angles of the guide-tube and straight-probe groups were recorded. The guide-tube group (n = 13) had 2 screw pull-outs and 1 non-union. The straight-probe group (n = 8) had no complications and significantly larger screw-direction angles than the guide-tube group (60.5 ± 4.63 vs. 54.8 ± 3.82 degrees; P = 0.047). Straight-probe AOSF yielded larger direction angles without injuring bone and disc. Complications were absent. The procedure was easier than guide-tube AOSF and assured sufficient engagement, even in horizontal fracture orientation cases. 3.

  3. Radiographic Analysis of One-level Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (MI-TLIF) With Unilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation for Lumbar Degenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaolong; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hailong; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; He, Shisheng

    2016-02-01

    A prospective randomized study was conducted. The purpose of this study was to assess the radiographic outcomes of one-level minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) with unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation for degenerative lumbar spine disease. MI-TLIF has become an increasingly popular method of lumbar arthrodesis. Recent technological advances in spinal instrumentation have culminated in the development of MI-TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation. However, there are few published studies on radiographic outcomes of the MI-TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation. A total of 65 patients with one-level degenerative lumbar spine disease were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomized into the unilateral or bilateral fixation group based on a computer-generated number list. Thirty-one patients (17 men and 14 women; average age, 57.3 y) were randomized to the unilateral group (group A) and 34 patients (16 men and 18 women; average age, 58.9 y) to the bilateral group (group B). All patients underwent minimally invasive decompression, interbody fusion, and pedicle screw fixation with the assistance of microscopic tubular retractor system (METRx-MD) and Sextant system. All patients were asked to follow-up at 3, 6, and thereafter once every 6 months after surgery. The visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and modified Prolo (mProlo) scores were obtained for all patients 24 hours before the operation and at each follow-up visit. The whole lumbar lordosis (WL), the segmental lordosis (SL), fusion level disk space angle, lumbar scoliosis angle, and segmental scoliosis angle were determined before and after surgery on standard x-rays. The disk height index (DI) and the lumber curvature index (LI) were also evaluated. The mean follow-up was 26.6 months, with a range of 18-36 months. All patients showed evidence of fusion at 12 months postoperatively. Statistically, there was no significant difference between

  4. Anterior screw fixation of a dislocated type II odontoid fracture facilitated by transoral and posterior cervical manual reduction.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Mark P; Hunt, Matthew A; Nemecek, Andrew N

    2009-10-01

    Early fixation of type II odontoid fractures has been shown to provide high rates of long-term stabilization and osteosynthesis. In this report, the authors present the case of a patient with a locked type II odontoid fracture treated by anterior screw fixation facilitated by closed transoral and posterior cervical manual reduction. While transoral intraoperative reduction of a partially displaced odontoid fracture has previously been described, the authors present the first case utilizing this technique in the treatment of a completely dislocated type II odontoid fracture.

  5. Bioresorbable pins and interference screws for fixation of hamstring tendon grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dirk; Casper, Dirk; Bauwens, Kai; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Wich, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Biodegradable cross-pins have been shown to provide higher failure loads than do screws for fixation of hamstring tendons under laboratory conditions. To compare the clinical results of biodegradable pins (RigidFix) and interference screws (BioCryl) for fixation of hamstring grafts in arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Study Design Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. To test the hypothesis of a difference of 1.0 +/- 1.2 mm in anterior knee laxity between the two fixation options, 54 patients were randomly assigned to groups via a block randomization scheme and sealed envelopes. All patients underwent standardized hamstring graft reconstruction and had similar postoperative aftercare by an accelerated rehabilitation protocol. Measures assessed at baseline and after 1 and 2 years of follow-up included (1) the side-to-side difference in anterior laxity (KT-1000 arthrometer), (2) Short Form 36 physical and mental component scores, and (3) the International Knee Documentation Committee form scores. After 1 and 2 years, 26 and 21 patients in the BioCryl group and 28 and 24 patients in the RigidFix group were available for follow-up examination. No significant difference was noted in instrumented anterior translation between BioCryl and RigidFix fixation: 1 year, 0.11 (95% CI, -0.60 to 0.82; P = .7537); 2 years, 0.33 (95% CI, -0.43 to 1.08 mm; P = .3849). Also, there were no significant differences in the mean physical and mental component scores and International Knee Documentation Committee form scores and in overall complication and surgical revision rates. A pin dislocation was classified as the sole procedure-specific serious adverse event. Bioresorbable pins do not provide better clinical results than do resorbable interference screws for hamstring graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.

  6. [Biomechanical study on effects of bone mineral density on fixation strength of expansive pedicle screw].

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingxuan; Li, Xusheng; Zhen, Ping; Wu, Zhigang; Zhou, Shenghu; Tian, Qi; Lei, Wei

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the fixation strength of expansive pedicle screw (EPS) at different bone mineral density (BMD) levels, further to provide theoretical evidence for the clinical application of the EPS in patients with osteoporosis. Fresh human cadaver spines (T12-L5 spines) were divided into 4 levels: normal BMD, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and severe osteoporosis according to the value of BMD, 12 vertebra in each level. Conventional pedicle screw (CPS) or EPS was implanted into the bilateral vertebra in CPS group and EPS group, respectively, 12 screws in each group per BMD level. Screw pullout tests were conducted. The maximum pullout strength, stiffness, and energy absorption were determined by an AG-IS material testing machine with constant rate of loading in a speed of 5 mm/min. With the decline of BMD from normal to severe osteoporosis level, the maximum pullout strength and the stiffness correspondingly declined (P < 0.05). In CPS group, the energy absorption gradually decreased (P < 0.05); in EPS group, significant difference was found between other different BMD levels (P < 0.05) except between normal BMD and osteopenia and between osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis (P > 0.05). At the same BMD level, the maximum pullout strength of EPS group was significantly larger than that of CPS group (P < 0.05); the stiffness of EPS group was significantly higher than that of CPS group (P < 0.05) except one at normal BMD level; and no significant difference was found in the energy absorption between 2 groups (P > 0.05) except one at osteopenia level. No significant difference was found in maximum pullout strength, stiffness, and energy absorption between EPS group at osteoporosis level and CPS group at osteopenia level (P > 0.05); however, the maximum pullout strength, stiffness, and energy absorption of EPS group at severe osteoporosis level were significantly lower than those of CPS group at osteopenia level (P < 0.05). Compared with CPS, the EPS can significantly improve

  7. CT Morphometric Analysis to Determine the Anatomical Basis for the Use of Transpedicular Screws during Reconstruction and Fixations of Anterior Cervical Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun; Ruan, Dike; Wu, Changfu; Wu, Weidong; Sun, Peidong; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Wu, Jigong; Lu, Sheng; Ouyang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate placement of pedicle screw during Anterior Transpedicular Screw fixation (ATPS) in cervical spine depends on accurate anatomical knowledge of the vertebrae. However, little is known of the morphometric characteristics of cervical vertebrae in Chinese population. Methods Three-dimensional reconstructions of CT images were performed for 80 cases. The anatomic data and screw fixation parameters for ATPS fixation were measured using the Mimics software. Findings The overall mean OPW, OPH and PAL ranged from 5.81 to 7.49 mm, 7.77 to 8.69 mm, and 33.40 to 31.13 mm separately, and SPA was 93.54 to 109.36 degrees from C3 to C6, 104.99 degrees at C7, whereas, 49.00 to 32.26 degrees from C4 to C7, 46.79 degrees at C3 (TPA). Dl/rSIP had an increasing trend away from upper endplate with mean value from 1.87 to 5.83 mm. Dl/rTIP was located at the lateral portion of the anterior cortex of vertebrae for C3 to C5 and ipsilateral for C6 to C7 with mean value from −2.70 to −3.00 mm, and 0.17 to 3.18 mm. The entrance points for pedicular screw insertion for C3 to C5 and C6 to C7 were recommended −2∼−3 mm and 0–4 mm from the median sagittal plane, respectively, 1–4 mm and 5–6 mm from the upper endplate, with TPA being 46.79–49.00 degrees and 40.89–32.26 degrees, respectively, and SPA being 93.54–106.69 degrees and 109.36–104.99 degrees, respectively. The pedicle screw insertion diameter was recommended 3.5 mm (C3 and C4), 4.0 mm (C5 to C7), and the pedicle axial length was 21–24 mm for C3 to C7 for both genders. However, the ATPS insertion in C3 should be individualized given its relatively small anatomical dimensions. Conclusions The data provided a morphometric basis for the ATPS fixation technique in lower cervical fixation. It will help in preoperative planning and execution of this surgery. PMID:24349038

  8. Single-stage reduction and fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation with atlas assimilation applying occipital plate, C2 screws and rigid cantilever beam system through intraoperative distraction: A retrospective study of 25 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhonghua; Han, Xuesong; Li, Xiaolei; Qin, Xiaofei

    2018-04-01

    To report the surgical technique and clinical outcomes for the treatment of AAD with atlas assimilation by single-stage posterior reduction and fixation applying intraoperative distraction between occipital and C2 screws. From April 2008 to January 2014, 25 patients underwent single-stage posterior reduction and fixation applying occipital plate, C2 screws and rigid cantilever beam system through intraoperative distraction between occipital and C2 screws. The pre- and postoperative radiologic parameters and JOA score were examined. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 17months in 25 patients. Clinical symptoms improved in 24 patients (96%) and were stable in 1 patient (4%). Radiologic assessment illustrated that complete reduction was achieved in 24 patients and partial reduction (>60%) in 1 patient. Overall, satisfactory decompression and reduction were showed on postoperative MRT and 3D-CT scans of all 25 patients. The single-stage posterior reduction and fixation applying occipital plate, C2 screws and rigid cantilever beam system through intraoperative distraction between occipital and C2 screws for AAD with atlas assimilation is simple, fast, safe and effective. C1 screws insertion for the treatment of AAD with atlas assimilation should be considered.

  9. Biomechanical Analysis of Suture Anchor vs Tenodesis Screw for FHL Transfer.

    PubMed

    Drakos, Mark C; Gott, Michael; Karnovsky, Sydney C; Murphy, Conor I; DeSandis, Bridget A; Chinitz, Noah; Grande, Daniel; Chahine, Nadeen

    2017-07-01

    Chronic Achilles injury is often treated with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer to the calcaneus using 1 or 2 incisions. A single incision avoids the risks of extended dissections yet yields smaller grafts, which may limit fixation options. We investigated the required length of FHL autograft and biomechanical profiles for suture anchor and biotenodesis screw fixation. Single-incision FHL transfer with suture anchor or biotenodesis screw fixation to the calcaneus was performed on 20 fresh cadaveric specimens. Specimens were cyclically loaded until maximal load to failure. Length of FHL tendon harvest, ultimate load, stiffness, and mode of failure were recorded. Tendon harvest length needed for suture anchor fixation was 16.8 ± 2.1 mm vs 29.6 ± 2.4 mm for biotenodesis screw ( P = .002). Ultimate load to failure was not significantly different between groups. A significant inverse correlation existed between failure load and donor age when all specimens were pooled (ρ = -0.49, P < .05). Screws in younger specimens (fewer than 70) resulted in significantly greater failure loads ( P < .03). No difference in stiffness was found between groups. Modes of failure for screw fixation were either tunnel pullout (n = 6) or tendon rupture (n = 4). Anchor failure occurred mostly by suture breakage (n = 8). Adequate FHL tendon length could be harvested through a single posterior incision for fixation to the calcaneus with either fixation option, but suture anchor required significantly less graft length. Stiffness, fixation strength, and load to failure were comparable between groups. An inverse correlation existed between failure load and donor age. Younger specimens with screw fixation demonstrated significantly greater failure loads. Adequate harvest length for FHL transfer could be achieved with a single posterior incision. There was no difference in strength of fixation between suture anchor and biotenodesis screw.

  10. Use of resorbable plates and screws in pediatric facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Eppley, Barry L

    2005-03-01

    The use of resorbable plates and screws for fixation of pediatric facial fractures is both well tolerated and effective. It enables realignment and stable positioning of rapidly healing fracture segments while obviating any future issues secondary to long-term metal retention. Forty-four pediatric facial fractures were treated over a 10-year period at our institution using differing techniques of polymeric bone fixation. Twenty-nine mandible fractures in patients under the age of 10 (age range, 6 months to 8 years) were treated. Displaced fractures of the symphysis, parasymphysis, body, and ramus underwent open reduction and either 1.5-mm or 2.0-mm plate and screw fixation in 14 patients. Subcondylar fractures were treated by a short period of maxillomandibular fixation (3 weeks) achieved with suture ligation between resorbable screws placed at the zygoma and symphysis or a circummandibular suture attached to a zygomatic screw. Fifteen patients (age range, 4 to 11 years) with isolated frontal, supraorbital, intraorbital, or orbitozygomatic fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with 1.5-mm resorbable plates, mesh, and screws. No long-term implant-related complications were seen in any of the treated patients. Resorbable polylactic and polyglycolic acid plates and screws can be an effective fixation method for facial fractures in children in the primary and secondary dentition periods.

  11. Secure corridor for infraacetabular screws in acetabular fracture fixation-a 3-D radiomorphometric analysis of 124 pelvic CT datasets.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Stephan; Noser, Hansrudi; Wienke, Andreas; Radetzki, Florian; Hofmann, Gunther Olaf; Mendel, Thomas

    2018-05-21

    Acetabular fracture surgery is directed toward anatomical reduction and stable fixation to allow for the early functional rehabilitation of an injured hip joint. Recent biomechanical investigations have shown the superiority of using an additional screw in the infraacetabular (IA) region, thereby transfixing the separated columns to strengthen the construct by closing the periacetabular fixation frame. However, the inter-individual existence and variance concerning secure IA screw corridors are poorly understood. This computer-aided 3-D radiomorphometric study examined 124 CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) datasets of intact human pelves (248 acetabula) to visualize the spatial IA corridors as the sum of all intraosseous screw positions. DICOM files were pre-processed using the Amira® 4.2 visualization software. Final corridor computation was accomplished using a custom-made software algorithm. The volumetric measurement data of each corridor were calculated for further statistical analyses. Correlations between the volumetric values and the biometric data were investigated. Furthermore, the influence of hip dysplasia on the IA corridor configuration was analyzed. The IA corridors consistently showed a double-cone shape with the isthmus located at the acetabular fovea. In 97% of male and 91% of female acetabula, a corridor for a 3.5-mm screw could be found. The number of IA corridors was significantly lower in females for screw diameters ≥ 4.5 mm. The mean 3.5-mm screw corridor volume was 16 cm 3 in males and 9.2 cm 3 in female pelves. Corridor volumes were significantly positively correlated with body height and weight and with the diameter of Köhler's teardrop on standard AP pelvic X-rays. No correlation was observed between hip dysplasia and the IA corridor extent. IA corridors are consistently smaller in females. However, 3.5-mm small fragment screws may still be used as the standard implant because sex-specific differences are

  12. Passage of an Anterior Odontoid Screw through Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Leitner, L; Brückmann, C I; Gilg, M M; Bratschitsch, G; Sadoghi, P; Leithner, A; Radl, R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose . Anterior screw fixation has become a popular surgical treatment method for instable odontoid fractures. Screw loosening and migration are a rare, severe complication following anterior odontoid fixation, which can lead to esophagus perforation and requires revision operation. Methods . We report a case of screw loosening and migration after anterior odontoid fixation, which perforated the esophagus and was excreted without complications in a 78-year-old male patient. Results . A ventral dislocated anterior screw perforated through the esophagus after eight years after implantation and was excreted through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. At a 6-month follow-up after the event the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion . Extrusion via the GI tract is not safe enough to be considered as a treatment option for loosened screws. Some improvements could be implemented to prevent such an incident. Furthermore, this case is a fine example that recent preoperative imaging is mandatory before revision surgery for screw loosening.

  13. Biomechanical evaluation of a second generation headless compression screw for ankle arthrodesis in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Somberg, Andrew Max; Whiteside, William K; Nilssen, Erik; Murawski, Daniel; Liu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Many types of screws, plates, and strut grafts have been utilized for ankle arthrodesis. Biomechanical testing has shown that these constructs can have variable stiffness. More recently, headless compression screws have emerged as an evolving method of achieving compression in various applications but there is limited literature regarding ankle arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical stability provided by a second generation fully threaded headless compression screw compared to a standard headed, partially threaded cancellous screw in a cadaveric ankle arthrodesis model. Twenty fresh frozen human cadaver specimens were subjected to simulated ankle arthrodesis with either three standard cancellous-bone screws (InFix 7.3mm) or with three headless compression screws (Acumed Acutrak 2 7.5mm). The specimens were subjected to cyclic loading and unloading at a rate of 1Hz, compression of 525 Newtons (N) and distraction of 20N for a total of 500 cycles using an electromechanical load frame (Instron). The amount of maximum distraction was recorded as well as the amount of motion that occurred through 1, 10, 50, 100, and 500 cycles. No significant difference (p=0.412) was seen in the amount of distraction that occurred across the fusion site for either screw. The average maximum distraction after 500 cycles was 201.9μm for the Acutrak 2 screw and 235.4μm for the InFix screw. No difference was seen throughout each cycle over time for the Acutrak 2 screw (p-value=0.988) or the InFix screw (p-value=0.991). Both the traditional InFix type screw and the second generation Acumed Acutrak headless compression screws provide adequate fixation during ankle arthrodesis under submaximal loads. There is no demonstrable difference between traditional cannulated partially threaded screws and headless compression screws studied in this model. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Loosening torque of Universal Abutment screws after cyclic loading: influence of tightening technique and screw coating.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Atais; Regalin, Alexandre; Bhering, Claudia Lopes Brilhante; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of tightening technique and the screw coating on the loosening torque of screws used for Universal Abutment fixation after cyclic loading. Forty implants (Titamax Ti Cortical, HE, Neodent) (n=10) were submerged in acrylic resin and four tightening techniques for Universal Abutment fixation were evaluated: A - torque with 32 Ncm (control); B - torque with 32 Ncm holding the torque meter for 20 seconds; C - torque with 32 Ncm and retorque after 10 minutes; D - torque (32 Ncm) holding the torque meter for 20 seconds and retorque after 10 minutes as initially. Samples were divided into subgroups according to the screw used: conventional titanium screw or diamond like carbon-coated (DLC) screw. Metallic crowns were fabricated for each abutment. Samples were submitted to cyclic loading at 10(6) cycles and 130 N of force. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The tightening technique did not show significant influence on the loosening torque of screws (P=.509). Conventional titanium screws showed significant higher loosening torque values than DLC (P=.000). The use of conventional titanium screw is more important than the tightening techniques employed in this study to provide long-term stability to Universal Abutment screws.

  15. Biomechanical comparison of 3.0 mm headless compression screw and 3.5 mm cortical bone screw in a canine humeral condylar fracture model.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Mishka N; Jankovits, Daniel A; Huber, Michael L; Strom, Adam M; Garcia, Tanya C; Stover, Susan M

    2016-09-20

    To compare the biomechanical properties of simulated humeral condylar fractures reduced with one of two screw fixation methods: 3.0 mm headless compression screw (HCS) or 3.5 mm cortical bone screw (CBS) placed in lag fashion. Bilateral humeri were collected from nine canine cadavers. Standardized osteotomies were stabilized with 3.0 mm HCS in one limb and 3.5 mm CBS in the contralateral limb. Condylar fragments were loaded to walk, trot, and failure loads while measuring construct properties and condylar fragment motion. The 3.5 mm CBS-stabilized constructs were 36% stiffer than 3.0 mm HCS-stabilized constructs, but differences were not apparent in quality of fracture reduction nor in yield loads, which exceeded expected physiological loads during rehabilitation. Small residual fragment displacements were not different between CBS and HCS screws. Small fragment rotation was not significantly different between screws, but was weakly correlated with moment arm length (R² = 0.25). A CBS screw placed in lag fashion provides stiffer fixation than an HCS screw, although both screws provide similar anatomical reduction and yield strength to condylar fracture fixation in adult canine humeri.

  16. Radiographic Review of Helical Blade Versus Lag Screw Fixation for Cephalomedullary Nailing of Low-Energy Peritrochanteric Femur Fractures: There is a Difference in Cutout.

    PubMed

    Stern, Lorraine C; Gorczyca, John T; Kates, Stephen; Ketz, John; Soles, Gillian; Humphrey, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    To compare the rate of cutout of helical blades and lag screws in low-energy peritrochanteric femur fractures treated with a cephalomedullary nail (CMN). Retrospective review. Academic medical center. Overall, this study included 362 patients with an average age of 83 year old, a majority of whom were women, and had sustained a low-energy peritrochanteric femur fracture treated with a CMN. All patients had at least 3 months of clinical and radiographic follow, with an average follow-up of 11 months and a range of 3-88 months follow-up. Cephalomedullary nailing with the use of a helical blade or single lag screw for proximal fixation. Cutout of the helical blade or lag screw. Twenty-two cutouts occurred, 14 (15.1%) of 93 patients with helical blades and 8 (3.0%) of 269 patients with lag screws. Cutout with the helical blade was significantly more frequent than with the lag screw (P = 0.0001). The average tip-apex distance (TAD) was significantly greater for those patients who experienced cutout both for the helical blades (23.5 vs. 19.7 mm; P = 0.0194) and lag screws (24.5 vs. 20.0 mm; P = 0.0197). An absolute TAD predictive of cutout could not be determined. When the helical blade was used, implant cutout occurred at a significantly higher rate compared with lag screw fixation. There was not a threshold TAD that was predictive of cutout for either implant. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. The concept and method of closed reduction and internal fixation: a new approach for the treatment of simple zygoma fractures.

    PubMed

    Uda, Hirokazu; Kamochi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Yasushi; Sarukawa, Syunji; Sunaga, Ataru

    2013-11-01

    The authors have developed a new minimally invasive surgical procedure for simple zygoma fractures, a closed reduction and internal fixation method, that uses a cannulated cortical screw system. From 2007 to 2012, 42 selected patients with simple zygoma fractures without ocular problems or shear at the zygomatic frontal portion were treated with this method. The mean age of the patients was 33 years (range, 13 to 77 years). The authors achieved good repositioning, equivalent to results achieved with conventional procedures in all cases. No notable complication occurred except for minor infection in two cases. Mean operative time was 32 minutes (range, 19 to 58 minutes). Postoperative relapse was found only in the posterior direction (p<0.001), but the distance of that was so small (mean, 0.47 mm) that it did not cause any problem clinically. Although further improvement might be needed, such as screw specification, the closed reduction and internal fixation method has many advantages: short operative time, less effect on soft tissue, maintenance of bone healing potential, and decreased postoperative pain and swelling. The authors concluded that this method has the potential to become a future surgical procedure for simple zygoma fractures. Therapeutic, IV.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of custom burr holes on a surgeon's sense of screw fixation in revision porous metal cups.

    PubMed

    Nyland, Mark A; Lanting, Brent A; Nikolov, Hristo N; Somerville, Lyndsay E; Teeter, Matthew G; Howard, James L

    2016-12-01

    It is common practice to burr custom holes in revision porous metal cups for screw insertion. The objective of this study was to determine how different hole types affect a surgeon's sense of screw fixation. Porous revision cups were prepared with pre-drilled and custom burred holes. Cups were held in place adjacent to synthetic bone material of varying density. Surgeons inserted screws through the different holes and materials. Surgeon subjective rating, compression, and torque was recorded. The torque achieved was greater ( p  = 0.002) for screws through custom holes than pre-fabricated holes in low and medium density material, with no difference for high density. Peak compression was greater ( p  = 0.026) through the pre-fabricated holes only in high density material. Use of burred holes affects the torque generated, and may decrease the amount of cup-acetabulum compression achieved.

  19. [The biomechanics of screws, cerclage wire and cerclage cable].

    PubMed

    Schröder, C; Woiczinski, M; Utzschneider, S; Kraxenberger, M; Weber, P; Jansson, V

    2013-05-01

    In contrast to fracture fixation, when performing an osteotomy the surgeon is able to plan preoperatively. The resulting fixation and compression of the bone fragments are the most important points. A stable osteosynthesis should prevent dislocation of bone fragments and improve bone healing. Beside plates, cerclages can be used for tension band or diaphysis bone fixation. Moreover, cortical or cancellous screws can be used for osteotomy fixation. This work describes biomechanical principles for fixation after an osteotomy with cerclages and cortical or cancellous screws. It also summarizes the materials and geometries used, as well as their influence on the stability of the osteosynthesis.

  20. [Biphasic ceramic wedge and plate fixation with locked adjustable screws for open wedge tibial osteotomy].

    PubMed

    Lavallé, F; Pascal-Mousselard, H; Rouvillain, J L; Ribeyre, D; Delattre, O; Catonné, Y

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this radiological study was to evaluate the use of a biphasic ceramic wedge combined with plate fixation with locked adjustable screws for open wedge tibial osteotomy. Twenty-six consecutive patients (27 knees) underwent surgery between December 1999 and March 2002 to establish a normal lower-limb axis. The series included 6 women and 20 men, mean age 50 years (16 right knees and 11 left knees). Partial weight-bearing with crutches was allowed on day 1. A standard radiological assessment was performed on day 1, 90, and 360 (plain AP and lateral stance films of the knee). A pangonogram was performed before surgery and at day 360. Presence of a lateral metaphyseal space, development of peripheral cortical bridges, and osteointegration of the bone substitute-bone interface were evaluated used to assess bone healing. The medial tibial angle between the line tangent to the tibial plateau and the anatomic axis of the tibia (beta) was evaluated to assess preservation of postoperative correction. The HKA angle was determined. Three patients were lost to follow-up and 23 patients (24 knees) were retained for analysis. At last follow-up, presence of peripheral cortical bridges and complete filling of the lateral metaphyseal space demonstrated bone healing in all patients. Good quality osteointegration was achieved since 21 knees did not present an interface between the bone substitute and native bone (homogeneous transition zone). The beta angle was unchanged for 23 knees. A normal axis was observed in patients (16 knees) postoperatively. Use of a biphasic ceramic wedge in combination with plate fixation with locked adjustable screws is a reliable option for open wedge tibial osteotomy. The bone substitute fills the gap well. Tolerance and integration are optimal. Bone healing is achieved. Plate fixation with protected weight bearing appears to be a solid assembly, maintaining these corrections.

  1. Can the possibility of transverse iliosacral screw fixation for first sacral segment be predicted preoperatively? Results of a computational cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Hoon; Jin, Jin Woo; Kang, Byoung Youl; Jung, Gu-Hee

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the possibility of transverse iliosacral (TIS) screw fixation into the first sacral segment (S 1 ) and introduce practical anatomical variables using conventional computed tomography (CT) scans. A total of 82 cadaveric sacra (42 males and 40 females) were used for continuous 1.0-mm slice CT scans, which were imported into Mimics ® software to produce a three-dimensional pelvis model. The anterior height (BH) and superior width (BW) of the elevated sacral segment was measured, followed by verification of the safe zone (SZ S1 and SZ S2 ) in a true lateral view. Their vertical (VD S1 and VD S2 ) and horizontal (HD S1 and HD S2 ) distances were measured. VD S1 less than 7mm was classified as impossible sacrum, since the transverse fixation of 7.0 mm-sized IS screw could not be done safely. Fourteen models (16.7%; six females, eight males) were assigned as the impossible sacrum. There was no statistical significance regarding gender (p=0.626) and height (p=0.419). The average values were as follows: BW, 31.4mm (SD 2.9); BH, 16.7mm (SD 6.8); VD S1 , 13.4mm (SD 6.1); HD S1 , 22.5mm (SD 4.5); SZ S1 , 239.5mm 2 (SD 137.1); VD S2 , 15.5mm (SD 3.0); HD S2 , 18.3mm (SD 2.9); and SZ S2 , 221.1mm 2 (SD 68.5). Logistic regression analysis identified BH (p=0.001) and HD S1 (p=0.02) as the only statistically significant variables to predict the possibility. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis established a cut-off value for BH and HD S1 of impossible sacrum of 20.6mm and 18.6mm, respectively. BH and HD S1 could be used to predict the possibility of TIS screw fixation. If the BH exceeds 20.6mm or HD S1 is less than 18.6mm, TIS screw fixation for S 1 should not be undertaken because of narrowed SZ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maxillomandibular Fixation by Plastic Surgeons: Cost Analysis and Utilization of Resources.

    PubMed

    Farber, Scott J; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K; Skolnick, Gary B; Woo, Albert S; Patel, Kamlesh B

    2016-09-01

    Maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) can be performed using various techniques. Two common approaches used are arch bars and bone screws. Arch bars are the gold standard and inexpensive, but often require increased procedure time. Bone screws with wire fixation is a popular alternative, but more expensive than arch bars. The differences in costs of care, complications, and operative times between these 2 techniques are analyzed. A chart review was conducted on patients treated over the last 12 years at our institution. Forty-four patients with CPT code 21453 (closed reduction of mandible fracture with interdental fixation) with an isolated mandible fracture were used in our data collection. The operating room (OR) costs, procedure duration, and complications for these patients were analyzed. Operative times were significantly shorter for patients treated with bone screws (P < 0.002). The costs for one trip to the OR for either method of fixation did not show any significant differences (P < 0.840). More patients with arch bar fixation (62%) required a second trip to the OR for removal in comparison to those with screw fixation (31%) (P < 0.068). This additional trip to the OR added significant cost. There were no differences in patient complications between these 2 fixation techniques. The MMF with bone screws represents an attractive alternative to fixation with arch bars in appropriate scenarios. Screw fixation offers reduced costs, fewer trips to the OR, and decreased operative duration without a difference in complications. Cost savings were noted most significantly in a decreased need for secondary procedures in patients who were treated with MMF screws. Screw fixation offers potential for reducing the costs of care in treating patients with minimally displaced or favorable mandible fractures.

