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Sample records for canyon area san

  1. Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Shawe, D.R.; Lee, G.K.; Hanna, W.F. ); Jeske, R.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone and sand and gravel have no unique qualities but could have limited local use for road metal or other construction purposes. However, similar materials are abundant outside the study areas. The three study areas have moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, including uranium and thorium, coal, and geothermal energy.

  2. Mines, prospects, mining claims, and sample localities of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area and vicinity, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Thomas D.

    1981-01-01

    In conjunction with studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a mineral survey in 1979 of known mines, prospect workings, and mineralized zones in the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area, San Juan County, Utah.  This map is a supplement to the Mineral Resources of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area (Weitz and Light, 1981)., and depicts the locations of mines, prospects, mining claims and sample localities for the area examined by the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

  3. Preliminary Report on the White Canyon Area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William Edward Barnes; Trites, A.F.; Beroni, E.P.; Feeger, J.A.

    1952-01-01

    The White Canyon area in San Juan County, Utah, contains known deposits of copper-uranium ore and is currently being mapped and studied by the Geological Survey. To date, approximately 75 square miles, or about 20 percent of the area, has been mapped on a scale 1 inch=1 mile. The White Canyon area is underlain by more than 2,000 feet of sedimentary rocks, Carboniferous to Jurassic(?) in age. The area is on the flank of the Elk Ridge anticline, and the strata have a regional dip of 1 deg to 2 deg SW. The Shinarump conglomerate of Late Triassic age is the principal ore-bearing formation. The Shinarump consists of lenticular beds of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, clay, and siltstone, and ranges in thickness from a feather edge to as much as 75 feet. Locally the sandstones contain silicified and carbonized wood and fragments of charcoal. These vegetal remains are especially common in channel-fill deposits. Jointing is prominent in the western part of the area, and apparently affects all formations. Adjacent to the joints some of the redbeds in the sequence are bleached. Deposits of copper-uranium minerals have been found in the Moenkopi, Shinarump, and Chinle formations, but the only production of ore has been from the Shinarump conglomerate. The largest concentration of these minerals is in the lower third of the Shinarump, and the deposits seem to be controlled in part by ancient channel fills and in part by fractures. Locally precipitation of the copper and uranium minerals apparently has been aided by charcoal and clays. Visible uranium minerals include both hard and soft pitchblende and secondary hydrosulfates, phosphates, and silicates. In addition, unidentified uranium compounds are present in carbonized wood and charcoal, and in veinlets of hydrocarbons. Base-metal sulfides have been identified in all prospects that extend beyond the oxidized zone. Secondary copper minerals in the oxidized zone include the hydrous sulfates and carbonates, and possibly

  4. Preliminary report on the White Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William E.; Trites, Albert F.; Beroni, Ernest P.; Feeger, John A.

    1952-01-01

    The White Canyon area, in the central part of San Juan County, Utah, consists of approximately two 15-minute quadrangles. Approximately 75 square miles have been mapped by the Geological Survey on a scale of 1 inch equals 1 mile, using a combined aerial photography-plane table method. Structure contours were drawn on top of the Organ Rock member of the Cutler formation. Parts of the Gonway and North Point claims, 1/4 mile east of the Happy Jack mine, were mapped in detail. The principal objectives of the investigations were: (1) to establish ore guides; (2) to select areas favorable for exploration; and (3) to map the general geology and to determine the regional relationships of the uranium deposits. The White Canyon area is comprised of sedimentary rocks of Carboniferous to Jurassic age, more than 2,000 feet thick, having a regional dip of 1° to 2° SW. The nearest igneous rocks are in the Henry Mountains about 7 miles west of the northern part of the area; The Shinarump conglomerate of the late Triassic age, the principal ore horizon in the White Canyon area, consists of lenticular beds of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, conglomerate, clay, and siltstone. The Shinarump conglomerate, absent in places, is as much as 75 feet thick. The sandstones locally contain molds of logs and fragments of altered volcanic ash. Some of the logs have been replaced by copper and uranium minerals and iron oxides. The clay and siltstone underlie and are interbedded with the sandstone, and are most common in channels that cut into the underlying Moenkopi formation. The Shinarump conglomerate contains reworked Moenkopi siltstone fragments, clay balls, carbonized wood, and pebbles of quarts, quartzite, and chert. Jointing is prominent in the Western part of the mapped area. The three most prominent joint trends are due east, N. 65°-75° W., and N. 65°-75° E. All joints have vertical dips. The red beds are bleached along some joints, especially those that trend N. 65°-75° W

  5. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S. ); Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand.

  6. Progress report on the Happy Jack mine, Which Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trites, Albert F.; Chew, Randall T.

    1954-01-01

    The Happy Jack mine is in the White Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah. Production is from high-grade uranium deposits in the Shinarump conglomerate of the Triassic age. In this area the Shinarump beds range from about 16 to 40 feet in thickness and the lower part of these beds fills an east-trending channel this is note than 750 feet wide and 10 feet deep. The Shinarump conglomerate consists of beds of coarse- to fine-grained quartzose sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and claystone. Carbonized wood is abundant in these beds, and in the field it was classified as mineral charcoal and coal. Intra-Shinarump channels, cross-stratification, current lineation, and slumping and compaction structures have been recognized in the mine. Steeply dipping fractures have dominant trends in four directions -- N 65°W, N 60°E, N 85°E, and due north. Uranium occurs as bedded deposits, as replacement bodies in accumulations of "trash", and as replacements of larger fragments of wood. An "ore shoot" is formed where the three types of uranium deposits occur together; these ore shoots appear to be elongate masses with sharp boundaries. Uranium minerals include uraninite, sooty pitchblende(?), and the sulfate--betazippeite, johannite, and uranopilite. Associated with the uraninite are the sulfide minerals covellite, bornite, chalcopyritw, and pyrite. Galena and sphalerite have been found in close association with uranium minerals. The gaunge minerals include: limonite and hematite present in most of the sandstone beds throughout the deposit, jarosite that impregnates much of the sandstone in the outer parts of the mine workings, gypsum that fills many of the fractures, and barite that impregnates the sandstone in at least one part of the mine. Secondary copper minerals, mainly copper sulfates, occur throughout the mine, but most abundant near the adits in the outermost 30 feet of the workings. The minerals comprising the bulk of the country rock include quartz, feldspar, and clay

  7. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  8. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  9. Photomosaics and logs of trenches on the San Andreas Fault at Mill Canyon near Watsonville, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, Thomas E.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Flowers, Rebecca; Hamilton, John C.; Heingartner, Gordon F.; Kessler, James; Samrad, Laura

    2004-01-01

    We present photomosaics and logs of the walls of trenches excavated for a paleoseismic study at Mill Canyon, one of two sites along the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz Mtns. on the Kelley-Thompson Ranch. This site was a part of Rancho Salsipuedes begining in 1834. It was purchased by the present owner’s family in 1851. Remnants of a cabin/mill operations still exist up the canyon dating from 1908 when the area was logged. At this location, faulting has moved a shutter ridge across the mouth of Mill Canyon ponding Holocene sediment. Recent faulting is confined to a narrow zone near the break in slope.

  10. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  11. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas.

  12. HELLS CANYON STUDY AREA, OREGON AND IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hells Canyon study area occupies nearly 950 sq mi along and near Hells Canyon of the Snake River in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho. Geologic, geochemical, aeromagnetic, and mine and prospect investigations to determine the mineral-resource potential of the area were carried out. As a result, 42 sq mi or about 4 percent of the lands, in 21 separate areas, were classified as having probable or substantiated resource potential for base and precious metals, molybdenum, and tungsten. No energy resource potential was identified in this study.

  13. Clark Canyon (Mono County) Riparian Demonstration Area

    Treesearch

    John W. Key; Mark A. Gish

    1989-01-01

    The Clark Canyon riparian demonstration area was established in 1984 within the East Walker River subbasin of Mono County, California. Destabilization of the meadow sections of the stream and the upper stream reaches contributed to an increase of suspended sediments, turbidity, and stream channel widening in the lower stream reaches where a viable population of rainbow...

  14. Mineral resources of the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Grand county, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, R.P.; Gaccetta, J.D.; Kulik, D.M.; Kreidler, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas in the Book and Roan Cliffs in Grand Country, Utah, approximately 12 miles west of the Colorado state line. The wilderness study areas consist of a series of deep, stair-step-sided canyons and high ridges eroded into the flatlying sedimentary rocks of the Book Cliffs. Demonstrated coal reserves totaling 22,060,800 short tons and demonstrated subeconomic coal resources totaling 39,180,000 short tons are in the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. Also, inferred subeconomic coal resources totaling 143,954,000 short tons are within the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. No known deposits of industrial minerals are in any of the study area. All three of the wilderness study areas have a high resource potential for undiscovered deposits of coal and for undiscovered oil and gas.

  15. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over Mint Canyon near the San Gabriel Mountains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-02-20

    NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory flying over Mint Canyon near the snow-covered San Gabriel Mountains of California. The mostly white aircraft is silhouetted against the darker mountains in the background.

  16. 36 CFR 7.70 - Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... boundary of Grand Canyon National Park: (1) No person shall operate a vessel engaging in predominantly... Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... protection of the ecological and environmental values of the area. (i) The Superintendent of Grand Canyon...

  17. Sedimentologic evolution of a submarine canyon in a forearc basin, Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation, San Carlos, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.R.; Busby-Spera, C.J.

    1988-06-01

    The walls, floor, and fill of a submarine canyon are well-exposed near San Carlos, Mexico, in forecarc strata of the Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation. The submarine canyon is about 7 km wide and at least 230 m deep and has eroded a minimum of 150 m into underlying fluvial red beds. It is unclear whether subaerial or submarine processes initiated the canyon cutting; however, marine processes, especially debris flows, modified the morphology of the submarine canyon. The submarine canyon fill and overlying slope deposits form two major fining-upward sequences. The first includes a 120 m thick lower conglomerate-sandstone unit (LCSU) at the base of the canyon fill overlain by a 50-110 m thick middle mudstone-sandstone unit (MMSU). The MMSU consists predominantly of mudstone and thin-bedded sandstone, but includes a channel filled with sandstone beds that form a fining- and thinning-upward sequence. This sequence is overlain by the second major sequence, a 0-60 m thick upper conglomerate-sandstone unit (UCSU), which is confined to three channels within the submarine canyon and passes gradationally upward into slope mudstone. Each of the two major fining-upward sequences records a gradual decrease in supply of coarse-grained sediment to the submarine canyon head. The first fining-upward sequence may correspond to a lowstand and subsequent rise in global sea level or, alternatively, may have resulted from local downdropping of the basin. The second fining-upward sequence does not correspond to global sea level fluctuations but is age-correlative with a drop then rise in relative sea level recognized by other workers 300-400 km to the north in the San Diego-Ensenada area. This sea level drop is inferred to have been a regional-scale tectonic event that affect the forearc basin along its length. 18 figures, 2 tables.

  18. San Francisco, San Pablo Bay Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-244-022 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- (San Francisco, San Pablo Bay Area) Photographed through the Space Shuttle Endeavour's flight deck windows, the heavily populated bay area is featured in this 70mm frame. The relatively low altitude of Endeavour's orbit (115 nautical miles) and the use of a 250mm lens on the Hasselblad camera allowed for capturing detail in features such as the Berkeley Marina (frame center). The region's topography is well depicted with the lowland areas heavily populated and the hills much more sparsely covered. The Oakland Hills in the right lower center appear to be re-vegetated after a devastating fire. The Golden Gate Recreation Area in the upper left also shows heavy vegetation. The three bridges across the main part of the bay and their connecting roads are prominent. Cultural features such as Golden Gate Park and the Presidio contrast with the gray of the city.

  19. Ox Mountain Sanitary Landfill Apanolio Canyon Expansion Site, San Mateo County, California. Volume 1. Final EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) and Response to Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Burlingame (expansion) San Mateo (expansion) Medio Creek Higgins Creek Canyon Marsh Road (expansion) South San Francisco (expansion) San Bruno Bay...within public parks, and Medio Creek, Junipero Serra and Bernardi Ranch are in residential areas. The only location identified in the � study not...the noise environment is to approximate 3 the ambient or background noise level and the equivalent continuous noise level (L eq). Noise levels are

  20. Influence of San Gabriel submarine canyon on narrow-shelf sediment dynamics, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual model attributes the PTC to modification of shelf circulation patterns by San Gabriel Canyon. Surface waves diverge over the canyon head resulting in differential wave set up at the shore face. This forces back turbid nearshore water for a distance of a few kilometers toward the canyon. At some point on the shelf, seaward nearshore flow overlaps offshore currents generated or modified by internal waves focused onto the shelf by the canyon and/or turbulent eddies produced by flow separation in currents moving across the canyon axis. At times, these subtle processes overprint tidal and wind-driven currents and thereby create the PTC. The model suggests that canyons heading several kilometers from shore can have a regulatory effect on narrow-shelf sediment dynamics.

  1. The influence of the San Gregorio fault on the morphology of Monterey Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, C.M.G.; Ryan, William B. F.; Eittreim, S.; Donald, Reed

    1998-01-01

    A side-scan sonar survey was conducted of Monterey Canyon and the San Gregorio fault zone, off shore of Monterey Bay. The acoustic character and morphology of the sonar images, enhanced by SeaBeam bathymetry, show the path of the San Gregorio fault zone across the shelf, upper slope, and Monterey Canyon. High backscatter linear features a few kilometers long and 100 to 200 m wide delineate the sea-floor expression of the fault zone on the shelf. Previous studies have shown that brachiopod pavements and carbonate crusts are the source of the lineations backscatter. In Monterey Canyon, the fault zone occurs where the path of the canyon makes a sharp bend from WNW to SSW (1800 m). Here, the fault is marked by NW-SE-trending, high reflectivity lineations that cross the canyon floor between 1850 m and 1900 m. The lineations can be traced to ridges on the northwestern canyon wall where they have ~ 15 m of relief. Above the low-relief ridges, bowl-shaped features have been excavated on the canyon wall contributing to the widening of the canyon. We suggest that shear along the San Gregorio fault has led to the formation of the low-relief ridges near the canyon wall and that carbonate crusts, as along the shelf, may be the source of the high backscatter features on the canyon floor. The path of the fault zone across the upper slope is marked by elongated tributary canyons with high backscatter floors and 'U'-shaped cross-sectional profiles. Linear features and stepped scarps suggestive of recent crustal movement and mass-wasting, occur on the walls and floors of these canyons. Three magnitude-4 earthquakes have occurred within the last 30 years in the vicinity of the canyons that may have contributed to the observed features. As shown by others, motion along the fault zone has juxtaposed diverse lithologies that outcrop on the canyon walls. Gully morphology and the canyon's drainage patterns have been influenced by the substrate into which the gullies have formed.

  2. California, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay area (37.5N, 122.0W) of California from the Santa Cruz in the south to Point Reyes in the north with the rich agriculture region of the central San Joaquin Valley in the foreground.

  3. Uranium ore rolls in Westwater Canyon sandstone, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent relatively deep uranium-exploration drilling in the Nose Rock area, San Juan Basin, McKinley County, New Mexico, has resulted in the discovery of previously unrecognized uranium ore rolls in gray, unoxidized Westwater Canyon Sandstone of the Morrison Formation. Both the Nose Rock ores and the primary Ambrosia Lake uranium ores were emplaced during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous erosional interval under the same geologic conditions by the same geochemical-cell process. The red, altered interior ground resulting from the geochemical-cell process has been re-reduced by the subsequent entry of reductants into the formation. The original roll form of the Ambrosia Lake orebodies has been obscured and modified by redistribution related to the present-day active redox interface interweaving with the Ambrosia Lake ores.

  4. 36 CFR 7.70 - Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 36 CFR 7.70 - Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 36 CFR 7.70 - Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 36 CFR 7.70 - Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. CHAMA RIVER CANYON WILDERNESS AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREA, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, Jennie L.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    Results of mineral surveys indicate that the Chama River Canyon Wilderness and contiguous roadless area in new Mexico have a probable mineral-resource potential for copper with associated uranium and silver. Gypsum occurs throughout the area, exposed in the canyon walls. Further study of the wilderness should concentrate on exploratory drilling to test the oil and gas potential of Pennsylvanian strata and evaluate vanadium anomalies in the Todilto as a prospecting guide for locating uranium.

  9. Ox Mountain sanitary landfill: Apanolio Canyon expansion site, San Mateo County, California. Volume 2. Appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    Further studies include: plants Observed in Apanolio Canyon; Animals Expected or Observed in Apanolio Canyon; Marbled Murrelet Survey; Review of Available Scientific Information on Six Candidate Insects; Update on Status of Candidate Insects; Apanolio Canyon Sensitive Plant Investigation; Fisheries Resources of Upper Apanolio, Benthic Invertebrate Survey of Apanolio, Corinda Los Trancos, and Pilarcitos Creeks, San Mateo County, California; Streamflows and Velocity of Flows at the Bongard diversion Dam in Apanolio Canyon; A Spring Survey to Determine the Presence or Absence of the San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenis) in Two Tributaries of Pilarcitos Creek, Half Moon Bay, CA; Wildlife and Fisheries Mitigation Plan, Ox Mountain Sanitary Landfill, Apanolio Canyon Expansion Site; Correspondence Site Selection Criteria Information; Draft Contingency Remedial Action Plan; Leachate Collection and Removal System (LCRS) and Leachate/Contaminated Groundwater Treatment Systems; Apanolio Creek Streamflow Augmentation Plan; Apanolio Canyon Lower Aquifer Recharge Plan; Application for Exemptions - Technical Informations; Geotechnical Study and Specifications, Subgrade Barrier and Clay Liner System; Apanolio Canyon Boring Logs; Potentiometric Surface Maps, Apanolio Canyon; Geologic Cross Sections - Apanolio Canyon; Interim Report on Leachate Exposure Test Program, Apanolio Canyon Landfill Expansion.

  10. SAN JOAQUIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Capstick, Donald O.

    1984-01-01

    The San Joaquin Roadless Area is composed of three noncontiguous areas on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada in Madera County, California. The results of geologic, geochemical, and mining-activity and production surveys in the central part of the area indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral or energy resources in the area. Sand, gravel, and pumice exist in the area but occurrences are small and isolated and farther from major markets than similar deposits outside the roadless area. Rocks in the area are exhibited in exposures of unaltered and nonmineralized granitic and metavolcanic rock along the steep western wall of the glacially carved valley of the Middle Fork of the San Joaquin River. Drainage in the area consists of seeps along fractures in the cliff or small cascading streams, a hydraulic setting not favorable for the development of placer deposits. No mines or prospect workings were found in the roadless area. Alteration zones within the granitic and metamorphic rock that crop out within the area are small, isolated, and consist only of limonitic staining and bleached quartzose rock.

  11. Marine neotectonic investigation of the San Gregorio Fault Zone on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, K. L.; Paull, C. K.; Brothers, D. S.; McGann, M.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is part of the North American-Pacific plate boundary and is thought to accommodate right-lateral offset up to 10 mm/yr. Because much of the SGFZ in Monterey Bay, central California, lies offshore in steep submarine canyon bathymetry, little is known of its recent activity. We provide initial direct evidence for faulting where the SGFZ has been interpreted based on canyon morphology to cross the northern flank of Monterey Canyon. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired during 13 dives with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) from 2009-2014 on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, extending from the shelf edge ~15 km offshore Santa Cruz to ~1850 m water depth. Chirp profiles resolve layered sediments up to ~40 m subsurface in this region, and no fault scarps or seafloor lineaments are visible in the 1-m resolution multibeam bathymetry. At least one subsurface fault is identified within the SGFZ by offset reflections across a discrete, nearly vertical fault. However, this fault is only imaged where mass wasting has exhumed older strata to within ~25 m of the seafloor. Numerous slumps scars on the seafloor and packages of chaotic internal reflectivity in chirp profiles suggest that submarine landslide processes dominate the study area. To constrain the age of reflections offset by the fault, MBARI's Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Doc Ricketts, sampled faces of slump scars where the offset reflections crop out using vibracores and horizontal push cores. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera within these core samples is being used to constrain the last recorded movement on the fault. Application of AUV and ROV methods allows detailed neotectonic investigation of significant offshore structures, like the SGFZ, that contribute to hazard assessment.

  12. The San Juan Canyon, southeastern Utah: A geographic and hydrographic reconnaissance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miser, Hugh D.

    1924-01-01

    This report, which describes the San Juan Canyon, San Juan River and the tributary streams and the geography and to some extent the geology of the region, presents information obtained by me during the descent of the river with the Trimble party in 1921. The exploration of the canyon, which was financed jointly by the United States Geological Survey and the Southern California Edison Co., had as its primary object the mapping and study of the San Juan in connection with proposed power and storage projects along this and Colorado rivers.1 The exploration party was headed by K. W. Thimble, topographic engineer of the United States Geological Survey. Other members of the party were Robert N. Allen, Los Angeles, Calif., recorder; H. E. Blake, jr., Monticello, Utah, and Hugh Hyde, Salt Lake City, Utah, rodmen; Bert Loper, Green River, Utah, boatman; Heber Christensen, Moab, Utah, cook; and H. D. Miser, geologist. Wesley Oliver, of Mexican Hat, Utah, served as packer for the party and brought mail and provisions by pack train twice a month to specified accessible places west of Goodridge.

  13. Hydrologic and geochemical properties of the San Andreas fault at the Stone Canyon well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierman, Donald J.; Williams, Alan E.

    1984-03-01

    The Stone Canyon well penetrates 600 m of highly fractured and severely altered quartz diorite intimately associated with the creeping segment of the San Andreas fault of central California. Geophysical logs reveal a complex hydrology dominated by major fractures. Fluid pressure in some fractures is sufficient to prevent invasion of the formation by heavy drilling mud, implying pore pressures at least 10% higher than hydrostatic ones. At least three chemically distinct waters are encountered, including a chloride brine clearly segregated from the shallow, potable groundwater. Chemical alteration of the quartz diorite persists throughout the well, far below the depth where the water-rock reactions responsible for the ubiquitous chlorite and mixed-layer clays can be considered weathering. Whole-rock δ18O analyses indicate significant interaction of the rocks with a low δ18O fluid within some of the fractured and altered zones, whereas a deeper sample shows18O enrichment. High pore pressures encountered in Stone Canyon may be due to tectonic compression. Measurements of temporal variations in the pore pressure at the well may provide a means of predicting earthquakes along this segment of the San Andreas fault.

  14. Cetacean biomass densities near submarine canyons compared to adjacent shelf/slope areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Robert D.; Winn, Howard E.

    1987-02-01

    Estimated cetacean biomass densities in areas of the northeastern U.S. continental shelf edge encompassing major submarine canyons were compared to those in neighboring shelf/slope areas. It was hypothesized that biomass-densities would prove to be higher in the canyon areas: however, the analysis demonstrated significantly lower total cetacean biomass in the canyon areas. When species were analyzed individually, only spotted dolphins ( Stenella spp.) showed a significant difference, with higher densities near the canyons. The canyons are apparently not more important as a cetacean habitat than the shelf break region generally.

  15. Evaluation of natural circulation cooldown tests performed at Diablo Canyon, San Onofre, and Palo Verde nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.H.; Perkins, K.R.; Cavlina, N.

    1988-01-01

    The natural circulation cooldown tests performed at Diablo Canyon, San Onofre, and Palo Verde nuclear power plants were evaluated for the compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission design requirements. BNL concluded that these tests combined with the supporting analyses demonstrated the natural circulation, boron mixing, and cooldown capability of these plants.

  16. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This cloud free color infrared view of San Francisco and Bay Area, CA (38.0N, 122.5W) is unusual because the city is normally concealed from view by clouds and fog. Gray tones represent urban areas and the red toned areas are vegetated. Within the city, parks easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city as enclaves of color. The trace of the San Andreas fault shows as a straight valley running across the San Francisco peninsula.

  17. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-89-053 (28 April-6 May 1991) --- A 70mm, infrared frame of the city of San Francisco, taken on a clear day. The gray areas represent urban regions, and the red areas are vegetated. Within the city of San Francisco, parks like Golden Gate park and the Presidio at the base of the Golden Gate Bridge easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city. Major thoroughfares and bridges (Golden Gate and Bay Bridges) are seen as are other landmarks such as Candlestick Park and Alcatraz. The trace of the San Andreas faults show as a straight valley running northerly along the San Francisco peninsula. Good detail is visible in the turbid waters of San Francisco Bay.

  18. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-26

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco. Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02606

  19. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over Mint Canyon near the San Gabriel Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory flying over Mint Canyon near the snow-covered San Gabriel Mountains of California. The mostly white aircraft is silhouetted against the darker mountains in the background. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  20. California, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-04-14

    STS001-12-305 (12-14 April 1981) --- California, San Francisco Bay photographed by a crew member on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-1). The coast is seen from near Santa Cruz northward to Point Reyes. The great valley is in the foreground. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  2. Holocene activity of the Rose Canyon fault zone in San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindvall, Scott C.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    1995-12-01

    The Rose Canyon fault zone in San Diego, California, has many well-expressed geomorphic characteristics of an active strike-slip fault, including scarps, offset and deflected drainages and channel walls, pressure ridges, a closed depression, and vegetation lineaments. Geomorphic expression of the fault zone from Mount Soledad south to Mission Bay indicates that the Mount Soledad strand is the most active. A network of trenches excavated across the Mount Soledad strand in Rose Creek demonstrate a minimum of 8.7 m of dextral slip in a distinctive early to middle Holocene gravel-filled channel that crosses the fault zone. The gravel-filled channel was preserved within and east of the fault but was removed west of the fault zone by erosion or possibly grading during development. Consequently, the actual displacement of the channel could be greater than 8.7 m. Radiocarbon dates on detrital charcoal recovered from the sediments beneath the channel yield a maximum calibrated age of about 8.1±0.2 kyr. The minimum amount of slip along with the maximum age yield a minimum slip rate of 1.07±0.03 mm/yr on this strand of the Rose Canyon fault zone for much of Holocene time. Other strands of the Rose Canyon fault zone, which are east and west of our site, may also have Holocene activity. Based on an analysis of the geomorphology of fault traces within the Rose Canyon fault zone, along with the results of our trenching study, we estimate the maximum likely slip rate at about 2 mm/yr and a best estimate of about 1.5 mm/yr. Stratigraphie evidence of at least three events is present during the past 8.1 kyr. The most recent surface rupture displaces the modern A horizon (topsoil), suggesting that this event probably occurred within the past 500 years. Stratigraphie and structural relationships also indicate the occurrence of a scarp-forming event at about 8.1 kyr, prior to deposition of the gravel-filled channel that was used as a piercing line. A third event is indicated by the

  3. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-03-118 (June 1973) --- An infrared photograph of the San Francisco Bay, California area, taken from the Skylab 1/2 space station in Earth orbit. THE PICTURE SHOULD BE HELD WITH THE CLOUDS AND PACIFIC OCEAN ON THE LEFT. This photograph was taken by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter of the space station. Type 2443 film was used. Note the thickly populated and highly developed area around the bay. Among the cities visible in this photograph are San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley and San Jose. This view extends eastward to show a portion of the San Joaquin Valley. The S190-A experiment is part of the Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). Photo credit: NASA

  4. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  5. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line down...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line down...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  10. Lung deposited surface area concentrations in a street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuuluvainen, Heino; Hietikko, Riina; Järvinen, Anssi; Saukko, Erkka; Irjala, Matti; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Timonen, Hilkka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-04-01

    Street canyons are interesting environments with respect to the dispersion of traffic emissions and human exposure. Pedestrians may be exposed to relatively high concentrations of fine particles and the vertical dispersion affects the human exposure above the ground level in buildings. Previously, particle concentrations have been measured in street canyons at a few different heights (Marini et al., 2015). The information on the lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, which is a relevant metric for the negative health effects, is very limited even at the ground level of street canyons (Kuuluvainen et al., 2016). More information especially on the vertical dispersion and the ground level concentrations is needed, for instance, for the use of urban planning and the design of ventilation systems in buildings. Measurements were carried out in a busy street canyon in Helsinki, Finland, at an urban super-site measurement station (Mäkelänkatu 50). The data included vertical concentration profiles measured in an intensive measurement campaign with a Partector (Naneos GmbH) installed into a drone, long-term measurements with an AQ Urban particle sensor (Pegasor Ltd.), and an extensive comparison measurement in the field with different devices measuring the LDSA. These devices were an AQ Urban, Partector, DiSCmini (Testo AG), NSAM (TSI Inc.), and an ELPI+ (Dekati Ltd.). In addition, continuous measurements of gas phase components, particle size distributions, and meteorology were run at the supersite. The vertical profile measurements were con-ducted in November 2016 during two days. In the measurements, the drone was flown from the ground level to an altitude of 50 or 100 m, which is clearly above the roof level of the buildings. Altogether, 48 up-and-down flights were conducted during the two days. The vertical profiles were supported by continuous measurements at the ground level on both sides of the street canyon. The long-term measurements were conducted

  11. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-151-181A (28 April-6 May 1991) --- Large format (five-inch) frame of the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Area of northern California. Stratus clouds at 35,000 feet and cumulus clouds at about 15,000 feet are seen over the Pacific Coast, obscuring the Golden Gate Bridge.

  12. Geology of the Cedar Mesa-Boundary Butte area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, Robert B.

    1965-01-01

    The Cedar Mesa-Boundary Butte area lies within the Colorado Plateau and includes about 650 square miles in southern San Juan County, Utah. Altitudes ranges from 3,890 feet on the westward-flowing San Juan River, the major and only perennial stream, to more than 6,400 feet on Cedar Mesa in the northwest. Bare rocks, high mesas, sheer cliffs, and deep canyons characterize the area. Comb Ridge, a prominent hogback of eastward-dipping rocks, trends north through the middle part of the area and is the most conspicuous topographic feature. The only permanent settlements are Bluff in the east and Mexican Hat in the west, both on the San Juan River.

  13. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  14. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  15. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  16. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  17. Live (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Cap-Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic): A comparison between the canyon axis and the surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duros, P.; Fontanier, C.; Metzger, E.; Cesbron, F.; Deflandre, B.; Schmidt, S.; Buscail, R.; Zaragosi, S.; Kerhervé, P.; Rigaud, S.; Delgard, M.-L.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2013-04-01

    Living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas were investigated at 13 deep-sea stations sampled in the Cap-Ferret Canyon area (NE Atlantic). One station (151 m) is located on the continental shelf close to the canyon head. All other stations are located along 2 bathymetric transects: 7 sites along the canyon axis with depths ranging from 300 to 3000 m and 5 stations along the adjacent flank with depths ranging from 300 m to 2000 m. Sedimentological analyses indicate that the Cap-Ferret Canyon is at present inactive in terms of sediment gravity flow. Compared to stations on the adjacent flank, canyon-axis stations are generally characterised by shallow oxygen penetration depths, high diffusive oxygen uptakes (DOU) and high lipid contents. Higher mineralisation rates recorded in the canyon axis are likely due to a preferential focusing of labile organic matter in the canyon axis. Foraminiferal standing stocks do not exhibit any straightforward correlation with the different descriptors of organic matter available in the sediment. However, foraminiferal standing stock and diversity along the canyon axis are generally higher than on the adjacent flank. Canyon axis sites yield dominant species that are similar to those at adjacent flank and open slope stations located at comparable water depths. However, intermediate and deep infaunal species were only recorded in the lower canyon axis, where high amounts of organic matter were observed in deeper sediment layers. Finally, the faunal composition in the Cap-Ferret Canyon is different compared to the nearby Cap-Breton Canyon, where sediment gravity flows are active. The absence of pioneer species and the occurrence of highly specialized taxa are both consistent with the much more stable conditions in terms of hydro-sedimentary conditions prevailing in the Cap-Ferret Canyon.

  18. Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 26. March 1943. SHOWING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 26. March 1943. SHOWING AREA B, BUILDINGS 901-919; PART OF BUILDINGS 949 AND 950 ARE SHOWN IN UPPER LIFT CORNER OF DRAWING - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. A delta-fed submarine ramp alternative to the canyon-fed depositional model of the Stevens submarine fan system, southeastern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Deep-marine sands of the Upper Miocene Stevens Sandstone, one of the most important hydrocarbon-producing units in the United States, were deposited by sediment-gravity flows in the Bakersfield Arch area of the southern San Joaquin basin. The Stevens Sandstone has historically been considered to be a thick turbidite succession shed off the southern Sierra Nevada as four fans in a long-lived submarine fan system fed by several large submarine canyons. Access to previously unavailable proprietary 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets, carefully calibrated by well-log and core data, permits a more complete understanding of the depositional architecture of this highly petroliferous, deep-marine depositional system. This study concludes that these units were deposited in a delta-fed, line- sourced deep-sea system, whose distribution was structurally-controlled. Seismic lines examined in this study show evidence for a large fault-controlled slump feature in the area that has been referred to as {open_quotes}Rosedale Canyon,{close_quotes} and no evidence supports the existence of submarine canyons feeding the system. The highly progradational Stevens interval consists of thick siliciclastic units separated by thin, intervening biosiliceous shales. Seismically, the upper bounding surfaces of these biosiliceous shales represent major downlap surfaces. As sands were deposited by high-density turbidity currents, the area of the present Bakersfield Arch developed into a deep-sea braid plain. Smaller-scale linear features detected on horizon slices through the 3-D seismic data cube have been interpreted in this study as braided channelform features deposited on the deep-sea braid plain. Hydrocarbon production along these linear trends may be associated with porosity and permeability variations resulting from channelized versus non-channelized sedimentation.

  20. A delta-fed submarine ramp alternative to the canyon-fed depositional model of the Stevens submarine fan system, southeastern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, C.P. )

    1996-01-01

    Deep-marine sands of the Upper Miocene Stevens Sandstone, one of the most important hydrocarbon-producing units in the United States, were deposited by sediment-gravity flows in the Bakersfield Arch area of the southern San Joaquin basin. The Stevens Sandstone has historically been considered to be a thick turbidite succession shed off the southern Sierra Nevada as four fans in a long-lived submarine fan system fed by several large submarine canyons. Access to previously unavailable proprietary 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets, carefully calibrated by well-log and core data, permits a more complete understanding of the depositional architecture of this highly petroliferous, deep-marine depositional system. This study concludes that these units were deposited in a delta-fed, line- sourced deep-sea system, whose distribution was structurally-controlled. Seismic lines examined in this study show evidence for a large fault-controlled slump feature in the area that has been referred to as [open quotes]Rosedale Canyon,[close quotes] and no evidence supports the existence of submarine canyons feeding the system. The highly progradational Stevens interval consists of thick siliciclastic units separated by thin, intervening biosiliceous shales. Seismically, the upper bounding surfaces of these biosiliceous shales represent major downlap surfaces. As sands were deposited by high-density turbidity currents, the area of the present Bakersfield Arch developed into a deep-sea braid plain. Smaller-scale linear features detected on horizon slices through the 3-D seismic data cube have been interpreted in this study as braided channelform features deposited on the deep-sea braid plain. Hydrocarbon production along these linear trends may be associated with porosity and permeability variations resulting from channelized versus non-channelized sedimentation.

  1. Variations in fluvial style in the Westwater Canyon Member, Morrison formation (Jurassic), San Juan basin, Colorado plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miall, A.D.; Turner-Peterson, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of architectural element analysis and lateral profiling have been applied to the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic) in southern San Juan Basin. On a large scale, the sandstone-body architecture consists mainly of a series of tabular sandstone sheets 5-15 m thick and hundreds of meters wide, separated by thin fine-grained units. Internally these sheets contain lateral accretion surfaces and are cut by channels 10-20 m deep and at least 250 m wide. On a more detailed scale, interpretations made from large-scale photomosaics show a complex of architectural elements and bounding surfaces. Typical indicators of moderate- to high-sinuosity channels (lateral accretion deposits) coexist in the same outcrop with downstream-accreted macroform deposits that are typical of sand flats of low-sinuosity, multiple-channel rivers. Broad, deep channels with gently to steeply dipping margins were mapped in several of the outcrops by carefully tracing major bounding surfaces. Locally thick accumulations of plane-laminated and low-angle cross-laminated sandstone lithofacies suggest rapid flow, probably transitional to upper flow regime conditions. Such a depositional style is most typical of ephemeral rivers or those periodically undergoing major seasonal (or more erratic) stage fluctuations, an interpretation consistent with independent mineralogical evidence of aridity. Fining-upward sequences are rare in the project area, contrary to the descriptions of Campbell (1976). The humid alluvial fan model of Galloway (1978) cannot be substantiated and, similarly, the architectural model of Campbell (1976) requires major revision. Comparisons with the depositional architecture of the large Indian rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, still seem reasonable, as originally proposed by Campbell (1976), although there is now convincing evidence for aridity and for major stage fluctuations, which differs both from those modern rivers and Campbell

  2. Surface Fractures Formed in the Potrero Canyon, Tapo Canyon, and McBean Parkway Areas in Association with the 1994 Northridge, California Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rymer, Michael J.; Treiman, Jerome A.; Powers, Thomas J.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Schwartz, David P.; Hamilton, John C.; Cinti, Francesca R.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The magnitude 6.7 (M6.7) Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994 strongly shook the Los Angeles urban region, resulting in 33 direct deaths, more than 20,000 people forced out of their homes, and an estimated $20 billion in damage (Hall, 1994). The earthquake was caused by slip on a previously unrecognized south-dipping fault buried beneath the San Fernando Valley. Slip on the fault propagated from a depth of about 19 km to about 8 km below the ground surface (USGS and SCEC, 1994). Although there was no surface faulting associated with the causative fault, surface fractures did develop along at least one fault (Mission Wells fault) and also in areas without recognized faults (Hart and others, 1995; Hecker and others, 1995a, 1995b; Rymer and others, 1995; Treiman, 1995). The term 'surface fractures' is used herein to describe ground breakage that is not associated with primary faulting or with triggered, secondary, surface faulting on a deep seismogenic fault. This report describes fault- and nonfault-related surface fractures that occurred at three sites, Potrero Canyon, Tapo Canyon, and the McBean Parkway area, 22 to 28 km north-northwest of the main shock (Fig. 1). Investigation of these sites documents far reaching effects of even moderately large earthquakes. Study of such effects has become increasingly important with further urbanization and development. Hecker and others (1995a, 1995b) documented the distribution of surface deformation associated with the Northridge earthquake in the Granada Hills area. The search for surface faulting and surface fracturing was initiated within hours of the earthquake. Both ground and airborne searches were made of the region. After fresh surface fractures were found in Potrero Canyon, aerial photographs were taken of the area (including the McBean Parkway site) by I.K. Curtis, on 21 January 1994, at scales of about 1:2,000 and 1:6,000. These aerial photographs were studied under high magnification to

  3. Geology of Bull Canyon quadrangle, Montrose and San Miguel counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Bull Canyon quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite depots. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tones. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  4. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-26

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen. Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged. Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible. Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02605

  5. Possible Connections Between the Coronado Bank Fault Zone and the Newport-Inglewood, Rose Canyon, and Palos Verdes Fault Zones Offshore San Diego County, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliter, R. W.; Ryan, H. F.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution multichannel seismic-reflection and deep-tow Huntec data collected by the USGS were interpreted to map the Coronado Bank fault zone (CBFZ) offshore San Diego County, California. The CBFZ is comprised of several major strands (eastern, central, western) that change in both orientation and degree of deformation along strike. Between Coronado Bank and San Diego, the CBFZ trends N25W and occupies a narrow 7 km zone. Immediately north of La Jolla submarine canyon (LJSC), the easternmost strand changes orientation to almost due north and appears to be offset in a right-lateral sense across the canyon axis. The strand merges with a prominent fault that follows the base of the continental slope in about 600 m water depth. The central portion of the CBFZ is mapped as a negative flower structure and deforms seafloor sediment as far north as 15 km north of LJSC. Farther north, this structure is buried by more than 400 m of basin sediment. Along the eastern edge of the Coronado Bank, the western portion of the CBFZ is characterized by high angle normal faults that dip to the east. North of the Coronado Bank, the western segment follows the western edge of a basement high; it cuts through horizontal basin reflectors and in places deforms the seafloor. We mapped an additional splay of the CBFZ that trends N40W; it is only observed north and west of LJSC. Although the predominant trend of the CBFZ is about N40W, along strike deviations from this orientation of some of the strands indicate that these strands connect with other offshore fault zones in the area. Based on the limited data available, the trend of the CBFZ south of Coronado Bank suggests that it might connect with the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) that has been mapped in San Diego Bay. North of Coronado Bank, the CBFZ is a much broader fault zone (about 25 km wide) composed of diverging fault strands. The westernmost strand may merge with the western strand of the Palos Verdes fault zone (PVFZ) south of

  6. Telegraph Canyon Creek, City of Chula Vista, San Diego County, California. Detailed Report for Flood Control. Volume 1. Main Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    social , and historical information concerning the Telegraph Canyon area is very limited. For that reason, and because the economy of the study area is...Diego Department of Sanitation and Flood Control by letter dated November 10, 1978 also reaffirmed its support of such solution. Such reaffirmation...marsh and tidal habitats predominate. This area, known as the J Street Marsh, is a valuable and productive habitat that supports many species of

  7. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  8. Mineral resources of the Blue Canyon and Owyhee Breaks Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Vandey Meulen, D.B.; Barlock, V.E.; Plumley, P.S.; Frisken, J.G.; Griscom, A. ); Causey, J.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on Blue Canyon and Owyhee Breaks Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The study area, which includes parts of a high plateau and the Mahogany Mountain Caldera, has undergone basin-and-range extensional tectonism and occupies a regional lacustrine basin cut by faults. Blue Canyon Wilderness Study Area contains identified resources of jasper and perlite. Owyhee Breaks Wilderness Study Area contains occurrences of bentonite, jasper, and zeolite minerals. The resource potential is high for gold, solver, mercury, and molybdenum; moderate for additional gold, bentonite, diatomite, and geothermal; and low for zinc, fluorite, oil, and gas.

  9. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  10. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-08-01

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation--or neutrino oscillation--by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5% respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock mechanical

  11. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-06-11

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation or neutrino oscillation by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5 percent respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock

  12. Map Showing Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology of the Granite Park Area, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Richard; Burke, Kelly J.; Thompson, Kathryn S.

    2000-01-01

    View to west-northwest showing map area and setting of Granite Park; Grand Canyon, Arizona. The Colorado River flows from right to left. Granite Park Wash is the light-colored area in foreground of photograph. The debris fan of 209 Mile Canyon is at left center. Pleistocene gravel is exposed in the steep, light-colored bank above 209 Mile Rapids at left edge of photograph. The black-colored ledge that forms the dark cliff at upper right of photograph is the basalt flow of Hamblin (1994). Sand dunes, debris fans, and terraces of the Colorado River cover the lower half of this area shown in this photograph.

  13. Mineral resource potential map of the lower San Francisco Wilderness study area and contiguous roadless area, Greenlee County, Arizona and Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Hassemer, Jerry R.; Martin, Ronny A.; Lane, Michael

    1982-01-01

    The Lower San Francisco Wilderness Study Area consists of a narrow strip 1-2 mi (2-3 km) wide between the rims of the San Francisco River canyon. The wilderness study area has a moderately high potential for geothermal resources, a low to moderate potential for base metal or precious metal resources in middle to upper Tertiary volcanic rocks, essentially no oil, gas, or coal potential, and a largely unassessable potential for metal deposits related to Laramide igneous intrusions in pre-Tertiary or lower Tertiary rocks that underlie the area. The contiguous roadless area, which borders the New Mexico half of the wilderness study area, mainly on the north side of the San Francisco River, has a low to moderate potential for molybdenum or copper deposits related to intrusive igneous rocks in the core of a volcano of dacitic composition at Goat Basin.

  14. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  15. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  16. Mine and prospect map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas are mostly in Coconino County Ariz., but extend into Kane County, Utah. The area studied in this report encompasses about 560 mi2 (1,450 km2). The study area includes the established Paria Canyon Primitive and Vermilion Cliffs Natural Areas between U.S. Highways 89 and 89A.

  17. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  18. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.

    Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.

    Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.

    Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is

  19. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840 Navigation...: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. The following area is a...

  20. 61 FR 11863 - Vehicle Management Area Designation and Road Closure Order; Ada, Elmore, Canyon, and Owyhee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-03-22

    ... Vehicle Management Area Designation and Road Closure Order; Ada, Elmore, Canyon, and Owyhee Counties, ID... except for those portions of the NCA currently included within the Owyhee Front Special Recreation... Bruneau, Kuna, and Owyhee Management Framework Plans, and the Jarbidge Resource Management Plan....

  1. Visual resource inventory and Imnaha Valley study: Hells Canyon National Recreation Area

    Treesearch

    David H. Blau; Michael C. Bowie; Frank Hunsaker

    1979-01-01

    Hells Canyon National Recreation Area was established by an Act of Congress in December 1975. At that time, the U.S. Forest Service, which administers most of the land included, was given the responsibility of developing a Comprehensive Management Plan for the NRA within five years. In order to minimize future visual degradation, the Forest Service planning team for...

  2. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  3. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  4. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-152-100 (5-14 June 1991) --- Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of San Francisco Bay, development and physiographic features in the immediate vicinity of the bay are well displayed. The photograph clearly shows the eastern part of the city, including the Embarcadero, the Bay Bridge, which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, and Candlestick Park, San Mateo, and Dumbarton Bridges, cross the southern portion of the bay. Vari-colored salt ponds also rim the southern Bay near Moffett Field. Highway 280 runs along the San Andreas fault south of the city. On the eastern margin of the bay are Berkeley the Sacramento River and the Haywood and Calaveras faults.

  5. Mineral resources of the Orejana Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Harney county, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, J.E.; King, H.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Diggles, M.F.; Sawatzky, D.L. ); Benjamin, D.A. )

    1988-01-01

    The Orejana Canyon Wilderness Study Area in south-central Oregon is discussed. It is underlain by Miocene age basalts and interbedded sediments and rhyolite welded tuff. The study area has low mineral resource potential for gold and silver along the Orejana Rim escarpment. There is low mineral resource potential for tin in some exposures of the rhyolite tuff and low potential for oil and gas resources. There are no mining claims or identified mineral resources in the study area.

  6. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840 Navigation...: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. (a) Effective date. This section is effective on...

  7. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant H-Canyon operations. Supplement 5

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M M; Collier, C D; Fairobent, L A; Graham, R F; Mason, C L; McDuffee, W T; Owen, T L; Walker, D H

    1986-02-01

    The H-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the HM process to separate uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and fission products. Irradiated uranium fuels containing {sup 235}U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium isotopes. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. This SAR documents an analysis of the H-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the Conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some H-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the H-Carbon can be operated without due risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined an the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological does are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  8. Hydrogeology of Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area, McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Brod, R.C.; Stone, W.J.

    1981-11-06

    The Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area is located about 10 mi north of Grants, New Mexico, in the heart of the Grants uranium region, which spans the southern edge of the San Juan Basin. The climate is semiarid and local streams are ephemeral, except where discharge from mines or tailings ponds has made them perennial. Ground water is thus the main source of water in the area. Major aquifers include alluvium, sandstones of the Mesaverde Group, sandstones of the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Bluff Sandstone, Todilto Limestone, Chinle Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Glorieta Sandstone. Although shallow unconfined ground water flows southwesterly, deeper, confined ground water flows toward the northeast and east. Ground water in the area generally has a total-dissolved-solids content of 400 to 2000 mg/L; waters in the notheast are more saline (2000 to 5000 mg/L). Because the uranium occurs in a regional artesian aquifer (Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation), extensive dewatering is required: approximately 164 mgd. A new state law brings mine dewatering under the jurisdiction of the State Engineer and permits use of excess uranium-mine water. Private or municipal wells presently provide adequate supplies of water for most domestic and stock purposes.

  9. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  10. Investigation of late Pleistocene and Holocene activity in the San Gregorio fault zone on the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; Brothers, Daniel; Caress, David W.; McGann, Mary; Lundsten, Eve M.; Anderson, Krystle; Gwiazda, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We provide an extensive high‐resolution geophysical, sediment core, and radiocarbon dataset to address late Pleistocene and Holocene fault activity of the San Gregorio fault zone (SGFZ), offshore central California. The SGFZ occurs primarily offshore in the San Andreas fault system and has been accommodating dextral strike‐slip motion between the Pacific and North American plates since the mid‐Miocene. Our study focuses on the SGFZ where it has been mapped through the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon. From 2009 to 2015, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute collected high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub‐bottom profiles using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Targeted samples were collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to provide radiocarbon age constraints. We integrate the high‐resolution geophysical data with radiocarbon dates to reveal Pleistocene seismic horizons vertically offset less than 5 m on nearly vertical faults. These faults are buried by continuous reflections deposited after ∼17.5  ka and likely following erosion during the last sea‐level lowstand ∼21  ka, bracketing the age of faulting to ∼32–21  ka. Clearly faulted horizons are only detected in a small area where mass wasting exhumed older strata to within ∼25  m of the seafloor. The lack of clearly faulted Holocene deposits and possible highly distributed faulting in the study area are consistent with previous interpretations that late Pleistocene and Holocene activity along the SGFZ may decrease to the south. This study illustrates the complexity of the SGFZ, offshore central California, and demonstrates the utility of very high‐resolution data from combined AUV (geophysical)–ROV (seabed sampling) surveys in offshore studies of fault activity.

  11. Geologic map and upper Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Marble Canyon area, Cottonwood Canyon quadrangle, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Belasky, Paul; Montañez, Isabel P.; Martin, Lauren G.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Sandberg, Charles A.; Wan, Elmira; Olson, Holly A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map and pamphlet focus on the stratigraphy, depositional history, and paleogeographic significance of upper Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Marble Canyon area in Death Valley National Park, California. Bedrock exposed in this area is composed of Mississippian to lower Permian (Cisuralian) marine sedimentary rocks and the Jurassic Hunter Mountain Quartz Monzonite. These units are overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine sedimentary deposits that include a previously unrecognized tuff to which we tentatively assign an age of late middle Miocene (~12 Ma) based on tephrochronologic analysis, in addition to the previously recognized Pliocene tuff of Mesquite Spring. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in the Marble Canyon area represent deposition on the western continental shelf of North America. Mississippian limestone units in the area (Tin Mountain, Stone Canyon, and Santa Rosa Hills Limestones) accumulated on the outer part of a broad carbonate platform that extended southwest across Nevada into east-central California. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major eustatic sea-level fall that has been interpreted to record the onset of late Paleozoic glaciation in southern Gondwana. Following a brief period of Late Mississippian clastic sedimentation (Indian Springs Formation), a rise in eustatic sea level led to establishment of a new carbonate platform that covered most of the area previously occupied by the Mississippian platform. The Pennsylvanian Bird Spring Formation at Marble Canyon makes up the outer platform component of ten third-order (1 to 5 m.y. duration) stratigraphic sequences recently defined for the regional platform succession. The regional paleogeography was fundamentally changed by major tectonic activity along the continental margin beginning in middle early Permian time. As a result, the Pennsylvanian carbonate shelf at Marble Canyon subsided and was disconformably overlain by lower Permian units (Osborne Canyon and

  12. Mineral resources of the Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, M.I.; Patterson, C.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Schreiner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Study Area in Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties, Colorado, contains flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Triassic to Cretaceous age underlain by Proterozoic crystalline rocks. Investigations by the US Geological Survey and US Bureau of Mines revealed that the wilderness study area has low mineral resource potential for metals, including uranium, oil and gas, coal, and geothermal energy. No identified resources are present.

  13. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon

    PubMed Central

    Guiterman, Christopher H.; Dean, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon. PMID:26644552

  14. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon.

    PubMed

    Guiterman, Christopher H; Swetnam, Thomas W; Dean, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-02

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon.

  15. 36 CFR 7.92 - Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... roadway is available for snowmobile use only when the designated road or parking area is closed by snow depth to all other motor vehicles used by the public. These routes will be marked by signs, snow poles...

  16. 36 CFR 7.92 - Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... roadway is available for snowmobile use only when the designated road or parking area is closed by snow depth to all other motor vehicles used by the public. These routes will be marked by signs, snow poles...

  17. 36 CFR 7.92 - Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... roadway is available for snowmobile use only when the designated road or parking area is closed by snow depth to all other motor vehicles used by the public. These routes will be marked by signs, snow poles...

  18. San Francisco Bay Area Cargo Forecast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Though sugar manufacturers face competition from non-nutritive sweetners, high fructose corn syrups , and foreign suppliers, the Hawaiian-San...approach, provides background on recent levels of trade, and presents the baseline, high , and low forecasts for 1985, 1990, 2000 and 2020. The major...cargo sectors is cargo that would be carried by high technology ships such as Ro/Ro vessels and barge carriers. In recent years, these vessel designs

  19. BUNK ROBINSON PEAK AND WHITMIRE CANYON ROADLESS AREAS, NEW MEXICO AND ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Philip T.; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Bunk Robinson Peak and the Whitmire Canyon Roadless Areas straddle the Arizona-New Mexico State line in the southern Peloncillo Mountains. A mineral-resource survey identified a 1-sq-mi area of probable resource potential for molybdenum, bismuth, lead, zinc, and precious metals in the northwest part of the Bunk Robinson Peak roadless Area. This appraisal is based on the presence of hydrothermally altered rock and geochemical anomalies. Small deposits of perlite could be present locally, but none were seen. The possibility that resources of oil and (or) gas underlie the area is deemed to be very slight.

  20. Effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort in the hot-humid area of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohan; Shi, Yurong

    2017-02-14

    The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort. Street orientation has the largest contribution on SET at pedestrian level, followed by aspect ratio and greenery, while surface albedo and interactions between factors have small contributions. The street canyons oriented southeast-northwest or with a higher aspect ratio provide more shade, higher wind speed, and better thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians. Compared with the east-west-oriented street canyons, the north-south-oriented street canyons have higher MRTs and worse pedestrian thermal comfort due to their wider building spacing along the street. The effects of greenery change with the road width and the time of the day. Street canyon design is recommended to improve pedestrian thermal comfort. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort and is a useful guide on urban design for the hot-humid area of China.

  1. Effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort in the hot-humid area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohan; Shi, Yurong

    2017-08-01

    The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort. Street orientation has the largest contribution on SET at pedestrian level, followed by aspect ratio and greenery, while surface albedo and interactions between factors have small contributions. The street canyons oriented southeast-northwest or with a higher aspect ratio provide more shade, higher wind speed, and better thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians. Compared with the east-west-oriented street canyons, the north-south-oriented street canyons have higher MRTs and worse pedestrian thermal comfort due to their wider building spacing along the street. The effects of greenery change with the road width and the time of the day. Street canyon design is recommended to improve pedestrian thermal comfort. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort and is a useful guide on urban design for the hot-humid area of China.

  2. Effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort in the hot-humid area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohan; Shi, Yurong

    2017-02-01

    The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort. Street orientation has the largest contribution on SET at pedestrian level, followed by aspect ratio and greenery, while surface albedo and interactions between factors have small contributions. The street canyons oriented southeast-northwest or with a higher aspect ratio provide more shade, higher wind speed, and better thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians. Compared with the east-west-oriented street canyons, the north-south-oriented street canyons have higher MRTs and worse pedestrian thermal comfort due to their wider building spacing along the street. The effects of greenery change with the road width and the time of the day. Street canyon design is recommended to improve pedestrian thermal comfort. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort and is a useful guide on urban design for the hot-humid area of China.

  3. Fault Deformation and Segmentation of the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon, and San Onofre Trend Fault Systems from New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Inner California Borderlands (ICB) is situated off the coast of southern California and northern Baja. The structural and geomorphic characteristics of the area record a middle Oligocene transition from subduction to microplate capture along the California coast. Marine stratigraphic evidence shows large-scale extension and rotation overprinted by modern strike-slip deformation. Geodetic and geologic observations indicate that approximately 6-8 mm/yr of Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by offshore strike-slip faulting in the ICB. The farthest inshore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon (NIRC) Fault is a dextral strike-slip system that is primarily offshore for approximately 120 km from San Diego to the San Joaquin Hills near Newport Beach, California. Based on trenching and well data, the NIRC Fault Holocene slip rate is 1.5-2.0 mm/yr to the south and 0.5-1.0 mm/yr along its northern extent. An earthquake rupturing the entire length of the system could produce an Mw 7.0 earthquake or larger. West of the main segments of the NIRC Fault is the San Onofre Trend (SOT) along the continental slope. Previous work concluded that this is part of a strike-slip system that eventually merges with the NIRC Fault. Others have interpreted this system as deformation associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust fault purported to underlie most of the region. In late 2013, we acquired the first high-resolution 3D Parallel Cable (P-Cable) seismic surveys of the NIRC and SOT faults as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project aboard the R/V New Horizon. Analysis of these data volumes provides important new insights and constraints on the fault segmentation and transfer of deformation. Based on this new data, we've mapped several small fault strands associated with the SOT that appear to link up with a westward jog in right-lateral fault splays of the NIRC Fault on the shelf and then narrowly radiate southwards. Our

  4. Structure, Quaternary history, and general geology of the Corral Canyon area, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    1965-01-01

    The Corral Canyon nuclear power plant site consists of about 305 acres near the mouth of Corral Canyon in the central Santa Monica Mountains; it is located on an east-trending segment of the Pacific Coast between Point Dume and Malibu Canyon, about 28 miles due west of Los Angeles. The Santa Monica Mountains are the southwesternmost mainland part of the Transverse Ranges province, the east-trending features of which transect the otherwise relatively uniform northwesterly trend of the geomorphic and geologic features of coastal California. The south margin of the Transverse Ranges is marked by the Santa Monica fault system, which extends eastward near the 34th parallel for at least 145 miles from near Santa Cruz Island to the San Andreas fault zone. In the central Santa Monica Mountains area the Santa Monica fault system includes the Malibu Coast fault and Malibu Coast zone of deformation on the north; from the south it includes an inferred fault--the Anacapa fault--considered to follow an east-trending topographic escarpmemt on the sea floor about 5 miles south of the Malibu Coast fault. The low-lying terrain south of the fault system, including the Los Angeles basin and the largely submerged Continental Borderland offshore, are dominated by northwest-trending structural features. The Malibu Coat zone is a wide, east-trending band of asymmetrically folded, sheared, and faulted bedrock that extends for more than 20 miles along the north margin of the Santa Monica fault system west of Santa Monica. Near the north margin of the Malibu Coast zone the north-dipping, east-trending Malibu Coast fault juxtaposes unlike, in part contemporaneous sedimentary rock sections; it is inferred to be the near-surface expression of a major crustal boundary between completely unrelated basement rocks. Comparison of contemporaneous structural features and stratigraphic sections (Late Cretaceous to middle Miocene sedimentary, rocks and middle Miocene volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks

  5. Mineral Resources of the Hells Canyon Study Area, Wallowa County, Oregon, and Idaho and Adams Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Gualtieri, James L.; Close, Terry J.; Federspiel, Francis E.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Field studies supporting the evaluation of the mineral potential of the Hells Canyon study area were carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1974-76 and 1979. The study area includes (1) the Hells Canyon Wilderness; (2) parts of the Snake River, Rapid River, and West Fork Rapid River Wild and Scenic Rivers; (3) lands included in the second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II); and (4) part of the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area. The survey is one of a series of studies to appraise the suitability of the area for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. The spectacular and mineralized area covers nearly 950 mi2 (2,460 km2) in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho at the junction of the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Columbia Plateau.

  6. Telegraph Canyon Creek Channel Improvement Project, San Diego County, California; Hydraulic Model Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    USAEWES (if pikae ) Hydraulics Laboratory CEWES-HS-L 6C. ADDRESS (Cty, Stat, and ZP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (Cty, State, and ZIP Code) PO Box 631 Vicksburg, MS...the model was modified to reproduce upstream channel improvements to sta 78+00 to reflect the change in location of the inlets to the box culverts from...being less than 1 mile* and the length about 10 miles; the total drainage area is about 7.5 square miles. Because climatic and drainage area

  7. Marble Canyon 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area Arizona: data report

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, J.D.

    1980-07-01

    Results of ground water and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Marble Canyon 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle are presented. The target sampling density for all media collected was one site per 12 square kilometers. This resulted in 884 sediment samples being collected; however, dry conditions and sparse population resulted in the collection of only 2 ground water samples. Grand Canyon National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and much Indian tribal land in the southern half of the quadrangle were not sampled. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements for sediment samples are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Data from ground water include: water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); physical measurements (water temperature, and scintillometer readings); and elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: water chemistry measurements (where available) for pH, conductivity, and alkalinity; and elemental analyses(U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Histograms, cumulative frequency, and areal distribution plots for most elements; Log U/Th, Log U/Hf, and Log U/(Th + Hf) ratios; and scintillometer readings are included.

  8. Geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1954-01-01

    The geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, located about 12 miles northwest of Moab, Utah, in the Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah, was studied to determine the habits, ore controls, and possible origin of the deposit. Rocks of Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic age crop out in the area mapped, and uranium deposits are found in three zones in the lower 25 feet of the Chinle formation of Late Triassic age. The Shinarump No. 1 mine, which is in the lowermost zone, is located on the west flank of the Moab anticline near the Moab fault. The Shinarump No. 1 uranium deposit consists of discontinuous lenticular layers of mineralized rock, irregular in outline, that, in general, follow the bedding. Ore minerals, mainly uraninite, impregnate the rock. High-grade ore seams of uraninite and chalcocite occur along bedding planes. Uraninite formed later than, or simultaneous with, most sulfides, and the chalcocite may be of two ages, with some being later than uraninite. Uraninite and chalcocite are concentrated in the more poorly sorted parts of siltstones. In the Seven Mile Canyon area guides to ore inferred from the study of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit are the presence of bleached siltstone, carbonaceous matter, and copper sulfides. Results of spectrographic analysis indicate that the mineralizing solutions contained important amounts of barium, vanadium, uranium, and copper, as well as lesser amounts of strontium, chromium, boron, yttrium, lead, and zinc. The origin of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit is thought to be hydrothermal.

  9. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  10. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    O.M. Ramos-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by...

  11. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  12. Internal Structure of the San Jacinto Fault Zone at Blackburn Canyon from a Dense Linear Deployment across the Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, P. E.; Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Lin, F. C.; Vernon, F.

    2016-12-01

    We image the internal structure of the Clark section of the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ) at Blackburn Canyon using teleseismic and local earthquake waveforms recorded during about 1 month by a linear array consisting of 125 three-component 5 Hz geophones with an aperture of 2.4 km. The instrument spacing is 10 m in a zone 400 m wide centered on the surface trace of the fault, and 30 m to the NE and SW of that zone. Analysis of 4 teleseismic events indicates an abrupt change in the horizontal first motions of P phases around the central station, BS55, coinciding with the surface trace. Variations in P arrival times suggest a zone of slowness from station BS55 to 350 m to the NE, with maximum slowness 130 m from BS55. Automatic algorithms are used to detect P fault zone head waves (FZHW) and S fault zone trapped waves (FZTW) generated by local events. Over 200 FZHW candidate phases are detected for 57 M>1 events located SE of the array along the SJFZ. Inspection of the picks reveals probable FZHW in most stations within 1 km wide zone to the SW of station BS32 ( 350 m NE from the central station BS55). FZTW are detected for 36 M>1 events located in a very broad region around the array. When considering only stations in the central 400 m zone, 76% of the FZTW detections are made for stations in the 200 m wide zone NE of BS55. A 100 m wide internal region with 10 stations (B40 to B50), centered 100 m NE of BS55, has the largest amplitude and lowest frequency for waveforms with FZTW, and most likely overlies the core active damage zone of the Clark fault. Based on these initial findings and geological constraints, the main Clark fault at depth is likely closest to station BS55, damage is asymmetric to the NE with most damage confined to a 100 m zone, and the damage zone terminates at a bimaterial interface close to station BS32. Further analysis is needed to confirm the discussed results and conclusions.

  13. 3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.

  14. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS: BUG, CHEROKEE, AND PATTERSON CANYON FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan; Stephen T. Nelson

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  15. Timing of large earthquakes during the past 500 years along the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon, near Watsonville, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    A paleoseismic investigation across the Santa Cruz Mountains section of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon indicates that four surface‐rupturing earthquakes have occurred there during the past ~500  years. At this site, right‐lateral fault slip has moved a low shutter ridge across the mouth of the canyon, ponding latest Holocene sediments. These alluvial deposits are deformed along a narrow zone of faulting. There is excellent evidence for a 1906 (M 7.8) and three earlier earthquakes consisting of well‐developed fissures, scarps, and colluvial wedges. Deformation resulting from the earlier earthquakes is comparable to that from 1906, suggesting they also were large‐magnitude events. The earthquake prior to 1906 occurred either about A.D. 1750 (1711–1770) or A.D. 1855 (1789–1904), depending on assumptions incorporated into two alternative OxCal models. If the later age range is correct, then the earthquake may have been a historical early‐to‐mid‐nineteenth‐century earthquake, possibly the A.D. 1838 earthquake. Both models are viable, and there is no way to select one over the other with the available data. Two earlier earthquakes occurred about A.D. 1690 (1660–1720) and A.D. 1522 (1454–1605). Using OxCal, recalculation of the age of the reported penultimate earthquake reported from the Grizzly Flat site, located about 10 km northwest of Mill Canyon, indicates it occurred about A.D. 1105–1545, earlier than any of the past three earthquakes, and possibly correlates to the fourth earthquake at Mill Canyon.

  16. San Francisco Bay Area Fault Observations Displayed in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, H.; Hernandez, M.; Nayak, P.; Zapata, I.; Schumaker, D.

    2006-12-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the San Francisco Bay Area has a 62% probability of experiencing a major earthquake in the next 30 years. The Hayward fault and the San Andreas fault are the two main faults in the Bay Area that are capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 or larger - a size that could profoundly affect many of the 7 million people who live in the Bay Area. The Hayward fault has a 27% probability of producing a major earthquake in next 30 years, and the San Andreas fault has a 21% probability. Our research group, which is part of the SF-ROCKS high school outreach program, studied the Hayward and San Andreas faults. The goal of our project was to observe these faults at various locations, measure the effects of creep, and to present the data in Google Earth, a freeware tool for the public to easily view and interact with these and other seismic-hazard data. We examined the Hayward and San Andreas faults (as mapped by USGS scientists) in Google Earth to identify various sites where we could possibly find evidence of fault creep. We next visited these sites in the field where we mapped the location using a hand- held Global Positioning System, identified and photographed fault evidence, and measured offset features with a ruler or tape measure. Fault evidence included en echelon shears in pavement, warped buildings, and offset features such as sidewalks. Fault creep offset measurements range from 1.5 19 cm. We also identified possible evidence of fault creep along the San Andreas fault in South San Francisco where it had not been previously described. In Google Earth, we plotted our field sites, linked photographs showing evidence of faulting, and included detailed captions to explain the photographs. We will design a webpage containing the data in a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file format for display in Google Earth. Any interested person needs only to download the free version of Google Earth software and visit our

  17. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  18. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  19. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  20. Forest area and timber resources of the San Joaquin area, California.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1978-01-01

    This report presents statistics on forest area and timber volume and a description of the recent and future timber situations in Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties, California.

  1. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  2. Geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1953-01-01

    The Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine is located about 12 miles northwest of Moab, Utah, in the Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah. A study was made of the geology of the Shinarump No. 1 mine in order to determine the habits, ore controls, and possible origin of the deposit. Rocks of Permain, Triassic, and Jurassic age crop out in the area mapped. Uranium deposits are found in three zones in the lower 25 feet of the Upper Triassic Chinle formation. The Shinarump No. 1 mine, which is in the lowermost zone, is located on the west flank of the Moab anticline near the Moab fault. The Shinarump No. 1 uranium deposit consists of discontinuous lenticular layers of mineralized rock, irregular in outline, that, in general, follow the bedding. Ore minerals, mainly uranite, impregnate the rock. High-grade seams of uranite and chalcocite occur along bedding planes. Formation of unraninite is later than or simultaneous with most sulfides. Chalcocite may be of two ages, with some being later than uraninite. Uraninite and chalcocite are concentrated in the poorer sorted parts of siltstones. Guides to ore in the Seven Mile Canyon area inferred from the study of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit are the presence of bleached siltstone, copper sulfides, and carbonaceous matter. Results of spectrographic analysis indicated that the mineralizing solutions contained important amounts of barium, vanadium, uranium, and copper as well as lesser amounts of strontium, chromium, boron, yttrium, lead, and zinc. The origin of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit is thought to be hydrothermal, dated as later or early.

  3. MIRANDA PINE, HORSESHOE SPRINGS, TEPUSQUET PEAK, LA BREA, SPOOR CANYON, FOX MOUNTAIN, AND LITTLE PINE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    The Miranda Pine, Horseshoe Springs, Tepusquet Peak, La Brea, Spoor Canyon, Fox Mountain and Little Pine Roadless Areas together occupy about 246 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. Mineral-resource surveys indicate demonstrated resources of barite, copper, and zinc at two localities in the La Brea Roadless Area and demonstrated resources of phosphate at a mine in the Fox Mountain Roadless Area. A building stone quarry is present on the southern border of the Horseshoe Spring Roadless Area and an area of substantiated resource potential extends into the area. The Miranda Pine, Tepusquet Peak, Spoor Canyon, and Little Pine Roadless Areas have little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources and there is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in any of the roadless areas.

  4. Hot Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  5. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  6. Ecological Impact of LAN: San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    The San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona is home to nearly 45% of the 900 total species of birds in the United States; millions of songbirds migrate though this unique flyway every year. As the last undammed river in the Southwest, it has been called one of the “last great places” in the US. Human activity has had striking and highly visible impacts on the San Pedro River. As a result, and to help preserve and conserve the area, much of the region has been designated the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA). Attention has been directed to impacts of population, water depletion, and border fence barriers on the riparian environment. To date, there has been little recognition that light at night (LAN), evolving with the increased local population, could have moderating influences on the area. STEM Laboratory has pioneered techniques of coordinated airborne and ground based measurements of light at night, and has undertaken a program of characterizing LAN in this region. We conducted the first aerial baseline surveys of sky brightness in 2012. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) shapefiles allow comparison and correlation of various biological databases with the LAN data. The goal is to better understand how increased dissemination of night time lighting impacts the distributions, behavior, and life cycles of biota on this ecosystem. We discuss the baseline measurements, current data collection programs, and some of the implications for specific biological systems.

  7. Mineral resources of the Sweetwater Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Hill, R.H.; Kulik, D.M.; Scott, D.C.; Hausel, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    The combined investigations of the US Geological Survey, the US Bureau of Mines, and the Geological Survey of Wyoming have identified gold resources in a lode-type gold vein west of the Sweetwater Canyon Wilderness Study Area in the adjacent Lewiston mining district. Extensions of this vein into the study area may contain 20,000 tons of gold resources; however, subsurface sampling is needed to determine if such resources are present in the study area. A high resource potential for placer-type gold deposits and a low resource potential for placer-type tin and tungsten deposits in the Quaternary gravels along the Sweetwater River and Strawberry Creek exists. In the Precambrian greenstone rocks of the western part of the study area, there is a high mineral resource potential for lode-type gold and a low resource potential for lode-type tin and tungsten deposits. In the Precambrian granitoid rocks of the eastern part of the study area, a low potential for lode-type tin and tungsten exists, and in the entire study area, a low resource potential for uranium exists. There is no resource potential for oil, gas, or geothermal energy in the entire study area.

  8. CHAMA-SOUTHERN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Maurice R.; Lindquist, Alec E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Chama-southern San Juan Mountains Wilderness study area in Colorado revealed demonstrated coal resources in an area of substantiated coal resource potential and areas of probable resource potential for petroleum and metals including molydenum, copper, zinc, lead, and silver. The coal deposit that underlies the northwestern part of the study area at its westernmost extension requires further study for a more accurate determination of the coal resources that underlie the area. Drilling also is required to determine depth, magnitude, and tenor of the postulated porphyry deposit containing copper and molybdenum in the northernmost part of the study area. Geophysical surveys and detailed geologic mapping in advance of drilling are needed in the areas delineated as having potential for oil and gas resources.

  9. Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef and the Grand Canyon world heritage areas.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Terence P; Gunderson, Lance H; Folke, Carl; Baird, Andrew H; Bellwood, David; Berkes, Fikret; Crona, Beatrice; Helfgott, Ariella; Leslie, Heather; Norberg, Jon; Nyström, Magnus; Olsson, Per; Osterblom, Henrik; Scheffer, Marten; Schuttenberg, Heidi; Steneck, Robert S; Tengö, Maria; Troell, Max; Walker, Brian; Wilson, James; Worm, Boris

    2007-11-01

    Conventional perceptions of the interactions between people and their environment are rapidly transforming. Old paradigms that view humans as separate from nature, natural resources as inexhaustible or endlessly substitutable, and the world as stable, predictable, and in balance are no longer tenable. New conceptual frameworks are rapidly emerging based on an adaptive approach that focuses on learning and flexible management in a dynamic social-ecological landscape. Using two iconic World Heritage Areas as case studies (the Great Barrier Reef and the Grand Canyon) we outline how an improved integration of the scientific and social aspects of natural resource management can guide the evolution of multiscale systems of governance that confront and cope with uncertainty, risk, and change in an increasingly human-dominated world.

  10. Anomalous concentrations of gold, silver, and other metals in the Mill Canyon area, Cortez quadrangle, Eureka and Lander Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Wells, John David

    1968-01-01

    The Mill Canyon area is in the eastern part of the Cortez window of the Roberts Mountains thrust belt in the Cortez quadrangle, north-central Nevada. Gold and silver ores have been mined from fissure veins in Jurassic quartz monzonite and in the bordering Wenban Limestone of Devonian age. Geochemical data show anomalies of gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and tellurium. Geologic and geochemical studies indicate that a formation favorable for gold deposition, the Roberts Mountains Limestone of Silurian age, may be found at depth near the mouth of Mill Canyon.

  11. 76 FR 6496 - Special Flight Rules Area in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, Draft Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Canyon National Park, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Special Flight... announces the availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Special Flight Rules Area...

  12. 78 FR 24987 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico; Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... containment dome over the affected area, which would catch the oil rising from the sea floor. Many vessels... Hurricane Ivan's storm surge that toppled the Mississippi Canyon (MC) 20 Platform A. The platform's wells... 10'50'' W, and extending the entire water column from the surface to the sea floor. Vessels may...

  13. Gravity survey in the San Luis Valley area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaca, J. Robert; Karig, Daniel E.

    1965-01-01

    During the summers of 1963 and 1964, a regional gravity survey covering 6,000 square miles of the San Luis Valley and surrounding areas was made to determine subsurface basement configurations and to guide future crustal studies. The San Luis Valley, a large intermontane basin, is a segment of the Rio Grande trough, a reef system characterized by volcanism, normal faulting, and tilted fault blocks. The gravity data, accurate to about 0.5 mgal, were reduced to complete-Bouguer anomaly values. The Bouguer-anomaly gravity map delineates a series of en-echelon gravity highs in the central and western San Luis Valley. These gravity highs are interpreted as horsts of Precambrian rock buried by basin fill. A series of en-echelon gravity lows along the eastern edge of the Valley is interpreted as a graben filled with sedimentary and igneous rock estimated to be up to 30,000 ft thick. The relatively high regional gravity over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains suggests that these mountains are locally uncompensated. A subcircular gravity low in the Bonanza area is interpreted as an indication of low-density volcanic rocks within a caldera structure.

  14. Depositional environments of Qual Canyon sandstone and Soda Lake shale members of Miocene Vaqueros Formation in southeastern Caliente Range, San Luis Obispo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Goaldman, D.C.

    1988-03-01

    The Quail Canyon Sandstone and the Soda Lake Shale Members are the lower members of the Miocene Vaqueros Formation in the southeastern Caliente Range, San Luis Obispo County, California. The Quail Canyon Sandstone Member is conformably underlain by the nonmarine Oligocene Simmler Formation. The Soda Lake Shale Member is conformably overlain by the Painted Rock Sandstone Member of the Vaqueros Formation. The rarely fossiliferous Quail Canyon Sandstone Member is medium to coarse grained and well sorted in its lower half, becoming medium to fine grained upsection. The lower rocks consist of parallel-laminated and large-scale cross-bedded sandstones, representing an upper-shoreface environment. The upper rocks are primarily structureless sandstone and represent a lower-shoreface environment. The entire section ranges in thickness from 50 to 150 m, thinning westward. The Soda Lake Shale Member consists primarily of gray sandy siltstone, brown siltstone, and structureless sandstone. The sandy siltstone and structureless sandstone are interbedded at the bottom of the unit and indicate lower-shoreface to transitional-marine environments. The rocks become progressively finer into the characteristic, usually structureless, brown siltstone of the Soda Lake Shale Member. The brown siltstone represents an offshore environment, perhaps a restricted bay. Farther upsection, the brown siltstone is interbedded with lenticular structureless sandstone, either of which is locally the dominant lithology. Locally interbedded with the upper rocks is organic-rich, clay-rich sandstone. Above the organic sandstone, the other rocks may contain laminations, grading, and channels that are absent to sparse lower in the section. The upper rocks indicate a shallower and more restricted bay alongside a delta. The Soda Lake Shale Member ranges in thickness from 30 m in the east to 350 m in the west.

  15. The Central San Joaquin Valley Area Health Education Center

    PubMed Central

    Rosinski, Edwin F.

    1978-01-01

    With federal financial support, an area health education center was established in the central San Joaquin Valley of California. The center is a cooperative health sciences education and health care program organized by the University of California and some of the educational and health care institutions of the valley. The center's goals include providing and improving primary health care education, and improving the distribution of health personnel. These goals are achieved through the cooperative development of a number of independent and interdependent activities. An extensive evaluation of the Area Health Education Center has shown that it is a highly effective program. PMID:664636

  16. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  1. Microbial community in the potential gas hydrate area Kaoping Canyon bearing sediment at offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. Y.; Hung, C. C.; Lai, S. J.; Ding, J. Y.; Lai, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep sub-seafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass plays a potentially important role in long-term controls of global biogeochemical cycles. The research team from Taiwan, supported by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), has been demonstrated at SW offshore Taiwan that indicated this area is potential gas hydrate region. Therefore, the Gas Hydrate Master Program (GHMP) was brought in the National Energy Program-Phase II (NEP-II) to continue research and development. In this study, the microbial community structure of potential gas hydrate bearing sediments of giant piston core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan were investigated. This core was found many empty spaces and filling huge methane gas (>99.9 %) that might dissociate from solid gas hydrate. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant members of Archaea were ANME (13 %), SAGMEG (31 %) and DSAG (20 %), and those of Bacteria were Chloroflexi (13 %), Candidate division JS1 (40 %) and Planctomycetes (15 %). Among them, ANME-3 is only distributed at the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) of 750 cmbsf, and sharing similarity with the Hydrate Ridge clone HydBeg92. ANME-1 and SAGMEG distributed below 750 cmbsf. In addition, DSAG and Candidate division JS1 are most dominant and distributed vertically at all tested depths from 150-3600 cmbsf. Combine the geochemical data and microbial phylotype distribution suggests the potential of gas hydrate bearing sediments at core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan.

  2. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  3. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  4. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  5. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  6. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the restricted...

  7. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.860 San Diego... Middle San Diego Bay in an area extending from the northern and eastern boundary of the Naval Amphibious...

  8. The Fish Canyon magma body, San Juan volcanic field, Colorado: Rejuvenation and eruption of an upper-crustal batholith

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachmann, Olivier; Dungan, M.A.; Lipman, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    More than 5000 km3 of nearly compositionally homogeneous crystalrich dacite (~68 wt % SiO2: ~45% Pl + Kfs + Qtz + Hbl + Bt + Spn + Mag + Ilm + Ap + Zrn + Po) erupted from the Fish Canyon magma body during three phases: (1) the pre-caldera Pagosa Peak Dacite (an unusual poorly fragmented pyroclastic deposit, ~ 200 km3); (2) the syn-collapse Fish Canyon Tuff (one of the largest known ignimbrites, ~ 5000 km3); (3) the post-collapse Nutras Creek Dacite (a volumetrically minor lava). The late evolution of the Fish Canyon magma is characterized by rejuvenation of a near-solidus upper-crustal intrusive body (mainly crystal mush) of batholithic dimensions. The necessary thermal input was supplied by a shallow intrusion of more mafic magma represented at the surface by sparse andesitic enclaves in late-erupted Fish Canyon Tuff and by the post-caldera Huerto Andesite. The solidified margins of this intrusion are represented by holocrystalline xenoliths with Fish Canyon mineralogy and mineral chemistry and widely dispersed partially remelted polymineralic aggregates, but dehydration melting was not an important mechanism in the rejuvenation of the Fish Canyon magma. Underlying mafic magma may have evolved H2O-F-S-Cl-rich fluids that fluxed melting in the overlying crystal mush. Manifestations of the late up-temperature magma evolution are: (1) resorbed quartz, as well as feldspars displaying a wide spectrum of textures indicative of both resorption and growth, including Rapakivi textures and reverse growth zoning (An27-28 to An32-33) at the margins of many plagioclase phenocrysts; (2) high Sr, Ba, and Eu contents in the high-SiO2 rhyolite matrix glass, which are inconsistent with extreme fractional crystallization of feldspar; (3) oscillatory and reverse growth zoning toward the margins of many euhedral hornblende phenocrysts (rimward increases from ~5??5-6 to 7??7-8??5 wt % Al2O3). Homogeneity in magma composition at the chamber-wide scale, contrasting with extreme textural

  9. Seismic stratigraphic characteristics of upper Louisiana continental slope: an area east of Green Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouma, Arnold H.; Feeley, Mary H.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Stelting, Charles E.; Hilde, Thomas W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection survey was conducted in a small area of the upper Louisiana Continental Slope known as Green Canyon Area. This area includes tracts 427, 428, 471, 472, 515, and 516, that will be offered for sale in March 1982 as part of Lease Sale 67. The sea floor of this region is, slightly hummocky and is underlain by salt diapirs that are mantled by early Tertiary shale. Most of the shale is overlain by younger Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, although locally some of the shale protrudes the sea floor. Because of proximity to older Mississippi River sources, the sediments are thick. The sediment cover shows an abundance of geologic phenomena such as horsts, grabens, growth faults, normal faults, and consolidation faults, zones with distinct and indistinct parallel reflections, semi-transparent zones, distorted zones, and angular unconformities. The major feature of this region is a N-S linear zone of uplifted and intruded sedimentary deposits formed due to diapiric intrusion. Small scale graben development over the crest of the structure can be attributed to extension and collapse. Large scale undulations of reflections well off the flanks of the uplifted structure suggest sediment creep and slumping. Dipping of parallel reflections show block faulting and tilting. Air gun (5 and 40 cubic inch) records reveal at least five major sequences that show masked onlap and slumping in their lower parts grading into more distinct parallel reflections in their upper parts. Such sequences can be related to local uplift and sea level changes. Minisparker records of this area show similar sequences but on a smaller scale. The distinct parallel reflections often onlap the diapir flanks. The highly reflective parts of these sequences may represent turbidite-type deposition, possibly at times of lower sea level. The acoustically more transparent parts of each sequence may represent deposits containing primarily hemipelagic and pelagic sediment. A complex

  10. LOWER SAN FRANCISCO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Lower San Francisco study area consists of about 40 sq mi, in a strip between 1 and 6 mi wide, along a 20-30 mi stretch of the San Francisco River in Arizona and New Mexico. The study area and contiguous roadless areas were examined for mineral potential and found to have an area of probable mineral-resource potential for base- or precious-metal deposits in middle to upper Tertiary volcanic rocks. The entire area has a largely unassessable potential for base-metal deposits related to igneous intrusives of Laramide age, like those in the nearby Morenci mining district, Arizona. The contiguous roadless area has an area of probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum or copper deposits related to intrusive igneous rocks in the core of a dacitic volcano of Oligocene age. An area in the west part of the study area has a probable geothermal-resource potential.

  11. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, around San... REGULATIONS § 334.980 Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area—(1) Perimeter (restricted). The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicholas Island, Calif...

  12. Geology of an Ordovician stratiform base-metal deposit in the Long Canyon Area, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, B.R.; Zieg, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Long Canyon area, Blaine County, Idaho, a strati-form base-metal-bearing gossan is exposed within a complexly folded and faulted sequence of Ordovician strata. The gossan horizon in graptolitic mudrock suggests preservation of bedded sulfides that were deposited by an Ordovician subaqueous hydrothermal system. Abrupt thickness changes and geochemi-cal zoning in the metal-bearing strata suggest that the gossan is near the source of the hydrothermal system. Ordovician sedimentary rocks at Long Canyon represent a coarsening-upward section that was deposited below wave base in a submarine depositional environment. The lowest exposed rocks represent deposition in a starved, euxinic basin and over-lying strata represent a prograding clastic wedge of terrigenous and calcareous detritus. The metalliferous strata are between these two types of strata. Strata at Long Canyon have been deformed by two periods of thrust faulting, at least three periods of normal faulting, and two periods of folding. Tertiary extensional faulting formed five subhorizontal structural plates. These low-angle fault-bounded plates truncate Sevier-age and possibly Antler-age thrust faults. The presence of gossan-bearing strata in the four upper plates suggests that there was only minor, although locally complex, stratigraphic displacement and rotation. The lack of correlative strata in the lowest plate suggests the displacement was greater than 2000 ft. The metalliferous strata were exposed to surface weathering, oxidation, and erosion prior to and during deposition of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. The orientations of erosional canyons formed during this early period of exposure were related to the orientations of Sevier-age thrust faults, and stream-channel gravel was deposited in the canyons. During this and subsequent intervals of exposure, sulfidic strata were oxi-dized to a minimum depth of 700 ft.

  13. Effects of the catastrophic flood of December 1966, north rim area, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Aldridge, B.N.; Euler, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Precipitation from the unusual storm of December 1966 was concentrated on highlands in northern Arizona, southwestern Utah , southern Nevada, and south-central California and caused widely scattered major floods in the four States. In Arizona the largest amount of precipitation was in the north rim area of eastern Grand Canyon, where about 14 inches was measured. The largest flows occurred along Bright Angel Creek and the MilK Creek-Dragon Creek part of the Crystal Creek drainage basin. The maximum effects of the flood were along Milk Creek-Dragon Creek, where a mudflow caused extensive channel modification. Floods that occurred in the Bright Angel and Crystal Creek basins have a recurrence interval of only once in several centuries. The streamflow that resulted from the storm on the Kaibab Plateau caused considerable local scouring and deepening of channels, including some renewed arroyo cutting. The most catastrophic effects of the 1966 floods were caused by two mudflows that extended from the edge of the Kaibab Plateau along Dragon Creek in the Crystal Creek basin and Lava Creek in the Chuar Creek basin to the Colorado River. More than 10 other large mudflows occurred in Nankoweap, Kwagunt, Crystal, and Shinumo Creek basins. About 80 large debris slides left conspicuous scars in the amphitheaters at the heads of the side gorges, and at least 10 small slides occurred on the Kaibab Plateau. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Geology of the Gore Canyon-Kremmling area, Grand County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, C.S. Venable

    1968-01-01

    The Gore Canyon-Kremmling area is in the southwestern portion of the Kremmling 15-minute quadrangle, Colorado. Precambrian rocks are biotite gneiss, the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, granophyre dikes, and quartz veins. The Boulder Creek intrudes the biotite gneiss, and both of these units are cut by north-northwest-trending granophyre dikes and quartz veins. Biotite gneiss contains structure elements of a northwest and a northeast fold system. Lineations and foliations in the Boulder Creek are generally concordant to the northeast fold system . of the gneiss. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations, in ascending order and with their approximate thicknesses, are the State Bridge Formation, 15 feet; the Chinle and Chugwater Formations undivided, 0-95 feet; the Sundance Formation, 0?-100 feet; the Morrison Formation, 250 feet; the Dakota Sandstone, 225 feet; the Benton Shale, 340 feet; the Niobrara Formation, 600 feet; and the Pierre Shale. Quaternary deposits are terrace, landslide, and modern flood-plain deposits. Laramide rock deformation is related to the Park Range uplift and includes faulting and, in the sediments, some folding. Some of the faults, including the regional Gore fault, are Precambrian structures reactivated in Laramide time.

  15. Preliminary three-dimensional discrete fracture model, Tiva Canyon tuff, Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Anna, L.O.

    1998-09-01

    A three-dimensional discrete fracture model was completed to investigate the potential effects of fractures on the flow of water at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. A fracture network of the Exploratory Studies Facility starter tunnel area was simulated and calibrated with field data. Two modeled volumes were used to simulate three-dimensional fracture networks of the Tiva Canyon tuff. One volume had a width and length of 150 meters, and the other had a width and length of 200 meters; both volumes were 60 meters thick. The analysis shows that the fracture system in the Exploratory Studies Facility starter tunnel area has numerous connected fractures that have relatively large permeabilities. However, pathway analysis between three radial boreholes indicated there were few pathways and little connection, which is consistent with results of cross-boreholes pressure testing. Pathway analysis also showed that at the scales used there was only one pathway connecting one end of the flow box to the opposite end. The usual vertical pathway was along one large fracture, whereas in four horizontal directions the pathway was from multiple fracture connections. As a result, the fracture network can be considered sparse. The fracture network was refined by eliminating nonconductive fractures determined from field-derived permeabilities. Small fractures were truncated from the simulated network without any effect on the overall connectivity. Fractures as long as 1.25 meters were eliminated (a large percentage of the total number of fractures) from the network without altering the number of pathways. Five directional permeabilities were computed for the 150- and 200-meter-scale flow box areas. Permeabilities for the 150-meter scale vary by almost two orders of magnitude, with the principal permeability direction being easterly. At the 200-meter scale, however, the flow box permeabilities only vary by a factor of four, with the principal permeability direction being vertical.

  16. Wisconsinan-Holocene seismic stratigraphy of the Keathley Canyon Area and vicinity, northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gwang Hoon; Bryant, W.R.; Watkins, J.S. )

    1991-03-01

    The lower continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico is characterized by a hummocky topography with shallow salt masses interspersed by numerous salt-withdrawal basins containing thick Plio-Pleistocene and older sediments. Analysis of over 7500 km of multichannel seismic reflection data from the Keathley Canyon Area and vicinity defined the Wisconsinan-Holocene sequence and its seismic facies. In interbasinal areas and in the southern part of the study area where salt is shallow, the Wisconsinan-Holocene sequence consists mainly of low-amplitude (LA) facies underlain by strong basal-reflection (SBR) facies. The LA facies occasionally show subtle onlaps against SBR facies and grade upward into a draping pattern. Onlapping LA facies are interpreted to be a lowstand systems tract deposited by widespread low-energy turbidity currents. Draping LA facies at the top may consist of hemipelagic or pelagic sediments. The SBR facies are interpreted to consist of condensed sections formed during sea-level rises and highstands. Within basins, moderate-to-high amplitude-continuous (MHC) and hummocky-to-chaotic (HC) facies occur below LA facies. The MHC facies show a pattern of flat-lying or gently dipping reflections that onlap SBR facies. Onlapping MHC facies often grade upward into a conformable pattern and are obscured by transition into LA facies. The MHC facies are interpreted as alternating coarse- and fine-grained turbidites deposited during sea-level falls and/or lowstands. The HC facies occur commonly associated with MHC facies. The HC facies may represent slope fans formed by mass-transport processes or gravity flows during sea-level falls and/or lowstands.

  17. Geochemical map of the Chama River Canyon Wilderness and contiguous roadless area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, Jennie L.

    1986-01-01

    The Chama River Canyon Wilderness, in Rio Arriba County, north-central New Mexico, covers 50,300 acres (20,364 hectares) within the Coyote and Cuba Ranger Districts of the Santa Fe National Forest and the Canjilon Ranger District of the Carson National Forest. In 1979 the U.S. Forest Service, under the Forest Service Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) program, designated three additional areas, contiguous to the wilderness, for further planning to assess wilderness characteristics. These areas, totaling 4,800 acres (1,945 hectares), were collectively designated Roadless area 03098; they have since been dropped from consideration. 

  18. Mineral-Scale Sr and Pb Isotopic Variations as Recorders of Magma Differentiation Processes in the Fish Canyon Magmatic System, San Juan Volcanic Field, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, B. L.; Davidson, J. P.; Bachmann, O.; Dungan, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    The use of crystal isotope microstratigraphy, through microanalysis for Sr and more recently Pb isotopes, shows that inter- and intra-crystalline isotopic and compositional heterogeneities exist within many volcanic rocks. Here we report preliminary Sr and Pb isotope data for sanidine, plagioclase and biotite (Sr only) crystals separated from representative samples of the 5000km3, 28Ma Fish Canyon Tuff and the pre-caldera Pagosa Peak Dacite, from the La Garita Caldera, San Juan Volcanic Field, U.S.A. Age-corrected whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr values define a small range (0.7063 to 0.7065), whereas plagioclase values range from 0.7063 to 0.7072 and sanidines define a more limited range 0.7063 to 0.7067. These ranges in 87Sr/86Sr cannot be solely attributed to radiogenic ingrowth during residence in the Fish Canyon magma reservoir, as the 87Rb/86Sr values (plagioclase; 0.003 to 0.011, sanidine; 0.30 to 0.73) are too low to significantly affect 87Sr/86Sr over magmatic timescales. Biotites exhibit a much greater range in initial Sr isotope ratios (0.7202 to 0.7295), but with even higher 87Rb/86Sr ratios of 8 to 12, more than 50 Myrs would be needed to evolve such ratios from the whole-rock ratio. Similarly, large ranges of Pb isotope ratios in sanidines and plagioclase, cannot be produced given the U/Pb ratios of these phases on any geologically reasonable timescale. We interpret the isotopic variations to represent open system processes in the generation of the Fish Canyon magma either by 1) crystallisation from heterogeneous isotopically modified (ultimately mantle-derived) magmas during interaction with old, heterogeneous crust, and/or 2) the direct incorporation of xenocrystic phases from the crust to produce an isotopically heterogeneous magma (and rock) at the mineral scale. Small but significant variations in 39Ar/40Ar total fusion ages for each of the studied phases, are consistent with the latter interpretation, suggesting that the crystal population is a mixture of

  19. Devitrification of the Carlton Rhyolite in the Blue Creek Canyon area, Wichita Mountains, southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bigger, S.E. . Dept. of Geology); Hanson, R.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    The Cambrian Carlton Rhyolite is a sequence of lava flows and ignimbrites extruded in association with rifting in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Rhyolite exposed in the Blue Creek Canyon area consists of a single, originally glassy, porphyritic lava flow > 300 m thick. Abundant flow banding is deformed by variably oriented flow folds present on both outcrop and thin-section scales. A variety of complex texture record the cooling, degassing, and devitrification history of the flow. Acicular Fe, Ti-oxide crystallites aligned in the flow banding document nucleation and limited crystal growth during flow. Spherical microvesicles and larger lithophysal cavities up to 10 cm long crosscut flow banding, showing that degassing continued after flow had ceased. Pseudomorphs of quartz after cristobalite and tridymite are present on cavity walls and are products of high-T vapor-phase crystallization. Devitrification textures overprint the flow banding and developed in two stages. Primary devitrification occurred during initial cooling and formed spherulitic intergrowths in distinct areas bound by sharp devitrification fronts. Spherulites nucleated on phenocrysts, vesicles, and flow bands and show evidence of multiple episodes of growth. Rhyolite outside of the devitrification fronts initially remained glassy but underwent later, low-T hydration to form perlitic texture, which was followed by prolonged secondary devitrification to form extremely fine-grained, equigranular quartzofeldspathic mosaics. Snowflake texture (micropoikilitic quartz surrounding randomly oriented alkali feldspar) developed during both primary and secondary devitrification. Spherical bodies up to 30 cm across are present in discrete horizons within the flow and weather out preferentially from the host rhyolite.

  20. 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    James E. Faulds

    2013-12-31

    The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The 3D geologic model consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30º eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.

  1. Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Bree

    2011-01-01

    The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people.

  2. 77 FR 74470 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Gregory Canyon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Statement for the Gregory Canyon Landfill Project, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Department of the Army--U.S...) for the proposed Gregory Canyon Landfill Project in San Diego County, CA. The project proponent and...

  3. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  4. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  5. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  6. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area. All...

  7. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  8. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  9. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  10. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  11. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  12. Mineral resources of the Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Griscom, A.; Turner, R.L.; Minor, S.A.; Graham, D.E.; Buehler, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas encompass most of the Sheepshead Mountains in southeast Oregon. The mountains comprise several fault blocks of middle and late Miocene basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacite lava; pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks are minor. The three wilderness study areas have low resource potential for gold, silver, and oil and gas. A few small areas have low-to-high resource potential for diatomite, as indicated by the occurrence of low-grade diatomite. Some fault zones have a moderate potential for geothermal energy.

  13. Mineral resources of the Marble Canyon Wilderness Study Area, White Pine County, Nevada, and Millard County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F.; Nowlan, G.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; Marcus, S.M. ); Kness, R.F. )

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on the Marble Canyon Wilderness Study Area that has large inferred subeconomic resources of ordinary limestone and marble. This area of faulted and metamorphosed Paleozoic to Quaternary rocks has zones within it of high and moderate mineral resource potential for limestone and marble, moderate and low potential for barite, and low potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, molybdenum, beryllium, and fluorite. The entire study area has moderate potential for oil and gas and low potential for geothermal energy resources.

  14. Slope-confined submarine canyons in the Baiyun deep-water area, northern South China Sea: variation in their modern morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. S.; Zhou, Q. J.; Su, T. Y.; Liu, L. J.; Gao, S.; Zhou, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of newly collected multibeam bathymetric data, chirp profiles and existing seismic data, we presented a detailed morphological interpretation of a series of slope-confined canyons in water depths of 300-2000 m in the Baiyun deep-water area, northern margin of the South China Sea. Although these canyons are commonly characterized by regular spacing and a straight-line shape, they vary in their lengths, starting and ending water depths, canyon relief, slope gradients, wall slope gradients and depth profiles along the axis. The eastern canyons (C1-C8) have complex surface features, low values in their slope gradient, canyon relief and wall slope gradient and high values in their length and starting and ending depth contrasting to the western ones (C9-C17). From the bathymetric data and chirp profiles, we interpret two main processes that have controlled the morphology and evolution of the canyons: axial incision and landsliding. The western part of the shelf margin where there were at least four stages of submerged reefs differs from the eastern part of the shelf margin where sedimentary undulations occurred at a water depth of ~650 m. We consider that the variation in morphology of submarine canyons in the study area is the result of multiple causes, with the leading cause being the difference in stability of the upper slope which is related to the submerged reefs and sedimentary undulations.

  15. a Synoptic Climatological Approach to Assessment of Visibility and Pollutant Source Locations, Grand Canyon National Park Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Kathleen Valimont

    Visibility at six southwestern United States sites was investigated using a year-round synoptic climatological index to determine potential weather/air quality associations and to investigate possible pollutant source locations for the Grand Canyon National Park. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering were applied to 20 years of various surface and upper-level thermal, moisture, and flow indicators. Median fine mass and particle scattering data were then determined for the resulting categories, and the meteorological characteristics of the most and least offensive categories were evaluated by season. Seasonally high pollutant categories were most associated with upper-level height patterns which favored comparatively warm, moist, 500 mb flow from urban California areas or southern Arizona, possibly assisting movement of urban/industrial pollutants into northern Arizona. In contrast, low pollutant categories were often relatively cool and dry. Corresponding air masses arrived from "clean corridor" regions such as Canada, the Pacific Northwest, and Baja California. While cyclone cool sectors and associated precipitation were found in connection with reduced pollutant levels, warm-sector air masses and lack of precipitation were often related to elevated levels. Consecutive day analyses of meteorological conditions leading to visibility episodes emphasized the relative importance of current -day features. While the highest fine mass categories were associated with light westerly zonal flow aloft, those related to the highest levels of particle scattering showed deep troughs situated over California, resulting in warm, moist southwest winds aloft. Spatial variations in visibility data suggest that the impact of emissions from an electric-generating facility near Glen Canyon, Utah on visibility at the rim of the Grand Canyon is relatively small. Rather, data suggest southwestern urban/industrial areas are responsible. In addition, conditions which would

  16. Tables of basic data to accompany report on geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California, with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, A.A.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1954-01-01

    This appendix presents a part of the basic data collected by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District in the ground-water investigation of the San Bernardino area, California.

  17. Uranium occurrences in the Golden Gate Canyon and Ralston Creek areas, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, John Wagstaff; Gude, A.J.; Beroni, E.P.

    1953-01-01

    Pitchblende, associated with base-metal sulfides, has been found at nine localities in the northern part of Jefferson County, Colo., in shear zones that cut pre-Cambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, chiefly hornblende gneiss, biotite schist, and granite pegmatite. The known deposits are in the vicinity of Halston Creek and Golden Gate Canyon, in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range and about 15 miles east of the pitchblende-producing area of the Central City district. Two of the pitchblende occurrences were found by a local prospector in 1949; the seven other deposits were found by Geological Survey. personnel in 1951-52. The pitchblende deposits, with one exception, are in major shear zones that contain veinlike bodies of carbonate-rich breccia that ranges from 1 to 5 feet in thickness. The breccias probably are related to the Laramide faults, or 'breccia reefs' of similar trend, mapped by Loverinq and Goddard (1950). The breccias are composed of fragments of bleached and iron-stained wall rock, usually hornblende gneiss, that have been cut by veins and cemented by carbonate minerals, quartz, and orthoclase(?). Pitchblende and associated ore minerals, chiefly copper sulfides, occur in and along the margins of the breccias and apparently were introduced at a late stage of the carbonate deposition. At one deposit, the Buckman, the pitchblende is in narrow shear zones not closely related to any large breccia bodies. Secondary uranium minerals are subordinate except at the Schwartzwalder mine, where torbernite and metatorbernite are common. Some alteration of pitchblende to non-opaque materials, believed to be hydrated oxides, has been noted in ore from two of the deposits.

  18. Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

  19. Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

  20. Uranium deposits at the Jomac mine, White Canyon area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trites, A.F.; Hadd, G.A.

    1955-01-01

    azurite, and chalcanthite occur locally with the uranium minerals. Principal ore guides at the Jomac mine are channels, and scours at the bottom of these channels coal-bearing sandstone or conglomerate at the base of the Shinarump conglomerate, coal, and jarosite.

  1. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  2. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  3. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  4. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  5. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  6. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  7. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  8. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  9. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  10. Interpretation of Schlumberger DC resistivity data from Gibson Dome-Lockhart Basin study area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    A Schlumberger dc resistivity survey of the Gibson Dome-Lockhart Basin area, San Juan County, Utah, has revealed the following electrical characteristics of the area: (1) the area between the northern part of Davis Canyon and Gibson Dome is electrically quite uniform and resistive at the depth of the Pennsylvanian evaporite deposits, (2) there is a deep conductive anomaly at Horsehead Rock, and (3) there are several shallow and deep electrical anomalies in the vicinity of the Lockhart fault system. No adverse indicators were found for nuclear waste repository siting south of Indian Creek, but additional soundings should be made to increase data density and to extend the survey area southward. The Lockhart fault system appears to have triggered salt dissolution or flow outside the limits of Lockhart Basin; further geophysical work and drilling will be required to understand the origin of the Lockhart Basin structure and its present state of activity. This problem is important because geologic processes that lead to enlargement of the Lockhart Basin structure or to development of similar structures would threaten the integrity of a repository in the Gibson Dome area.

  11. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  12. Mineral resources of the East Fork High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Washoe and Humboldt counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ach, Jay A.; Plouff, Donald; Turner, R.L.; Schmauch, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The part of the East Fork High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area (CA-020-914/NV-020-006A) included in this study encompasses 33,460 acres in the northwestern part of Nevada. Throughout this report, "wilderness study area" and "study area" refertothe 33,460 acres for which mineral surveys were requested. The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted geological, geophysical, and geochemical surveys to assess the mineral resources (known) and the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the study area. Fieldwork for this report was carried out in 1985 and 1986. No mines, significant prospects, or mining claims are located inside the study area, and no identified resources were found. The wilderness study area has moderate mineral resource potential for gold, silver, and mercury and for zeolite minerals. A low potential also exists for geothermal energy resources, and potential for oil and gas is unknown.

  13. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.

    1982-07-01

    The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.

  14. Potential of breccia pipes in the Mohawk Canyon Area, Hualapai Indian Reservation, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J.; Billingsley, G.H.; Van Gosen, B.S.

    1990-09-21

    The Hualapai Indian Reservation is on the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau in northern Arizona. Hundreds of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northern Arizona. The pipes originated in the Mississippian Redwall Limestone and stoped their way upward through the upper Paleozoic strata, locally extending into the Triassic Moenkopi and Chinle Formations. The occurrence of high-grade U ore, associated with potentially economic concentrations of Cu, Ag, Pb, Zn, V, Co, and Ni in some of these pipes, has stimulated mining activity in northern Arizona despite the depressed market for most of these metals. Two breccia pipes, 241, and 242, have significant mineralized rock exposed on the Esplanade erosion surface; unfortunately, their economic potential is questionable because of their inaccessibility at the bottom of Mohawk Canyon. All warrant further exploration.

  15. Occupation and adult gliomas in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Geetha; Felini, Martha; Carozza, Susan E; Miike, Rei; Chew, Terri; Wrensch, Margaret

    2003-06-01

    The etiology of gliomas is not well understood. Some jobs might involve sustained and elevated exposures to carcinogens. This study compares lifetime job histories of 879 glioma cases diagnosed between August 1991 to April 1994 and May 1997 to August 1999 in the San Francisco Bay Area and 864 controls. Logistic analyses compared longest and ever held occupations of 1 year or more for all astrocytic and nonastrocytic cases and controls overall with adjustment for age, gender, and ethnicity and separately for men and women. Two-fold or higher or statistically significant elevated odds ratios were found overall and in men among those with longest held occupations, as firefighters, physicians, material moving equipment operators, and janitors; such elevated odds ratios were also observed for longest-held occupations among male motor vehicle operators and personal service workers and female messengers, legal/social service workers, electronic equipment operators, painters, and food processors. Odds ratios of 0.50 or less, but not statistically significant, were found for those with longest held jobs as writers/journalists, biological scientists, paper workers, mechanics, chemists, and photographers/photoprocessors. This study supports previously observed occupational associations and is one of the few studies with sufficient numbers to separately analyze occupations by gender.

  16. Temporal and spatial trends in streamwater nitrate concentrations in the San Bernardino mountains, southern California

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Fenn; Mark A. Poth

    1999-01-01

    We report streamwater nitrate (NO,) concentrations for December 1995 to September 1998 from 19 sampling sites across a N deposition gradient in the San Bernardino Mountains. Streamwater NO3- concentrations in Devil Canyon (DC), a high-pollution area, and in previously reported data from the San Gabriel Mountains 40 km...

  17. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban drainage basins in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin and Houston. Studies were completed in the Fort Worth metropolitan area at the end of the 1977 water year, and in the Dallas metropolitan area at the end of the 1979 water year. The study in the San Antonio area was completed at the end of the 1981 water year.The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, expanded the existing streamflow network in the San Antonio metropolitan area in May 1968 to begin urban hydrology studies in this area. In September 1968, the program was further expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. The Texas Department of Water Resources ended its participation in the project in 1979, and the city of San Antonio funded the program through the 1981 water year.The operation and maintenance of stations 08178000, San Antonio River at San Antonio; 08178700, Salado Creek (upper station) at San Antonio; and 08178800, Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio are funded by the city of San Antonio and the U.S Geological Survey.The operation and maintenance and collection of water-quality data at station 08178720, Lorence Creek at Thousand Oaks Blvd., San Antonio, station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio, are funded by the Edwards Underground Water District in cooperation with the Texas Department of Hater Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio will provide hydrologic data on similar and adjacent watersheds. The West Elm watershed is still predominately rural but is undergoing extensive urbanization in some areas. The East Elm watershed is relatively stable and undeveloped.The objectives of the San Antonio urban hydrology study are:To provide data showing the effects of various stages

  18. High-resolution marine seismic reflection data from the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Hart, Patrick; Bruns, Terry R.; Marlow, Michael S.; Sliter, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired high-resolution, marine seismic-reflection profile data across submerged portions of known and inferred upper crustal fault zones throughout the greater San Francisco Bay area. Surveys were conducted oversouth San Francisco Bay in the vicinity of the San Bruno shoal (roughly between the San Francisco and Oakland airports), over the offshore extension of the San Andreas fault system west of the Golden Gate, over the Hayward fault to Rodgers Creek fault step-over in San Pablo Bay, and over the Kirby Hills fault where it crosses the western Sacramento Delta. Reconnaissance profiles were acquired elsewhere throughout the San Francisco and San Pablo Bays. These data were acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey, Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team, under the auspices of the Central California/San Francisco Bay Earthquake Hazards Project. Analysis and interpretation of some of these profiles has been published by Marlow and others (1996, 1999). Further analysis and interpretation of these data are available in a USGS. Professional Paper Crustal Structure of the Coastal and Marine San Francisco Bay Region, T. Parsons, editor, http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/prof-paper/pp1658/ [link added 2012 mfd].

  19. Hydrologic and water-quality data at Government Canyon State Natural Area, Bexar County, Texas, 2002-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, collected rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and stormflow water-quality data at the Laurel Canyon Creek watershed, within the Government Canyon State Natural Area, Bexar County, Tex. The purpose of the data collection was to support evaluations of the effects of brush management conservation practices on components of the hydrologic budget and water quality. One component of brush management was to take endangered wildlife into consideration, specifically the golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). Much of the area that may have been considered for brush management was left intact to protect habitat for the golden-cheeked warbler. The area identified for brush management was approximately 10 percent of the study watershed. The hydrologic data presented here (2002–10) represent pre- and post-treatment periods, with brush management treatment occurring from winter 2006–07 to spring 2008.

  20. 78 FR 67300 - Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; Restricted Anchorage Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas... follows: Sec. 110.220 Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The...

  1. 78 FR 70005 - Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... unchanged. San Nicolas Island is wholly owned by the United States and operated by the U.S. Navy as part of... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...

  2. Mineral resource potential map of the Chama River Canyon Wilderness and contiguous roadless area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, Jennie L.; Light, Thomas D.

    1983-01-01

    The Chama River Canyon Wilderness and Roadless Area have a moderate to high potential for the presence of small deposits of copper with associated uranium and silver. These deposits, as yet undetected, would occur in the Permian Cutler Formation and in the lower part of the Triassic Chinle Formation, rock units that are, for the most part, present only in the subsurface. The presence of these deposits is inferred because such deposits occur in rocks of equivalent age in adjacent areas. Gypsum, of probable minable quality and quantity, occurs throughout the area. Oil and gas are possibly present in Pennsylvanian strata in the subsurface, although no drilling in the study area has tested this hypothesis. Other commodities, including noncopper-related uranium, kaolinite, chromium, vanadium, manganese, and bitumen, although present locally in anomalous concentrations, do not appear to constitute potential resources for these commodities.

  3. Similarities between third and fourth-order stratigraphic sequences: An example from the Permian Upper San Andres: Last Chance Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenfeld, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    The upper San Andres/Cherry Canyon tongue in Last Chance constitutes a seismic-scale, unconformity bounded (third-order) depositional sequence containing mixed carbonate and siliciclastic lithologies deposited in intertidal through toe-of-slope environments. This sequence is composed of more than 12 clinoform packages that are smaller scale , higher frequency (fourth-order) depositional units or parasequences. Although shelf parasequences are asymmetric because flooding surfaces are coincident with maximum regressive surfaces, slope parasequences are relatively symmetric because transgressive deposits separate these two key surfaces. Slope parasequences within the highstand systems tract have bounding surfaces, stratal geometries, facies distributions, and siliciclastic/carbonate interrelationships that show similarities, independent of scale, to the lowstand, transgressive, and highstand systems tracts constituting the third-order sequence. Erosional surfaces and intermittent turbidite-filled channels form the basal portion of slope parasequences. Waning rates of siliciclastic sedimentation from suspension resulted in a basinally restricted, bioturbated sandstone wedge. Bedding planes within the wedge onlap the underlying parasequence boundary. These fourth-order geometries are similar to those of the third-order lowstand through transgressive systems tracts. The sandy wedge is capped by a transgressive surface. This surface is sporadically colonized by sponge-brachiopod communities, which are fourth-order analogs to the larger crinoid-bryozoan bioherms and brachiopod-sponge reefs developed on the third-order maximum flooding surface. Prograding fusulinid shoals downlap the fourth-order wedge, have fourth- and fifth-order toplap surfaces, and may be capped by regressive shelf sands. This mixed lithology package is a fourth-order analog to the third-order highstand systems tract.

  4. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  5. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  6. Benthic foraminiferal thanatocoenoses from the Cap-Ferret Canyon area (NE Atlantic): A complex interplay between hydro-sedimentary and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duros, P.; Jorissen, F. J.; Cesbron, F.; Zaragosi, S.; Schmidt, S.; Metzger, E.; Fontanier, C.

    2014-06-01

    Benthic foraminiferal thanatocoenoses from the Cap-Ferret Canyon area were studied in the >150-μm fraction of 4-5 cm deep sediment levels, at 13 stations. The shallowest station (151 m depth) is located at the shelf break, close to the canyon head. All other stations are located along two bathymetric transects: seven stations along the canyon axis between 300 and 3000 m depth, and five stations from 300 m to 2000 m depth along the southern flank of the canyon. The comparison between the live (Rose-Bengal-stained) and dead assemblages shows that biological (i.e. population dynamic) and taphonomic processes (i.e. test destruction, transport) generate important discrepancies between live and dead assemblages. An important question is, to what degree post-mortem transport and redeposition of foraminiferal tests contribute to the difference between living and dead assemblages? The composition of the thanatocoenoses (<1% of neritic species) indicates that there is no substantial transport of shells >150 μm from the inner continental shelf to the Cap-Ferret Canyon axis. However, transport of tests from outer shelf or upper canyon axis towards deeper sites occurs, as indicated by an increase of diversity indices of the dead fauna along the canyon axis. Moreover, some species (e.g., Cassidulina carinata) are observed in the living fauna restricted to the shallow sites, but occur in important amounts in the dead fauna at deeper stations, suggesting that these taxa have been transported from upper canyon stations toward deeper sites. Since Cap-Ferret Canyon is inactive in terms of massive sediment transport (i.e. gravity events), downslope transport of foraminiferal tests probably takes place in nepheloid layers. Downslope transports of foraminiferal tests may create important biases for the utilisation of paleoceanographic proxies using the assemblage characteristics and/or the geochemical composition of selected species. However, the study of dead assemblages along a

  7. Strontium concentrations in chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal area in Bayo Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Foxx, T.S.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal site Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003(c) in Bayo Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were collected and analyzed for strontium ({sup 90}Sr) and total uranium. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than a control plant -- one plant, in particular, contained 90, 500 pCi {sup 90}Sr g{sup {minus}1} ash in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained {sup 90}Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels; this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving {sup 90}Sr to the soil interspace area. Although some soil surface migration of {sup 90}Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of {sup 90}Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the Bayo Canyon/State Road 5 intersection was still within regional (background) concentrations.

  8. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Modesto Area, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogeologic characterization was done to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic setting near Modesto by maximizing the use of existing data and building on previous work in the region. A substantial amount of new lithologic and hydrologic data are available that allow a more complete and updated characterization of the aquifer system. In this report, geologic units are described, a database of well characteristics and lithology is developed and used to update the regional stratigraphy, a water budget is estimated for water year 2000, a three-dimensional spatial correlation map of aquifer texture is created, and recommendations for future data collection are summarized. The general physiography of the study area is reflected in the soils. The oldest soils, which have low permeability, exist in terrace deposits, in the interfan areas between the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, at the distal end of the fans, and along the San Joaquin River floodplain. The youngest soils have high permeability and generally have been forming on the recently deposited alluvium along the major stream channels. Geologic materials exposed or penetrated by wells in the Modesto area range from pre-Cretaceous rocks to recent alluvium; however, water-bearing materials are mostly Late Tertiary and Quaternary in age. A database containing information from more than 3,500 drillers'logs was constructed to organize information on well characteristics and subsurface lithology in the study area. The database was used in conjunction with a limited number of geophysical logs and county soil maps to define the stratigraphic framework of the study area. Sequences of red paleosols were identified in the database and used as stratigraphic boundaries. Associated with these paleosols are very coarse grained incised valley-fill deposits. Some geophysical well logs and other sparse well information suggest the presence of one of these incised valley-fill deposits along and adjacent to the

  9. Sequence stratigraphy of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments, northeastern Green Canyon and eastern Ewing Bank Areas, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Budhijanto, F.M.; Weimer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A sequence stratigraphic study of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments in the northeastern Green Canyon and Ewing Bank areas has defined seven deposition sequences (5.5, 4.2, 3.8, 3.0, 1.4, 1.1, 0.8, 0.7, and 0.5 Ma). These sequences were correlated, and detailed seismic and geologic facies were constructed for each sequence. Data base for the study comprises 1,436 line miles of forty-fold, migrated, 2-D seismic data, as well as logs from 25 wells, and biostratigraphic data from 17 wells. The area consists of seven mini-basins separated by salt features with differing geometries, and faults. Paleoecology indicates that the area rested primarily in bathyal settings. The early Pliocene sequences (5.5 to 3.0 Ma) consist of sand-rich, areally widespread turbidite systems comprising basin-floor fans (amalgamated sheet sands), surrounded and overlain by overbank shales. Petroleum discoveries in the area occur primarily in reservoirs in this interval. Structural restorations indicate that most of the mini-basins in the study area began to develop during this period of time associated with loading of shallow salt sheets. The interval between 3.0 - 1.4 Ma represents a major condensed zone, including three stacked condensed sections. Lithologies are dominantly shales with some thin sands. This interval varies from 50 to 200 feet in thickness. During the Pleistocene (1.4 Ma to present), mud-rich turbidite systems were deposited extensively in the area, including channel-levee systems and related settings. Sands tend to be concentrated near sequence boundaries and primarily in channel-fill facies. Extensive overbank settings are interpreted for the mud-rich portion of these sequences, based on both siesmich facies and regional distribution. Extensive slides are present also in this interval. By 0.5 Ma, submarine canyons also began to develop in this area; these canyons are interpereted to have fed sediments in the Mississippi Fan in the deep Gulf of Mexico.

  10. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; restricted area. 334.870 Section 334.870 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.870 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area. (a) Restricted area at Bravo Pier, Naval Air Station—(1) The area. The water of...

  11. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; restricted area. 334.870 Section 334.870 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.870 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area. (a) Restricted area at Bravo Pier, Naval Air Station—(1) The area. The water of...

  12. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [including San Diego River, Otay Mts., Japatul Valley, Barrett Lake, Horsethief Canyon, Pine Valley Creek, Pine Creek, and Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Thin sections of rock exposed along the San Diego River linear were prepared and determined to be fault breccia. Single band and ratio images of the western Mojave Desert were prepared from the multispectral scanner digital tapes. Subtle differences in color of soil and rock are enhanced on the ratio images. Two north-northeast trending linears (Horsethief Canyon and Pine Valley Creek) and an east-west linear (Pine Creek) were concluded to have resulted from erosion along well-developed foliation in crystalline basement rocks.

  13. Interstratified arkosic and volcanic rocks of the Miocene Spanish Canyon Formation, Alvord Mountain area, California: descriptions and interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buesch, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The Spanish Canyon Foundation in the Alvord Mountain area, California, varies from about 50 to 120 m thick and records the interstratification of arkosic sandstone and conglomerate with tuffaceous deposits and lava flows. In the lower third of the formation, arkosic sandstone and conglomerate are interstratified with tuffaceous deposits. Some tuffs might have been deposited as primary, nonwelded to partially welded ignimbrites or fallout tephra. Many of the tuffaceous deposits represent redeposited material that formed tuffaceous sandstone, and many of these deposits contain arkosic grains that represent mixing of different source matieral. Arkosic sandstone, and especially conglomerate (some with maximum clast lengths up to 1 m), represent intermittent incursions of coarser plutoniclastic fan deposits into other finer grained and mostly volcaniclastic basin deposits. After deposition of the 18.78 Ma Peach Spring Tuff, the amount of tuffaceous material decreased. The upper two-thirds of the formation has arkosic sandstone and conglomerate interstratified with two olivine basalt lave flows. locally, conglomerate clasts in this part of the section have maximum lengths up to 1 m. Many tuffaceous and arkosic sandstone beds of the Spanish Canyon Formation have tabular to broad (low-relief) lenticular geometry, and locally, some arkosic conglomerate fills channels as much as 1.5 m deep. These bedforms are consistent with deposition in medial to distal alluvial-fan or fluvial environments; some finer-grained deposits might have formed in lacustrine environments.

  14. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Segment Specifications--Tuba City via Mt. Elden, Phoenix; Keams Canyon, Second Mesa, Low Mountain; Phoenix, San Carlos, Bylas; Keams Canyon via Ganado Mesa, Ft. Defiance; Tuba City via Black Mesa, Ft. Defiance; and Budgetary Cost Information--Pinal Peak via San Xavier, Tucson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    The communication links of five different segments of the Arizona TeleMedicine Network (a telecommunication system designed to provide health services for American Indians in rurally isolated areas) and budgetary cost information for Pinal Peak via San Xavier and Tucson are described in this document. The five communication links are identified…

  15. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto; Harmsen, Lynn

    1980-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban drainage basins in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, Houston, and San Antonio.The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, expanded the existing gaging-station network in the San Antonio metropolitan area in May 1968 to begin urban hydrology studies in this area. In September 1968, the program was further expanded to include the collection of water-quality data.The operation and maintenance of stations 08178000, San Antonio River at San Antonio; 08178700, Salado Creek (upper station) at San Antonio; and 08178800, Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio are funded by the San Antonio River Authority in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. The operation and maintenance and collection of water-quality data at station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio are funded by the Edwards Underground Water District in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. These stations will provide hydrologic data on similar and adjacent drainage basins. One drainage basin is undergoing extensive urbanization while the other is undeveloped. The objective of the San Antonio urban-hydrology study are: To provide data showing the effects of various stages of urbanization on flood discharge and runoff. To provide water-quality data on surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes, during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of utilization.

  16. Mineral resources of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, Twelve Mile Creek, and Willow Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Rytuba, J.J.; Plouff, D.; Vercountere, T.L.; Turner, R.L.; Sawatzky, D.L. ); Leszcykowski, A.M.; Peters, T.J.; Schmauch, S.W.; Winters, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    The four contiguous study areas are located in a volcanic terrane dominated by tuffs that were erupted from calderas of the McDermitt Caldera complex and the Whitehorse Caldera. None of these areas have identified resources, despite the proximity of mercury, uranium, and lithium mineralization to the south. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek and the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Areas have a low potential for mercury and uranium. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, and Willow Creek and the northwestern part of the Oregon Wilderness Study Areas have low potential for antimony, bismuth, mercury, silver,molybdenum, and zinc. In the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Area, the tuff of Oregon Canyon and the rim of the caldera of the McDermitt Caldera complex have a low potential for gold and silver in epithermal veins. The study areas have a low potential for zeolite minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy throughout, and restricted parts of the study areas have a low potential for pumice, rare-earth elements, zirconium, and decorative building stone.

  17. Inter-bed fluid triggered slope failures of the Kaoping Canyon upstream area: Results from memorial R/V Ocean Researcher 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yi-Ching; Shen, Tsung-Fu; Liu, Shao-Yung; Yu, Pai-Sen

    2015-04-01

    As a major pathway of the sediment transportation, the submarine canyons sculpture the seafloor then deposit sediments at the deep ocean. The submarine canyons could be classified to two categories: erosive or deposition based on geological environment or fluid flow down to the canyon. The erosive canyons often 'attack' the levee which may result in submarine landslides or mass transportations due to slope failure. Once slope failure occurs at geological weakness area such as gas hydrate dissociation zone, giant mass slumping will be triggered. These kinds of mass transportations will further develop turbidity current or hyperpycnal flow, which could damage the submarine cables or pipes. The giant mass transportation even triggers devastated tsunami. In this study, a latest swath bathymetric map was compiled by comprising seven cruises between December, 2012 and March 2013. The result shows that regressive erosion may take a place north of 500 meters contour (gas hydrate dissociation region), southwest off Taiwan. Moreover, high resolution seismic image (acquired by Edgetech SB-424 sub-bottom profiler) show that gas rich sediments co-exist with submarine landslide deposits in the edge of the upstream of Kaoping submarine canyon. It implies that slope failures in the study area might be caused by weaken sediment collapse.

  18. 75 FR 41819 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area...), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the Puerto Rico Trade... (proposed Sites 14, 15 and 16) in the San Juan, Puerto Rico, area within and adjacent to the San Juan...

  19. 36. SAR1, OVERVIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA FROM ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SAR-1, OVERVIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA FROM ACROSS CANYON. EEC print no. G-C-01-00088, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 44. SAR3, GENERAL VIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SAR-3, GENERAL VIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA FROM THE NEW TRAIL ACROSS THE CANYON. SCE negative no. 4321, March 15, 1918. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ammo Fire Perimeter, Las Pulgas Canyon Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  2. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Black Star Canyon Quadrangle, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  3. Salt Interval Velocities vs Latitude in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: Keathley Canyon and Walker Ridge Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelius, S.; Castagna, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    ABSTRACT A well log database of approximately 300 well logs from the Keathley Canyon and Walker Ridge areas of the Gulf of Mexico plus Mad Dog Field and Mission Deep Field in Green Canyon has been created for the purpose of building a geologically based 3D velocity model. While in the process of calibrating the finished velocity model, a scatter plot was made of all salt interval velocities versus latitude and an unexpected correlation was observed. Five different interval velocity zones have been identified with each having certain associated mineralogies within a latitude range. The salt interval velocity in the southern limits of the study area is higher than 15,000 ft/sec (4572 m/sec) due to the presence of gypsum. The northern most wells in the project area have anhydrite present inside the salt matrix such that their interval velocity can be as high as 18,535 ft/sec (5650 m/sec). In the mid-latitude zones, sylvite, siltstone, claystone, shale, tar and bitumen, with small traces of both anhydrite and gypsum, are found within the salt, yielding salt interval velocity variation from 14,388 ft/sec to 14,909 ft/sec (4386 m/sec to 4544 m/sec). The mineralogical content of the salt in each well was roughly estimated from mud logs and the corresponding interval velocities were determined from vertical seismic profiles, checkshot surveys, and sonic logs. Both geothermal gradients and overburden geopressure gradients between the mudline and the true vertical depth at well bottom calculated from this well database do not show the same correlation with latitude as the salt interval velocities. Mineralogical modeling of the salt composition using Hashin-Shtrikman bounds shows that these various inclusions within the salt matrix can be the cause of the observed variations in the salt interval velocities.

  4. Geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California - with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Garrett, Arthur A.

    1963-01-01

    This is the second in a series of interpretive reports on subsurface outflow from the ground-water basins of San Bernardino County, Calif., prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District. One principal purpose of the study was to estimate the ground-water outflow from the Bunker Hill basin to the Rialto-Colton basin across the San Jacinto fault, which, except locally, forms a nearly impermeable boundary between the two basins. In addition, the report deals qualitatively with the geology, the fault barriers that divide the area into several ground-water basins, the physical nature and degree of imperviousness of the barriers, the occurrence and movement of ground water and fluctuations of water level in the basins, and the chemical quality of surface and ground waters in the San Bernardino area. The report includes a geologic map and sections, water-level-contour maps and profiles, and hydrographs of selected well. The Santa Ana River, the principal stream, flows generally westward across the area. Channels of the river and its tributaries overlie a large irregular structural depression filled with alluvial deposits ranging in age from late Tertiary to Recent and forming a valley bounded on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains, on the east by the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the south by an irregular group of hills. Large alluvial fans underlie most of the area, but its landforms also include alluvial benches and terraces near the mountains, stream channels, and elongate hills, ridges, and scarps along the trace of the San Jacinto fault, which strikes northwestward across the valley about in the center of the area. This fault and others divide the area into ground-water basins, which include the Bunker Hill, Rialto-Colton, upper and lower Lytle and Chino basins. The water-bearing deposits include the following units: the younger alluvium. of Recent age, which occupies principally the backfilled

  5. Distribution of Hydrothermal Mineral Assemblages in the Sevenmile Hole Area, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A.; Larson, P.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pauley, B.; Manion, J.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.

    2007-12-01

    Incision of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River in Yellowstone National Park has exposed approximately 350 vertical meters of hydrothermally altered rhyolites. This older alteration formed in the shallow portion of a hydrothermal system that was most likely similar to the modern Yellowstone hydrothermal environment. Hydrothermal fluid circulation is related to the ongoing rhyolitic magmatism that produced the Yellowstone caldera at 640 ka. The rhyolitic magmatism and hydrothermal system are shallow expressions of deeper mantle- derived basalts. The older alteration is well exposed in the Sevenmile Hole area, near the northeastern margin of the caldera. Here, the alteration protolith is the high silica, low-18O, rhyolitic Tuff of Sulfur Creek. The tuff erupted at about 480 ka after resurgent doming associated with the third cycle collapse of the Yellowstone caldera. The tuff is a rheomorphically deformed densely welded agglutinate fallout ash that was deposited along the caldera wall. It contains phenocrysts of quartz, sodic plagioclase, and potassium feldspar. The tuff is exposed from the rim of the canyon, which is very close to the pre-alteration paleosurface, to the river bottom where it is covered by detrital sediments and actively forming hot spring deposits. Rocks exposed within the field area are pervasively hydrothermally altered. Mineral phases in approximately 90 samples were determined in the field using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyser (PIMA). Subsequently, more precise mineral determinations were made using standard petrographic and powder XRD techniques. The alteration mineralogy consists of variable assemblages that include zones of kaolinite + opal; kaolinite + alunite with local dickite and typically high opal and/or quartz concentrations; highly silicified zones containing illite with or without smectite; and weakly silicified zones containing mostly illite. Minor (less than 1 percent) fine-grained disseminated pyrite is ubiquitous. The

  6. Depths of channels in the area of the San Juan Basin Regional Uranium Study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    During December 1977 and January 1978 about 280 measurements were made of the depths of channels (arroyos) more than 6 feet deep in the San Juan Basin area. More than half of the measurements were made at sites where channel depths had been previously measured Between 1964 and 1969. Some channels in the western part of the basin had Been re-measured in 1969 and in 1971. The principal areas Being dissected by arroyos are near highlands along the margins of the Basin and in uplands in the northeastern part of the Basin. The most severe dissection by arroyos and the deepest arroyos--commonly Between 40 and 60 feet deep--are in the southeastern part of the Basin. Dissection By arroyos is least in the central part of the Basin near the Chaco River where most arroyos are less than 10 feet deep. Elsewhere, moderate dissection predominates with most arroyos Between 12 and 40 feet deep. Comparison of measurements made from 1964-71 with those made in 1977-78 shows that more channels in the western San Juan Basin were filling than were downcutting. Downcutting or filling was generally less than 2 feet. About two-fifths of the sites measured showed less than half a foot of downcutting or filling. Maximum downcutting was 4 feet along the Rio San Jose in the southeastern part of the basin. Maximum filling of 7 feet was along the Chaco River at the Chaco Canyon National Monument. Along ii other streams elsewhere in the western part of the basin, channels were filled 3 to 4.5 feet. The few measurements made in the southeastern San Juan Basin indicate that since 1964 downcutting has predominated over filling. Large floods during the summer of 1977 caused some change in channel depths in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin. Some of the channels appeared to have been filled during the years prior to the cutting that occurred from the 1977 floods. At other places, flood flows aggraded (filled) channels. The rate of erosion and arroyo formation in the entire San Juan Basin is

  7. Map Showing Susceptibility to Earthquake-Induced Landsliding, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santiago, Marilyn; Larsen, Matthew C.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of slope angle and rock type using a geographic information system indicates that about 68 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area has low to no susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides. This is at least partly due to the fact that 45 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area is constructed on slopes of 3 degrees or less, which are too gentle for landslides to occur. The areas with the highest susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides account for 6 percent of the surface area. Almost one-quarter (24 percent) of the San Juan metropolitan area is moderately susceptible to earthquake-induced landslides. These areas are mainly in the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area, where housing development pressures are currently high because of land availability and the esthetics of greenery and hillside views. The combination of new development and moderate earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility indicate that the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area are be at greatest risk.

  8. 33 CFR 167.406 - Off San Francisco: Area to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... avoided. 167.406 Section 167.406 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.406 Off San Francisco: Area to be avoided. A circular area to be avoided, with a radius of half of a nautical mile, is centered upon geographic...

  9. Community Mobilization Project: A Strategic Plan for American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Indian Nations, Inc., Oakland, CA.

    The Community Mobilization Project was a 3-year, grassroots strategic planning process by American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area. As a result of Bureau of Indian Affairs policies that relocated reservation Indians to the Bay Area in the 1950s-70s, over 40,000 American Indians now live in the 10-county area. However, the Indian population…

  10. Areas with Surface Thermal Anomalies as Detected by ASTER and LANDSAT Data around South Canyon Hot Springs, Garfield County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Khalid Hussein

    2012-02-01

    This map shows areas of anomalous surface temperature around South Canyon Hot Springs as identified from ASTER and LANDSAT thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature for the ASTER data was calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas having anomalous temperature in the ASTER data are shown in blue diagonal hatch, while areas having anomalous temperature in the LANDSAT data are shown in magenta on the map. Thermal springs and areas with favorable geochemistry are also shown. Springs or wells having non-favorable geochemistry are shown as blue dots. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder

  11. Electromagnetic (EM-60) survey in the Panther Canyon Area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.; Stark, M.; Haught, R.

    1980-05-01

    Eight frequency domain electromagnetic soundings were measured over the Panther Canyon thermal anomaly in Grass Valley, Nevada. The data were collected with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's large moment horizontal loop system (EM-60). At the transmitter site located near the center of the thermal anomaly, square wave currents of up to 70 A were impressed into a fourturn 50 m radius coil at frequencies from 0.033 to 500 Hz. At the eight receiver sites, 0.5 to 1.5 km from the loop, magnetic fields were detected with a three-component SQUID magnetometer and vertical and radial magnetic field spectra were calculated. Data were interpreted with a computer program which fit filled spectra and associated ellipse polarization data to one-dimensional resistivity models and results were compared to interpretations from earlier dipole-dipole resistivity measurements. Comparison of these interpretations indicates fairly close agreement between the two, with both models clearly indicating the presence and dimensions of the conductivity anomaly associated with the thermal zone. Although the dc data was better able to resolve the high resistivity bedrock, the EM-data were able to resolve all major features without distortion at shorter transmitter receiver separations and in about one-third of the field time.

  12. Long-period building response to earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, A.H.; Aagaard, B.T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study of modeled, long-period building responses to ground-motion simulations of earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. The earthquakes include the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, a magnitude 7.8 simulation of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and two hypothetical magnitude 7.8 northern San Andreas fault earthquakes with hypocenters north and south of San Francisco. We use the simulated ground motions to excite nonlinear models of 20-story, steel, welded moment-resisting frame (MRF) buildings. We consider MRF buildings designed with two different strengths and modeled with either ductile or brittle welds. Using peak interstory drift ratio (IDR) as a performance measure, the stiffer, higher strength building models outperform the equivalent more flexible, lower strength designs. The hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake with hypocenter north of San Francisco produces the most severe ground motions. In this simulation, the responses of the more flexible, lower strength building model with brittle welds exceed an IDR of 2.5% (that is, threaten life safety) on 54% of the urban area, compared to 4.6% of the urban area for the stiffer, higher strength building with ductile welds. We also use the simulated ground motions to predict the maximum isolator displacement of base-isolated buildings with linear, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models. For two existing 3-sec isolator systems near San Francisco, the design maximum displacement is 0.5 m, and our simulations predict isolator displacements for this type of system in excess of 0.5 m in many urban areas. This article demonstrates that a large, 1906-like earthquake could cause significant damage to long-period buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  13. Backpacking in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks and neighboring wilderness areas: how safe is the water to drink?

    PubMed

    Derlet, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk of acquiring disease from popular Sierra Nevada wilderness area lakes and streams. This study examines the relative risk factors for harmful waterborne microorganisms using coliforms as an indicator. Water was collected in the backcountry Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks and neighboring wilderness areas. A total of 72 sites from lakes or streams were selected to statistically differentiate the risk categories: (1) natural areas rarely visited by humans or domestic animals; (2) human day use-only areas; (3) high use by backpackers; (4) high use by pack animals; and (5) cattle- and sheep-grazing tracts. Water was collected in sterile test tubes and Millipore coliform samplers during the summer of 2006. Water was analyzed at the university microbiology lab, where bacteria were harvested and then subjected to analysis using standardized techniques. Statistical analysis to compare site categories was performed using Fisher's exact test. Coliforms were found in none of the 13 wild sites, none of the 12 day hike sites, and only 3 of 18 backpacker sites (17%). In contrast, 14 of 20 sites (70%) with pack animal traffic yielded coliforms, and all 9 sites (100%) below the cattle-grazing areas grew coliforms. Differences between backpacker versus cattle or pack areas were significant, p areas used by pack animals is at risk for containing coliform organisms. Water from wild, day hike, or backpack areas showed far less risk for coliforms.

  14. Hydrogeology and sources of water to select springs in Black Canyon, south of Hoover Dam, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Michael J.; Wilson, Jon W.; Beard, L. Sue

    2015-11-03

    Several major faults, including the Salt Cedar Fault and the Palm Tree Fault, play an important role in the movement of groundwater. Groundwater may move along these faults and discharge where faults intersect volcanic breccias or fractured rock. Vertical movement of groundwater along faults is suggested as a mechanism for the introduction of heat energy present in groundwater from many of the springs. Groundwater altitudes in the study area indicate a potential for flow from Eldorado Valley to Black Canyon although current interpretations of the geology of this area do not favor such flow. If groundwater from Eldorado Valley discharges at springs in Black Canyon then the development of groundwater resources in Eldorado Valley could result in a decrease in discharge from the springs. Geology and structure indicate that it is not likely that groundwater can move between Detrital Valley and Black Canyon. Thus, the development of groundwater resources in Detrital Valley may not result in a decrease in discharge from springs in Black Canyon.

  15. 75 FR 24409 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... EPA Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California. While all documents in the docket are... that the State of California has already submitted attainment demonstrations for these four areas that... in California, including the four areas subject to today's action as well as Western Mojave Desert...

  16. Increased Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Newborns in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braveman, Paula; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether lack of medical insurance was associated with adverse health outcomes, this study examined hospital data on newborns in California's San Francisco Bay Area. The study also sought to determine which ethnic groups were most at risk. Computerized data on all civilian acute-care hospitalizations in the study area were obtained for…

  17. A Comparison of Sunspot and Umbral Area from the San Fernando Obervatory and SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A.; Choudhary, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    Sunspot area is an important and basic datum for determining the level of solar activity. We report on a study of spot total and umbral areas determined from images obtained by the San Fernando Observatory (CSUN) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft. This research has been supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

  18. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy Canyon...

  19. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy Canyon...

  20. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy Canyon...

  1. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy Canyon...

  2. Increasing Hydrogen Ion Activity of Water in Two Reservoirs Supplying the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, J. G.

    1981-10-01

    The hydrogen ion activity (H+) of water in two Sierra Nevada reservoirs (Pardee and Hetch Hetchy) that supply the San Francisco Bay area has been increasing with time over the period 1954-1979. This conclusion is based on weekly measurements ofpH at the two reservoirs and is supported by measurements of alkalinity which decreased at Pardee over the period 1944-1979. Based on linear models, the rate of the increasing (H+) was the same at both reservoirs, and (H+) varied concomitantly from year to year, suggesting a common, general cause. Mean monthly variation in (H+) corresponded to mean monthly variation in atmospheric pollution from a nine-county area around San Francisco Bay. The most likely cause of the increasing (H+) of reservoir waters is NOx from automobile exhausts primarily from the San Francisco Bay area.

  3. Grand Canyon, Colorado as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In this view, the Colorado River can be seen flowing southwest from top left to bottom center-right. The dark wider sections of the river are the water surface of Lake Powell (center, and top left), 110 miles long in a straight line. Grand Canyon National Monument lies lower right, centered on the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, a 10 mile-wide gash carved more than 5,000 feet deep by the Colorado. The Canyon has cut into the Kaibab Plateau, an uplifted area visible here as a forested area with snow on the highest northern parts. The surrounding parts of the Colorado Plateau are sparsely occupied by brush vegetation and appear yellow-brown. The dark area top right is the wooded country of Black Mesa in Navajoland, divided from Lake Powell by the San Juan River. Four Corners is just outside the pictures (top) where the states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico meet. The Henry Mountains appear top left. Apart from Grand Canyon National Monument, several other famous national mo

  4. Sequence stratigraphic setting of turbidite-related petroleum fields, Green Canyon and Ewing Bank lease areas, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, P.; Pulham, A.J.

    1996-08-01

    The Green Canyon (GC) and Ewing Bank (EW) OCS lease areas have 17 discoveries/fields, primarily from bathyal turbidite systems. Salt has played a significant role in the formation of the intraslope basins that the turbidite systems were deposited in, by influencing the flows of turbidities throughout the basin, in the subsequent trap formation, and, in some cases, as a seal. Nearly every field/discovery is associated with a seismic amplitude anomaly. Fields generally have multiple pay zones, with up to 22 in GC 184 (Jolliet). To date, eight of the fields are producing: EB 826, EB 873 (Lobster), GC 6 (Kodiak), GC 18, GC 53/54 (Marquette), GC 65/110 (Bullwinkle), GC 184 (Jolliet), and GC 205 (Vancouver). Other fields expected to be developed are GC 72/116 (Popeye), GC 254 (Allegheny), GC 200/244 (Olivella), GC and GC 166 (Bison). Other discoveries that were produced and then abandoned include GC 19, and GC29. Producing reservoir facies are highly variable across the area. Turbidite reservoir geometries in Pliocene sands (>1.6 Ma) consist of sheets and amalgamated sheet sands. Pleistocene sands are characterized primarily from channel-levee systems and related deposits. These sands tend to more compartmentalized with separate oil/water or gas/water contacts. Most reservoir sands occur within 100 ft overlying a sequence boundary, indicating the eustatic control on the timing of reservoir sand deposition.

  5. Interpretation of an aerial radiometric survey of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area and vicinity, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitkin, James A.; Duval, Joseph S.

    1981-01-01

    The aerial radiometric data for the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area show slight correlation with mapped geology and contain no information of economic significance. Precambrian and modified Precambrian crystalline rocks have more eTh compared to Mesozoic plutonic rocks and one rock unit mapped as a pluton has slightly more K. These rocks have essentially uniform ratios of eU/eTh and eU/K despite their different origins. The ratios and also show that part of the granodiorite of Manzanita Springs could be somewhat deficient in eTh and K. It is concluded that the mapped radioelement distributions are within reasonable limits for the rock types involved, and there is no immediate evidence on any anomalous concentrations of radioactive minerals within the Wilderness Area

  6. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    map area also includes Portuguese Ledge and Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Areas. Designated conservation and (or) recreation areas in the onshore part of the map area include Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation Area, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Reserve, Moss Landing Wildlife Area, Zmudowski and Salinas River State Beaches, and Marina Dunes Preserve.Monterey Bay, a geologically complex area within a tectonically active continental margin, lies between two major, converging strike-slip faults. The northwest-striking San Andreas Fault lies about 34 km east of Monterey Bay; this section of the fault ruptured in both the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1906 M7.8 great California earthquake. The northwest-striking San Gregorio Fault crosses Monterey Canyon west of Monterey Bay. Between these two regional faults, strain is accommodated by the northwest-striking Monterey Bay Fault Zone. Deformation associated with these major regional faults and related structures has resulted in uplift of the Santa Cruz Mountains, as well as the granitic highlands of the Monterey peninsula.Monterey Canyon begins in the nearshore area directly offshore of Moss Landing and Elkhorn Slough, and it can be traced for more than 400 km seaward, out to water depths of more than 4,000 m. Within the map area, the canyon can be traced for about 42 km to a water depth of about 1,520 m. The head of the canyon consists of three branches that begin about 150 m offshore of Moss Landing Harbor. At 500 m offshore, the canyon is already 70 m deep and 750 m wide. Large sand waves, which have heights from 1 to 3 m and wavelengths of about 50 m, are present along the channel axis in the upper 4 km of the canyon.Soquel Canyon is the most prominent tributary of Monterey Canyon within the map area. The head of Soquel Canyon is isolated from coastal watersheds and, thus, is considered inactive as a conduit for coarse sediment transport.North and south of

  7. Creating Safe Growth Strategies for the San Francisco Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from a technical assistance project with the Association of Bay Area Governments to develop strategies to ensure that growth in the region is resilient to hazards such as earthquakes and sea level rise, but also affordable and transit accessible.

  8. Styles of deformation in zones of oblique convergence: An example from the Mecca Hills, southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damte, Alula Bereded

    The Mecca Hills area, located along the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas fault was characterized by a period of basin formation and sediment accumulation between ˜2.3 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Transpression and basin inversion in the last 700 ka, which resulted from an 8sp° angular difference between the orientation of the Mecca Hills segment of the San Andreas fault and the Pacific-North American plate motion vector, is accommodated by two end member and contrasting styles of deformation. The Mecca anticline, Mecca syncline, and numerous small scale folds along the Painted Canyon and San Andreas faults, in the Painted Canyon domain, are on average oriented 30sp° counter-clockwise from the San Andreas fault, typical of distributed style of deformation. On the other hand, the Skeleton Canyon syncline, Chuckawalla syncline and Skeleton Canyon reverse/thrust fault, in Skeleton Canyon domain, have formed parallel to the San Andreas fault, in partitioned style of deformation. Gravity modeling in the Mecca Hills area shows that the morphology of the basement surface follows large scale structures in the overlying sedimentary units, indicating that part of the basement and the overlying sedimentary unit deformed as one. However, it is postulated that no more than the upper 3-4 km of the basement has been shortened during transpression based on a volume balance calculation in laterally confined deformation. In the absence of shallow level detachment, basement involved deformation in the Painted Canyon domain is accommodated by distributed style of deformation. The intensely deformed, silt-dominated Box Canyon sub-member of the upper Palm Spring Formation provides the mechanically weak layer that is required to partition oblique strain into its respective components in the Skeleton Canyon domain. Therefore, local anisotropy, expressed as mechanical layering between competent and incompetent units, has been found to be sufficient to produce contrasting styles of

  9. 33 CFR 167.401 - Off San Francisco: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a)(1) A precautionary area is established bounded to the west by an arc of a circle with a radius of... precautionary area is bounded to the east by a line connecting the following geographic positions: Latitude Longitude 37°42.70′ N 122°34.60′ W. 37°45.90′ N 122°38.00′ W. 37°50.30′ N 122°38.00′ W (b) A pilot...

  10. The Jurassic section along McElmo Canyon in southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    In McElmo Canyon, Jurassic rocks are 1500-1600 ft thick. Lower Jurassic rocks of the Glen Canyon Group include (in ascending order) Wingate Sandstone, Kayenta Formation and Navajo Sandstone. Middle Jurassic rocks are represented by the San Rafael Group, which includes the Entrada Sandstone and overlying Wanakah Formation. Upper Jurassic rocks comprise the Junction Creek Sandstone overlain by the Morrison Formation. The Burro Canyon Formation, generally considered to be Lower Cretaceous, may be Late Jurassic in the McElmo Canyon area and is discussed with the Jurassic. The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the subsurface underlies, and the Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone overlies, the Jurassic section. An unconformity is present at the base of the Glen Canyon Group (J-0), at the base of the San Rafael Group (J-2), and at the base of the Junction Creek Sandstone (J-5). Another unconformity of Cretaceous age is at the base of the Dakota Sandstone. Most of the Jurassic rocks consist of fluviatile, lacustrine and eolian deposits. The basal part of the Entrada Sandstone and the Wanakah Formation may be of marginal marine origin.

  11. San Francisco Bay Area Endangered Species Litigation - Center for Biological Diversity v. EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Center for Biological Diversity have agreed to a revised settlement agreement that amends a 2010 court order for effects determinations on 11 endangered or threatened (listed) species in the San Francisco Bay area. Find out about the new order.

  12. The State of Latino Education in the San Francisco Bay Area: A Crisis in Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Mario

    A study examined educational attainment among Latino students in the six-county San Francisco Bay Area. California's Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program results for 1998-99 were used to assess student achievement in reading and mathematics for grades 4, 7, and 10. Data were also collected on enrollment, dropout rates, percentage of…

  13. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  14. Hypoallergenic breads. Wheat content of products available in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Lietze, A; Rowe, A H; Rowe, A

    1967-12-01

    Substantial amounts of soluble wheat antigens have been found in breads sold as "wheat-free" in the San Francisco Bay Area. Physicians with patients on a wheat-free diet are urged to exercise careful supervision over their patients' choice of such breads.

  15. Reach: A Multicultural Education Resource Handbook for the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Vivian; Tricamo, Terese

    The guide will help elementary and secondary school teachers to identify resources for multicultural education in the San Francisco Bay Area. Over 250 entries are included about American Indians, Mexican Americans, Chinese and Japanese Americans, Greek Americans, Jews, and Afro Americans, the groups most thoroughly represented. