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Sample records for cantera rafael contreras

  1. Cantera and Cantera Electrolyte Thermodynamics Objects

    SciTech Connect

    John Hewson, Harry Moffat

    2015-10-19

    Cantera is a suite of object-oriented software tools for problems involving chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and/or transport processes. It is a multi-organizational effort to create and formulate high quality 0D and 1D constitutive modeling tools for reactive transport codes.Institutions involved with the effort include Sandia, MIT, Colorado School of Mines, U. Texas, NASA, and Oak Ridge National Labs. Specific to Sandia’s contributions, the Cantera Electrolyte Thermo Objects (CETO) packages is comprised of add-on routines for Cantera that handle electrolyte thermochemistry and reactions within the overall Cantera package. Cantera is a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. With this addition, Cantera can be extended to handle problems involving liquid phase reactions and transport in electrolyte systems, and phase equilibrium problemsinvolving concentrated electrolytes and gas/solid phases. A full treatment of molten salt thermodynamics and transport has also been implemented in CETO. The routines themselves consist of .cpp and .h files containing C++ objects that are derived from parent Cantera objects representing thermodynamic functions. They are linked unto the main Cantera libraries when requested by the user. As an addendum to the main thermodynamics objects, several utility applications are provided. The first is multiphase Gibbs free energy minimizer based on the vcs algorithm, called vcs_cantera. This code allows for the calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium in multiple phases at constant temperature and pressure. Note, a similar code capability exists already in Cantera. This version follows the same algorithm, but gas a different code-base starting point, and is used as a research tool for algorithm development. The second program, cttables, prints out tables of thermodynamic and kinetic information for thermodynamic and kinetic objects within Cantera. This program serves as a “Get the numbers

  2. Cantera and Cantera Electrolyte Thermodynamics Objects

    2015-10-19

    Cantera is a suite of object-oriented software tools for problems involving chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and/or transport processes. It is a multi-organizational effort to create and formulate high quality 0D and 1D constitutive modeling tools for reactive transport codes.Institutions involved with the effort include Sandia, MIT, Colorado School of Mines, U. Texas, NASA, and Oak Ridge National Labs. Specific to Sandia’s contributions, the Cantera Electrolyte Thermo Objects (CETO) packages is comprised of add-on routines for Canteramore » that handle electrolyte thermochemistry and reactions within the overall Cantera package. Cantera is a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. With this addition, Cantera can be extended to handle problems involving liquid phase reactions and transport in electrolyte systems, and phase equilibrium problemsinvolving concentrated electrolytes and gas/solid phases. A full treatment of molten salt thermodynamics and transport has also been implemented in CETO. The routines themselves consist of .cpp and .h files containing C++ objects that are derived from parent Cantera objects representing thermodynamic functions. They are linked unto the main Cantera libraries when requested by the user. As an addendum to the main thermodynamics objects, several utility applications are provided. The first is multiphase Gibbs free energy minimizer based on the vcs algorithm, called vcs_cantera. This code allows for the calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium in multiple phases at constant temperature and pressure. Note, a similar code capability exists already in Cantera. This version follows the same algorithm, but gas a different code-base starting point, and is used as a research tool for algorithm development. The second program, cttables, prints out tables of thermodynamic and kinetic information for thermodynamic and kinetic objects within Cantera. This program serves as a “Get the

  3. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkin formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.

  4. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  5. CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.

    2007-07-01

    This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.

  6. CA_OPPUSST - Cantera OPUS Steady State

    2005-03-01

    The Cantera Opus Steady State (ca-opusst) applications solves steady reacting flow problems in opposed-flow geometries. It is a 1-0 application that represents axisymmetnc 3-0 physical systems that can be reduced via a similarity transformation to a 1-0 mathematical representation. The code contain solutions of the general dynamic equations for the particle distribution functions using a sectional model to describe the particle distribution function. Operators for particle nucleation, coagulation, condensation (i.e., growth/etching via reactions with themore » gas ambient), internal particle reactions. particle transport due to convection and due to molecular transport, are included in the particle general dynamics equation. Heat transport due to radiation exchange of the environment with particles in local thermal equilibrium to the surrounding gas will be included in the enthalpy conservation equation that is solved for the coupled gas! particle system in an upcoming version of the code due in June 2005. The codes use Cantera , a C++ Cal Tech code, for determination of gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics physical properties and source terms. The Codes use the Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package, a general library for aerosol modeling, to calculate properties and source terms for the aerosol general dynamics equation, including particle formation from gas phase reactions, particle surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, particle transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis, and thermal radiative transport involving particles. Also included are post-processing programs, cajost and cajrof, to extract ascii data from binary output files to produce plots.« less

  7. [Rafael Rodriguez: artist and activist].

    PubMed

    Molina, C N

    1995-01-01

    Rafael Rodriguez is an artist, activist, and Puerto Rican humanist. As an artist, he has explored various media, including drawing, painting, collage, recycled art and sculpture. He won first prize at the Woodstock Art-Rock Fair in 1969, and had exhibitions at the 1964-65 World's Fair in New York. He uses his art to expose fights for social injustice on a political level. In 1987, Rafael was diagnosed as HIV-positive. After a period of depression, he found in education the strength to rise above his fears and take control of his life. He now lives and works in New Jersey at a facility for persons living with AIDS. He became founder of the Red Ribbon Fellowship, and works with countless other organizations. He has recently returned to his art, which was on hold, as a means of conveying to the community his ideas and preoccupations. In 1987 he created five works which comprise his series called Anguish. They express life and death, the sacred and the profane, and the substance and the emptiness. Rafael uses various elements and diverse religious beliefs in a visual and plastic global vision of humanity and the individual.

  8. Cantera Integration with the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Thomas M.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently developed a software package for modeling generic thermodynamic systems called the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a library of building blocks that can be assembled to represent any thermodynamic system in the Simulink(Registered TradeMark) (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment. These elements, along with a Newton Raphson solver (also provided as part of the T-MATS package), enable users to create models of a wide variety of systems. The current version of T-MATS (v1.0.1) uses tabular data for providing information about a specific mixture of air, water (humidity), and hydrocarbon fuel in calculations of thermodynamic properties. The capabilities of T-MATS can be expanded by integrating it with the Cantera thermodynamic package. Cantera is an object-oriented analysis package that calculates thermodynamic solutions for any mixture defined by the user. Integration of Cantera with T-MATS extends the range of systems that may be modeled using the toolbox. In addition, the library of elements released with Cantera were developed using MATLAB native M-files, allowing for quicker prototyping of elements. This paper discusses how the new Cantera-based elements are created and provides examples for using T-MATS integrated with Cantera.

  9. Cantera Integration with the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Thomas M.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently developed a software package for modeling generic thermodynamic systems called the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a library of building blocks that can be assembled to represent any thermodynamic system in the Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment. These elements, along with a Newton Raphson solver (also provided as part of the T-MATS package), enable users to create models of a wide variety of systems. The current version of T-MATS (v1.0.1) uses tabular data for providing information about a specific mixture of air, water (humidity), and hydrocarbon fuel in calculations of thermodynamic properties. The capabilities of T-MATS can be expanded by integrating it with the Cantera thermodynamic package. Cantera is an object-oriented analysis package that calculates thermodynamic solutions for any mixture defined by the user. Integration of Cantera with T-MATS extends the range of systems that may be modeled using the toolbox. In addition, the library of elements released with Cantera were developed using MATLAB native M-files, allowing for quicker prototyping of elements. This paper discusses how the new Cantera-based elements are created and provides examples for using T-MATS integrated with Cantera.

  10. Some predictions of Rafael Lorente de Nó 80 years later.

    PubMed

    Larriva-Sahd, Jorge A

    2014-01-01

    Rafael Lorente de Nó, the youngest of Santiago Ramón y Cajal disciples, was one of the last Century's more influential researches in neuroscience. This assay highlights two fundamental contributions of Rafael Lorente de Nó to neurobiology: the intrinsic organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex and the basic physiology of the neuron processes. PMID:25520630

  11. Some predictions of Rafael Lorente de Nó 80 years later

    PubMed Central

    Larriva-Sahd, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Rafael Lorente de Nó, the youngest of Santiago Ramón y Cajal disciples, was one of the last Century's more influential researches in neuroscience. This assay highlights two fundamental contributions of Rafael Lorente de Nó to neurobiology: the intrinsic organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex and the basic physiology of the neuron processes. PMID:25520630

  12. Implementation of equilibrium aqueous speciation and solubility (EQ3 type) calculations into Cantera for electrolyte solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2009-06-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level capability for modeling brine thermodynamic properties using the open-source code Cantera. This implementation into Cantera allows for the application of chemical thermodynamics to describe the interactions between a solid and an electrolyte solution at chemical equilibrium. The formulations to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes are based on Pitzer's model to calculate molality-based activity coefficients using a real equation-of-state (EoS) for water. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of solutes at elevated temperature and pressures are computed using the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) EoS for ionic and neutral aqueous species. The thermodynamic data parameters for the Pitzer formulation and HKF EoS are from the thermodynamic database compilation developed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) used with the computer code EQ3/6. We describe the adopted equations and their implementation within Cantera and also provide several validated examples relevant to the calculations of extensive properties of electrolyte solutions.

  13. 75 FR 35504 - San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; Draft Low-Effect Habitat... habitat from specified actions conducted under the authority of the San Rafael Cattle Company. We...

  14. Late Quaternary evolution of the La Cantera Fault System (Central Precordillera, Argentina): A morphotectonic and paleoseismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucca, Laura; Rothis, Martín; Bezerra, Francisco Hilario; Vargas, Nicolás; Lima, Jean

    2015-10-01

    The La Cantera Fault System (LCFS) is the most active Quaternary structure in the Central Precordillera of San Juan, in central-western Argentina; the system extends for 47 km along the intermountain valley that separates the Sierra de La Cantera and La Invernada, north of the San Juan River. The average fault trend is 20°; it dips at angles varying between 15° and 30° W in the northern section, to approximately 40° W in the central section, and up to 60° W in the southern section. The fault affects Holocene to recent alluvium deposits in the western piedmont of the Sierra de La Cantera and is defined by a series of landforms found in compressive tectonic environments, including simple and compound counterslope fault scarps, staircased alluvial terraces, sag ponds, flexural scarps, aligned springs, broom-shaped drainage patterns, river diversions, beheaded channels, changes in incision depths, sinuosity and a river gradient along channels. Trench investigations indicated that at least three events occurred in the past 1.1-10.1 ky. The topographic profiles of the selected channels and interfluves cutting across the northern and central trace of the fault were analyzed using a Stonex Vector GPS differential system to establish the relationship between the topography and slope of the rivers. This morphometric analysis of scarps indicates that active tectonics have played an essential role in controlling the drainage pattern in the piedmont, leading the rivers to adjust to these slope variations. Based on the analyzed geomorphologic, stratigraphic and structural characteristics, the LCFS is considered to be a relevant seismogenic source in the intraplate portion of southern South America, with a recurrence interval of at least 2000 ± 500 years for moderate magnitude earthquakes during the last 11,000 years.

  15. Interferometric Radar Observations of Glaciar San Rafael, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Forster, Richard; Isacks, Bryan

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric radar observations of Glaciar San Rafael, Chile, were collected in October 1994 by NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar C (SIR-C) at both L- (24cm) and C-band frequency (5.6cm), with vertical transmit and receive polarization. The C-band data did not yield good geophysical products, because the temporal coherence of the signal was significantly reduced after 24h. The L-band data were, however, successfully employed to map the surface topography of the icefield with a 10m uncertainty in height, and measure ice velocity with a precision of 4 mm/d or 1.4 m/a. The corresponding error in strain rates is 0.05/a at a 30 m horizontal spacing. The one-dimensional interferometric velocities were subsequently converted to horizontal displacements by assuming a flow direction and complemented by feature-tracking results near the calving front. The results provide a comprehensive view of the ice-flow dynamics of Glaciar San Rafael. The glacier has a core of rapid flow, 4.5 km in width and 3.5 degrees in average slope,surrounded by slower moving ice, not by rock. Ice velocity is 2.6 m/d or 0.95 km/a near the equilibrium line altitude (1200m), increasing rapidly before the glacier enters the narrower terminal valley, to reach 17.5 m/d or 6.4 km/a at the calving front. Strain rates are dominated by lateral shearing at the glacier margins (0.4-0.7/a), except for the terminal-valley section, where longitudinal strain rates average close to 1/a. This spectacular longitudinal increase in ice velocity in the last few kilometers may be a fundamental feature of tidewater glaciers.

  16. CanTrilBat and Cantera_apps v1.0 beta

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.; Hewson, John; Brunini, Victor; Leuth, Christopher

    2013-12-20

    This application can determine the performance and chemical behavior of batteries in 1D when they are cycled. With CanTrilBat, we are developing predictive phenomenological models for battery systems to predict operating performance and rate limiting steps in the performance of battery models. Particular attention is paid to primary and secondary chemistry mechanisms, such as the thermal runaway mechanisms experienced in secondary lithium ion batteries or self-discharge reaction mechanism that all batteries experience to one extent or another. The first application of this model has been for modeling the performance of thermal batteries. However, an implementation for secondary ion batteries is next. CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. A control volume formulation is used to track conserved quantities. An operator-split approach is used to calculate the chemistry, diffusion and electronic transport that occurs within cathode and anode particles, allowing for the reduction in code complexity. All jacobian operations in CanTrilBat utilize numerical jacobians. A home grown predictor corrector scheme is used for time step control, and a home grown newton solver is used to relax the equations at each time step. Trilinos is used to solve for the resulting linear systems equation A block text input format is used to initialize options for the CanTriBat program. Within this block are the names of several XML input files, which specify the chemistry mechanism. These XML input files are read by low level Cantera routines, and serve to initialize the electrode and electrolyte chemistry mechanisms and transport properties. A GUI implementation has been contracted out to a university professor, but has not been implemented yet. It?s expected that CanTriBat will have the capability to do

  17. CanTrilBat and Cantera_apps v1.0 beta

    2013-12-20

    This application can determine the performance and chemical behavior of batteries in 1D when they are cycled. With CanTrilBat, we are developing predictive phenomenological models for battery systems to predict operating performance and rate limiting steps in the performance of battery models. Particular attention is paid to primary and secondary chemistry mechanisms, such as the thermal runaway mechanisms experienced in secondary lithium ion batteries or self-discharge reaction mechanism that all batteries experience to one extentmore » or another. The first application of this model has been for modeling the performance of thermal batteries. However, an implementation for secondary ion batteries is next. CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. A control volume formulation is used to track conserved quantities. An operator-split approach is used to calculate the chemistry, diffusion and electronic transport that occurs within cathode and anode particles, allowing for the reduction in code complexity. All jacobian operations in CanTrilBat utilize numerical jacobians. A home grown predictor corrector scheme is used for time step control, and a home grown newton solver is used to relax the equations at each time step. Trilinos is used to solve for the resulting linear systems equation A block text input format is used to initialize options for the CanTriBat program. Within this block are the names of several XML input files, which specify the chemistry mechanism. These XML input files are read by low level Cantera routines, and serve to initialize the electrode and electrolyte chemistry mechanisms and transport properties. A GUI implementation has been contracted out to a university professor, but has not been implemented yet. It?s expected that CanTriBat will have the capability

  18. Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in

  19. Analysis of the Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy of the Cantera Ignimbrite, San Luis Potosé­ Volcanic field, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, C.; Torres-Hernandez, J.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.

    2007-05-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) results from a group of 17 - 18 sites (286 - 312 specimens) from the Cantera Ignimbrite - of Oligocene age and part of the San Luis Potosí Volcanic Filed (SLPVF), México - are presented and analysed in order to help to determine the source and flow directions. In each site a flow direction is inferred based on AMS results. As the Cantera Ignimbrite is generally dipping, AMS was structural corrected. So two sets of geographical and paleo-geographical (structural corrected) inferred-flow directions were obtained. Both sets are analysed trying to define if the source of the ignimbrite is related to a calderic (concentric structure) or to the NW-SE faulting and jointing. Geographical AMS results mostly give SW flow directions, the southernmost sites give to SSE. Meanwhile structural corrected results give a wider range of flow directions, a group of them to NW and another northerly group mostly to NE. AMS was measured in a KLY2 appliance, Jelinek and other statistics and density distributions were performed, giving all very similar results in each site. Mean susceptibilities range from 147 to 27200 x10-6 SI (average = 5713 x10-6 SI). Anisotropy degree (Pj) range from 1.011 to 1.055 with two sites of 1.134-1.254 (Pj average = 1.046). Shape is mostly oblate ranging the T-factor from 0.843 to 0.409 and only one site mainly prolate: T of -0.277 (T average = 0.550).

  20. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analysis of the Cantera Ignimbrite, San Luis Potosi, México: flow source recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-Miranda, C. I.; Torres-Hernández, J. R.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was selected as the key technique to find the source of the widespread Cantera Ignimbrite and to seek its possible relationship with the San Luis Potosí Caldera. Eighteen sites (372 specimens from 155 cores) from the Oligocene Cantera Ignimbrite were sampled. AMS was measured on a KLY2 Kappabridge. AMS data were processed with Anisoft 3 software using Jelinek statistics as well as `SpheriStat' principal components and density distribution. Mean susceptibilities range from 290 to 5026 × 10-6 SI (average = 2526 × 10-6 SI). The anisotropy degree ( P j) ranges from 1.005 to 1.055, with only one site displaying a value of 1.134 ( P j average = 1.031). AMS ellipsoid shapes are mostly oblate, with the T-factor ranging from 0.843 to 0.144 ( T average = 0.529), although one site is mainly prolate ( T = -0.005), and three additional sites have an important proportion of prolate specimens. Magnetic fabrics of most sites shows k3 axes around nearly circular distributions and k 1- k 2 axes around elongated-girdle distributions defining sub-horizontal foliation planes; exceptions to this are related to sites with a significant percentage of prolate specimens. Flow directions inferred from AMS analysis indicate several ignimbrite sources located along selected NW-SE linear features (faults and fractures such as El Potosino Fault) as well as along the rim of the caldera structure. The geometry of volcanic outcrops, the NW-SE faulting-fracture system, as well as the AMS results suggest that this is a caldera structure resembling the trapdoor-type (Lipman, 1997).

  1. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S. ); Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand.

  2. Reconnaissance of the quality of surface water in the San Rafael River basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, J.C.; Thompson, Kendall R.

    1982-01-01

    The water-quality reconnaissance of the San Rafael River basin, Utah, encompassed an area of about 2,300 square miles (5,960 square kilometers). Data were obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey one or more times at 116 sites from June 1977 to September 1978. At 19 other sites visited during the same period, the streams were dry. Precipitation and stream discharge were significantly less than normal during 1977 and ranged from less than to more than normal during 1978. Exposed rocks in the San Rafael River basin range in age from Permian to Holocene. The Carmel Formation of Jurassic age and various members of the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age are major contributors of dissolved solids to streams in the basin. There are eight major reservoirs having a total usable capacity of 115, 000 acre-feet (142 cubic hectometers); seven are mainly for irrigation supply; one, having a usable capacity of 30,530 acre-feet (38 cubic hectometers), is for power plant water supply. From about April to November, major diversions from Huntington, Cottonwood, and Ferron Creeks nearly deplete the flow downstream; during such periods, downstream flow in these streams and in the San Rafael River is mainly irrigation-return flow and some ground-water seepage. The water at the points of major diversion on Huntington, Cottonwood, and Ferron Creeks is of excellent quality for irrigation; salinity hazard is low to medium, and sodium hazard is low. Dissolved-solids concentrations are less than 500 milligrams per liter. The water at the mouths of Huntington, Cottonwood, and Ferron Creeks has markedly larger dissolved-solids concentrations than does the water upstream from major diversions. The changes in the chemical quality occur in stream reaches that cross a belt of land 10 to 15 miles (16 to 24 kilometers) wide where the Mancos Shale is widely exposed. This also is the area where nearly all the intensive irrigation in the San Rafael River basin is practiced. There are no perennial tributaries

  3. Morphotectonic and neotectonic control on river pattern in the Sierra de la Cantera piedmont, Central Precordillera, province of San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucca, Laura P.; Rothis, Martín; Vargas, Horacio N.

    2014-01-01

    The drainage pattern on the western piedmont of the Sierra de La Cantera is divergent, typical of alluvial fans and showing anomalies that are directly related to the trace of La Cantera thrust. In previous studies, two types of anomalies were identified: upstream of the fault scarp, rivers have a broom-shaped pattern, while downstream - in the hanging block - streams become denser, more sinuous and incised. In this contribution, these morphotectonic aspects were analyzed in detail, making direct and indirect analysis to quantify the relationship between these anomalies and the faults affecting alluvial fans. In addition, the influence of neotectonic activity on smaller water course patterns in the alluvial fan areas was investigated in order to find indicators of on-going vertical movements, since the spatial arrangements of these piedmont channels are determined by slope and structure, where active faults cause diversions or anomalies. Topographic profiles in two selected channels cutting across the trace of the fault were performed using a differential GPS in order to establish the relationship between the sinuosity and slope of these rivers. The results obtained allow us to state that the most sinuous channels have lower slopes and are located in the hanging wall of the fault. Morphometric analysis of scarps stated that active tectonics have played an essential role in controlling the drainage pattern in the piedmont, leading the rivers to adjust to these slope variations. Finally, based on the geomorphologic, stratigraphic, structural and seismological characteristics and parameters analyzed, La Cantera Thrust is considered a seismogenic source of significance to the nearby towns (> 700,000 inhabitants) and also to the large-scale dams built downstream along the San Juan River.

  4. Fish and wildlife to determine endangered status of San Rafael Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed to determine the endangered status of the San Rafael Cactus. Although the only known occurrences of the species do not appear to fall within the boundaries of the San Rafael Swell Special Tar Sands Area, nearby combined hydrocarbon leasing could be impacted. There are two known populations of Pediocactus despainii, about 25 miles apart and each containing 2000 to 3000 individuals. Both occur in central Utah (Emery County), mainly in areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This rare species is being sought be cactus collectors, one population is heavily impacted by recreational off-road vehicles, and approximately one-half of each population is in areas covered by oil and gas leases and/or mining claims for gypsum. If the species is determined to be endangered, then the Fish and Wildlife Service could define a critical habitat for its preservation.

  5. CONHECIMENTO DA LEI GERAL DE SAÚDE – RESPEITO ÀS TRANSFUSÕES SANGUÍNEAS EM MÉDICOS E PACIENTES TESTEMUNHAS DE JEOVÁ DO HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA, ELSA DÍAZ

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo avalia quanto o corpo médico do Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conhece, respeita, informa e aplica a Lei Geral de Saúde em relação aos direitos do paciente Testemunha de Jeová de negar-se a ser transfundido (respeito a sua autonomia); também se os Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem a Lei Geral de Saúde e até que ponto têm se beneficiado diante dessa proposição. O estudo revelou que nem médicos, nem Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem de fato essa lei. PMID:20689657

  6. Temple Mountain member, a new member of the Chinle formation in the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robeck, Raymond C.

    1956-01-01

    A lithologic unit, referred to as mottled purple and white, or the 'pinto bed,' in the San Rafael Swell has E?nough thickness and continuity to be formally named the Temple Mountain member of the Chinle formationo The member is characterized by the presence of: the interfingering of siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone; purple and white color; quartz grains and pebbles; jasper; and coalified material.

  7. Geological map and digital database of the San Rafael Mtn. 7.5-minute quadrangle, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vedder, John G.; Stanley, Richard G.; Graham, S.E.; Valin, Z.C.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the San Rafael Primitive Area (now the San Rafael Wilderness) by Gower and others (1966) and Vedder and others (1967) did not include all of the San Rafael Mtn. quadrangle, and the part that was mapped was done in reconnaissance fashion. To help resolve some of the structural and stratigraphic ambiguities of the earlier mapping and to complete the mapping of the quadrangle, additional field work was done during short intervals in 1980 and 1981 and from 1996 to 1998. Contacts within the belt of Franciscan rocks at the southwestern corner of the quadrangle were generalized from the detailed map by Wahl (1998). Because extensive areas were inaccessible owing to impenetrable chaparral, observations from several helicopter overflights (1965, 1980, 1981) and interpretations from aerial photographs were used as compilation aids. Consequently, some of the depicted contacts and faults are highly inferential, particularly within the Upper Cretaceous rocks throughout the middle part of the quadrangle.

  8. Physical processes of shallow mafic dike emplacement near the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, P.T.; Gartner, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Some 200 shonkinite dikes, sills, and breccia bodies on the western Colorado Plateau of south-central Utah were intruded from approximately 3.7 to 4.6 Ma, contemporaneous with mafic volcanism along the nearby plateau margin. Thicknesses of dikes range to about 6 m; the log-normal mean thickness is 85 cm. Despite the excellent exposures of essentially all dikes in strata of the Jurassic San Rafael Group, their number is indeterminate from their outcrop and spacing because they are everywhere greatly segmented. By our grouping of almost 2000 dike segments, most dikes are less than 2 km in outcrop length; the longest is 9 km. Because the San Rafael magmas were primitive and probably ascended directly from the mantle, dike lengths in outcrop are much less than their heights. The present exposures probably lie along the irregular upper peripheries of dikes that lengthen and merge with depth. Orientations of steps on dike contacts record local directions of dike-fracture propagation; about half of the measurements plunge less than 30??, showing that lateral propagation at dike peripheries is as important as the vertical propagation ultimately responsible for ascent. The San Rafael dikes, now exposed after erosion of about 0.5-1.5 km, appear to thicken and shorten upward, probably because near-surface vesiculation enhanced magmatic driving pressures. Propagation likely ceased soon after the first dike segments began to feed nearby sills or vented to initiate small-volume eruptions. Most of the dikes are exposed in clastic strata of the Jurassic San Rafael Group. They probably acquired their strikes, however, while ascending along well-developed joints in massive sandstones of the underlying Glen Canyon Group. Rotation of far-field stresses during the emplacement interval cannot account for disparate strikes of the dikes, which vary through 110??, most lying between north and N25??W. Rather, the two regional horizontal principal stresses were probably nearly equal, and so

  9. The Marine Ecology of the Laguna San Rafael (Southern Chile): Ice Scour and Opportunism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, John

    1995-07-01

    Surveys of the intertidal fauna and flora, the plankton, fish, birds and marine mammals of the Laguna San Rafael were carried out by a Raleigh International Expedition in January-February 1993. The Laguna is dominated by the effects of scouring, low temperature and low salinity produced by the calving, tide-water San Rafael glacier that discharges into the Laguna. The fauna and flora are simple and largely limited to a small sector of the Laguna, relatively unaffected by ice. There is a predominance of herbivorous fish, ducks, geese and swans, feeding mainly on macroalgae. Penguins, cormorants, sea lions and porpoises make up the top predators. The strandline is influenced by very heavy rainfall and supports a fauna of freshwater and terrestrial molluscs and earthworms, fed upon by birds and frogs. Large numbers of mussels are present in the north-eastern sector of the Laguna, but many are found in poor condition, high on the shore. It is suggested that poor condition and mortality are caused by large calving waves that dislodge mussels. Such waves are caused by occasional loss of massive quantities of ice from the glacier.

  10. Analysis of a multisensor image data set of south San Rafael Swell, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) image of the southern portion of the San Rafael Swell in Utah has been digitized and registered to coregistered Landsat, Seasat, and HCMM thermal inertia images. The addition of the SIR-A image to the registered data set improves rock type discrimination in both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Sedimentary units can be separated in a combined SIR-A/Seasat image that cannot be seen in either image alone. Discriminant Analyses show that the classification accuracy is improved with addition of the SIR-A image to Landsat images. Classification accuracy is further improved when texture information from the Seasat and SIR-A images is included.

  11. Early and mid-Holocene age for the Tempanos moraines, Laguna San Rafael, Patagonian Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Stephan; Glasser, Neil F.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Jansson, Krister N.

    2012-01-01

    Data about the nature and timing of Holocene events from the Southern Hemisphere, especially in southern South America, are required to provide insight into the extent and nature of past climate change in a region where land-based records are restricted. Here we present the first use of single grain Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of a moraine sequence recording glacial advance along the western side of the Patagonian Icefields. Dates from the Tempanos moraines at Laguna San Rafael (LSR) show that the San Rafael Glacier (SRG) advanced to maximum Holocene positions during the period 9.3 to 9.7 ka and at 5.7 ka. Outwash lying beneath the moraine in its northern portion, dated to 7.7 ka, indicates that the glacier front was also advanced at this time. Since these advances span both the regional early Holocene warm-dry phase (11.5 ka to 7.8 ka) and the subsequent cooling and rise in precipitation in the mid-late Holocene (since 6.6 ka) we infer that the advances of the SRG are not simply climate-driven, but that the glacier has also probably responded strongly to non-climatic stimuli such as internal ice dynamics and the transition between calving and non-calving. Many westwards-flowing glaciers in Patagonia were probably calving during much of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, so we conclude that establishing robust glacial chronologies where climatic and non-climatic factors cannot be distinguished is likely to remain a challenge.

  12. Magma differentiation in shallow sills controlled by compaction and surface tension: San Rafael desert, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, M.; Savov, I. P.; Connor, C.

    2010-12-01

    Veinlets, veins, sheet or layers of syenite are common structures found in alkaline basalt sills. The mechanism usually invoked to explain their formation are liquid immiscibility, multiple intrusion or crystal fractionation from primitive mafic melt. Syenite veins of few centimeters to sheets of up to 1-2 m thick are ubiquitous in remarkably well-exposed sills of the San Rafael subvolcanic field in the Colorado Plateau, Utah. In some of these exposures we have found an intriguing configuration in which the main body of the alkaline sill is underlain by a lower density sheet of syenite of ~ 1 m thick. The contact is flat and is not a chilled margin, therefore a multiple intrusion scenario with long intervals between injections can be disregarded. This implies that both layers were fluid at the time of magma emplacement. As the more felsic less dense syenite is at the bottom of the sill any mechanism governed exclusively by bouyancy would be problematic. In an attempt to shed light on this apparent riddle we propose the following geological scenario: The sill is built by continuous injections. Magma starts to cool and fractional crystallization operates at this stage to differentiate the alkaline magma into syenite. By the time ~60% of crystallization is attained the system can be described as two-phase flow consisting of pore-syenite melt in hot-creeping matrix. The forces acting to segregate melt into veins or sheets are the gravitational force and surface tension. When surface tension is stronger than the gravitational force, differences in average curvature or surface tension translates into pressure differences that drive melt flow from low to high porosity regions. If the last injections occur at the bottom of the sill a syenite layer may be formed. With the aid of dimensional analysis and two-phase numerical models that account for gravitational compaction and surface tension effects, we explore the conditions that allow for centimeter-scale veins to meter

  13. San Rafael, Peru: geology and structure of the worlds richest tin lode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynarczyk, Michael S. J.; Sherlock, Ross L.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2003-08-01

    The San Rafael mine exploits an unusually high grade, lode-type Sn-Cu deposit in the Eastern Cordillera of the Peruvian Central Andes. The lode is centered on a shallow-level, Late Oligocene granitoid stock, which was emplaced into early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. It has a known vertical extent exceeding 1,200 m and displays marked vertical primary metal zoning, with copper overlying tin. The tin mineralization occurs mainly as cassiterite-quartz-chlorite veins and as cassiterite in breccias. The bulk of it is hosted by a K-feldspar megacrystic, biotite- and cordierite-bearing leucomonzogranite, which is the most distinctive phase of the pluton. Copper mineralization occurs predominantly in the veins that straddle the metasedimentary rock-intrusion contact or are hosted entirely by slates. Both tin and copper mineralization are associated with strong chloritic alteration, which is superimposed on an earlier episode of sericitization and tourmaline-quartz veining. Based on the distribution of alteration and ore mineralogy, cassiterite deposition and subsequent chalcopyrite precipitation are believed to have been the result of a single, prolonged hydrothermal event. The source of the metals is inferred to be a highly evolved, peraluminous magma, related to the leucomonzogranitic phase of the San Rafael pluton. Preliminary fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests that ore deposition took place during the mixing of moderate and low salinity fluids, which were introduced in a series of pulses. Several large fault-jogs, created by sinistral-normal, strike-slip movement, are interpreted to have focused synkinematic magmatic fluids and permitted their effective mixing with meteoric waters. It is proposed that this mixing led to rapid oxidation of Sn (II) chloride species and caused supersaturation of the fluids in cassiterite, resulting in the development of localized, high-grade ore shoots. A favorable structural regime that promoted large-scale mixing of two

  14. The Changing Geomorphic Template of Native Fish Habitat of the Lower San Rafael River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, S. T.; Dean, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The physical template of the aquatic ecosystem of the lower San Rafael River (UT) changed dramatically during the 20th century. 1938 aerial photographs depict a channel comprised of multiple threads with numerous bars. The river has since been transformed into a single-thread channel with a low width-to-depth ratio. The drastic changes in the channel geometry have resulted in severely degraded habitat conditions. Despite these changes in habitat quality and quantity, roundtail chub, flannelmouth sucker, and bluehead sucker are still found in isolated patches of complex habitat. Three factors are primarily responsible for changes in the channel geomorphology: (1) reduced magnitude and duration of the spring snowmelt flood, (2) dense establishment of tamarisk (Tamarix spp) throughout the alluvial valley, and (3) continued supply of fine sediment from ephemeral tributaries. We determined the degree and rate of geomorphic change by analyzing spatially-rich data extracted from aerial photographs and temporally-rich data recorded at USGS gage 09328500. We evaluated channel morphologic processes by interpreting stratigraphy in floodplain trenches and dated these alluvial deposits using dendro-geomorphic techniques. We correlated the flood record to floodplain deposits, thus determining the role of floods in shaping the present channel. Aerial photography analysis shows that a 10-km reach cumulatively narrowed 62% during a span of 44 years. Between 1949 and 1970, the channel cross-section at USGS gage 09328500 narrowed by 60% and incised its bed approximately 1.2 m. Rating relations since the 1980’s provide corroborative evidence that channel narrowing and reduction in channel capacity continues; today, parts of the channel bed are on bedrock, thereby preventing further incision. Stratigraphy observed in a 40-m long trench demonstrates that the channel has narrowed by oblique and vertical accretion processes. Dendrogeomorphic results elucidate the relative role of

  15. Potential effects of anticipated coal mining on salinity of the Price, San Rafael, and Green Rivers, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of anticipated coal mining in Utah on the salinity of the Price, San Rafael, and Green Rivers is to be addressed in the repermitting of existing mines and permitting of new mines. To determine the potential impacts, mathematical models were developed for the Price and San Rafael River basins. Little impact on the quantity and quality of streamflow is expected for the Price and San Rafael Rivers. The increase in mean monthly flow of the Price River downstream from Scofield Reservoir is projected as 3.5 cu ft/sec, ranging from 1.7% in June to 140% in February. The potential increase in dissolved solids concentration downstream from Scofield Reservoir would range from 10.4% in June and July (from 202 to 223 mg/L) to 97.0% in February (from 202 to 398 mg/L). However, the concentration of the mixture of mine water with the existing flow released from Scofield Reservoir would contain less than 500 mg/L of dissolved solids. At the mouth of the Price River, the potential increase in mean monthly flow is projected as 12.6 cu ft/sec, ranging from 3.7% in May to 37.7% in January. The potential changes in dissolved solids concentration would range from a 20.7% decrease in January (from 3,677 to 2,917 mg/L) to a 1.3% increase in June (from 1,911 to 1,935 mg/L). At the mouth of the San Rafael River , the potential increase in mean monthly flow ranges from 2.9 cu ft/sec in February to 6.7 cu ft/sec in May, with the increase ranging from 0.8% in June to 12.6% in November. The potential changes in dissolved solids concentration would range from a 5.3 % decrease in March (from 2,318 to 2,195 mg/L) to a 0.6% increase in May (from 1,649 to 1,659 mg/L). The anticipated mining in the Price and San Rafael River basins is not expected to cause a detectable change in the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Green River. The projected peak increase in flow resulting from discharge from the mines is less than 0.3% of the average flow in the Green River. (Author 's abstract)

  16. The Choiyoi volcanic province at 34°S-36°S (San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina): Implications for the Late Palaeozoic evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiman, Laura E.; Japas, María S.

    2009-08-01

    The Choiyoi rhyolitic province of Chile and Argentina (23°S-42°S) was emplaced at the SW margin of Gondwana during the Permian. The San Rafael Massif (Mendoza, Argentina, 34°-36°S), is a key area to analyse the relative timing of Choyoi magmatism and related deformation as it bears one of the most complete and well exposed succession. Stratigraphic, structural and magmatic studies indicate that major changes of geodynamic conditions occurred during the Permian since arc-related sequences syntectonic with transpression (lower Choiyoi) were followed by transitional to intraplate, postorogenic suites coeval with transtension (upper Choiyoi). During the Early Permian, a major event of N-NNW dextral transpressional motions deformed the Carboniferous foreland basin in the San Rafael Massif. This event is attributed to the first episode of the San Rafael orogeny and can be related to oblique subduction (Az. 30°) of the Palaeo-Pacific plate. Ca. 280 Ma the inception of voluminous calc-alkaline volcanism (lower Choiyoi) syntectonic with WNW sinistral transpression of the second episode of the San Rafael orogeny, is associated with an eastward migration of the magmatic arc at this latitude. To the southeast of San Rafael, magmatism and transpression continued to migrate inland suggesting that a progressively younger, WNW, sinistral, thick skinned deformation belt broadens into the foreland and can be traced from San Rafael to Sierra de la Ventana, linking the San Rafael orogeny with the Gondwanide orogeny of the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa. This distribution of magmatism and deformation is interpreted as being the consequence of a progressive shallowing of the Palaeo-Pacific plate starting to the north of San Rafael, and culminating with a flat-slab region south of 36°S. Ca. 265 Ma the onset of predominantly felsic volcanism (upper Choiyoi) in San Rafael occurred in a Post-San Rafael extensional setting. Kinematic indicators and strain fabric analyses of San Rafael

  17. Geochemistry of soils from the San Rafael Valley, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folger, Helen W.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether surficial geochemical methods can be used to identify subsurface mineraldeposits covered by alluvium derived from surrounding areas. The geochemical investigation focused on an anomalous geo-physical magnetic high located in the San Rafael Valley in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The magnetic high, inferred to be asso-ciated with a buried granite intrusion, occurs beneath Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 10 to 30 centimeters below land surface along transects that traverse the inferred granite. The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and by the partial-leach Mobile Metal Ion™ method. Principal component and factor analyses showed a strong correlation between the soils and source rocks hosting base-metal replacement deposits in the Harshaw and Patagonia Mining Districts. Factor analysis also indicated areas of high metal concentrations associated with the Meadow Valley Flat. Although no definitive geochemical signature was identified for the inferred granite, concentrations otungsten and iron in the surrounding area were slightly elevated.

  18. Sequence stratigraphy of the Lower Triassic Sinbad Formation, San Rafael Swell, east-central, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Goodspeed, T.H.; Elrick, M. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences); Lucas, S.G. )

    1993-04-01

    The Lower Triassic Sinbad Fm (20--30 m thick) in the San Rafael Swell of east-central Utah is high energy carbonate deposits that conformably overlie tidal flat/fluvial channel deposits of the Black Dragon Fm. The Torrey Fm conformably overlies the Sinbad Fm and consists primarily of siliciclastic tidal flat and fluvial deposits. Five facies (in ascending order) are characteristic of the Sinbad Fm: (1) bioturbated calcisiltite with calcite-replaced evaporite nodules and ripple laminations, (2) skeletal-oolitic-intraclastic packstone and grainstone, (3) slightly bioturbated, mechanically laminated, pelletal calcisiltite (5) trough cross-bedded, peloidal to oolitic grainstone, and (5) thin-bedded, skeletal-pelletal-oolitic grainstone with mud to wackestone drapes. Regional facies relationships of the Sinbad Fm indicate initial deepening followed by shallowing. The skeletal-intraclastic packstone and grainstone facies represents maximum flooding. This facies thickens to the northwest and contains an open marine molluscan fauna of ammonites, bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods. The ammonites are indicative of the Tardus Zone of late Smithian age. Deposits above the maximum flooding zone (MFZ) are restricted foreshoal, pelletal calcisiltite, oolitic shoal, and backshoal skeletal-oolitic (with a restricted fauna of molluscs and ostracods) deposits. This shallowing-upward sequence represents the early HST. The Sinbad Fm represents the MFZ and early HST of a 150-m-thick depositional sequence of rocks with the Black Dragon FM representing the TST, and the Torrey Fm representing the late HST.

  19. Implementation of tsunami disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable tsunami risk. On September 1, 1992, a tsunami caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of tsunami prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local tsunami hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional tsunami hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a tsunami warning plan; -Improvements of the national tsunami warning system. -Installation of sirens for tsunami warning -Installation of tsunami signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.

  20. Equatorial origin for Lower Jurassic radiolarian chert in the Franciscan Complex, San Rafael Mountains, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.; Bogar, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Lower Jurassic radiolarian chert sampled at two localities in the San Rafael Mountains of southern California (???20 km north of Santa Barbara) contains four components of remanent magnetization. Components A, B???, and B are inferred to represent uplift, Miocene volcanism, and subduction/accretion overprint magnetizations, respectively. The fourth component (C), isolated between 580?? and 680??C, shows a magnetic polarity stratigraphy and is interpreted as a primary magnetization acquired by the chert during, or soon after, deposition. Both sequences are late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian in age, and an average paleolatitude calculated from all tilt-corrected C components is 1?? ?? 3?? north or south. This result is consistent with deposition of the cherts beneath the equatorial zone of high biologic productivity and is similar to initial paleolatitudes determined for chert blocks in northern California and Mexico. This result supports our model in which deep-water Franciscan-type cherts were deposited on the Farallon plate as it moved eastward beneath the equatorial productivity high, were accreted to the continental margin at low paleolatitudes, and were subsequently distributed northward by strike-slip faulting associated with movements of the Kula, Farallon, and Pacific plates. Upper Cretaceous turbidites of the Cachuma Formation were sampled at Agua Caliente Canyon to determine a constraining paleolatitude for accretion of the Jurassic chert sequences. These apparently unaltered rocks, however, were found to be completely overprinted by the A component of magnetization. Similar in situ directions and demagnetization behaviors observed in samples of other Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequences in southern and Baja California imply that these rocks might also give unreliable results.

  1. Some contributions of Rafael Lorente de Nó to neuroscience: a reminiscence.

    PubMed

    Larriva-Sahd, Jorge

    2002-10-15

    Rafael Lorente de Nó is one of the towering neuroscientists of the 20th century. He was born in Zaragoza, Spain, in 1902. In 1920, he moved to Madrid where he became the youngest, and eventually the best known, of Ramón y Cajal's disciples. In his youth, Lorente de Nó worked with Oskar and Cécile Vogt in Germany and with Robert Bárány in Sweden. In 1934, he moved to the United States, where he first worked at the Central Institute for the Deaf (CID); in 1936, he was invited by Herbert S. Gasser to work at the Rockefeller Institute. After his formal retirement from this institute in 1972, Lorente de Nó spent 5 years at the Head and Neck Surgery Department and Brain Research Institute of the University of California at Los Angeles. He died in Tucson, Arizona, in 1990. Lorente de Nó was a gifted person: a polyglot with a remarkable memory and a versatile intellect, which together with his strong, almost belligerent character, made him a rather controversial human. The strength of his scientific contributions is evident by their current impact. Among these are: the modular (i.e., columnar) organization of the cerebral cortex, the synaptic delay, nerve volume conduction, synaptic summation, and the cybernetic (feed-back) neuron circuit. The present article provides a comment upon some of his neurohistological studies (including the cerebral isocortex, Ammon's horn, brainstem, and spinal cord), highlighted by transcripts from taped conversations with him, and illustrated by reproductions of some of his original figures. PMID:12372542

  2. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a new number one…

  3. Evidence and dating of mid-Cretaceous tectonic activity in the San Rafael Swell, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, J.G. ); Kirkland, J.I. ); Kauffman, E.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Evidence of tectonic activity in the form of recycled conglomerates has been found in middle Cretaceous deposits on the western flank of the San Rafael Swell. These conglomerates, present in the upper part of the Dakota Formation and in the overlying basal Mancos Shale (Tununk Member), are separated by an earliest Turonian unconformity. The conglomerates appear to be derived from the Lower Cretaceous Buckhorn Conglomerate, or similar conglomerates, which were re-exposed by latest Cenomanian uplift. Coarse clastics provided to the nearshore facies of the Dakota Formation by coastal rivers are preserved as a coarsening upward sequence. Continued uplift eventually caused a local marine regression by temporarily inhibiting the initial (latest Cenomanian) transgression of the Greenhorn Sea. In subaerially exposed environments pebbles and cobbles from the Buckhorn were distributed across the coastal floodplain by rivers. These clasts were reworked into a basal lag deposit when renewed transgression of the Greenhorn Sea occurred during the late early Turonian.

  4. Petrology, sedimentology and stratigraphic implications of Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.A. ); Ochs, S.

    1990-01-01

    Deposition was partly controlled by paleotopographic relief of underlying Permian strata. Triassic Black Dragon sediments filled lowlands on an erosion surface (unconformity) cut into the Permian White Rim Sandstone and Kaibab Limestone. The Black Dragon Member consists of four distinct facies containing a wide variety of sedimentary structures that characterize both fluvial and tidal environments. The facies are: (1) a Chert Pebble Conglomerate (CPC) facies, characterized by calcite-cemented channel-fills of nodular and banded chert pebbles; (2) an Interbedded Sandstone, Siltstone, and Shale (SSS) facies, containing oscillation ripples and flaser bedding; (3) a large-scale Trough Cross-Stratified Sandstone (TXS) facies, consisting of 6.6-13.1 ft (2-4 m) thick sets of fine- to medium-grained sandstone; and (4) an Oolitic and Algal Limestone (OAL) facies, with cross-stratified oolitic beds, fenestral fabric, and laminated algal rip-up clasts. The CPC facies and the TXS facies were deposited by braided streams when the shoreline lay west of the San Rafael Swell. Rivers drained off and eroded localized Permian highlands, located most likely within a 62 mi (100 km) distance to the south and southeast of the study area. The SSS facies which constitutes the bulk of the Black Dragon Member, and the OAL facies are inter- and supratidal deposits formed during relative sea level highstands, when the shoreline lay within or east of the San Rafael Swell. A decrease in continent-derived sand supply and a corresponding increase in carbonate production within the OAL facies characterizes the end of Black Dragon deposition and the gradation into the overlying Sinbad Limestone Member.

  5. [Superficial mycoses: casuistry of the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel", Caracas, Venezuela (2001-2014)].

    PubMed

    Capote, Ana María; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Panizo, María Mercedes; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Reviakina, Vera; Dolande, Maribel

    2016-03-01

    The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. only direct examination was performed. Of the 3 228 samples processed, 1 098 (34%) were positive and their distribution according to the etiological agent was: dermatophytes 79.5%; 10.9% yeasts; non-dermatophytes fungi 5.1% and 4.5% Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex (70.1%), followed by T mentagrophytes complex (15.1%), Microsporum canis (9.4%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (4%). The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium (66.8%), followed by Tineapedis (16.4%) and Tinea capitis (8.1%). Candida parapsilosis complex (37.5%) was the most frequently isolated yeast and Fusarium spp. (53.6%) was the most isolated among non-dermatophyte fungi, followed by Aspergillus spp. (19.6%) and Acremonium spp. (10.7%). The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment. This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country. PMID:27382801

  6. Magnetic properties of the remagnetized Middle-Ordovician limestones of the Ponón Trehué Formation (San Rafael Block, central-western Argentina): Insights into the Permian widespread Sanrafaelic overprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.

    2016-10-01

    The widespread Sanrafaelic remagnetization reset most of the early Cambrian to mid-Ordovician carbonate platform of the Argentine Precordillera and the calcareous units of the San Rafael Block. We conducted a detailed rock-magnetic study on the Middle-Ordovician limestones of the Ponón Trehué Formation at both limbs of a tight anticline exposed in the San Rafael Block (Mendoza province, central-western Argentina) that are carriers of a syntectonic magnetization of Permian age. We found that the magnetic overprint in the Ponón Trehué Formation is carried by both pyrrhotite and magnetite, with goethite and subordinate haematite likely related to weathering. Hysteresis parameters, frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility, Cisowski and modified Lowrie-Fuller tests suggest the presence of ultrafine particles of chemical origin. Demagnetization of natural remanent magnetization and of three-axis isothermal remanence confirm pyrrhotite and magnetite as important contributors to the remanence. Both minerals carry the same magnetic syntectonic component suggesting a coeval or nearly coeval remanence acquisition and therefore mineral formation. This and the results of the magnetic fabric analyses indicate an authigenic origin of the magnetic minerals during folding associated with the Sanrafaelic tectonic phase (ca. 280 Ma). Although the chemically active (oxidizing?) fluids expelled from the orogen as it developed in the early Permian is a viable explanation for the Sanrafaelic remagnetization, the role of the nearly coeval magmatism in Precordillera and the San Rafael Block remains to be properly evaluated.

  7. Effects of flooding and tamarisk removal on habitat for sensitive fish species in the San Rafael River, Utah: implications for fish habitat enhancement and future restoration efforts.

    PubMed

    Keller, Daniel L; Laub, Brian G; Birdsey, Paul; Dean, David J

    2014-09-01

    Tamarisk removal is a widespread restoration practice on rivers in the southwestern USA, but impacts of removal on fish habitat have rarely been investigated. We examined whether tamarisk removal, in combination with a large spring flood, had the potential to improve fish habitat on the San Rafael River in southeastern Utah. We quantified habitat complexity and the distribution of wood accumulation in a tamarisk removal site (treated) and a non-removal site (untreated) in 2010, 1 year prior to a large magnitude and long-duration spring flood. We used aerial imagery to analyze river changes in the treated and untreated sites. Areas of channel movement were significantly larger in the treated site compared to the untreated site, primarily because of geomorphic characteristics of the channel, including higher sinuosity and the presence of an ephemeral tributary. However, results suggest that tamarisk removal on the outside of meander bends, where it grows directly on the channel margins, can promote increased channel movement. Prior to the flood, wood accumulations were concentrated in sections of channel where tamarisk had been removed. Pools, riffles, and backwaters occurred more frequently within 30 m upstream and downstream of wood accumulations compared to areas within 30 m of random points. Pools associated with wood accumulations were also significantly larger and deeper than those associated with random points. These results suggest that the combination of tamarisk removal and wood input can increase the potential for channel movement during spring floods thereby diversifying river habitat and improving conditions for native fish.

  8. Effects of flooding and tamarisk removal on habitat for sensitive fish species in the San Rafael River, Utah: implications for fish habitat enhancement and future restoration efforts.

    PubMed

    Keller, Daniel L; Laub, Brian G; Birdsey, Paul; Dean, David J

    2014-09-01

    Tamarisk removal is a widespread restoration practice on rivers in the southwestern USA, but impacts of removal on fish habitat have rarely been investigated. We examined whether tamarisk removal, in combination with a large spring flood, had the potential to improve fish habitat on the San Rafael River in southeastern Utah. We quantified habitat complexity and the distribution of wood accumulation in a tamarisk removal site (treated) and a non-removal site (untreated) in 2010, 1 year prior to a large magnitude and long-duration spring flood. We used aerial imagery to analyze river changes in the treated and untreated sites. Areas of channel movement were significantly larger in the treated site compared to the untreated site, primarily because of geomorphic characteristics of the channel, including higher sinuosity and the presence of an ephemeral tributary. However, results suggest that tamarisk removal on the outside of meander bends, where it grows directly on the channel margins, can promote increased channel movement. Prior to the flood, wood accumulations were concentrated in sections of channel where tamarisk had been removed. Pools, riffles, and backwaters occurred more frequently within 30 m upstream and downstream of wood accumulations compared to areas within 30 m of random points. Pools associated with wood accumulations were also significantly larger and deeper than those associated with random points. These results suggest that the combination of tamarisk removal and wood input can increase the potential for channel movement during spring floods thereby diversifying river habitat and improving conditions for native fish. PMID:24993795

  9. High-resolution geophysical data collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael to supplement existing datasets from Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Geophysical and geospatial data were collected in Buzzards Bay, in the shallow-water areas of Vineyard Sound, and in the nearshore areas off the eastern Elizabeth Islands and northern coast of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, on the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael between 2007 and 2011, in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management. This report describes results of this collaborative effort, which include mapping the geology of the inner shelf zone of the Elizabeth Islands and the sand shoals of Vineyard Sound and studying geologic processes that contribute to the evolution of this area. Data collected during these surveys include: bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, seismic-reflection profiles, sound velocity profiles, and navigation. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to provide high-resolution geophysical data that will support research on the influence of sea-level change and sediment supply on coastal evolution and (2) to inventory subtidal marine habitats and their distribution within the coastal zone of Massachusetts.

  10. Sedimentology and reservoir heterogeneity of a valley-fill deposit-A field guide to the Dakota Sandstone of the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Valley-fill deposits form a significant class of hydrocarbon reservoirs in many basins of the world. Maximizing recovery of fluids from these reservoirs requires an understanding of the scales of fluid-flow heterogeneity present within the valley-fill system. The Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the San Rafael Swell, Utah contains well exposed, relatively accessible outcrops that allow a unique view of the external geometry and internal complexity of a set of rocks interpreted to be deposits of an incised valley fill. These units can be traced on outcrop for tens of miles, and individual sandstone bodies are exposed in three dimensions because of modern erosion in side canyons in a semiarid setting and by exhumation of the overlying, easily erodible Mancos Shale. The Dakota consists of two major units: (1) a lower amalgamated sandstone facies dominated by large-scale cross stratification with several individual sandstone bodies ranging in thickness from 8 to 28 feet, ranging in width from 115 to 150 feet, and having lengths as much as 5,000 feet, and (2) an upper facies composed of numerous mud-encased lenticular sandstones, dominated by ripple-scale lamination, in bedsets ranging in thickness from 5 to 12 feet. The lower facies is interpreted to be fluvial, probably of mainly braided stream origin that exhibits multiple incisions amalgamated into a complex sandstone body. The upper facies has lower energy, probably anastomosed channels encased within alluvial and coastal-plain floodplain sediments. The Dakota valley-fill complex has multiple scales of heterogeneity that could affect fluid flow in similar oil and gas subsurface reservoirs. The largest scale heterogeneity is at the formation level, where the valley-fill complex is sealed within overlying and underlying units. Within the valley-fill complex, there are heterogeneities between individual sandstone bodies, and at the smallest scale, internal heterogeneities within the bodies themselves. These

  11. Assessment of Nonpoint Source Chemical Loading Potential to Watersheds Containing Uranium Waste Dumps Associated with Uranium Exploration and Mining, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Michael L.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Johnson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    During July and August of 2006, 117 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in the San Rafael Swell, in southeastern Utah. The objective of this sampling program was to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a field leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, U, V, and Zn at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah and for Hg at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential of suspect uranium waste dumps, leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards and the ratio of samples that exceeded standards to the total number of samples was determined for each element having a water-quality standard for aquatic life and drinking-water. Approximately 56 percent (48/85) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps had one or more chemical constituents that exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were along Reds Canyon Road between Tomsich Butte and Family Butte. Twelve of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates contained three or more constituents that exceeded drinking-water-quality standards. Eighteen of the uranium waste dump sites had three or more constituents that exceeded trace

  12. Investigation of the structure and lithology of bedrock concealed by basin fill, using ground-based magnetic-field-profile data acquired in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Data on the Earth’s total-intensity magnetic field acquired near ground level and at measurement intervals as small as 1 m include information on the spatial distribution of nearsurface magnetic dipoles that in many cases are unique to a specific lithology. Such spatial information is expressed in the texture (physical appearance or characteristics) of the data at scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers. These magnetic textures are characterized by several descriptive statistics, their power spectrum, and their multifractal spectrum. On the basis of a graphical comparison and textural characterization, ground-based magnetic-field profile data can be used to estimate bedrock lithology concealed by as much as 100 m of basin fill in some cases, information that is especially important in assessing and exploring for concealed mineral deposits. I demonstrate that multifractal spectra of ground-based magnetic-field-profile data can be used to differentiate exposed lithologies and that the shape and position of the multifractal spectrum of the ground-based magnetic-field-profile of concealed lithologies can be matched to the upward-continued multifractal spectrum of an exposed lithology to help distinguish the concealed lithology. In addition, ground-based magnetic-field-profile data also detect minute differences in the magnetic susceptibility of rocks over small horizontal and vertical distances and so can be used for precise modeling of bedrock geometry and structure, even when that bedrock is concealed by 100 m or more of nonmagnetic basin fill. Such data contain valuable geologic information on the bedrock concealed by basin fill that may not be so visible in aeromagnetic data, including areas of hydrothermal alteration, faults, and other bedrock structures. Interpretation of these data in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona, has yielded results for estimating concealed lithologies, concealed structural geology, and a concealed potential mineral

  13. Submarine fan facies of Upper Cretaceous Strata, Southern San Rafael Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Toyne, C.D.

    1986-04-01

    A 2900-m thick Campanian-Maestrichtian(.) turbidite sequence in Upper Mono Creek Canyon is interpreted to be a progradational submarine fan complex comprised of outer fan, middle fan, inner fan, and slope facies. The basal 600 m of the section consists of thinly bedded, laterally continuous fine sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones (mainly Mutti and Ricci Lucci facies D), interpreted to be outer fan interlobe and lobe-fringe deposits. These are punctuated by infrequent medium to very thickly bedded, flat-based, fine to coarse sandstones (facies C and B), which commonly coarsen and thicken upward, and are interpreted to be depositional lobes. Overlying these deposits are approximately 1400 m of middle fan deposits composed of frequent lenticular, commonly channelized and amalgamated, thickly bedded, fine to very coarse sandstones (facies C and B) organized in fining- and thinning-upward sequences, interpreted to be braided-channel deposits. These alternate with less common nonchannelized coarsening- and thickening-upward sequences suggestive of lobe-apical cycles. These multistory sand deposits are nested within thick intervals of fine sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones (facies C and D), interpreted to be levee, crevasse-splay, and interchannel deposits. Interfingered with and overlying these deposits are approximately 500 m of fining- and thinning-upward or noncyclic, erosionally based, commonly amalgamated, very thickly bedded, medium to very coarse sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates (facies A and B), interpreted to be inner fan deposits. Intercalated within this facies, infrequent, laterally discontinuous, thin to thickly bedded, fine to coarse sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones exist, interpreted to be interchannel, levee, and possibly channel-fill deposits.

  14. A concurrent resolution recommending the posthumous award of the Medal of Honor to Sergeant Rafael Peralta.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2013-03-19

    03/19/2013 Referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1955-1956) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Petrology and provenance of Upper Cretaceous Sandstone, southern San Rafael Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Toyne, C.D.

    1987-05-01

    Petrologic analysis of 24 medium to coarse-grained sandstone samples, collected from a 2950-m submarine fan complex of late Campanian-early Maestrichtian age exposed within Mono Creek Canyon, reveal commonly calcite cemented, poorly sorted, subangular biotic arkoses. Framework averages 86.0%. Matrix - primarily detrital quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragments finer than 0.03 mm and mechanically and chemically altered phyllosilicates and labile aphanites - averages 8.9%. Calcite cement averages 4.2%. Porosity averages 0.9%. Gazzi-Dickinson point counts of 400 framework grains per slide yield modal averages of Q/sub 37.7/ F/sub 49.8/ L/sub 12.5/; Qm/sub 27.4/ F/sub 49.8/ Lt/sub 22.8/; Qm/sub 35.6/ P/sub 43.7/ K/sub 20.7/; and Qp/sub 49.4/ Lv/sub 22.1/ Ls/sub 28.5/. P/F averages 0.68, Lv/L averages 0.45, Qp/Q averages 0.27, and detrital phyllosilicate, predominantly biotite, averages 5.7% of total framework. Neither primary nor secondary parameters vary systematically with stratigraphic position. Miscellaneous constituents average 1.3% of framework and include epidote, garnet, amphibole, pyroxene, zircon, and tourmaline as well as carbonaceous blebs, opaque minerals, and unidentifiable lithic fragments. Separate analysis of 100 medium sized quartz grains per slide indicates a mean population of 63.0% non-undulatory monocrystalline quartz, 9.1% undulatory monocrystalline quartz, 10.1% polycrystalline quartz of 2 to 3 crystals, and 17.9% polycrystalline quartz composed of more than 3 crystals. Modal data, plotted upon provenance discrimination diagrams, indicate a plutonic provenance transitional between a dissected magmatic arc and uplifted basement terrane. Paleocurrent data, neglecting possible clockwise rotation, indicate sediment transport from the north.

  16. 77 FR 59165 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... granted Southern California Edison (SCE) approval to build TRTP in Decision 09-12-044 on non-federal lands... responsible official is Thomas Contreras, Forest Supervisor, Angeles National Forest, 701 North Santa Anita.... Thomas A. Contreras, Forest Supervisor. BILLING CODE 3410-11-M...

  17. Evolution of Northeastern Mexico during the early Mesozoic: potential areas for research and exploration José Rafael Barboza-Gudiño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza-Gudiño, R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Mesozoic succession of central and northeastern Mexico was deposited in a late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic remnant basin, formed at the westernmost culmination of the Ouachita-Marathon geosuture, after closure of the Rheic Ocean. Triassic fluvial deposits of El Alamar Formation (El Alamar River) are distributed in Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon as remnants of a continental succession deposited close to the western margin of equatorial Pangea, such fluvial systems flowed to the ocean, located to the west and contributed to construction of the so-called Potosí submarine fan (Zacatecas Formation). Petrographic, geochemical, and detrital zircon geochronology studies indicate that both, marine and continental Triassic successions, come from a continental block and partially from a recycled orogen, showing grenvillian (900-1300 Ma) and Pan-African (500-700 Ma) zircon age populations, typical for peri-gondwanan blocks, in addition to zircons from the Permo-Triassic East Mexico arc (240-280 Ma). The absence of detrital zircons from the southwestern North American craton, represent a strong argument against left lateral displacement of Mexico to the southwest during the Jurassic up to their actual position, as proposed by the Mojave-Sonora megashear hypothesis. Towards the end of the Triassic or in earliest Jurassic time, began the subduction along the western margin of Pangea, which causes deformation of the Late Triassic Zacatecas Formation and subsequent magmatism in the continental Jurassic arc known as "Nazas Arc ", whose remnants are now exposed in central- to northeastern Mexico. Wide distributed in northern Mexico occurred also deposition of a red bed succession, overlying or partially interstratified with the Early to Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks of the Nazas Formation. To the west and southwest, such redbeds change transitionally to marine and marginal sedimentary facies which record sedimentation at the ancient paleo-pacific margin of Mexico (La Boca and Huayacocotla formations). The Middle to Upper Jurassic La Joya Formation overlies unconformable all continental and marine-marginal successions and older rocks, and records the transgressive basal deposits of the Gulf series, changing upsection to the evaporites and limestone of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Group. Successive intraoceanic subduction zones to the West sparked magmatic arcs whose accretion in the continental margin produced the consolidation of much of the Mexican territory up to the current Pacific margin. Scattered isolated outcrops from the Early Mesozoic succession in central- and northeastern Mexico allow interpretation of tectonic setting and paleogeography associated to each stratigraphic unit, revealing a strongly different geologic evolution than the previously established models, opening a range of new possibilities and areas of opportunity for mining and fossil fuels exploration. However, most of the Triassic-Jurassic rocks or stratigraphic units in northern Mexico lie under many hundreds of meters of a Cretaceous-Cenozoic cover. Their recognition and preliminary evaluation implies the use of indirect techniques like geophysical methods, before drilling or subsurface mining.

  18. Geologic application of thermal inertia imaging using HCMM data. [Walker Lane, Nevada; San Rafael, Utah; and Death Valley and Pisgah Crater, Lavic Lake Region, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Schieldge, J. P.; Abrams, M. J.; Alley, R. E.; Levine, C. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Three test sites in the western US were selected to discriminate among surface geologic materials on the basis of their thermal properties as determined from HCMM data. Attempts to determine quantitatively accurate thermal inertia values from HCMM digital data met with only partial success due to the effects of sensor miscalibrations, radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and varying meteorology and elevation across a scene. In most instances, apparent thermal inertia was found to be an excellent qualitative representation of true thermal inertia. Computer processing of digital day and night HCMM data allowed construction of geologically useful images. At some test sites, more information was provided by data than LANDSAT data. Soil moisture effects and differences in spectrally dark materials were more effectively displayed using the thermal data.

  19. Use of isotopic spike from Tropical Storm to understand water exchange on large scale: study case of Rafael Storm in the Lesser Antilles archipelago, October 2012.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambs, Luc

    2014-05-01

    Aim The tracking of the rainfall from Tropical Storm Raphael of mid October 2012 was used to better understand how the eco-hydrology and the water cycle function in wet areas, such as mangrove growing in salty ponds on a number of tropical islands. Location Guadeloupe and Saint Martin Islands in the Leeward Islands archipelago, Lesser Antilles. Methods Compared to normal tropical rainfall, tropical storms display distinct depleted heavy stable water isotopes which can be used as isotopic spikes to understand these special rainfall inflows. Rainfall, groundwater, river and pond water were sampled before, during and after the storm. Results In Guadeloupe where the tropical storm started, the rainfall isotopic signal reached values of d18O= -9 to -8 o on October 12-14th 2012, whereas the normal range is d18O= -4 to -2 o as measured from 2009 to 2012. It was possible to detect such a depleted signal in the groundwater and in the mangrove forest during the days after the storm event. Main conclusions The use of such natural isotopic spikes provides an opportunity to obtain a dynamic and time reference on a large scale for the study of the hydro-ecosystems and the effects on the impacted tropical islands. A few days after the cyclone, the isotopic spikes were found in river, groundwater and mangrove water pools with values up to d18O= -8.6 o . For the water basins on the windward side, the downhill salty pond water was almost completely renewed. By contrast, only 20 to 50 % of the water in the ponds located on the leeward side was renewed. No specific elevation in the d-excess values was noted, certainly due to the relatively long distance from the eye of the storm (180 to 300 km), which meant that there was no spray water evaporative process.

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey From Oriana Day Paintings, DeYoung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey From Oriana Day Paintings, DeYoung Museum, S.F. Original: 1861 - 1885 Re-Photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTH - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Painting by Renaud Original: Before 1835 Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  2. [Silicosis and industrial bronchitis by exposure to silica powders and cement].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Báez-Revueltas, Fabiola Berenice; López-Rojas, Pablo; Tovalín-Ahumada, José Horacio; Zamudio-Lara, José Othón; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Villeda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: asociar la exposición a polvos inorgánicos en trabajadores de una cantera y una cementera y la generación de alteraciones pulmonares. Métodos: estudio transversal con 32 trabajadores expuestos a polvos inorgánicos en una cantera y 57 en una cementera. Se les realizaron pruebas de función respiratoria y telerradiografías de tórax. Se midieron polvos totales. Resultados: existieron diferencias demográficas significativas entre las dos líneas de producción: los empleados de la cantera fueron más jóvenes, menos altos y ligeramente más delgados. La proporción de enfermos fue significativamente diferente entre las dos áreas: en la cementera fue menor que en la cantera. Aun cuando los trabajadores de la cantera tuvieron una antigüedad menor, presentaron problemas pulmonares más graves. Conclusiones: la cantidad de sílice libre que se maneja en la cantera afecta gravemente la salud de los trabajadores, ya que con un promedio de tres años de antigüedad laboral presentaban silicosis. Por ello, deben establecerse mejores programas de higiene industrial para el control de los polvos.

  3. [A tribute to the memory of the illustrious maestro and academic Dr. Rafael Méndez Martínez, pioneer in the pharmacological studies of digitalis and digitalis glycosides].

    PubMed

    de Micheli Serra, Alfredo; Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of the XVIII century, digitalis glycosides were employed in heart failure. They were considered initially as diuretics and later as cardiotonic agents or as positive inotropics. At the present time there are varied groups of positive inotropic agents, which have a beneficial action on the failing human myocardium. For example, the beta adrenergics, the phosphodiesterase III inhibitors such as milrinone, or the sensibilizers of myocardial proteins to Ca++ such as levosimendan and omecamtiv mecarbil. However, following the opinion of distinguished cardiologists, in the case of heart failure associated to atrial fibrillation, digitalis cannot be substituted. PMID:26526481

  4. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Big Pine Mountain Quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vedder, J.G.; McLean, Hugh; Stanley, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Reconnaissance geologic mapping of the San Rafael Primitive Area (now the San Rafael Wilderness) by Gower and others (1966) and Vedder an others (1967) showed s number of stratigraphic and structural ambiguities. To help resolve some of those problems, additional field work was done on parts of the Big Pine Moutain quadrangle during short intervals in 1981 and 1984, and 1990-1994.

  5. 78 FR 14547 - Praxedes E. Alverez Santiago, M.D., Daniel Perez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Praxedes E. Alverez Santiago, M.D., Daniel Perez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D., Rafael..., M.D., Daniel P rez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D., Rafael Garc a Nieves, M.D., Francis... and Dr. Daniel Perez, met with Humana representatives to discuss the 20 percent COB. During...

  6. 76 FR 58562 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ..., Colonia Villa de Cortes, Delegacion Benito Juarez, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico; Folio Mercantil No. 325909 (Mexico); (ENTITY) . 2. TATES DESARROLLO, S.A. DE C.V., Avenida San Jeronimo No. 630 Trc. 16, Colonia Barrio San Jeronimo Lidice, Delegacion La Magdalena Contreras, Mexico City,...

  7. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  8. "I Didn't Want My Life to Be Like That": Gangs, College, or the Military for Latino Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Adrian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nationally, only half of Latino males graduate from high school (Contreras, 2011). Scholars are beginning to critically examine the various internal and external influences which contribute to low academic achievement for Latino males. This qualitative study uses a human ecological theory to examine how Latino male high school students with high…

  9. Two new Galactic novae discovered in the VVV disk images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, C. Contreras; Lucas, P. W.; Saito, R. K.; Minniti, D.; Kurtev, R.

    2016-04-01

    We report two novae in the Galactic plane discovered serendipitously during a search for high amplitude variable young stellar objects (Contreras Pena et al. 2016, arXiv:1602.06267) in the VVV Survey data (vvvsurvey.org; Minniti et al. 2010, New Astronomy, 15, 433).

  10. Academic and Social Adjustment of Students Transitioning from an Early College High School Program to an Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry-Andalis, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Historically, minority and low-income populations have faced numerous challenges in achieving a higher education particularly students of Latino descent. Gandara and Contreras (2009) explain that Latinos are the fastest growing population in the United States and yet academically, they are further behind than any other ethnic group in the nation.…

  11. Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume 51, Number 14, November 26, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Chronicle of Higher Education" presents an abundant source of news and information for college and university faculty members and administrators. This November 26, 2004 issue of "Chronicle for Higher Education" includes the following articles: (1) "A Question of Degrees" (Contreras, Alan); (2) "Democratize the Data on Campuses" (Petrides, Lisa…

  12. Think about It: Volume III, Part I. A Collection of Articles on Higher Order Thinking Skills. REACH: Realistic Educational Achievement Can Happen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Twenty-three papers on the use of higher order thinking approaches to improve basic skills education are presented. The key note article is (1) "A Case for Higher Order Thinking" (G. Garcia, Jr.). Under the heading "English Language Arts" are: (2) "Developing an Elementary Writing Program" (K. Contreras); (3) "Revision in the Writing Process" (L.…

  13. Student Discipline: Legal, Empirical, and Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. John, III, Ed.; Bennett, Christine, Ed.

    This book presents four perspectives on student discipline: legal and historical, empirical, educational, and futuristic. Part I examines the legal history of student discipline in papers by J. John Harris III, Richard E. Fields, and A. Reynaldo Contreras (Chapter 1); Richard E. Fields (Chapter 2); and David G. Carter, Sr. and Cynthia L. Jackson…

  14. Whose Student Is She?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    As an eighth-grade student at Jackson Middle School in Nashville, Tennessee, Olivia Contreras had arrived in the United States from her native Nicaragua the previous year. But Olivia learned English so quickly that she was placed in mainstream content classes the following year. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 created a lot of stories…

  15. Disclosure of investigators' recruitment performance in multicenter clinical trials: a further step for research transparency.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Moher, David; Gluud, Christian; Treweek, Shaun; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Carné, Xavier

    2011-12-01

    Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends.

  16. 77 FR 69620 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Engineering Corporation, Antioch Unified School District, Apex Drum Company, Inc., APL Limited, Aratex... Rafael, City of Santa Fe Springs, Commercial Plating and Engineering Corporation, Inc., Concorde... Company, Keystone Automotive Industries, Inc., Kingsbacher-Murphy, Wesco Division, Lamsco West Inc.,...

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer September, 1961 PORTIONS OF SOUTH FACADE OF MAIN HOUSE FROM PATIO. - Rafael Garcia Ramirez House, East side of Main Plaza at Hidalgo Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 DETAIL OF NORTH ENRY DOOR (PLAZA). - Rafael Garcia Ramirez House, East side of Main Plaza at Hidalgo Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 NORTH ELEVATION (PLAZA). - Rafael Garcia Ramirez House, East side of Main Plaza at Hidalgo Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 DETAIL OF NORTH WINDOW AND CORNICE (PLAZA). - Rafael Garcia Ramirez House, East side of Main Plaza at Hidalgo Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer September, 1961 NORTH FACADE OF OUTBUILDINGS FROM PATIO. - Rafael Garcia Ramirez House, East side of Main Plaza at Hidalgo Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  2. A new species of Corydalus Latreille from Venezuela (Megaloptera, Corydalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Ramos, Atilano; von der Dunk, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new species of dobsonfly, Corydalus wanningeri, from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It superficially resembles Corydalus neblinensis Contreras-Ramos, with a uniform reddish coloration of body and wings. Yet, because of male genitalic structure it might be closely related to Corydalus crossi Contreras-Ramos. Specimens were collected from a rain forest transitional zone between the Orinoco lowlands and the Gran Sabana plateau, in Bolívar state. This is the 15th species of Corydalus to be recorded from Venezuela, rendering this the country with the highest number of documented Corydalus species. A key to the sexually dimorphic, long-mandibled Venezuelan species of the genus is provided. PMID:21594032

  3. PubMed

    Santana, Elsa Díaz

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates up to which degree physicians of Hospital Dr. Dario Contreras of Dominican Republic know, respect, inform and apply the General Health Law in relation to the right of Jehovah witness patients to refuse being blood transfused (respect to their autonomy). It also evaluates whether Jehovah witnesses know General Health Law and in which degree they have been benefited by putting it into practice. The study reveals that Jehovah Witnesses do not know the law. PMID:20689657

  4. Bringing EHRs to the desert. Grand Canyon State refuses to let IT fall through the cracks with its new private-public electronic health-record partnership.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Rebecca

    2007-09-10

    While other states are only thinking about how they'll implement health information exchanges, Arizona is on a path to have an e-health infrastructure in place by 2010. The initiative is being driven by Gov. Janet Napolitano. "The reason why this issue is so important to the governor is because our health system right now is not sustainable," says January Contreras, left, the governor's health policy adviser.

  5. Bringing EHRs to the desert. Grand Canyon State refuses to let IT fall through the cracks with its new private-public electronic health-record partnership.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Rebecca

    2007-09-10

    While other states are only thinking about how they'll implement health information exchanges, Arizona is on a path to have an e-health infrastructure in place by 2010. The initiative is being driven by Gov. Janet Napolitano. "The reason why this issue is so important to the governor is because our health system right now is not sustainable," says January Contreras, left, the governor's health policy adviser. PMID:17977114

  6. Design and Testing of a Liquid Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol Fueled Rocket Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    A small-scale, bi-propellant, liquid fueled rocket engine and supporting test infrastructure were designed and constructed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). This facility was used to evaluate liquid nitrous oxide and ethanol as potential rocket propellants. Thrust and pressure measurements along with high-speed digital imaging of the rocket exhaust plume were made. This experimental data was used for validation of a computational model developed of the rocket engine tested. The developed computational model was utilized to analyze rocket engine performance across a range of operating pressures, fuel-oxidizer mixture ratios, and outlet nozzle configurations. A comparative study of the modeling of a liquid rocket engine was performed using NASA CEA and Cantera, an opensource equilibrium code capable of being interfaced with MATLAB. One goal of this modeling was to demonstrate the ability of Cantera to accurately model the basic chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, and transport properties for varied fuel and oxidizer operating conditions. Once validated for basic equilibrium, an expanded MATLAB code, referencing Cantera, was advanced beyond CEAs capabilities to predict rocket engine performance as a function of supplied propellant flow rate and rocket engine nozzle dimensions. Cantera was found to comparable favorably to CEA for making equilibrium calculations, supporting its use as an alternative to CEA. The developed rocket engine performs as predicted, demonstrating the developedMATLAB rocket engine model was successful in predicting real world rocket engine performance. Finally, nitrous oxide and ethanol were shown to perform well as rocket propellants, with specific impulses experimentally recorded in the range of 250 to 260 seconds.

  7. Comment on 'Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, Riccardo; Salvaris, Mathew

    2011-10-01

    In a recent paper by Bradberry, Gentili and Contreras-Vidal published in Journal of Neural Engineering (2011, 8 036010), an interesting method for the control of a two-dimensional mouse cursor was proposed, which apparently attained excellent control and good speed with relatively simple techniques. We believe some of the results in the paper have been misinterpreted due to a failure in appreciating the self-fulfilling nature of the success criteria adopted. In this comment, we explain the nature of the problem and attempt to assess its influence on the results reported in the aforementioned paper.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Light-curve parameters from the SNLS (Conley+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, A.; Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hudson, M. J.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Neill, J. D.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2011-02-01

    SNLS combines photometry from the deep component of the CFHT-LS (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy survey) with extensive spectroscopic follow-up from the Keck, Very Large Telescope (VLT), and Gemini telescopes to determine SN types and measure redshifts. The photometry is carried out with MegaCam, a 1deg2 imager at the prime focus of CFHT. We use the natural systems of the SNLS, HST, SDSS, Hicken et al. (2009ApJ...700..331H), and Contreras et al. (2010AJ....139..519C) samples in our analysis, which together account for ~90% of our sample. (1 data file).

  9. Voyvengo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2012-01-01

    Born in 1933, Rafael Ferrer has encountered, engaged, and challenged art movements that define the twentieth century, including European surrealism, American post-minimalism, and Latino neo-expressionism. He has worked in sculpture, drawing, and painting, and also with assemblage, collage, actions, and installation. His prolific and wide-ranging…

  10. Excellence in Teacher Education. 1966 Distinguished Achievement Awards of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    Central Missouri State College was awarded the distinguished achievement award for its development and implementation of an education program for prospective teachers of the culturally different child. Recognition awards were also given to Dominican College of San Rafael for its creative effort to meet both the letter and spirit of new California…

  11. California Freshwater Shrimp Project: An Eco-Action Project with Real Life Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Laurette H.

    The California Freshwater Shrimp Project is an example of a student-initiated, eco-action project. Students, from a fourth grade class in the Ross Valley School District in San Rafael, California, were linked to their community and environment through their work in rehabilitating habitat and educating the public. The paper gives an overview of a…

  12. 76 FR 45432 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... direct final Notice of Deletion of the Palmer Barge Line (PBL) Superfund Site located in Port Arthur.... and 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Contact: Rafael A. Casanova (214) 665-7437. 2. Port Arthur Public Library; 4615 9th Avenue; Port Arthur, Texas 77642-5799; Hours of operation: Monday thru Thursday, 9 a.m. to 9...

  13. Sciencepoetry and Language/Culture Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, James V.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Rafael Catala's notion of sciencepoetry and an application of modern scientific principles to the teaching of language and culture, the "Lange Process." This interactive language/culture learning process relates target and native languages, culture, and perceptions. (Author/LMO)

  14. Studies in Philippine Linguistics. Vol. 2, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edrial-Luzares, Casilda, Ed.; Hale, Austin, Ed.

    This volume is devoted to papers of an empirical or theoretical nature contributing to the study of language and communicative bahavior in the Philippines. Articles included are: (1) "Three Criteria for Establishing Dialect Boundries," by Michael Ross Walrod; (2) "Topic in Tagalog Revisited," by Teresita C. Rafael; (3) "Cebuano Verb Morphology,…

  15. I've Been Framed! Designing a Library Web Site Within a Government Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Often, because of political reasons, a library's site must be designed within the frame of another organization's. In this article, the author, the e-services librarian for the Marin County Free Library in San Rafael, California, details her experience of designing a library website within the frame--and within the rules and limitations--of the…

  16. Marin County Free Library, Final Performance Report for Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Title VI, Library Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Sharon Lopez

    The West Marin Literacy Project, a project of the Marin County Free Library (San Rafael, California), involved recruitment, retention, coalition building, public awareness, training, rural oriented, tutoring, computer- assisted, intergenerational/family, and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. The project served a community of under…

  17. Indigenous Legal Translators: Challenges of a University Program for the Maya of Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera Pena, Guillermina; Raymundo, Jorge Manuel

    1998-01-01

    Guatemala is overhauling its justice system to be more congruent with its indigenous reality. A Rafael Landivar University program trains indigenous legal translators not only in legal and linguistic aspects, but also in strengthening indigenous identity and student commitment to the community. Challenges and future plans are described. A former…

  18. Vegetation canopy cover effects on sediment erosion processes in the upper Colorado River Basin mancos shale formation, Price, Utah

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study provides new parameterizations for applying the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) on the highly erosive, rangeland saline soils of the Mancos Shale formation in the Price-San Rafael River Basin in east central Utah. Calibrated hydrologic parameters (Kss and K') values are gener...

  19. English Teachers' Journal (Israel), Number 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 1984

    1984-01-01

    This journal includes the following articles on teaching English as a second language: "Information for English Teachers"; "Approved Textbooks for the 1984-1985 School Year"; "Oral Bagrut Examinations--Revised Rating Scale" (Rafael Gefen); "Books for Grade Four" (Penny Ur); "Determining the Character of English-Teaching Policy in Israel Schools"…

  20. 75 FR 58446 - Notice of Issuance of Amendment No. 1 for Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-1227 [AREVA NP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... CONTACT: Rafael L. Rodriguez, Project Manager, Fuel Manufacturing Branch, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety... fabrication facility in Richland, Washington, that will use supercritical carbon dioxide to extract uranium... opportunity to request a hearing was provided in the Federal Register on January 16, 2009 (74 FR...

  1. Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama: Boletin Estadistico (Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama: Statistical Bulletin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Jorge A.

    This statistical bulletin provides details on the universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC): Central American University, Rafael Landivar University, Saint John's College, University of Santa Maria La Antigua, Jose Simeon Canas University, Doctor Mariano Galvez University, and the…

  2. Looking Inside Schools of Choice: Eight Portraits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinchy, Evans

    1986-01-01

    Presents profiles of eight Massachusetts magnet schools: Nathan Hale (Boston); Burncoat Preparatory (Worcester); Rafael Hernandez (Boston); Mill Swan Communications Skill Center (Worcester); Sumner Avenue (Springfield); Arts (Lowell); Graham and Parks Alternative (Cambridge); and City (Lowell). Each profile includes information on school size and…

  3. 78 FR 44577 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    .... Beers, Rand Benda, Francis Bersin, Alan Bester, Margot Bibo, David R. Borkowski, Mark S. Borras, Rafael..., Kenneth Clever, Daniel Cline, Richard Coffman, Katherine M. Cogswell, Patricia Cohen, John Cohn, Alan.... Moore, Joseph Morrissey, Paul S. Moses, Patrick Moynihan, Timothy M. Mulligan, Ricci Murphy, Jane...

  4. A new Gonatocerus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from Argentina, with taxonomic notes and molecular data on the G. tuberculifemur species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new member of the ater species group of Gonatocerus Nees (Mymaridae) is described from the state of Mendoza in Argentina. Specimens of G. deleoni Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Virla sp. n. were first reared in San Rafael from sentinel eggs of the proconiine sharpshooter Tapajosa rubromarginata (Signoret) ...

  5. Response: Heller's "In Praise of Amateurism--A Friendly Critique of Moje's "Call for Change" in Secondary Literacy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Rafael Heller's critique of her commentary on foregrounding the disciplines in secondary school literacy teaching and learning. Heller challenges the idea of approaching secondary literacy instruction from a disciplinary perspective by arguing that rather than teach young people the literate practices…

  6. The Dependability of the General Factor of Intelligence: Why Small, Single-Factor Models Do Not Adequately Represent "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jason T.; Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Floyd, Shands, Rafael, Bergeron and McGrew (2009) used generalizability theory to test the reliability of general-factor loadings and to compare three different sources of error in them: the test battery size, the test battery composition, the factor-extraction technique, and their interactions. They found that their general-factor loadings were…

  7. Maintaining population persistence in the face of an extremely altered hydrograph: implications for three sensitive fishes in a tributary of the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottcher, Jared L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an organism to disperse to suitable habitats, especially in modified and fragmented systems, determines individual fitness and overall population viability. The bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta) are three species native to the upper Colorado River Basin that now occupy only 50% of their historic range. Despite these distributional declines, populations of all three species are present in the San Rafael River, a highly regulated tributary of the Green River, Utah, providing an opportunity for research. Our goal was to determine the timing and extent of movement, habitat preferences, and limiting factors, ultimately to guide effective management and recovery of these three species. In 2007-2008, we sampled fish from 25 systematically selected, 300-m reaches in the lower 64 km of the San Rafael River, spaced to capture the range of species, life-stages, and habitat conditions present. We implanted all target species with a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, installed a passive PIT tag antennae, and measured key habitat parameters throughout each reach and at the site of native fish capture. We used random forest modeling to identify and rank the most important abiotic and biotic predictor variables, and reveal potential limiting factors in the San Rafael River. While flannelmouth sucker were relatively evenly distributed within our study area, highest densities of roundtail chub and bluehead sucker occurred in isolated, upstream reaches characterized by complex habitat. In addition, our movement and length-frequency data indicate downstream drift of age-0 roundtail chub, and active upstream movement of adult flannelmouth sucker, both from source populations, providing the lower San Rafael River with colonists. Our random forest analysis highlights the importance of pools, riffles, and distance-to-source populations, suggesting that bluehead sucker and roundtail

  8. Permian plate margin volcanism and tuffs in adjacent basins of west Gondwana: Age constraints and common characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar

    2006-12-01

    Increasing evidence of Permian volcanic activity along the South American portion of the Gondwana proto-Pacific margin has directed attention to its potential presence in the stratigraphic record of adjacent basins. In recent years, tuffaceous horizons have been identified in late Early Permian-through Middle Permian (280-260 Ma) sections of the Paraná Basin (Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Farther south and closer to the magmatic tract developed along the continental margin, in the San Rafael and Sauce Grande basins of Argentina, tuffs are present in the Early to Middle Permian section. This tuff-rich interval can be correlated with the appearance of widespread tuffs in the Karoo Basin. Although magmatic activity along the proto-Pacific plate margin was continuous during the Late Paleozoic, Choiyoi silicic volcanism along the Andean Cordillera and its equivalent in Patagonia peaked between the late Early Permian and Middle Permian, when extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region. The San Rafael orogenic phase (SROP) interrupted sedimentation along the southwestern segment of the Gondwana margin (i.e., Frontal Cordillera, San Rafael Basin), induced cratonward thrusting (i.e., Ventana and Cape foldbelts), and triggered accelerated subsidence in the adjacent basins (Sauce Grande and Karoo) located inboard of the deformation front. This accelerated subsidence favored the preservation of tuffaceous horizons in the syntectonic successions. The age constraints and similarities in composition between the volcanics along the continental margin and the tuffaceous horizons in the San Rafael, Sauce Grande, Paraná, and Karoo basins strongly suggest a genetic linkage between the two episodes. Radiometric ages from tuffs in the San Rafael, Paraná, and Karoo basins indicate an intensely tuffaceous interval between 280 and 260 Ma.

  9. Ongoing calving-frontal dynamics of glaciers in the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, F.; Rivera, A.; Burger, F.; Carrión, D.; Cisternas, S.; Gacitúa, G.; Pena, M.; Oberreuter, J.; Silva, R.; Uribe, J. A.; Wendt, A.; Zamora, R.

    2013-05-01

    Patagonian glaciers are increasingly contributing to the global-sea level rise due to negative mass balances in recent decades, in spite of moderated temperature and precipitation changes taking place in the region. The Austral Chilean glaciers retreat and thinning are strongly influenced by local topography and frontal characteristics, both playing a key role in disrupting glacier responses. One of the main ice bodies in this region is the Northern Patagonian Icefield ( NPI, 46S/73W, 3953 km2), a plateau from where tens of outlet glaciers have been inventoried. Many of these glaciers are ending at sea or freshwater lakes where they are calving. This calving feature is typically associated to non-climatic fluctuations characterized by abnormally-high and sudden retreat and other exacerbated behaviors such as ice flow acceleration and dynamical thinning. The main aim of this work is the study of recent calving dynamics of three glaciers of the NPI, in order to analyze similarities versus differences associated to their location, topographical constraints and bathymetry, among other features. With this aim, airborne LIDAR and radar surveys, as well as field trips were conducted to the area in year 2012 where several instruments and sensors were installed. The selected study sites were the NPI eastern side freshwater calving glaciers Colonia (47.19S/73.29W) and Nef (47.03S/73.27W), and the NPI western margin tidewater calving San Rafael glacier (46.70S/73.76W). With all the collected data, calving fluxes of 0.03 km3 a-1 and 0.08 km3 a-1 were detected at Glaciares Colonia and Nef respectively. At San Rafael, the calving flux was much higher (0.94 km3 a-1) mainly due to a deeper bathymetry near the glacier front, and very high velocities (10m d-1) compared to the eastern side glaciers. At Glaciar San Rafael the calving flux is very likely modulated by tidal components and local buoyancy conditions, while at the eastern glaciers, calving is a near marginal feature

  10. Solving Guzman's Problem: "An Other" Narrative of "La Gran Familia Puertorriquena" in Judith Ortiz Cofer's "The Line of the Sun"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, John V.

    2009-01-01

    The first half of Judith Ortiz Cofer's novel "The Line of the Sun" (1989) narrates events that take place in the small fictional town of Salud, Puerto Rico, during the 1940s and 50s. In the second part of the novel, starting with chapter six, the readers see how two characters from the first half, Rafael and Ramona, and their young children,…

  11. On constraints for heavy-meson form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, B.; Mende, P.F.

    1992-11-01

    We examine the recent work of de Rafael and Taron where model-independent bounds on the Isgur-Wise function are presented. We first argue that the bounds cannot hold in as much generality as implied. We show that the effects of resonances omitted in their discussion (such as heavy-heavy ``onium`` states below threshold) modify the bound. The resulting bound is much weaker but may be useful where the size of the additional contribution may be computed or estimated.

  12. Hydrology Section Executive Committee minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, James W.

    The AGU Hydrology Section Executive Committee Meeting was called to order at approximately 4 P.M. on Monday, December 8, 1986 by Marshall Moss. In attendance were George Pinder, Allan Freeze, Jim Mercer, Ron Cummings, Ken Bencala, Jim Wallis, Simon Ince, Jack Stone, Jeff Dozier, Don Nielson, Ivan Johnson, John Wilson, Helen Peters, Jurate Landwehr, Karen Prestegaard, Soroosh Sorooshian, Jery Stedinger, Peter Kitanidis, Rafael Bras, and Waldo Smith.

  13. Scotblood 2010: key presentations of the past, present, and future of transfusion medicine to mark Scottish national blood transfusion service (SNBTS) anniversaries.

    PubMed

    Bessos, Hagop; Fraser, Robin; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2011-10-01

    The year 2010 marked the 80th anniversary of the first volunteer blood donor panel in Scotland and the 70th anniversary of the first meeting of the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Association - the forerunner of today's SNBTS. As such the annual Scotblood meeting hosted a distinguished group of speakers to present key note and award lectures on all aspects of Transfusion Medicine including red cell antigens, solving the problems, hazards that shaped our practice, the transfusion needs of patients, donor issues, and component therapy to cellular therapy and beyond. The Iain Cook Memorial Lecture was given by Prof. Dame Marcela Contreras and was entitled "Blood Transfusion International - A Partnership with the Developing World".

  14. Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Alexander; Contreras, Iván.; Reyes-Lega, Andrés. F.

    2013-05-01

    Introduction; 1. A brief introduction to Dirac manifolds Henrique Bursztyn; 2. Differential geometry of holomorphic vector bundles on a curve Florent Schaffhauser; 3. Paths towards an extension of Chern-Weil calculus to a class of infinite dimensional vector bundles Sylvie Paycha; 4. Introduction to Feynman integrals Stefan Weinzierl; 5. Iterated integrals in quantum field theory Francis Brown; 6. Geometric issues in quantum field theory and string theory Luis J. Boya; 7. Geometric aspects of the standard model and the mysteries of matter Florian Scheck; 8. Absence of singular continuous spectrum for some geometric Laplacians Leonardo A. Cano García; 9. Models for formal groupoids Iván Contreras; 10. Elliptic PDEs and smoothness of weakly Einstein metrics of Hölder regularity Andrés Vargas; 11. Regularized traces and the index formula for manifolds with boundary Alexander Cardona and César Del Corral; Index.

  15. A sequence of seventy-three nucleotides from the coliphage R17 genome

    PubMed Central

    Rensing, Ulrich F. E.

    1973-01-01

    1. A sequence of 73 nucleotides of the RNA genome from coliphage R17 was determined. It can be read through in only one translational frame. The fragment is not part of the coatprotein cistron (Min Jou et al., 1972), nor does it come from the untranslated sequences described previously (Steitz, 1969; Nichols, 1970; Cory et al., 1970; de Wachter et al., 1971; Contreras et al., 1971; Cory et al., 1972). It contains two sequences of 23 and 24 nucleotides, 22 of which are identical. This kind of reiteration is the first one found in bacteriophage nucleic acid. 2. Improved conditions were found and tested for blocking oligonucleotides with carbodi-imide and cleaving by ribonuclease A at cytidylate residues. 3. A synthetic medium is described which allows labelling in vivo with 32P to give specific radioactivities higher than those obtained in the procedures used previously. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3 PMID:4352721

  16. Uranium deposits at Shinarump Mesa and some adjacent areas in the Temple Mountain district, Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.

    1953-01-01

    Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.

  17. Reconnaissance of uranium and copper deposits in parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gott, Garland B.; Erickson, Ralph L.

    1952-01-01

    Because of the common association of uranium and copper in several of the commercial uranium deposits in the Colorado Plateau Province, a reconnaissance was made of several known deposits of copper disseminated through sandstone to determine whether they might be a source of uranium. In order to obtain more information regarding the relationship between copper, uranium and carbonaceous materials, some of the uraniferious asphaltrite deposits in the Shinarump conglomerate along the west flank of the San Rafael Swell were also investigated briefly. During this reconnaissance 18 deposits were examined in New Mexico, eight in Utah, two in Idaho, and one each in Wyoming and Colorado. No uranium deposits of commercial grade are associated with the copper deposits that were examined. The uraniferous asphaltites in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age on the west flank of the San Rafael Swell, however, are promising from the standpoint of commercial uranium production. Spectrographic analyses of crude oil, asphalt, and bituminous shales show a rather consistent suite of trace metals including vanadium, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, lead zinc, and molybdenum. The similarity of the metal assemblage, including uranium of the San Rafael Swell asphaltites, to the metal assemblage in crude oil and other bituminous materials suggests that these metals were concentrated in the asphaltites from petroleum. However, the hypothesis that uranium minerals were already present before the hydrocarbons were introduced and that some sort of replacement or uranium minerals by carbon compounds was effected after the petroleum migrated into the uranium deposit should not be disregarded. The widespread association of uranium with asphaltic material suggests that it also may have been concentrated by some agency connected with the formation of petroleum. The problem of the association of uranium and other trace metals with hydrocarbons should be studied further both in the field and in

  18. Magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size and resistivity of the mineralized area beneath overburden, a regional east-west magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. This is a data release report of the magnetotelluric sounding data collected along the east-west profile; no interpretation of the data is included.

  19. [Three personages in one old book].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Alcázar, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    It is always of interest, especially for medical practitioners, to learn about the lives of prominent scientists and their contributions to medicine. Briefly, we present here the highlights of three of those persons: Hermann von Helmholtz, one of the greatest minds in physics, physiology, optics, neurology, and developer of the ophthalmoscope, etc., along with two Mexican physicians, Manuel Carmona y Valle, prominent 19th century physician who was named "father" of ophthalmology in Mexico and Rafael Silva y Zayas, one of the brightest ophthalmologists of the first half of the 20th century in our country, eventually brought together, in communion, in one old book.

  20. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  1. [The practice of medicine in 1910].

    PubMed

    Viesca-Treviño, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to describe the environmental and the practice of the medicine around the 1910, year of the Mexican Revolution. Prominent physicians and theirs contributions are describe. All of them from the Mexican clinical school development by Manuel Carpio and Miguel Jiménez. It is stand out the progress of the Mexican medicine with the incorporation of the European advances into the daily practice. It is also describe the development and contemporary practice of surgery of the Mexican surgery school forced by surgeons like Miguel Muñoz, Francisco Montes de Oca and Rafael Lavista.

  2. Hydrology Section Executive Committee Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    The Hydrology Section Executive Committee (EC) convened at 8:20 A.M. on May 28, 1985, in Room 311 of the Convention Center in Baltimore, Md. The meeting was chaired by Hydrology Section President R. Allan Freeze. Section President-Elect Marshall Moss kept the minutes in the absence of the Section Secretary Thomas Maddock III. Also in attendance were William Back, Rafael Bras, Stephen Burges, Jerry Cohon, Ron Cummings, David Dawdy, Jacques Delleur, Leonard Konikow, Jurate Landwehr, Fred Molz, Don Nielsen, Joyce Peters, Karen Prestegaard, Tom Schmugge, Waldo Smith, Jery Stedinger, and Eric Wood.

  3. Characterization of Brazilian artists' palette from the XIX century using EDXRF portable system.

    PubMed

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O; Pedreira, Andrea; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2010-01-01

    In this work were characterized the palettes of some of the most representative Brazilian painters from the XIX century: Eliseu Visconti, Almeida Junior, Rodolfo Amoedo, Henrique Bernardelli, Rafael Frederico, Modesto Brocos, Augusto Rodrigues Duarte and Pedro Peres. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Some pigments identified were: zinc and lead white, ochre, umber, vermilion, Prussian blue, cobalt blue, cadmium yellow, black iron oxide, etc. PMID:19897379

  4. Recent Progresses in Laboratory Astrophysics with Ames’ COSmIC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2016-06-01

    We present and discuss the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for “Cosmic Simulation Chamber” and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nano particles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate space environments. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. COSmIC is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a plasma in free supersonic jet expansion coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [2].Recent laboratory results that were obtained using COSmIC will be presented, in particular the progress that has been achieved in the domain of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) [3] and in monitoring, in the laboratory, the formation of dust grains and aerosols from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as stellar/circumstellar outflows [4] and planetary atmospheres [5]. Plans for future, next generation, laboratory experiments on cosmic molecules and grains in the growing field of laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed as well as the implications of the current studies for astronomy.References: [1] Salama F., In Organic Matter in Space, IAU Symposium 251, Kwok & Sandford Eds.Cambridge University Press, Vol. 4, S251, p. 357 (2008) and references therein.[2] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300, 26 (2011)[3] Salama F., Galazutdinov G., Krelowski J

  5. Laboratory Astrophysics Studies with the COSmIC Facility: Interstellar and Planetary Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Contreras, Cesar S.; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2015-08-01

    We present and discuss the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for “Cosmic Simulation Chamber” and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nano particles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate space environments. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. COSmIC is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a plasma in free supersonic jet expansion coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [2].Recent laboratory astrophysics results that were obtained using COSmIC will be presented, in particular the progress that has been achieved in the domain of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and in monitoring, in the laboratory, the formation of dust grains and aerosols from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as stellar/circumstellar outflows [3] and planetary atmospheres [4]. Plans for future, next generation, laboratory experiments on cosmic molecules and grains in the growing field of laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed as well as the implications of the current studies for astronomy.References:[1] Salama F., In Organic Matter in Space, IAU Symposium 251, Kwok & Sandford Eds.Cambridge University Press, Vol. 4, S251, p. 357 (2008) and references therein.[2] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300, 26 (2011)[3] Cesar Contreras and Farid Salama, The

  6. Effects of dam operation on the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis, related to mesohabitats, microhabitat availability and water temperature regime, in the river Cabriel (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Costa, Rui; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Diego Alcaraz-Hernandez, Juan; Hernandez-Mascarell, Aina

    2010-05-01

    The presence of large dams affects habitat availability, often regarded as the primary factor that limits population and community recovery in rivers. Physical habitat is often targeted in restoration, but there is often a paucity of useful information. Habitat degradation has reduced the complexity and connectivity of the Mediterranean streams in Spain. These changes have diminished the historical range of the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis (Steindachner, 1866), isolated the populations of this species, and probably contributed to its risk of extinction. In the Júcar River basin (Spain), where this fish is endemic, the populations are mainly restricted to the river Cabriel, which is fragmented in two segments by the large dam of Contreras. In this river, 3 main lines of research were developed from 2006 to 2008, i.e., microhabitat suitability, mesohabitat suitability, and water temperature, in order to relate such kind of variables with the flow regime. The main goal of the research project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, was to detect the main reasons of the species decline, and to propose dam operation improvements to contribute to the recovery of the species. The flow and water temperature regimes were also studied in the river Cabriel, upstream and downstream the large dam of Contreras. During the three years of study, below the dam it was observed a small and not significant variation in the proportions of slow and fast habitats; the regulated flow regime was pointed out as the main reason of such variations. At the microhabitat scale, optimal ranges for average depth and velocity were defined; these data allowed us to develop an estimation of weighted useable area under natural and regulated conditions. The Júcar nase were found majorly at depths no greater than 1,15 meters with slow water velocities. It was possible to observe a clear alteration of the flow and water temperature regime below the dam, due to the cold

  7. Faulted shoreline and tidal deposits in the Moenkopi Formation of the Grassy Trail Creek field, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L. ); Lutz, S.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The Grassy Trail Creek field produces 40{degrees} API oil and minor gas from shallow marine sandstones of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation on the north-plunging nose of the San Rafael swell in central Utah. Production is controlled by a combination of stratigraphic variations and minor north-south-trending faults. Although fracture permeability enhances production of the reservoir, some faults act as barriers to fluid migration, segmenting the area into productive and dry fault blocks. Horizontal drilling techniques developed in this field in the early 1980s resulted in significantly better production. Log analyses indicate the main reservoir is a complex stack of this thin tidal channel sandstones. Isochore maps of the A and B zones indicate thickened meanders that form localized reservoir pods that are vertically offset. The distribution of isochore thicks appears to represent deposition along a northwest-southeast-trending shoreline fed by sediments from the northeast. There is potential for field extensions in similar deposits along this paleoshoreline. The Moenkopi Formation, long thought to be self-sourcing, may contain oil generated in Precambrian sediments equivalent to the Late Proterozoic Chuar Group. Presence of this older oil would have required migration from Precambrian sedimentary rocks surrounding the San Rafael swell.

  8. Petrography and provenance of sandstone, Sunnyside oil-impregnated deposit, Uinta basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, M.D.; Banks, E.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The Sunnyside oil-impregnated arkosic sandstone deposit (Eocene) is located on the southwestern edge of the Uinta basin, northeastern Utah. It is a giant deposit with more than 4.5 billion bbl of in-place bitumen. Thin section, microprobe, and heavy-mineral analyses indicate a mixed provenance of crystalline and sedimentary sources. Primary crystalline detritus was derived from southwestern Colorado several hundred miles distant, sedimentary detritus from locally adjacent Colorado Plateau uplifts. The sandstone was deposited in meandering fluvial settings. Lacustrine rocks of the Green River Formation overlie and underlie and are occasionally interbedded with the fluvial rocks. The average paleocurrent direction is N45/sup 0/E, indicating a source to the southwest. The incongruent relationship between the average paleocurrent direction and postulated source areas is probably related to the presence of the San Rafael swell upwarp, and to the influence on the drainage pattern by streams that drained the orogenic highlands of western Utah and joined the major north-flowing drainage at the northern end of the San Rafael swell. Migration of bitumen into the rocks at Sunnyside from lacustrine sources occurred after authigenic development of spar-size dolomite rhombs, syntaxial albite and quartz overgrowths, and hematite. Development of calcite cement may be related to the introduction of bitumen and associated pore fluids into the sandstone. Correlation of bitumen content with textural data is weak. Incomplete saturation of rocks by bitumen prevents a determination of the effect of mean grain size and percent matrix on saturation.

  9. Variable Temperature Current-Voltage Measurements of CdTe Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. D.

    2000-03-01

    We have used a 2" x 2" Peltier heat pump chip powered with 24 V from a computer power supply to build a variable temperature stage for current voltage measurements of solar cells. A voltage divider was used to achieve several different set point temperatures from 25 oC to -24 oC. This system was used with a halogen lamp to study the electrical performance of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells fabricated in our group. These cells have the superstrate structure glass/SnO2:F/CdS/CdTe/metal.(1) The I-V characteristic shows evidence of a blocking back-diode which sets in below room temperature. This behavior will be related to the diffusion into the CdTe of the metals used for our back contact.(2) 1. M. Shao, A. Fischer, D. Grecu, U. Jayamaha, E. Bykov, G. Contreras-Puente, R.G. Bohn, and A.D. Compaan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3045-3047 (1996). 2. D. Grecu and A.D. Compaan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 361-363 (1999).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: YJK for Type Ia supernovae (Dhawan+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, S.; Leibundgut, B.; Spyromilio, J.; Maguire, K.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate a large sample of nearby objects with well-sampled optical and NIR data (Table 1). The main data source of NIR SN Ia photometry is the Carnegie SN Project (CSP; Contreras et al., 2010, Cat. J/AJ/139/519; Burns et al. 2011AJ....141...19B, 2014ApJ...789...32B; Stritzinger et al., 2011, Cat. J/AJ/142/156; Phillips, 2012PASA...29..434P). The low-redshift CSP provides a sample of SNe Ia with optical and NIR light curves in a homogeneous and well-defined photometric system ( in Vega magnitude system) and thus forms an ideal basis for the evaluation of light-curve properties. CSP relies primarily on SN discoveries from the Lick Observatory SN Search (Leaman et al., 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/412/1419). The CSP has published light curves on a total of 82 SNe Ia of which 70 have photometry in YJHK bands. (6 data files).

  11. Long-time self-diffusion of charged spherical colloidal particles in parallel planar layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Aburto, Claudio; Báez, César A.; Méndez-Alcaraz, José M.; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The long-time self-diffusion coefficient, DL, of charged spherical colloidal particles in parallel planar layers is studied by means of Brownian dynamics computer simulations and mode-coupling theory. All particles (regardless which layer they are located on) interact with each other via the screened Coulomb potential and there is no particle transfer between layers. As a result of the geometrical constraint on particle positions, the simulation results show that DL is strongly controlled by the separation between layers. On the basis of the so-called contraction of the description formalism [C. Contreras-Aburto, J. M. Méndez-Alcaraz, and R. Castañeda-Priego, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 174111 (2010)], the effective potential between particles in a layer (the so-called observed layer) is obtained from integrating out the degrees of freedom of particles in the remaining layers. We have shown in a previous work that the effective potential performs well in describing the static structure of the observed layer (loc. cit.). In this work, we find that the DL values determined from the simulations of the observed layer, where the particles interact via the effective potential, do not agree with the exact values of DL. Our findings confirm that even when an effective potential can perform well in describing the static properties, there is no guarantee that it will correctly describe the dynamic properties of colloidal systems.

  12. [The empacho in Mexico during the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Coronado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    During the 19th century, empacho as a nosological entity prompted academic research by such renowned Mexican clinicians as Miguel F. Jiménez, Eduardo Liceaga, Fernando Altamirano, José Peon y Contreras, among others. Empacho is often the result of excessive eating or difficulty in digestion of certain foods, especially fruits with a peel (oranges, limes, grapefruits, apples, etc.) and legumes (beans, sweet pea, chick peas). Empacho has a greater effect on children under the age of two. It is clinically identified by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, restlessness, the presence of abdominal distension, abdominal dullness to percussion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and meteorism. The most common treatments during the 19th century sought to evacuate gastrointestinal content immediately through vomiting or purgative medication. The general population often used medicinal plants to provoke gastrointestinal purges, while academic doctors most frequently used castor oil as a laxative and ipecacuanha to induce vomiting. This work presents a description and analysis of the general characteristics of the popular illness, empacho. The information comes from doctors, pharmacists, homeopaths, botanists and popular groups.

  13. Comment: Towards a Complete Classification of Spherically Symmetric Lorentzian Manifolds According to Their Ricci Collineations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziad, M.

    2003-05-01

    General expressions for the components of the Ricci collineation vector are derived and the related constraints are obtained. These constraints are then solved to obtain Ricci collineations and the related constraints on the Ricci tensor components for all spacetime manifolds (degenerate or non-degenerate, diagonal or non-diagonal) admitting symmetries larger than so(3) and already known results are recovered. A complete solution is achieved for the spacetime manifolds admitting so(3) as the maximal symmetry group with non-degenerate and non diagonal Ricci tensor components. It is interesting to point out that there appear cases with finite number of Ricci collineations although the Ricci tensor is degenerate and also the cases with infinitely many Ricci collineations even in the case of non-degenerate Ricci tensor. Interestingly, it is found that the spacetime manifolds with so(3) as maximal symmetry group may admit two extra proper Ricci collineations, although they do not admit a G5 as the maximal symmetry group. Examples are provided which show and clarify some comments made by Camci et al. [Camci, U., and Branes, A. (2002). Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 393-404]. Theorems are proved which correct the earlier claims made in [Carot, J., Nunez, L. A., and Percoco, U. (1997). Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 29, 1223-1237 Contreras, G., Núñez, L. A., and Percolo, U. (2000). Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 32, 285-294].

  14. [The empacho in Mexico during the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Coronado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    During the 19th century, empacho as a nosological entity prompted academic research by such renowned Mexican clinicians as Miguel F. Jiménez, Eduardo Liceaga, Fernando Altamirano, José Peon y Contreras, among others. Empacho is often the result of excessive eating or difficulty in digestion of certain foods, especially fruits with a peel (oranges, limes, grapefruits, apples, etc.) and legumes (beans, sweet pea, chick peas). Empacho has a greater effect on children under the age of two. It is clinically identified by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, restlessness, the presence of abdominal distension, abdominal dullness to percussion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and meteorism. The most common treatments during the 19th century sought to evacuate gastrointestinal content immediately through vomiting or purgative medication. The general population often used medicinal plants to provoke gastrointestinal purges, while academic doctors most frequently used castor oil as a laxative and ipecacuanha to induce vomiting. This work presents a description and analysis of the general characteristics of the popular illness, empacho. The information comes from doctors, pharmacists, homeopaths, botanists and popular groups. PMID:20141652

  15. Simultaneous Laser-induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide and Atomic Oxygen in the Hypersonic Materials Environment Test System Arcjet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Craig; Lincoln, Daniel; Bathel, Brett; Inman, Jennifer; Danehy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous nitric oxide (NO) and atomic oxygen (O) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The data serves as an experimental database for validation for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium models used in hypersonic flows. Measurements were taken over a wide range of stagnation enthalpies (6.7 - 18.5 MJ/kg) using an Earth atmosphere simulant with a composition of 75% N2, 20% O2, and 5% Ar (by volume). These are the first simultaneous measurements of NO and O LIF to be reported in literature for the HYMETS facility. The maximum O LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of approximately 12 MJ/kg while the maximum NO LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of 6.7 MJ/kg. Experimental results were compared to simple fluorescence model that assumes equilibrium conditions in the plenum and frozen chemistry in the isentropic nozzle expansion (Mach 5). The equilibrium calculations were performed using CANTERA v2.1.1 with 16 species. The fluorescence model captured the correlation in mean O and NO LIF signal intensities over the entire range of stagnation enthalpies tested. Very weak correlations between single-shot O and NO LIF intensities were observed in the experiments at all of the stagnation enthalpy conditions.

  16. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas.

  17. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  18. Shock induced ignition and DDT in the presence of mechanically driven fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentian; McDonald, James G.; Radulescu, Matei I.

    2015-11-01

    The present study addresses the problem of shock induced ignition and transition to detonation in the presence of mechanical and thermal fluctuations. These departures from a homogeneous medium are of significant importance in practical situations, where such fluctuations may promote hot-spot ignition and favor the flame transition to detonation. The problem is studied in 1D, where a piston-induced shock ignites the gas. The fluctuations in the shock-compressed medium are controlled by allowing the piston's speed to oscillate around a mean, with controllable frequency and amplitude. A Lagrangian numerical formulation is used, which allows to treat exactly the transient boundary condition at the piston head. The hydrodynamic solver is coupled with the reactive dynamics of the gas using Cantera. The code was verified by comparison with steady state ZND solutions and previous shock induced ignition results in homogeneous media. Results obtained for different fuels illustrate the strong relation of the DDT amplification length to mechanical fluctuations in systems with a high effective activation energy and fast rate of energy deposition, consistent with experiments performed on fast flame acceleration in the presence of strong mechanical perturbations. Financial support from NSERC and Shell, with A. Pekalski and M. Levin as technical monitors, are greatly acknowledged.

  19. Development of a novel miniature detonation-driven shock tube assembly that uses in situ generated oxyhydrogen mixture.

    PubMed

    Janardhanraj, S; Jagadeesh, G

    2016-08-01

    A novel concept to generate miniature shockwaves in a safe, repeatable, and controllable manner in laboratory confinements using an in situ oxyhydrogen generator has been proposed and demonstrated. This method proves to be more advantageous than existing methods because there is flexibility to vary strength of the shockwave, there is no need for storage of high pressure gases, and there is minimal waste disposal. The required amount of oxyhydrogen mixture is generated using alkaline electrolysis that produces hydrogen and oxygen gases in stoichiometric quantity. The rate of oxyhydrogen mixture production for the newly designed oxyhydrogen generator is found to be around 8 ml/s experimentally. The oxyhydrogen generator is connected to the driver section of a specially designed 10 mm square miniature shock tube assembly. A numerical code that uses CANTERA software package is used to predict the properties of the driver gas in the miniature shock tube. This prediction along with the 1-D shock tube theory is used to calculate the properties of the generated shockwave and matches reasonably well with the experimentally obtained values for oxyhydrogen mixture fill pressures less than 2.5 bars. The miniature shock tube employs a modified tri-clover clamp assembly to facilitate quick changing of diaphragm and replaces the more cumbersome nut and bolt system of fastening components. The versatile nature of oxyhydrogen detonation-driven miniature shock tube opens up new horizons for shockwave-assisted interdisciplinary applications.

  20. Development of a novel miniature detonation-driven shock tube assembly that uses in situ generated oxyhydrogen mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhanraj, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2016-08-01

    A novel concept to generate miniature shockwaves in a safe, repeatable, and controllable manner in laboratory confinements using an in situ oxyhydrogen generator has been proposed and demonstrated. This method proves to be more advantageous than existing methods because there is flexibility to vary strength of the shockwave, there is no need for storage of high pressure gases, and there is minimal waste disposal. The required amount of oxyhydrogen mixture is generated using alkaline electrolysis that produces hydrogen and oxygen gases in stoichiometric quantity. The rate of oxyhydrogen mixture production for the newly designed oxyhydrogen generator is found to be around 8 ml/s experimentally. The oxyhydrogen generator is connected to the driver section of a specially designed 10 mm square miniature shock tube assembly. A numerical code that uses CANTERA software package is used to predict the properties of the driver gas in the miniature shock tube. This prediction along with the 1-D shock tube theory is used to calculate the properties of the generated shockwave and matches reasonably well with the experimentally obtained values for oxyhydrogen mixture fill pressures less than 2.5 bars. The miniature shock tube employs a modified tri-clover clamp assembly to facilitate quick changing of diaphragm and replaces the more cumbersome nut and bolt system of fastening components. The versatile nature of oxyhydrogen detonation-driven miniature shock tube opens up new horizons for shockwave-assisted interdisciplinary applications.

  1. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  2. Development of a novel miniature detonation-driven shock tube assembly that uses in situ generated oxyhydrogen mixture.

    PubMed

    Janardhanraj, S; Jagadeesh, G

    2016-08-01

    A novel concept to generate miniature shockwaves in a safe, repeatable, and controllable manner in laboratory confinements using an in situ oxyhydrogen generator has been proposed and demonstrated. This method proves to be more advantageous than existing methods because there is flexibility to vary strength of the shockwave, there is no need for storage of high pressure gases, and there is minimal waste disposal. The required amount of oxyhydrogen mixture is generated using alkaline electrolysis that produces hydrogen and oxygen gases in stoichiometric quantity. The rate of oxyhydrogen mixture production for the newly designed oxyhydrogen generator is found to be around 8 ml/s experimentally. The oxyhydrogen generator is connected to the driver section of a specially designed 10 mm square miniature shock tube assembly. A numerical code that uses CANTERA software package is used to predict the properties of the driver gas in the miniature shock tube. This prediction along with the 1-D shock tube theory is used to calculate the properties of the generated shockwave and matches reasonably well with the experimentally obtained values for oxyhydrogen mixture fill pressures less than 2.5 bars. The miniature shock tube employs a modified tri-clover clamp assembly to facilitate quick changing of diaphragm and replaces the more cumbersome nut and bolt system of fastening components. The versatile nature of oxyhydrogen detonation-driven miniature shock tube opens up new horizons for shockwave-assisted interdisciplinary applications. PMID:27587167

  3. Orogenic front propagation in the basement involved Malargüe fold and thrust belt, Neuquén Basin, (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branellec, Matthieu; Nivière, Bertrand; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2015-04-01

    The Malargüe fold and thrust belt (MFTB) and the San Rafael Block (SRB) are located in the northern termination of the Neuquén basin in Argentina. This basin is a wide inverted intracratonic sag basin with polyphased evolution controlled at large scale by the dynamic of the Pacific subduction. By late Triassic times, narrow rift basins developed and evolved toward a sag basin from middle Jurassic to late Cretaceous. From that time on, compression at the trench resulted in various shortening pulses in the back-arc area. Here we aim to analyze the Andean system at 35°S by comparing the Miocene structuration in the MFTB and the current deformation along the oriental border or the San Rafael Block. The main structuration stage in the MFTB occurred by Miocene times (15 to 10 Ma) producing the principal uplift of the Andean Cordillera. As shown by new structural cross sections, Triassic-early Jurassic rift border faults localized the Miocene compressive tectonics. Deformation is compartmentalized and does not exhibit a classical propagation of homogeneous deformation sequence expected from the critical taper theory. Several intramontane basins in the hangingwall of the main thrusts progressively disconnected from the foreland. In addition, active tectonics has been described in the front of the MFTB attesting for the on-going compression in this area. 100 km farther to the east, The San Rafael Block, is separated from the MFTB by the Rio Grande basin. The SRB is mostly composed of Paleozoic terranes and Triassic rift-related rocks, overlain by late Miocene synorogenic deposits. The SRB is currently uplifted along its oriental border along several active faults. These faults have clear morphologic signatures in Quaternary alluvial terraces and folded Pleistocene lavas. As in the MFTB, the active deformation localization remains localized by structural inheritance. The Andean system is thus evolving as an atypical orogenic wedge partly by frontal accretion at the front

  4. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah

    PubMed Central

    Freebury, Colin E.; Hamilton, Paul B.; Saarela, Jeffery M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah. PMID:27350765

  5. [Tuberculosis in Mexico: contributions of the Museum of Anatomopathology, 1895-1899].

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Méndez, Santiago; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Castañeda-López, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In 1895, Rafael Lavista founded the Museum of Anatomopathology at the Hospital de San Andrds in Mexico City, for the purpose of preparing and preserving anatomical pieces useful for the study of different diseases. Porfirio Diaz officially inaugurated the Museum in March 1896, but in June 1899 it was renamed as the Instituto Patológico Nacional. During its four years of activity, a variety of illnesses were studied, including tuberculosis, which spurred great interest among Museum personnel because of its high incidence. This text examines the labors developed at the Museum of Anatomopathology in relation to tuberculosis, discusses the researchers involved, and reviews the articles published in the Museum's journal: Revista quincenal de anatomía patológica.

  6. Quartz Microbalance Study of 400-angstrom Thick Films near the lambda Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Moses H. W.

    2003-01-01

    In a recent measurement we observed the thinning of an adsorbed helium film induced by the confinement of critical fluctuations a few millikelvin below the lambda point. A capacitor set-up was used to measure this Casimir effect. In this poster we will present our measurement of an adsorbed helium film of 400 angstroms near the lambda point with a quartz microbalance. For films this thick, we must take into account the non-linear dynamics of the shear waves in the fluid. In spite of the added complications, we were able to confirm the thinning of the film due to the Casimir effect and the onset of the superfluid transition. In addition, we observe a sharp anomaly at the bulk lambda point, most likely related to critical dissipation of the first sound. This work is carried out in collaboration with Rafael Garcia, Stephen Jordon and John Lazzaretti. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research under grant.

  7. Deep bore hole instrumentation along San Francisco Bay Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bakun, W.; Bowman, J.; Clymer, R.; Foxall, W.; Hipley, P.; Hollfelder, J.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McEvilly, T.; Mualchin, L.; Palmer, M.

    1998-10-01

    The Bay Bridges down hole network consists of sensors in bore holes that are drilled 100 ft. into bedrock around and in the San Francisco Bay. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty- one sensor packages at fifteen sites. Extensive financial support is being contributed by Caltrans, UCB, LBL, LLNL-LDRD, U.C. Campus/Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) program, and USGS. The down hole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 73 1 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes.

  8. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Long, L.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Urhhammer, R.; Baise, L.

    2001-05-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. This report list earthquakes and stations where recordings were obtained during the period February 29, 2000 to November 11, 2000. Also, preliminary results on noise analysis for up and down hole recordings at Yerba Buena Island is presented.

  9. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, Paul C; Freebury, Colin E; Hamilton, Paul B; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah.

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Price Quadrangle, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Franczyk, K.J.; Luft, S.J.; Lupe, R.D.; Peterson, F.; Robinson, K.

    1982-09-01

    One stratigraphic sequence in one area of the Price Quadrangle, Utah has been determined to be favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation of the US Department of Energy. The stratigraphic sequence is the Triassic Chinle Formation, and the area is in the southeastern part of the quadrangle on the San Rafael Swell. The criteria used to determine the favorability of this area are the sandstone-to-shale ratio for the Chinle Formation, and the distribution of possible source rocks for the uranium such as the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle. The Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone in the northwestern corner of the quadrangle in the Wasatch Mountains has been classified as unevaluated for the occurrence of uranium. All other suitable host rocks for uranium that occur in the quadrangle were judged not to meet the minimum conditions for favorability.

  11. Sympathetic Resonance Technology: scientific foundation and summary of biologic and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Rubik, Beverly

    2002-12-01

    Sympathetic Resonance Technology (SRT; Clarus Products, International, L.L.C., San Rafael, CA) is a novel technology used in consumer health care products to protect humans from the potentially harmful effects of stress. A summary of the previously unpublished studies on SRT, both basic and clinical, is presented. These studies collectively show that SRT mitigates the stress response for a variety of stressors such as chemical and electromagnetic stress in various biologic systems and multiple levels of organization, ranging from the molecular to the behavioral. A rudimentary model of how SRT may work at the level of the biofield, the endogenous electromagnetic field of the organism, is proposed. By interacting with key component frequencies in the biofield, SRT may stabilize the organism homeodynamically, thereby protecting it from the effects of stressful stimuli.

  12. "The physician as poet" review of: Pereira, Peter Saying the World

    PubMed Central

    Weishaus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Peter Pereira is a family physician and a poet. I weave excerpts from Dr. Pereira's poems into a brief history of medicine's mythological and historical roots, beginning with the Egyptian god Thoth, and the Greek physician Hippocrates. Along the way, I touch on the European Middle Ages and the Islamic World. Finally, I quote poet-critic T.S. Eliot, who was an early influence on Dr. Pereira's decision to become a poet, and contemporary physician-poets Rafael Campo and William Carlos Williams. I end by placing Dr. Pereira, whose practice is oriented toward immigrant families, in his indigenous Pacific Northwest, arguing that being both physician and poet helps Pereira to live in a world that is both intimately human and naturally impersonal.

  13. Distribution of the Sonora Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi) in Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Rorabaugh, James C.; Lemos Espinal, Julio A.; Sigafus, Brent H.; Chambert, Thierry A; Carreon Arroyo, Gerardo; Hurtado Felix, David; Toyos Martinez, Daniel; Jones, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    The Sonoran Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi Lowe, 1954) was listed as federally endangered in the USA in 1997 (USFWS 1997). In the USA, the distribution of A. mavortium stebbinsi is limited to the San Rafael Valley (approximately 567 km2), between the Sierra San Antonio (called the Patagonia Mountains in Arizona) and Huachuca Mountains, and south of the Canelo Hills, Arizona (Fig. 1). The USA listing was triggered by loss of natural wetland habitats, threats from invasive predators, frequent die-offs from disease, introgression with the introduced Barred Tiger Salamander (A. mavortium mavortium), and small range and number of breeding sites that increases susceptibility to stochastic events (USFWS 1997). Small population sizes and limited gene flow have caused inbreeding, which may further reduce population viability and the potential for recovery (Jones et al. 1988; Storfer et al. 2014). 

  14. BK in the chiral limit within the 1/ Nc expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Santiago

    2001-04-01

    I report on a recent calculation done in collaboration with E. de Rafael [7] of the invariant B̂K factor of K0-K¯ 0 mixing in the chiral limit and to next-to- leading order in the 1/ Nc expansion. This calculation is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example of a calculation of B̂K in which there is an explicit analytic cancellation of the μ renormalization scale and the scheme dependence between the Wilson coefficient and the corresponding kaon matrix element. I try to emphasize the ideas involved in the approach and how the method could be applied to other physical situations, rather than the details of the numerical analysis for which I refer the reader to ref. [7].

  15. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, Paul C; Freebury, Colin E; Hamilton, Paul B; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah. PMID:27350765

  16. Measurement of Critical Adsorption of Nitrogen near Its Liquid-vapor Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Moses

    2003-01-01

    The density profile of a critical fluid near a solid surface is expected to show an universal shape. This is known as critical adsorption. The measurement of this effect, especially close to the critical point, is often obscured by gravity. We were able to separate the gravitational effect from critical adsorption by using two capacitors, one with a large gap and one with a small gap of approximately 2 m. Within the uncertainty in the measurement, our data, which ranges between 10(exp -3) to 2 x 10(exp -6) in reduced temperatures, is consistent with the predicted power law dependence. This work is carried out in collaboration with Rafael Garcia, Sarah Scheidemantel and Klaus Knorr. It is funded by NASA's office of Biological and Physical Researchunder.

  17. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-04-30

    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  18. High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Twichell, David C.; Foster, David S.; Worley, Charles R.; Irwin, Barry J.; Danforth, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical and geospatial data were collected in the nearshore area surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts on the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael during September 2010 in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts, Office of Coastal Zone Management. This report describes the results of the short-term goals of this collaborative effort, which were to map the geology of the inner shelf zone of the western Elizabeth Islands and study the geologic processes that have contributed to its evolution. Data collected during the survey include: Bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, chirp seismic-reflection data , sound velocity profiles, and navigation data. The long-term goals of this project are to provide high-resolution geophysical data that will support research on the influence of sea-level change and sediment supply on coastal evolution and inventory subtidal marine habitat type and distribution within the coastal zone of Massachusetts.

  19. High-resolution swath interferometric data collected within Muskeget Channel, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Denny, Jane F.; Danforth, William W.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Irwin, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Swath interferometric bathymetery data were collected within and around Muskeget Channel and along select nearshore areas south and east of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael in October and November 2010 in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. This report describes the data-collection methods and -processing steps and releases the data in geospatial format. These data were collected to support an assessment of the effect on sediment transport that a tidal instream energy conversion facility would have within Muskeget Channel. Baseline bathymetry data were obtained for the Muskeget Channel area, and surveys in select areas were repeated after one month to monitor sediment transport and bedform migration.

  20. Achievements and challenges in structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Samish, Ilan; Bourne, Philip E.; Najmanovich, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The field of structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics has undergone a revolution in the last 10 years. Developments that are captured annually through the 3DSIG meeting, upon which this article reflects. Results: An increase in the accessible data, computational resources and methodology has resulted in an increase in the size and resolution of studied systems and the complexity of the questions amenable to research. Concomitantly, the parameterization and efficiency of the methods have markedly improved along with their cross-validation with other computational and experimental results. Conclusion: The field exhibits an ever-increasing integration with biochemistry, biophysics and other disciplines. In this article, we discuss recent achievements along with current challenges within the field. Contact: Rafael.Najmanovich@USherbrooke.ca PMID:25488929

  1. Distribution of breeding Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in the southwestern United States: Past, present, and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    The Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) breeds in desert grasslands of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico in the US, and in adjacent parts of northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. Roads that were surveyed in 1982 and 1987 in Arizona and New Mexico were relocated and roadside survey protocols were repeated in 2004 and 2005 to identify changes in distribution or abundance of the subspecies during the subsequent 17 yr. The Sonoita and San Rafael valleys in Arizona and the Animas Valley in New Mexico remain as primary population centers, supporting the highest mean numbers of singing males per stop, as well as the largest populations of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrows in the US. Mean number of singing males per stop was highest in the San Rafael Valley. Mean number of singing males per survey stop showed an increasing pattern from 1982–1987 and a subsequent decline to the present (2004–2005). Present bird densities are intermediate in value between 1982 and 1987 values. Small populations remain in the Altar, San Pedro, Sulphur Springs, and San Bernardino valleys in Arizona. The valleys evaluated in this and historical surveys represent the areas in which almost all Arizona Grasshopper Sparrows breed in the US; if any additional areas exist, they support peripheral, small, or remnant populations. Although historic, current, and future land use, and current and future threats differ among valleys, the primary factors posing threats to the future of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow populations appear to be loss and/or degradation of habitat due to exurban development, overgrazing, and the effects of long-term drought.

  2. Late-Pleistocene flank collapse triggered by dome growth at Tacaná volcano, México-Guatemala, and its relationship to the regional stress regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, J. L.; Arce, J. L.; García-Palomo, A.; Mora, J. C.; Layer, P. W.; Espíndola, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    During late Pleistocene time, the extrusion of an andesitic dome at the summit of Tacaná volcano caused the collapse of its northwestern flank. The stratocone collapse was nearly parallel to the σ min stress direction suggesting that failure was controlled by the regional stress field. The event produced a debris avalanche that was channelized in the San Rafael River and moved 8 km downstream. The deposit covered a minimum area of 4 km2, had a volume of 0.8 ± 0.5 km3, with an H/L (vertical drop to horizontal transport distance ratio) of ~0.35, defining a degree of mobility that is atypical for volcanic debris avalanches. The flank failure undermined the summit dome leading to its collapse and the generation of a series of block-and-ash flows that were emplaced in quick succession and covered the avalanche surface. The collapse event left a 600-m-wide summit amphitheatre with a 30-degree opening to the northwest, and >200 m thick debris that blocked the San Rafael River. Remobilization of this material produced debris flows that eroded the primary deposits and cascaded into the Coatán River. After the collapse, the activity of Tacaná continued with the emission of the Agua Zarca lava flow dated at 10 ± 6 ka (40Ar/39Ar), and pyroclastic surges dated at 10,610 + 330/-315 yr BP (14C), which provide a minimum age for the collapse event. During the Holocene, Tacaná has been very active producing explosive and effusive eruptions that ended with the extrusion of two summit domes that today occupy the amphitheatre. The 1950 and 1986 phreatic outbursts occurred along the Pleistocene collapse scar. Currently ~300,000 inhabitants live within a 35 km radius of Tacaná, and could conceivably be impacted by future events of similar magnitude.

  3. Characterizing the Iron Wash fault: A fault line scarp in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.; Ostenaa, D.; Goodman, J.; Zellman, M.; Hoeft, J.; Sowers, J. M.; Retson, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iron Wash fault (IWF) is an approximately 30 mile-long, NW-SE trending structure, oriented perpendicular to the San Rafael Monocline near Green River in Utah. IWF exhibits well-expressed geomorphic features such as a linear escarpment with consistently north side down displacement. The fault coincides with an abrupt change in San Rafael Monocline dip angle along its eastern margin. The IWF is exposed in incised drainages where Jurassic Navajo sandstone (oldest) and Lower Carmel Formation (old), are juxtaposed against Jurassic Entrada sandstone (younger) and Quaternary alluvium (youngest). To assess the recency of activity of the IWF we performed detailed geomorphic mapping and a paleoseismic trenching investigation. A benched trench was excavated across a Quaternary fluvial terrace remnant across the mapped trace of the IWF. The uppermost gravel units and overlying colluvium are exposed in the trench across the projection of the fault. In addition, we mapped the basal contact of the Quaternary gravel deposit in relation to the adjacent fault exposures in detail to show the geometry of the basal contact near and across the fault. We find no evidence of vertical displacement of these Quaternary gravels. A preliminary U-series date of calcite cementing unfaulted fluvial gravels and OSL dating of a sand lens within the unfaulted fluvial gravels yielded approximately 304,000 years and 78,000 years, respectively. These preliminary results of independent dating methods constrains the timing of last activity of the IWF to greater than 78,000 years before present suggesting that IWF not an active structure. Its distinct geomorphic expression is most likely the result of differential erosion, forming a fault-line scarp.

  4. Late Cenozoic calc-alkaline volcanism over the Payenia shallow subduction zone, South-Central Andean back-arc (34°30‧-37°S), Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Vanesa D.; Spagnuolo, Mauro G.; Folguera, Andrés; Poma, Stella; Jones, Rosemary E.; Ramos, Víctor A.

    2015-12-01

    A series of mesosilicic volcanic centers have been studied on the San Rafael Block (SRB), 300 km to the east of the present-day volcanic arc. K-Ar ages indicate that this magmatic activity was developed in at least two stages: the older volcanic centers (˜15-10 Ma) are located in the central and westernmost part of the SRB (around 36°S and 69°W) and the younger centers (8-3.5 Ma) are located in an eastern position (around 36°S and 69°30‧W) with respect to the older group. These volcanic rocks have andesitic to dacitic compositions and correspond to a high-K calc-alkaline sequence as shown by their SiO2, K2O and FeO/MgO contents. Elevated Ba/La, Ba/Ta and La/Ta ratios show an arc-like signature, and primitive mantle normalized trace element diagrams show typical depletions of high field strength elements (HFSE) relative to large ion lithophile elements (LILE). Rare earth element (REE) patterns suggest pyroxene and amphibole crystallization. Geochemical data obtained for SRB volcanic rocks support the proposal for a shallow subduction zone for the latest Miocene between 34°30″-37°S. Regionally, SRB volcanism is associated with a mid-Miocene to early Pliocene eastward arc migration caused by the shallowing of the subducting slab in the South-Central Andes at these latitudes, which represents the evolution of the Payenia shallow subduction segment. Overall, middle Miocene to early Pliocene volcanism located in the Payenia back-arc shows evidence for the influence of slab-related components. The younger (8-3.5 Ma) San Rafael volcanic rocks indicate the maximum slab shallowing and the easternmost extent of slab influence in the back-arc.

  5. Palinspastic reconstruction of Lower Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences near the latitude of Las Vegas: Implications for the entire Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, J.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    On the Colorado Plateau, lower Mesozoic stratigraphy is subdivided by regional unconformities into the Lower Triassic Moenkopi, Upper Triassic Chinle, Lower and Middle( ) Jurassic Glen Canyon, and Middle Jurassic lower San Rafael tectonosequences. Palinspastic reconstruction for Cenozoic extensional and mesozoic compressional deformations near the latitude of Las Vegas indicates the Moenkopi tectono-sequence constructed a passive-margin-like architecture of modest width overlapping folded. Thrust-faulted, and intruded Permian strata, with state boundaries fixed relative to the Colorado Plateau, comparison of the location of the Early Triassic shelf-slope break near latitude 36[degree] with the palinspastically restored location of the shelf-slope break in southeastern Idaho implies strata of the Moenkopi tectonosequence in the Mesozoic marine province of northwest NV lay in western utah in the Early Triassic. This reconstruction: suggests that the Galconda and Last Chance faults are part of the same thrust system; aligns late Carnian paleovalleys of the chinle tectonosequence on the Colorado Plateau with a coeval northwest-trending paleovalley cut across the Star Pea, and the Norian Cottonwood paleovalley with the coeval Grass Valley delta; defines a narrow, northward deepening back-arc basin in which the Glen Canyon tectonosequence was deposited; aligns east-facing half grabens along the back side of the arc from the Cowhole Mountains to the Clan Alpine Range; projects the volcan-arc/back-arc transition from northwest Arizona to the east side of the Idaho batholith; and predicts the abrupt facies change from silicic volcanics to marine strata of the lower San Rafael sequence lay in western Utah. The paleogeographic was altered in the late Bathonian to Callovian by back-arc extension north of a line extending from Cedar City, UT to Mina, NV. The palinspastic reconstruction implies the Paleozoic was tectonically stacked at the close of the Paleozoic.

  6. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  7. Latest Cretaceous-Paleogene basin development and resultant sedimentation patterns in the thrust belt and broken foreland of central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, T.F. ); Franczyk, K.J.; Pitman, J.K. )

    1990-05-01

    Latest Cretaceous tectonism in central and east-central Utah formed several intermontane basins both atop thrust sheets and between the thrust front and basement-involved uplifts in the former foreland basin. The upper Campanian Castlegate Sandstone and its inferred western equivalents were the last strata deposited prior to segmentation of the foreland basin. Thereafter, eastward transport of the thrust allochthon uplifted the most proximal part of the Castlegate depositional wedge. West of the thrust front, small intermontane basins formed on the allochthon. Sediment was transported into these basins from both eastern and western sources. In each basin, facies grade from basin-margin conglomeratic alluvial fan deposits to basin-interior flood-plain and lacustrine deposits within a few kilometers. These intermontane basins existed from latest Campanian through the late Paleocene, and may have been transported a short distance eastward as they formed. East of the thrust front in the latest Campanian and contemporaneous with basin formation on the allochthon, a northward-northeastward-flowing big river system transported sediment into the foreland basin from feldspar-rich source areas southwest of the study area. Subsequently, major movement of the San Rafael uplift in the very late Campanian or early Maastrichtian gave rise to an intermontane basin between the thrust front and the San Rafael uplift. Northwestward-flowing, pebble-bearing braided rivers deposited the oldest sediments in this basin prior to an influx from the south and southwest of sediment that formed a thick Maastrichtian clastic sequence. In contrast to deposition in basins on the allochthon, deposition east of the thrust front in the Paleocene was intermittent and restricted to rapidly shifting centers of basin subsidence.

  8. Social interactions and resource ownership in two private protected areas of Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Jesus; Morse, Stephen

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes the results of field research to dissect how social interactions differ between two reserves in Paraguay having very different styles of governance. The two reserves were Mbaracayú Natural Forest Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque de Mbaracayú, RNBM) and San Rafael Managed Resource Reserve (Reserva de Recursos Manejados San Rafael, RRMSR). RNBM is a private reserve owned by a non-governmental organisation, while RRMSR is a publicly-managed reserve, albeit with a substantial degree of private land ownership. Both reserves are intended to protect Atlantic Forest, one of the five world biodiversity 'hotspots', and also one of the most highly threatened. Each reserve and its buffer zone comprises a set of stakeholders, including indigenous communities and farmers, and the paper explores the interactions between these and the management regime. Indeed, while the management regimes of the two reserves are different, one being highly top-down (RNBM) and the other more socially inclusive (RRMSR), the issues that they have to deal with are much the same. However, while both management regimes will readily acknowledge the need to address poverty, inequality appears to be a far more sensitive issue. Whereas this may be expected for the privately-owned RNBM it is perhaps more surprising in RRMSR even when allowing for the fact that much of the land in the latter is in private hands. It is argued that the origins of this sensitivity rest within the broader features of Paraguayan society, and the prevalence of private land ownership. Yet ironically, it is the inequality in land ownership that is perhaps the most significant threat to conservation in both reserves. Therefore, while reserve-level analyses can provide some insight into the driving forces at play in the interaction between conservation and sustainable management, larger scales may be necessary to gain a fuller appreciation of the dynamics operating at site level. Even in a society with a

  9. Development of a virtual system of improvement of the quality in the teaching of materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The last aim of this educational experience is the increase of the motivation of the students for the learning of the matters to giving as well as looking for the raising awareness, placing in the center the student and distinguishing the teaching for every group and specific case with different action plans for subjects and groups. This aim happens for achieving a major participation of the students in the way of developing and raising the matters (active subjects in the teaching), with a major follow-up of the teacher and a constant feedback with possibility of change in the exposition of the subjects to mold it to the characteristics of the groups of students. Besides the previous thing, one tries to obtain a manual of good practices in the classroom as well as a compendium of the actions undertaken before mistakes or aspects identified in the classroom and what results they have served us as tools for future or current teachers. Likewise, also one tries to improve the implantation of the systems of follow-up of the quality and also of coordination of professorship in the subject of Materials Science. The accomplishment of the questionnaires carried out by means of the controls of personalized response Educlick, equipment that was obtained by a Project of Educational Investigation (University of Salamanca), and that provides an experience of participation to the students. As for the teachers, it allows the application of measures of improvement and implementation of the qualit systems. It might extend to other Powers and Centers that are interested in similar experiences. The feedback has distinguished himself as one of the most powerful tools for the learning (Black and Williams, 1998). The investigation-action in the classroom (Avison et to, 1999; Contreras Perez and Arbesú García, 2008; Samian and Noor, 2012) supposes a methodology that allows to modify in time the teaching and to contribute this feedback to the pupils in every moment. The development of

  10. DVS-SOFTWARE: An Effective Tool for Applying Highly Parallelized Hardware To Computational Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, I.; Herrera, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Most geophysical systems are macroscopic physical systems. The behavior prediction of such systems is carried out by means of computational models whose basic models are partial differential equations (PDEs) [1]. Due to the enormous size of the discretized version of such PDEs it is necessary to apply highly parallelized super-computers. For them, at present, the most efficient software is based on non-overlapping domain decomposition methods (DDM). However, a limiting feature of the present state-of-the-art techniques is due to the kind of discretizations used in them. Recently, I. Herrera and co-workers using 'non-overlapping discretizations' have produced the DVS-Software which overcomes this limitation [2]. The DVS-software can be applied to a great variety of geophysical problems and achieves very high parallel efficiencies (90%, or so [3]). It is therefore very suitable for effectively applying the most advanced parallel supercomputers available at present. In a parallel talk, in this AGU Fall Meeting, Graciela Herrera Z. will present how this software is being applied to advance MOD-FLOW. Key Words: Parallel Software for Geophysics, High Performance Computing, HPC, Parallel Computing, Domain Decomposition Methods (DDM)REFERENCES [1]. Herrera Ismael and George F. Pinder, Mathematical Modelling in Science and Engineering: An axiomatic approach", John Wiley, 243p., 2012. [2]. Herrera, I., de la Cruz L.M. and Rosas-Medina A. "Non Overlapping Discretization Methods for Partial, Differential Equations". NUMER METH PART D E, 30: 1427-1454, 2014, DOI 10.1002/num 21852. (Open source) [3]. Herrera, I., & Contreras Iván "An Innovative Tool for Effectively Applying Highly Parallelized Software To Problems of Elasticity". Geofísica Internacional, 2015 (In press)

  11. Advancing MODFLOW Applying the Derived Vector Space Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, G. S.; Herrera, I.; Lemus-García, M.; Hernandez-Garcia, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    The most effective domain decomposition methods (DDM) are non-overlapping DDMs. Recently a new approach, the DVS-framework, based on an innovative discretization method that uses a non-overlapping system of nodes (the derived-nodes), was introduced and developed by I. Herrera et al. [1, 2]. Using the DVS-approach a group of four algorithms, referred to as the 'DVS-algorithms', which fulfill the DDM-paradigm (i.e. the solution of global problems is obtained by resolution of local problems exclusively) has been derived. Such procedures are applicable to any boundary-value problem, or system of such equations, for which a standard discretization method is available and then software with a high degree of parallelization can be constructed. In a parallel talk, in this AGU Fall Meeting, Ismael Herrera will introduce the general DVS methodology. The application of the DVS-algorithms has been demonstrated in the solution of several boundary values problems of interest in Geophysics. Numerical examples for a single-equation, for the cases of symmetric, non-symmetric and indefinite problems were demonstrated before [1,2]. For these problems DVS-algorithms exhibited significantly improved numerical performance with respect to standard versions of DDM algorithms. In view of these results our research group is in the process of applying the DVS method to a widely used simulator for the first time, here we present the advances of the application of this method for the parallelization of MODFLOW. Efficiency results for a group of tests will be presented. References [1] I. Herrera, L.M. de la Cruz and A. Rosas-Medina. Non overlapping discretization methods for partial differential equations, Numer Meth Part D E, (2013). [2] Herrera, I., & Contreras Iván "An Innovative Tool for Effectively Applying Highly Parallelized Software To Problems of Elasticity". Geofísica Internacional, 2015 (In press)

  12. Local inputs to aldosterone-sensitive neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, S M; Geerling, J C; Loewy, A D

    2006-09-15

    Aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) become activated during sodium depletion and could be key neural elements regulating sodium intake. The afferent inputs to these neurons have not yet been defined, but one source may be neurons in the area postrema, a neighboring circumventricular organ that innervates the NTS and exerts a powerful inhibitory influence on sodium appetite [Contreras RJ, Stetson PW (1981) Changes in salt intake after lesions of the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract in rats. Brain Res 211:355-366]. After an anterograde axonal tracer was injected into the area postrema in rats, sections through the NTS were immunolabeled for the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2), a marker for aldosterone-sensitive neurons, and examined by confocal microscopy. We found that some of the aldosterone-sensitive neurons received close appositions from processes originating in the area postrema, suggesting that input to the HSD2 neurons could be involved in the inhibition of sodium appetite by this site. Axonal varicosities originating from the area postrema also made close appositions with other neurons in the medial NTS, including the neurotensin-immunoreactive neurons in the dorsomedial NTS. Besides these projections, a dense field of neurotensinergic axon terminals overlapped the distribution of the HSD2 neurons. Neurotensin-immunoreactive axon terminals were identified in close apposition to the dendrites and cell bodies of some HSD2 neurons, as well as unlabeled neurons lying in the same zone within the medial NTS. A local microcircuit involving the area postrema, HSD2 neurons, and neurotensinergic neurons may play a major role in the regulation of sodium appetite.

  13. Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Albacete, Auria; Contreras, Fernando; Bosque, Clara; Gilabert, Ester; Albiach, Ángela; Menchón, José M.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia (Hooker et al., 2000; Contreras et al., 2016). At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N = 43), in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 44). A series of tests that assessed the “causal order effect” in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgments of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Due to the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies. PMID:27242583

  14. A two-step chemical scheme for kerosene-air premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Franzelli, B.; Riber, E.; Sanjose, M.; Poinsot, T.

    2010-07-15

    A reduced two-step scheme (called 2S-KERO-BFER) for kerosene-air premixed flames is presented in the context of Large Eddy Simulation of reacting turbulent flows in industrial applications. The chemical mechanism is composed of two reactions corresponding to the fuel oxidation into CO and H{sub 2}O, and the CO - CO{sub 2} equilibrium. To ensure the validity of the scheme for rich combustion, the pre-exponential constants of the two reactions are tabulated versus the local equivalence ratio. The fuel and oxidizer exponents are chosen to guarantee the correct dependence of laminar flame speed with pressure. Due to a lack of experimental results, the detailed mechanism of Dagaut composed of 209 species and 1673 reactions, and the skeletal mechanism of Luche composed of 91 species and 991 reactions have been used to validate the reduced scheme. Computations of one-dimensional laminar flames have been performed with the 2S{sub K}ERO{sub B}FER scheme using the CANTERA and COSILAB softwares for a wide range of pressure ([1; 12] atm), fresh gas temperature ([300; 700] K), and equivalence ratio ([0.6; 2.0]). Results show that the flame speed is correctly predicted for the whole range of parameters, showing a maximum for stoichiometric flames, a decrease for rich combustion and a satisfactory pressure dependence. The burnt gas temperature and the dilution by Exhaust Gas Recirculation are also well reproduced. Moreover, the results for ignition delay time are in good agreement with the experiments. (author)

  15. LIFE Chamber Chemical Equilibrium Simulations with Additive Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J A; Simon, A J

    2009-09-03

    In order to enable continuous operation of a Laser Inertial confinement Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine, the material (fill-gas and debris) in the fusion chamber must be carefully managed. The chamber chemical equilibrium compositions for post-shot mixtures are evaluated to determine what compounds will be formed at temperatures 300-5000K. It is desired to know if carbon and or lead will deposit on the walls of the chamber, and if so: at what temperature, and what elements can be added to prevent this from happening. The simulation was conducted using the chemical equilibrium solver Cantera with a Matlab front-end. Solutions were obtained by running equilibrations at constant temperature and constant specific volume over the specified range of temperatures. It was found that if nothing is done, carbon will deposit on the walls once it cools to below 2138K, and lead below 838K. Three solutions to capture the carbon were found: adding pure oxygen, hydrogen/nitrogen combo, and adding pure nitrogen. The best of these was the addition of oxygen which would readily form CO at around 4000K. To determine the temperature at which carbon would deposit on the walls, temperature solutions to evaporation rate equations needed to be found. To determine how much carbon or any species was in the chamber at a given time, chamber flushing equations needed to be developed. Major concerns are deposition of carbon and/or oxygen on the tungsten walls forming tungsten oxides or tungsten carbide which could cause embrittlement and cause failure of the first wall. Further research is needed.

  16. Recent Ice thickness helicopter borne radar surveys in Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Andres; Zamora, Rodrigo; Andres Uribe, Jose; Oberreuter, Jonathan; Gacitua, Guisella; Rignot, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The Patagonian icefields are the biggest temperate ice bodies in southern hemisphere, which have experienced important areal shrinkage and thinning in recent decades, significantly contributing to sea level rise. The main driving factor behind this retreating condition is recent decade atmospheric warming explaining higher melting rates and equilibrium line altitude upward migration. Ice dynamic is also playing an important role especially in glaciers calving into deep fjords or lakes, type of glaciers that are predominant in the Patagonian icefields. In order to better understand their ice dynamics, several recent works have measured ice velocities using feature tracking and other techniques, however, ice thickness is still barely known. In spite of several on the ground radar measurements successfully detecting several hundred of m of ice thickness at the higher plateaus, this variable remains the great missing part of the equation especially when the thickness is approximately deeper than 600 m or where the glacier surfaces are very crevassed or nearby the Equilibrium line Altitude, where on the ground measurements are logistically constrained. In order to tackle the lack of thickness data, a helicopter borne radar system was used to survey several Patagonian temperate glaciers calving into fjords (Glaciares San Rafael and Jorge Montt) or lakes (Nef, Colonia and Steffen). The radar system is comprised by a hanging bow-tie dipole antenna working at a central frequency of 20 MHz. The antenna is an aluminum structure of 7 x 5 x 1.2 m weighting near 350 kg that is hanging at 20 m below a helicopter, and is connected to the helicopter cabin by an optical fiber cable. At the antenna are installed a 3,200 Volts peak transmitter, a two channel radar receiver, and an integrated GPS registering each trace. The helicopter flying speed was kept at near 40 knots and the antenna was normally hanging at 40 m above the ice. The surveys took place along predefined tracks

  17. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Monogenetic Volcanic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyosugi, Koji

    Achieving an understanding of the nature of monogenetic volcanic fields depends on identification of the spatial and temporal patterns of volcanism in these fields, and their relationships to structures mapped in the shallow crust and inferred in the deep crust and mantle through interpretation of geochemical, radiometric and geophysical data. We investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of volcanism in the Abu Monogenetic Volcano Group, Southwest Japan. E-W elongated volcano distribution, which is identified by a nonparametric kernel method, is found to be consistent with the spatial extent of P-wave velocity anomalies in the lower crust and upper mantle, supporting the idea that the spatial density map of volcanic vents reflects the geometry of a mantle diapir. Estimated basalt supply to the lower crust is constant. This observation and the spatial distribution of volcanic vents suggest stability of magma productivity and essentially constant two-dimensional size of the source mantle diapir. We mapped conduits, dike segments, and sills in the San Rafael sub-volcanic field, Utah, where the shallowest part of a Pliocene magmatic system is exceptionally well exposed. The distribution of conduits matches the major features of dike distribution, including development of clusters and distribution of outliers. The comparison of San Rafael conduit distribution and the distributions of volcanoes in several recently active volcanic fields supports the use of statistical models, such as nonparametric kernel methods, in probabilistic hazard assessment for distributed volcanism. We developed a new recurrence rate calculation method that uses a Monte Carlo procedure to better reflect and understand the impact of uncertainties of radiometric age determinations on uncertainty of recurrence rate estimates for volcanic activity in the Abu, Yucca Mountain Region, and Izu-Tobu volcanic fields. Results suggest that the recurrence rates of volcanic fields can change by more

  18. Simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Glen Canyon aquifer, East-Central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.; Stolp, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of methane from coal beds in the Ferron coal trend in central Utah started in the mid-1980s. Beginning in 1994, water from the extraction process was pressure injected into the Glen Canyon aquifer. The lateral extent of the aquifer that could be affected by injection is about 7,600 square miles. To address regional-scale effects of injection over a decadal time frame, a conceptual model of ground-water movement and transport of dissolved solids was formulated. A numerical model that incorporates aquifer concepts was then constructed and used to simulate injection. The Glen Canyon aquifer within the study area is conceptualized in two parts-an active area of ground-water flow and solute transport that exists between recharge areas in the San Rafael Swell and Desert, Waterpocket Fold, and Henry Mountains and discharge locations along the Muddy, Dirty Devil, San Rafael, and Green Rivers. An area of little or negligible ground-water flow exists north of Price, Utah, and beneath the Wasatch Plateau. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water occurs in this area where dissolved-solids concentrations can be more than 100,000 milligrams per liter. Injection has the potential to increase hydrologic interaction with the active flow area, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally less than 3,000 milligrams per liter. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water in 1994 initiated a net addition of flow and mass of solutes into the Glen Canyon aquifer. To better understand the regional scale hydrologic interaction between the two areas of the Glen Canyon aquifer, pressurized injection was numerically simulated. Data constraints precluded development of a fully calibrated simulation; instead, an uncalibrated model was constructed that is a plausible representation of the conceptual flow and solute-transport processes. The amount of injected water over the 36-year simulation period is about 25,000 acre-feet. As a result

  19. Structural analysis characterization of permeability pathways across reservoir-seal interface - South-Eastern Utah; Results from integrated sedimentological, structural, and geochemical studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Richey, D.; Flores, S.; Barton, C.; Mozley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary rocks in the San Rafael Swell, Utah, were deformed by Laramide compression and subsequent Neogene extension. We evaluate the effect of fault damage zone morphology as a function of structural position, and changes in mechanical stratigraphy on the distribution of secondary minerals across the reservoir-seal pair of the Navajo Sandstone and overlying Carmel Formation. We decipher paleo-fluid migration and examine the effect faults and fractures have on reservoir permeability and efficacy of top seal for a range of geo-engineering applications. Map-scale faults have an increased probability of allowing upward migration of fluids along the fault plane and within the damage zone, potentially bypassing the top seal. Field mapping, mesoscopic structural analyses, petrography, and geochemical observations demonstrate that fault zone thickness increases at structural intersections, fault relay zones, fault-related folds, and fault tips. Higher densities of faults with meters of slip and dense fracture populations are present in relay zones relative to single, discrete faults. Curvature analysis of the San Rafael monocline and fracture density data show that fracture density is highest where curvature is highest in the syncline hinge and near faults. Fractures cross the reservoir-seal interface where fracture density is highest and structural diagensis includes mineralization events and bleaching and calcite and gypsum mineralization. The link between fracture distributions and structural setting implys that transmissive fractures have predictable orientations and density distributions. At the m- to cm- scale, deformation-band faults and joints in the Navajo Sandstone penetrate the reservoir-seal interface and transition into open-mode fractures in the caprock seal. Scanline analysis and petrography of veins provide evidence for subsurface mineralization and fracture reactivation, suggesting that the fractures act as loci for fluid flow through time

  20. Three stages in the Late Paleozoic to Triassic magmatism of southwestern Gondwana, and the relationships with the volcanogenic events in coeval basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ana María; Llambías, Eduardo J.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Castro, Carlos E.

    2015-11-01

    The intermediate to acid Choiyoi Magmatic Province is the most conspicuous feature along the Late Paleozic continental margin of southwestern Gondwana, and is generally regarded as the possible source for the widespread ash fall deposits interlayered with sedimentary sequences in the adjacent Gondwana basins. The Choiyoi magmatism is geologically constrained between the early Permian San Rafael orogenic phase and the Triassic extensional Huarpica phase in the region of Argentine Frontal Cordillera, Precordillera and San Rafael Block. In order to better assess the Choiyoi magmatism in Argentine Frontal Cordillera, we obtained 6 new LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages between 278.8 ± 3.4 Ma and 252.5 ± 1.9 Ma from plutonic rocks of the Colangüil Batholith and an associated volcanic rock. The global analysis of age data compiled from Chilean and Argentine Late Paleozoic to Triassic outcrops allows us to identify three stages of magmatism: (1) pre-Choiyoi orogenic magmatism, (2) Choiyoi magmatism (286-247 Ma), and (3) post-Choiyoi magmatism related to extensional tectonics. In the Choiyoi stage is there an eastward shift and expansion of the magmatism to the southeast, covering an extensive region that defines the Choiyoi magmatic province. On the basis of comparison with the ages from volcanogenic levels identified in the coeval Gondwana basins, we propose: (a) The pre-Choiyoi volcanism from the Paganzo basin (320-296 Ma) probably has a local source in addition to the Frontal Cordillera region. (b) The pre-Choiyoi and Choiyoi events identified in the Paraná basin (304-275 Ma) are likely to have their source in the Chilean Precordillera. (c) The early stage of the Choiyoi magmatism found in the Sauce Grande basin (284-281 Ma) may have come from the adjacent Las Matras to Chadileuvú blocks. (d) The pre-Choiyoi and Choiyoi events in the Karoo basins (302-253 Ma) include the longest Choiyoi interval, and as a whole bear the best resemblance to the age records along the Chilean and

  1. Characterization of Human Endogenous Retroviral Elements in the Blood of HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H.; Contreras-Galindo, Angie C.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Giusti, Fabiola; Lorenzo, Eric; Gitlin, Scott D.; Dosik, Michael H.; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported finding the RNA of a type K human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K (HML-2), at high titers in the plasma of HIV-1-infected and cancer patients (R. Contreras-Galindo et al., J. Virol. 82:9329–9236, 2008.). The extent to which the HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses become activated and the nature of their activated viral RNAs remain important questions. Therefore, we amplified and sequenced the full-length RNA of the env gene of the type 1 and 2 HERV-K (HML-2) viruses collected from the plasma of seven HIV-1-infected patients over a period of 1 to 3 years and from five breast cancer patients in order to reconstruct the genetic evolution of these viruses. HERV-K (HML-2) RNA was found in plasma fractions of HIV-1 patients at a density of ∼1.16 g/ml that contained both immature and correctly processed HERV-K (HML-2) proteins and virus-like particles that were recognized by anti-HERV-K (HML-2) antibodies. RNA sequences from novel HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses were discovered, including K111, which is specifically active during HIV-1 infection. Viral RNA arose from complete proviruses and proviruses devoid of a 5′ long terminal repeat, suggesting that the expression of HERV-K (HML-2) RNA in these patients may involve sense and antisense transcription. In HIV-1-infected individuals, the HERV-K (HML-2) viral RNA showed evidence of frequent recombination, accumulation of synonymous rather than nonsynonymous mutations, and conserved N-glycosylation sites, suggesting that some of the HERV-K (HML-2) viral RNAs have undergone reverse transcription and are under purifying selection. In contrast, HERV-K (HML-2) RNA sequences found in the blood of breast cancer patients showed no evidence of recombination and exhibited only sporadic viral mutations. This study suggests that HERV-K (HML-2) is active in HIV-1-infected patients, and the resulting RNA message reveals previously undiscovered HERV-K (HML-2) genomic sequences. PMID:22031938

  2. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  3. Tectonic Constraints on the Geomorphology of the Chile Trench and Submarine Axial Channel from 34-36°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, B.; Trehu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    thickness, distribution, and mass transfer will therefore help improve our understanding of subduction zone seismicity. ChilePEPPER: Michael Tryon (SIO); Eduardo Contreras-Reyes, Andrei Maksymowitz, Javier Ruiz, Emilio Vera (Un. de Chile Santiago) 3D perspective view of trench bathymetry illustrating unusual axial channel morphology. Looking down from SW at 225km, 4x vertical exaggeration.

  4. A quantum model of option pricing: When Black-Scholes meets Schrödinger and its semi-classical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Mauricio; Pellicer, Rely; Villena, Marcelo; Ruiz, Aaron

    2010-12-01

    The Black-Scholes equation can be interpreted from the point of view of quantum mechanics, as the imaginary time Schrödinger equation of a free particle. When deviations of this state of equilibrium are considered, as a product of some market imperfection, such as: Transaction cost, asymmetric information issues, short-term volatility, extreme discontinuities, or serial correlations; the classical non-arbitrage assumption of the Black-Scholes model is violated, implying a non-risk-free portfolio. From Haven (2002) [1] we know that an arbitrage environment is a necessary condition to embedding the Black-Scholes option pricing model in a more general quantum physics setting. The aim of this paper is to propose a new Black-Scholes-Schrödinger model based on the endogenous arbitrage option pricing formulation introduced by Contreras et al. (2010) [2]. Hence, we derive a more general quantum model of option pricing, that incorporates arbitrage as an external time dependent force, which has an associated potential related to the random dynamic of the underlying asset price. This new resultant model can be interpreted as a Schrödinger equation in imaginary time for a particle of mass 1/σ2 with a wave function in an external field force generated by the arbitrage potential. As pointed out above, this new model can be seen as a more general formulation, where the perfect market equilibrium state postulated by the Black-Scholes model represent a particular case. Finally, since the Schrödinger equation is in place, we can apply semiclassical methods, of common use in theoretical physics, to find an approximate analytical solution of the Black-Scholes equation in the presence of market imperfections, as it is the case of an arbitrage bubble. Here, as a numerical illustration of the potential of this Schrödinger equation analogy, the semiclassical approximation is performed for different arbitrage bubble forms (step, linear and parabolic) and compare with the exact

  5. Age Dependent Absolute Plate and Plume Motion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, D. E.; Koppers, A. A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Current absolute plate motion (APM) models from 80 - 0 Ma are constrained by the location of mantle plume related hotspot seamounts, in particular those of the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville seamount trails. Originally the 'fixed' hotspot hypothesis was developed to explain past plate motion based on linear age progressive intra-plate volcanism. However, now that 'moving' hotspots are accepted, it is becoming clear that APM models need to be corrected for individual plume motion vectors. For older seamount trails that were active between roughly 50 and 80 Ma the APM models that use 'fixed' hotspots overestimate the measured age progression in those trails, while APM models corrected for 'moving' hotspots underestimate those age progressions. These mismatches are due to both a lack of reliable ages in the older portions of both the Hawaii and Louisville seamount trails and insufficient APM modeling constraints from other seamount trails in the Pacific Basin. Seamounts are difficult to sample and analyze because many are hydrothermally altered and have low potassium concentrations. New 40Ar/39Ar Age results from International Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Expedition 330 Sites U1372 (n=18), U1375 (n=3), U1376 (n=15) and U1377 (n=7) aid in constraining the oldest end of the Louisville Seamount trail. A significant observation in this study is that the age range recovered in the drill cores match the range of ages that were acquired on dredging cruises at the same seamounts (e.g. Koppers et al., 2011). This is important for determining the inception age of a seamount. The sections recovered from IODP EXP 330 are in-situ volcanoclastic breccia and lava flows. Comparing the seismic interpretations of Louisville guyots (Contreras-Reyes et al., 2010), Holes U1372, U1373 and U1374 penetrated the extrusive and volcanoclastic sections of the seamount. The ages obtained are consistent over stratigraphic intervals >100-450 m thick, providing evidence that these seamounts

  6. Recent Progress in Planetary Laboratory Astrophysics achieved with NASA Ames' COSmIC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2016-10-01

    We describe the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for "Cosmic Simulation Chamber" and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nanoparticles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate various space environments such as planetary atmospheres. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. The COSmIC experimental setup is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion, that generates a plasma in the stream of a free supersonic jet expansion, coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection [2, 3], and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [4].Recent results obtained using COSmIC will be highlighted. In particular, the progress that has been achieved in an on-going study investigating the formation and the characterization of laboratory analogs of Titan's aerosols generated from gas-phase molecular precursors [5] will be presented. Plans for future laboratory experiments on planetary molecules and aerosols in the growing field of planetary laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed, as well as the implications of studies underway for astronomical observations.References: [1] Salama F., in Organic Matter in Space, IAU S251, Kwok & Sandford eds, CUP, S251, 4, 357 (2008).[2] Biennier L., Salama, F., Allamandola L., & Scherer J., J. Chem. Phys., 118, 7863 (2003)[3] Tan X, & Salama F., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 84318 (2005)[4] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300

  7. Science - Image in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavidovique, Bertrand; Lo Bosco, Giosue'

    pt. A. Information: data organization and communication. Statistical information: a Bayesian perspective / R. B. Stern, C. A. de B. Pereira. Multi-a(ge)nt graph patrolling and partitioning / Y. Elor, A. M. Bruckstein. The role of noise in brain function / S. Roy, R. Llinas. F-granulation, generalized rough entropy and image analysis / S. K. Pal. Fast redshift clustering with the Baire (ultra) metric / F. Murtagh, P. Contreras. Interactive classification oriented superresolution of multispectral images / P. Ruiz ... [et al.]. Blind processing in astrophysical data analysis / E. Salerno, L. Bedini. The extinction map of the orion molecular cloud / G. Scandariato (best student's paper), I. Pagano, M. Robberto -- pt. B. System: structure and behaviour. Common grounds: the role of perception in science and the nature of transitions / G. Bernroider. Looking the world from inside: intrinsic geometry of complex systems / L. Boi. The butterfly and the photon: new perspectives on unpredictability, and the notion of casual reality, in quantum physics / T. N. Palmer. Self-replicated wave patterns in neural networks with complex threshold / V. I. Nekorkin. A local explication of causation / G. Boniolo, R. Faraldo, A. Saggion. Evolving complexity, cognition, and consciousness / H. Liljenstrom. Self-assembly, modularity and physical complexity / S. E. Ahnert. The category of topological thermodynamics / R. M. Kiehn. Anti-phase spiking patterns / M. P. Igaev, A. S. Dmitrichev, V. I. Nekorkin -- pt. C. Data/system representation. Reality, models and representations: the case of galaxies, intelligence and avatars / J-C. Heudin. Astronomical images and data mining in the international virtual observatory context / F. Pasian, M. Brescia, G. Longo. Dame: a web oriented infrastructure for scientific data mining and exploration / S. Cavuoti ... [et al.]. Galactic phase spaces / D. Chakrabarty. From data to images: a shape based approach for fluorescence tomography / O. Dorn, K. E. Prieto

  8. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  9. Field trip guide to selected studies of the Southwest Mineral and Environmental Investigations Project in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, B.B.; Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.; Gray, Floyd; Caruthers, K.R.; Hirschberg, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Southwest Mineral and Environmental Investigations Project is designed to address issues raised by rapid urban development in the basins of the southwestern U.S. These issues require objective geoscientific data that can be used by land managers and stakeholders to develop informed land and water use strategies. The project integrates new and existing geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data, and imagery to provide three-dimensional visualizations of the basins of southeastern Arizona. Emphasis is on developing better knowledge of the aquifer systems of both the basins and the ranges, on acquiring background and baseline information, and on determining the distribution of metals related to mineralization and the fate of these metals in surface and subsurface environments. The products of the project will be used in resolving issues of water quality and quantity, in understanding environmental impacts such as riparian ecosystem maintenace, and in evaluating mineral resources beneath and within the basins. The field trip highlights three topics and areas (figs. 1 and 2): (1) geology and geophysics of the upper San Pedro and upper Santa Cruz basins (M.E. Gettings, M. W. Bultman, and B.B. Houser), (2) geology, geophysics, and mineral resource potential of the San Rafael basin (M.W. Bultman), and (3) hydrology and aqueous geochemistry of the Red Mountain and Sonoita Creek drainage system (Floyd Gray). The trip guide, which begins and ends in Tucson, Arizona, also includes commentary on the cultural and mining history of the area.

  10. Impacts of relative permeability on CO2 phase behavior, phase distribution, and trapping mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodie, N.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Pan, F.

    2015-12-01

    A critical aspect of geologic carbon storage, a carbon-emissions reduction method under extensive review and testing, is effective multiphase CO2 flow and transport simulation. Relative permeability is a flow parameter particularly critical for accurate forecasting of multiphase behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The relative per­meability relationship assumed and especially the irreducible saturation of the gas phase greatly impacts predicted CO2 trapping mechanisms and long-term plume migration behavior. A primary goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of relative permeability on efficacy of regional-scale CO2 sequestration models. To accomplish this we built a 2-D vertical cross-section of the San Rafael Swell area of East-central Utah. This model simulated injection of CO2 into a brine aquifer for 30 years. The well was then shut-in and the CO2 plume behavior monitored for another 970 years. We evaluated five different relative permeability relationships to quantify their relative impacts on forecasted flow results of the model, with all other parameters maintained uniform and constant. Results of this analysis suggest that CO2 plume movement and behavior are significantly dependent on the specific relative permeability formulation assigned, including the assumed irreducible saturation values of CO2 and brine. More specifically, different relative permea­bility relationships translate to significant differences in CO2 plume behavior and corresponding trapping mechanisms.

  11. Optical tweezers theory near a flat surface: a perturbative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Dutra, Rafael S.; Maia Neto, Paolo A.; Nussenzveig, H. Moyses

    We propose a perturbative calculation of the optical force exercised by a focused laser beam on a microsphere of arbitrary radius that is localized near a flat glass surface in a standard optical tweezers setup. Starting from the Mie-Debye representation for the electric field of a Gaussian laser beam, focused by an objective of high numerical aperture, we derive a recursive series that represents the multiple reflections that describe the reverberation of laser light between the microsphere and the glass slide. We present numerical results for the axial component of the optical force and the axial trap stiffness. Numerical results for a configuration typical in biological applications--a microsphere of 0.5 µm radius at a distance around 0.25 µm from the surface--show a 37 [1] Viana N B, Rocha M S. Mesquita O N, et al. (2007) Towards absolute calibration of optical tweezers. Phys Rev E 75:021914-1-14. [2] Dutra R S, Viana N B, Maia Neto P A, et al. (2014) Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers. Phys Rev A 90:013825-1-13. Rafael S. Dutra thanks the Brazilian ``Science without Borders'' program for a postdoctoral scholarship.

  12. Sigmoidal bundles and other tidal features, Curtis Formation (Jurassic), Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Kreisa, R.D.; Moiola, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    Recently, a new suite of tide-generated sedimentary structures has been described, principally from sandy shoals and large excavations associated with flood-control structures in tidal estuaries of the Dutch coast. These sedimentary structures can be less ambiguous than criteria previously used to recognized in the North Sea can be applied to the rock record, in this case the Curtis Formation (Jurassic), San Rafael swell, Utah, to significantly enhance our ability to interpret tidal facies. Our discussion centers on the recognition of tidal bundles, the lateral succession of cross-strata generated by the migration of a large-scale bedform during one dominant tidal episode. Tidal bundles in the Curtis consist of two gently dipping sigmoid-shaped pause planes which enclose avalanche forests. They are up to 80 cm (30 in.) thick and 11 m (36 ft) long. Pause planes may be accentuated by erosion of the megaripple by the subordinate tide, by generation of ripples or small megaripples with opposed inclinations, and/or by a drape of fine sediment which settles during slack water. Systematic variability that occurs within bundles is due to increasing then waning current velocity during a tidal episode. Systematic variability among tidal bundles results from regular fluctuations of tidal current velocities during a lunar month (neap/spring cycles). These include changes in bundle thickness, dip of forest, internal geometry, and lateral extent. Recognition of these features in the Curtis leads to an uncontestable interpretation of its tidal origin.

  13. [Contributions of the medical community to the Mexican revolution].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, A

    2000-01-01

    Mexican physicians, faithful to their tradition of honor and patriotism, were present in the military and political events of the great Revolution, the began in 1910 and ended triumphantly in 1917. In the first phase, a Madero supporter and opposed to presidential reelection was doctor Francisco Vázquez Gómez, a specialist in otorhinolaryngology, Professor at the National Medical School and past President of our Academy of Medicine. The second phase of this Revolution, characterized by the struggle against the Huerta dictatorship and then by combats among revolutionary factions, also saw the intervention of many physicians and surgeons, such as senator Belisario Domínguez of Chiapas, a victim of dictatorial oppression. Among them were distinguished academicians such as doctors Rafael Silva of Mexico and Francisco Castillo Nájera of Durango. Likewise devoted nurses were in Carranza's group, while medical students enlisted in Zapata's forces. The last phase of the Revolution was dominated by the activities of the Constituent Congress in Querétaro, which promulgated the New Mexican Constitution. Among 223 elected representatives, 20 were physicians and two pharmacists (10%), who had an excellent participation in the different sessions. The new Constitution, sworn and signed on February 5, 1917, added social guarantees to individual guarantees already established by the Constitution of 1857.

  14. [The urologic work of Doctor Alejandro Settier (1858-1915). (II). The consolidation of the urology specialty in Spain].

    PubMed

    Maganto Pavón, E

    1996-06-01

    By the end of the 19th Century, and after the creation in 1896 of the French Society of Urology, the specialty on genitourinary organs disorders began to take shape in Spain, and its particular idiosyncrasy, recognized both within the hospital and private practices, becomes irreversible. Aside political support, certain writings published astride the last century and this one, will prove to be decisive to consolidate the urological specialty in our country. Such is the case with those written by Rafael Mollá y Rodrigo and Angel Pulido Martin, where the creation of the new discipline is postulated and defended, linking the related pathologies, outlining their competence and assembling the surgical procedures to be followed in order to resolve them. The Academies of Medicine and Surgery, in Madrid, also played a significant role in this task of promotion and diffusion of these specialties, in particular Urology; it is quite likely that the seed of new vocations would have germinated during their institutional meetings. At any rate, it is easy to demonstrate documentally how, since mid 19th Century, the nation's capital was witness of the attention given to the urinary tract which began to occupy a preferential position in the work of the most renowned general surgeons from the School of Madrid, such as Diego de Argumosa, Alejandro San Martin, Federico Rubio y Gali and Jesus Creus y Mansó.

  15. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hee Young; Cruz, Joana; Treitschke, Michaela; Wahl, Martin; Molis, Markus

    2007-09-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown ( Dictyopteris membranacea, Fucus vesiculosus) and two red seaweeds ( Gelidium sesquipedale, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius) from São Rafael and Ria Formosa, Portugal. Bioassays conducted with live algal pieces and agar-based food containing lipophilic algal extracts were used to detect changes in palatability after exposure to amphipod attacks (=treatment phase). Fucus vesiculosus was the only species significantly reducing palatability in response to direct amphipod-attacks. This pattern was observed in live F. vesiculosus pieces and agar-based food containing a lipophilic extract, suggesting that lipophilic compounds produced during the treatment phase were responsible for the repulsion of grazers. Water-borne cues of grazed F. vesiculosus as well as non-grazing amphipods also reduced palatability of neighbouring conspecifics. However, this effect was only observed in live tissues of F. vesiculosus. This study is the first to show that amphipods, like isopods, are capable to induce anti-herbivory defences in F. vesiculosus and that a seasonally variable effectiveness of chemical defences might serve as a dynamic control in alga-herbivore interactions.

  16. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    PubMed

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone. PMID:12322449

  17. Pectinolytic yeasts from viticultural and enological environments: novel finding of Filobasidium capsuligenum producing pectinases.

    PubMed

    Merín, María Gabriela; Mendoza, Lucía M; Morata de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés

    2014-08-01

    In this study indigenous yeasts associated with wineries, grapes and Malbec fermented must from San Rafael viticulture region (Argentina) were isolated to select pectinolytic strains for their potential use in enology. Pectinolytic yeasts were identified by physiological and molecular methods. Among 78 isolates, only nine were able to produce extracellular pectinases. Six isolated from berry surface were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans and the remaining isolates, recovered from wineries, belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Filobasidium capsuligenum species. Pectinase production was evaluated under vinification-related conditions: pH 3.5, 12 and 28 °C. A. pullulans U-12 produced the highest pectinolytic activity at low temperature (1.16 U ml(-1) ), while F. capsuligenum strains showed good activity at 12 and 28 °C (0.77 and 1.15 U ml(-1) , respectively) being this study the first report on the capacity of this species to produce pectinases. The pectinolytic activity of F. capsuligenum B-13 showed an optimum at pH 4.5 and two peaks at 20 and 50 °C. The enzyme half-life was 2 h at 40 °C and retained 65% of its activity at 40 °C after 1 h of incubation. This pectinolytic system displayed remarkable activity at pH and temperatures found in vinification, suggesting a potential candidate for applying to wine-making. PMID:23686851

  18. Hydrogen peroxide and central redox theory for aerobic life: A tribute to Helmut Sies: Scout, trailblazer, and redox pioneer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dean P

    2016-04-01

    When Rafael Radi and I wrote about Helmut Sies for the Redox Pioneer series, I was disappointed that the Editor restricted us to the use of "Pioneer" in the title. My view is that Helmut was always ahead of the pioneers: He was a scout discovering paths for exploration and a trailblazer developing strategies and methods for discovery. I have known him for nearly 40 years and greatly enjoyed his collegiality as well as brilliance in scientific scholarship. He made monumental contributions to 20th century physiological chemistry beginning with his first measurement of H2O2 in rat liver. While continuous H2O2 production is dogma today, the concept of H2O2 production in mammalian tissues was largely buried for half a century. He continued this leadership in research on oxidative stress, GSH, selenium, and singlet oxygen, during the timeframe when physiological chemistry and biochemistry transitioned to contemporary 21st century systems biology. His impact has been extensive in medical and health sciences, especially in nutrition, aging, toxicology and cancer. I briefly summarize my interactions with Helmut, stressing our work together on the redox code, a set of principles to link mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics, H2O2 metabolism, redox signaling and redox proteomics into central redox theory. PMID:27095208

  19. Foundations of Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Jeff; Weltman, Amanda; Ellis, George F. R.

    2012-07-01

    1. The problem with quantum gravity Jeff Murugan, Amanda Weltman and George F. R. Eliis; 2. A dialogue on the nature of gravity Thanu Padmanabhan; 3. Effective theories and modifications of gravity Cliff Burgess; 4. The small scale structure of spacetime Steve Carlip; 5. Ultraviolet divergences in supersymmetric theories Kellog Stelle; 6. Cosmological quantum billiards Axel Kleinschmidt and Hermann Nicolai; 7. Progress in RNS string theory and pure spinors Dimitri Polyakov; 8. Recent trends in superstring phenomenology Massimo Bianchi; 9. Emergent spacetime Robert de Mello Koch and Jeff Murugan; 10. Loop quantum gravity Hanno Sahlmann; 11. Loop quantum gravity and cosmology Martin Bojowald; 12. The microscopic dynamics of quantum space as a group field theory Daniele Oriti; 13. Causal dynamical triangulations and the quest for quantum gravity Jan Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and Renate Loll; 14. Proper time is stochastic time in 2D quantum gravity Jan Ambjorn, Renate Loll, Y. Watabiki, W. Westra and S. Zohren; 15. Logic is to the quantum as geometry is to gravity Rafael Sorkin; 16. Causal sets: discreteness without symmetry breaking Joe Henson; 17. The Big Bang, quantum gravity, and black-hole information loss Roger Penrose; Index.

  20. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    PubMed

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone.

  1. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.; Anderson, D.; Harte, J.

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  2. Latin America multidisciplinary research on heat shock proteins and cell stress: proceedings of the first conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International.

    PubMed

    Bausero, María A

    2015-09-01

    The First Conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) organized by CSSI was held in Montevideo, Uruguay, on March 11-14, 2014. The Latin America Chapter of the CSSI (LAC-CSSI) was established at the Workshop on the Molecular Biology of the Stress Response, Porto Alegre, Brazil, May 2012. The chapter's first meeting took place in the beautiful city of Montevideo and was chaired by the first (LAC-CSSI) elected president Professor María Bausero. Forty-two invited speakers presented their work to more than 100 scientists. The first day of the conference was dedicated to an introductory program for students, young investigators, and participants new to the field of molecular chaperones and the stress response. These seminars were held in the Pasteur Institute of Montevideo and the Faculty of Sciences of the University of the Republic. These institutions were carefully selected to give foreign participants a broad view of the diversity of students and institutions doing research in Uruguay, as well as an opportunity for direct interaction with our scientists and students. Invited speakers for the seminar series were Dr. Wolfgang Schumann, Dr. Cristina Bonorino, Dr. Antonio De Maio, Dr. Ian Brown, Dr. Rafael Radi, Dr. Daniel Ciocca, and Dr. Celia Quijano. The remaining days of the conference took place at the Sheraton Hotel in Montevideo, and the scientific sessions are discussed below.

  3. Seastacks buried beneath newly reported Lower Miocene sandstone, northern Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, A.E.; Hanna, F.M.

    1985-04-01

    Three large, isolated exposures of a light-gray, coarse-grained, thick-bedded sandstone unit occur in the northern San Rafael Mountains of Santa Barbara County, California. These rocks are moderately fossiliferous and contain Vertipecten bowersi, Amussiopecten vanvlecki, Aequipecten andersoni, Otrea howelli, shark teeth, whale bones, and regular echinoid spines. The fossils indicate that the sandstone unit, although previously reported as upper(.) Miocene, correlates best with the lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation. This unit was deposited in angular unconformity on a Cretaceous, greenish-gray turbidite sequence of interbedded sandstone and shale, and onlaps the unconformity erosion surface from west to east, the unit being thicker in the west and older at its base. The underlying Cretaceous sandstone beds are well indurated, and during the eastward transgression of the early Miocene sea, they resisted wave erosion and stood as seastacks offshore of the advancing coastline, thus creating a very irregular topographic surface upon which the Vaqueros Formation was deposited. Some seastacks were as much as 4 m tall, as indicated by inliers of Cretaceous rock surrounded by 4-m thick sections of the Vaqueros Formation.

  4. Status of the California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii) in the State of Baja California, México

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralta-Garcia, Anny; Hellingsworth, Bradford D.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Valdez-Villavicencio, Jorge H.; Ruiz-Campos, Gorgonio; Fisher, Robert N.; Cruz-Hernandez, Pedro; Galina-Tessaro, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii) is a threatened species in the United States that has undergone population declines, especially in southern California. Due to the lack of information on the status of Mexican populations, we surveyed for the presence of R. draytonii in Baja California and assessed possible threats to population persistence. Our study area extended from the U.S.-Mexican border to the southern end of the distribution of the species in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. We found R. draytonii at six of 15 historical sites, none at five proxy sites (i.e., alternative sites chosen because the historical record lacked precise locality data), and four at 24 additional sites. The 10 occupied sites are within three watersheds in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (two sites at Arroyo San Rafael, two sites at Arroyo San Telmo, and six sites at Arroyo Santo Domingo). We did not detect R. draytonii at 60% of historical sites, including the highest elevation site at La Encantada and multiple low-elevation coastal drainages, suggesting the species has declined in Baja California. The threats we noted most frequently were presence of exotic aquatic animal species, water diversion, and cattle grazing. Management of remaining populations and local education is needed to prevent further declines.

  5. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  6. Hydrogen peroxide and central redox theory for aerobic life: A tribute to Helmut Sies: Scout, trailblazer, and redox pioneer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dean P

    2016-04-01

    When Rafael Radi and I wrote about Helmut Sies for the Redox Pioneer series, I was disappointed that the Editor restricted us to the use of "Pioneer" in the title. My view is that Helmut was always ahead of the pioneers: He was a scout discovering paths for exploration and a trailblazer developing strategies and methods for discovery. I have known him for nearly 40 years and greatly enjoyed his collegiality as well as brilliance in scientific scholarship. He made monumental contributions to 20th century physiological chemistry beginning with his first measurement of H2O2 in rat liver. While continuous H2O2 production is dogma today, the concept of H2O2 production in mammalian tissues was largely buried for half a century. He continued this leadership in research on oxidative stress, GSH, selenium, and singlet oxygen, during the timeframe when physiological chemistry and biochemistry transitioned to contemporary 21st century systems biology. His impact has been extensive in medical and health sciences, especially in nutrition, aging, toxicology and cancer. I briefly summarize my interactions with Helmut, stressing our work together on the redox code, a set of principles to link mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics, H2O2 metabolism, redox signaling and redox proteomics into central redox theory.

  7. High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turecek, Aaron M.; Danforth, William W.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a high-resolution geophysical survey within Red Brook Harbor, Massachusetts, from September 28 through November 17, 2009. Red Brook Harbor is located on the eastern edge of Buzzards Bay, south of the Cape Cod Canal. The survey area was approximately 7 square kilometers, with depths ranging from 0 to approximately 10 meters. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey Research Vessel Rafael. The research vessel was equipped with a 234-kilohertz interferometric sonar system to collect bathymetry and backscatter data, a dual frequency (3.5- and 200-kilohertz) compression high-intensity radar pulse seismic reflection profiler to collect subbottom data, a sound velocity profiler to acquire speed of sound within the water column, and a sea floor sampling device to collect sediment samples, video, and photographs. The survey was part of an ongoing cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to map the geology of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. In addition to inclusion within the cooperative geologic mapping effort, these data will be used to assess the shallow-water mapping capability of the geophysical systems deployed for this project, with an emphasis on identifying resolution benchmarks for the interferometric sonar system.

  8. Evaluation of SPOT imagery data

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z.; Brovey, R.L.; Merembeck, B.F.; Hopkins, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    SPOT, the French satellite imaging system that became operational in April 1986, provides two major advances in satellite imagery technology: (1) a significant increase in spatial resolution of the data to 20 m multispectral and 10 m panchromatic, and (2) stereoscopic capabilities. The structural and stratigraphic mapping capabilities of SPOT data and compare favorably with those of other available space and airborne remote sensing data. In the Rhine graben and Jura Mountains, strike and dip of folded strata can be determined using SPOT stereoscopic imagery, greatly improving the ability to analyze structures in complex areas. The increased spatial resolution also allows many features to be mapped that are not visible on thematic mapper (TM) imagery. In the San Rafael swell, Utah, TM spectral data were combined with SPOT spatial data to map lithostratigraphic units of the exposed Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. SPOT imagery provides information on attitude, geometry, and geomorphic expressions of key marker beds that is not available on TM imagery. Over the Central Basin platform, west Texas, SPOT imagery, compared to TM imagery, provided more precise information on the configuration of outcropping beds and drainage patterns that reflect the subtle surface expression of buried structures.

  9. Everpresent Λ. II. Structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Maqbool; Sorkin, Rafael D.

    2013-03-01

    Ideas from causal set theory lead to a fluctuating, time-dependent cosmological constant of the right order of magnitude to match currently quoted “dark energy” values. Although this effect was predicted some time ago [R. D. Sorkin, in Relativity and Gravitation: Classical and Quantum, Proceedings of the SILARG VII Conference, Cocoyoc, Mexico, 1990, edited by J. C. D’Olivo, E. Nahmad-Achar, M. Rosenbaum, M. P. Ryan, L. F. Urrutia, and F. Zertuche (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), pp. 150-173; Rafael D. Sorkin, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 36, 2759 (1997).IJTPBM0020-7748], it is only more recently that a more detailed phenomenological model of a fluctuating Λ was introduced and simulated numerically [M. Ahmed, S. Dodelson, P. Greene, and R. D. Sorkin, Phys. Rev. D 69, 103523 (2004).PRVDAQ0556-2821]. In this paper we continue the investigation by studying the sensitivity of the model to some of the ad hoc choices made in setting it up.

  10. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    PubMed

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased. PMID:9279028

  11. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Turpin, C.; Long, L.; Hollfelder, J.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2000-03-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. Preliminary results on phasing across the Bay Bridge, up and down hole wave amplification at Yerba Buena Island, and sensor orientation analysis are presented. Events recorded and located during 1999 are presented. Also, a senior thesis on the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay beneath the Bay Bridge is presented as an addendum.

  12. Simulation of soft-tissue tumor excisions: a multimodal interactive approach.

    PubMed

    DiSomma, C; Raposio, E; Fato, M; Schenone, A; Andreucci, L; Beltrame, F; Santi, P

    1997-01-01

    Total 3-D reconstruction of the tumor size, shape, and relations with surrounding structures using CT, MRI, sonography, and angiography images can make simulated radical resection of soft-tissue sarcomas possible, thus sparing normal tissues. With our approach, starting from three MR images for a given patient, a new single image representation of all three parameters is generated by using two different techniques on a workstation in a standard UNIX and X-11 environment. The first one is a transformation linking together the MR parameters and the RGB (red, green, blue) color components. The second one is an unsupervised segmentation method based on a number of neural and fuzzy models. We can dinamically render and update a stereo display using field sequential presentation of left and right eye views on the monitor, with Cristal Eyes LCD shutter eyewear (StereoGraphics Inc., San Rafael, CA) to view it. As 3D locating tool, a 3D locating control system based on low-frequency magnetic fields (Polhemus Fastrak) has been chosen. Simulations of soft-tissues excisions may be performed in this interactive environment with augmented-reality modalities. All this, in our experience, has greatly facilitated the simulation of soft-tissue sarcoma excisions.

  13. Rock type discrimination techniques using Landsat and Seasat image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, R.; Abrams, M.; Conrad, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a sedimentary rock type discrimination project using Seasat radar and Landsat multispectral image data of the San Rafael Swell, in eastern Utah, are presented, which has the goal of determining the potential contribution of radar image data to Landsat image data for rock type discrimination, particularly when the images are coregistered. The procedure employs several images processing techniques using the Landsat and Seasat data independently, and then both data sets are coregistered. The images are evaluated according to the ease with which contacts can be located and rock units (not just stratigraphically adjacent ones) separated. Results show that of the Landsat images evaluated, the image using a supervised classification scheme is the best for sedimentary rock type discrimination. Of less value, in decreasing order, are color ratio composites, principal components, and the standard color composite. In addition, for rock type discrimination, the black and white Seasat image is less useful than any of the Landsat color images by itself. However, it is found that the incorporation of the surface textural measures made from the Seasat image provides a considerable and worthwhile improvement in rock type discrimination.

  14. The Rise and Development of Physics in Cuba: An Interview with Hugo Pérez Rojas in May 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracca, Angelo

    Hugo Celso Pérez Rojas was born in 1938, and works as a senior researcher at the Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics and Physics, at the Ministry of Science and Technology, Cuba. Pérez Rojas is emeritus member of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba, member of the Latin American Academy of Sciences and Fellow TWAS since 1994. He was one of the founders of the School of Physics in the University of Havana in 1962, and moved in 1971 to the Cuban Academy of Sciences. His national awards include the Rafael Maria Mendive and Carlos J. Finlay Medals. He was awarded in 2011 the National Prize in Physics from the Cuban Physical Society. His interests include quantum field theory and its applications to finite temperature problems in high-energy physics and condensed matter. Among these, Pérez Rojas has devoted special attention to quantum electrodynamics in matter and in vacuum in the presence of external fields, phase transitions in electroweak theory, relativistic quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetic fields, and applications of physics to social sciences. He is interviewed here by Angelo Baracca in May 2009.

  15. Strategy and the art of reinventing value.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, K; Maccoby, M; Hama, N; Lundquist, J T; Collis, D J; Zeithaml, C; Martin, J E; Carroll, V P; Lurie, R

    1993-01-01

    In "From Value Chain to Value Constellation: Designing Interactive Strategy" (July-August 1993), Richard Normann and Rafael Ramírez argue that successful companies increasingly do not just add value, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, business partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of value in new forms and by new players. What is so different about this new logic of value? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create value for themselves. But as potential offerings become more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the reconfiguration and integration of its compentencies and customers. Normann and Ramírez provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational pratices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national organization have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Strategy and the art of reinventing value.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, K; Maccoby, M; Hama, N; Lundquist, J T; Collis, D J; Zeithaml, C; Martin, J E; Carroll, V P; Lurie, R

    1993-01-01

    In "From Value Chain to Value Constellation: Designing Interactive Strategy" (July-August 1993), Richard Normann and Rafael Ramírez argue that successful companies increasingly do not just add value, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, business partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of value in new forms and by new players. What is so different about this new logic of value? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create value for themselves. But as potential offerings become more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the reconfiguration and integration of its compentencies and customers. Normann and Ramírez provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational pratices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national organization have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10129057

  17. Miniature Piezoelectric Compressor for Joule-Thomson Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Sergey; Tzabar, Nir; Grossman, Gershon

    Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers operate with a continuous flow of the working fluid that enters the cooler at a high pressure and leaves it at a lower pressure. Ideally, the temperature of the outgoing fluid equals the temperature of the entering fluid. JT cryocoolers that operate with pure refrigerants require high pressure of a few tens of MPa where the low pressure is usually around 0.1 MPa. Circulation of the working fluid in such cases requires high pressure ratio compressors that evidently have large dimensions. JT cryocoolers can operate with much lower pressure ratios by using mixed-refrigerants. Cooling from 300 K to about 80 K in a single stage cryocooler normally requires a pressure ratio of about 1:25. In the present research a miniature compressor driven by piezoelectric elements is developed in collaboration between Rafael and the Technion. This type of compressor has the advantage of improved long life compared to other mechanical compressors, very low vibrations, and silent operation. In the current case, the design goal of the intake and discharge pressures has been 0.1 and 2.5 MPa, respectively, with a flow rate of 0.06 g/s. The compressor has two compression stages; 1:5 and 5:25. Several configurations have been considered, fabricated, and tested. The performance of the last configuration approaches the desired specification and is presented in the current paper together with the design concept.

  18. High Energy Physics: Proceedings of the Fifth Latin American Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano Salinas, C. J.; Pereyra Ravinez, O.; Ochoa Jiménez, R.; Masperi, Luis

    2006-04-01

    -Halpern operators / H. Blas. Is there really an entangled state for far away twin photons? / H. G. Valqui. Use of neural networks to classify cosmic-ray showers according to their Muon/EM ratio / H. Salazar and L. Villaseñor. [symbol] polarization in pp-->p[symbol]K+[symbol] at 27.5 GeV / J. Félix ... [et al.]. Definition of the polarization vector / V. M. Castillo-Vallejo and J. Félix. The MINOS experiment / M. Sanchez. Study of scintillating counters and their application to VO detector of ALICE / J. E. Ruiz and Tabasco. Data selection of [symbol] muon semileptonic decay in KTeV / R. A. Gomes. Chaotic properties of high energy cosmic rays / A. Ticona ... [et al.]. Energy spectrum of surviving protons / R. Calle ... [et al.]. Calculus of the ratio [symbol] in the K meson decay through the 331 model / J. C. Montero ... [et al.]. Use of a scintillator detector for luminosity measurements / G. Contreras, C. J. Solano Salinas and A. M. Gago. Simplified forms of a linear and exact set of equations for the gravitational field in the very early universe / E. Salinas -- Posters. Determination of the b-Mass using Renormalon Cancellation / C. Contreras. CP violation in B-->?K* decays: amplitudes, factorization and new physics / D. Gómez Dumm and A. Szynkman. Degeneracies in the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters: problem and solution in neutrino factories / J. Jones and A. M. Gago. Revision of the neutrino oscillation probability in the supernovae / L. Aliaga and A. M. Gago. Consequences on the neutrino mixing matrix from two zero textures in the neutrino mass matrix / L. Stucchi, A. M. Gago and V. Gupta. Expected flux of high energy neutrinos from observed active galactic nuclei / J. L. Bazo and A. M. Gago. Masperi's Quasispin model of the scalar field [symbol] theory with soliton solutions / M. Agüero, G. Frias and F. Ongay. Nonstandard CP violation in B-->[symbol] decays / A. Szynkman. Spinor realization of the Skyrme Model / R. Ochoa Jimenez and Yu. P. Rybakov.

  19. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  20. Influence of implant inclination associated with mandibular class I removable partial denture.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Santos, Ciandrus Moraes; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use two-dimensional finite element method to evaluate the displacement and stress distribution transmitted by a distal extension removable partial denture (DERPD) associated with an implant placed at different inclinations (0, 5, 15, and 30 degrees) in the second molar region of the edentulous mandible ridge. Six hemimandibular models were created: model A, only with the presence of the natural tooth 33; model B, similar to model A, with the presence of a conventional DERPD replacing the missing teeth; model C, similar to the previous model, with a straight implant (0 degrees) in the distal region of the ridge, under the denture base; model D, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 5 degrees in the mesial direction; model E, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 15 degrees in the mesial direction; and model F, similar to ME, with the implant angled at 30 degrees in the mesial direction. The models were created with the use of the AutoCAD 2000 program (Autodesk, Inc, San Rafael, CA) and processed for finite element analysis by the ANSYS 8.0 program (Swanson Analysis Systems, Houston, PA). The force applied was vertical of 50 N on each cusp tip. The results showed that the introduction of the RPD overloaded the supporting structures of the RPD and that the introduction of the implant helped to relieve the stresses of the mucosa alveolar, cortical bone, and trabecular bone. The best stress distribution occurred in model D with the implant angled at 5 degrees. The use of an implant as a support decreased the displacement of alveolar mucosa for all inclinations simulated. The stress distribution transmitted by the DERPD to the supporting structures was improved by the use of straight or slightly inclined implants. According to the displacement analysis and von Mises stress, it could be expected that straight or slightly inclined implants do not represent biomechanical risks to use. PMID:21415633

  1. Paleozoic stratigraphy and tectonics of northern Uncompahgre front, Paradox basin, Utah - an alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, G.M.; Powell, T.G.

    1986-08-01

    The Paradox basin is a complex pull-apart basin of major proportions that developed along intersecting basement fracture zones by strong east-west extensional pulses in the Middle Pennsylvanian. These stresses caused the Ancestral Rocky Mountains to emerge and the Paradox basin to subside. Oblique divergent strike-slip faulting along the Uncompahgre-San Luis uplifts allowed smaller subbasins to develop by orthogonal spreading along intersecting northeast-trending transform faults. The rate of basin-floor subsidence was related to combinations of normal reverse, and strike-slip faulting. The northernmost subbasin of the Paradox basin is bounded by the northwest-trending Uncompahgre uplift, the salt Valley diapiric feature, and the northeast-trending San Rafael and Cataract lineaments. Although generally straight on a regional scale, the Uncompahgre master fault system is complicated in detail. The zone consists of en echelon fault slices, thrust blocks, and detachment faults. Few Paleozoic tests have been drilled along the northern Uncompahgre front. Most structural interpretations have been based on seismic data that have disregarded empirical geologic data from the few deep tests in the area. Structural features such as the Thompson-Yellow Cat anticlines have been assumed to be salt bulges or pillow structures. Geologic and geophysical data strongly suggest these features may be low-angle detachment thrust sheets. The true economic potential of the area also remains unknown; however, the structural style, burial history, and sedimentary rock types suggest that sizable accumulations of untapped hydrocarbons may exist in this portion of the Paradox basin.

  2. Studies of the mechanics and structure of shallow magmatic plumbing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Mikel

    2008-10-01

    Volcanic activity, and the resultant deposits and structures at the Earth's surface, are the outcome of the inner workings of underground magmatic plumbing systems. These systems, essentially, consist of magma reservoirs which supply magma to the surface through volcanic conduits feeding volcanic eruptions. The mechanics and structure of plumbing systems remain largely unknown due to the obvious challenges involved in inferring volcanic processes occurring underground from observations at the surface. Nevertheless, volcanologists are beginning to gain a deeper understanding of the workings and architecture of magmatic plumbing systems from geophysical observations on active volcanoes, as well as from geological studies of the erosional remnants of ancient volcanic systems. In this work, I explore the relationship between the structure and mechanics of shallow plumbing systems and the volcanic eruptions these systems produce. I attempt to contribute to the understanding of this complex relationship by linking geological and geophysical observations of an eroded basaltic subvolcanic system, and the eruptive and tectonic activity of an active volcano, with mathematical models of magma ascent and stress transfer. The remarkable exposures of the Carmel outcrop intrusions, near the San Rafael swell, southeast Utah, U.S.A., allow detailed geological and geophysical observations of the roots of volcanic conduits that emerge from a subhorizontal magma feeder reservoir. These observations reveal a new mechanism for magma ascent and eruption triggering through gravitational instabilities created from an underlying feeding sill, and shed light on the mechanics of sill emplacement. Geophysical and geological observations of the 1999 and 1992 eruptions of the Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, are used to explore the coupling between changes in the stress field and the triggering of volcanic eruptions, and magma ascent through the shallow crust. Modeling results of stress transfer

  3. Drunkard's wash project: Coalbed methane production from Ferron coals in east-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lemarre, R.A. ); Burns, T.D. )

    1996-01-01

    The Drunkard's Wash Project produces dry, coalbed methane gas from coals within the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale. The project covers 120,000 acres on the western flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. Gas was first produced into the sales line in January 1993. The field is being developed on 160 acre spacing with 73 wells currently producing 32.2 MMCFD for an average of 437 MCFD/well. Thirty three of those wells have been producing for 32 months and now average 637 MCFD/well. Most of the wells show a classic coalbed methane negative decline curve with increasing gas rates as the reservoir pressure declines due to production of water. Daily water production is 14,500 BPD, for an average of 199 BWPD/well. Total coal thickness ranges from 7 ft. to 48 ft., with an average of 24 ft. The coals occur in 3 to 6 seams at depths of 1350 to 2450 ft. The coal rank is high volatile A B bituminous. We can not yet see a correlation between total coal thickness and current production. All wells are cased and hydraulically stimulated and most require pumping units to handle the large volumes of water. However, 22 wells do not require pumps and flow unassisted to the surface. The structure consists of monoclinal westward dip. A thin tonstein layer in the bottom coal seam serves as an excellent datum for mapping. Enhanced production is encountered along a southwest-plunging nose that probably formed additional fracture permeability within the coals. Northeast-trending reverse faults with small displacement appear to compartmentalize the reservoir. The Ferron coals were deposited in a river-dominated deltaic system that prograded to the east and southeast during Turonian-Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) time. The Ferron Sandstone Member represents an eastward-thinning elastic wedge that was deposited during regression of the Western Interior Cretaceous seaway.

  4. Drunkard`s wash project: Coalbed methane production from Ferron coals in east-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lemarre, R.A.; Burns, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Drunkard`s Wash Project produces dry, coalbed methane gas from coals within the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale. The project covers 120,000 acres on the western flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. Gas was first produced into the sales line in January 1993. The field is being developed on 160 acre spacing with 73 wells currently producing 32.2 MMCFD for an average of 437 MCFD/well. Thirty three of those wells have been producing for 32 months and now average 637 MCFD/well. Most of the wells show a classic coalbed methane negative decline curve with increasing gas rates as the reservoir pressure declines due to production of water. Daily water production is 14,500 BPD, for an average of 199 BWPD/well. Total coal thickness ranges from 7 ft. to 48 ft., with an average of 24 ft. The coals occur in 3 to 6 seams at depths of 1350 to 2450 ft. The coal rank is high volatile A&B bituminous. We can not yet see a correlation between total coal thickness and current production. All wells are cased and hydraulically stimulated and most require pumping units to handle the large volumes of water. However, 22 wells do not require pumps and flow unassisted to the surface. The structure consists of monoclinal westward dip. A thin tonstein layer in the bottom coal seam serves as an excellent datum for mapping. Enhanced production is encountered along a southwest-plunging nose that probably formed additional fracture permeability within the coals. Northeast-trending reverse faults with small displacement appear to compartmentalize the reservoir. The Ferron coals were deposited in a river-dominated deltaic system that prograded to the east and southeast during Turonian-Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) time. The Ferron Sandstone Member represents an eastward-thinning elastic wedge that was deposited during regression of the Western Interior Cretaceous seaway.

  5. Legal consequences for torture in children cases: the Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers vs Peru case.

    PubMed

    Tinta, Monica Feria

    2009-01-01

    The Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers case, before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, was the first international case concerning the protection of children in the context of armed conflict where an international court stated the law concerning the duties of States towards children even in the context of war, and provided for reparations. As such it represents a landmark decision. The case arose from the illegal detention, torture and extrajudicial execution of two minors, Emilio and Rafael Gomez Paquiyauri, at the hands of Peruvian Police in 1991, under the Fujimori Administration at a time when the internal war in Peru was at its peak. Unlike most cases coming to the jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court, the case had been subject to domestic criminal investigations that had led to the convictions of two low ranking policemen. Yet a more subtle pattern of impunity lied at the root of the case. Torture had been denied by the State, and the prosecutions of low ranking policemen had intended to cover up the responsibility of those who ordered a policy of torture and executions (including the existence of secret codes for the torture and elimination of suspects of "terrorism") during the years of the internal armed conflict in Peru. The joint work of legal and medical expertise in the litigation of the case permitted the establishment of the facts and the law, obtaining an award of 740,500 dollars for the victims and a number of measures of reparation including guarantees of non-repetition and satisfaction, such as the naming of a school after the victims. PMID:19920329

  6. [Ancient urology in the Kingdom of Valencia. Height and declivity].

    PubMed

    López Alcina, E; Pérez Albacete, M; Canovas Ivorra, J A

    2007-03-01

    During the second half of the XVIth century the interest of the clinicians moves towards the venereal ailments and the urethral carnosities (narrowness) to the detriment of the litiasic processes. They are of special relevancy for us, in the period summit of the medical sciences in Valencian lands, Miguel Juan Pascual who in his work "Morborum internorum" (1555) there synthesizes everything known on the syphilis in this epoch, its origin, diagnosis and treatment, Juan Calvo considered one of the best surgeons of the XVIth century and Miguel de Leriza author of the "Tractatus of the way of treating the carnosities and corns of the route of the urine". The baroque was an epoch of general crisis in Spain and in the ancient Kingdom of Valencia, specially clear in fields as the anatomy and the surgery. The serious decadence that suffered during these years the scientific Valencian production turns out to be evident. Not even an alone anatomical text was published in the first half of the XVIIth century, whereas in the surgical area the "Summary of everything about the theoretical and practice of Surgery", of Alonso Romano can be considered deigns of mention. The illustration brought new reformists airs and around the flourishing scientific academies, there congregated the most select of the Valencian intellectuality. Andres Piquer Arrufat is considered to be the maximum figure of the Valencian medicine of this period. Not even after the war of independence and the reign of Fernando VII who died in 1833 when there sit down the bases of the modern urology and the consolidation as speciality at the end of the XIXth. The Valencian principal figures of this period are Miguel Más y Soler, Alejandro Settler and especially Rafael Mollá y Rodrigo. PMID:17658148

  7. New palaeomagnetic results from Late Paleozoic volcanic units along the western Gondwana margin in La Pampa, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomezzoli, Renata Nela; Pierre, Teresa Saint; Valenzuela, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary palaeomagnetic results from the Paleozoic volcanic units along the Gondwana margin in Argentina are presented. Even though we are still working on the palaeomagnetic data of the sampled section, these data are consistent with data from former studies carried out in the area. More than 90 specimens were measured from the Sierra Chica locality (37°52'S; 65°27'W) computed in 11 sites (Sc1-Sc11). These rocks are carriers of a characteristic remanence magnetization with reverse polarity, acquired during the Early Permian and assigned to the Kiaman Superchron. The resulting palaeomagnetic pole (PP) is Lat.: 64°S; Long.: 017°E, A95 = 15°, K = 12, N = 10. Others interpretations are also possible if the directions of two sites (SC9 and SC10) are considered to have a different magnetic field record. In that case, the PP calculated for sites Sc1-Sc7 is Lat.: 65°S; Long.: 44°E, A95 = 8°, K = 54, N = 7, and the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) calculated for sites Sc9 and Sc10 is Lat.: 48.5°S; Long.: 315°E, A 95 = 8°, N = 2. The last possibility to consider Sc9 and Sc10 after structural correction, and the resulting PP position is Lat.: 66.5°S; Long.: 034°E, A 95 = 8°, K = 41, N = 9. This deformation episode could be related to the San Rafaelic orogenic phase, found for the first time in La Pampa province, but previously observed in other neighboring areas during Permian time. However, more detailed palaeomagnetic sampling, rock magnetism studies, and age dating are necessary to complete the palaeomagnetic study of this area.

  8. Low-BTU gas in the Rocky Mountain region - Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Tremain, C.M. ); Broadhead, R.E. ); Chidsey, T.C. Jr. ); Doelger, M. ); Morgan, C.D. )

    1993-08-01

    There are over 100 reservoirs in Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah that produce or could produce low-BTU (heating value less than 900 BTU/ft[sup 3]) gas. Reservoirs range in age from Devonian to Cretaceous; reservoir lithologies include both carbonates and sandstones. Frequently, the low-BTU gas (CO[sub 2], N[sub 2], and He) is a byproduct of normal hydrocarbon production. CO[sub 2]-rich gas occurs in southwest to east-central Utah, in the southeastern Paradox basin (Utah and Colorado), in the North Park basin (Colorado), in southeast Colorado and northeast New Mexico, and in the Green River and Wind River basins (Wyoming). Five fields produce nearly pure (98%) CO[sub 2]. The 1990 annual CO[sub 2] production from these fields was North and South McCallum (Colorado), 1.7 bcf; McElmo (Colorado), 205 bcf; Sheep Mountain (Colorado), 70.7 bcf; and Bravo Dome (New Mexico), 119.7 bcf. Big Piney-LaBarge (Wyoming) produced 120 bcf of CO[sub 2] (at a concentration of 65%) in 1990. Most of the CO[sub 2] is used in enhanced oil recovery. Nitrogen-rich gas is found in the southern Green River basin (Utah and Wyoming), east flank of the San Rafael uplift (Utah), northern Paradox basin (Utah), Uncompahgre uplift (Utah and Colorado), Douglas Creek arch (Colorado), Hugoton embayment (Colorado), Las Animas arch (Colorado), Permian basin (New Mexico), and Four Corners platform (New Mexico). Helium is sometimes associated with the nitrogen and in concentrations of up to 8% in New Mexico and Colorado, 2.8% in Utah, and 1% in Wyoming.

  9. Electron microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall lysis.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, R; González, C; Muñoz, N; Mendoza, S

    1966-05-01

    Virgilio, Rafael (Escuela de Química y Farmacia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile), C. González, Nubia Muñoz, and Silvia Mendoza. Electron microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall lysis. J. Bacteriol. 91:2018-2024. 1966.-A crude suspension of Staphylococcus aureus cell walls (strain Cowan III) in buffer solution was shown by electron microscopy to lyse slightly after 16 hr, probably owing to the action of autolysin. The lysis was considerably faster and more intense after the addition of lysozyme. A remarkable reduction in thickness and rigidity of the cell walls, together with the appearance of many irregular protrusions in their outlines, was observed after 2 hr; after 16 hr, there remained only a few recognizable cell wall fragments but many residual particulate remnants. When autolysin was previously inactivated by trypsin, there was a complete inhibition of the lytic action of lysozyme; on the other hand, when autolysin was inactivated by heat and lysozyme was added, a distinct decrease in the thickness of the cell walls was observed, but there was no destruction of the walls. The lytic action of lysozyme, after treatment with hot 5% trichloroacetic acid, gave rise to a marked dissolution of the structure of the cell walls, which became lost against the background, without, however, showing ostensible alteration of wall outlines. From a morphological point of view, the lytic action of autolysin plus lysozyme was quite different from that of trichloroacetic acid plus lysozyme, as shown by electron micrographs, but in both cases it was very intense. This would suggest different mechanisms of action for these agents.

  10. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Haag, J. van; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-22

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material’s properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  11. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; van Haag, J.; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-01

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material's properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  12. Accretion of Grenvillian terranes to the southwestern border of the Río de la Plata craton, western Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Basei, Miguel A. S.; González, Pablo D.; Sato, Ana M.; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Campos Neto, Mario; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Meira, Vinicius T.

    2011-04-01

    A comprehensive review of the geological, geochronological, and isotopic features of the Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian terranes attached to the southwest of the Río de la Plata craton in Early Paleozoic times is presented in this paper. They are grouped into the northern (sierras de Umango, Maz and del Espinal and surroundings), central (Sierra de Pie de Palo, southern Precordillera and Frontal Cordillera), and southern (San Rafael and Las Matras Blocks) segments. The Mesoproterozoic basement consists mainly of arc related, intermediate to acidic and mafic-ultramafic rocks of 1,244-1,027 Ma, with juvenile, Laurentian affinity. Exception to it is the Maz Group, with a protracted history and reworked character. They are affected by 846-570 Ma, extensional magmatism in the northern and central segments, which represents the Neoproterozoic breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. Successive passive margin sedimentation is registered in Late Neoproterozoic (~640-580 Ma) and Cambro-Ordovician (~550-470 Ma) times. The southern segment is noted for the younger sedimentation alone, and for showing the exclusive primary unconformable relationship between the Mesoproterozoic basement and Early Ordovician cover. The effects of Early Paleozoic Famatinian orogeny, associated with the collisions of Cuyania and Chilenia terranes, are recorded as main phase (480-450 Ma), late phase (440-420 Ma), and Chanic phase (400-360 Ma). Among them, the tectonothermal climax is the Ordovician main phase, to which klippe and nappe structures typical of collisional orogens are related in the northern and central segments. Preliminary data allow us to suggest a set of paired metamorphic belts, with an outboard high-P/T belt, and an inboard Barrowian P/T belt.

  13. A survey on Triatoma dimidiata in an urban area of the province of Heredia, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zeledón, Rodrigo; Calvo, Nidia; Montenegro, Víctor M; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Arévalo, Carolina

    2005-10-01

    Triatoma dimidiata has been found in several cities and towns of those countries where the insect is a domestic or peridomestic pest. In Central America, urban infestations occur in the capitals of at least five countries. During 2001 and 2002 a survey was carried out in the county of San Rafael, Heredia province, located 15 km northwest of San José, capital of Costa Rica, in order to determine the degree of infestation by T. dimidiata in an entire city block. Six peridomestic colonies of the insect were detected in the backyards of eight households. The ecotopes occupied by the insects consisted of store rooms with old objects, wood piles or firewood, and chicken coops. A total of 1917 insects were found in the six foci, during two sampling periods, and a mean infection rate by Trypanosoma cruzi of 28.4% was found in 1718 insects examined. The largest colony found in one of the households yielded 872 insects that were thriving mainly at the expenses of two dogs. Opossums and adult insects were common visitors of the houses and it became evident that this marsupial is closely related to the peridomestic cycle of the Chagas disease agent. Lack of colonization of the insect inside the human dwellings is explained by the type of construction and good sanitary conditions of the houses, in contrast to the situation in most peridomiciliary areas. Stomach blood samples from the insects showed that the main hosts were, in order of decreasing frequency: rodents, dogs, fowl, humans, opossums, and cats. The fact that no indication of infection with Chagas disease could be detected in the human occupants of the infested houses, vis a vis the high infection rate in dogs, is discussed.

  14. Preoperative TRAM free flap volume estimation for breast reconstruction in lean patients.

    PubMed

    Minn, Kyung Won; Hong, Ki Yong; Lee, Sang Woo

    2010-04-01

    To obtain pleasing symmetry in breast reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) free flap, a large amount of abdominal flap is elevated and remnant tissue is trimmed in most cases. However, elevation of abundant abdominal flap can cause excessive tension in donor site closure and increase the possibility of hypertrophic scarring especially in lean patients. The TRAM flap was divided into 4 zones in routine manner; the depth and dimension of the 4 zones were obtained using ultrasound and AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA), respectively. The acquired numbers were then multiplied to obtain an estimate of volume of each zone and the each zone volume was added. To confirm the relation between the estimated volume and the actual volume, authors compared intraoperative actual TRAM flap volumes with preoperative estimated volumes in 30 consecutive TRAM free flap breast reconstructions. The estimated volumes and the actual elevated volumes of flap were found to be correlated by regression analysis (r = 0.9258, P < 0.01). According to this result, we could confirm the reliability of the preoperative volume estimation using our method. Afterward, the authors applied this method to 7 lean patients by estimation and revision of the design and obtained symmetric results with minimal donor site morbidity. Preoperative estimation of TRAM flap volume with ultrasound and AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc.) allow the authors to attain the precise volume desired for elevation. This method provides advantages in terms of minimal flap trimming, easier closure of donor sites, reduced scar widening and symmetry, especially in lean patients.

  15. Influence of implant inclination associated with mandibular class I removable partial denture.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Santos, Ciandrus Moraes; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use two-dimensional finite element method to evaluate the displacement and stress distribution transmitted by a distal extension removable partial denture (DERPD) associated with an implant placed at different inclinations (0, 5, 15, and 30 degrees) in the second molar region of the edentulous mandible ridge. Six hemimandibular models were created: model A, only with the presence of the natural tooth 33; model B, similar to model A, with the presence of a conventional DERPD replacing the missing teeth; model C, similar to the previous model, with a straight implant (0 degrees) in the distal region of the ridge, under the denture base; model D, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 5 degrees in the mesial direction; model E, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 15 degrees in the mesial direction; and model F, similar to ME, with the implant angled at 30 degrees in the mesial direction. The models were created with the use of the AutoCAD 2000 program (Autodesk, Inc, San Rafael, CA) and processed for finite element analysis by the ANSYS 8.0 program (Swanson Analysis Systems, Houston, PA). The force applied was vertical of 50 N on each cusp tip. The results showed that the introduction of the RPD overloaded the supporting structures of the RPD and that the introduction of the implant helped to relieve the stresses of the mucosa alveolar, cortical bone, and trabecular bone. The best stress distribution occurred in model D with the implant angled at 5 degrees. The use of an implant as a support decreased the displacement of alveolar mucosa for all inclinations simulated. The stress distribution transmitted by the DERPD to the supporting structures was improved by the use of straight or slightly inclined implants. According to the displacement analysis and von Mises stress, it could be expected that straight or slightly inclined implants do not represent biomechanical risks to use.

  16. MIS priorities for MSO's (management services organization) & clinics without walls.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L

    1994-01-01

    Organized and efficient systems that are responsive to the needs of the medical group, hospital and management services organization are at the heart of successful integrated healthcare systems. Unfortunately, selecting the right systems solution can be a time-consuming and difficult process, at best. The problems are many. First, not all management services organizations look alike. Some are limited in scope and function. Others offer an expansive menu of services to the participating groups and physicians. Second, the level of sophistication of clinic or MSO personnel evaluating systems varies. Often, hospital systems personnel with little experience in the practice management arena are assigned the job of evaluating practice systems. Third, the budget for a data processing system may be limited. The process of forming an MSO and organizing a group without walls may be very expensive. Unless adequate budgeting is done in advance, only limited funds may be left for investment in systems. Lastly, identifying viable systems which are available can be an arduous undertaking. Literally, hundreds of possible systems are available. Unfortunately, few sources offer comprehensive information on each system suitable for proper evaluation. This has led many organizations to strategically design and develop their own physician network solutions and options using such applications as 4th generation data base language. According to Mick Bassell of Partners in HealthCare, a systems consulting group in San Rafael, CA., "a request for proposal process is usually the best way to identify systems that meet the group's needs, weaknesses and strengths. This should be done before vendors are asked to supply information about various computer systems. Developing a good RFP is a building process for both the MSO and group which will help them to jointly identify, organize and prioritize system requirements."

  17. Paleomagnetic study of Cambrian Ordovician rocks in the Eastern Precordillera of Argentina: some constraints on the Andean uplift of this block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Bordonaro, O.; Berquo, T. S.

    2000-11-01

    A paleomagnetic study on several carbonatic units (limestones to dolomites) of the Argentine Precordillera, spanning the Middle Cambrian to Arenig, is reported. Sampling was done at 23 sites (140 samples) in five localities of the Eastern Precordillera of San Juan province: Zonda (1), Juan Pobre (2) and La Flecha (3) creeks, Loma Redonda (4) and Cerro Pedernal de los Berros (5). Standard AF and thermal demagnetization indicated two different magnetic behaviors. Samples from localities 1 and 2 showed a single, post-tectonic magnetic component attributed to a Recent viscous or chemical remagnetization. Samples from localities 3 to 5 showed two magnetic components: a low unblocking temperature (350°C) magnetization coincident with that found at the previous localities and a high temperature one (up to 500°C). This second component was also found to be post-folding (post-Devonian?) and its in situ mean direction is Dec: 277.1°, Inc: 69.4, α95: 9.3°, N=10. This is not consistent with any expected direction for the study area between Carboniferous and Recent times. It is therefore inferred that the rocks carrying it underwent substantial tectonic rotation since its recording. Comparison with the magnetization carried by similar Early Ordovician limestones in the Central Precordillera and the San Rafael Block, and assigned to a Permian remagnetizing event, suggests that the same process affected the carbonatic rocks in the Eastern Precordillera and, therefore, the age of the component is likely Permian. Restoration of the in situ mean direction to the expected direction for a Permian remagnetization can be obtained by a 40° ccw rotation around an axis plunging 30° to N30°E. This is compatible with uplifting of the Eastern Precordillera as a series of quasi-rigid blocks along a major E dipping N to NE backthrust during the Andean orogeny.

  18. Stratigraphy and structure of the Miners Mountain area, Wayne County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luedke, Robert G.

    1953-01-01

    The Miners Mountain area includes about 85 square miles in Wayne County, south-central Utah. The area is semiarid and characterized by cliffs and deep canyons. Formations range in age from Permian to Upper Jurassic and have an aggregate thickness of about 3,500 feet. Permian formations are the buff Coconino sandstone and the overlying white, limy, shert-containing Kaibab limestone. Unconformably overlying the Kaihab is the lower Triassic Moenkopi formation of reddish-brown and yellow mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone; it contains the Sinbad limestone member (?) in the lower part. Thin, lenticular Shinarump conglomerate unconformably overlies the Moenkopi, but grades upward into the Upper Triassic Chinle formation of variegated mudstone with some interbedded sandstone and limestone lenses. Uncomformably overlying the Chinle are the Wingate sandstone, Kayenta formation, and Navajo sandstone of the Jurassic (?) Glen Canyon group, which consist of red to white sandstone. Only the lower part of the Carmel formation of the Upper Jurassic San Rafael group is exposed in the area; it consists of variegated siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and gypsum. The conspicuous structural feature in the area is the Teasdale anticline which trends northwest, is about 14 miles long, and is asymmetric with a steeper west flank. Bounding the anticline on the northeast and east is the Capitol Reef monocline, the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold. Strata in the area are broken by steeply-dipping normal faults with small displacements, except for the Teasdale fault which has a maximum displacement of over 1,000 feet. Jointing is prominent in some formations. The major orogenic movement in the area is believed to be late Upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary. Epeirogenic uplift occurred intermittently throughout Tertiary and perhaps Quaternary time.

  19. Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Methods, applications and developments of ground-penetrating radar for determination of reservoir geometries in near-surface settings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMechan, G.A.; Soegaard, K.

    1998-05-25

    An integrated sedimentologic and GPR investigation has been carried out on a fluvial channel sandstone in the mid-Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone at Coyote Basin along the southwestern flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. This near-surface study, which covers a area of 40 {times} 16.5 meters to a depth of 15 meters, integrates detailed stratigraphic data from outcrop sections and facies maps with multi-frequency 3-D GPR surveys. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to develop new ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for imaging shallow subsurface sandstone bodies, and (2) to construct an empirical three-dimensional sandstone reservoir model suitable for hydrocarbon flow-simulation by imaging near-surface sandstone reservoir analogs with the use of GPR. The sedimentological data base consists of a geologic map of the survey area and a detailed facies map of the cliff face immediately adjacent to the survey area. Five vertical sections were measured along the cliff face adjacent to the survey area. In addition, four wells were cored within the survey area from which logs were recorded. In the sections and well logs primary sedimentary structures were documented along with textural information and permeability data. Gamma-ray profiles were also obtained for all sections and core logs. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic information serves as the basis from which much of the processing and interpretation of the GPR data was made. Three 3-D GPR data sets were collected over the survey area at frequencies of 50 MHZ, 100 MHZ, and 200 MHZ.

  20. Hydrologic monitoring of selected streams in coal fields of central and southern Utah; summary of data collected, August 1978-September 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Plantz, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a coal-hydrology monitoring program in coal-field areas of central and southern Utah during August 1978-September 1984 to determine possible hydrologic impacts of future mining and to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic systems of the coal resource areas monitored. Data were collected at 19 gaging stations--18 stations in the Price, San Rafael, and Dirty Devil River basins, and 1 in the Kanab Creek Basin. Streamflow data were collected continuously at 11 stations and seasonally at 5 stations. At the other three stations streamflow data were collected continuously during the 1979 water year and then seasonally for the rest of their periods of record. Types of data collected at each station included quantity and quality of streamflow; suspended sediment concentrations; and descriptions of stream bottom sediments, benthic invertebrate, and phytoplankton samples. Also, base flow measurements were made annually upstream from 12 of the gaging stations. Stream bottom sediment sampled at nearly all the monitoring sites contained small to moderate quantities of coal, which may be attributed chiefly to pre-monitoring mining. Streamflow sampled at several sites contained large concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids. Also, concentrations of various trace elements at 10 stations, and phenols at 18 stations, exceeded the criteria of the EPA for drinking water. This may be attributed to contemporary (water years 1979-84) mine drainage activities. The data collected during the complete water years (1979-84) of monitoring do provide a better understanding of the hydrologic systems of the coal field areas monitored. The data also provide a definite base by which to evaluate hydrologic impacts of continued or increased coal mining in those areas. (Author 's abstract)

  1. The shakedown.

    PubMed

    Bodrock, Phil

    2005-03-01

    Customer Strategy Solutions, a California-based developer of order-fulfillment systems, is facing a shakedown. Six months after the firm's CEO, Pavlo Zhuk, set up a software development center in Kiev, local bureaucrats say the company hasn't filed all the tax schedules it should have. Moreover, Ukrainian tax officials claim that the company owes the government tax arrears. Zhuk is shocked; he and his colleagues have done everything by the book. This isn't the first time Zhuk has encountered trouble in Ukraine. In the process of getting the development center up and running, a state-owned telecommunications utility had made it difficult for Zhuk to get the phone lines his company needed. Senior telecom manager Vasyl Feodorovych Mylofienko had told Zhuk it would take three years to install the lines in his office-but for a certain price, Mylofienko had added, the lines could be functioning the following week. Even as the picture of rampant bribery and corruption in Ukraine becomes clear, Zhuk still doesn't want to pull out of the country. Of Ukrainian descent, he has dreams of helping to modernize the country. By paying his programmers more than they could make at any local company, he hopes to raise their standard of living so they can afford three meals a day without having to barter, stand in queues for hours, or moonlight. And yet, he isn't sure he can keep compromising his principles for the sake of the greater good. Should Customer Strategy Solutions pay off the Ukrainian tax officials? Commenting on this fictional case study are Alan L. Boeckmann, the chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation; Rafael Di Tella, a professor at Harvard Business School; Thomas W. Dunfee, the Kolodny Professor of Social Responsibility and a professor of legal studies at Wharton; and Bozidar Djelic, the former finance and economy minister of Serbia. PMID:15768674

  2. Naming a phantom – the quest to find the identity of Ulluchu, an unidentified ceremonial plant of the Moche culture in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The botanical identification of Ulluchu, an iconic fruit frequently depicted in the art of the pre-Columbian Moche culture that flourished from A.D. 100–800 on the Peruvian north coast, has eluded scientists since its documentation in ceramics in the 1930s. Moche fine-line drawings of Ulluchu normally depict seed-pods or seeds floating in the air in sacrificial scenes, associated with runners and messengers or intoxicated priests. It is a grooved, comma-shaped fruit with an enlarged calyx found mainly in fine-line scenes painted on Moche ceramics. The term first appeared without linguistic explanation in the work of pioneer Moche scholar Rafael Larco Hoyle, and the identification of the plant was seen as the largest remaining challenge in current archaebotany at the Peruvian North coast. The name Ulluchu seems to have been coined by Larco. According to his description, the name originated in the Virú River valley, and is supposedly of Mochica origin. However, there is no linguistic evidence that such a term indeed existed in the Mochica or Yunga language. We conclude that Ulluchu can be identified as a group of species of the genus Guarea (Meliaceae) based on morphological characteristics. In addition, the chemical composition of the plant's compounds supports the thesis that it was used in a sacrificial context to improve the extraction of blood from sacrificial victims. We also suggest that a ground preparation of Guarea seeds, when inhaled, may have been used as a hallucinogen. However, more detailed phytochemical research is needed to corroborate the latter hypothesis. PMID:19335907

  3. The shakedown.

    PubMed

    Bodrock, Phil

    2005-03-01

    Customer Strategy Solutions, a California-based developer of order-fulfillment systems, is facing a shakedown. Six months after the firm's CEO, Pavlo Zhuk, set up a software development center in Kiev, local bureaucrats say the company hasn't filed all the tax schedules it should have. Moreover, Ukrainian tax officials claim that the company owes the government tax arrears. Zhuk is shocked; he and his colleagues have done everything by the book. This isn't the first time Zhuk has encountered trouble in Ukraine. In the process of getting the development center up and running, a state-owned telecommunications utility had made it difficult for Zhuk to get the phone lines his company needed. Senior telecom manager Vasyl Feodorovych Mylofienko had told Zhuk it would take three years to install the lines in his office-but for a certain price, Mylofienko had added, the lines could be functioning the following week. Even as the picture of rampant bribery and corruption in Ukraine becomes clear, Zhuk still doesn't want to pull out of the country. Of Ukrainian descent, he has dreams of helping to modernize the country. By paying his programmers more than they could make at any local company, he hopes to raise their standard of living so they can afford three meals a day without having to barter, stand in queues for hours, or moonlight. And yet, he isn't sure he can keep compromising his principles for the sake of the greater good. Should Customer Strategy Solutions pay off the Ukrainian tax officials? Commenting on this fictional case study are Alan L. Boeckmann, the chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation; Rafael Di Tella, a professor at Harvard Business School; Thomas W. Dunfee, the Kolodny Professor of Social Responsibility and a professor of legal studies at Wharton; and Bozidar Djelic, the former finance and economy minister of Serbia.

  4. Assessment of Paleozoic terrane accretion along the southern central Andes using detrital zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Fosdick, J. C.; Capaldi, T.; Stockli, D. F.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two distinct Paleozoic terranes known as Cuyania and Chilenia occupy the southern central Andes of Argentina and Chile. Because the proposed terrane boundaries coincide with major structural elements of the modern Andean system at 30-36°S, it is important to understand their origins and potential role in guiding later Andean deformation. The Cuyania terrane of western Argentina encompasses the Precordillera (PC) and a thick-skinned thrust block of the western Sierras Pampeanas, persisting southward to the San Rafael Basin (SRB). Although recently challenged, Cuyania has been long considered a piece of southern Laurentia that rifted away during the early Cambrian and collided with the Argentine margin during the Ordovician. Chilenia is situated west of Cuyania and includes the Frontal Cordillera (FC) and Andean magmatic arc. This less-studied terrane was potentially accreted during an enigmatic Devonian orogenic event. We present new detrital zircon U-Pb age data from siliciclastic sedimentary rocks that span the entire Paleozoic to Triassic from the FC, PC, and SRB. Cambrian rocks of the PC exhibit similar zircon age distributions with prominent ~1.4 and subordinate ~1.1 Ga populations, which are distinct from other Paleozoic strata. Plutonic rocks with these ages are common in southern Laurentia, whereas ~1.4 Ga zircons are uncommon in South American age distributions. This supports a Laurentian origin for Cuyania in isolation from Argentina during the Cambrian. Upper Paleozoic strata from the PC, FC, and SRB all yield similar age data suggesting shared provenance across the proposed Cuyania-Chilenia suture. Age distributions also notably lack Devonian-age grains. The regional paucity of Devonian plutonic rocks and detrital zircon casts doubt on a possible arc system between these terranes at this time, a key requisite for the mid-Paleozoic transfer and accretion of Chilenia to the Argentine margin. Collectively, these data question the precise boundaries of the

  5. Extraterrestrials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, Ben; Hart, Michael H.

    1995-09-01

    1. An explanation for the absence of extraterrestrials on Earth Michael H. Hart; 2. One attempt to find where they are: NASA's high resolution microwave survey Jill Tarter; 3. An examination of claims that extraterrestrial visitors to Earth are being observed Robert Sheaffer; 4. The likelihood of interstellar colonization, and the absence of its evidence Sebastian von Hoerner; 5. Preemption of the galaxy by the first advanced civilization Ronald Bracewell; 6. Stellar evolution: motivation for the mass interstellar migrations Ben Zuckerman; 7. Interstellar propulsion systems Freeman Dyson; 8. Interstellar travel: a review Ian A. Crawford; 9. Settlements in space, and interstellar travel Cliff Singer; 10. Terraforming James Oberg; 11. Estimates of expansion time scales Eric M. Jones; 12. A search for tritium sources in our Solar System may reveal the presence of space-probes from other stellar systems Michael D. Papagiannis; 13. Primordial organic cosmochemistry Cyril Ponnamperuma and Rafael Navarro-Gonzalez; 14. Chance and the origin of life Edward Argyle; 15. The RNA world: life before DNA and protein Gerald F. Joyce; 16. The search for extraterrestrial intelligence Ernst Nayr; 17. Alone in a crowded universe Jared Diamond; 18. Possible forms of life in environments very different from the Earth Robert Shapiro and Gerald Feinberg; 19. Cosmological SETI frequency standards J. Richard Gott, III; 20. Galactic chemical evolution: implications for the existence of habitable planets Virginia Trimble; 21. The frequency of planetary systems in the galaxy Jonathan I. Lunine; 22. Atmospheric evolution, the Drake equation, and DNA: sparse life in an infinite universe Michael H. Hart.

  6. Paleo-hydraulic Reconstructions of Topographically Inverted River Deposits on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, A.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Ewing, R. C.; McElroy, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    River deposits are one of the keys to understanding the history of flowing water and sediment on Earth and Mars. Deposits of some ancient Martian rivers have been topographically inverted resulting in sinuous ridges visible from orbit. However, it is unclear what aspects of the fluvial deposits these ridges represent, so reconstructing paleo-hydraulics from ridge geometry is complicated. Most workers have assumed that ridges represent casts of paleo-river channels, such that ridge widths and slopes, for example, can be proxies for river widths and slopes at some instant in time. Alternatively, ridges might reflect differential erosion of extensive channel bodies, and therefore preserve a rich record of channel conditions and paleoenvironment over time. To explore these hypotheses, we examined well exposed inverted river deposits in the Jurassic Morrison and Early Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formations across the San Rafael Swell of central Utah. We mapped features on foot and by UAV, measured stratigraphic sections and sedimentary structures to constrain deposit architecture and river paleo-hydraulics, and used field observations and drainage network analyses to constrain recent erosion. Our work partly confirms earlier work in that the local trend of the ridge axis generally parallels paleo-flow indicators. However, ridge relief is much greater than reconstructed channel depths, and ridge widths vary from zero to several times the reconstructed channel width. Ridges instead appear to record a rich history of channel lateral migration, floodplain deposition, and soil development over significant time. The ridge network is disjointed owing to active modern fluvial incision and scarp retreat. Our results suggest that ridge geometry alone contains limited quantitative information about paleo-rivers, and that stratigraphic sections and observations of sedimentary structures within ridge-forming deposits are necessary to constrain ancient river systems on Mars.

  7. [The legacy of Cajal in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Díaz, J L

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1854-1934) had achieved a sound school of neurobiology displaying an integrative and anatomo-functional paradigm of study of the Nervous System by integrating diverse morphological, physiological, and clinical sciences during the Second Spanish Republic. Such school flourished in the three locations of the Cajal Institute in Madrid, but was nearly lost during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) with the repression of the majority of the collaborators of the recently-extinct master. One part of these mature and capable researchers was able to reach sanctuary in the Americas to continue their research and teaching enterprises. Thanks to the welcoming policy of Mexican president Lázaro Cárdenas several of them developed an extensive work at the National University of Mexico (UNAM) becoming pioneers, founders of research institutions, and venerable teachers of several medical and neurological sciences. Among them are neuropsychiatrist Dionisio Nieto, pathologist Isaac Costero, both pupils of Pío del Río Hortega; physiologist José Puche and pharmacologist Rafael Méndez, both collaborators of Juan Negrín. The work of Dionisio Nieto is especially worthy to remark as beneficiary of the Cajal School since, among many other achievements, he applied the techniques of Del Río Hortega to study the neuropathology of epilepsy and schizophrenia since the 1950's. Besides from his legacy to Mexican psychiatry, Nieto's pupils have extended his neuroanatomical and histological work, such as Alfonso Escobar, or his psycho physiological leads, such as Augusto Fernández-Guardiola. The latter was another Spanish War refugee who before is death in 2004 published a profound testimonial pertaining to the neurosciences of the Spanish exile in Mexico.

  8. Realization of masticatory movement by 3-dimensional simulation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Masticatory muscles are closely involved in mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing, and it is therefore important to study the specific functions and dynamics of the mandibular and masticatory muscles. However, the shortness of muscle fibers and the diversity of movement directions make it difficult to study and simplify the dynamics of mastication. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3D) simulation to observe the functions and movements of each of the masticatory muscles and the mandible while chewing. To simulate the masticatory movement, computed tomographic images were taken from a single Korean volunteer (30-year-old man), and skull image data were reconstructed in 3D (Mimics; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The 3D-reconstructed masticatory muscles were then attached to the 3D skull model. The masticatory movements were animated using Maya (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA) based on the mandibular motion path. During unilateral chewing, the mandible was found to move laterally toward the functional side by contracting the contralateral lateral pterygoid and ipsilateral temporalis muscles. During the initial mouth opening, only hinge movement was observed at the temporomandibular joint. During this period, the entire mandible rotated approximately 13 degrees toward the bicondylar horizontal plane. Continued movement of the mandible to full mouth opening occurred simultaneously with sliding and hinge movements, and the mandible rotated approximately 17 degrees toward the center of the mandibular ramus. The described approach can yield data for use in face animation and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.

  9. Tectonic insight based on anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and compaction studies in the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt (southwest Gondwana boundary, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzadún, Guadalupe; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Cesaretti, Nora N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sierras Australes fold and thrust belt (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) was in the southwestern Gondwanaland margin during the Paleozoic. The Tunas Formation (Permian) is exposed along the eastern part of it and continues eastward beneath the Claromecó Basin. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and compaction studies are described and compared with previous paleomagnetic studies with the aim of determining direction and magnitude of the main stresses acting during the sedimentation of the Tunas Formation. The anisotropy ellipsoids are triaxial with oblate or prolate shapes, reflecting different stages of layer parallel shortening during the evolution of the basin. Kmax axes trend NW-SE, parallel to the fold axes, while Kmin move from a horizontal (base) to a vertical orientation at the top of the succession, showing a change from a tectonic to almost a sedimentary fabric. The magnitude of anisotropy and compaction degree decreases toward the top of the succession. The AMS results are consistent with the outcrop structural observations and the compaction and paleomagnetic data. Regional pattern indicates a compression from the SW along this part of Gondwana, with a migration of the orogenic front and attenuation toward the NE in the foreland basin during the Upper Paleozoic. This deformation, locally assigned to the San Rafael noncollisional orogenic phase, is the result of the latitudinal movements toward the Equator of Gondwana (southern plates) and Laurentia (northern plates) during the Permian. This movement is the result of a rearrangement of the microplates that collided with Gondwana during the Late Devonian, to configure Pangea during the Triassic.

  10. Fermionic superoperators for zero-temperature nonlinear transport: Real-time perturbation theory and renormalization group for Anderson quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptsov, R. B.; Wegewijs, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    We study electron quantum transport through a strongly interacting Anderson quantum dot at finite bias voltage and magnetic field at zero temperature using the real-time renormalization group (RT-RG) in the framework of a kinetic (generalized master) equation for the reduced density operator. To this end, we further develop the general, finite-temperature real-time transport formalism by introducing field superoperators that obey fermionic statistics. This direct second quantization in Liouville Fock space strongly simplifies the construction of operators and superoperators that transform irreducibly under the Anderson-model symmetry transformations. The fermionic field superoperators naturally arise from the univalence (fermion-parity) superselection rule of quantum mechanics for the total system of quantum dot plus reservoirs. Expressed in these field superoperators, the causal structure of the perturbation theory for the effective time-evolution superoperator kernel becomes explicit. Using the constraints of the causal structure, we construct a parametrization of the exact effective time-evolution kernel for which we analytically find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues in terms of a minimal set of only 30 independent coefficients. The causal structure also implies the existence of a fermion-parity protected eigenvector of the exact Liouvillian, explaining a recently reported result on adiabatic driving [Contreras-Pulido , Phys. Rev. B 85, 075301 (2012)] and generalizing it to arbitrary order in the tunnel coupling Γ. Furthermore, in the wide-band limit, the causal representation exponentially reduces the number of diagrams for the time-evolution kernel. The remaining diagrams can be identified simply by their topology and are manifestly independent of the energy cutoff term by term. By an exact reformulation of this series, we integrate out all infinite-temperature effects, obtaining an expansion targeting only the nontrivial, finite-temperature corrections, and

  11. The Titan Haze Simulation experiment: laboratory simulation of Titan's atmospheric chemistry at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Contreras, C. S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

    2012-04-01

    associated with the presence of these trace elements in Titan’s atmosphere. We will also present preliminary results of the tholin ex situ analysis and discuss the implications of these results in our understanding of Titan’s haze formation. References: [1]Coates, A.J., Crary, F.J., Lewis, G.R., Young, D.T., Waite Jr., J.H., Sittler Jr., E.C., Geophys. Res. Letters, 34, LL22103, 2007. [2]Waite Jr., J.H., Young, D.T., Cravens, T.E., Coates, A.J., Crary, F.J., Magee, B., Westlake, J., Science, 316, 870-875, 2007. [3]Vuitton, V., Yelle, R.V., Cui, J., J. Geophys. Res., 113, E05007, 2008. [4]Biennier L., Salama F., Allamandola L.J., Scherer J.J., J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7863-7872, 2003. [5]Ricketts, C.L., Contreras, C.S., Walker, R.L., Salama, F., Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 300, 26-30, 2011.

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on 'Quantum Control, Exact or Perturbative, Linear or Nonlinear' to celebrate 50 years of the scientific career of Professor Bogdan Mielnik (Mielnik50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretón, N.; Fernández, D.; Kielanowski, P.

    2015-06-01

    Corral, F Rojas, KB Wolf and M Znojil belong to the subject of Quantum Control and Dynamical Manipulation, while the articles of D Bermudez, A Contreras-Astorga, E Díaz-Bautista, JC González, V Hussin and VS Morales-Salgado are related with Factorization Method, Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics and Coherent States. Finally, the papers of S Cruz y Cruz, M Enríquez, A Jaimes-Nájera and R Kerner address some Interdisciplinary Problems in Quantum Mechanics. We would like to conclude by thanking for the support of the Physics Department of Cinvestav, the Academic Affairs Offce of Cinvestav, and the Mexican National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt, projects 152574 and 166581). Without their support, neither the Conference would have been held nor this Conference Volume would have been published.

  13. EDITORIAL: XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Juan; Contreras, Guillermo; Delepine, David; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    Juan Barranco Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) jbarranc@fisica.ugto.mx Guillermo Contreras Departamento de Fisica Aplicada Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Merida (Mexico) jgcn@mda.cinvestav.mx David Delepine Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) delepine@fisica.ugto.mx Mauro Napsuciale Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) mauro@fisica.ugto.mx The XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields (MWPF) took place from 20-26 October 2011, in the city of León, Guanajuato, México. This is a biennial meeting organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society designed to gather specialists in different areas of high energy physics to discuss the latest developments in the field. The thirteenth edition of this meeting was hosted by the Department of Cultural Studies of Guanajuato University in a nice environment dedicated to the Arts and Culture. The XIII MWPF was organized by three working groups who organized the corresponding sessions around three topics. The first one was Strings, Cosmology, Astroparticles and Physics Beyond the Standard Model. In this category we included: Cosmic Rays, Gamma Ray Bursts, Physics Beyond the Standard Model (theory and experimental searches), Strings and Cosmology. The working group for this topic was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra and Myriam Mondragón. The second topic was Hadronic Matter which included Perturbative QCD, Jets and Diffractive Physics, Hadronic Structure, Soft QCD, Hadron Spectroscopy, Heavy Ion Collisions and Soft Physics at Hadron Colliders, Lattice Results and Instrumentation. The working group for this topic was integrated by Wolfgang Bietenholz and Mariana Kirchbach. The third topic was

  14. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    needed for repository modeling are severely lacking. In addition, most of existing reactive transport codes were developed for non-radioactive contaminants, and they need to be adapted to account for radionuclide decay and in-growth. The accessibility to the source codes is generally limited. Because the problems of interest for the Waste IPSC are likely to result in relatively large computational models, a compact memory-usage footprint and a fast/robust solution procedure will be needed. A robust massively parallel processing (MPP) capability will also be required to provide reasonable turnaround times on the analyses that will be performed with the code. A performance assessment (PA) calculation for a waste disposal system generally requires a large number (hundreds to thousands) of model simulations to quantify the effect of model parameter uncertainties on the predicted repository performance. A set of codes for a PA calculation must be sufficiently robust and fast in terms of code execution. A PA system as a whole must be able to provide multiple alternative models for a specific set of physical/chemical processes, so that the users can choose various levels of modeling complexity based on their modeling needs. This requires PA codes, preferably, to be highly modularized. Most of the existing codes have difficulties meeting these requirements. Based on the gap analysis results, we have made the following recommendations for the code selection and code development for the NEAMS waste IPSC: (1) build fully coupled high-fidelity THCMBR codes using the existing SIERRA codes (e.g., ARIA and ADAGIO) and platform, (2) use DAKOTA to build an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS), and build a modular code architecture and key code modules for performance assessments. The key chemical calculation modules will be built by expanding the existing CANTERA capabilities as well as by extracting useful components from other existing codes.

  15. Brain ‘imaging’ in the Renaissance

    PubMed Central

    Paluzzi, Alessandro; Belli, Antonio; Bain, Peter; Viva, Laura

    2007-01-01

    During the Renaissance, a period of ‘rebirth’ for humanities and science, new knowledge and speculation began to emerge about the function of the human body, replacing ancient religious and philosophical dogma. The brain must have been a fascinating mystery to a Renaissance artist, but some speculation existed at that time on the function of its parts. Here we show how revived interest in anatomy and life sciences may have influenced the figurative work of Italian and Flemish masters, such as Rafael, Michelangelo and David. We present a historical perspective on the artists and the period in which they lived, their fascination for human anatomy and its symbolic use in their art. Prior to the 16th century, knowledge of the brain was limited and influenced in a dogmatic way by the teachings of Galen1 who, as we now know, conducted his anatomical studies not on humans but on animals.2 Nemesus, Bishop of Emesa, in around the year 400 was one of the first to attribute mental faculties to the brain, specifically to the ventricles. He identified two anterior (lateral) ventricles, to which he assigned perception, a middle ventricle responsible for cognition and a posterior ventricle for memory.2,3 After a long period of stasis in the Middle Ages, Renaissance scholars realized the importance of making direct observations on dissected cadavers. Between 1504 and 1507, Leonardo da Vinci conducted experiments to reveal the anatomy of the ventricular system in the brain. He injected hot wax through a tube thrust into the ventricular cavities of an ox and then scraped the overlying brain off, thus obtaining, in a simple but ingenious way, an accurate cast of the ventricles.2,4 Leonardo shared the belief promoted by scholarly Christians that the ventricles were the abode of rational soul. We have several examples of hidden symbolism in Renaissance paintings, but the influence of phrenology and this rudimentary knowledge of neuroanatomy on artists of that period is under

  16. Palaeomagnetism of the Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian transition from Paganzo basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geuna, Silvana E.; Escosteguy, Leonardo D.

    2004-06-01

    A palaeomagnetic study of Upper Palaeozoic rocks was performed on Paganzo basin, central-western Argentina and its western extension, Río Blanco subbasin. The volcanic-volcaniclastic Río del Peñón and marine sedimentary Punta del Agua formations were sampled in the Rincón Blanco syncline. Both units represent the Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian transition according to palaeontological and geochronological evidence. The Chancaní and Cerro Colorado-Caminiaga formations were sampled in their type localities, in the eastern Paganzo basin. All-reversed, pre-tectonic characteristic magnetizations were isolated in all three localities, spanning a wide lithological variation. Particularly in the Rincón Blanco syncline, the same reversed magnetization is observed in the entire 1500 m-thick sequence in volcanic and sedimentary rocks; at least part of the deformation there is thought to be Permian in age, related to the San Rafael orogenic phase (SROP). The palaeomagnetic poles are: Rincón Blanco (RB) Lat. 77°S, Long. 294°E, N= 19, A95= 4.9, K= 47; Chancaní (CH) Lat. 85°S, Long. 359°E, N= 3, A95= 8.8, K= 196; Cerro Colorado-Caminiaga (CC) Lat. 79°S, Long. 291°E, N= 6, A95= 8.0, K= 71. Neither of the poles is coincident with expected Late Carboniferous-Early Permian directions according to accepted apparent polar-wander paths (APWPs) from South America and from other plates forming Pangaea in Late Palaeozoic times. This discrepancy could be the result of: (i) polar wander affecting the western Gondwana margin, probably related to SROP; (ii) tectonic rotations related to strike-slip faults active in the area since the Palaeozoic and controlling the position of the main depocentres; (iii) incorrect age assignment for the sedimentary sequences or for the remanence acquisition, i.e. local remagnetizations. Tectonic rotations and local remagnetization have both been proven in particular localities and further work needs to be done to establish the Late Palaeozoic

  17. Advanced IR detector design at SCD: from D3C to ABCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, Ofer; Klipstein, Philip C.; Weiss, Eliezer

    2004-07-01

    Over the past 27 years, SCD has developed and manufactured more than 30 types of Infrared Detector, both with support from the Israeli MOD and in cooperation with institutions and companies such as the Technion, Soreq NRC, RICOR and RAFAEL. SCD's current production line includes Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT) devices with up to 480x6 elements operating in Time Delay and Integration (TDI) mode and InSb Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) with up to 640x512 elements, all available in various configurations including fully integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler (DDC) packages. Such DDCs have been designed to range from the very small to the very large. At one end the Piccolo DDC is a small, low weight and power detector, ideal for compact low cost imagers such as handheld IR cameras. At the other end, we manufacture a very long (2048x16) bi-directional TDI InSb detector designed for "whiskbroom scanning" systems. This device consists of four modules precisely butted on a single substrate, with each 512x16 module connected to a single signal processor. In 2003, SCD announced its new breakthrough Digital Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) technology: Digital DDC or D3C. This readout system, with excellent performance and increased flexibility is the first in a series of new imaging solutions that SCD is developing to meet future demands of noise and power reduction, combined with greater wavelength selectivity. To continue along this path we have also been developing our new ABCS (Antimonide Based Compound Semiconductor) technology, which we first reported in 2002. The ABCS program, combining SCD's existing strengths in InSb FPA systems with new concepts in bandgap engineering and smart structure design, is aimed at multispectral IR detectors operating at higher temperatures. This review discusses some of the key trends at SCD as described above. After surveying the performance of SCD's current InSb technology, SCD's evolution towards the next generations will be described, including the

  18. Brain 'imaging' in the Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Paluzzi, Alessandro; Belli, Antonio; Bain, Peter; Viva, Laura

    2007-12-01

    During the Renaissance, a period of 'rebirth' for humanities and science, new knowledge and speculation began to emerge about the function of the human body, replacing ancient religious and philosophical dogma. The brain must have been a fascinating mystery to a Renaissance artist, but some speculation existed at that time on the function of its parts. Here we show how revived interest in anatomy and life sciences may have influenced the figurative work of Italian and Flemish masters, such as Rafael, Michelangelo and David. We present a historical perspective on the artists and the period in which they lived, their fascination for human anatomy and its symbolic use in their art. Prior to the 16th century, knowledge of the brain was limited and influenced in a dogmatic way by the teachings of Galen(1) who, as we now know, conducted his anatomical studies not on humans but on animals.(2) Nemesus, Bishop of Emesa, in around the year 400 was one of the first to attribute mental faculties to the brain, specifically to the ventricles. He identified two anterior (lateral) ventricles, to which he assigned perception, a middle ventricle responsible for cognition and a posterior ventricle for memory.(2,3) After a long period of stasis in the Middle Ages, Renaissance scholars realized the importance of making direct observations on dissected cadavers. Between 1504 and 1507, Leonardo da Vinci conducted experiments to reveal the anatomy of the ventricular system in the brain. He injected hot wax through a tube thrust into the ventricular cavities of an ox and then scraped the overlying brain off, thus obtaining, in a simple but ingenious way, an accurate cast of the ventricles.(2,4) Leonardo shared the belief promoted by scholarly Christians that the ventricles were the abode of rational soul. We have several examples of hidden symbolism in Renaissance paintings, but the influence of phrenology and this rudimentary knowledge of neuroanatomy on artists of that period is under

  19. High Resolution Environmental Magnetic Study of a Holocene Sedimentary Record from Zaca Lake, Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzman, E. S.; Lund, S.; Kirby, M. E.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic studies of Holocene lake sediments recovered from Zaca lake have yielded a 3000-year high resolution record of environmental variability and paleolimnology. Zaca lake is a small oligomictic lake ~12m deep situated 730 m above sea level in the steep canyons of the San Rafael mountains, NW of Santa Barbara. Throughout much of the year Zaca lake is anaerobic below 7m. Hydrogen sulfide, fed into the lake via runoff and local sulphur springs, is present throughout the hypolimnion with concentrations sometime exceeding 30 mg/ l. During the summer months when the lake is stratified, light colored carbonate rich microlaminae are formed; and often during the winter months when the lake overturns, killing the anaerobic bacteria, black microlamina rich in iron sulfide are deposited on the lake floor, creating a stratigraphy reflecting patterns of environmental variability on annual to millennial scales. Samples for magnetic analysis were obtained from 8.5 m of core recovered from the central region of Zaca lake. Ages, constrained using radiocarbon chronostratigraphy, yielded sedimentation rates of 2-10 mm/yr with an average rate of 3 mm per yr over the 3000 yr interval. Parameters reflecting decadal scale variability in magnetic concentration (susceptibility, ARM, SIRM) and grainsize (ARM/Chi) were measured every 2 cm. Additional rock magnetic tests, including thermal demagnetization of three component IRM, were applied at selected intervals to constrain the magnetic mineralogy. These data were combined with analyses of clastic grain size, % calcium carbonate and % organics to create a multiproxy record of environmental variability. Results show that Zaca lake has had a complex depositional history. Anthropogenic effects associated with European colonization are present in the upper meters. Most notable, however, is a dramatic shift in the magnetic parameters and mineralogy between the upper and lower half of the core (circa 1300 ybp) indicating a shift in regime

  20. Having quality population.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    planning information and services. Public funds will be sought for population management and family planning. A National Plan of Action will be strictly followed over the next 6 years. The people are urged to follow the example of the national leader, the late Rafael Montinola Sales, who was awarded, posthumously, the Sikatuna Degree of Datu.

  1. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    analysis. Further members of the "Grupo de trabajo: Investigaciones aplicadas a la gestion integral del riesgo en espacios urbanos" are: Oscar Andrés López, Milgreya Cerrada, Rafael Torres, Oscar Ramírez, Elieser Sanzonetti, José Heredia, Jaime Avendaño, Fernando Mazuera, Luis Molina, Alexi Suárez, Víctor Rocabado, Mónica Paolini, Luis Yegres, Leonardo Alvarado, Herbert Rendón, Luz Rodríguez, Jorge González.

  2. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  3. In AppreciationThe Depth and Breadth of John Bell's Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiw, Roman; Shimony, Abner

    estimates for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (in collaboration with de Rafael). Section 4 concerns accelerations, starting at Harwell with the algebra of strong focusing and the stability of orbits in linear accelerators and synchrotrons. At CERN he continued to contribute to accelerator physics, and with his wife Mary Bell he wrote on electron cooling and Beamstrahlung. A spectacular late achievement in accelerator physics was the demonstration (in collaboration with Leinaas) that the effective black-body radiation seen by an accelerated observer in an electromagnetic vacuum - the ``Unruh effect''- had already been observed experimentally in the partial depolarization of electrons traversing circular orbits.

  4. Bathymetry of Patagonia glacier fjords and glacier ice thickness from high-resolution airborne gravity combined with other data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, L.; Rignot, E.; Rivera, A.; Bunetta, M.

    2012-12-01

    The North and South Patagonia Ice fields are the largest ice masses outside Antarctica in the Southern Hemisphere. During the period 1995-2000, these glaciers lost ice at a rate equivalent to a sea level rise of 0.105 ± 0.001 mm/yr. In more recent years, the glaciers have been thinning more quickly than can be explained by warmer air temperatures and decreased precipitation. A possible cause is an increase in flow speed due to enhanced ablation of the submerged glacier fronts. To understand the dynamics of these glaciers and how they change with time, it is critical to have a detailed view of their ice thickness, the depth of the glacier bed below sea or lake level, how far inland these glaciers remain below sea or lake level, and whether bumps or hollows in the bed may slow down or accelerate their retreat. A grid of free-air gravity data over the Patagonia Glaciers was collected in May 2012 and October 2012, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF) to measure ice thickness and sea floor bathymetry. This survey combines the Sander Geophysics Limited (SGL) AIRGrav system, SGL laser altimetry and Chilean CECS/UCI ANDREA-2 radar. To obtain high-resolution and high-precision gravity data, the helicopter operates at 50 knots (25.7 m/s) with a grid spacing of 400m and collects gravity data at sub mGal level (1 Gal =1 Galileo = 1 cm/s2) near glacier fronts. We use data from the May 2012 survey to derive preliminarily high-resolution, high-precision thickness estimates and bathymetry maps of Jorge Montt Glacier and San Rafael Glacier. Boat bathymetry data is used to optimize the inversion of gravity over water and radar-derived thickness over glacier ice. The bathymetry maps will provide a breakthrough in our knowledge of the ice fields and enable a new era of glacier modeling and understanding that is not possible at present because ice thickness is not known.

  5. Detrital and volcanic zircon U-Pb ages from southern Mendoza (Argentina): An insight on the source regions in the northern part of the Neuquén Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipauer, Maximiliano; Tapia, Felipe; Mescua, José; Farías, Marcelo; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    The infill of the Neuquén Basin recorded the Meso-Cenozoic geological and tectonic evolution of the southern Central Andes being an excellent site to investigate how the pattern of detrital zircon ages varies trough time. In this work we analyze the U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages from sedimentary and volcanic rocks related to synrift and retroarc stages of the northern part of the Neuquén Basin. These data define the crystallization age of the synrift volcanism at 223 ± 2 Ma (Cerro Negro Andesite) and the maximum depositional age of the original synrift sediments at ca. 204 Ma (El Freno Formation). Two different pulses of rifting could be recognized according to the absolute ages, the oldest developed during the Norian and the younger during the Rhaetian-Sinemurian. The source regions of the El Freno Formation show that the Choiyoi magmatic province was the main source rock of sediment supply. An important amount of detrital zircons with Triassic ages was identified and interpreted as a source area related to the synrift magmatism. The maximum depositional age calculated for the Tordillo Formation in the Atuel-La Valenciana depocenter is at ca. 149 Ma; as well as in other places of the Neuquén Basin, the U-Pb ages calculated in the Late Jurassic Tordillo Formation do not agree with the absolute age of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary (ca. 152 Ma). The main source region of sediment in the Tordillo Formation was the Andean magmatic arc. Basement regions were also present with age peaks at the Carboniferous, Neoproterozoic, and Mesoproterozoic; these regions were probably located to the east in the San Rafael Block. The pattern of zircon ages summarized for the Late Jurassic Tordillo and Lagunillas formations were interpreted as a record of the magmatic activity during the Triassic and Jurassic in the southern Central Andes. A waning of the magmatism is inferred to have happened during the Triassic. The evident lack of ages observed around ca. 200 Ma suggests

  6. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodell, John Michael; Chapman, David S.

    1982-04-01

    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m-2 but fall into the following distinct subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m-2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m-2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) and 88 mW m-2 (4 sites; s.d. 19) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m-2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow `thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m-2 compared to 80-90 mW m-2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of Tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15-20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago.

  7. Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gamundí, O. R.; Rossello, E. A.

    As integral parts of du Toit's (1927) ``Samfrau Geosyncline'', the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) share similar paleoclimatic, paleogeographic, and paleotectonic aspects related to the Late Paleozoic tectono-magmatic activity along the Panthalassan continental margin of Gondwanaland. Late Carboniferou-earliest Permian glacial deposits were deposited in the Sauce Grande (Sauce Grande Formation) and Karoo (Dwyka Formation) basins and Falkland-Malvinas Islands (Lafonia Formation) during an initial (sag) phase of extension. The pre-breakup position of the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands on the easternmost part of the Karoo basin (immediately east of the coast of South Africa) is supported by recent paleomagnetic data, lithofacies associations, paleoice flow directions and age similarities between the Dwyka and the Lafonia glacial sequences. The desintegration of the Gondwanan Ice Sheet (GIS) triggered widespread transgressions, reflected in the stratigraphic record by the presence of inter-basinally correlatable, open marine, fine-grained deposits (Piedra Azul Formation in the Sauce Grande basin, Prince Albert Formation in the Karoo basin and Port Sussex Formation in the Falkland Islands) capping glacial marine sediments. These early postglacial transgressive deposits, characterised by fossils of the Eurydesma fauna and Glossopteris flora, represent the maximum flooding of the basins. Cratonward foreland subsidence was triggered by the San Rafael orogeny (ca. 270 Ma) in Argentina and propogated along the Gondwanan margin. This subsidence phase generated sufficient space to accommodate thick synorogenic sequences derived from the orogenic flanks of the Sauce Grande and Karoo basins. Compositionally, the initial extensional phase of these basins was characterized by quartz-rich, craton-derived detritus and was followed by a compressional (foreland) phase characterized by a paleocurrent reversal and dominance of

  8. Low-Cost Cold-Gas RCS for the Sloshsat Small Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, S.; Warshavsky, A.; Peretz, A.

    2002-01-01

    Cold gas thrusters usually provide an inexpensive, highly reliable, low-power consuming, non contaminating, and safe auxiliary propulsion means for small spacecraft. A low-cost cold-gas Reaction Control System (RCS) has been designed and developed to provide linear acceleration and rotation control of the SLOSHSAT satellite for liquid-slosh experimentation. This ESA-sponsored mini-spacecraft will be launched by the Space Shuttle and ejected into space from its hitchhiker bay. The RCS was designed and developed according to man rated safety standards, as required by NASA. The RCS comprises four identical spherical carbon/epoxy-wound stainless steel tanks, which store 1.6 kg of nitrogen at 600 bars, corresponding to a maximum rated temperature of 70°C. The relatively high pressure enables economic utilization of the limited space available in small satellites. The tanks are of a "leak before burst" design, which was subjected to a comprehensive finite-element stress analysis. They were developed and tested in accordance with MIL-STD-1522A, with a proof pressure and a minimum burst pressure of 1000 and 1700 bars, respectively. Each tank has an internal volume of 0.97 l, and is equipped with an attached accessories assembly, that includes a pyrovalve and a filter. The RCS was supplied with the tanks prepressurized and sealed to 473 bars (at 20°C). The whole system is pressurized only after the satellite is in its orbit, by activating the tank's pyrovalve. This unique approach enables to supply a sealed RCS system and propellant loading activities are not necessary before launch. Additionally, this approach has safety advantages that were meaningful to meet the NASA safety requirements. The pyrovalve includes a RAFAEL-developed initiator, which complies with MIL-STD-1576, and passed all required testing, including ESD tests with the resistor removed, as demanded by NASA for approval. The pyrovalve is of a "self seal" design, which includes a sealing mechanism, that

  9. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    ller, Laura Beiras, Juan Contreras, Gabriel Torrente, Aimée Guerrero, Francisco Jose Blanco Tovar, and last but not least, my son Johann Puerta. Without their generous help and great effort, it would have been impossible for me to organize, reach all the goals and finally, successfully realize the workshop. We are also grateful for the financial support of CLAF (Centro Latino American de Fisica), Fonacit (Fondo Nacional de Ciencia Investigacion y Tecnología), IVIC (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificos), Fundacion Banco Mercantil, whose sponsorship and finnacial support were vital to the realization of the event. We would like to thank La Universidad del Zulia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Instituto Universitario de Tecnología, IDEA (Instituto de Estudios Avanzados), and Asociación de Amigos de la Universidad Simón Bolivar for their help and support in different ways for the good results we achieved in most of the meetings and the participation of their students who attend the Workshops. Finally we appreciate very much the Ministry for Science and Technology (Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Ciencia y la Tecnología) for their contribution to the workshops and to the publication process. We are under the impression that our meeting was successful, as we expected, and we are thankful for the collaboration of our Institution, and the close relation we had with all the physics researchers of Latin America and abroad (Europe, USA, Australia and Russia). Lastly, many thanks to the invited speakers for their lectures presented which have given a whole overview of the state of the art in different areas of the Physics of Plasma.

  10. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    all the speakers for delivering excellent lectures and seminars which made this event a success. We are grateful to all the participants for providing their write-ups in time, including the notes of the mini-courses, the review articles, the contributions stemming from the parallel talks and the summarized versions of the posters presented by students. In conclusion, we cannot resist the temptation to comment that to our utmost delight, the students participated very enthusiastically and we hope that this school will contribute considerably towards their academic development. The future of scientific endeavour always rests upon the students. Adnan Bashir (UMSNH, Morelia)Guillermo Contreras (CINVESTAV, Mérida)Alfredo Raya (UMSNH, Morelia)Maria Elena Tejeda-Yeomans (UNISON, Hermosillo) Group photograph  Participants photograph  Posters photograph Lecture photograph  Participants photograph  Meal photograph

  11. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    structure of such shocks for some time, previous observations have not been able to prove the theory.

    This new Hubble image used filters that only let through light from ionized hydrogen and nitrogen atoms. Astronomers were able to distinguish the warmest parts of the gas heated by the violent shocks and found that they form a complex double-bubble shape. The bright yellow-orange colors in the picture show how dense, high-speed gas is flowing from the star, like supersonic speeding bullets ripping through a medium in opposite directions. The central star itself is hidden in the dusty band at the center.

    Much of the gas flow observed today seems to stem from a sudden acceleration that took place only about 800 years ago. The astronomers believe that 1,000 years from now, the Calabash Nebula will become a fully developed planetary nebula, like a butterfly emerging from its cocoon.

    The Calabash Nebula is 1.4 light years (more than 8 trillion miles) long and located some 5,000 light years (2,900 trillion miles) from Earth in the constellation Puppis.

    The image was taken in December 2000 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The image was originally released by the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre, with a website at http://sci.esa.int/hubble. Additional information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at http://www.stsci.edu . More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov .

    Other scientists on the team include Valentin Bujarrabal and Javier Alcolea of Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Spain, and Carmen Sanchez Contreras of JPL.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for Hubble for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of

  12. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is a basaltic volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Volcanism is induced by the convergence of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate, along a 1200-km arc, extending from Guatemala to Costa Rica and parallel to the Central American Trench. The volcano is located in the eastern part of El Salvador, in proximity to the large communities of San Miguel, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. Approximately 70,000 residents, mostly farmers, live around the crater and the city of San Miguel, the second largest city of El Salvador, ten km from the summit, has a population of ~180,000 inhabitants. The Pan-American and Coastal highways cross the north and south flanks of the volcano.San Miguel volcano has produced modest eruptions, with at least 28 VEI 1-2 events between 1699 and 1967 (datafrom Smithsonian Institution http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=343100). It is characterized by visible milddegassing from a summit vent and fumarole field, and by intermittent lava flows and Strombolian activity. Since the last vigorous fire fountaining of 1976, San Miguel has only experienced small steam explosions and gas emissions, minor ash fall and rock avalanches. On 29 December 2013 the volcano erupted producing an eruption that has been classified as VEI 2. While eruptions tend to be low-VEI, the presence of major routes and the dense population in the surrounding of the volcano increases the risk that weak explosions with gas and/or ash emission may pose. In this study, we present the first inventory of SO2, CO2, HCl, and HF emission rates on San Miguel volcano, and an analysis of the hazard from volcanogenic SO2 discharged before, during, and after the December 2013 eruption. SO2 was chosen as it is amongst the most critical volcanogenic pollutants, which may cause acute and chronicle disease to humans. Data were gathered by the geochemical monitoring network managed by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

  13. Modeling magnetic fields from a DC power cable buried beneath San Francisco Bay based on empirical measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Kavet, Robert; Wyman, Megan T.; Klimley, A. Peter; Carretero, Luis

    2016-02-25

    Here, the Trans Bay Cable (TBC) is a ±200-kilovolt (kV), 400 MW 85-km long High Voltage Direct Current (DC) buried transmission line linking Pittsburg, CA with San Francisco, CA (SF) beneath the San Francisco Estuary. The TBC runs parallel to the migratory route of various marine species, including green sturgeon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. In July and August 2014, an extensive series of magnetic field measurements were taken using a pair of submerged Geometrics magnetometers towed behind a survey vessel in four locations in the San Francisco estuary along profiles that cross the cable’s path; these included the Sanmore » Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (BB), the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge (RSR), the Benicia- Martinez Bridge (Ben) and an area in San Pablo Bay (SP) in which a bridge is not present. In this paper, we apply basic formulas that ideally describe the magnetic field from a DC cable summed vectorially with the background geomagnetic field (in the absence of other sources that would perturb the ambient field) to derive characteristics of the cable that are otherwise not immediately observable. Magnetic field profiles from measurements taken along 170 survey lines were inspected visually for evidence of a distinct pattern representing the presence of the cable. Many profiles were dominated by field distortions unrelated to the cable caused by bridge structures or other submerged objects, and the cable’s contribution to the field was not detectable. BB, with 40 of the survey lines, did not yield usable data for these reasons. The unrelated anomalies could be up to 100 times greater than those from the cable. In total, discernible magnetic field profiles measured from 76 survey lines were regressed against the equations, representing eight days of measurement. The modeled field anomalies due to the cable (the difference between the maximum and minimum field along the survey line at the cable crossing) were virtually identical to the measured

  14. Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kavet, Robert; Wyman, Megan T.; Klimley, A. Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Trans Bay Cable (TBC) is a ±200-kilovolt (kV), 400 MW 85-km long High Voltage Direct Current (DC) buried transmission line linking Pittsburg, CA with San Francisco, CA (SF) beneath the San Francisco Estuary. The TBC runs parallel to the migratory route of various marine species, including green sturgeon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. In July and August 2014, an extensive series of magnetic field measurements were taken using a pair of submerged Geometrics magnetometers towed behind a survey vessel in four locations in the San Francisco estuary along profiles that cross the cable’s path; these included the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (BB), the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge (RSR), the Benicia-Martinez Bridge (Ben) and an area in San Pablo Bay (SP) in which a bridge is not present. In this paper, we apply basic formulas that ideally describe the magnetic field from a DC cable summed vectorially with the background geomagnetic field (in the absence of other sources that would perturb the ambient field) to derive characteristics of the cable that are otherwise not immediately observable. Magnetic field profiles from measurements taken along 170 survey lines were inspected visually for evidence of a distinct pattern representing the presence of the cable. Many profiles were dominated by field distortions unrelated to the cable caused by bridge structures or other submerged objects, and the cable’s contribution to the field was not detectable. BB, with 40 of the survey lines, did not yield usable data for these reasons. The unrelated anomalies could be up to 100 times greater than those from the cable. In total, discernible magnetic field profiles measured from 76 survey lines were regressed against the equations, representing eight days of measurement. The modeled field anomalies due to the cable (the difference between the maximum and minimum field along the survey line at the cable crossing) were virtually identical to the measured values. The

  15. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    Doetinchem, H Gast, T Kirn and S Schael Axion searches with helioscopes and astrophysical signatures for axion(-like) particles K Zioutas, M Tsagri, Y Semertzidis, T Papaevangelou, T Dafni and V Anastassopoulos The indirect search for dark matter with IceCube Francis Halzen and Dan Hooper DIRECT DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS Gaseous dark matter detectors G Sciolla and C J Martoff Search for dark matter with CRESST Rafael F Lang and Wolfgang Seidel DIRECT AND INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:THEORY Dark matter annihilation around intermediate mass black holes: an update Gianfranco Bertone, Mattia Fornasa, Marco Taoso and Andrew R Zentner Update on the direct detection of dark matter in MSSM models with non-universal Higgs masses John Ellis, Keith A Olive and Pearl Sandick Dark stars: a new study of the first stars in the Universe Katherine Freese, Peter Bodenheimer, Paolo Gondolo and Douglas Spolyar Determining the mass of dark matter particles with direct detection experiments Chung-Lin Shan The detection of subsolar mass dark matter halos Savvas M Koushiappas Neutrino coherent scattering rates at direct dark matter detectors Louis E Strigari Gamma rays from dark matter annihilation in the central region of the Galaxy Pasquale Dario Serpico and Dan Hooper DARK MATTER MODELS The dark matter interpretation of the 511 keV line Céline Boehm Axions as dark matter particles Leanne D Duffy and Karl van Bibber Sterile neutrinos Alexander Kusenko Dark matter candidates Lars Bergström Minimal dark matter: model and results Marco Cirelli and Alessandro Strumia Shedding light on the dark sector with direct WIMP production Partha Konar, Kyoungchul Kong, Konstantin T Matchev and Maxim Perelstein Axinos as dark matter particles Laura Covi and Jihn E Kim

  17. Stratigraphy of the Morrison and related formations, Colorado Plateau region, a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Lawrence C.; ,

    1955-01-01

    Three subdivisions of the Jurassic rocks of the Colorado Plateau region are: the Glen Canyon group, mainly eolian and fluvial sedimentary rocks; the San Rafael group, marine and marginal marine sedimentary rocks; and the Morrison formation, fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. In central and eastern Colorado the Morrison formation has not been differ- entiated into members. In eastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and in part of western Colorado, the Morrison may be divided into a lower part and an upper part; each part has two members which are di1Ierentiated on a lithologic basis. Where differentiated, the lower part of the Morrison consists either of the Salt Wash member or the Recapture member or both; these are equivalent in age and inter tongue and intergrade over a broad area in the vicinity of the Four Corners area of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah. The Salt Wash member is present in eastern Utah and parts of western Colorado, north- eastern Arizona, and northwestern New Mexico. It was formed as a large alluvial plain or 'fan' by an aggrading system of braided streams diverging to the north and east from an apex in south-central Utah. The major source area of the Salt Wash was to the southwest of south-central Utah, probably in west-central Arizona and southeastern California. The member was derived mainly from sedimentary rocks. The Salt Wash deposits grade from predomi- nantly coarse texture at the apex of the 'fan' to predominantly flne texture at the margin of the 'fan'. The Salt Wash member has been arbitrarily divided into four facies: a con- glomera tic sandstone facies, a sandstone and mudstone facies, a claystone and lenticular sandstone facies, and a claystone and limestone facies. The Recapture member of the Morrison formation is present in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and small areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado near the Four Corners. It was formed as a large alluvial plain

  18. PREFACE: Special issue: Proceedings of the Joint 19th AIRAPT and 41st EHPRG International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (Bordeaux, 7--11 July 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demazeau, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    This volume is the outcome of a three-day meeting held 7-10 August, 2004 in St Adèle, Québec honouring Michael F Thorpe, Foundation Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Biophysics at Arizona State University. Michael Thorpe has made many important contributions to condensed matter physics, broadly defined. From the famous Weaire and Thorpe Hamiltonian in 1971 [1] to rigidity percolation theory [2] and flexibility in proteins [3], he has always provided highly original solutions to difficult problems. He has also demonstrated an uncommon gift for selecting and solving problems of remarkably broad significance (for example, rigidity theory is now a powerful tool in glasses, microelectronics and proteins). Throughout his career, Mike has also made a point of establishing contact with scientists from all disciplines and origins, organizing tens of conferences and maintaining a very active visitor's program both at Michigan State University, where he spent 25 years, and, now, at Arizona State University, where he moved a year ago. It is therefore not surprising that the participants, all with scientific or personal links with Mike, usually both, came from Europe, Asia and North America to celebrate the 60th birthday of an eminent physicist and friend. Reflecting the impact of Mike's work across the traditional scientific boundaries, the meeting included contributions ranging from studies of concrete by Ed Garboczi (NIST), a hybrid VCA/CPA treatment of the Hubbard model presented by Sir Roger Elliott (Oxford) to the assembly process of viral capsids by Brandon Hespenheide (ASU). Especially memorable talks were given by Rafael Barrio (with his photogenic striped imperial fish), Alex Kolobov (presenting impressive scientific results using equally impressive computer graphics), and Dick Zallen, for a remarkably good `roast' of the honoree and work with his daughter (a molecular biologist) on biophysics. The meeting had an unusual warmth befitting the birthday celebration

  19. Satellite gravity field derivatives for identifying geological boundaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, O.; Gimenez, M.; Braitenberg, C.; Folguera, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Pampean flat slab zone developed in the last 17 Ma between 27° and 33°S, and has denuded an intricate collage of crustal blocks amalgamated during the Pampean, Famatinian and San Rafael deformational stages, that is far of being completely understood. For potential field studies these amalgamations have the effect of defining important compositional and density heterogeneities. Geophysical data from different studies show a sharp boundary between the two adjacent and contrasting crusts of Pampia and the Cuyania terrane. Recent aeromagnetic surveys have inferred a mafic and ultramafic belt interpreted as a buried ophiolitic suite hosted in the corresponding suture. This boundary coincides locally with basement exposures of high to medium grade metamorphic rocks developed in close association with the Famatinian orogen of Early to Middle Ordovician age. Lower crustal rocks are exposed along this first order crustal discontinuity. The Río de la Plata basement crops out from southern Uruguay to eastern-center Argentina with an approximate surface of 20,000 km2. Oldest rocks have been dated in 2,200 and 1,700 Ma, indicating that they constituted a different block to Pampia. The boundary between Pampia and the Rio de la Plata craton is not exposed. However, a strong gravimetric anomaly identified in the central part of the foothills of the Sierras de Córdoba indicates a first order crustal discontinuity that has been related to their collision in Neoproterozoic times. This work focuses on the determination of mass heterogeneities over the Pampean flat slab zone using gravity anomaly and vertical gravity gradient, with the aim to determine discontinuities in the pattern of terrain amalgamation that conformed the basement. Satellite gravimetry is highly sensitive to these variations. Recent satellite missions, (CHAMP, GRACE, and GOCE) have introduced an extraordinary improvement in the global mapping of the gravity field. We control the quality of the terrestrial

  20. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  1. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  2. Performance of Zinc Anodes for Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Collins, W. Keith; Laylor, Martin H.; Cryer, Curtis B.

    2002-03-01

    Operation of thermal spray zinc (Zn) anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete structures was investigated in laboratory and field studies conducted by the Albany Research Center (ARC) in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation. The purposes of the research presented in this report were: evaluate the need for preheating concrete to improve the adhesion of the anode; estimate the service life of thermal spray Zn CP anodes; determine the optimum thickness for Zn CP anodes; characterize the anode-concrete interfacial chemistry; and correlate field and laboratory results. Laboratory studies involved accelerated electrochemical aging of thermal sprayed Zn anodes on concrete slabs, some of which were periodically wetted while others were unwetted. Concrete used in the slabs contained either 1.2 or 3 kg NaCl /m3 (2 or 5 lbs NaCl /yd3) as part of the concrete mix design. The Zn anodes were applied to the slabs using the twin wire arc-spray technique. Half of the slabs were preheated to 120-160 C (250-320 F) to improve the initial Zn anode bond strength and the other half were not. Accelerated aging was done at a current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3 mA/ft2), 15 times that used on Oregon DOT Coastal bridges, i.e, . 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) Cores from the Cape Creek Bridge (OR), the Richmond San Rafael Bridge (CA), and the East Camino Underpass (CA) were used to study the anode-concrete interfacial chemistry, to relate the chemistry to electrochemical age at the time of sampling, and to compare the chemistry of the field anodes to the chemistry of anodes from the laboratory studies. Cores from a CALTRANS study of a silane sealant used prior to the application of the Zn anodes and cores with galvanized rebar from the Longbird Bridge (Bermuda) were also studied. Aged laboratory and field anodes were characterized by measuring some or all of the following parameters: thickness, bond strength, anode-concrete interfacial chemistry, bulk chemistry

  3. Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kavet, Robert; Wyman, Megan T; Klimley, A Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Trans Bay Cable (TBC) is a ±200-kilovolt (kV), 400 MW 85-km long High Voltage Direct Current (DC) buried transmission line linking Pittsburg, CA with San Francisco, CA (SF) beneath the San Francisco Estuary. The TBC runs parallel to the migratory route of various marine species, including green sturgeon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. In July and August 2014, an extensive series of magnetic field measurements were taken using a pair of submerged Geometrics magnetometers towed behind a survey vessel in four locations in the San Francisco estuary along profiles that cross the cable's path; these included the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (BB), the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge (RSR), the Benicia-Martinez Bridge (Ben) and an area in San Pablo Bay (SP) in which a bridge is not present. In this paper, we apply basic formulas that ideally describe the magnetic field from a DC cable summed vectorially with the background geomagnetic field (in the absence of other sources that would perturb the ambient field) to derive characteristics of the cable that are otherwise not immediately observable. Magnetic field profiles from measurements taken along 170 survey lines were inspected visually for evidence of a distinct pattern representing the presence of the cable. Many profiles were dominated by field distortions unrelated to the cable caused by bridge structures or other submerged objects, and the cable's contribution to the field was not detectable. BB, with 40 of the survey lines, did not yield usable data for these reasons. The unrelated anomalies could be up to 100 times greater than those from the cable. In total, discernible magnetic field profiles measured from 76 survey lines were regressed against the equations, representing eight days of measurement. The modeled field anomalies due to the cable (the difference between the maximum and minimum field along the survey line at the cable crossing) were virtually identical to the measured values. The modeling

  4. Ground penetrating radar data analyzed in frequency and time domain for engineering issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Giampaolo, Valeria; Votta, Mario; Rizzo, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    spectrum that allows a supplementary help to complete the information extracted in time-domain (dos Santos et al., 2014). The signal processing technique is based on a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) that allows analyzing in frequency domain variations due to presence of anomalous bodies of different materials in the concrete and in the sand. Furthermore the data obtained in situ are compared with data extracted by theoretical simulation of e-m signal propagation built in Reflex-w software. There is a good agreement between simulated data and real data both in frequency domain both in time domain. So we have verified that frequency analysis can be adopted such as a useful tools to increase and complete information achieved in traditional way. Bibliography James S. Mellett (1995). Ground penetrating radar applications in engineering, environmental Management, and geology. Journal of Applied Geophysics. V. 33, Issues 1-3, January 1995, Pages 157-166 Proto, M.; Bavusi, M.; Bernini, R.; Bigagli, L.; Bost, M.; Bourquin, F.; Cottineau, L.-M.; Cuomo, V.; Vecchia, P.D.; Dolce, M.; Dumoulin, J.; Eppelbaum, L.; Fornaro, G.; Gustafsson, M.; Hugenschimdt, J.; Kaspersen, P.; Kim, H.; Lapenna, V.; Leggio, M.; Loperte, A.; Mazzetti, P.; Moroni, C.; Nativi, S.; Nordebo, S.; Pacini, F.; Palombo, A.; Pascucci, S.; Perrone, A.; Pignatti, S.; Ponzo, F.C.; Rizzo, E.; Soldovieri, F.; Taillade, F. Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project. Sensors 2010, 10, 10620-10639 Vinicius Rafael N. dos Santos, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Jorge Luís Porsani, Nina S. Tomita Hirata, Hamzah S. Alzubi (2014). Spectral analysis of ground penetrating radar signals in concrete, metallic and plastic targets. Journal of Applied Geophysics, V.100, January 2014, Pages 32-43

  5. Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kavet, Robert; Wyman, Megan T; Klimley, A Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Trans Bay Cable (TBC) is a ±200-kilovolt (kV), 400 MW 85-km long High Voltage Direct Current (DC) buried transmission line linking Pittsburg, CA with San Francisco, CA (SF) beneath the San Francisco Estuary. The TBC runs parallel to the migratory route of various marine species, including green sturgeon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. In July and August 2014, an extensive series of magnetic field measurements were taken using a pair of submerged Geometrics magnetometers towed behind a survey vessel in four locations in the San Francisco estuary along profiles that cross the cable's path; these included the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (BB), the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge (RSR), the Benicia-Martinez Bridge (Ben) and an area in San Pablo Bay (SP) in which a bridge is not present. In this paper, we apply basic formulas that ideally describe the magnetic field from a DC cable summed vectorially with the background geomagnetic field (in the absence of other sources that would perturb the ambient field) to derive characteristics of the cable that are otherwise not immediately observable. Magnetic field profiles from measurements taken along 170 survey lines were inspected visually for evidence of a distinct pattern representing the presence of the cable. Many profiles were dominated by field distortions unrelated to the cable caused by bridge structures or other submerged objects, and the cable's contribution to the field was not detectable. BB, with 40 of the survey lines, did not yield usable data for these reasons. The unrelated anomalies could be up to 100 times greater than those from the cable. In total, discernible magnetic field profiles measured from 76 survey lines were regressed against the equations, representing eight days of measurement. The modeled field anomalies due to the cable (the difference between the maximum and minimum field along the survey line at the cable crossing) were virtually identical to the measured values. The modeling

  6. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    ; there is an honorarium of 1500 plus expenses.

    Welch Award

    Roger D. Kornberg, a professor of structural biology at the Stanford University School of Medicine, received the 2001 Welch Award for his discovery of the nucleosome and establishing its role in gene regulation; for his discovery of a giant complex of 20 proteins known as the "Mediator", which regulates the transcription process; and for determining the atomic structure of RNA polymerase II. The 300,000 award salutes Kornberg's lifetime contributions to biochemistry.

    NSTA Teacher Awards

    During its 2001 national convention the National Science Teachers Association presented prizes and awards to teachers for their exemplary teaching practices and commitment to quality science education. Many appear below.
    Distinguished Service to Science Education Award
    • JoAnne Vasquez, Science Consultant, Gilbert, AZ
    • Richard F. Duncan, Beaverton Administrative Center, Beaverton, OR
    • Mitchell E. Batoff, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ
    Distinguished Informal Science Education Award
    • Al Stenstrup, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI
    Ciba Specialty Chemicals Education Foundation Exemplary Science Teaching Award, High School Level
    • Gerald Friday, Marquette High School, Milwaukee, WI
    Gustav Ohaus Innovations in Science Teaching, High School
    • Mark Stefanski, Marin Academy, San Rafael, CA (first place)
    • James A. Szoka, Clarke County Hi

    • PREFACE: Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fraga, Eduardo; Kodama, Takeshi; Padula, Sandra; Takahashi, Jun

      2010-09-01

      by participants who often came from far away. (One presentation by the NA57 Collaboration is not included in these proceedings because it was recently published in this journal (2010 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 37 045105) and may be accessed online. Other important contributions came from the unsung heroes who supported the organization of the meeting, to whom we would like to express our gratitude, in the name of the local organizing committee. In particular, the assistance from David Chinellato, Bruno Mintz, Philipe Mota, Leticia Palhares and Rafael de Souza is deeply acknowledged. We also wish to thank Cristina Coelho, Ana Lucia Moraes and Zelia Quadros for secretarial work, and the company META Events for administrative help. Last, but not least, we deeply acknowledge the editorial team of Journal of Physics G for their efficient and excellent work. The organization of the event was supported by CNPq, FAPERJ, PRONEX, RENAFAE/CBPF, Banco do Brasil, FAPESP and IOP Publishing.

    • Measurement of Turbulent Water Vapor Fluxes from Lightweight Unmanned Aircraft Systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Thomas, R. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Lehmann*, K.

      2010-12-01

      wind tunnel investigations and the outcomes from test flights planned for September 2010 at a marine location are discussed. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the significant contributions to this system made by the late Katrin Lehmann whose life was tragically cut short by a hiking accident. Katrin was responsible for the initial design, construction and programming of the UAS elements, and in doing so laid solid foundations for the system. We are indebted to NOAA, for funding this project through the research grant NOAA NA17RJ1231. Thank you also to Mike Marston of NASA, the BAE systems crew Phillip Corcoran and Rafael Gaytan, and Mike Rizen of UCSD Physics workshop for their mission roles. We would also like to thank NSF for long term support of the C4 UAS Program.

    • Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Colorado River basin

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Timothy S.; Echols, Kathy R.; Davis, Anne P.; May, Tom W.; Orazio, Carl E.; Coyle, James J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

      2006-01-01

      Seven fish species were collected from 14 sites on rivers in the Colorado River Basin (CDRB) from August to October 2003. Spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants were documented and contaminant effects on the fish were assessed. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Colorado River and on the Yampa, Green, Gunnison, San Juan, and Gila Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using performance-based and instrumental methods. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) was measured using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations were elevated throughout the CDRB, and pesticides concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 ?g/g ww) at all sites except from the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 ?g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 ?g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 ?g/g ww). Concentrations of other banned pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds

    • Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gross, T.S.; May, T.W.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

      2007-01-01

      Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (> 1.0????g/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (> 0.1????g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (> 1.0????g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (> 0.5????g/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, ??-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; > 0.11????g/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (> 5??pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites showed

    • EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Löwen, Hartmut

      2012-11-01

      , Chatterji A, Winkler R G, Gompper G 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464103 [7]Laurati M et al 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464104 [8]Harrer C J, Winter D, Horbach J, Fuchs M and Voigtmann T 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464105 [9]De Puit R J and Squires T M 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464106 [10]De Puit R J and Squires T M 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464107 [11]Contreras-Aburto C and Nägele G 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464108 [12]Palberg T, Köller T, Sieber B, Schweinfurth H, Reiber H and Nägele G 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464109 [13]Papadopoulos P, Deng X and Vollmer D 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464110 [14]Schmitz R and Dünweg B 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464111 [15]Zhou J and Schmid F 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464112 [16]Smallenburg F, Vutukuri H R, Imhof A, van Blaaderen A and Dijkstra M 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464113 [17]Vissers T, Wysocki A, Rex M, Löwen H, Royall C P, Imhof A and van Blaaderen A 2011 Soft Matter 7 2352 [18]Glanz T and Löwen H 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464114 [19]Kohl M, Ivlev A, Brand P, Morfill G E and Löwen H 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464115 [20]Hanes R D L and Egelhaaf S U 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464116 [21]Mazilu M, Rudhall A, Wright E M and Dholakia K 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464117 [22]Dillmann P, Maret G and Keim P 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464118 [23]Wilms D et al 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464119 [24]Kreuter C, Siems U, Henseler P, Nielaba P, Leiderer P and Erbe A 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464120 [25]Malijevsky A and Jackson G 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464121 [26]Statt A, Winkler A, Virnau P and Binder K 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464122 [27]Oğuz E C, Löwen H, Reinmüller A, Schöpe H J, Palberg T and Messina R 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464123 [28]Oettel M 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464124 [29]Zeng Y and van Klitzing R 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464125 [30]Bonilla-Capilla B, Ramirez-Saito A

    • GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research repository

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chemin, Yann; Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Zambelli, Pietro; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter; Di Leo, Margherita

      2015-04-01

      , Y. H. , 2014. Remote Sensing Raster Programming, 3rd Ed., Lulu (Eds). [5] Di Leo, M., de Rigo, D., Rodriguez-Aseretto, D., Bosco, C., Petroliagkis, T., Camia, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2013. Dynamic data driven ensemble for wildfire behaviour assessment: A case study. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 413, pp. 11-22, 2013, ISSN:1868-4238. Special issue: "Environmental Software Systems. Fostering sharing information". [6] García, M., Villagarcía, L., Contreras, S., Domingo, F. & Puigdefábregas, J. (2007). Comparison of three operative models for estimating the surface water deficit using aster reflective and thermal data, Sensors 7(6): 860-883. [7] Gao, Y. & Long, D. ,2008. Intercomparison of remote sensing-based models for estimation of evapotranspiration and accuracy assessment based on swat, Hydrological Processes 22: 4850-4869. [8] GRASS GIS Trac, changelog for v.surf.rst, 2015. http://trac.osgeo.org/grass/ [9] GRASS GIS Trac, changelog for r.li, 2015. http://trac.osgeo.org/grass/ [10] McGarigal, K., and B. J. Marks. 1995. FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-351 [11] Mitas, L., and Mitasova H., 1988, General variational approach to the approximation problem, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, v.16, p. 983-992. [12] Mitas, L., and Mitasova, H., 1998, Distributed soil erosion simulation for effective erosion prevention. Water Resources Research, 34(3), 505-516. [13] Mitasova, H. and Mitas, L., 1993: Interpolation by Regularized Spline with Tension: I. Theory and Implementation, Mathematical Geology, 25, 641-655. [14] North Carolina State University, Geospatial Modeling Course, GIS/MEA582, 2015. http://courses.ncsu.edu/ [15] Petras, V., Gebbert, S., 2014. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing. Poster presented at: AGU Fall Meeting, December 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, USA. [16] Petrasova, A

    • EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments FOCUS ON QUANTUM DISSIPATION IN UNCONVENTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Grifoni, Milena; Paladino, Elisabetta

      2008-11-01

      'unconventional' questions were still open on the standard harmonic oscillator and spin baths. This includes both fundamental issues, such as the possibility of estimating the specific heat for a free particle in the presence of dissipation, and the development of methods suitable to dealing with long range correlations at zero temperature and with quantum chaotic environments. We believe that the present focus issue on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments, although certainly not exhaustive, provides an important open-access resource that presents the latest state of the art of research in this field along its different lines. Focus on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments Contents Dephasing by electron-electron interactions in a ballistic Mach-Zehnder interferometer Clemens Neuenhahn and Florian Marquardt Quantum frustration of dissipation by a spin bath D D Bhaktavatsala Rao, Heiner Kohler and Fernando Sols A random matrix theory of decoherence T Gorin, C Pineda, H Kohler and T H Seligman Dissipative dynamics of a biased qubit coupled to a harmonic oscillator: analytical results beyond the rotating wave approximation Johannes Hausinger and Milena Grifoni Dissipative dynamics of a two-level system resonantly coupled to a harmonic mode Frederico Brito and Amir O Caldeira Spin correlations in spin blockade Rafael Sánchez, Sigmund Kohler and Gloria Platero Landau-Zener tunnelling in dissipative circuit QED David Zueco, Peter Hänggi and Sigmund Kohler Quantum oscillations in the spin-boson model: reduced visibility from non-Markovian effects and initial entanglement F K Wilhelm Dynamics of dissipative coupled spins: decoherence, relaxation and effects of a spin-boson bath P Nägele, G Campagnano and U Weiss Spin chain model for correlated quantum channels Davide Rossini, Vittorio Giovannetti and Simone Montangero Finite quantum dissipation: the challenge of obtaining specific heat Peter Hänggi, Gert-Ludwig Ingold and Peter Talkner Dynamics of large

    • Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

      2010-01-01

      dominantly by sand- to coarse sand-sized sediment. Sandy areas also include Raccoon Strait, off Point Tiburon, and on the subtidal Alcatraz, Point Knox, and Presidio Shoals. Drab-colored silty clays are the dominant sediment observed in gravity cores from central bay. Their dominance along the length of the core suggests that silty clays have been deposited consistently over much of this subembayment for the time period covered by the recovered sediments (Woodrow and others, this report). Stratification types include weakly-defined laminae, 1-3 mm thick. Few examples of horizontal lamination in very fine sand or silt were observed. Cross lamination, including ripples, was observed in seven cores. Erosional surfaces were evident in almost every core where x-radiographs were available (they are very difficult to observe visually). Minor cut-and-fill structures also were noted in three cores and inclined strata were observed in three cores. Textural patterns in central bay indicate that silts and clays dominate the shallow water areas and margins of the bay. Sand dominates the tidal channel just east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands and to the west of the islands to the Golden Gate. The pattern of sand-sized sediment, as determined by particle-size analysis, suggests that sand movement is easterly from the west-central part of the bay. A second pattern of sand movement is to the south from the southwestern extremity of San Pablo Bay (boundary approximated by the location of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge). Age dates for central bay sediment samples were obtained by carbon-14 radiometric age dating. Age dates were determined from shell material that was interpreted to be largely in-place (not transported). Age dates subsequently were reservoir corrected and then converted to calendar years. Sediments sampled from central bay cores range in age from 330 to 4,155 years before present. Foraminiferal distribution in the San Francisco Bay estuary is fairly well

    • Exoplanets Clue to Sun's Curious Chemistry

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      2009-11-01

      . "Like our Sun, these stars have been very efficient at destroying the lithium they inherited at birth," says team member Nuno Santos. "Using our unique, large sample, we can also prove that the reason for this lithium reduction is not related to any other property of the star, such as its age." Unlike most other elements lighter than iron, the light nuclei of lithium, beryllium and boron are not produced in significant amounts in stars. Instead, it is thought that lithium, composed of just three protons and four neutrons, was mainly produced just after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago. Most stars will thus have the same amount of lithium, unless this element has been destroyed inside the star. This result also provides the astronomers with a new, cost-effective way to search for planetary systems: by checking the amount of lithium present in a star astronomers can decide which stars are worthy of further significant observing efforts. Now that a link between the presence of planets and curiously low levels of lithium has been established, the physical mechanism behind it has to be investigated. "There are several ways in which a planet can disturb the internal motions of matter in its host star, thereby rearrange the distribution of the various chemical elements and possibly cause the destruction of lithium. It is now up to the theoreticians to figure out which one is the most likely to happen," concludes Mayor. More information This research was presented in a paper that appears in the 12 November 2009 issue of Nature (Enhanced lithium depletion in Sun-like stars with orbiting planets, by G. Israelian et al.). The team is composed of Garik Israelian, Elisa Delgado Mena, Carolina Domínguez Cerdeña, and Rafael Rebolo (Instituto de Astrofisíca de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain), Nuno Santos and Sergio Sousa (Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade de Porto, Portugal), Michel Mayor and Stéphane Udry (Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland), and Sofia Randich (INAF

    • News and Announcements

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      1999-02-01

      Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, via email at infofell@nas.edu, or at http://fellowships.nas.edu. 1998 Pre-Doctoral Fellows Rafael Alcala, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Chemical Engineering Diego J. Díaz, Cornell University, Analytical Chemistry Kanya Lynn Henderson, Colorado State University, Biochemistry Félix Mario Rivas, State University of New York, Buffalo, Organic Chemistry 1998 Dissertation Fellows Kristala Lanett Jones, Arizona State University, Chemical Engineering 1998 Postdoctoral Fellows Edgardo Tabión Farinas, Yale University, Interdisciplinary Chemistry Data Base of Online Courses TeleEducation NB, a province-wide distributed distance learning network in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, has implemented an international online course database of more than 9,000 courses. The database includes public and private courses at all levels from more than 15 countries and includes only those courses that can be completed fully online. Courses vary from graduate-level engineering offerings to simple "How to" courses. The database provides access to courses and programs leading to accredited degrees, diplomas, and certificates. Professional development and personal interest courses are also included. Students can access course information by browsing subject areas or by searching specific fields. Hotlinks connect students directly to the delivering institutions. In the past year, there has been an exponential rise in the number of courses being offered online, from fewer than 2,000 in January 1998 to more than 10,000 in December 1998. It is expected that there will be more than 40,000 online courses by the year 2000. The TeleCampus Online Course Database provides students with a means of finding information on courses that meet their needs. The database can be accessed from TeleCampus at http://telecampus.edu. Change in the Introductory Chemistry Course, an Online Course An online conference, Proposals for Change in the

    • DOE Chair of Excellence in Environmental Disciplines-Final Technical Report

      SciTech Connect

      Kurunganty, Sastry; Loran, Roberto; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando; Hijazi, Yazan; Nieto, Santander; Gomez, Will A.; Duconge, Jose; Cotto, María del C.; Muniz, Carlos; Diaz, Francisco J.; Neira, Carlos F.; Marquez, Francisco; Del Valle, W.; Thommes, M.

      2014-02-19

      Characterization of low Refractive Index Aerogel Silica for Cherenkov Counters- Dr. Rolando Roque-Malherbe Sub-project PI, Dr. Jose Duconge Sub-project Co-PI, Dr. Santander Nieto Assistant Researcher, Francisco Diaz and Carlos Neira Associate Researchers. The initial aim of this sub-project was changed to the synthesis and characterization of extremely high specific surface area aerogel silica for gas storage. A high specific surface area silica gel that has applications in gas drying, cleaning operation useful in nuclear industry in process was developed. Sub-Project 2: Investigation Study of Magnetic and Electronic Transport Properties at Material Interfaces in Magnetic Multilayer Heterostructure using Gd. – Dr. Yazan Hijazi, Sub-project Co-PI. UT developed the capability and infrastructure to produce high quality thin-film magnetic films and magnetic multilayer structures with fine control over film quality and thickness using sputter deposition capability to perform in-house electric and magnetic characterization of these films. The research experimentally quantified the effect of Gd incorporation within the magnetic multilayer structure and produce magnetic media with exchanged decoupled multilevel magnetic anisotropy. From September 2006 to September 2011 the Massie Chair produced nineteen (19) publications, (including 3 books), five (5) presentations and three (3) international conferences abstracts. A total of fourteen (14) undergraduates and (6) graduate students acquired research experience. Two Ph.D. students presented their dissertations on topics related to nuclear energy and graduated as follows: María Cotto (May 2009) and Eric Calderón (May 2011). Five of the participating undergraduate students graduated: Ramon Polanco (BSME, May 2009), Jason Pérez (BSEE, May 2008), Rafael Colón (BSME, May 2008), Jessenia Marfisi (BS Chemistry, May 2008). Eleven (11) students were sent to National Laboratories (LANL, SNL and LLNL), NNSA and DoE facilities for summer

    • Obituary: Jörn Rossa (1969-2009)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Veras, Dimitri

      2009-12-01

      evolve into ellipticals. Joern then moved to the University of Florida (UF) in 2006 to work as a core team member of the Flamingos 2 Extra-Galactic Survey. This survey aims at deriving the star formation histories, masses and metallicities of star formation galaxies at redshifts between 2.0-2.5 and also at deriving the properties (e.g., black hole masses) of AGN and at studying the optically obscured AGN at intermediate to high redshifts (z > 1.5). Joern was largely responsible for the target selection strategies for both samples (star-forming galaxies and AGN), for coordinating the weekly group meetings, and for designing a web-page for the extragalactic group. He was interested in using the survey to answer several cosmological questions in collaboration with Vicki Sarajedini, Rafael Guzmän, Fred Hamann, Anthony Gonzalez, the Flamingos-2 instrument PI, Stephen Eikenberry (all from UF), and with additional collaborators from the Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. Joern also worked with Vicki Sarajedini on SED fitting of variability-selected AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South. Joern was a very versatile observer, complementing his belief that understanding of the star-formation activity in galaxies can be only achieved through a multi-wavelength study of various galaxy types. In addition to research, Joern had a strong desire to be involved in the logistical aspects of science. At STScI he participated in the support group for the time allocation committee and at UF he was the postdoctoral representative of the space allocation committee. He photographed the UF staff for the departmental webpage and was a designated photographer at a local conference and other events. He also participated in the public Museum nights at UF. He was always eager to provide his feedback on the scientific and practical issues of astronomy and filled in many surveys distributed to the astronomical community. His colleagues and friends could always count on Joern to be extremely

    • PREFACE New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Albrecht, Tim; Edel, Joshua B.; Winterhalter, Mathias

      2010-11-01

      refereeing process, and Ms Natalia Goehring for the beautiful cover artwork. Finally, to the readers, we hope you find this special issue a valuable source of information and insight into the field of nanopores. New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications contents Mathematical modeling and simulation of nanopore blocking by precipitation M-T Wolfram, M Burger and Z S Siwy Protein conducting nanopores Anke Harsman, Vivien Krüger, Philipp Bartsch, Alf Honigmann, Oliver Schmidt, Sanjana Rao, Christof Meisinger and Richard Wagner Electrically sensing protease activity with nanopores Mikiembo Kukwikila and Stefan Howorka Electrical characterization of DNA-functionalized solid state nanopores for bio-sensing V Mussi, P Fanzio, L Repetto, G Firpo, P Scaruffi, S Stigliani, M Menotta, M Magnani, G P Tonini and U Valbusa Automatable lipid bilayer formation and ion channel measurement using sessile droplets J L Poulos, S A Portonovo, H Bang and J J Schmidt Critical assessment of OmpF channel selectivity: merging information from different experimental protocols M L López, E García-Giménez, V M Aguilella and A Alcaraz Chemically modified solid state nanopores for high throughput nanoparticle separation Anmiv S Prabhu, Talukder Zaki N Jubery, Kevin J Freedman, Rafael Mulero, Prashanta Dutta and Min Jun Kim Changes in ion channel geometry resolved to sub-ångström precision via single molecule mass spectrometry Joseph W F Robertson, John J Kasianowicz and Joseph E Reiner Entropic transport of finite size particles W Riefler, G Schmid, P S Burada and P Hänggi Osmotic stress regulates the strength and kinetics of sugar binding to the maltoporin channel Philip A Gurnev, Daniel Harries, V Adrian Parsegian and Sergey M Bezrukov Detection of urea-induced internal denaturation of dsDNA using solid-state nanoporesn Alon Singer, Heiko Kuhn, Maxim Frank-Kamenetskii and Amit Meller Translocation events in a single-walled carbon nanotube Jin He, Hao Liu, Pei Pang

    • News & Announcements

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      2001-08-01

      ; there is an honorarium of 1500 plus expenses.

      Welch Award

      Roger D. Kornberg, a professor of structural biology at the Stanford University School of Medicine, received the 2001 Welch Award for his discovery of the nucleosome and establishing its role in gene regulation; for his discovery of a giant complex of 20 proteins known as the "Mediator", which regulates the transcription process; and for determining the atomic structure of RNA polymerase II. The 300,000 award salutes Kornberg's lifetime contributions to biochemistry.

      NSTA Teacher Awards

      During its 2001 national convention the National Science Teachers Association presented prizes and awards to teachers for their exemplary teaching practices and commitment to quality science education. Many appear below.
      Distinguished Service to Science Education Award
      • JoAnne Vasquez, Science Consultant, Gilbert, AZ
      • Richard F. Duncan, Beaverton Administrative Center, Beaverton, OR
      • Mitchell E. Batoff, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ
      Distinguished Informal Science Education Award
      • Al Stenstrup, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI
      Ciba Specialty Chemicals Education Foundation Exemplary Science Teaching Award, High School Level
      • Gerald Friday, Marquette High School, Milwaukee, WI
      Gustav Ohaus Innovations in Science Teaching, High School
      • Mark Stefanski, Marin Academy, San Rafael, CA (first place)
      • James A. Szoka, Clarke County High School, Berryville, VA (second place)
      Gustav Ohaus Innovations in Science Teaching, College
      • William F. McComas, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (first place)
      • Barbara M. Lom, Davidson College, Davidson, NC (second place)

      Courses, Seminars, Meetings, Opportunities

      Proposal Deadlines

      Proposal Deadlines will not appear this month. Readers should consult

  1. The Harsh Destiny of a Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    mass of about three times the mass of the Earth. The observational search for Lithium-6 in other stars with planetary systems now continues. In due time, it will permit to better understand the formation and evolution of the newly discovered exoplanets. In particular, it will demonstrate whether the fall of planets into their host stars is a common process or not. More information Further detailed information is available in the research article ("Evidence for planet engulfment by the star HD 82943", by G. Israelian, N.C. Santos, M. Mayor and R. Rebolo), published in the May 10, 2001, issue of the international research journal Nature. Notes [1] The team consists of Garik Israelian and Rafael Rebolo (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain), Nuno C. Santos and Michel Mayor (Geneva Observatory, Switzerland). [2] The nuclei of Lithium-6 ( 6 Li) atoms consist of three protons and three neutrons; those of Lithium-7 ( 7 Li) have three protons and four neutrons. Both isotopes were produced during the Big Bang and in spallation reactions in the interstellar medium. [3] According to the "traditional" view, giant planets like Jupiter would be formed by rapidly accelerating ("runaway") accretion of gas around an initial, icy "planetesimal" with a mass of about 10 Earth masses. An associated prediction was that giant planets would only be found at a distance of at least 750 million kilometres (5 Astronomical Units; or five times the distance between the Earth and the Sun) from their host stars and that their orbits would be circular, like the orbits of the planets in the Solar System. Technical information about the photo PR Photo 17/01 shows the spectrum of the V = 6.5 mag star HD 82943 , as obtained on June 7, 2000, with the UVES spectrograph at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope. It is based on three exposures made with Image Slicer 3 in Director's Discretionary Time in Service Mode, and each lasting 120 sec. The spectral resolution is 110,000 and the final S/N-ratio is about

  2. News and Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, via email at infofell@nas.edu, or at http://fellowships.nas.edu. 1998 Pre-Doctoral Fellows Rafael Alcala, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Chemical Engineering Diego J. Díaz, Cornell University, Analytical Chemistry Kanya Lynn Henderson, Colorado State University, Biochemistry Félix Mario Rivas, State University of New York, Buffalo, Organic Chemistry 1998 Dissertation Fellows Kristala Lanett Jones, Arizona State University, Chemical Engineering 1998 Postdoctoral Fellows Edgardo Tabión Farinas, Yale University, Interdisciplinary Chemistry Data Base of Online Courses TeleEducation NB, a province-wide distributed distance learning network in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, has implemented an international online course database of more than 9,000 courses. The database includes public and private courses at all levels from more than 15 countries and includes only those courses that can be completed fully online. Courses vary from graduate-level engineering offerings to simple "How to" courses. The database provides access to courses and programs leading to accredited degrees, diplomas, and certificates. Professional development and personal interest courses are also included. Students can access course information by browsing subject areas or by searching specific fields. Hotlinks connect students directly to the delivering institutions. In the past year, there has been an exponential rise in the number of courses being offered online, from fewer than 2,000 in January 1998 to more than 10,000 in December 1998. It is expected that there will be more than 40,000 online courses by the year 2000. The TeleCampus Online Course Database provides students with a means of finding information on courses that meet their needs. The database can be accessed from TeleCampus at http://telecampus.edu. Change in the Introductory Chemistry Course, an Online Course An online conference, Proposals for Change in the