  3. Loosening torque of Universal Abutment screws after cyclic loading: influence of tightening technique and screw coating

    PubMed Central

    Regalin, Alexandre; Bhering, Claudia Lopes Brilhante; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of tightening technique and the screw coating on the loosening torque of screws used for Universal Abutment fixation after cyclic loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty implants (Titamax Ti Cortical, HE, Neodent) (n=10) were submerged in acrylic resin and four tightening techniques for Universal Abutment fixation were evaluated: A - torque with 32 Ncm (control); B - torque with 32 Ncm holding the torque meter for 20 seconds; C - torque with 32 Ncm and retorque after 10 minutes; D - torque (32 Ncm) holding the torque meter for 20 seconds and retorque after 10 minutes as initially. Samples were divided into subgroups according to the screw used: conventional titanium screw or diamond like carbon-coated (DLC) screw. Metallic crowns were fabricated for each abutment. Samples were submitted to cyclic loading at 106 cycles and 130 N of force. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). RESULTS The tightening technique did not show significant influence on the loosening torque of screws (P=.509). Conventional titanium screws showed significant higher loosening torque values than DLC (P=.000). CONCLUSION The use of conventional titanium screw is more important than the tightening techniques employed in this study to provide long-term stability to Universal Abutment screws. PMID:26576253

  4. Total knee replacement-cementless tibial fixation with screws: 10-year results.

    PubMed

    Ersan, Önder; Öztürk, Alper; Çatma, Mehmet Faruk; Ünlü, Serhan; Akdoğan, Mutlu; Ateş, Yalım

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term clinical and radiological results of cementless total knee replacement. A total of 51 knees of 49 patients (33 female and 16 male; mean age: 61.6 years (range, 29-66 years)) who underwent TKR surgery with a posterior stabilized hydroxyapatite coated knee implant were included in this study. All of the tibial components were fixed with screws. The HSS scores were examined preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Radiological assessment was performed with Knee Society evaluating and scoring system. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to rule out the survival of the tibial component. The mean HSS scores were 45.8 (range 38-60) and 88.1 (range 61-93), preoperatively and at the final follow-up respectively. Complete radiological assessment was performed for 48 knees. Lucent lines at the tibial component were observed in 4 patients; one of these patients underwent a revision surgery due to the loosening of the tibial component. The 10-year survival rate of a tibial component was 98%. Cementless total knee replacement has satisfactory long term clinical results. Primary fixation of the tibial component with screws provides adequate stability even in elderly patients with good bone quality. Level IV, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immediate Weightbearing After First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Arthrodesis With Screw and Locking Plate Fixation: A Short-Term Review.

    PubMed

    Abben, Kyle W; Sorensen, Matthew D; Waverly, Brett J

    2018-05-08

    Historically, the postoperative protocol for patients undergoing first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis has included 6 weeks of non-weightbearing, followed by protected weightbearing in a below-the-knee cast boot or postoperative shoe. This prolonged period of non-weightbearing predisposes the patient to disuse atrophy, osteopenia, deep vein thrombosis risk, and, overall, a prolonged time to recovery. The present study reports a retrospective review of a patient cohort that underwent first metatarsophalangeal joint fusion with immediate full weightbearing postoperatively. Thirty consecutive first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodeses were performed during the study period. Five patients were excluded secondary to insufficient postoperative follow-up data or a lack of adequate radiographic evaluation at regular postoperative intervals. Conical reamers were used for joint preparation. Internal fixation, consisting of a single cannulated interfragmentary compression screw and a dorsal locking plate, was used in all patients. The results showed that patients achieved clinical healing at an average of 5.92 weeks and showed radiographic fusion at an average of 6.83 weeks. The patients in the present study had an overall union rate of 96%. Complications included 1 nonunion, 1 superficial wound infection, 1 wound dehiscence, 1 case of symptomatic hardware, and 2 patients with symptomatic hallux interphalangeal joint arthralgia. The mean visual analog pain score preoperatively was 6.64 (range 4 to 8) and postoperatively was 0.6 (range 0 to 4). In conclusion, we found that immediate full weightbearing after first metatarsophalangeal joint fusion in the context of interfragmentary compression and locked plating techniques is a safe, predictable postoperative protocol that allows for a successful fusion interval and an early return to regular activity. Copyright © 2018 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Which patients risk segmental kyphosis after short segment thoracolumbar fracture fixation with intermediate screws?

    PubMed

    Formica, Matteo; Cavagnaro, Luca; Basso, Marco; Zanirato, Andrea; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Carlo; Di Martino, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    The use of intermediate screws in fractured vertebrae has been proposed to decrease the number of fused levels in thoracolumbar fractures and to enable short fixations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of this technique and to establish predictive factors involved in loss of segmental kyphosis correction (LKC). Forty-three patients who underwent short-segment spinal fixation with intermediate screws for a thoracolumbar spine fracture in a two-year time period were enrolled in the study. Patients had AO-type A3, A4 and B2 thoracolumbar fractures. Radiological parameters included segmental kyphosis (SK), vertebral wedge angle (VWA) and loss of anterior and posterior vertebral body height. Patients were evaluated up to one-year follow-up. The correlation between LKC and potential risk factors, such as smoking habit, sex, age, neurological status and BMI was evaluated. Mean preoperative SK was 16.5°±6.5°, and it decreased to 3.4°±3.5° postoperatively (P<0.01). At the one-year follow-up mean SK dropped to 5.5°±3.9° (P<0.01). Mean preoperative VWA was 20.0°±8.1°, and significantly improved to 6.3°±3.1° after surgery (P<0.01). There was a mean LKC of 1.8°±2.1°at one year. LKC mildly correlated with body mass index (BMI, r: +0.31), and obese patients (BMI>30) had an increased risk of LKC at the one-year follow-up (P=0.03; odds ratio [OR]=3.2). Analysis of the radiological data at one-year follow-up showed that all the evaluated parameters were associated with a mild loss of correction, with no impact on the clinical outcomes or implant failure. These findings confirm the trends reported in the literature. The correlation between LKC and clinical features, such as BMI, age, sex, smoking habit and preoperative neurological status was investigated. Interestingly, a positive correlation was observed between BMI and LKC, and obese patients with BMI>30 had an increased risk of LKC at one-year follow-up (OR 3.2); to our knowledge this finding

  7. Role of Joshi's external stabilization system with percutaneous screw fixation in high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish-Kumar; Sapra, Rahul; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, Som-Prakash; Kaushik, Devwart; Gaba, Sahil; Bansal, Mahesh Chand; Dayma, Ratan Lal

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of high-energy tibial condylar fractures which are associated with severe soft tissue injuries remains contentious and challenging. In this study, we assessed the results of Joshi's external stabilization system (JESS) by using the principle of ligamentotaxis and percutaneous screw fixation for managing high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries. Between June 2008 and June 2010, 25 consecutive patients who were 17e71 years (mean, 39.7), underwent the JESS fixation for high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries. Out of 25 patients, 2 were lost during follow-up and in 1 case early removal of frame was done, leaving 22 cases for final follow-up. Among them, 11 had poor skin condition with abrasions and blisters and 2 were open injuries (Gustilo-Anderson grade I&II). The injury mechanisms were motor vehicle accidents (n=19), fall from a height (n=2) and assault (n=1). The fractures were classified according to Schatzker classification system. There were 7 type-V, 14 type-VI and 1 type-lV Schatzker's tibial plateau fractures. The average interval between the injury and surgery was 6.8 days (range 2-13). The average hospital stay was 13 days (range, 7-22). The average interval between the surgery and full weight bearing was 13.6 weeks (range 11-20). The average range of knee flexion was 121°(range 105°-135°). The normal extension of the knee was observed in 20 patients, and an extensor lag of 5°-8° was noted in 2 patients. The complications included superficial pin tract infections (n=4) with no knee stiffness. JESS with lag screw fixation combines the benefit of traction, external fixation, and limited internal fixation, at the same time as allowing the ease of access to the soft tissue for wound checks, pin care, dressing changes, measurement of compartment pressure, and the monitoring of the neurovascular status. In a nutshell, JESS along with screw fixation offers a

  8. Use of fibular bone graft and cancellous screw fixation in the management of neglected femur neck fractures in young patients.

    PubMed

    Khani, Ghulam Mustafa Kaim; Hafeez, Kamran; Bux, Muhammad; Rasheed, Nusrat; Ahmed, Naveed; Anjum, M Perwez

    2017-01-01

    To present the clinical outcome of patients with neglected femur neck fracture treated with fibular bone graft. During May 2010-February 2013, 15 patients younger than 35 years of age with neglected fracture neck of femur were managed with non-vascularized fibular graft and cannulated screws. Fractures were classified according to Sandhu Classification. Hip function was assessed using Harris hip score. Fifteen patients with mean age of 28.67 years were managed. Mean period of delay from injury to presentation was 3.07 months. Mean follow-up was 18.5 months. Union was achieved in 13 cases. 2 patients developed nonunion with progression of avascular necrosis (AVN). Patients with healed fracture did not show radiological signs of AVN till the past follow-up. Functional status was evaluated at 6 months according to Harris hip score and was poor in 2 patients, fair in 2 patients, good in 6 patients, and excellent in 5 patients. Fibular graft along with two cancellous screws proved to be an effective technique in our cases with neglected femur neck fractures.

  9. Fixation using alternative implants for the treatment of hip fractures (FAITH): design and rationale for a multi-centre randomized trial comparing sliding hip screws and cancellous screws on revision surgery rates and quality of life in the treatment of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    2014-06-26

    Hip fractures are a common type of fragility fracture that afflict 293,000 Americans (over 5,000 per week) and 35,000 Canadians (over 670 per week) annually. Despite the large population impact the optimal fixation technique for low energy femoral neck fractures remains controversial. The primary objective of the FAITH study is to assess the impact of cancellous screw fixation versus sliding hip screws on rates of revision surgery at 24 months in individuals with femoral neck fractures. The secondary objective is to determine the impact on health-related quality of life, functional outcomes, health state utilities, fracture healing, mortality and fracture-related adverse events. FAITH is a multi-centre, multi-national randomized controlled trial utilizing minimization to determine patient allocation. Surgeons in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia will recruit a total of at least 1,000 patients with low-energy femoral neck fractures. Using central randomization, patients will be allocated to receive surgical treatment with cancellous screws or a sliding hip screw. Patient outcomes will be assessed at one week (baseline), 10 weeks, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post initial fixation. We will independently adjudicate revision surgery and complications within 24 months of the initial fixation. Outcome analysis will be performed using a Cox proportional hazards model and likelihood ratio test. This study represents major international efforts to definitively resolve the treatment of low-energy femoral neck fractures. This trial will not only change current Orthopaedic practice, but will also set a benchmark for the conduct of future Orthopaedic trials. The FAITH trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT00761813).

  10. Fixation using alternative implants for the treatment of hip fractures (FAITH): design and rationale for a multi-centre randomized trial comparing sliding hip screws and cancellous screws on revision surgery rates and quality of life in the treatment of femoral neck fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hip fractures are a common type of fragility fracture that afflict 293,000 Americans (over 5,000 per week) and 35,000 Canadians (over 670 per week) annually. Despite the large population impact the optimal fixation technique for low energy femoral neck fractures remains controversial. The primary objective of the FAITH study is to assess the impact of cancellous screw fixation versus sliding hip screws on rates of revision surgery at 24 months in individuals with femoral neck fractures. The secondary objective is to determine the impact on health-related quality of life, functional outcomes, health state utilities, fracture healing, mortality and fracture-related adverse events. Methods/Design FAITH is a multi-centre, multi-national randomized controlled trial utilizing minimization to determine patient allocation. Surgeons in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia will recruit a total of at least 1,000 patients with low-energy femoral neck fractures. Using central randomization, patients will be allocated to receive surgical treatment with cancellous screws or a sliding hip screw. Patient outcomes will be assessed at one week (baseline), 10 weeks, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post initial fixation. We will independently adjudicate revision surgery and complications within 24 months of the initial fixation. Outcome analysis will be performed using a Cox proportional hazards model and likelihood ratio test. Discussion This study represents major international efforts to definitively resolve the treatment of low-energy femoral neck fractures. This trial will not only change current Orthopaedic practice, but will also set a benchmark for the conduct of future Orthopaedic trials. Trial registration The FAITH trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT00761813). PMID:24965132

  11. A comparison of screw insertion torque and pullout strength.

    PubMed

    Ricci, William M; Tornetta, Paul; Petteys, Timothy; Gerlach, Darin; Cartner, Jacob; Walker, Zakiyyah; Russell, Thomas A

    2010-06-01

    Pullout strength of screws is a parameter used to evaluate plate screw fixation strength. However, screw fixation strength may be more closely related to its ability to generate sufficient insertion because stable nonlocked plate-screw fracture fixation requires sufficient compression between plate and bone such that no motion occurs between the plate and bone under physiological loads. Compression is generated by tightening of screws. In osteoporotic cancellous bone, sufficient screw insertion torque may not be generated before screw stripping. The effect of screw thread pitch on generation of maximum insertion torque (MIT) and pullout strength (POS) was investigated in an osteoporotic cancellous bone model and the relationship between MIT and POS was analyzed. Stainless steel screws with constant major (5.0 mm) and minor (2.7 mm) diameters but with varying thread pitches (1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6, and 1.75 mm) were tested for MIT and POS in a validated osteoporotic surrogate for cancellous bone (density of 160 kg/m(3) [10 lbs/ft(3)]). MIT was measured with a torque-measuring hex driver for screws inserted through a one-third tubular plate. POS was measured after insertion of screws to a depth of 20 mm based on the Standard Specification and Test Methods for Metallic Medical Bone Screws (ASTM F 543-07). Five screws were tested for each failure mode and screw design. The relationship between MIT and compressive force between the plate and bone surrogate was evaluated using pressure-sensitive film. There was a significant difference in mean MIT based on screw pitch (P < 0.0001), whereas POS did not show statistically significant differences among the different screw pitches (P = 0.052). Small screw pitches (1.0 mm and 1.2 mm) had lower MIT and were distinguished from large pitches (1.5 mm, 1.6 mm, and the 1.75 mm) with higher MIT. For POS, only the 1-mm and 1.6-mm pitch screws were found to be different from each other. Linear regression analysis of MIT revealed a moderate

  12. In vitro biomechanical evaluations of screw-bar-polymethylmethacrylate and pin-polymethylmethacrylate internal fixation implants used to stabilize the vertebral motion unit of the fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae in vertebral column specimens from dogs.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Daniel G; Pitts, Marvin J; Bagley, Rodney S; Vasavada, Anita; Chen, Annie V; Wininger, Fred A; Simon, Julianna C

    2009-06-01

    To determine the change in stiffness as evaluated by the dorsal bending moment of cervical vertebral specimens obtained from canine cadavers after internally stabilizing the vertebral motion unit (VMU) of C4 and C5 with a traditional pin-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) fixation implant or a novel screw-bar-PMMA fixation implant. 12 vertebral column specimens (C3 through C6) obtained from canine cadavers. A dorsal bending moment was applied to the vertebral specimens before and after fixation of the VMU of C4 and C5 by use of a traditional pin-PMMA implant or a novel screw-bar-PMMA implant. Biomechanical data were collected and compared within a specimen (unaltered vs treated) and between treatment groups. Additionally, implant placement was evaluated after biomechanical testing to screen for penetration of the transverse foramen or vertebral canal by the pins or screws. Treated vertebral specimens were significantly stiffer than unaltered specimens. There was no significant difference in stiffness between vertebral specimen groups after treatment. None of the screws in the novel screw-bar-PMMA implant group penetrated the transverse foramen or vertebral canal, whereas there was mild to severe penetration for 22 of 24 (92%) pins in the traditional pin-PMMA implant group. Both fixation treatments altered the biomechanical properties of the cervical vertebral specimens as evaluated by the dorsal bending moment. There was reduced incidence of penetration of the transverse foramen or vertebral canal with the novel screw-bar-PMMA implant, compared with the incidence for the traditional pin-PMMA implant.

  13. Comparison of the Pullout Strength of Different Pedicle Screw Designs and Augmentation Techniques in an Osteoporotic Bone Model.

    PubMed

    Kiyak, Gorkem; Balikci, Tevfik; Heydar, Ahmed Majid; Bezer, Murat

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical study. To compare the pullout strength of different screw designs and augmentation techniques in an osteoporotic bone model. Adequate bone screw pullout strength is a common problem among osteoporotic patients. Various screw designs and augmentation techniques have been developed to improve the biomechanical characteristics of the bone-screw interface. Polyurethane blocks were used to mimic human osteoporotic cancellous bone, and six different screw designs were tested. Five standard and expandable screws without augmentation, eight expandable screws with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or calcium phosphate augmentation, and distal cannulated screws with PMMA and calcium phosphate augmentation were tested. Mechanical tests were performed on 10 unused new screws of each group. Screws with or without augmentation were inserted in a block that was held in a fixture frame, and a longitudinal extraction force was applied to the screw head at a loading rate of 5 mm/min. Maximum load was recorded in a load displacement curve. The peak pullout force of all tested screws with or without augmentation was significantly greater than that of the standard pedicle screw. The greatest pullout force was observed with 40-mm expandable pedicle screws with four fins and PMMA augmentation. Augmented distal cannulated screws did not have a greater peak pullout force than nonaugmented expandable screws. PMMA augmentation provided a greater peak pullout force than calcium phosphate augmentation. Expandable pedicle screws had greater peak pullout forces than standard pedicle screws and had the advantage of augmentation with either PMMA or calcium phosphate cement. Although calcium phosphate cement is biodegradable, osteoconductive, and nonexothermic, PMMA provided a significantly greater peak pullout force. PMMA-augmented expandable 40-mm four-fin pedicle screws had the greatest peak pullout force.

  14. Comparison of Femoral Head Rotation and Varus Collapse Between a Single Lag Screw and Integrated Dual Screw Intertrochanteric Hip Fracture Fixation Device Using a Cadaveric Hemi-Pelvis Biomechanical Model.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Brandon G; Nayak, Aniruddh N; Cooper, Seth A; Smithson, Ian R; Cox, Jacob L; Marberry, Scott T; Sanders, Roy W

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the stabilizing effect of 2 intertrochanteric (IT) fracture fixation devices in a cadaveric hemi-pelvis biomechanical model. Eleven pairs of cadaveric osteopenic female hemi-pelves with intact hip joint and capsular ligaments were used. An unstable IT fracture (OTA 31-A2) was created in each specimen and stabilized with a single lag screw device (Gamma 3) or an integrated dual screw (IDS) device (InterTAN). The hemi-pelves were inverted, coupled to a biaxial apparatus and subjected to 13.5 k cycles of loading (3 months) using controlled, oscillating pelvic rotation (0-90 degrees) plus cyclic axial femoral loading at a 2:1 body weight (BW) ratio. Femoral head rotation and varus collapse were monitored optoelectonically. For specimens surviving 3 months of loading, additional loading was performed in 0.25 × BW/250 cycle increments to a maximum of 4 × BW or failure. Femoral head rotation with IDS fixation was significantly less than the single lag screw construct after 3 months of simulated loading (P = 0.016). Maximum femoral head rotation at the end of 4 × BW loading was 7× less for the IDS construct (P = 0.006). Varus collapse was significantly less with the IDS construct over the entire loading cycle (P = 0.021). In this worst-case model of an osteopenic, unstable, IT fracture, the IDS construct, likely owing to its larger surface area, noncylindrical profile, and fracture compression, provided significantly greater stability and resistance to femoral head rotation and varus collapse.

  15. [Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation in the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures].

    PubMed

    Chuanjun, Chen; Xiaoyang, Chen; Jing, Chen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation during the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures. Twenty-four sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in18 patients were fixed by two appliances: intramedullary with one long-screw osteosynthesis or Kirschner wire and extramedullary with one micro-plate. The radiologically-recorded post-operative stability-associated com-plications included the screw/micro-plate loosening, micro-plate twisting, micro-plate fractures, and fragment rotation. The occluding relations, the maximalinter-incisal distances upon mouth opening, and the mandibular deflection upon mouth opening were evaluated based on follow-up clinical examination. Postoperative panoramic X-ray and CT scans showed good repositioning of the fragment, with no redislocation or rotation, no screw/plate loosening, and no plate-twisting or fracture. Clinical examination showed that all patients regained normal mandibular movements, ideal occlusion, and normal maximal inter-incisal distances upon mouth opening. Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation is highly recommended for sagittal condylar fractures because of the anti-rotation effect of the fragment and the reasonable place-ment of the fixation appliances.

  16. A novel fixation system for sacroiliac dislocation fracture: internal fixation system design and biomechanics analysis.

    PubMed

    Dawei, Tian; Na, Liu; Jun, Lei; Wei, Jin; Lin, Cai

    2013-02-01

    Although there were many different types of fixation techniques for sacroiliac dislocation fracture, the treat remained challenging in posterior pelvic ring injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effects of a novel fixation system we designed. 12 human cadavers (L3-pelvic-femora) were used to compare biomechanical stability after reconstruction on the same specimens in four conditions: (1) intact, (2) cable system, (3) plate-pedicle screw system, and (4) cable system and plate-pedicle screw combination system (combination system). Biomechanical testing was performed on a material testing machine for evaluating the stiffness of the pelvic fixation construct in compression and torsion. The cable system and plate-pedicle screw system alone may be insufficient to resist vertical shearing and rotational loads; however the combination system for unstable sacroiliac dislocation fractures provided significantly greater stability than single plate-pedicle or cable fixation system. The novel fixation system for unstable sacroiliac dislocation fractures produced sufficient stability in axial compression and axial rotation test in type C pelvic ring injuries. It may also offer a better solution for sacroiliac dislocation fractures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting cancellous bone failure during screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Karen J; Cleek, Tammy M; Mohtar, Aaron A; Hearn, Trevor C

    2013-04-05

    Internal fixation of fractures often requires the tightening of bone screws to stabilise fragments. Inadequate application of torque can leave the fracture unstable, while over-tightening results in the stripping of the thread and loss of fixation. The optimal amount of screw torque is specific to each application and in practice is difficult to attain due to the wide variability in bone properties including bone density. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the relationships between motor torque and screw compression during powered screw insertion, and to evaluate whether the torque during insertion can be used to predict the ultimate failure torque of the bone. A custom test rig was designed and built for bone screw experiments. By inserting cancellous bone screws into synthetic, ovine and human bone specimens, it was established that variations related to bone density could be automatically detected through the effects of the bone on the rotational characteristics of the screw. The torque measured during screw insertion was found to be directly related to bone density and can be used, on its own, as a good predictor of ultimate failure torque of the bone. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fixation of fractures of the condylar head of the mandible with a new magnesium-alloy biodegradable cannulated headless bone screw.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, H; Franke, A; McLeod, N M H; Lauer, G; Nowak, A

    2017-07-01

    It is difficult to fix fractures of the condylar head of the mandible. Several techniques have been described which show satisfactory outcomes, but stability can be questionable, and some can cause irritation of the soft tissues. We describe a technique and first results of treating such fractures with resorbable magnesium-based headless bone screws (Magnezix ® 2.7mm CS; Syntellix AG, Hanover, Germany). Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do screws and screw holes affect osteolysis in cementless cups using highly crosslinked polyethylene? A 7 to 10-year follow-up case-control study.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, N; Jinno, T; Takada, R; Koga, D; Ando, T; Okawa, A; Haro, H

    2018-05-01

    The use of screws and the presence of screw holes may cause acetabular osteolysis and implant loosening in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) using conventional polyethylene. In contrast, this issue is not fully understood using highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE), particularly in large comparative study. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to assess the influence of screw usage and screw holes on: (1) implant fixation and osteolysis and (2) polyethylene steady-state wear rate, using cases with HXLPE liners followed up for 7-10 years postoperatively. The screw usage and screw holes adversely affect the implant fixation and incidence of wear-related osteolysis in THA with HXLPE. We reviewed 209 primary cementless THAs performed with 26-mm cobalt-chromium heads on HXLPE liners. To compare the effects of the use of screws and the presence of screw holes, the following groups were established: (1) with-screw (n=140); (2) without-screw (n=69); (3) no-hole (n=27) and (4) group in which a cup with screw holes, but no screw was used (n=42). Two adjunct groups (no-hole cups excluded) were established to compare the differences in the two types of HXLPE: (5) remelted group (n=100) and (6) annealed group (n=82). Implant stability and osteolysis were evaluated by plain radiography and computed tomography. The wear rate from 1 year to the final evaluation was measured using plain X-rays and PolyWare Digital software. All cups and stems achieved bony fixation. On CT-scan, no acetabular osteolysis was found, but there were 3 cases with a small area of femoral osteolysis. The mean steady-state wear rate of each group was (1) 0.031±0.022, (2) 0.033±0.035, (3) 0.031±0.024, (4) 0.029±0.018, (5) 0.030±0.018 and (6) 0.034±0.023mm/year, respectively. A comparison of the effects of screw usage or screw holes found no significant between-group differences in the implant stability, prevalence of osteolysis [no acetabular osteolysis and 3/209 at femoral side (1

  20. Post-operative bracing after pedicle screw fixation for thoracolumbar burst fractures: A cost-effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Matthew; Sinha, Saurabh; Agarwal, Prateek; Mallela, Arka; Nayak, Nikhil; Schuster, James; Stein, Sherman

    2017-11-01

    While frequently prescribed to patients following fixation for spine trauma, the utility of spinal orthoses during the post-operative period is poorly described in the literature. In this study, we calculated rates of reoperation and performed a decision analysis to determine the utility of bracing following pedicle screw fixation for thoracic and lumbar burst fractures. Pubmed was searched for articles published between 2005 and 2015 for terms related to pedicle screw fixation of thoracolumbar fractures. Additionally, a database of neurosurgical patients operated on within the authors institution was also used in the analysis. Incidences of significant adverse events (wound revision for either dehiscence or infection or re-operation for non-union or instability due to hardware failure) were determined. Pooled means and variances of reported parameters were obtained using a random-effects, inverse variance meta-analytic model for observational data. Utilities for surgical outcome and complications were assigned using previously published values. Of the 225 abstracts reviewed, 48 articles were included in the study, yielding a total of 1957 patients. After including patients from the institutional registry, together a total of 2081 patients were included in the final analysis, 1328 of whom were braced. Non-braced patients were older then braced patients, although this only approached significance (p=0.051). Braced patients had significantly lower rates of re-operation for non-union or clinically significant hardware failure (1.3% vs. 1.8%, p<0.001) although the groups had comparable rates of operative wound dehiscence and infection (p=1.000). These two approaches yielded comparable utility scores (p=0.120). Costs between braced and non-braced patients were comparable excluding the cost of the brace (p=0.256); hence, the added cost of the brace suggests that bracing post-operatively is not a cost effective measure. Bracing following operative stabilization of

  1. [Effectiveness comparison of flexible fixation and rigid fixation in treatment of ankle pronation-external rotation fractures with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuewei; Zhang, Minghui; Li, Xiaorong; Chen, Xiaoyong; Deng, Jianlong

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of flexible fixation and rigid fixation in the treatment of ankle pronation-external rotation fractures with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 50 patients with ankle pronation-external rotation fractures and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis treated between January 2013 and December 2015. Suture-button fixation was used in 23 patients (flexible fixation group) and cortical screw fixation in 27 patients (rigid fixation group). There was no significant difference in age, gender, weight, side, fracture type, and time from trauma to surgery between 2 groups ( P >0.05). The operation time, medial clear space (MCS), tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), tibiofibular overlap (TFO), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) score were compared between 2 groups. The operation time was (83.0±9.1) minutes in the flexible fixation group and was (79.6±13.1) minutes in the rigid fixation group, showing no significant difference ( t =1.052, P =0.265). All patients achieved healing of incision by first intention. The patients were followed up 12-20 months (mean, 14 months). The X-ray films showed good healing of fracture in 2 groups. There was no screw fracture, delayed union or nounion. The fracture healing time was (12.1±2.5) months in the flexible fixation group and was (11.3±3.2) months in the rigid fixation group, showing no significant difference between 2 groups ( t =1.024, P =0.192). Reduction loss occurred after removal of screw in 2 cases of the rigid fixation group. At last follow-up, there was no significant difference in MCS, TFCS, TFO, AOFAS score and FADI score between 2 groups ( P >0.05). Suture-button fixation has similar effectiveness to screw fixation in ankle function and imaging findings, and flexible fixation has lower risk of reduction loss of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis than rigid fixation.

  2. Cement augmentation of implants--no general cure in osteoporotic fracture treatment. A biomechanical study on non-displaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Nicolino, Tomas I; Barla, Jorge; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are a common problem in orthopedics. Augmentation of screw fixation with bone cement can provide better stability of implants and lower the risk of secondary displacement. This study aimed to investigate whether cement augmentation of three cannulated screws in non-displaced femoral neck fractures could increase implant fixation. A femoral neck fracture was simulated in six paired human cadaveric femora and stabilized with three 7.3 mm cannulated screws. Pairs were divided into two groups: conventional instrumentation versus additional cement augmentation of screw tips with 2 ml TraumacemV+ each. Biomechanical testing was performed by applying cyclic axial load until failure. Failure cycles, axial head displacement, screw angle changes, telescoping and screw cut-out were evaluated. Failure (15 mm actuator displacement) occurred in the augmented group at 12,500 cycles (± 2,480) compared to 15,625 cycles (± 4,215) in the non-augmented group (p = 0.041). When comparing 3 mm vertical displacement of the head no significant difference (p = 0.72) was detected between the survival curves of the two groups. At 8,500 load-cycles (early onset failure) the augmented group demonstrated a change in screw angle of 2.85° (± 0.84) compared to 1.15° (± 0.93) in the non-augmented group (p = 0.013). The results showed no biomechanical advantage with respect to secondary displacement following augmentation of three cannulated screws in a non-displaced femoral neck fracture. Consequently, the indication for cement augmentation to enhance implant anchorage in osteoporotic bone has to be considered carefully taking into account fracture type, implant selection and biomechanical surrounding. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of various fixation parameters on strain development of screw- and cement-retained implant-supported restorations.

    PubMed

    Schittenhelm, Birgit; Karl, Matthias; Graef, Friedrich; Heckmann, Siegfried; Taylor, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the potential effects of screw- and cement-retention on strain development of implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A total of 20 single crowns and 70 three-unit FDPs were fabricated to fit an in vitro model situation with two implants. Using strain gauges attached to the model material adjacent to the implants, strain development of the restorations during fixation was recorded while the parameters cement type (provisional and definitive cement), cementation force (10 N and 100 N), and tightening torque (5 Ncm, 10 Ncm, and 15 Ncm) were varied. MANOVA with Pillai's trace was used for pairwise comparisons between groups (α = .05). Mean absolute strain development ranged from 5.11 µm/m for to 27.26 µm/m for single crowns and from 16.46 µm/m to 689.04 µm/m for multi-unit restorations. Screw-retained single crowns exhibited significantly smaller strain development as compared to cement-retained single crowns (P = .009). The type of cement used seemed to have no effect on strain development of an FDP regardless of the cementation force applied (P = .064 and P = .605). An increase in tightening torque for screw-retained FDPs also had no effect on resulting strain development (P values ranging from .692 to .807). Nonuniform results were found when comparing screw- and cementretention as the retention mechanism for FDPs. Strain development seems to depend predominantly on the accuracy achieved during the fabrication process whereas the retention mechanisms themselves as well as their potential parameters only have a minor effect.

  4. Research and application of absorbable screw in orthopedics: a clinical review comparing PDLLA screw with metal screw in patients with simple medial malleolus fracture.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin; Hu, Jin-feng; Guo, Wei-chun; Yu, Ling; Zhao, Sheng-hao

    2013-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of absorbable screw in medial malleolus fracture and discuss its clinical application in orthopedics. A total of 129 patients with simple medial malleolus fracture were studied. Among them, 64 patients were treated with poly-D, L-lactic acid (PDLLA) absorbable screws, while the others were treated with metal screws. All the patients were followed up for 12-20 months (averaged 18.4 months) and the therapeutic effect was evaluated according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society clinical rating systems. In absorbable screw group, we obtained excellent and good results in 62 cases (96.88%); in steel screw group, 61 cases (93.85%) achieved excellent and good results. There was no significant difference between the two groups. In the treatment of malleolus fracture, absorbable screw can achieve the same result compared with metal screw fixation. Absorbable screw is preferred due to its advantages of safety, cleanliness and avoiding the removal procedure associated with metallic implants.

  5. Morphometric Evaluation of Occipital Condyles: Defining Optimal Trajectories and Safe Screw Lengths for Occipital Condyle-Based Occipitocervical Fixation in Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Aju; Venugopal, Prakash; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh

    2018-04-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) morphometric analysis. To assess the feasibility and safety of occipital condyle (OC)-based occipitocervical fixation (OCF) in Indians and to define anatomical zones and screw lengths for safe screw placement. Limitations of occipital squama-based OCF has led to development of two novel OC-based OCF techniques. Morphometric analysis was performed on the OCs of 70 Indian adults. The feasibility of placing a 3.5-mm-diameter screw into OCs was investigated. Safe trajectories and screw lengths for OC screws and C0-C1 transarticular screws without hypoglossal canal or atlantooccipital joint compromise were estimated. The average screw length and safe sagittal and medial angulations for OC screws were 19.9±2.3 mm, ≤6.4°±2.4° cranially, and 31.1°±3° medially, respectively. An OC screw could not be accommodated by 27% of the population. The safe sagittal angles and screw lengths for C0-C1 transarticular screw insertion (48.9°±5.7° cranial, 26.7±2.9 mm for junctional entry technique; 36.7°±4.6° cranial, 31.6±2.7 mm for caudal C1 arch entry technique, respectively) were significantly different than those in other populations. The risk of vertebral artery injury was high for the caudal C1 arch entry technique. Screw placement was uncertain in 48% of Indians due to the presence of aberrant anatomy. There were significant differences in the metrics of OC-based OCF between Indian and other populations. Because of the smaller occipital squama dimensions in Indians, OC-based OCF techniques may have a higher application rate and could be a viable alternative/salvage option in selected cases. Preoperative CT, including three-dimensional-CT-angiography (to delineate vertebral artery course), is imperative to avoid complications resulting from aberrant bony and vascular anatomy. Our data can serve as a valuable reference guide in placing these screws safely under fluoroscopic guidance.

  6. Morphometric Evaluation of Occipital Condyles: Defining Optimal Trajectories and Safe Screw Lengths for Occipital Condyle-Based Occipitocervical Fixation in Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Aju; Venugopal, Prakash; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh

    2018-01-01

    Study Design Computed tomographic (CT) morphometric analysis. Purpose To assess the feasibility and safety of occipital condyle (OC)-based occipitocervical fixation (OCF) in Indians and to define anatomical zones and screw lengths for safe screw placement. Overview of Literature Limitations of occipital squama-based OCF has led to development of two novel OC-based OCF techniques. Methods Morphometric analysis was performed on the OCs of 70 Indian adults. The feasibility of placing a 3.5-mm-diameter screw into OCs was investigated. Safe trajectories and screw lengths for OC screws and C0–C1 transarticular screws without hypoglossal canal or atlantooccipital joint compromise were estimated. Results The average screw length and safe sagittal and medial angulations for OC screws were 19.9±2.3 mm, ≤6.4°±2.4° cranially, and 31.1°±3° medially, respectively. An OC screw could not be accommodated by 27% of the population. The safe sagittal angles and screw lengths for C0–C1 transarticular screw insertion (48.9°±5.7° cranial, 26.7±2.9 mm for junctional entry technique; 36.7°±4.6° cranial, 31.6±2.7 mm for caudal C1 arch entry technique, respectively) were significantly different than those in other populations. The risk of vertebral artery injury was high for the caudal C1 arch entry technique. Screw placement was uncertain in 48% of Indians due to the presence of aberrant anatomy. Conclusions There were significant differences in the metrics of OC-based OCF between Indian and other populations. Because of the smaller occipital squama dimensions in Indians, OC-based OCF techniques may have a higher application rate and could be a viable alternative/salvage option in selected cases. Preoperative CT, including three-dimensional-CT-angiography (to delineate vertebral artery course), is imperative to avoid complications resulting from aberrant bony and vascular anatomy. Our data can serve as a valuable reference guide in placing these screws safely under

  7. Possible Vascular Injury Due to Screw Eccentricity in Minimally Invasive Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishant Kumar; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Rastogi, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Vascular injury during minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is uncommon, yet a well-recognized and serious issue. It emerges because of non-visibility of vascular structures proximal to the pelvic bone during reaming, drilling holes, and fixing of screws. Numerous studies have found that screw fixation during cementless THA is beneficial for the initial stability of cup; yet, no anatomical guidelines support angular eccentric screw fixation. In this study, we obtained the pelvic arterial-phase computed tomographic data of thirty eight humans and reconstructed the three-dimensional models of osseous and vessel structures. We performed the surgical simulation to fix these structures with cementless cups and screws with angular eccentricities. The effect of screw eccentricities (angular eccentricities of ±17° and ±34°) on the vascular injury was determined. Measurement between screw and adjoining vessels was performed and analyzed statistically to ascertain a comparative risk study for blood vessels that are not visible during surgery. Authors similarly discussed the significant absence of appreciation of quadrant systems proposed by Wasielewski et al . on eccentric screws. Adjustment of quadrant systems provided by Wasielewski et al . is required for acetabular implants with eccentric holes for fixation of acetabular screws.

  8. An integer programming model for distal humerus fracture fixation planning.

    PubMed

    Maratt, Joseph D; Peaks, Ya-Sin A; Doro, Lisa Case; Karunakar, Madhav A; Hughes, Richard E

    2008-05-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of an integer programming model to assist in pre-operative planning for open reduction and internal fixation of a distal humerus fracture. We describe an integer programming model based on the objective of maximizing the reward for screws placed while satisfying the requirements for sound internal fixation. The model maximizes the number of bicortical screws placed while avoiding screw collision and favoring screws of greater length that cross multiple fracture planes. The model was tested on three types of total articular fractures of the distal humerus. Solutions were generated using 5, 9, 21 and 33 possible screw orientations per hole. Solutions generated using 33 possible screw orientations per hole and five screw lengths resulted in the most clinically relevant fixation plan and required the calculation of 1,191,975 pairs of screws that resulted in collision. At this level of complexity, the pre-processor took 104 seconds to generate the constraints for the solver, and a solution was generated in under one minute in all three cases. Despite the large size of this problem, it can be solved in a reasonable amount of time, making use of the model practical in pre-surgical planning.

  9. Accuracy of S2 Alar-Iliac Screw Placement Under Robotic Guidance.

    PubMed

    Laratta, Joseph L; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lombardi, Joseph M; Alrabaa, Rami G; Benkli, Barlas; Fischer, Charla; Lenke, Lawrence G; Lehman, Ronald A

    Case series. To determine the safety and feasibility of S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw placement under robotic guidance. Similar to standard iliac fixation, S2AI screws aid in achieving fixation across the sacropelvic junction and decreasing S1 screw strain. Fortunately, the S2AI technique minimizes prominent instrumentation and the need for offset connectors to the fusion construct. Herein, we present an analysis of the largest series of robotic-guided S2AI screws in the literature without any significant author conflicts of interest with the robotics industry. Twenty-three consecutive patients who underwent spinopelvic fixation with 46 S2AI screws under robotic guidance were analyzed from 2015 to 2016. Screws were placed by two senior spine surgeons, along with various fellow or resident surgical assistants, using a proprietary robotic guidance system (Renaissance; Mazor Robotics Ltd., Caesara, Israel). Screw position and accuracy was assessed on intraoperative CT O-arm scans and analyzed using three-dimensional interactive viewing and manipulation of the images. The average caudal angle in the sagittal plane was 31.0° ± 10.0°. The average horizontal angle in the axial plane using the posterior superior iliac spine as a reference was 42.8° ± 6.6°. The average S1 screw to S2AI screw angle was 11.3° ± 9.9°. Two violations of the iliac cortex were noted, with an average breach distance of 7.9 ± 4.8 mm. One breach was posterior (2.2%) and one was anterior (2.2%). The overall robotic S2AI screw accuracy rate was 95.7%. There were no intraoperative neurologic, vascular, or visceral complications related to the placement of the S2AI screws. Spinopelvic fixation achieved using a bone-mounted miniature robotic-guided S2AI screw insertion technique is safe and reliable. Despite two breaches, no complications related to the placement of the S2AI screws occurred in this series. Level IV, therapeutic. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier

  10. Strength analysis of clavicle fracture fixation devices and fixation techniques using finite element analysis with musculoskeletal force input.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cronskär

    2015-08-01

    In the cases, when clavicle fractures are treated with a fixation plate, opinions are divided about the best position of the plate, type of plate and type of screw units. Results from biomechanical studies of clavicle fixation devices are contradictory, probably partly because of simplified and varying load cases used in different studies. The anatomy of the shoulder region is complex, which makes it difficult and expensive to perform realistic experimental tests; hence, reliable simulation is an important complement to experimental tests. In this study, a method for finite element simulations of stresses in the clavicle plate and bone is used, in which muscle and ligament force data are imported from a multibody musculoskeletal model. The stress distribution in two different commercial plates, superior and anterior plating position and fixation including using a lag screw in the fracture gap or not, was compared. Looking at the clavicle fixation from a mechanical point of view, the results indicate that it is a major benefit to use a lag screw to fixate the fracture. The anterior plating position resulted in lower stresses in the plate, and the anatomically shaped plate is more stress resistant and stable than a regular reconstruction plate.

  11. S1 screw bending moment with posterior spinal instrumentation across the lumbosacral junction after unilateral iliac crest harvest.

    PubMed

    Alegre, G M; Gupta, M C; Bay, B K; Smith, T S; Laubach, J E

    2001-09-15

    A biomechanical study comparing fixation across the lumbosacral junction. To determine which long posterior construct across the lumbosacral junction produces the least bending moment on the S1 screw when only one ilium is available for fixation. Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated the benefit of anterior support and fixation into the ilium when instrumenting a long posterior construct across the lumbosacral junction. Four L2-sacrum constructs were tested on six synthetic models of the lumbar spine and pelvis simulating that the right ilium had been harvested. Construct 1: L2-S1 bilateral screws. Construct 2: L2-S1 + left iliac bolt. Construct 3: L2-S1 + left iliac bolt + right S2 screw. Construct 4: L2-S1 + bilateral S2 screws. The four constructs were then retested with an anterior L5-S1 strut. A flexion-extension moment was applied across each construct, and the moment at the left and right S1 pedicle screw was measured with internal strain gauges. Iliac bolt fixation was found to significantly decrease the flexion-extension moment on the ipsilateral S1 screw by 70% and the contralateral screw by 26%. An anterior L5-S1 strut significantly decreased the S1 screw flexion-extension moment by 33%. Anterior support at L5-S1 provided no statistical decrease in the flexion-extension moment when bilateral posterior fixation beyond S1 was present with either a unilateral iliac bolt and contralateral S2 screw, or bilateral S2 screws. There is a significant decrease in the flexion-extension moment on the S1 screw when extending long posterior constructs to either the ilium or S2 sacral screw. There is no biomechanical advantage of the iliac bolt over the S2 screw in decreasing the moment on the S1 screw in flexion and extension. Adding anterior support to long posterior constructs significantly decreases the moment on the S1 screw. Adding distal posterior fixation to either the ilium or S2 decreases the moment on S1 screws more than adding anterior support. Further

  12. Osteotomy and fracture fixation in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    de Billy, B; Gindraux, F; Langlais, J

    2014-02-01

    Significant changes have occurred recently in fixation methods following fracture or osteotomy in children and teenagers. Children have benefited the most from these advances. A child's growth is anatomically and physiologically ensured by the growth plate and periosteum. The need to keep the periosteum intact during trauma cases has led to the introduction of flexible intramedullary nailing. We will review the basic principles of this safe, universally adopted technique, and also describe available material, length and diameter options. The problems and the limitations of this method will be discussed extensively. In orthopedics, the desire to preserve the periosteum has led to the use of locking compression plates. Because of their low profile and high stability, they allow the micromovements essential for bone union. These new methods reduce the immobilization period and allow autonomy to be regained more quickly, which is especially important in children with neurological impairment. The need to preserve the growth plate, which is well known in pediatric surgery, is reviewed with the goal of summarizing current experimental data on standard fracture and osteotomy fixation methods. Adjustable block stop wires provide better control over compression. These provide an alternate means of fixation between K-wires and screws (now cannulated) and have contributed to the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques. The aim of this lecture is to provide a rationale for the distinct technical features of pediatric surgery, while emphasizing the close relationship between the physiology of growth, bone healing and technical advances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Selection of a rigid internal fixation construct for stabilization at the craniovertebral junction in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard C E; Ragel, Brian T; Mocco, J; Bohman, Leif-Erik; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2007-07-01

    Atlantoaxial and occipitocervical instability in children have traditionally been treated with posterior bone and wire fusion and external halo orthoses. Recently, successful outcomes have been achieved using rigid internal fixation, particularly C1-2 transarticular screws. The authors describe flow diagrams created to help clinicians determine which method of internal fixation to use in complex anatomical circumstances when bilateral transarticular screw placement is not possible. The records of children who underwent either atlantoaxial or occipitocervical fixation with rigid internal fixation over an 11-year period were retrospectively reviewed to define flow diagrams used to determine treatment protocols. Among the 95 patients identified who underwent atlantoaxial or occipitocervical fixation, the craniocervical anatomy in 25 patients (six atlantoaxial and 19 occipitocervical fixations [26%]) required alternative methods of internal fixation. Types of screw fixation included loop or rod constructs anchored by combinations of C1-2 transarticular screws (15 constructs), C-1 lateral mass screws (11), C-2 pars screws (24), C-2 translaminar screws (one), and subaxial lateral mass screws (six). The mean age of the patients (15 boys and 10 girls) was 9.8 years (range 1.3-17 years). All 22 patients with greater than 3-month follow-up duration achieved solid bone fusion and maintained stable constructs on radiographic studies. Clinical improvement was seen in all patients who had preoperative symptoms. Novel flow diagrams are suggested to help guide selection of rigid internal fixation constructs when performing pediatric C1-2 and occipitocervical stabilizations. Use of these flow diagrams has led to successful fusion in 25 pediatric patients with difficult anatomy requiring less common constructs.

  14. Comparison of Bioabsorbable Interference Screws Composed of Poly-l-lactic Acid and Hydroxyapatite (PLLA-HA) to WasherLoc Tibial Fixation in Patients After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction of the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Patkowski, Mateusz; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Reichert, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee joint is a standard in ACL complete rupture treatment in athletes. One of the weakest points of this procedure is tibial fixation of grafts. The aim was, firstly, to evaluate patients 3-4 years after primary ACL reconstruction with the use of autologous ipsilateral STGR grafts and with tibial fixation using a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA or WasherLoc, comparing the postoperative result to the preoperative condition and, secondly, to compare the results between the two groups of patients with different tibial fixation. Group I consisted of 20 patients with a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA tibial fixation. In Group II, there were 22 patients after ACL reconstruction with the use of WasherLoc tibial fixation. The Lachman test, pivot-shift test, Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale and 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee (2000 IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form were used to evaluate the results. The intra-group comparison of the results of the 2000 IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale obtained in the groups studied showed statistically significant differences between the evaluation performed preoperatively and postoperatively. The inter-group comparison of the results of the 2000 IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale obtained postoperatively showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. An evaluation 3-4 years after ACL reconstruction with the use of autologous ipsilateral STGR grafts demonstrated significant progress from the preoperative condition to the postoperative result in patients with tibial fixation using a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA as well as in patients with WasherLoc tibial fixation. There were no differences found between the two groups of patients after ACL reconstruction in terms of manual stability testing or a

  15. Possible Vascular Injury Due to Screw Eccentricity in Minimally Invasive Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nishant Kumar; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Rastogi, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vascular injury during minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is uncommon, yet a well-recognized and serious issue. It emerges because of non-visibility of vascular structures proximal to the pelvic bone during reaming, drilling holes, and fixing of screws. Numerous studies have found that screw fixation during cementless THA is beneficial for the initial stability of cup; yet, no anatomical guidelines support angular eccentric screw fixation. Materials and Methods: In this study, we obtained the pelvic arterial-phase computed tomographic data of thirty eight humans and reconstructed the three-dimensional models of osseous and vessel structures. We performed the surgical simulation to fix these structures with cementless cups and screws with angular eccentricities. Results: The effect of screw eccentricities (angular eccentricities of ±17° and ±34°) on the vascular injury was determined. Measurement between screw and adjoining vessels was performed and analyzed statistically to ascertain a comparative risk study for blood vessels that are not visible during surgery. Conclusion: Authors similarly discussed the significant absence of appreciation of quadrant systems proposed by Wasielewski et al. on eccentric screws. Adjustment of quadrant systems provided by Wasielewski et al. is required for acetabular implants with eccentric holes for fixation of acetabular screws. PMID:28790474

  16. Anterior debridement and fusion followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation in pyogenic spondylodiscitis: autologous iliac bone strut versus cage.

    PubMed

    Pee, Yong Hun; Park, Jong Dae; Choi, Young-Geun; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2008-05-01

    An anterior approach for debridement and fusion with autologous bone graft has been recommended as the gold standard for surgical treatment of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. The use of anterior foreign body implants at the site of active infection is still a challenging procedure for spine surgeons. Several authors have recently introduced anterior grafting with titanium mesh cages instead of autologous bone strut in the treatment of spondylodiscitis. The authors present their experience of anterior fusion with 3 types of cages followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation. They also compare their results with the use of autologous iliac bone strut. The authors retrospectively reviewed the cases of 60 patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated by anterior debridement between January 2003 and April 2005. Fusion using either cages or iliac bone struts was performed during the same course of anesthesia followed by posterior fixation. Twenty-three patients underwent fusion with autologous iliac bone strut, and 37 patients underwent fusion with 1 of the 3 types of cages. The infections resolved in all patients, as noted by normalization of their erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels. Patients in both groups were evaluated in terms of their preoperative and postoperative clinical and imaging findings. Single-stage anterior debridement and cage fusion followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation can be effective in the treatment of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. There was no difference in clinical and imaging outcomes between the strut group and cage group except for the subsidence rate. The subsidence rate was higher in the strut group than in the cage group. The duration until subsidence was also shorter in the strut group than in the cage group.

  17. A clinical evaluation of alternative fixation techniques for medial malleolus fractures.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Hayley; Cannada, Lisa K; Watson, J Tracy

    2014-09-01

    Medial malleolus fractures have traditionally been managed using partially threaded screws and/or Kirschner wire fixation. Using these conventional techniques, a non-union rate of as high as 20% has been reported. In addition too many patients complaining of prominent hardware as a source of pain post-fixation. This study was designed to assess the outcomes of medial malleolar fixation using a headless compression screw in terms of union rate, the need for hardware removal, and pain over the hardware site. Saint Louis University and Mercy Medical Center, Level 1 Trauma Centers, St. Louis, MO. After IRB approval, we used billing records to identify all patients with ankle fractures involving the medial malleolus. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to identify patients with medial malleolar fractures treated with headless compression screw fixation. Our inclusion criteria included follow-up until full weight bearing and a healed fracture. Follow-up clinical records and radiographs were reviewed to determine union, complication rate and perception of pain over the site of medial malleolus fixation. Sixty-four ankles were fixed via headless compression screws and 44 had adequate follow-up for additional evaluation. Seven patients had isolated medial malleolar fractures, 23 patients had bimalleolar fractures, and 14 patients had trimalleolar fractures. One patient (2%) required hardware removal due to cellulitis. One patient (2%) had a delayed union, which healed without additional intervention. Ten patients (23%) reported mild discomfort to palpation over the medial malleolus. The median follow-up was 35 weeks (range: 12-208 weeks). There were no screw removals for painful hardware and no cases of non-union. Headless compression screws provide effective compression of medial malleolus fractures and result in good clinical outcomes. The headless compression screw is a beneficial alternative to the conventional methods of medial malleolus fixation. Copyright

  18. Pullout strength of monocortical and bicortical screws in metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions of the canine humerus.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Denty Paul; Syrcle, Jason Alan; Ball, John E; Elder, Steven H; Gambino, Jennifer Michele; Griffin, Russell L; McLaughlin, Ronald M

    2016-11-23

    Monocortical screws are commonly employed in locking plate fixation, but specific recommendations for their placement are lacking and use of short monocortical screws in metaphyseal bone may be contraindicated. Objectives of this study were to evaluate axial pullout strength of two different lengths of monocortical screws placed in various regions of the canine humerus compared to bicortical screws, and to derive cortical thickness and bone density values for those regions using quantitative computed tomography analysis (QCT). The QCT analysis was performed on 36 cadaveric canine humeri for six regions of interest (ROI). A bicortical, short monocortical, or 50% transcortical 3.5 mm screw was implanted in each ROI and axial pullout testing was performed. Bicortical screws were stronger than monocortical screws in all ROI except the lateral epicondylar crest. Short monocortical metaphyseal screws were weaker than those placed in other regions. The 50% transcortical screws were stronger than the short monocortical screws in the condyle. A linear relationship between screw length and pullout strength was observed. Cortical thickness and bone density measurements were obtained from multiple regions of the canine humerus using QCT. Use of short monocortical screws may contribute to failure of locking plate fixation of humeral fractures, especially when placed in the condyle. When bicortical screw placement is not possible, maximizing monocortical screw length may optimize fixation stability for distal humeral fractures.

  19. A Comparison of Removal Rates of Headless Screws Versus Headed Screws in Calcaneal Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kunzler, Daniel; Shazadeh Safavi, Pejma; Jupiter, Daniel; Panchbhavi, Vinod K

    2017-11-01

    Calcaneal osteotomy has been used to successfully treat both valgus and varus hindfoot deformities. Pain associated with implanted hardware may lead to further surgical intervention for hardware removal. Headless screws have been used to reduce postoperative hardware-associated pain and accompanying hardware removal, but data proving their effectiveness in this regard is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare the rates of removal of headed and headless screws utilized in calcaneal osteotomy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 74 patients who underwent calcaneal osteotomy between January 2010 and December 2014. The cohort was divided into 2 groups by fixation method: a headed screw and a headless screw group. Bivariate associations between infection or hardware removal, and screw type, screw head width, gender, smoking status, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, age, and body mass index were assessed using t-tests and Fisher's exact/χ 2 tests for continuous and discrete variables, respectively. Headed screws were removed more frequently than headless screws (P < .0001): 15 of 30 (50%) feet that received headed screws and 4 of 44 (9%) of feet that received headless screws underwent subsequent revision for screw removal. In all cases, screws were removed because of pain. The calcaneal union rate was 100% in both cohorts. The rate of screw removal in calcaneal osteotomies is significantly lower in patients who receive headless screws than in those receiving headed screws. Level IV.

  20. Fractures of the capitellum--a comparison of two fixation methods.

    PubMed

    Poynton, A R; Kelly, I P; O'Rourke, S K

    1998-06-01

    Isolated capitellar fractures are rare, accounting for only 1 per cent of all elbow fractures (Bryan and Morrey, The Elbow and its Disorders, 1985). Many different fixation methods have been described but no series has compared these treatment modalities because of the rarity of these fractures. This paper compares the outcome of two types of fixation of type I capitellar fractures. Group one (n = 6) had open reduction and Kirschner wire fixation while group two (n = 6) had open reduction and Herbert screw fixation. Both groups were compared clinically, functionally and radiographically. We found that Herbert screw fixation enabled earlier mobilization and a better functional outcome.

  1. Iliac screw for reconstructing posterior pelvic ring in Tile type C1 pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonggang; Sang, Xiguang; Wang, Zhiyong; Cheng, Lin; Liu, Hao; Qin, Tao; Di, Kai

    2018-06-18

    It is often difficult to achieve stable fixation in Tile type C1 pelvic fractures and there is no standard fixation technique for these types of injuries. Iliac screw fixation can be used for treating Type C1 pelvic fractures. A retrospective review was performed on 47 patients who underwent iliac screw fixation in posterior column of ilium (PCI) for Tile type C1 pelvic fractures from July 2007 to December 2014. All patients were treated with fracture reduction, sacral nerve root decompression (if needed), internal fixation by iliac screw and connecting rod. The data on surgical time, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative neurologic functions and postoperative complications were analyzed. Patients were follow-up for at least 12months. The mean surgical time was 148minutes, and the mean intraoperative bleeding volume was 763ml. Patients were encouraged in-bed activities immediately after surgery. The postoperative Majeed functional score was 48-100 points (mean 80.2), corresponding to an excellent and good recovery of 91.5%. Postoperative X-radiographs and CT scans indicated satisfactory fracture reduction. Iliac screw fixation combined with sacral nerve canal decompression could effectively restore pelvic alignment and improve neurological functions for complex pelvic trauma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Samurai cannulation (direct true-lumen cannulation) for acute Stanford Type A aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Tadashi; Torii, Shinzo; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Sasahara, Akihiro; Ohtomo, Yuki; Horikoshi, Rihito; Miyaji, Kagami

    2018-02-27

    In this study, we investigated early outcomes of patients who underwent surgical aortic repair for acute Stanford Type A aortic dissection at the Kitasato University Hospital and compared the results of Samurai cannulation (direct true-lumen cannulation) with other cannulation options. Inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 100 patients who were operated on for acute Type A aortic dissection between April 2011 and April 2017, sole Samurai cannulation was used in 61 patients (Group S) and other cannulation options were used in the remaining 39 patients (Group O). No significant difference was observed in preoperative demographics between the groups. True-lumen cannulation was successful in all Group S patients, whereas 3 cannulation-related complications were observed in Group O patients. In Group S, the 30-day and in-hospital mortality occurred in 3 (5%) and 4 (7%) patients, respectively, and in Group O, these occurred in 3 (8%), and 6 (15%) patients, respectively. Four patients in each group (7% and 10%) experienced disabling or fatal strokes. Early mortality or stroke rate between the groups were not significantly different. During follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of survival, freedom from aorta-related death or freedom from aortic events. Early outcomes of the initial series of surgery for Stanford Type A aortic dissection with Samurai cannulation was favourable with acceptable mortality and stroke rates without cannulation-related complications. Samurai cannulation represents an easy, safe and reasonable option for cardiopulmonary bypass in surgery for acute Stanford Type A aortic dissection.

  3. Fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal: percutaneous bicortical fixation.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Vivek; Chung, Hyun Wook; Suh, Jin Soo

    2011-06-01

    Displaced intraarticular zone I and displaced zone II fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal bone are frequently complicated by delayed nonunion due to a vascular watershed. Many complications have been reported with the commonly used intramedullary screw fixation for these fractures. The optimal surgical procedure for these fractures has not been determined. All these observations led us to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous bicortical screw fixation for treating these fractures. Twenty-three fractures were operatively treated by bicortical screw fixation. All the fractures were evaluated both clinically and radiologically for the healing. All the patients were followed at 2 or 3 week intervals till fracture union. The patients were followed for an average of 22.5 months. Twenty-three fractures healed uneventfully following bicortical fixation, with a mean healing time of 6.3 weeks (range, 4 to 10 weeks). The average American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 94 (range, 90 to 99). All the patients reported no pain at rest or during athletic activity. We removed the implant in all cases at a mean of 23.2 weeks (range, 18 to 32 weeks). There was no refracture in any of our cases. The current study shows the effectiveness of bicortical screw fixation for displaced intraarticular zone I fractures and displaced zone II fractures. We recommend it as one of the useful techniques for fixation of displaced zone I and II fractures.

  4. Percutaneous internal fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal jones fractures (Zones II and III) with Charlotte Carolina screw and bone marrow aspirate concentrate: an outcome study in athletes.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Christopher D; Kennedy, John G

    2011-06-01

    Internal fixation is a popular first-line treatment method for proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fractures in athletes; however, nonunions and screw breakage can occur, in part because of nonspecific fixation hardware and poor blood supply. To report the results from 26 patients who underwent percutaneous internal fixation with a specialized screw system of a proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fracture (zones II and III) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Percutaneous internal fixation for a proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fracture (zones II and III) was performed on 26 athletic patients (mean age, 27.47 years; range, 18-47). All patients were competing at some level of sport and were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score and SF-12 outcome scores. The mean follow-up time was 20.62 months (range, 12-28). Of the 26 fractures, 17 were traditional zone II Jones fractures, and the remaining 9 were zone III proximal diaphyseal fractures. The mean Foot and Ankle Outcome Score significantly increased, from 51.15 points preoperatively (range, 14-69) to 90.91 at final follow-up (range, 71-100; P < .01). The mean physical component of the SF-12 score significantly improved, from 25.69 points preoperatively (range, 6-39) to 54.62 at final follow-up (range, 32-62; P < .01). The mean mental component of the SF-12 score also significantly improved, from 28.20 points preoperatively (range, 14-45) to 58.41 at final follow-up (range, 36-67; P < .01). The mean time to fracture healing on standard radiographs was 5 weeks after surgery (range, 4-24). Two patients did not return to their previous levels of sporting activity. One patient experienced a delayed union, and 1 healed but later refractured. Percutaneous internal fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fractures, with a Charlotte Carolina screw and bone marrow aspirate concentrate, provides more predictable results while permitting athletes a

  5. Management of simple (types A and B) closed tibial shaft fractures using percutaneous lag-screw fixation and Ilizarov external fixation in adults.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed; Atef, Ashraf

    2012-10-01

    Although intramedullary fixation of closed simple (type A or B) diaphyseal tibial fractures in adults is well tolerated by patients, providing lower morbidity rates and better mobility, it is associated with some complications. This study evaluated the results of managing these fractures using percutaneous minimal internal fixation using one or more lag screws, and Ilizarov external fixation. This method was tested to evaluate its efficacy in immediate weight bearing, fracture healing and prevention of any post-immobilisation stiffness of the ankle and knee joints. This randomised blinded study was performed at a referral, academically supervised, level III trauma centre. Three hundred and twenty-four of the initial 351 patients completed this study and were followed up for a minimum of 12 (12-88) months. Patient ages ranged from 20 to 51 years, with a mean of 39 years. Ankle and knee movements and full weight bearing were encouraged immediately postoperatively. Solid union was assessed clinically and radiographically. Active and passive ankle and knee ranges of motion were measured and compared with the normal side using the Wilcoxon signed rank test for matched pairs. Subjective Olerud and Molander Ankle Score was used to detect any ankle joint symptoms at the final follow-up. No patient showed delayed or nonunion. All fractures healed within 95-129 days. Based on final clinical and radiographic outcomes, this technique proves to be adequate for managing simple diaphyseal tibial fractures. On the other hand, it is relatively expensive, technically demanding, necessitates exposure to radiation and patients are expected to be frame friendly.

  6. Optimal screw placement for base plate fixation in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, James Guido; Park, Andrew Y; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen D; Diederichs, Gerd; Buckley, Jenni M; Montgomery, William H

    2011-04-01

    Scapular cortical thickness has not been fully characterized from the perspective of determining optimal screw placement for securing the glenoid base plate in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Twelve fresh frozen cadaveric scapulae underwent high resolution CT scans with 3-dimensional reconstructions and wall thickness analysis. Digital base plates were positioned and virtual screws were placed according to 2 scenarios: A - intraosseous through the entire course and exits a "safe region" with no known neurovascular structures; B - may leave and re-enter the bone and penetrates the thickest cortical region accessible regardless of adjacent structures. For scenario A, the optimal screw configurations were: (superior screw) length = 35 mm, 9° superior, 2° posterior; (inferior screw-A) length = 34 mm, 16° inferior, 5° anterior; (inferior screw-B) length = 31 mm, 31 inferior, 4 posterior; (posterior screw) length 19 mm, 29° inferior, 3° anterior. For scenario B: (superior screw) length = 36 mm, 28° superior, 10° anterior; (inferior screw) length = 35 mm, 19° inferior, 4° anterior; (posterior screw) length 37 mm, 23° superior, 3° anterior. The anterior screw was consistent between scenarios A and B, averaged 29 mm in length and was directed 16° inferior and 14° posterior. Thicker cortical regions were present in the lateral aspect of the suprascapular notch, scapular spine base, anterior/superior aspect of inferior pillar and junction of glenoid neck and scapular spine. Regions with high cortical thickness were accessible for both scenarios except for the posterior screw in scenario A. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Scanning electron microscopic observations of 'fractured' biodegradable plates and screws.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Masaaki; Uemura, Fumiko; Tomemori, Shoko; Kamiishi, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    We encountered two out of 100 cases in which implanted biodegradable plates and screws had fractured within 1 month postoperatively. Failure of the material was confirmed through clinical symptoms, radiographs or CT findings. In addition, four specimens obtained from these two cases were examined with regard to their ultrastructure using scanning electron microscopy. Several principal patterns of the fractured surface were found: (1) gradual cracking, i.e. 'circular stair' and, (2) tortuous threads, i.e. a wavy line. It is conceivable that the material may not have been hit by major sudden forces but a disproportion between the thread configuration and the drilled hole may have led to screw loosening and torsion. Subsequently, the threads were deformed in a 'wavy' manner, finally leading to cracking and fracture of plates and screws. Fractures of plates and screws due to these instabilities are thought to be distinguishable from material resorption. In the application of biodegradable materials, more than two screws per single bone segment should be used as a principle of plate-fixation technique in order to avoid a stability-compromising situation, particularly in the stress-bearing areas of the maxillofacial region. Moreover, three-dimensional fixation using more than two plates is recommended in the facial skeleton e.g. zygomatic tripod. Intermaxillary fixation should also be considered to reinforce initial stability in stress-bearing areas.

  8. Secure Screw Placement in Management of Acetabular Fractures Using the Suprapectineal Quadrilateral Buttress Plate.

    PubMed

    Egli, R J; Keel, M J B; Cullmann, J L; Bastian, J D

    2017-01-01

    Acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column associated with a disruption of the quadrilateral surface can be treated with instrumentation implementing the stabilization of the quadrilateral surface. The recently introduced suprapectineal quadrilateral buttress plate is specifically designed to prevent secondary medial subluxation of the femoral head, especially in elderly patients with reduced ability for partial weight bearing. Whereas there are guidelines available for safe screw fixation for the anterior and posterior columns, there might be a concern for intra-articular placement of screws placed through the infrapectineal part of the quadrilateral buttress plate. Within this report we analyzed retrospectively screw placement in 30 plates in postoperative CT scans using algorithms for metal artifact reduction. None of the screws of the buttress plate penetrated the hip joint. We describe the placement, length, and spatial orientation of the screws used for fracture fixation and suggest that the use of intraoperative image intensifiers with a combined inlet-obturator view of 30-45° best projects the screws and the hip joint. Preoperative knowledge of approximate screw placement and information for accurate intraoperative imaging may contribute to safe acetabular fracture fixation and may reduce operating time and limit radiation exposure to the patient and the personnel. This trial is registered with KEK-BE: 266/2014.

  9. Plating of patella fractures: techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Mehta, Sanjay; Castaneda, Joaquin; French, Bruce G; Blanchard, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Operative treatment of displaced patella fractures with tension band fixation remains the gold standard, but is associated with a significant rate of complications and symptomatic implants. Despite the evolution of tension band fixation to include cannulated screws, surprisingly little other development has been made to improve overall patient outcomes. In this article, we present the techniques and outcomes of patella plating for displaced patella fractures and patella nonunions.

  10. Cerclage wire and lag screw fixation of the lateral malleolus in supination and external rotation fractures of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Amarjit S; Gantz, D E

    2005-01-01

    Wound dehiscence and exposed lateral hardware can occur after open reduction internal fixation of lateral malleolus. The bulk of a lateral plate and the minimum soft tissue over the lateral malleolus may contribute to this situation. The objective of this study was to evaluate a series of patients with lateral malleolar fractures treated with operative reduction using minimal hardware. We wanted to observe whether there was any loss of reduction and whether there were any incidences of soft tissue disruption. Fifty-two patients with long spiral fracture of the lateral malleolus in a supination-external rotation injury were treated with two or three 3.5-mm lag screws inserted 1 cm apart and 1 or 2 circlage wires. Less rigid fixation was supplemented with a below-the-knee plaster cast. All patients were followed up until clinical and radiological evidence of fracture healing at 6, 10, and 14 weeks postoperatively. By 10 weeks, all patients were full weight bearing, although most patients still limped. At 14 weeks' follow-up, there were no infections or wound dehiscences. All patients were able to return to their activities of daily living. All the fractures had united without loss of original position. Two fractures of the posterior bone spikes seen during surgery united uneventfully. Long spiral fractures of the lateral malleolus of the ankle can be treated successfully with 2 or 3 lag screws and circlage wires without compromising the outcome of the fracture healing.

  11. Salvage of tibial pilon fractures using fusion of the ankle with a 90 degrees cannulated blade-plate: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Morgan, S J; Thordarson, D B; Shepherd, L E

    1999-06-01

    Six patients with ankle joint destruction and delayed metaphyseal union after tibial plafond fracture were surgically treated with tibiotalar arthrodesis and metaphyseal reconstruction, using a fixed-angle cannulated blade-plate. The procedure was performed through a posterior approach in five cases and a lateral approach in one case. The subtalar joint was preserved in all cases. Metaphyseal union and a stable arthrodesis were obtained in all cases without loss of fixation and with no mechanical failure of the blade-plate. Union was obtained in an average of 26 weeks. No secondary procedures were required to obtain union. All six patients were ambulatory at last follow-up. Stable internal fixation for simultaneous tibiotalar fusion and metaphyseal reconstruction can be achieved with a cannulated blade-plate while preserving the subtalar joint in complex plafond fractures.

  12. Scar due to skin incision for screw fixation through the transbuccal approach after sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Muto, Toshitaka

    2012-05-01

    Most rigid fixation techniques after sagittal split ramus osteotomies of the mandible involve the transbuccal approach. A skin incision in the cheek carries with it possible undesirable sequelae, such as noticeable scarring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is scarring in the face after this technique. For screw insertion, a 5-mm stab incision was performed on 40 Japanese patients (20 men and 20 women) with class III occlusion. After surgery, gross examination (via the naked eyes) of the skin incision was performed monthly for 1 year by the same oral surgeon. In all cases, the skin incision had disappeared by 1 year after the surgery.

  13. Stress analysis of implant-bone fixation at different fracture angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzawati, B.; Daud, R.; Afendi, M.; Majid, MS Abdul; Zain, N. A. M.; Bajuri, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Internal fixation is a mechanism purposed to maintain and protect the reduction of a fracture. Understanding of the fixation stability is necessary to determine parameters influence the mechanical stability and the risk of implant failure. A static structural analysis on a bone fracture fixation was developed to simulate and analyse the biomechanics of a diaphysis shaft fracture with a compression plate and conventional screws. This study aims to determine a critical area of the implant to be fractured based on different implant material and angle of fracture (i.e. 0°, 30° and 45°). Several factors were shown to influence stability to implant after surgical. The stainless steel, (S. S) and Titanium, (Ti) screws experienced the highest stress at 30° fracture angle. The fracture angle had a most significant effect on the conventional screw as compared to the compression plate. The stress was significantly higher in S.S material as compared to Ti material, with concentrated on the 4th screw for all range of fracture angle. It was also noted that the screws closest to the intense concentration stress areas on the compression plate experienced increasing amounts of stress. The highest was observed at the screw thread-head junction.

  14. Comparing fixation used for calcaneal displacement osteotomies: a look at removal rates and cost.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Douglas E; Simpson, G Alex; Philbin, Terrence M

    2015-02-01

    The calcaneal displacement osteotomy is a procedure frequently used by foot and ankle surgeons for hindfoot angular deformity. Traditional techniques use compression screw fixation that can result in prominent hardware. While the results of the procedure are generally good, a common concern is the development of plantar heel pain related to prominent hardware. The primary purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare clinical outcomes of 2 fixation methods for the osteotomy. Secondarily a cost analysis will compare implant costs to hardware removal costs. Records were reviewed for patients who had undergone a calcaneal displacement osteotomy fixated with either lag screw or a locked lateral compression plate (LLCP). Neuropathy, previous ipsilateral calcaneus surgery, heel pad trauma, or incomplete radiographic follow-up were exclusionary. Thirty-two patients (19.4%) required hardware removal from the screw fixation group compared to 1 (1.6%) of the LLCP group, which is significant (P < .05). Time to radiographic healing was not significantly different (P = .87). The screw fixation group required more follow-up visits over a longer period of time (P < .05). Implant cost was remarkably different with screw fixation costing on average $247.12, compared to the LLCP costing $1175.59. Although the LLCP cost was significantly higher, cost savings were identified when the cost of removal and removal rates were included. This study demonstrates that this device provides adequate stabilization for healing in equivalent time to screw fixation. The LLCP required decreased rates of hardware removal with fewer postoperative visits over a shorter period of time. Significant savings were demonstrated in the LLCP group despite the higher implant cost. Therapeutic, Level III, Retrospective Comparative Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of fixation options for intertrochanteric hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Swart, Eric; Makhni, Eric C; Macaulay, William; Rosenwasser, Melvin P; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-10-01

    Intertrochanteric hip fractures are a major source of morbidity and financial burden, accounting for 7% of osteoporotic fractures and costing nearly $6 billion annually in the United States. Traditionally, "stable" fracture patterns have been treated with an extramedullary sliding hip screw whereas "unstable" patterns have been treated with the more expensive intramedullary nail. The purpose of this study was to identify parameters to guide cost-effective implant choices with use of decision-analysis techniques to model these common clinical scenarios. An expected-value decision-analysis model was constructed to estimate the total costs and health utility based on the choice of a sliding hip screw or an intramedullary nail for fixation of an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Values for critical parameters, such as fixation failure rate, were derived from the literature. Three scenarios were evaluated: (1) a clearly stable fracture (AO type 31-A1), (2) a clearly unstable fracture (A3), or (3) a fracture with questionable stability (A2). Sensitivity analysis was performed to test the validity of the model. The fixation failure rate and implant cost were the most important factors in determining implant choice. When the incremental cost for the intramedullary nail was set at the median value ($1200), intramedullary nailing had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $50,000/quality-adjusted life year when the incremental failure rate of sliding hip screws was 1.9%. When the incremental failure rate of sliding hip screws was >5.0%, intramedullary nails dominated with lower cost and better health outcomes. The sliding hip screw was always more cost-effective for A1 fractures, and the intramedullary nail always dominated for A3 fractures. As for A2 fractures, the sliding hip screw was cost-effective in 70% of the cases, although this was highly sensitive to the failure rate. Sliding hip screw fixation is likely more cost-effective for stable intertrochanteric fractures

  16. Intramedullary nails with two lag screws.

    PubMed

    Brown, C J; Wang, C J; Yettram, A L; Procter, P

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the structural integrity of intramedullary nails with two lag screws, and to give guidance to orthopaedic surgeons in the choice of appropriate devices. Alternative designs of the construct are considered, and the use of a slotted upper lag screw insertion hole is analysed. Intramedullary fixation devices with a single lag screw have been known to fail at the lag screw insertion hole. Using two lag screws is considered. It has also been proposed to use a slot in the nail for the upper lag screw to prevent the upper lag screw from sticking. Bending and torsion load cases are analysed using finite element method. Consideration of both load conditions is essential. The results present the overall stiffness of the assembly, the load sharing between lag screws, and the possibility for cut-out to occur. While the slot for the upper lag screw might be advantageous with regard to the stresses in the lag screws, it could be detrimental for cut-out occurring adjacent to the lag screws. Comparative analyses demonstrate that two lag screws may be advantageous in patients whose cancellous bone quality is good and who impose large loads on the lag screw/nail interface. However, the use of two screws might pre-dispose to failure by cut-out of the lag screws. The addition of a slotted hole for the upper lag screw appears to do nothing significant to reduce the risk of such a failure. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Reconstructive surgery using interference screw fixation for painful accessory navicular in adult athletes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Wataru; Takao, Masato; Yamada, Kazuaki; Yasui, Youichi; Matsushita, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a new technique for reattaching the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) using a bone tunnel and interference screw after resection of the accessory navicular for painful accessory navicular (type II) in adult athletes. Ten adult athletes (7 male, 3 female; mean age 30 years, range 23-45) underwent reconstruction using a bone tunnel with an interference screw for a painful accessory navicular. All patients complained of pain on the medial aspect of the foot after eversion sprain during sports activities and radiographs revealed type II accessory navicular. Clinical evaluation with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) before surgery was compared with that at most recent follow up (mean 30 months, range 24-39). Mean AOFAS score improved from a preoperative 62.8 ± 2.9 points (range 61-82) to a postoperative 92.1 ± 7.0 points (range 83-100; p < 0.01). Furthermore, mean VAS score improved from a preoperative 92.5 ± 5.4 points (range 85-100) to a postoperative 4.5 ± 3.8 points (range 0-10; p < 0.01). All patients could return to full sports activity at a mean of 14 weeks (range 12-18) after surgery. The presented technique reconstructs the bone-tendon interface of the PTT at the primary navicular with sufficient fixation after resection of the accessory navicular, which preserves the strength of the PTT in adult athletes with an intractably painful accessory navicular.

  18. The Role of Posterior Screw Fixation in Single-Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion During Whole Body Vibration: A Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Guo, Li-Xin

    2018-06-01

    Few studies have evaluated the need for supplementary instrumentation after lumbar interbody fusion under the condition of whole body vibration (WBV) that is typically present in vehicles. This study aimed to determine the effect of posterior pedicle screw fixation on dynamic response of the whole lumbar spine to vertical WBV after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A previously validated nonlinear, osteoligamentous finite element (FE) model of the intact L1-sacrum human lumbar spine was modified to simulate single-level (L4-L5) TLIF without and with bilateral pedicle screw fixation (BPSF). Transit dynamic analysis was performed on the 2 developed models under a sinusoidal vertical vibration load of ±40 N and a compressive follower preload of 400 N. The resulting dynamic response results for the 2 models in terms of stresses and deformations were recorded and compared. When compared with no fixation, BPSF decreased dynamic responses of the spinal levels to the vertical vibration after TLIF. At the fused level (L4-L5), vibration amplitudes of the von-Mises stresses in L4 inferior endplate and L5 superior endplate decreased after BPSF by 48.0% and 46.4%, respectively. At other disc levels (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4, and L5-S1), vibration amplitudes of the disc bulge, von-Mises stress in annulus ground substance and intradiscal pressure also produced 4.2%-9.0%, 2.3%-8.9%, and 3.4%-8.8% deceases, respectively, after BPSF. After TLIF, application of BPSF can be helpful in the prevention of spine injury during vertical WBV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical analysis of two fixation methods for proximal chevron osteotomy of the first metatarsal.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Reinhard; Hofstaetter, Jochen Gerhard; Benca, Emir; Willegger, Madeleine; von Skrbensky, Gobert; Zandieh, Shahin; Wanivenhaus, Axel; Holinka, Johannes; Windhager, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The proximal chevron osteotomy provides high correctional power. However, relatively high rates of dorsiflexion malunion of up to 17 % are reported for this procedure. This leads to insufficient weight bearing of the first ray and therefore to metatarsalgia. Recent biomechanical and clinical studies pointed out the importance of rigid fixation of proximal metatarsal osteotomies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare biomechanical properties of fixation of proximal chevron osteotomies with variable locking plate and cancellous screw respectively. Ten matched pairs of human fresh frozen cadaveric first metatarsals underwent proximal chevron osteotomy with either variable locking plate or cancellous screw fixation after obtaining bone mineral density. Biomechanical testing included repetitive plantar to dorsal loading from 0 to 31 N with the 858 Mini Bionix(®) (MTS(®) Systems Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA). Dorsal angulation of the distal fragment was recorded. The variable locking plate construct reveals statistically superior results in terms of bending stiffness and dorsal angulation compared to the cancellous screw construct. There was a statistically significant correlation between bone mineral density and maximum tolerated load until construct failure occurred for the screw construct (r = 0.640, p = 0.406). The results of the present study indicate that variable locking plate fixation shows superior biomechanical results to cancellous screw fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy. Additionally, screw construct failure was related to levels of low bone mineral density. Based on the results of the present study we recommend variable locking plate fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy, especially in osteoporotic bone.

  20. Biomechanical analysis of occipitocervical stability afforded by three fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Lehman, Ronald A; Sasso, Rick C; Dmitriev, Anton E; Mack, Andrew W; Riew, K Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Occipital condyle screws appear to be a novel technique that demands biomechanical consideration. It has the potential to achieve fixation anterior to the axis of rotation while offering a point of fixation in line with the C1/C2 screws. To compare the segmental stability and range of motion (ROM) of standard occipitocervical (OC) screw/rod and plate constructs versus a new technique that incorporates occipital condyle fixation. Human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. After intact analysis, 10 fresh-frozen human cadaveric OC spine specimens were instrumented bilaterally with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws. Additional occipital instrumentation was tested in random order under the following conditions: standard occipitocervical plate/rod system (Vertex Max; Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA); occipital condyle screws alone; and occipital condyle screws with the addition of an eyelet screw placed into the occiput bilaterally. After nondestructive ROM testing, specimens were evaluated under computed tomography (CT) and underwent destructive forward flexion failure comparing Group 1 to Group 3. There was no significant difference in OC (Occiput-C1) axial rotation and flexion/extension ROM between the standard occipitocervical plate/rod system (Group 1) and the occipital condyle screws with one eyelet screw bilaterally (Group 3). Furthermore, the occipital condyle screws alone (Group 2) did allow significantly more flexion/extension compared with Group 1. Interestingly, the two groups with occipital condyle screws (Groups 2 and 3) had significantly less lateral bending compared with Group 1. During CT analysis, the mean occipital condyle width was 10.8 mm (range, 9.1-12.7 mm), and the mean condylar length was 24.3 mm (range, 20.2-28.5). On destructive testing, there was no significant difference in forward flexion failure between Groups 1 and 3. With instrumentation across the mobile OC junction, our results indicate that similar stability can be

  1. CT-guided percutaneous screw fixation plus cementoplasty in the treatment of painful bone metastases with fractures or a high risk of pathological fracture.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Claudio; Fancellu, Alessandro; Ballicu, Nicola; Fele, Rosa Maria; Sotgia, Barbara; Melis, Luca

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous screw fixation plus cementoplasty (PSFPC), for either treatment of painful metastatic fractures or prevention of pathological fractures, in patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Twenty-seven patients with 34 metastatic bone lesions underwent CT-guided PSFPC. Bone metastases were located in the vertebral column, femur, and pelvis. The primary end point was the evaluation of feasibility and complications of the procedure, in addition to the length of hospital stay. Pain severity was estimated before treatment and 1 and 6 months after the procedure using the visual analog scale (VAS). Functional outcome was assessed by improved patient walking ability. All sessions were completed and well tolerated. There were no complications related to either incorrect positioning of the screws during bone fixation or leakage of cement. All patients were able to walk within 6 h after the procedure and the average length of hospital stay was 2 days. The mean VAS score decreased from 7.1 (range, 4-9) before treatment to 1.6 (range, 0-6), 1 month after treatment, and to 1.4 (range 0-6) 6 months after treatment. Neither loosening of the screws nor additional bone fractures occurred during a median follow-up of 6 months. Our results suggest that PSFPC might be a safe and effective procedure that allows the stabilization of the fracture and the prevention of pathological fractures with significant pain relief and good recovery of walking ability, although further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  2. Intramedullary nail fixation of non-traditional fractures: Clavicle, forearm, fibula.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Niloofar; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2017-06-01

    Locked intramedullary fixation is a well-established technique for managing long-bone fractures. While intramedullary nail fixation of diaphyseal fractures in the femur, tibia, and humerus is well established, the same is not true for other fractures. Surgical fixations of clavicle, forearm and ankle are traditionally treated with plate and screw fixation. In some cases, fixation with an intramedullary device is possible, and may be advantageous. However, there is however a concern regarding a lack of rotational stability and fracture shortening. While new generation of locked intramedullary devices for fractures of clavicle, forearm and fibula are recently available, the outcomes are not as reliable as fixation with plates and screws. Further research in this area is warranted with high quality comparative studies, to investigate the outcomes and indication of these fractures treated with intramedullary nail devices compared to intramedullary nail fixation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Results of operative treatment of avulsion fractures of the iliac crest apophysis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Xigong; Xu, Sanzhong; Lin, Xiangjin; Wang, Quan; Pan, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Avulsion fracture of the iliac crest apophysis is a rare condition that commonly occurs in adolescent athletes. Conservative treatment for this injury can produce excellent functional outcomes. However, the rehabilitation process requires a rather long immobilisation period. This study aimed to evaluate the use of cannulated screws for fixation of avulsion fractures of iliac crest apophysis. Ten patients with avulsion fractures of iliac crest apophysis were treated by open reduction and internal fixation using cannulated screws. The mean age of patients was 14.6 years (range, 13-15 years). The mean intraoperative blood loss was 14.9 ml (range, 10-25 ml). The mean operative time was 40.3 min (range, 33-52 min). The mean follow-up period was 11.2 months (range, 6-20 months). At the 4-week follow-up, all patients returned to previously normal activity without pain and had no evidence of lower extremity muscle weakness. At the final follow-up, all patients resumed their athletic activity without any complications. Open reduction and internal fixation for the treatment of avulsion fracture of iliac crest apophysis can be recommended for patients requiring rapid rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of stress induced by screws in the vertebral fixation system

    PubMed Central

    Fakhouri, Sarah Fakher; Shimano, Marcos Massao; de Araújo, Cleudmar Amaral; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido; Shimano, Antônio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare, using photoelasticity, internal stress produced by USS II type screw with 5.2 and 6.2 mm external diameters, when submitted to three different pullout strengths. Methods: Two photoelastic models were especially made. The simulation was performed using loads of 1.8, 2.4 e 3.3 kgf.The fringe orders were evaluated around the screws. In all the models analyzed the shear stress were calculated. Results: Independently of the applied load, the smaller screw showed higher values of shear stress. Conclusion: According to the analysis performed, we observed that the place of highest stress was in the first thread of the lead, close to the head of the screws. Experimental study. PMID:24644414

  5. An in Vivo Experimental Comparison of Stainless Steel and Titanium Schanz Screws for External Fixation.

    PubMed

    Ganser, Antonia; Thompson, Rosemary E; Tami, Ivan; Neuhoff, Dirk; Steiner, Adrian; Ito, Keita

    2007-02-01

    To compare the clinical benefits of stainless steel (SS) to titanium (Ti) on reducing pin track irritation/infection and pin loosening during external fracture fixation. A tibial gap osteotomy was created in 17 sheep and stabilized with four Schanz screws of either SS or Ti and an external fixation frame. Over the 12 week observation period, pin loosening was assessed by grading the radiolucency around the pins and measuring the extraction torque on pin removal at sacrifice. Irritation/infection was assessed with weekly clinical pin track grading. A histological analysis of the tissue adjacent to the pin site was made to assess biocompatibility. A statistically non-significant trend for less bone resorption around Ti pins was found during the early observation period. However, at sacrifice, there was no difference between the two materials. Also, there was no difference in the extraction torque, and there was similar remodeling and apposition of the bone around the pins. A statistically non-significant trend for more infection about SS pins at sacrifice was found. Histology showed a slightly higher prevalence of reactionary cells in SS samples, but was otherwise not much different than around Ti pins. There is no clinically relevant substantial advantage in using either SS or Ti pins on reducing pin loosening or pin track irritation/infection.

  6. The biomechanics of plate fixation of periprosthetic femoral fractures near the tip of a total hip implant: cables, screws, or both?

    PubMed

    Shah, S; Kim, S Y R; Dubov, A; Schemitsch, E H; Bougherara, H; Zdero, R

    2011-09-01

    Femoral shaft fractures after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remain a serious problem, since there is no optimal surgical repair method. Virtually all studies that examined surgical repair methods have done so clinically or experimentally. The present study assessed injury patterns computationally by developing three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models that were validated experimentally. The investigation evaluated three different constructs for the fixation of Vancouver B1 periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures following THA. Experimentally, three bone plate repair methods were applied to a synthetic femur with a 5 mm fracture gap near the tip of a total hip implant. Repair methods were identical distal to the fracture gap, but used cables only (construct A), screws only (construct B), or cables plus screws (construct C) proximal to the fracture gap. Specimens were oriented in 15 degrees adduction to simulate the single-legged stance phase of walking, subjected to 1000 N of axial force, and instrumented with strain gauges. Computationally, a linearly elastic and isotropic 3D FE model was developed to mimic experiments. Results showed excellent agreement between experimental and FE strains, yielding a Pearson linearity coefficient, R2, of 0.92 and a slope for the line of best data fit of 1.06. FE-computed axial stiffnesses were 768 N/mm (construct A), 1023 N/mm (construct B), and 1102 N/mm (construct C). FE surfaces stress maps for cortical bone showed Von Mises stresses, excluding peaks, of 0-8 MPa (construct A), 0-15 MPa (construct B), and 0-20 MPa (construct C). Cables absorbed the majority of load, followed by the plates and then the screws. Construct A yielded peak stress at one of the empty holes in the plate. Constructs B and C had similar bone stress patterns, and can achieve optimal fixation.

  7. Reinforcement of osteosynthesis screws with brushite cement.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, P; Peter, B; Beluze, L; Lemaître, J

    1999-08-01

    The fixation of osteosynthesis screws remains a severe problem for fracture repair among osteoporotic patients. Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) is routinely used to improve screw fixation, but this material has well-known drawbacks such as monomer toxicity, exothermic polymerization, and nonresorbability. Calcium phosphate cements have been developed for several years. Among these new bone substitution materials, brushite cements have the advantage of being injectable and resorbable. The aim of this study is to assess the reinforcement of osteosynthesis screws with brushite cement. Polyurethane foams, whose density is close to that of cancellous bone, were used as bone model. A hole was tapped in a foam sample, then brushite cement was injected. Trabecular osteosynthesis screws were inserted. After 24 h of aging in water, the stripping force was measured by a pull-out test. Screws (4.0 and 6.5 mm diameter) and two foam densities (0.14 and 0.28 g/cm3) were compared. Cements with varying solid/liquid ratios and xanthan contents were used in order to obtain the best screw reinforcement. During the pull-out test, the stripping force first increases to a maximum, then drops to a steady-state value until complete screw extraction. Both maximum force and plateau value increase drastically in the presence of cement. The highest stripping force is observed for 6.5-mm screws reinforced with cement in low-density foams. In this case, the stripping force is multiplied by 3.3 in the presence of cement. In a second experiment, cements with solid/liquid ratio ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 g/mL were used with 6.5-mm diameter screws. In some compositions, xanthan was added to improve injectability. The best results were obtained with 2.5 g/mL cement containing xanthan and with 3.0 g/mL cements without xanthan. A 0.9-kN maximal stripping force was observed with nonreinforced screws, while 1.9 kN was reached with reinforced screws. These first results are very promising regarding screw

  8. Preloads generated with repeated tightening in three types of screws used in dental implant assemblies.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Declan; Jacobs, Stuart; O'Connell, Brian; Houston, Frank; Claffey, Noel

    2006-01-01

    Abutment screw loosening, especially in the case of cemented single tooth restorations, is a cause of implant restoration failure. This study compared three screws (titanium alloy, gold alloy, and gold-coated) with similar geometry by recording the preload induced when torques of 10, 20, and 35 Ncm were used for fixation. Two abutment types were used-prefabricated preparable abutments and cast-on abutments. A custom-designed rig was used to measure preload in the abutment-screw-implant assembly with a strain gauge. Ten screws of each type were sequentially tightened to 10, 20, and 35 Ncm on ten of the two abutment types. The same screws were then loosened and re-tightened. This procedure was repeated. Thus, each screw was tightened on three occasions to the three insertion torques. A linear regression model was used to analyze the effects on preload values of screw type and abutment type for each of the three insertion torques. The results indicated that the gold-coated screw generated the highest preloads for all insertion torques and for each tightening episode. Further analysis focused on the effects of screw type and abutment type for each episode of tightening and for each fixation torque. The gold-coated screw, fixed to the prefabricated abutment, displayed higher preloads for the first tightening at 10, 20, and 35 Ncm. Conversely, the same screw fixed to the cast-on abutment showed higher values for the second and third tightening for all fixation torques. All screws showed decay in preload with the number of times tightened. Given the higher preloads generated using the gold-coated screw with both abutment types, it is more likely that this type of screw will maintain a secure joint when tightened for the second and third time. All screw types displayed some decay in preload with repeated tightening, irrespective of abutment type and insertion torque. The gold-coated screw showed markedly higher preloads for all insertion torques and for all instances of

  9. [Tibial press-fit fixation of flexor tendons for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Ettinger, M; Liodakis, E; Haasper, C; Hurschler, C; Breitmeier, D; Krettek, C; Jagodzinski, M

    2012-09-01

    Press-fit fixation of hamstring tendon autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an interesting technique because no hardware is necessary. This study compares the biomechanical properties of press-fit fixations to an interference screw fixation. Twenty-eight human cadaveric knees were used for hamstring tendon explantation. An additional bone block was harvested from the tibia. We used 28 porcine femora for graft fixation. Constructs were cyclically stretched and then loaded until failure. Maximum load to failure, stiffness and elongation during failure testing and cyclic loading were investigated. The maximum load to failure was 970±83 N for the press-fit tape fixation (T), 572±151 N for the bone bridge fixation (TS), 544±109 N for the interference screw fixation (I), 402±77 N for the press-fit suture fixation (S) and 290±74 N for the bone block fixation technique (F). The T fixation had a significantly better maximum load to failure compared to all other techniques (p<0.001). This study demonstrates that a tibial press-fit technique which uses an additional bone block has better maximum load to failure results compared to a simple interference screw fixation.

  10. Feasibility of detecting orthopaedic screw overtightening using acoustic emission.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Rhys; Wright, Bryan J; Kapur, Richard; McCrory, John P; Pearson, Matthew; Evans, Sam L; Crivelli, Davide

    2017-03-01

    A preliminary study of acoustic emission during orthopaedic screw fixation was performed using polyurethane foam as the bone-simulating material. Three sets of screws, a dynamic hip screw, a small fragment screw and a large fragment screw, were investigated, monitoring acoustic-emission activity during the screw tightening. In some specimens, screws were deliberately overtightened in order to investigate the feasibility of detecting the stripping torque in advance. One set of data was supported by load cell measurements to directly measure the axial load through the screw. Data showed that acoustic emission can give good indications of impending screw stripping; such indications are not available to the surgeon at the current state of the art using traditional torque measuring devices, and current practice relies on the surgeon's experience alone. The results suggest that acoustic emission may have the potential to prevent screw overtightening and bone tissue damage, eliminating one of the commonest sources of human error in such scenarios.

  11. Biomechanical Properties of a Novel Biodegradable Magnesium-Based Interference Screw

    PubMed Central

    Ezechieli, Marco; Meyer, Hanna; Lucas, Arne; Helmecke, Patrick; Becher, Christoph; Calliess, Tilman; Windhagen, Henning; Ettinger, Max

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium-based interference screws may be an alternative in anterior/posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The well-known osteoconductive effects of biodegradable magnesium alloys may be useful. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the biomechanical properties of a magnesium based interference screw and compare it to a standard implant. A MgYREZr-alloy interference screw and a standard implant (Milagro®; De Puy Mitek, Raynham, MA, USA) were used for graft fixation. Specimens were placed into a tensile loading fixation of a servohydraulic testing machine. Biomechanical analysis included pretensioning of the constructs at 20 N for 1 min following cyclic pretensioning of 20 cycles between 20 and 60 N. Biomechanical elongation was evaluated with cyclic loading of 1000 cycles between 50 and 200 N at 0.5 Hz. Maximum load to failure was 511.3±66.5 N for the Milagro® screw and 529.0±63.3 N for magnesium-based screw (ns, P=0.57). Elongations after preload, during cyclical loading and during failure load were not different between the groups (ns, P>0.05). Stiffness was 121.1±13.8 N/mm for the magnesium-based screw and 144.1±18.4 for the Milagro® screw (ns, P=0.32). MgYREZr alloy interference screws show comparable results in biomechanical testing to standard implants and may be an alternative for anterior cruciate reconstruction in the future. PMID:27433303

  12. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-11-25

    BACKGROUND The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. RESULTS Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did.

  13. Quantitative Gross and CT measurements of Cadaveric Cervical Vertebrae (C3 – C6) as Guidelines for the Lateral mass screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    Heinneman, Thomas E.; Conti, Mathew S.; Dossous, Paul-Michel F.; Dillon, David J.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Pyo, Se Young; Mtui, Estomih P.; Härtl, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral mass screw fixation is the treatment of choice for posterior cervical stabilization. Long or misdirected screws carry a risk of injury to spinal nerve roots or vertebral artery. This study was aimed to assess the gross anatomic and CT measurements of typical cervical vertebrae for the selection of lateral mass screws. Methods Dimensions of the articular pillars were measured on 1) Dry cervical vertebrae with Vernier calipers and 2) Multiplanar reformations of CT scans of the same vertebrae with Viewer software package. The data was statistically evaluated. Results The transverse diameter of the articular pillars with Vernier calipers varied from 6.0 to 15.4 mm (mean=10.5 mm ± 1.5) and on CT scans ranged from 8.2 – 16.1 mm (mean=11.6 mm ± 1.4). The antero-posterior diameter, an estimate of the screw length by Roy-Camille technique varied from 3.9 to 12.7 mm (mean=8.6 mm ± 1.6) by Vernier calipers and from 6.4 to 13.3 mm (mean=9.1 ± 1.2) on CT scans. The oblique AP diameter, an estimate of screw length by Magerl method varied from 10.8 to 20.3 mm (mean=14.9 mm ± 1.8) by Vernier calipers and from 11.4 to 19.3 mm (mean=14.5 mm ± 1.7) on CT. The CT measurements for height, transverse and AP diameter of the articular pillars were 0.5 - 1.0 mm larger than dimensions by Vernier calipers. No statistically significant difference was observed between the caliper and CT measurements for the oblique AP diameter. Conclusion CT measurements of the articular pillars may slightly overestimate the desired screw length selected by spine surgeons when compared to actual anatomy. Although means of the articular pillars correspond to the screw lengths used, substantial number of observations below 10 mm for Roy-Camille trajectory and below 14 mm for Magerl trajectory requires careful preoperative planning and intra-operative confirmation to avoid long/misdirected lateral mass screws. PMID:28377857

  14. Internal fixation of distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injuries: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Ma, Xin; Wang, Xu; Huang, Jiazhang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Li

    2013-09-01

    No consensus had been reached about the optimal method for syndesmotic fixation. The present study analysed syndesmotic fixation based on the highest level of clinical evidence in order to obtain more reliable results. Medline, Embase and Cochrane database were searched through the OVID retrieval engine. Manual searching was undertaken afterward to identify additional studies. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective comparative studies were selected for final inclusion. Study screening and data extraction were completed independently by two reviewers. All study characteristics were summarized into a table. The extracted data were used for data analysis. Twelve studies were finally included: six of them were RCTs, two were quasi-randomized studies and four were prospective comparative studies. Four comparisons with traditional metallic screw were identified in terms of bioabsorbable screws, tricortical fixation method, suture-button device as well as non-fixation choice in low syndesmotic injuries. Both absorbable screws and the tricortical fixation method showed almost no better results than traditional quadricortical metallic screw (p > 0.05). Additionally, existing studies could not illustrate their efficiency of reducing hardware removal rate. The suture button technique had significantly better functional score (p = 0.003), ankle motion (p = 0.02), time to full weightbearing (p < 0.0001) and much less complications (p = 0.0008) based on short and intermediate term follow-up data. Transfixation in low syndesmotic injuries showed poorer results than the non fixed group in all outcome measurements, but didn't reach a significant level (p > 0.05). The present evidence still couldn't find superior performance of the bioabsorbable screw and tricortical fixation method. Their true effects in decreasing second operation rate need further specific studies. Better results of the suture-button made it a promising technique, but it still needs long

  15. Three-dimensional navigation is more accurate than two-dimensional navigation or conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous sacroiliac screw fixation in the dysmorphic sacrum: a randomized multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Matityahu, Amir; Kahler, David; Krettek, Christian; Stöckle, Ulrich; Grutzner, Paul Alfred; Messmer, Peter; Ljungqvist, Jan; Gebhard, Florian

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of computer-assisted sacral screw fixation compared with conventional techniques in the dysmorphic versus normal sacrum. Review of a previous study database. Database of a multinational study with 9 participating trauma centers. The reviewed group included 130 patients, 72 from the navigated group and 58 from the conventional group. Of these, 109 were in the nondysmorphic group and 21 in the dysmorphic group. Placement of sacroiliac (SI) screws was performed using standard fluoroscopy for the conventional group and BrainLAB navigation software with either 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional (3D) navigation for the navigated group. Accuracy of SI screw placement by 2-dimensional and 3D navigation versus conventional fluoroscopy in dysmorphic and nondysmorphic patients, as evaluated by 6 observers using postoperative computerized tomography imaging at least 1 year after initial surgery. Intraobserver agreement was also evaluated. There were 11.9% (13/109) of patients with misplaced screws in the nondysmorphic group and 28.6% (6/21) of patients with misplaced screws in the dysmorphic group, none of which were in the 3D navigation group. Raw agreement between the 6 observers regarding misplaced screws was 32%. However, the percent overall agreement was 69.0% (kappa = 0.38, P < 0.05). The use of 3D navigation to improve intraoperative imaging for accurate insertion of SI screws is magnified in the dysmorphic proximal sacral segment. We recommend the use of 3D navigation, where available, for insertion of SI screws in patients with normal and dysmorphic proximal sacral segments. Therapeutic level I.

  16. Fixation strength analysis of cup to bone material using finite element simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-04-01

    Fixation of acetabular cup to bone material is an important initial stability for artificial hip joint. In general, the fixation in cement less-type acetabular cup uses press-fit and screw methods. These methods can be applied alone or together. Based on literature survey, the additional screw inside of cup is effective; however, it has little effect in whole fixation. Therefore, an acetabular cup with good fixation, easy manufacture and easy installation is required. This paper is aiming at evaluating and proposing a new cup fixation design. To prove the strength of the present cup fixation design, the finite element simulation of three dimensional cup with new fixation design was performed. The present cup design was examined with twist axial and radial rotation. Results showed that the proposed cup design was better than the general version.

  17. A modified transcondylar screw to accommodate anatomical skull base variations.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, R F; Lissounov, A

    2017-01-01

    Occipitocervical instability may be attributed to congenital, bony/ligamentous abnormalities, trauma, neoplasm, degenerative bone disease, and failed atlantoaxial fixation. Indications for occipitocervical fixation include the prevention of disabling pain, cranial nerve dysfunction, paralysis, or even sudden death. The screw trajectory for the modified transcondylar screw (mTCS) is optimally planned utilizing a three-dimensional skull reconstructed image. The modified mTCS technique is helpful where there is a loss of bone, such as after prior suboccipital craniotomy and/or an inadequate occipital condyle. The new proposed technique is similar to the classical transcondylar screw placement but follows a deeper course along the bony lip of foramen magnum toward clivus from a dorsolateral approach. The modified mTCS technique allows for direct visualization and, therefore, helps to avoid damage to the hypoglossal nerve and lateral aspect of brain stem.

  18. Evaluation of the syndesmotic-only fixation for Weber-C ankle fractures with syndesmotic injury.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R; Syed, S; Metikala, S; Ali, Sa

    2011-09-01

    With the length of the fibula restored and the syndesmosis reduced anatomically, internal fixation using a plating device may not be necessary for supra-syndesmotic fibular fractures combined with diastasis of inferior tibio-fibular joint. A retrospective observational study was performed in patients who had this injury pattern treated with syndesmosis-only fixation. 12 patients who had Weber type-C injury pattern were treated with syndesmosis only fixation. The treatment plan was followed only if the fibular length could be restored and if the syndesmosis could be anatomically reduced. Through a percutaneous or mini-open reduction and clamp stabilization of the syndesmosis, all but one patient had a single tricortical screw fixation across the syndesmosis. Patients were kept non-weight-bearing for 6 weeks, followed by screw removal at an average of 8 weeks. Outcomes were assessed using an objective ankle scoring system (Olerud and Molander scale) and by radiographic assessment of the ankle mortise. At a mean follow-up of 13 months, the functional outcome score was 75. Excellent to good outcomes were noted in 83% of the patients. Ankle mortise was reduced in all cases, and all but one fibular fracture united without loss of fixation. Six patients had more than one malleolar injury, needing either screw or anchor fixations. One patient had late diastasis after removal of the syndesmotic screw and underwent revision surgery with bone grafting of the fibula. This was probably due to early screw removal, before union of the fibular fracture had occurred. We recommend syndesmosis-only fixation as an effective treatment option for a combination of syndesmosis disruption and Weber type-C lateral malleolar fractures.

  19. Biomechanical comparison between bicortical pin and monocortical screw/polymethylmethacrylate constructs in the cadaveric canine cervical vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Hettlich, Bianca F; Allen, Matthew J; Pascetta, Daniel; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Litsky, Alan S

    2013-08-01

    To compare biomechanical stiffness of cadaveric canine cervical spine constructs stabilized with bicortical stainless steel pins and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), monocortical stainless steel screws with PMMA, or monocortical titanium screws with PMMA. Biomechanical cadaver study. Eighteen canine cervical vertebral columns (C2-C7) were collected from skeletally mature dogs (weighing 22-32 kg). Specimens were radiographed and examined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Stiffness of the unaltered C4-C5 intervertebral motion unit was measured in extension, flexion and lateral bending using non-destructive 4-point bend testing. Specimens were then stabilized by (1) bicortical stainless steel pins/PMMA, (2) monocortical stainless steel screws/PMMA, or (3) monocortical titanium screws/PMMA. Mechanical testing was repeated and stiffness data from unaltered specimens and the 3 treatment groups were compared. All 3 surgical methods significantly increased stiffness of the C4-C5 motion unit compared with the unaltered specimen (P < .001 for all treatments), but stiffness was not significantly different among the 3 fixation groups (P = .578). In this model, monocortical screw fixation (with stainless steel or titanium screws) was biomechanically equivalent to bicortical fixation. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated ao cortical bone screws for a limited contact: dynamic compression plate fixation of osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal bones.

    PubMed

    Durham, Myra E; Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F

    2015-02-01

    To compare the monotonic biomechanical properties of a broad 4.5 mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) fixation secured with hydroxyapatite (HA) coated cortical bone screws (HA-LC-DCP) versus uncoated cortical bone screws (AO-LC-DCP) to repair osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal (MC3) bones. Experimental. Adult equine cadaveric MC3 bones (n = 12 pair). Twelve pairs of equine MC3 were divided into 3 test groups (4 pairs each) for: (1) 4 point bending single cycle to failure testing; (2) 4 point bending cyclic fatigue testing; and (3) torsional single cycle to failure testing. For the HA-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole broad LC-DCP (Synthes Ltd, Paoli, PA) was secured on the dorsal surface of each randomly selected MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm HA-coated cortical screws. For the AO-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole 4.5 mm broad LC-DCP was secured on the dorsal surface of the contralateral MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm uncoated cortical screws. All MC3 bones had mid-diaphyseal osteotomies. Mean test variable values for each method were compared using a paired t-test within each group. Significance was set at P < .05. Mean yield load, yield bending moment, composite rigidity, failure load, and failure bending moment, under 4 point bending, single cycle to failure, of the HA-LC-DCP fixation were significantly greater than those of the AO-LC-DCP fixation. Mean ± SD values for the HA-LC-DCP and the AO-LC-DCP fixation techniques, respectively, in single cycle to failure under 4 point bending were: yield load, 26.7 ± 2.15 and 16.3 ± 1.38 kN; yield bending moment, 527.4 ± 42.4 and 322.9 ± 27.2 N-m; composite rigidity, 5306 ± 399 and 3003 ± 300 N-m/rad; failure load, 40.6 ± 3.94 and 26.5 ± 2.52 kN; and failure bending moment, 801.9 ± 77.9 and 522.9 ± 52.2 N-m. Mean cycles to failure in 4 point bending of the HA

  1. Biomechanical stability of intramedullary technique for fixation of joint depressed calcaneus fracture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joshua D; McIff, Terence E; Moodie, Patrick G; Iverson, Jamey L; Horton, Greg A

    2010-03-01

    Internal fixation of the os calcis is often complicated by prolonged soft tissue management and posterior facet disruption. An ideal calcaneal construct would include minimal hardware prominence, sturdy posterior facet fixation and nominal soft tissue disruption. The purpose of this study was to develop such a construct and provide a biomechanical analysis comparing our technique to a standard internal fixation technique. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaver calcanei were used to create a reproducible Sanders type-IIB calcaneal fracture pattern. One calcaneus of each pair was randomly selected to be fixed using our compressive headless screw technique. The contralateral matched calcaneus was fixed with a nonlocking calcaneal plate in a traditional fashion. Each calcaneus was cyclically loaded at a frequency of 1 Hz for 4000 cycles using an increasing force from 250 N to 1000 N. An Optotrak motion capturing system was used to detect relative motion of the three fracture fragments at eight different points along the fracture lines. Horizontal separation and vertical displacement at the fracture lines was recorded, as well as relative rotation at the primary fracture line. When the data were averaged, there was more horizontal displacement at the primary fracture line of the plate and screw construct compared to the headless screw construct. The headless screw construct also had less vertical displacement at the primary fracture line at every load. On average those fractures fixed with the headless screw technique had less rotation than those fixed with the side plate technique. A new headless screw technique for calcaneus fracture fixation was shown to provide stability as good as, or better than, a standard side plating technique under the axial loading conditions of our model. Although further testing is needed, the stability of the proposed technique is similar to that typically provided by intramedullary fixation. This fixation technique provides a biomechanically stable

  2. Postoperative occipital neuralgia with and without C2 nerve root transection during atlantoaxial screw fixation: a post-hoc comparative outcome study of prospectively collected data.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Jin S; Buchowski, Jacob M; Kim, Ho-Joong; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Riew, K Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Although routine transection of the C2 nerve root during atlantoaxial segmental screw fixation has been recommended by some surgeons, it remains controversial and to our knowledge no comparative studies have been performed to determine whether transection or preservation of the C2 nerve root affects patient-derived sensory outcomes. The purpose of this study is to specifically analyze patient-derived sensory outcomes over time in patients with intentional C2 nerve root transection during atlantoaxial segmental screw fixation compared with those without transection. This is a post-hoc comparative analysis of prospectively collected patient-derived outcome data. The sample consists of 24 consecutive patients who underwent intentional bilateral transection of the C2 nerve root during posterior atlantoaxial segmental screw fixation (transection group) and subsequent 41 consecutive patients without transection (preservation group). A visual analog scale (VAS) score was used for occipital neuralgia as the primary outcome measure and VAS score for neck pain, neck disability index score and Japanese Orthopedic Association score for cervical myelopathy and recovery rate, with bone union rate as the secondary outcome measure. Patient-derived outcomes including change in VAS score for occipital neuralgia over time were statistically compared between the two groups. This study was not supported by any financial sources and there is no topic-specific conflict of interest related to the authors of this study. Seven (29%) of the 24 patients in the transection group experienced increased neuralgic pain at 1 month after surgery either because of newly developed occipital neuralgia or aggravation of preexisting occipital neuralgia. Four of the seven patients required almost daily medication even at the final follow-up (44 and 80 months). On the other hand, only four (10%) of 41 patients in the preservation group had increased neuralgic pain at 1 month after surgery, and at ≥ 1

  3. Cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation (ATPS)—Part II. Accuracy of manual insertion and pull-out strength of ATPS

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Frank; Tauber, Mark; Fox, Michael; Martin, Hudelmaier; Forstner, Rosmarie; Augat, Peter; Penzkofer, Rainer; Pirich, Christian; Kässmann, H.; Resch, Herbert; Hitzl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction after multilevel decompression of the cervical spine, especially in the weakened osteoporotic, neoplastic or infectious spine often requires circumferential stabilization and fusion. To avoid the additional posterior surgery in these cases while increasing rigidity of anterior-only screw-plate constructs, the authors introduce the concept of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation. We demonstrated its morphological feasibility as well as its indications in a previous study in Part I of our project. Consequently, the objectives of the current study were to assess the ex vivo accuracy of placing ATPS into the cervical vertebra as well as the biomechanical performance of ATPS in comparison to traditional vertebral body screws (VBS) in terms of pull-out strength (POS). Twenty-three ATPS were inserted alternately to two screws into the pedicles and vertebral bodies, respectively, of six cadaveric specimens from C3–T1. For insertion of ATPS, a manual fluoroscopically assisted technique was used. Pre- and post insertional CT-scans were used to assess accuracy of ATPS insertion in the axial and sagittal planes. A newly designed grading system and accuracy score were used to delineate accuracy of ATPS insertion. Following insertion of screws, 23 ATPS and 22 VBS were subjected to pull-out testing (POT). The bone mineral density (BMD) of each specimen was assessed prior to POT. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of correctly placed screws and non-critical pedicles breaches in axial plane was 78.3%, and 95.7% in sagittal plane. Hence, according to our definition of “critical” pedicle breach that exposes neurovascular structures at risk, 21.7% (n = 5) of all ATPS inserted showed a critical pedicle breach in axial plane. Notably, no critical pedicle perforation occurred at the C6 to T1 levels. Pull-out testing of ATPS and VBS revealed that pull-out resistance of ATPS was 2.5-fold that of VBS. Mean POS of 23 ATPS with a mean BMD of 0.566

  4. Evaluation of the syndesmotic-only fixation for Weber-C ankle fractures with syndesmotic injury

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, R; Syed, S; Metikala, S; Ali, SA

    2011-01-01

    Background: With the length of the fibula restored and the syndesmosis reduced anatomically, internal fixation using a plating device may not be necessary for supra-syndesmotic fibular fractures combined with diastasis of inferior tibio-fibular joint. A retrospective observational study was performed in patients who had this injury pattern treated with syndesmosis-only fixation. Materials and Methods: 12 patients who had Weber type-C injury pattern were treated with syndesmosis only fixation. The treatment plan was followed only if the fibular length could be restored and if the syndesmosis could be anatomically reduced. Through a percutaneous or mini-open reduction and clamp stabilization of the syndesmosis, all but one patient had a single tricortical screw fixation across the syndesmosis. Patients were kept non-weight-bearing for 6 weeks, followed by screw removal at an average of 8 weeks. Outcomes were assessed using an objective ankle scoring system (Olerud and Molander scale) and by radiographic assessment of the ankle mortise. Results: At a mean follow-up of 13 months, the functional outcome score was 75. Excellent to good outcomes were noted in 83% of the patients. Ankle mortise was reduced in all cases, and all but one fibular fracture united without loss of fixation. Six patients had more than one malleolar injury, needing either screw or anchor fixations. One patient had late diastasis after removal of the syndesmotic screw and underwent revision surgery with bone grafting of the fibula. This was probably due to early screw removal, before union of the fibular fracture had occurred. Conclusion: We recommend syndesmosis-only fixation as an effective treatment option for a combination of syndesmosis disruption and Weber type-C lateral malleolar fractures. PMID:21886929

  5. Tibial Lengthening: Extraarticular Calcaneotibial Screw to Prevent Ankle Equinus

    PubMed Central

    Belthur, Mohan V.; Paley, Dror; Jindal, Gaurav; Burghardt, Rolf D.; Specht, Stacy C.

    2008-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2006, we used an extraarticular, cannulated, fully threaded posterior calcaneotibial screw to prevent equinus contracture in 10 patients (four male and six female patients, 14 limbs) undergoing tibial lengthening with the intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor. Diagnoses were fibular hemimelia (two), mesomelic dwarfism (two), posteromedial bow (one), hemihypertrophy (one), poliomyelitis (one), achondroplasia (one), posttraumatic limb-length discrepancy (one), and hypochondroplasia (one). Average age was 24.5 years (range, 15–54 years). The screw (length, typically 125 mm; diameter, 7 mm) was inserted with the ankle in 10° dorsiflexion. Gastrocnemius soleus recession was performed in two patients to achieve 10° dorsiflexion. Average lengthening was 4.9 cm (range, 3–7 cm). Screws were removed after a mean 3.3 months (range, 2–6 months). Preoperative ankle range of motion was regained within 6 months of screw removal. No neurovascular complications were encountered, and no patients experienced equinus contracture. We also conducted a cadaveric study in which one surgeon inserted screws in eight cadaveric legs under image intensifier control. The flexor hallucis longus muscle belly was the closest anatomic structure noted during dissection. The screw should be inserted obliquely from upper lateral edge of the calcaneus and aimed lateral in the tibia to avoid the flexor hallucis longus muscle. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18800215

  6. Use of the S3 Corridor for Iliosacral Fixation in a Dysmorphic Sacrum: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    El Dafrawy, Mostafa H; Strike, Sophia A; Osgood, Greg M

    2017-01-01

    The S1 and S2 corridors are the typical osseous pathways for iliosacral screw fixation of posterior pelvic ring fractures. In dysmorphic sacra, the S1 screw trajectory is often different from that in normal sacra. We present a case of iliosacral screw placement in the third sacral segment for fixation of a complex lateral compression type-3 pelvic fracture in a patient with a dysmorphic sacrum. In patients with dysmorphic sacra and unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures or dislocations, the S3 corridor may be a feasible osseous fixation pathway that can be used in a manner equivalent to the S2 corridor in a normal sacrum.

  7. [Growth and deformity after in situ fixation of slipped capital femoral epiphysis].

    PubMed

    Druschel, C; Placzek, R; Funk, J F

    2013-08-01

    For mild to moderate slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in situ fixation is the current treatment standard. However, concerning the implant selection (screw versus k-wires) as well as the prophylactic stabilisation of the non-affected hip, controversies still exist. The aim of this study was to analyse femoral residual growth and femoral deformities after in situ fixation of SCFE either with k-wires or screws. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the radiographs of adolescents treated for SCFE in our department between 01/2003 and 02/2011. To evaluate femoral growth the articulo-trochanteric distance, centro-trochanteric distance, caput-collum-diaphyseal angle, pin-joint ratio and pin-physis ratio were determined. The femoral deformity was assessed by measuring the sphericity of the femoral head. Degenerative changes were evaluated in the final radiographs. Statistical analysis was performed concerning differences between therapeutically and prophylactically treated hips as well as stabilisations with k-wires and screws. A total of 22 patients (female : male = 14 : 8, mean age girls: 11 ± 1 years, boys: 13 ± 2 years) with 26 slipped capital femoral epiphyses was analysed. K-wires were used for fixation in 4 hips each therapeutically and prophylactically, 22 hips with SCFE and 14 non-affected hips were stabilised with screws. Treatment with screws did not lead to significantly earlier physeal closure than k-wire pinning. Regarding the femoral growth parameters a significant decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance and CCD angle was detectable in all groups. The pin-joint ratio revealed an adequate residual growth in 58 % of the therapeutically and in 72 % of the prophylactically treated hips without significant difference between k-wires and screws. The pin-physis ratio demonstrated similar values. Regarding the femoral deformity the SCFE hips resulted in a significantly reduced sphericity, which remained unchanged during follow-up. The

  8. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: an axial positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion versus three parallel transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion.

    PubMed

    Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F; Hubert, Jeremy D; Martin, George S

    2010-01-01

    To compare in vitro monotonic biomechanical properties of an axial 3-hole, 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (DCP-TLS) with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (3-TLS) for the equine proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods of stabilizing cadaveric adult equine forelimb PIP joints. Cadaveric adult equine forelimbs (n=15 pairs). For each forelimb pair, 1 PIP joint was stabilized with an axial 3-hole narrow DCP (4.5 mm) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion and 1 with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Five matching pairs of constructs were tested in single cycle to failure under axial compression, 5 construct pairs were tested for cyclic fatigue under axial compression, and 5 construct pairs were tested in single cycle to failure under torsional loading. Mean values for each fixation method were compared using a paired t-test within each group with statistical significance set at P<.05. Mean yield load, yield stiffness, and failure load under axial compression and torsion, single cycle to failure, of the DCP-TLS fixation were significantly greater than those of the 3-TLS fixation. Mean cycles to failure in axial compression of the DCP-TLS fixation was significantly greater than that of the 3-TLS fixation. The DCP-TLS was superior to the 3-TLS in resisting the static overload forces and in resisting cyclic fatigue. The results of this in vitro study may provide information to aid in the selection of a treatment modality for arthrodesis of the equine PIP joint.

  9. Fate of the syndesmotic screw--Search for a prudent solution.

    PubMed

    Kaftandziev, Igor; Spasov, Marko; Trpeski, Simon; Zafirova-Ivanovska, Beti; Bakota, Bore

    2015-11-01

    Ankle fractures are common injuries. Since the recognition of the importance of syndesmotic injury in ankle fractures, much of the scientific work has been focused on concomitant syndesmotic injury. Despite the invention of novel devices for restoration and maintenance of the congruent syndesmosis following syndesmotic injury, the metallic syndesmotic screw is still considered to be the "gold standard". The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results in patients who retained the syndesmosis screw with those in whom the screw was removed following open reduction and internal fixation of the malleolar fracture associated with syndesmosis disruption. This was a retrospective study of 82 patients. Minimum follow-up was 12 months. Clinical evaluation included American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for patient general satisfaction. The condition of the screw (removed, intact or broken), presence of radiolucency around the syndesmotic screw and the tibiofibular clear space were recorded using final follow-up radiographs. Three cortices were engaged in 66 patients (80%) and quadricortical fixation was performed in the remaining 16 patients (20%). The number of engaged cortices did not correlate with the clinical outcome and screw fracture. A single syndesmotic screw was used in 71 patients (86%. The mean AOFAS score in the group with intact screw (I) was 83; the scores in the group with broken screw (B) and removed screw (R) were 92.5 and 85.5, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the three groups: this was due to the difference between groups I and B; the difference between groups I and R and groups B and R were not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in VAS results. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical outcome between the group with the screw retained and the group in which the screw was removed; however, the

  10. Optimising implant anchorage (augmentation) during fixation of osteoporotic fractures: is there a role for bone-graft substitutes?

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sune; Procter, Philip

    2011-09-01

    When stabilising a fracture the contact between the screw and the surrounding bone is crucial for mechanical strength. Through development of screws with new thread designs, as well as optimisation of other properties, improved screw purchase has been gained. Other alternatives to improve screw fixation in osteoporotic bone, as well as normal bone if needed, includes the use of various coatings on the screw that will induce a bonding between the implant surface and the bone implant, as well as application of drugs such as bisphosphonates locally in the screw hole to induce improved screw anchorage through their anticatabolic effect on the bone tissue. As failure of internal fixation of fractures in osteoporotic bone typically occurs through breakage of the bone that surrounds the implant, rather than the implant itself, an alternative strategy in osteoporotic bone can include augmentation of the bone around the screw. This is useful when screws alone are being used for fixation, as it will increase pull-out resistance, but also when conventional plates and screws are used. In angularly stable plate-screw systems, screw back-out is not a problem if the locking mechanism between the screws and the plate works. However, augmentation that will strengthen the bone around the screws can also be useful in conjunction with angle-stable plate-screw systems, as the augmentation will provide valuable support when subjected to loading that might cause cut-out. For many years conventional bone cement, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), has been used for augmentation, but due to side effects--including great difficulties if removal becomes necessary--the use of PMMA has never gained wide acceptance. With the introduction of bone substitutes, such as calcium phosphate cement, it has been shown that augmentation around screws can be achieved without the drawbacks seen with PMMA. When dealing with fixation of fractures in osteoporotic bone where screw stability might be inadequate, it

  11. Insufficient stability of pedicle screws in osteoporotic vertebrae: biomechanical correlation of bone mineral density and pedicle screw fixation strength.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Lukas; Huber, Gerd; Sellenschloh, Kay; Viezens, Lennart; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Lehmann, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Loosening of pedicle screws is one major complication of posterior spinal stabilisation, especially in the patients with osteoporosis. Augmentation of pedicle screws with cement or lengthening of the instrumentation is widely used to improve implant stability in these patients. However, it is still unclear from which value of bone mineral density (BMD) the stability of pedicle screws is insufficient and an additional stabilisation should be performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of bone mineral density and pedicle screw fatigue strength as well as to define a threshold value for BMD below which an additional stabilisation is recommended. Twenty-one human T12 vertebral bodies were collected from donors between 19 and 96 years of age and the BMD was measured using quantitative computed tomography. Each vertebral body was instrumented with one pedicle screw and mounted in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Fatigue testing was performed by implementing a cranio-caudal sinusoidal, cyclic (0.5 Hz) load with stepwise increasing peak force. A significant correlation between BMD and cycles to failure (r = 0.862, r 2  = 0.743, p < 0.001) as well as for the linearly related fatigue load was found. Specimens with BMD below 80 mg/cm 3 only reached 45% of the cycles to failure and only 60% of the fatigue load compared to the specimens with adequate bone quality (BMD > 120 mg/cm 3 ). There is a close correlation between BMD and pedicle screw stability. If the BMD of the thoracolumbar spine is less than 80 mg/cm 3 , stability of pedicle screws might be insufficient and an additional stabilisation should be considered.

  12. Biomechanical properties of patellar and hamstring graft tibial fixation techniques in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: experimental study with roentgen stereometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Frank; Pape, Dietrich; Schiel, Karin; Steimer, Oliver; Kohn, Dieter; Rupp, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Reliable fixation of the soft hamstring grafts in ACL reconstruction has been reported as problematic. The biomechanical properties of patellar tendon (PT) grafts fixed with biodegradable screws (PTBS) are superior compared to quadrupled hamstring grafts fixed with BioScrew (HBS) or Suture-Disc fixation (HSD). Controlled laboratory study with roentgen stereometric analysis (RSA). Ten porcine specimens were prepared for each group. In the PT group, the bone plugs were fixed with a 7 x 25 mm BioScrew. In the hamstring group, four-stranded tendon grafts were anchored within a tibial tunnel of 8 mm diameter either with a 7 x 25 mm BioScrew or eight polyester sutures knotted over a Suture-Disc. The grafts were loaded stepwise, and micromotion of the graft inside the tibial tunnel was measured with RSA. Hamstring grafts failed at lower loads (HBS: 536 N, HSD 445 N) than the PTBS grafts (658 N). Stiffness in the PTBS group was much greater compared to the hamstring groups (3500 N/mm versus HBS = 517 N/mm and HSD = 111 N/mm). Irreversible graft motion after graft loading with 200 N was measured at 0.03 mm (PTBS), 0.38mm (HBS), and 1.85mm (HSD). Elasticity for the HSD fixation was measured at 0.67 mm at 100 N and 1.32 mm at 200 N load. Hamstring graft fixation with BioScrew and Suture-Disc displayed less stiffness and early graft motion compared to PTBS fixation. Screw fixation of tendon grafts is superior to Suture-Disc fixation with linkage material since it offers greater stiffness and less graft motion inside the tibial tunnel. Our results revealed graft motion for hamstring fixation with screw or linkage material at loads that occur during rehabilitation. This, in turn, may lead to graft laxity.

  13. Anterior subcutaneous internal fixation for treatment of unstable pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractures of the pelvic ring including disruption of the posterior elements in high-energy trauma have both high morbidity and mortality rates. For some injury pattern part of the initial resuscitation includes either external fixation or plate fixation to close the pelvic ring and decrease blood loss. In certain situations – especially when associated with abdominal trauma and the need to perform laparotomies – both techniques may put the patient at risk of either pintract or deep plate infections. We describe an operative approach to percutaneously close and stabilize the pelvic ring using spinal implants as an internal fixator and report the results in a small series of patients treated with this technique during the resuscitation phase. Findings Four patients were treated by subcutaneous placement of an internal fixator. Screw fixation was carried out by minimally invasive placement of two supra-acetabular iliac screws. Afterwards, a subcutaneous transfixation rod was inserted and attached to the screws after reduction of the pelvic ring. All patients were allowed to fully weight-bear. No losses of reduction or deep infections occurred. Fracture healing was uneventful in all cases. Conclusion Minimally invasive fixation is an alternative technique to stabilize the pelvic ring. The clinical results illustrate that this technique is able to achieve good results in terms of maintenance of reduction the pelvic ring. Also, abdominal surgeries no longer put the patient at risk of infected pins or plates. PMID:24606833

  14. Biomechanical evaluation of three different fixation methods of the Chevron osteotomy of the olecranon: an analysis with Roentgen Stereophotogrammatic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Marc L; Driesprong, Marco; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Verdonschot, Nico; Eygendaal, Denise

    2013-08-01

    In this study three different methods for fixating the Chevron osteotomy of the olecranon are evaluated. Transcortical fixed Kirschner wires with a tension band, a large cancellous screw with a tension band, and a large cancellous screw alone are compared using Roentgen Stereophotogrammatic Analysis (RSA). The different fixation methods were tested in 17 cadaver specimens by applying increasing repetitive force to the triceps tendon. Forces applied were 200N, 350N, and 500N. Translation and rotation of the osteotomy were recorded using Roentgen Stereophotogrammatic Analysis. Both the fixations with a cancellous screw with tension band and with bi-cortical placed Kirschner wires with a tension band provide enough stability to withstand the forces of normal daily use. Since fixation with a cancellous screw with tension band is a fast and easy method and is related to minimal soft tissue damage this method can preferably be used for fixation of a Chevron osteotomy of the olecranon. © 2013.

  15. A Biomechanical Analysis of 2 Constructs for Metacarpal Spiral Fracture Fixation in a Cadaver Model: 2 Large Screws Versus 3 Small Screws.

    PubMed

    Eu-Jin Cheah, Andre; Behn, Anthony W; Comer, Garet; Yao, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Surgeons confronted with a long spiral metacarpal fracture may choose to fix it solely with lagged screws. A biomechanical analysis of a metacarpal spiral fracture model was performed to determine whether 3 1.5-mm screws or 2 2.0-mm screws provided more stability during bending and torsional loading. Second and third metacarpals were harvested from 12 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric hands and spiral fractures were created. One specimen from each matched pair was fixed with 2 2.0-mm lagged screws whereas the other was fixed with 3 1.5-mm lagged screws. Nine pairs underwent combined cyclic cantilever bending and axial compressive loading followed by loading to failure. Nine additional pairs were subjected to cyclic external rotation while under a constant axial compressive load and were subsequently externally rotated to failure under a constant axial compressive load. Paired t tests were used to compare cyclic creep, stiffness, displacement, rotation, and peak load levels. Average failure torque for all specimens was 7.2 ± 1.7 Nm. In cyclic torsional testing, the group with 2 screws exhibited significantly less rotational creep than the one with 3 screws. A single specimen in the group with 2 screws failed before cyclic bending tests were completed. No other significant differences were found between test groups during torsional or bending tests. Both constructs were biomechanically similar except that the construct with 2 screws displayed significantly less loosening during torsional cyclic loading, although the difference was small and may not be clinically meaningful. Because we found no obvious biomechanical advantage to using 3 1.5-mm lagged screws to fix long spiral metacarpal fractures, the time efficiency and decreased implant costs of using 2-2.0 mm lagged screws may be preferred. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy of percutaneous pedicle screws for thoracic and lumbar spine fractures compared with open technique.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Igor; Panero, Irene; Cepeda, Santiago; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Jimenez-Roldan, Luis; Perez-Nuñez, Ángel; Alén, Jose A; Lagares, Alfonso

    2018-06-14

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of screw placement between open pedicle screw fixation and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (MIS) for the treatment of thoracolumbar spine fractures (TSF). Forty-nine patients with acute TSF who were treated with transpedicular screw fixation from January 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into Open and MIS groups. Laminectomy was performed in either group if needed. The accuracy of the screw placement, the evolution of the Cobb sagital angle postoperatively and at 12-month follow up and the neurological status were recorded. AO type of fracture and TLICS score were also recorded. Mean age was 42 years old. Mean TLICS score was 6,29 and 5,96 for open and MIS groups respectively. Twenty five MIS and 24 open surgeries were performed, and 350 (175 in each group) screws were inserted (7,14 per patient). Twenty-four and 13 screws were considered ̈out ̈ in the open and MIS groups respectively (Odds ratio 1,98. 0,97-4,03 p=0,056). The Cobb sagittal angle went from 13,3o to 4,5o and from 14,9o to 8,2o in the Open and MIS groups respectively (both p<0,0001). Loss of correction at 12-month follow up was 3,2o and 4,2o for the open and MIS groups respectively. No neurological worsening was observed. For the treatment of acute thoracolumbar fractures, the MIS technique seems to achieve similar results to the open technique in relation to neurological improvement and deformity correction, while placing the screws more accurately.

  17. Biomechanical Comparison of 3 Inferiorly Directed Versus 3 Superiorly Directed Locking Screws on Stability in a 3-Part Proximal Humerus Fracture Model.

    PubMed

    Donohue, David M; Santoni, Brandon G; Stoops, T Kyle; Tanner, Gregory; Diaz, Miguel A; Mighell, Mark

    2018-06-01

    To quantify the stability of 3 points of inferiorly directed versus 3 points of superiorly directed locking screw fixation compared with the full contingent of 6 points of locked screw fixation in the treatment of a 3-part proximal humerus fracture. A standardized 3-part fracture was created in 10 matched pairs (experimental groups) and 10 nonmatched humeri (control group). Osteosynthesis was performed using 3 locking screws in the superior hemisphere of the humeral head (suspension), 3 locking screws in the inferior hemisphere (buttress), or the full complement of 6 locking screws (control). Specimens were tested in varus cantilever bending (7.5 Nm) to 10,000 cycles or failure. Construct survival (%) and the cycles to failure were compared. Seven of 10 controls survived the 10,000-cycle runout (70%: 8193 average cycles to failure). No experimental constructs survived the 10,000-cycle runout. Suspension and buttress screw groups failed an average of 331 and 516 cycles, respectively (P = 1.00). The average number of cycles to failure and the number of humeri surviving the 10,000-cycle runout were greater in the control group than in the experimental groups (P ≤ 0.006). Data support the use of a full contingent of 6 points of locking screw fixation over 3 superior or 3 inferior points of fixation in the treatment of a 3-part proximal humerus fracture with a locking construct. No biomechanical advantage to the 3 buttress or 3 suspension screws used in isolation was observed.

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of a new fixation device for the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Michio; Ilharreborde, Brice; Gay, Ralph E; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zhao, Kristin D; Berglund, Lawrence J; Zobitz, Mark; An, Kai-Nan

    2009-08-01

    The technology used in surgery for spinal deformity has progressed rapidly in recent years. Commonly used fixation techniques may include monofilament wires, sublaminar wires and cables, and pedicle screws. Unfortunately, neurological complications can occur with all of these, compromising the patients' health and quality of life. Recently, an alternative fixation technique using a metal clamp and polyester belt was developed to replace hooks and sublaminar wiring in scoliosis surgery. The goal of this study was to compare the pull-out strength of this new construct with sublaminar wiring, laminar hooks and pedicle screws. Forty thoracic vertebrae from five fresh frozen human thoracic spines (T5-12) were divided into five groups (8 per group), such that BMD values, pedicle diameter, and vertebral levels were equally distributed. They were then potted in polymethylmethacrylate and anchored with metal screws and polyethylene bands. One of five fixation methods was applied to the right side of the vertebra in each group: Pedicle screw, sublaminar belt with clamp, figure-8 belt with clamp, sublaminar wire, or laminar hook. Pull-out strength was then assessed using a custom jig in a servohydraulic tester. The mean failure load of the pedicle screw group was significantly larger than that of the figure-8 clamp (P = 0.001), sublaminar belt (0.0172), and sublaminar wire groups (P = 0.04) with no significant difference in pull-out strength between the latter three constructs. The most common mode of failure was the fracture of the pedicle. BMD was significantly correlated with failure load only in the figure-8 clamp and pedicle screw constructs. Only the pedicle screw had a statistically significant higher failure load than the sublaminar clamp. The sublaminar method of applying the belt and clamp device was superior to the figure-8 method. The sublaminar belt and clamp construct compared favorably to the traditional methods of sublaminar wires and laminar hooks, and should

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of a new fixation device for the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Michio; Ilharreborde, Brice; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zhao, Kristin D.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; Zobitz, Mark; An, Kai-Nan

    2009-01-01

    The technology used in surgery for spinal deformity has progressed rapidly in recent years. Commonly used fixation techniques may include monofilament wires, sublaminar wires and cables, and pedicle screws. Unfortunately, neurological complications can occur with all of these, compromising the patients’ health and quality of life. Recently, an alternative fixation technique using a metal clamp and polyester belt was developed to replace hooks and sublaminar wiring in scoliosis surgery. The goal of this study was to compare the pull-out strength of this new construct with sublaminar wiring, laminar hooks and pedicle screws. Forty thoracic vertebrae from five fresh frozen human thoracic spines (T5–12) were divided into five groups (8 per group), such that BMD values, pedicle diameter, and vertebral levels were equally distributed. They were then potted in polymethylmethacrylate and anchored with metal screws and polyethylene bands. One of five fixation methods was applied to the right side of the vertebra in each group: Pedicle screw, sublaminar belt with clamp, figure-8 belt with clamp, sublaminar wire, or laminar hook. Pull-out strength was then assessed using a custom jig in a servohydraulic tester. The mean failure load of the pedicle screw group was significantly larger than that of the figure-8 clamp (P = 0.001), sublaminar belt (0.0172), and sublaminar wire groups (P = 0.04) with no significant difference in pull-out strength between the latter three constructs. The most common mode of failure was the fracture of the pedicle. BMD was significantly correlated with failure load only in the figure-8 clamp and pedicle screw constructs. Only the pedicle screw had a statistically significant higher failure load than the sublaminar clamp. The sublaminar method of applying the belt and clamp device was superior to the figure-8 method. The sublaminar belt and clamp construct compared favorably to the traditional methods of sublaminar wires and laminar hooks

  20. Repair of distal biceps tendon rupture with the Biotenodesis screw.

    PubMed

    Khan, W; Agarwal, M; Funk, L

    2004-04-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries with only around 300 cases reported in the literature. Current management tends to favour anatomical reinsertion of the tendon into the radial tuberosity, especially in young and active individuals. These injuries are commonly repaired using either a single anterior incision with suture anchors or the Boyd-Anderson dual incision technique. We report the use of a bioabsorbable interference screw for the repair of distal biceps tendon rupture using a minimal incision technique. In this technique the avulsed tendon and a bioabsorbable screw are secured in a drill hole on the radial tuberosity using whip stitch and fibre wire sutures according to Biotenodesis system guidelines. The technique described requires minimal volar dissection that is associated with a reduced number of synostosis and posterior interosseous nerve injuries. The bioabsorbable interference screw has all the advantages of being biodegradable and has been shown to have greater pullout strength than suture anchors. It is also a reasonable alternative to titanium screws in terms of primary fixation strength. The strong fixation provided allows early active motion and return to previous activities as seen in our case.

  1. [A clinical study on the relationship of the tail femur distance and the lag screw migration or cutting-out after the third generation of Gamma nail fixation of intertrochanteric fracture].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu; Yao, Qi; Zhang, Gen'ai; Ding, Lixiang

    2018-01-01

    To confirm the association between tail femur distance (TFD) and lag screw migration or cutting-out in the treatment of intertrochanteric fracture with the third generation of Gamma nail (TGN). The clinical data of 124 cases of intertrochanteric fracture treated with TGN internal fixation and followed up more than 18 months between January 2012 and December 2015 were reviewed and analyzed. There were 52 males and 72 females, with an age of 46-93 years (mean, 78.5 years). According to AO/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) classification, 43 cases were type 31-A1, 69 cases were type 31-A2, and 12 cases were type 31-A3. The time from injury to operation was 1-10 days (mean, 2.9 days). According to the fracture healing of the patients, the patients were divided into the healing group and failure group. The age, gender, height, bone mineral density (BMD), fracture AO/ASIF classification, the time from injury to operation, and the TFD value at 1 day after operation were recorded and compared. The risk factors for the migration or cutting-out of lag screw were analyzed by logistic regression. There were 111 cases in healing group, the healing time was 80-110 days (mean, 95.5 days). There were 13 cases in failure group, including 2 cases of lag screw cutting-out and 11 cases of significant migration. Except for the TFD value at 1 day after operation in failure group was significantly higher than that in the healing group( t =5.14, P =0.00), there was no significant difference in gender, age, height, BMD, fracture of AO/ASIF classification, and the time from injury to operation ( P >0.05) between 2 groups. logistic regression analysis showed that TFD value was a risk factor for the migration or cutting-out of lag screw (B=1.22, standardized coefficient=0.32, Wald χ 2 =14.66, P =0.00, OR=3.37). The patients with higher TFD value had higher risk of postoperative lag screw migration or cutting-out. This result indicates that the appropriate length of the

  2. Dorsal bridge plating or transarticular screws for Lisfranc fracture dislocations.

    PubMed

    Kirzner, N; Zotov, P; Goldbloom, D; Curry, H; Bedi, H

    2018-04-01

    Aims The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the functional and radiological outcomes of bridge plating, screw fixation, and a combination of both methods for the treatment of Lisfranc fracture dislocations. Patients and Methods A total of 108 patients were treated for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation over a period of nine years. Of these, 38 underwent transarticular screw fixation, 45 dorsal bridge plating, and 25 a combination technique. Injuries were assessed preoperatively according to the Myerson classification system. The outcome measures included the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, the validated Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) functional tool, and the radiological Wilppula classification of anatomical reduction. Results Significantly better functional outcomes were seen in the bridge plate group. These patients had a mean AOFAS score of 82.5 points, compared with 71.0 for the screw group and 63.3 for the combination group (p < 0.001). Similarly, the mean Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire score was 25.6 points in the bridge plate group, 38.1 in the screw group, and 45.5 in the combination group (p < 0.001). Functional outcome was dependent on the quality of reduction (p < 0.001). A trend was noted which indicated that plate fixation is associated with a better anatomical reduction (p = 0.06). Myerson types A and C2 significantly predicted a poorer functional outcome, suggesting that total incongruity in either a homolateral or divergent pattern leads to worse outcomes. The greater the number of columns fixed the worse the outcome (p < 0.001). Conclusion Patients treated with dorsal bridge plating have better functional and radiological outcomes than those treated with transarticular screws or a combination technique. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:468-74.

  3. Mechanical stability of a novel screw design after repeated insertion: can the double-thread screw serve as a back up?

    PubMed

    Wiendieck, Kurt; Müller, Helge; Buchfelder, Michael; Sommer, Björn

    2018-06-01

    We investigated mechanical pull-out behavior and tightening torque of a novel dual-core pedicle "6T screw" (6T). The aim of this study was to test if these changes in screw geometry are increasing the strength of the pedicle screw fixation after repeated insertion. Three different types of pedicle screws were inserted in rigid foam blocks. Tightening torque and pull-out strength were measured during two repetitive insertions of a standard 6.5×45-mm conical screw. The third insertion into the pilot hole was performed using either standard 6.5×45-mm or 7.2×45-mm conical screws or the novel 6.5×45-mm (6T) screw. Additionally, we performed a surface analysis to investigate the bone/screw interface. The maximal tightening torque at the third insertion of the novel 6T screw was 194% higher compared to the standard 6.5×45-mm conical screw and 135% higher compared to the standard 7.2×45-mm conical screw. The pull-out strength of the 6T screw showed no significant changes, and surface analysis revealed a compression of the screw-foam interface due to the different internal diameters. The modified geometrical design of the 6T screw seems to have no statistically significant effect on the pull-out strength, although it achieved a higher tightening torque. This might be due to the different pitch angle cutting a new thread into the material and also to the enlarged inner diameter.

  4. Hemiarthroplasty compared to internal fixation with percutaneous cannulated screws as treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly: cost-utility analysis performed alongside a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waaler Bjørnelv, G M; Frihagen, F; Madsen, J E; Nordsletten, L; Aas, E

    2012-06-01

    We estimated the cost-effectiveness of hemiarthroplasty compared to internal fixation for elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures. Over 2 years, patients treated with hemiarthroplasty gained more quality-adjusted life years than patients treated with internal fixation. In addition, costs for hemiarthroplasty were lower. Hemiarthroplasty was thus cost effective. Estimating the cost utility of hemiarthroplasty compared to internal fixation in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. A cost-utility analysis (CUA) was conducted alongside a clinical randomized controlled trial at a university hospital in Norway; 166 patients, 124 (75%) women with a mean age of 82 years were randomized to either internal fixation (n = 86) or hemiarthroplasty (n = 80). Patients were followed up at 4, 12, and 24 months. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the EQ-5D, and in combination with time used to calculate patients' quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Resource use was identified, quantified, and valued for direct and indirect hospital costs and for societal costs. Results were expressed in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Over the 2-year period, patients treated with hemiarthroplasty gained 0.15-0.20 more QALYs than patients treated with internal fixation. For the hemiarthroplasty group, the direct hospital costs, total hospital costs, and total costs were non-significantly less costly compared with the internal fixation group, with an incremental cost of €2,731 (p = 0.81), €2,474 (p = 0.80), and €14,160 (p = 0.07), respectively. Thus, hemiarthroplasty was the dominant treatment. Sensitivity analyses by bootstrapping supported these findings. Hemiarthroplasty was a cost-effective treatment. Trial registration, NCT00464230.

  5. The Use of MMF Screws: Surgical Technique, Indications, Contraindications, and Common Problems in Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Ehrenfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Mandibulo-maxillary fixation (MMF) screws are inserted into the bony base of both jaws in the process of fracture realignment and immobilisation. The screw heads act as anchor points to fasten wire loops or rubber bands connecting the mandible to the maxilla. Traditional interdental chain-linked wiring or arch bar techniques provide the anchorage by attached cleats, hooks, or eyelets. In comparison to these tooth-borne appliances MMF screws facilitate and shorten the way to achieve intermaxillary fixation considerably. In addition, MMF screws help to reduce the hazards of glove perforation and wire stick injuries. On the downside, MMF screws are attributed with the risk of tooth root damage and a lack of versatility beyond the pure maintenance of occlusion such as stabilizing loose teeth or splinting fragments of the alveolar process. The surgical technique of MMF screws as well as the pros and cons of the clinical application are reviewed. The adequate screw placement to prevent serious tooth root injuries is still an issue to rethink and modify conceptual guidelines. PMID:22110819

  6. A retrospective review of bone tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons fixed with a metal round cannulated interference screw in the femur.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Okudaira, Shuzo; Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    To assess bone tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the use of hamstring tendons fixed with a round cannulated interference (RCI) screw in the femur. A consecutive series of 30 ACL reconstructions performed with hamstring tendons fixed with an RCI screw in the femur and with staples via Leeds-Keio ligament in the tibia was retrospectively reviewed. The clinical outcome was evaluated through the Lysholm score. Anterior instability was tested by Telos-SE (Telos Japan, Tokyo, Japan) measurement. The location and angle of each femoral and tibial tunnel were measured with the use of plain radiographs, and bone tunnel enlargement greater than 2 mm detected any time 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively was defined as positive. Each factor (location and angle of the tunnels, sex, affected side, age, Lysholm score, and Telos-SE measurement) was compared between enlarged and nonenlarged groups. Positive enlargement of the bone tunnel (>2.0 mm) was observed in 36.7% (11 of 30) on the femoral side and 33.3% (10 of 30) on the tibial side, and in 6 knees of both sides. Half of patients (15 of 30) had an enlarged tunnel on the femoral or the tibial side until 1 year postoperatively. In most cases, enlargement reached maximum at 6 months postoperatively. Female patients tended to have an enlarged tunnel, especially on the femoral side (P < .05). Tunnel enlargement was not correlated with location and angle of the tunnels. Moreover, no difference was found in Lysholm score and Telos-SE measurement between enlarged and nonenlarged groups, although the nonenlarged group tended to exhibit higher Lysholm score and lesser instability. Bone tunnel enlargement of the femoral or tibial side was observed in half of patients (6 in both sides, 5 only in the femur, and 4 only in the tibia) after ACL reconstruction was performed with a hamstring tendon fixed with an RCI screw. Female patients had a greater chance for enlargement of the femoral tunnel

  7. Influence of bolt tightening torque, wire size, and component reuse on wire fixation in circular external fixation.

    PubMed

    Wosar, Marc A; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Roe, Simon C

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of bolt torque, wire size, and component reuse on the ability to maintain wire tension in 3 external skeletal fixation systems. Biomechanical study. Yield strength in tension of 1.0-, 1.2-, 1.5-, and 1.6-mm-diameter wires, and yield strength in torque of Hofmann Small Bone Fixation (SBF) cannulated and slotted bolts and IMEX regular and miniature bolts were determined on a testing machine. The minimum bolt tightening torque needed to prevent wire slippage at clinically recommended wire tensions was determined. Components were tested 10 times, and loads at slippage were recorded. The IMEX system required a mean of 8 Nm of bolt tightening torque to maintain 900 N (1.6-mm wires). The SBF system required a mean of 3 Nm bolt torque to maintain 300 N (1.0-mm wires) and 5 Nm to maintain 600 N (1.2-mm wires). The SBF cannulated bolt required 9 Nm of torque to maintain 900 N (1.5-mm wires). The SBF slotted bolts could only maintain 800 N before yield. The IMEX miniature system required a mean bolt torque of 1.1 Nm to maintain 300 N. The cannulated and slotted bolts from both manufacturers failed to maintain 70% of initial wire tension after 7 and 4 uses, respectively. The IMEX systems and the SBF system using 1.0- and 1.2-mm wires could maintain clinically recommended wire tension safely. Only the IMEX system could maintain clinically recommended wire tension safely using 1.5- or 1.6-mm wires. The SBF system using 1.0- and 1.2-mm wires and the IMEX system using all wire sizes can maintain clinically relevant wire tension. The SBF system using 1.5-mm wires could not. Cannulated and slotted bolts should not be used more than 6 and 3 times, respectively. Nuts should not be reused. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  8. Modified C1 lateral mass screw insertion using a high entry point to avoid postoperative occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade, a screw-rod construct has been used commonly to stabilize the atlantoaxial joint, but the insertion of the screw through the C1 lateral mass (LM) can cause several complications. We evaluated whether using a higher screw entry point for C1 lateral mass (LM) fixation than in the standard procedure could prevent screw-induced occipital neuralgia. We enrolled 12 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral C1 LM fixation, with the modified screw insertion point at the junction of the C1 posterior arch and the midpoint of the posterior inferior portion of the C1 LM. We measured postoperative clinical and radiological parameters and recorded intraoperative complications, postoperative neurological deficits and the occurrence of occipital neuralgia. Postoperative plain radiographs were used to check for malpositioning of the screw or failure of the construct. Four patients underwent atlantoaxial stabilization for a transverse ligament injury or a C1 or C2 fracture, six patients for os odontoideum, and two patients for C2 metastasis. No patient experienced vertebral artery injury or cerebrospinal fluid leak, and all had minimal blood loss. No patient suffered significant occipital neuralgia, although one patient developed mild, transient unilateral neuralgia. There was also no radiographic evidence of construct failure. Twenty screws were positioned correctly through the intended entry points, but three screws were placed inferiorly (that is, below the arch), and one screw was inserted too medially. When performing C1-C2 fixation using the standard (Harms) construct, surgeons should be aware of the possible development of occipital neuralgia. A higher entry point may prevent this complication; therefore, we recommend that the screw should be inserted into the arch of C1 if it can be accommodated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strength of fixation constructs for basilar osteotomies of the first metatarsal.

    PubMed

    Lian, G J; Markolf, K; Cracchiolo, A

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four pairs of fresh-frozen human feet had a proximal osteotomy of the first metatarsal that was fixed using either screws, staples, or K wires. Each metatarsal was excised and the specimen was loaded to failure in a cantilever beam configuration by applying a superiorly directed force to the metatarsal head using an MTS servohydraulic test machine. Specimens with a crescentic osteotomy that were fixed using a single screw demonstrated higher mean failure moments than pairs that were fixed with four staples or two K wires; staples were the weakest construct. All specimens fixed with staples failed by bending of the staples without bony fracture; all K wire constructs but one failed by wire bending. Chevron and crescentic osteotomies fixed with a single screw demonstrated equal bending strengths; the bending strength of an oblique osteotomy fixed with two screws was 82% greater than for a crescentic osteotomy fixed with a single screw. Basilar osteotomies of the first metatarsal are useful in correcting metatarsus primus varus often associated with hallux valgus pathology. Fixation strength is an important consideration since weightbearing forces on the head of the first metatarsal acting at a distance from the osteotomy site subject the construct to a dorsiflexion bending moment, as simulated in our tests. Our results show that screw fixation is the strongest method for stabilizing a basilar osteotomy. Based upon the relatively low bending strengths of the staple and K wire constructs, we would not recommend these forms of fixation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Clinical studies of pedicle screw-rod fixation of thoracolumbar burst fractures through posterior unilateral approach after vertebrae corpectomy fusion].

    PubMed

    Hua, Yong-jun; Wang, Ren-yan; Guo, Zhi-hui; Shu, Cun-hong; Li, Chao-hua

    2016-01-01

    To compare the clinical curative effect of thoracolumbar burst fracture treated by the posterior unilateral approach corpectomy fusion screw-rod fixation and anterior corpectomy bone fusion screw plate fixation. From January 2008 to May 2014,36 cases of thoracolumbar burst fracture underwent operation of decompression, fusion, and internal fixation was retrospective analyzed. Among them, 16 patients were treated through posterior approach as posterior group, including 13 males and 3 females aged from 37 to 62 years old; 9 cases caused by falling injury, 3 cases by traffic accident injury,4 cases by heavy aboved;the injury segment was on T₁₂ in 2 cases, L₁ in 5 cases, L₂ in 7 cases, L₃ in 2 cases; according ASIA grade, 3 cases were grade A, 2 cases were grade B, 2 cases were grade C, 5 cases were grade D, 4 cases were grade E; the time between injury and operation ranged from 5 to 15 days. Other 20 patients were treated through anterior-lateral approach as anterior-lateral group, including 15 males and 5 females with age from 27 to 62 years old; 12 cases caused by falling injury, 4 cases by traffic accident injury, 4 cases by heavy aboved; the injury segment was on T₁₂ in 2 cases, L₁, in 7 cases, L₂ in 9 cases, L₃ in 2 cases; for ASIA grade: 4 cases were grade A, 2 cases were grade B, 4 cases were grade C, 6 cases were grade D, 4 cases were grade E; the time between injury and operation ranged from 4 to 12 days. The operation time, bleeding during operation and postoperative drainage volume were observed in two groups,and the changes of nerve function of ASIA grade, clinical efficacy,improved degree of thoracic and lumbar lordosis,and bony fusion were compared between two groups. All patients were followed up from 12 to 24 months with an average of (15.8 ± 3.3) months. The operation time, bleeding during operation, and postoperative drainage volume had no significant different between two groups (P > 0.05). As compared with preoperative, ASIA

  11. Scapular thickness--implications for fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Burke, Charity S; Roberts, Craig S; Nyland, John A; Radmacher, Paula G; Acland, Robert D; Voor, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and map scapula osseous thickness to identify the optimal areas for internal fixation. Eighteen (9 pairs) scapulae from 2 female and 7 male cadavers were used. After harvest and removal of all soft tissues, standardized measurement lines were made based on anatomic landmarks. For consistency among scapulae, measurements were taken at standard percentage intervals along each line approximating the distance between two consecutive reconstruction plate screw holes. Two-mm-diameter drill holes were made at each point, and a standard depth gauge was used to measure thickness. The glenoid fossa (25 mm) displayed the greatest mean osseous thickness, followed by the lateral scapular border (9.7 mm), the scapula spine (8.3 mm), and the central portion of the body of the scapula (3.0 mm). To optimize screw purchase and internal fixation strength, the lateral border, the lateral aspect of the base of the scapula spine, and the scapula spine itself should be used for anatomic sites of internal fixation of scapula fractures.

  12. Biomechanical study of three kinds of internal fixation for the treatment of sacroiliac joint disruption using biomechanical test and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Ren, Xuejiao; Cui, Yunwei; Cheng, Xiaodong; Peng, Shuo; Hou, Zhiyong; Han, Yongtai

    2018-06-19

    To compare the stability of sacroiliac joint disruption fixed with three kinds of internal fixation using both biomechanical test and finite element analysis. Five embalmed specimens of an adult were used. The symphysis pubis rupture and left sacroiliac joint disruption were created. The symphysis pubis was stabilized with a five-hole plate. The sacroiliac joint disruption was fixed with three kinds of internal fixation in a randomized design. Displacements of the whole specimen and shifts in the gap were recorded. Three-dimensional finite element models of the pelvis, the pelvis with symphysis pubis rupture and left sacroiliac joint disruption, and three kinds of internal fixation techniques were created and analyzed. Under the vertical load, the displacements and shifts in the gap of the pelvis fixed with minimally invasive adjustable plate (MIAP) combined with one iliosacral (IS) screw were the smallest, and the average displacements of the pelvis fixed with an anterior plate were the largest one. The differences among them were significant. In finite element analysis and MIAP combined with one IS screw fixation showed relatively best fixation stability and lowest risks of implant failure than two IS screws fixation and anterior plate fixation. The stability of sacroiliac joint disruption fixed with MIAP combined with one IS screw is better than that fixed with two IS screws and anterior plate under vertical load.

  13. Postoperative quality-of-life assessment in patients with spine metastases treated with long-segment pedicle-screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Florian; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Olivier; Menei, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE In recent decades, progress in the medical management of cancer has been significant, resulting in considerable extension of survival for patients with metastatic disease. This has, in turn, led to increased attention to the optimal surgical management of bone lesions, including metastases to the spine. In addition, there has been a shift in focus toward improving quality of life and reducing hospital stay for these patients, and many minimally invasive techniques have been introduced with the aim of reducing the morbidity associated with more traditional open approaches. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of long-segment percutaneous pedicle screw stabilization for the treatment of instability associated with thoracolumbar spine metastases in neurologically intact patients. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of data from a prospective database. The authors analyzed cases in which long-segment percutaneous pedicle screw fixation was performed for the palliative treatment of thoracolumbar spinal instability due to spinal metastases in neurologically intact patients. All of the patients included in the study underwent surgery between January 2014 and May 2015 at the authors' institution. Postoperative radiation therapy was planned within 10 days following the stabilization in all cases. Clinical and radiological follow-up assessments were planned for 3 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Outcome was assessed by means of standard postoperative evaluation and oncological and spinal quality of life measures (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 3.0 [EORTC QLQ-C30] and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], respectively). Moreover, 5 patients were given an activity monitoring device for recording the distance walked daily; preoperative and postoperative daily distances were compared. RESULTS Data from 17 cases were analyzed. There were no

  14. Better Axial Stiffness of a Bicortical Screw Construct Compared to a Cable Construct for Comminuted Vancouver B1 Proximal Femoral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jamie T; Taheri, Arash; Day, Robert E; Yates, Piers J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to biomechanically evaluate the Locking attachment plate (LAP) construct in comparison to a Cable plate construct, for the fixation of periprosthetic femoral fractures after cemented total hip arthroplasty. Each construct incorporated a locking compression plate with bi-cortical locking screws for distal fixation. In the Cable construct, 2 cables and 2 uni-cortical locking screws were used for proximal fixation. In the LAP construct, the cables were replaced by a LAP with 4 bi-cortical locking screws. The LAP construct was significantly stiffer than the cable construct under axial load with a bone gap (P=0.01). The LAP construct offers better axial stiffness compared to the cable construct in the fixation of comminuted Vancouver B1 proximal femoral fractures. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fixation Options for the Volar Lunate Facet Fracture: Thinking Outside the Box.

    PubMed

    Harness, Neil G

    2016-03-01

    Background Fractures of the distal radius with small volar ulnar marginal fracture fragments are difficult to stabilize with standard volar locking plates. The purpose of this study is to describe alternative techniques available to stabilize these injuries. Materials and Methods Five patients were identified retrospectively with unstable volar lunate facet fracture fragments treated with supplemental fixation techniques. The demographic data, pre- and postoperative radiographic parameters, and early outcomes data were analyzed. The AO classification, preoperative and final postoperative ulnar variance, articular step-off, volar tilt, radial inclination, and teardrop angle were measured. The lunate subsidence and length of the volar cortex available for fixation were measured from the initial injury films. Description of Technique Lunate facet fixation was based on the morphology of the fragment, and stabilization was achieved with headless compression screws in three patients, a tension band wire construct in one, and two cortical screws in another. Results Five patients with a mean age of 58 years (range: 41-82) were included. There were two AO C3.2 and three B3.3 fractures. Preoperative radiographic measurements including radial inclination, tilt, and ulnar variance all improved after surgery and were maintained within normal limits at 3-month follow-up. There was no change in the teardrop angle at final follow-up (70-64 degrees; p = 0.14). None of the patients had loss of fixation or volar carpal subluxation. The mean visual analog scale pain score at 3 months was 1 (range: 0-2). Conclusions The morphology of volar lunate facet fracture fragments is variable, and fixation must be customized to the particular pattern. Small fragments may preclude the use of plates and screws for fixation. These fractures can be managed successfully with tension band wire constructs and headless screws. These low-profile implants may decrease the risk of tendon

  16. When do anterior external or internal fixators provide additional stability in an unstable (Tile C) pelvic fracture? A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, E; Theologis, A A; Horst, P; Kandemir, U; Pekmezci, M

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the additional stability that is provided by anterior external and internal fixators in an unstable pelvic fracture model (OTA 61-C). An unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C) was created in 27 synthetic pelves by making a 5-mm gap through the sacral foramina (posterior injury) and an ipsilateral pubic rami fracture (anterior injury). The posterior injury was fixed with either a single iliosacral (IS) screw, a single trans-iliac, trans-sacral (TS) screw, or two iliosacral screws (S1S2). Two anterior fixation techniques were utilized: external fixation (Ex-Fix) and supra-acetabular external fixation and internal fixation (In-Fix); supra-acetabular pedicle screws connected with a single subcutaneous spinal rod. The specimens were tested using a nondestructive single-leg stance model. Peak-to-peak (P2P) displacement and rotation and conditioning displacement (CD) were calculated. The Ex-Fix group failed in 83.3 % of specimens with concomitant single-level posterior fixation (Total: 15/18-7 of 9 IS fixation, 8 of 9 TS fixation), and 0 % (0/9) of specimens with concomitant two-level (S1S2) posterior fixation. All specimens with the In-Fix survived testing except for two specimens treated with In-Fix combined with IS fixation. Trans-sacral fixation had higher pubic rotation and greater sacral and pubic displacement than S1S2 (p < 0.05). Rotation of the pubis and sacrum was not different between In-Fix constructs combined with single-level IS and TS fixation. In this model of an unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C), anterior fixation with an In-Fix was biomechanically superior to an anterior Ex-Fix in the setting of single-level posterior fixation. There was no biomechanical difference between the In-Fix and Ex-Fix when each was combined with two levels of posterior sacral fixation.

  17. Correlation of pull-out strength of cement-augmented pedicle screws with CT-volumetric measurement of cement.

    PubMed

    Fölsch, Christian; Goost, Hans; Figiel, Jens; Paletta, Jürgen R J; Schultz, Wolfgang; Lakemeier, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws increases fixation strength in an osteoporotic spine. This study was designed to determine the cement distribution and the correlation between the pull-out strength of the augmented screw and the cement volume within polyurethane (PU) foam. Twenty-eight cannulated pedicle screws (6×45 mm) (Peter Brehm, Erlangen, Germany) with four holes at the distal end of the screw were augmented with the acrylic Stabilit ER Bone Cement Vertebral Augmentation System (DFine Inc., San Jose, CA, USA) and implanted into open-cell rigid PU foam (Pacific Research Laboratories, Vashon Island, WA, USA) with a density of 0.12 g/cm3, resembling severe osteoporosis. Volumetric measurement of the cement with consideration of the distribution around the screws was done with multislice computed tomography scan (Somatom Definition, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Pull-out strength was tested with a servohydraulic system (MTS System Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA), and nonaugmented screws served as control. Pearson's correlation coefficient with significance level α=0.05 and one-way analysis of variance test were used. We found a high (r=0.88) and significant (p<0.01) correlation between the cement volume and the pull-out strength, which increased by more than 5-fold with a volume of 3 ml. The correlation appeared linear at least up to 4 ml cement volume and failure always occurred at the cement-bone interface. The cement distribution was symmetric and circular around the most proximal hole, with a distance of 14 mm from the tip, and nearly 90% of the cement was found 6 mm distal and cranial to it. The 95% confidence interval for the relative amount of cement was 37%-41% within 2 mm of the most proximal hole. Compared with the control, a cement volume between 2.0 and 3.0 ml increased the pull-out strength significantly and is relevant for clinical purposes, whereas a volume of 0.5 ml did not. A cement volume beyond 3.0 ml should further increase the pull

  18. Definition of a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum by 3D technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoreng; Zhang, Sheng; Luo, Qiang; Fang, Jintao; Lin, Chaowen; Leung, Frankie; Chen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to define a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum using a novel 3D technology. Pelvic CT data of 59 human subjects were obtained to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) models. The transparency of 3D models was then downgraded along the axial perspective (the view perpendicular to the cross section of the posterior column axis) to find the largest translucent area. The outline of the largest translucent area was drawn on the iliac fossa. The line segments of OA, AB, OC, CD, the angles of OAB and OCD that delineate the safe zone (ABDC) were precisely measured. The resultant line segments OA, AB, OC, CD, and angles OAB and OCD were 28.46mm(13.15-44.97mm), 45.89mm (34.21-62.85mm), 36.34mm (18.68-55.56mm), 53.08mm (38.72-75.79mm), 37.44° (24.32-54.96°) and 55.78° (43.97-79.35°) respectively. This study demonstrates that computer-assisted 3D modelling techniques can aid in the precise definition of the safe zone for antegrade insertion of posterior column lag screws. A full-length lag screw can be inserted into the zone (ABDC), permitting a larger operational error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Percutaneous Image-Guided Screw Fixation of Bone Lesions in Cancer Patients: Double-Centre Analysis of Outcomes including Local Evolution of the Treated Focus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Buy, Xavier, E-mail: x.buy@bordeaux.unicancer.fr

    AimTo review outcomes and local evolution of treated lesions following percutaneous image-guided screw fixation (PIGSF) of pathological/insufficiency fractures (PF/InF) and impeding fractures (ImF) in cancer patients at two tertiary centres.Materials and methodsThirty-two consecutive patients (mean age 67.5 years; range 33–86 years) with a range of tumours and prognoses underwent PIGSF for non/minimally displaced PF/InF and ImF. Screws were placed under CT/fluoroscopy or cone-beam CT guidance, with or without cementoplasty. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a simple 4-point scale (1 = worse; 2 = stable; 3 = improved; 4 = significantly improved). Local evolution was reviewed on most recent follow-up imaging. Technical success, complications, and overall survival were evaluated.ResultsThirty-six lesions weremore » treated with 74 screws mainly in the pelvis and femoral neck (58.2 %); including 47.2 % PF, 13.9 % InF, and 38.9 % ImF. Cementoplasty was performed in 63.9 % of the cases. Technical success was 91.6 %. Hospital stay was ≤3 days; 87.1 % of lesions were improved at 1-month follow-up; three major complications (early screw-impingement radiculopathy; accelerated coxarthrosis; late coxofemoral septic arthritis) and one minor complication were observed. Unfavourable local evolution at imaging occurred in 3/24 lesions (12.5 %) at mean 8.7-month follow-up, including poor consolidation (one case) and screw loosening (two cases, at least 1 symptomatic). There were no cases of secondary fractures.ConclusionsPIGSF is feasible for a wide range of oncologic patients, offering good short-term efficacy, acceptable complication rates, and rapid recovery. Unfavourable local evolution at imaging may be relatively frequent, and requires close clinico-radiological surveillance.« less

  20. [Biomechanical research of antegrade intramedullary fixation for the metacarpal fractures].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-shan; Pan, Yong-wei; Tian, Guang-lei; Li, Wen-jun; Xia, Shao-hua; Tao, Jian-feng

    2010-04-15

    To study the biomechanical characteristics of antegrade intramedullary fixation for metacarpal fractures. From March to May 2008, both the 4th and 5th metacarpals from 25 formalin embalmed cadaver hands had three-point bending test after transverse osteotomy followed by randomly fixation with one of the following three methods: plate and screw, antegrade intramedullary K-wire, crossed K-wire. While, both the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals had torsional loading test after the same management as the 4th and 5th metacarpal had undergone. In the three-point bending test, both the maximum bending moment (M(max)) and bending rigidity (EI) of the antegrade intramedullary K-wire were comparable with those of the plate and screw, and were significantly larger than those of the crossed K-wire. In the torsional loading test, the antegrade intramedullary K-wire had a statistically smaller maximum torque (T(max)) than the plate and screw, and had a comparable T(max) with the crossed K-wire; while, the torsional rigidity (GJ) of the intramedullary K-wire was statistically weaker than that of both the plate and screw and the crossed wire. One single antegrade intramedullary K-wire can provide a satisfactory M(max) and EI for metacarpal fixation and shows relatively weak in the torsional loading test. The injured finger should be well protected to avoid torsional deformity in clinical practice.

  1. Valgus osteotomy and repositioning and fixation with a dynamic hip screw and a 135º single-angled barrel plate for un-united and neglected femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sameer; Kukreja, Sunil; Singh, Vivek

    2014-04-01

    To review the outcome of 60 patients who underwent valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy and its repositioning for un-united and neglected femoral neck fractures. 60 patients (mean age, 35 years) underwent valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy and repositioning of the osteotomy and fixation with a dynamic hip screw and a 135° single-angled barrel plate for closed un-united femoral neck fractures after failed internal fixation (n=27) or neglected (>3 weeks) fractures (n=33). The most common fracture type was transcervical (n=48), followed by subcapital (n=6) and basal (n=6). All patients had displaced femoral neck fractures (Garden types 3 and 4). According to the Pauwel angle, 45 fractures were type 2 (30º-70º) and 15 were type 3 (>70º). Patients were followed up for a mean of 3.5 (range, 2-7.5) years. The mean Pauwel angle of the fracture was corrected from 65° (range, 50°-89°) to 26° (range, 25°-28°). Bone union was achieved in 56 patients after a mean of 3.9 (range, 3-5.5) months. The mean Harris hip score improved from 65 to 87.5. Outcome was excellent in 30 patients, good in 24, and poor in 6. Four of the patients developed avascular necrosis; 2 of whom nonetheless achieved a good outcome. Valgus osteotomy and repositioning and fixation with a dynamic hip screw and a 135° single-angled barrel plate was effective treatment for un-united and neglected femoral neck fractures.

  2. Pedicle screw fixation for isthmic spondylolisthesis: does posterior lumbar interbody fusion improve outcome over posterolateral fusion?

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Giovanni; Conti, Alfredo; Cacciola, Fabio; Cardali, Salvatore; La Torre, Domenico; Gambadauro, Nicola Maria; Tomasello, Francesco

    2003-09-01

    Posterolateral fusion involving instrumentation-assisted segmental fixation represents a valid procedure in the treatment of lumbar instability. In cases of anterior column failure, such as in isthmic spondylolisthesis, supplemental posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) may improve the fusion rate and endurance of the construct. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion is, however, a more demanding procedure and increases costs and risks of the intervention. The advantages of this technique must, therefore, be weighed against those of a simple posterior lumbar fusion. Thirty-five consecutive patients underwent pedicle screw fixation for isthmic spondylolisthesis. In 18 patients posterior lumbar fusion was performed, and in 17 patients PLIF was added. Clinical, economic, functional, and radiographic data were assessed to determine differences in clinical and functional results and biomechanical properties. At 2-year follow-up examination, the correction of subluxation, disc height, and foraminal area were maintained in the group in which a PLIF procedure was performed, but not in the posterolateral fusion-only group (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, no statistical intergroup differences were demonstrated in terms of neurological improvement (p = 1), economic (p = 0.43), or functional (p = 0.95) outcome, nor in terms of fusion rate (p = 0.49). The authors' findings support the view that an interbody fusion confers superior mechanical strength to the spinal construct; when posterolateral fusion is the sole intervention, progressive loss of the extreme correction can be expected. Such mechanical insufficiency, however, did not influence clinical outcome.

  3. Is Polymethyl Methacrylate a Viable Option for Salvaging Lateral Mass Screw Failure in the Subaxial Cervical Spine?

    PubMed Central

    Gallizzi, Michael A.; Kuhns, Craig A.; Jenkins, Tyler J.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Biomechanical analysis of lateral mass screw pullout strength. Objective We compare the pullout strength of our bone cement–revised lateral mass screw with the standard lateral mass screw. Methods In cadaveric cervical spines, we simulated lateral mass screw “cutouts” unilaterally from C3 to C7. We salvaged fixation in the cutout side with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or Cortoss cement (Orthovita, Malvern, Pennsylvania, United States), allowed the cement to harden, and then drilled and placed lateral mass screws back into the cement-augmented lateral masses. On the contralateral side, we placed standard lateral mass screws into the native, or normal lateral, masses and then compared pullout strength of the cement-augmented side to the standard lateral mass screw. For pullout testing, each augmentation group was fixed to a servohydraulic load frame and a specially designed pullout fixture was attached to each lateral mass screw head. Results Quick-mix PMMA-salvaged lateral mass screws required greater force to fail when compared with native lateral mass screws. Cortoss cement and PMMA standard-mix cement-augmented screws demonstrated less strength of fixation when compared with control-side lateral mass screws. Attempts at a second round of cement salvage of the same lateral masses led to more variations in load to failure, but quick-mix PMMA again demonstrated greater load to failure when compared with the nonaugmented control lateral mass screws. Conclusion Quick-mix PMMA cement revision equips the spinal surgeon with a much needed salvage option for a failed lateral mass screw in the subaxial cervical spine. PMID:25649421

  4. Analysis of mechanical strength to fixing the femoral neck fracture in synthetic bone type Asnis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Anderson; Lula, Welder Fernandes; de Oliveira, Jonathan Sampaio; Maciel, Rafael Almeida; Souto, Diogo Ranier de Macedo; Godinho, Patrick Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of biomechanical assays of fixation of Pauwels type III femoral neck fracture in synthetic bone, using 7.5mm cannulated screws in inverted triangle formation, in relation to the control group. METHODS: Ten synthetic bones were used, from a domestic brand, divided into two groups: test and control. In the test group, a 70° tilt osteotomy of the femoral neck was fixated using three cannulated screws in inverted triangle formation. The resistance of this fixation and its rotational deviation were analyzed at 5mm displacement (phase 1) and 10mm displacement (phase 2). The control group was tested in its integrity until the fracture of the femoral neck occurred. The Mann-Whitney test was used for group analysis and comparison. RESULTS: The values in the test group in phase 1, in samples 1-5, showed a mean of 579N and SD =77N. Rotational deviations showed a mean of 3.33°, SD = 2.63°. In phase 2, the mean was 696N and SD =106N. The values of the maximum load in the control group had a mean of 1329N and SD=177N. CONCLUSION: The analysis of mechanical strength between the groups determined a statistically significant lower value in the test group. Level of Evidence III, Control Case. PMID:25246851

  5. Pullout characteristics of percutaneous pedicle screws with different cement augmentation methods in elderly spines: An in vitro biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Charles, Y P; Pelletier, H; Hydier, P; Schuller, S; Garnon, J; Sauleau, E A; Steib, J-P; Clavert, P

    2015-05-01

    Vertebroplasty prefilling or fenestrated pedicle screw augmentation can be used to enhance pullout resistance in elderly patients. It is not clear which method offers the most reliable fixation strength if axial pullout and a bending moment is applied. The purpose of this study is to validate a new in vitro model aimed to reproduce a cut out mechanism of lumbar pedicle screws, to compare fixation strength in elderly spines with different cement augmentation techniques and to analyze factors that might influence the failure pattern. Six human specimens (82-100 years) were instrumented percutaneously at L2, L3 and L4 by non-augmented screws, vertebroplasty augmentation and fenestrated screws. Cement distribution (2 ml PMMA) was analyzed on CT. Vertebral endplates and the rod were oriented at 45° to the horizontal plane. The vertebral body was held by resin in a cylinder, linked to an unconstrained pivot, on which traction (10 N/s) was applied until rupture. Load-displacement curves were compared to simultaneous video recordings. Median pullout forces were 488.5 N (195-500) for non-augmented screws, 643.5 N (270-1050) for vertebroplasty augmentation and 943.5 N (750-1084) for fenestrated screws. Cement augmentation through fenestrated screws led to significantly higher rupture forces compared to non-augmented screws (P=0.0039). The pullout force after vertebroplasty was variable and linked to cement distribution. A cement bolus around the distal screw tip led to pullout forces similar to non-augmented screws. A proximal cement bolus, as it was observed in fenestrated screws, led to higher pullout resistance. This cement distribution led to vertebral body fractures prior to screw pullout. The experimental setup tended to reproduce a pullout mechanism observed on radiographs, combining axial pullout and a bending moment. Cement augmentation with fenestrated screws increased pullout resistance significantly, whereas the fixation strength with the vertebroplasty

  6. Biomechanical effect of the configuration of screw hole style on locking plate fixation in proximal humerus fracture with a simulated gap: A finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Kui; Wei, Hung-Wen; Lin, Kang-Ping; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Tsai, Cheng-Lun; Lin, Kun-Jhih

    2016-06-01

    Locking plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures is a commonly used device. Recently, plate breakages were continuously reported that the implants all have a mixture of holes allowing placement of both locking and non-locking screws (so-called combi plates). In commercialized proximal humeral plates, there still are two screw hole styles included "locking and dynamic holes separated" and "locking hole only" configurations. It is important to understand the biomechanical effect of different screw hole style on the stress distribution in bone plate. Finite element method was employed to conduct a computational investigation. Three proximal humeral plate models with different screw hole configurations were reconstructed depended upon an identical commercialized implant. A three-dimensional model of a humerus was created using process of thresholding based on the grayscale values of the CT scanning of an intact humerus. A "virtual" subcapital osteotomy was performed. Simulations were performed under an increasing axial load. The von Mises stresses around the screw holes of the plate shaft, the construct stiffness and the directional displacement within the fracture gap were calculated for comparison. The mean value of the peak von Mises stresses around the screw holes in the plate shaft was the highest for combi hole design while it was smallest for the locking and dynamic holes separated design. The stiffness of the plate-bone construct was 15% higher in the locking screw only design (132.6N/mm) compared with the combi design (115.0N/mm), and it was 4% higher than the combi design for the locking and dynamic holes separated design (119.5N/mm). The displacement within the fracture gap was greatest in the combi hole design, whereas it was smallest for the locking hole only design. The computed results provide a possible explanation for the breakages of combi plates revealed in clinical reports. The locking and dynamic holes separated design may be a better

  7. Central tarsal bone fractures in horses not used for racing: Computed tomographic configuration and long-term outcome of lag screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Gunst, S; Del Chicca, F; Fürst, A E; Kuemmerle, J M

    2016-09-01

    There are no reports on the configuration of equine central tarsal bone fractures based on cross-sectional imaging and clinical and radiographic long-term outcome after internal fixation. To report clinical, radiographic and computed tomographic findings of equine central tarsal bone fractures and to evaluate the long-term outcome of internal fixation. Retrospective case series. All horses diagnosed with a central tarsal bone fracture at our institution in 2009-2013 were included. Computed tomography and internal fixation using lag screw technique was performed in all patients. Medical records and diagnostic images were reviewed retrospectively. A clinical and radiographic follow-up examination was performed at least 1 year post operatively. A central tarsal bone fracture was diagnosed in 6 horses. Five were Warmbloods used for showjumping and one was a Quarter Horse used for reining. All horses had sagittal slab fractures that began dorsally, ran in a plantar or plantaromedial direction and exited the plantar cortex at the plantar or plantaromedial indentation of the central tarsal bone. Marked sclerosis of the central tarsal bone was diagnosed in all patients. At long-term follow-up, 5/6 horses were sound and used as intended although mild osteophyte formation at the distal intertarsal joint was commonly observed. Central tarsal bone fractures in nonracehorses had a distinct configuration but radiographically subtle additional fracture lines can occur. A chronic stress related aetiology seems likely. Internal fixation of these fractures based on an accurate diagnosis of the individual fracture configuration resulted in a very good prognosis. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Tightening force and torque of nonlocking screws in a reverse shoulder prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Terrier, A; Kochbeck, S H; Merlini, F; Gortchacow, M; Pioletti, D P; Farron, A

    2010-07-01

    Reversed shoulder arthroplasty is an accepted treatment for glenohumeral arthritis associated to rotator cuff deficiency. For most reversed shoulder prostheses, the baseplate of the glenoid component is uncemented and its primary stability is provided by a central peg and peripheral screws. Because of the importance of the primary stability for a good osteo-integration of the baseplate, the optimal fixation of the screws is crucial. In particular, the amplitude of the tightening force of the nonlocking screws is clearly associated to this stability. Since this force is unknown, it is currently not accounted for in experimental or numerical analyses. Thus, the primary goal of this work is to measure this tightening force experimentally. In addition, the tightening torque was also measured, to estimate an optimal surgical value. An experimental setup with an instrumented baseplate was developed to measure simultaneously the tightening force, tightening torque and screwing angle, of the nonlocking screws of the Aquealis reversed prosthesis. In addition, the amount of bone volume around each screw was measured with a micro-CT. Measurements were performed on 6 human cadaveric scapulae. A statistically correlated relationship (p<0.05, R=0.83) was obtained between the maximal tightening force and the bone volume. The relationship between the tightening torque and the bone volume was not statistically significant. The experimental relationship presented in this paper can be used in numerical analyses to improve the baseplate fixation in the glenoid bone. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rigid Posterior Lumbopelvic Fixation without Formal Debridement for Pyogenic Vertebral Diskitis and Osteomyelitis Involving the Lumbosacral Junction: Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Marcus D; Ravindra, Vijay M; Dailey, Andrew T; McEvoy, Sara; Schmidt, Meic H

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fixation with S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screws can increase the rigidity of a lumbosacral construct, which may promote bone healing, improve antibiotic delivery to infected tissues, and avoid L5-S1 pseudarthrosis. To describe the use of single-stage posterior fixation without debridement for the treatment of pyogenic vertebral diskitis and osteomyelitis (PVDO) at the lumbosacral junction. Technical report. We describe the management of PVDO at the lumbosacral junction in which the infection invaded the endplates, disk space, vertebrae, prevertebral soft tissues, and epidural space. Pedicle involvement precluded screw fixation at L5. Surgical management consisted of a single-stage posterior operation with rigid lumbopelvic fixation augmented with S2-alar-iliac screws and without formal debridement of the infected area, followed by long-term antibiotic treatment. At 2-year follow-up, successful fusion and eradication of the infection were achieved. PVDO at the lumbosacral junction may be treated successfully using rigid posterior-only fixation without formal debridement combined with antibiotic therapy.

  10. A biomechanical analysis of the self-retaining pedicle hook device in posterior spinal fixation

    PubMed Central

    van Laar, Wilbert; Meester, Rinse J.; Smit, Theo H.

    2007-01-01

    Regular hooks lack initial fixation to the spine during spinal deformity surgery. This runs the risk of posterior hook dislodgement during manipulation and correction of the spinal deformity, that may lead to loss of correction, hook migration, and post-operative junctional kyphosis. To prevent hook dislodgement during surgery, a self-retaining pedicle hook device (SPHD) is available that is made up of two counter-positioned hooks forming a monoblock posterior claw device. The initial segmental posterior fixation strength of a SPHD, however, is unknown. A biomechanical pull-out study of posterior segmental spinal fixation in a cadaver vertebral model was designed to investigate the axial pull-out strength for a SPHD, and compared to the pull-out strength of a pedicle screw. Ten porcine lumbar vertebral bodies were instrumented in pairs with two different instrumentation constructs after measuring the bone mineral density of each individual vertebra. The instrumentation constructs were extracted employing a material testing system using axial forces. The maximum pull-out forces were recorded at the time of the construct failure. Failure of the SPHD appeared in rotation and lateral displacement, without fracturing of the posterior structures. The average pull-out strength of the SPHD was 236 N versus 1,047 N in the pedicle screws (P < 0.001). The pull-out strength of the pedicle screws showed greater correlation with the BMC compared to the SPHD (P < 0.005). The SPHD showed to provide a significant inferior segmental fixation to the posterior spine in comparison to pedicle screw fixation. Despite the beneficial characteristics of the monoblock claw construct in a SPHD, that decreases the risk of posterior hook dislodgement during surgery compared to regular hooks, the SPHD does not improve the pull-out strength in such a way that it may provide a biomechanically solid alternative to pedicle screw fixation in the posterior spine. PMID:17203270

  11. Traumatic dislocation of the S1 polyaxial pedicle screw head: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Du Plessis, Pieter N. B.; Lau, Bernard P. H.

    2017-01-01

    Polyaxial screw head dislocation in the absence of a manufacture defect is extremely rare and represents a biomechanical overload of the screw, leading to early failure. A 58-year-old gentleman underwent instrumented fusion using polyaxial pedicle screws-titanium rod construct with interbody cage for spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at the L5/S1 level. He attempted to bend forward ten days after the surgery which resulted in a dislocation of the right S1 polyaxial screw head from the screw shank with recurrence of symptoms. He underwent revision surgery uneventfully. This case highlights the need to pay particular attention to the strength of fixation and the amount of release to avoid such a complication. PMID:28435927

  12. Traumatic dislocation of the S1 polyaxial pedicle screw head: a case report.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Pieter N B; Lau, Bernard P H; Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis

    2017-03-01

    Polyaxial screw head dislocation in the absence of a manufacture defect is extremely rare and represents a biomechanical overload of the screw, leading to early failure. A 58-year-old gentleman underwent instrumented fusion using polyaxial pedicle screws-titanium rod construct with interbody cage for spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at the L5/S1 level. He attempted to bend forward ten days after the surgery which resulted in a dislocation of the right S1 polyaxial screw head from the screw shank with recurrence of symptoms. He underwent revision surgery uneventfully. This case highlights the need to pay particular attention to the strength of fixation and the amount of release to avoid such a complication.

  13. Relative strength of tailor's bunion osteotomies and fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Haddon, Todd B; LaPointe, Stephan J

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of data is available on the mechanical strength of fifth metatarsal osteotomies. The present study was designed to provide that information. Five osteotomies were mechanically tested to failure using a materials testing machine and compared with an intact fifth metatarsal using a hollow saw bone model with a sample size of 10 for each construct. The osteotomies tested were the distal reverse chevron fixated with a Kirschner wire, the long plantar reverse chevron osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, a mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, the mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, and an additional cerclage wire and a transverse closing wedge osteotomy fixated with a box wire technique. Analysis of variance was performed, resulting in a statistically significant difference among the data at p <.0001. The Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference with least significant differences was performed post hoc to separate out the pairs at a minimum α of 0.05. The chevron was statistically the strongest construct at 130 N, followed by the long plantar osteotomy at 78 N. The chevron compared well with the control at 114 N, and they both fractured at the proximal model to fixture interface. The other osteotomies were statistically and significantly weaker than both the chevron and the long plantar constructs, with no statistically significant difference among them at 36, 39, and 48 N. In conclusion, the chevron osteotomy was superior in strength to the sagittal and transverse plane osteotomies and similar in strength and failure to the intact model. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An in vitro evaluation of rigid internal fixation techniques for sagittal split ramus osteotomies: setback surgery.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Bernardo Ferreira; Grotta-Grempel, Rafael; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical features of 3 different methods of rigid internal fixation for sagittal split ramus osteotomy for mandibular setback in vitro. Sixty polyurethane replicas of human hemimandibles were used as substrates, simulating a 5-mm setback surgery by sagittal split ramus osteotomy. These replicas served to reproduce 3 different techniques of fixation, including 1) a 4-hole plate and 4 monocortical screws (miniplate group), 2) a 4-hole plate and 4 monocortical screws with 1 additional bicortical positional screw (hybrid group), and 3) 3 bicortical positional screws in a traditional inverted-L pattern (inverted-L group). After fixation, hemimandibles were adapted to a test support and subjected to lateral torsional forces on the buccal molar surface and vertical cantilever loading on the incisal edge with an Instron 4411 mechanical testing unit. Peak loadings at 1, 3, 5, and 10 mm of displacement were recorded. Means and standard deviation were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey test with a 5% level of significance, and failures during tests were recorded. Regardless of the amount of displacement and direction of force, the miniplate group always showed the lowest load peak scores (P < .01) compared with the other fixation techniques. The hybrid group demonstrated behavior similar to the inverted-L group in lateral and vertical forces at any loading displacement (P > .05). Molar load tests required more force than incisal load tests to promote the same displacement in the mandibular setback model (P < .05). For mandibular setback surgery of 5 mm, this study concluded that the fixation technique based on the miniplate group was significantly less rigid than the fixation observed in the hybrid and inverted-L groups. Mechanically, adding 1 bicortical positional screw in the retromolar region in the miniplate technique may achieve the same stabilization offered by inverted-L fixation for mandibular sagittal split

  15. Treatment of fractures of the condylar head with resorbable pins or titanium screws: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Matthias; Loukota, Richard; Kuchta, Anne; Stadlinger, Bernd; Jung, Roland; Speckl, Katrin; Schmiedekampf, Robert; Eckelt, Uwe

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to compare in vivo the stability of fixation of condylar fractures in sheep using sonic bone welding and standard titanium screws. We assessed stability of the osteosynthesis and maintenance of the height of the mandibular ramus. Height decreased slightly in both groups compared with the opposite side. The volume of the condyle increased considerably in both groups mainly because callus had formed. The results showed no significant disadvantages for pin fixation compared with osteosynthesis using titanium screws. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical screw segmentation for mobile C-arm CT devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, Joseph; Brehler, Michael; Franke, Jochen; Wolf, Ivo; Vetter, Sven Y.; Grützner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nabers, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Calcaneal fractures are commonly treated by open reduction and internal fixation. An anatomical reconstruction of involved joints is mandatory to prevent cartilage damage and premature arthritis. In order to avoid intraarticular screw placements, the use of mobile C-arm CT devices is required. However, for analyzing the screw placement in detail, a time-consuming human-computer interaction is necessary to navigate through 3D images and therefore to view a single screw in detail. Established interaction procedures of repeatedly positioning and rotating sectional planes are inconvenient and impede the intraoperative assessment of the screw positioning. To simplify the interaction with 3D images, we propose an automatic screw segmentation that allows for an immediate selection of relevant sectional planes. Our algorithm consists of three major steps. At first, cylindrical characteristics are determined from local gradient structures with the help of RANSAC. In a second step, a DBScan clustering algorithm is applied to group similar cylinder characteristics. Each detected cluster represents a screw, whose determined location is then refined by a cylinder-to-image registration in a third step. Our evaluation with 309 screws in 50 images shows robust and precise results. The algorithm detected 98% (303) of the screws correctly. Thirteen clusters led to falsely identified screws. The mean distance error for the screw tip was 0.8 +/- 0.8 mm and for the screw head 1.2 +/- 1 mm. The mean orientation error was 1.4 +/- 1.2 degrees.

  17. Successful fifth metatarsal bulk autograft reconstruction of thermal necrosis post intramedullary fixation.

    PubMed

    Veljkovic, Andrea; Le, Vu; Escudero, Mario; Salat, Peter; Wing, Kevin; Penner, Murray; Younger, Alastair

    2018-03-21

    Reamed intramedullary (IM) screw fixation for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is technically challenging with potentially devastating complications if basic principles are not followed. A case of an iatrogenic fourth-degree burn after elective reamed IM screw fixation of a proximal fifth metatarsal fracture in a high-level athlete is reported. The case was complicated by postoperative osteomyelitis with third-degree soft-tissue defect. This was successfully treated with staged autologous bone graft reconstruction, tendon reconstruction, and local bi-pedicle flap coverage. The patient returned to competitive-level sports, avoiding the need for fifth ray amputation. Critical points of the IM screw technique and definitive reconstruction are discussed. Bulk autograft reconstruction is a safe and effective alternative to ray amputation in segmental defects of the fifth metatarsal.Level of evidence V.

  18. Epidural spinal cord compression with neurologic deficit associated with intrapedicular application of hemostatic gelatin matrix during pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Buchowski, Jacob M; Bridwell, Keith H; Lenke, Lawrence G; Good, Christopher R

    2009-06-01

    Case report. In order to demonstrate the dangers of intrapedicular application of a hemostatic gelatin matrix to decrease blood loss during pedicle screw insertion, we present 2 patients who--as a result of inadvertent extravasation of the matrix into the spinal canal--developed epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) requiring emergent decompression. Variety of hemostatic agents can control bleeding during pedicle screw insertion. We have often used a hemostatic gelatin matrix to decrease bleeding from cannulated pedicles by injecting the material into the pedicle after manually palpating the pedicle. Medical records and radiographic studies of 2 patients with AIS who underwent surgical treatment of their deformity and developed a neurologic deficit due to extravasation of FloSeal were reviewed. A 15 year-old male underwent T4 to L2 posterior spinal fusion (PSF). During pedicle screw insertion, a change in NMEPs and SSEPs was noted. A wake-up test confirmed bilateral LE paraplegia. Screws were removed and no perforations were noted on manual palpation. MRI showed T7 to T10 ESCC. He underwent a T5 to T10 laminectomy and hemostatic gelatin matrix noted in the canal and was evacuated. He was ambulatory at 2 weeks and by 3 months he had complete recovery. The second patient was a 15 year-old female who underwent T4 to L1 PSF. Following screw insertion, deterioration in NMEPs and SSEPs was noted. Screws were removed and SCM data returned to baseline. Except for 3 screws that had an inferior breach (Left T7 and Bilateral T8), screws were reinserted and remainder of the surgery was uneventful. Postoperative examination was normal initially but 2 days later, she developed left LE numbness/weakness. Implants were removed and MRI showed T4 to T9 ESCC.She underwent a left (concave) T4 to T9 hemilaminectomy. Hemostatic gelatin matrix was noted and was evacuated. Six weeks following surgery, she had a complete neurologic recovery. The use of a hemostatic gelatin matrix to

  19. Hybrid fixation with sublaminar polyester bands in the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Albert, Michael C; LaFleur, Brett C

    2015-03-01

    Segmental spinal instrumentation with Luque wire fixation has been the standard treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis for >30 years. More recently, pedicle screw constructs have become the most widely utilized method of posterior spinal fixation; however, they are associated with complications such as implant malposition. We report the use of polyester bands and clamps utilized with pedicle screws in a hybrid fixation construct in the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis. A retrospective review was conducted of 115 pediatric spinal deformity cases between 2008 and 2010 at a single center performed by a single surgeon. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Radiographs were reviewed preoperatively and at the latest follow-up. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Data from case series reporting outcomes of sublaminar wires and all-pedicle screw constructs in the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis were compared with outcomes of the present study. Twenty-nine patients with neuromuscular scoliosis who underwent segmental spinal instrumentation with a hybrid construct including sublaminar bands and pedicle screws were included. There was an average follow-up of 29 months (range, 12 to 40 mo). The average postoperative correction of coronal balance was 69% (range, 24 to 71 degrees). Sagittal balance was corrected to within 2 cm of the C7 plumbline in 97% of patients. The loss of coronal and sagittal correction at latest follow-up was 0% and 2%, respectively. There were 2 intraoperative clamp failures of the 398 implants (0.5%). There were 2 major (6.9%) and 7 minor (24%) complications in 7 patients (24% overall). These results compared favorably to previous case series of sublaminar wire and all-pedicle screw fixation techniques. The polyester band technique is an excellent adjunct in the correction of spinal deformity in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Sublaminar bands utilized in a hybrid construct appear to be safe, can

  20. Beta-tricalcium phosphate plugs for press-fit fixation in ACL reconstruction--a mechanical analysis in bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Hermann O; Hube, Robert; Bernstein, Anke; Seibt, Alexander B; Hein, Werner; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study was to test fixation properties of microporous pure beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) plugs (porosity 40%) for press-fit fixation of the ACL graft using patellar tendons with and without bone blocks. We set out to establish whether it is possible, in this way, to obtain results comparable with those of interference screw fixation of bone-tendon-bone (BTB) grafts in terms of cyclic loading and load-to-failure. In a bovine model 30 ACL grafts were fixed in tibial drill holes, divided into three groups: 10 BTB grafts fixed with TCP press-fit plugs (7x25 mm), 10 pure patellar tendon grafts with TCP press-fit plugs (7x25 mm), and 10 BTB grafts with metal interference screws (7x25 mm). All grafts were tested by cyclic loading (50-200 N) and loaded until failure in a tensiometer. Under cyclic loading one interference screw fixation failed. None of the TCP plug fixations failed. After 1500 cycles the displacement of the graft in the drill hole for BTB fixed with screws was 3.6+/-7.8 mm, for BTB/TCP plugs 1.6+/-3.4 mm, and for the pure tendon/TCP grafts 1.4+/-0.4 mm. Regarding cyclic loading the pure tendon/TCP system was significantly superior to BTB (p=0.007). The load-to-failure for the BTB/interference screw group was 908+/-539 N with a stiffness of 94+/-36 N/mm, 936+/-245 N for the BTB/TCP cylinder group with a stiffness of 98+/-12 N/mm, and 673+/-159 N for the pure tendon/TCP group with a stiffness of 117+/-9 N/mm. In terms of pull-out load the BTB/TCP system was significantly better than the pure tendon/TCP group (p=0.011). However, pure tendon/TCP grafts achieved significantly greater stiffness (p=0.002) than the BTB system. Press-fit fixation with microporous pure beta-TCP plugs of BTB grafts or patellar tendon grafts without bone blocks for ACL reconstruction leads to primary stability comparable with that achieved by fixation with metal interference screws in case of BTB grafts.

  1. Biomechanics of lateral lumbar interbody fusion constructs with lateral and posterior plate fixation: laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Guy R; Parikh, Rachit D; Ryu, Stephen I; Turner, Alexander W L

    2014-03-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is indicated in the treatment of degenerative conditions. Laterally inserted interbody cages significantly decrease range of motion (ROM) compared with other cages. Supplemental fixation options such as lateral plates or spinous process plates have been shown to provide stability and to reduce morbidity. The authors of the current study investigate the in vitro stability of the interbody cage with a combination of lateral and spinous process plate fixation and compare this method to the established bilateral pedicle screw fixation technique. Ten L1-5 specimens were evaluated using multidirectional nondestructive moments (± 7.5 N · m), with a custom 6 degrees-of-freedom spine simulator. Intervertebral motions (ROM) were measured optoelectronically. Each spine was evaluated under the following conditions at the L3-4 level: intact; interbody cage alone (stand-alone); cage supplemented with lateral plate; cage supplemented with ipsilateral pedicle screws; cage supplemented with bilateral pedicle screws; cage supplemented with spinous process plate; and cage supplemented with a combination of lateral plate and spinous process plate. Intervertebral rotations were calculated, and ROM data were normalized to the intact ROM data. The stand-alone laterally inserted interbody cage significantly reduced ROM with respect to the intact state in flexion-extension (31.6% intact ROM, p < 0.001), lateral bending (32.5%, p < 0.001), and axial rotation (69.4%, p = 0.002). Compared with the stand-alone condition, addition of a lateral plate to the interbody cage did not significantly alter the ROM in flexion-extension (p = 0.904); however, it was significantly decreased in lateral bending and axial rotation (p < 0.001). The cage supplemented with a lateral plate was not statistically different from bilateral pedicle screws in lateral bending (p = 0.579). Supplemental fixation using a spinous process plate was not significantly different from bilateral pedicle

  2. Early Experience with Biodegradable Fixation of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures.

    PubMed

    Mazeed, Ahmed Salah; Shoeib, Mohammed Abdel-Raheem; Saied, Samia Mohammed Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    This clinical study aims to evaluate the stability and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced poly-l/dl-lactide (SR-PLDLA) plates and screws for fixation of pediatric mandibular fractures. The study included 12 patients (3-12 years old) with 14 mandibular fractures. They were treated by open reduction and internal fixation by SR-PLDLA plates and screws. Maxillomandibular fixation was maintained for 1 week postoperatively. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Radiographs were done at 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively to observe any displacement and fracture healing. All fractures healed both clinically and radiologically. No serious complications were reported in the patients. Normal occlusion was achieved in all cases. Biodegradable osteofixation of mandibular fractures offers a valuable clinical solution for pediatric patients getting the benefit of avoiding secondary surgery to remove plates, decreasing the hospital stay, further painful procedures, and psychological impact.

  3. Early Experience with Biodegradable Fixation of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mazeed, Ahmed Salah; Shoeib, Mohammed Abdel-Raheem; Saied, Samia Mohammed Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This clinical study aims to evaluate the stability and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced poly-l/dl-lactide (SR-PLDLA) plates and screws for fixation of pediatric mandibular fractures. The study included 12 patients (3–12 years old) with 14 mandibular fractures. They were treated by open reduction and internal fixation by SR-PLDLA plates and screws. Maxillomandibular fixation was maintained for 1 week postoperatively. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Radiographs were done at 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively to observe any displacement and fracture healing. All fractures healed both clinically and radiologically. No serious complications were reported in the patients. Normal occlusion was achieved in all cases. Biodegradable osteofixation of mandibular fractures offers a valuable clinical solution for pediatric patients getting the benefit of avoiding secondary surgery to remove plates, decreasing the hospital stay, further painful procedures, and psychological impact. PMID:26269728

  4. Ankle fracture syndesmosis fixation and management: the current practice of orthopedic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Bava, Eric; Charlton, Timothy; Thordarson, David

    2010-05-01

    There is a wide variety of treatments for disruption of the syndesmosis. There is also controversy as to which device should be used for fixation of the syndesmosis, how many devices should be used, how many cortices the screws should engage, and whether, when, and where the screws should be removed. We conducted a study to determine how orthopedic surgeons manage these injuries. In a survey, we asked orthopedic trauma and foot and ankle fellowship directors and members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society how they routinely treated the syndesmotic injury component of Danis-Weber type C or Lauge-Hansen pronation-external rotation type IV ankle fractures. The overall response rate was 50% (77/153). Fifty-one percent of respondents routinely used 3.5-mm cortical screws, 24% routinely used 4.5-mm cortical screws, and 14% routinely used a suture fixation device. Forty-four percent of respondents routinely used 1 screw, 44% routinely used 2 screws, and the rest were undecided between 1 and 2 screws. Twenty-nine percent of respondents engaged 3 cortices with syndesmotic screws, and 67% engaged 4 cortices. Syndesmotic screws were routinely removed 65% of the time and left in place 35% of the time. Routine removal of syndesmotic screws was done in the operating room in 95% of cases; it was done at 3 months in 49% of cases, at 4 months in 37%, and at 6 months in 12%. The most common method for treating syndesmotic injuries was through use of 3.5-mm screws engaging 4 cortices routinely removed in the operating room at 3 months. Number of screws used to fix the syndesmosis, either 1 or 2, was evenly split.

  5. A new cannulation method for isolated mitral valve surgery--"apicoaortic-pa" cannulation.

    PubMed

    Wada, J; Komatsu, S; Nakae, S; Kazui, T

    1976-06-01

    The present paper describes experimental and clinical studies of a new method "Apicoaortic-PA" cannulation for mitral valve surgery. Our experimental study showed that this method was more rapid and more physiological for cardiopulmonary bypass. We used this technique in 55 cases of isolated mitral valve surgery with successful results. Our general philosophy of surgical approach to the mitral valve diseases is also discussed. We advocate the utilization of the "Apicoaortic Pulmonary Artery" cannulation method for clinical use in isolated mitral valve surgery through the left thoracotomy.

  6. Fixation Options for the Volar Lunate Facet Fracture: Thinking Outside the Box

    PubMed Central

    Harness, Neil G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fractures of the distal radius with small volar ulnar marginal fracture fragments are difficult to stabilize with standard volar locking plates. The purpose of this study is to describe alternative techniques available to stabilize these injuries. Materials and Methods Five patients were identified retrospectively with unstable volar lunate facet fracture fragments treated with supplemental fixation techniques. The demographic data, pre- and postoperative radiographic parameters, and early outcomes data were analyzed. The AO classification, preoperative and final postoperative ulnar variance, articular step-off, volar tilt, radial inclination, and teardrop angle were measured. The lunate subsidence and length of the volar cortex available for fixation were measured from the initial injury films. Description of Technique Lunate facet fixation was based on the morphology of the fragment, and stabilization was achieved with headless compression screws in three patients, a tension band wire construct in one, and two cortical screws in another. Results Five patients with a mean age of 58 years (range: 41–82) were included. There were two AO C3.2 and three B3.3 fractures. Preoperative radiographic measurements including radial inclination, tilt, and ulnar variance all improved after surgery and were maintained within normal limits at 3-month follow-up. There was no change in the teardrop angle at final follow-up (70–64 degrees; p = 0.14). None of the patients had loss of fixation or volar carpal subluxation. The mean visual analog scale pain score at 3 months was 1 (range: 0–2). Conclusions The morphology of volar lunate facet fracture fragments is variable, and fixation must be customized to the particular pattern. Small fragments may preclude the use of plates and screws for fixation. These fractures can be managed successfully with tension band wire constructs and headless screws. These low-profile implants may decrease the risk of

  7. Mechanics of external fixation device of spine: reducing the mounting stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piven, V. V.; Lyulin, S. V.; Kovalenko, P. I.; Mushtaeva, Yu A.

    2018-03-01

    During the installation of the external fixation device on the spine, there is an occurrence of mounting stress due to misalignment of the rod-screws. To determine the magnitude of the mounting stresses, mathematical dependencies are sometimes used. The proposed technical solution is to reduce stress in the external fixation device.

  8. Influence of cement compressive strength and porosity on augmentation performance in a model of orthopedic screw pull-out.

    PubMed

    Pujari-Palmer, Michael; Robo, Celine; Persson, Cecilia; Procter, Philip; Engqvist, Håkan

    2018-01-01

    Disease and injuries that affect the skeletal system may require surgical intervention and internal fixation, i.e. orthopedic plate and screw insertion, to stabilize the injury and facilitate tissue repair. If the surrounding bone quality is poor the screws may migrate, or the bone may fail, resulting in fixation failure. While numerous studies have shown that cement augmentation of the interface between bone and implant can increase screw pull-out force, the physical properties of cement that influence pull-out force have not been investigated. The present study sought to determine how the physical properties of high strength calcium phosphate cements (hsCPCs, specifically dicalcium phosphate) affected the corresponding orthopedic screw pull-out force in urethane foam models of "healthy" and "osteoporotic" synthetic bone (Sawbones). In the simplest model, where only the bond strength between screw thread and cement (without Sawbone) was tested, the correlation between pull-out force and cement compressive strength (R 2 = 0.79) was weaker than correlation with total cement porosity (R 2 = 0.89). In open pore Sawbone that mimics "healthy" cancellous bone density the stronger cements produced higher pull-out force (50-60% increase). High strength, low porosity cements also produced higher pull-out forces (50-190% increase) in "healthy" Sawbones with cortical fixation if the failure strength of the cortical material was similar to, or greater than (a metal shell), actual cortical bone. This result is of particular clinical relevance where fixation with a metal plate implant is indicated, as the nearby metal can simulate a thicker cortical shell, thereby increasing the pull-out force of screws augmented with stronger cements. The improvement in pull-out force was apparent even at low augmentation volumes of 0.5mL (50% increase), which suggest that in clinical situations where augmentation volume is limited the stronger, lower porosity calcium phosphate cement (CPC) may

  9. Development of an optically-based tension-indicating implanted orthopedic screw with a luminescent spectral ruler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Nakul; Rogalski, Melissa M.; Benza, Donny; Lake, Joshua; Urban, Matthew; Pelham, Hunter; Anker, Jeffrey N.; DesJardins, John D.

    2017-03-01

    An orthopaedic screw was designed with an optical tension-indicator to non-invasively quantify screw tension and monitor the load sharing between the bone and the implant. The screw both applies load to the bone, and measures this load by reporting the strain on the screw. The screw contains a colorimetric optical encoder that converts axial strain into colorimetric changes visible through the head of the screw, or luminescent spectral changes that are detected through tissue. Screws were tested under cyclic mechanical loading to mimic in-vivo conditions to verify the sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the sensor. In the absence to tissue, color was measured using a digital camera as a function of axial load on a stainless steel cannulated (hollow) orthopedic screw, modified by adding a passive colorimetric strain gauge through the central hole. The sensor was able to quantify clinically-relevant bone healing strains. The sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility but also displayed hysteresis due to the internal mechanics of the screw. The strain indicator was also modified for measurement through tissue by replacing the reflective colorimetric sensor with a low-background X-ray excited optical luminescence signal. Luminescent spectra were acquired through 6 mm of chicken breast tissue. Overall, this research shows feasibility for a unique device which quantifies the strain on an orthopedic screw. Future research will involve reducing hysteresis by changing the mechanism of strain transduction in the screw, miniaturizing the luminescent strain gauge, monitoring bending as well as tension, using alternative luminescent spectral rulers based upon near infrared fluorescence or upconversion luminescence, and application to monitoring changes in pretension and load sharing during bone healing.

  10. Fixation of zygomatic and mandibular fractures with biodegradable plates.

    PubMed

    Degala, Saikrishna; Shetty, Sujeeth; Ramya, S

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective study, 13 randomly selected patients underwent treatment for zygomatic-complex fractures (2 site fractures) and mandibular fractures using 1.5 / 2 / 2.5-mm INION CPS biodegradable plates and screws. To assess the fixation of zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures with biodegradable copolymer osteosynthesis system. In randomly selected 13 patients, zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures were plated using resorbable plates and screws using Champy's principle. All the cases were evaluated clinically and radiologically for the type of fracture, need for the intermaxillary fixation (IMF) and its duration, duration of surgery, fixation at operation, state of reduction at operation, state of bone union after operation, anatomic reduction, paresthesia, occlusal discrepancies, soft tissue infection, immediate and late inflammatory reactions related to biodegradation process, and any need for the removal of the plates. Descriptives, Frequencies, and Chi-square test were used. In our study, the age group range was 5 to 55 years. Road traffic accidents accounted for the majority of patients six, (46.2%). Postoperative occlusal discrepancies were found in seven patients as mild to moderate, which resolved with IMF for 1-8 weeks. There were minimal complications seen and only as soft tissue infection. Use of biodegradable osteosynthesis system is a reliable alternative method for the fixation of zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures. The biodegradable system still needs to be refined in material quality and handling to match the stability achieved with m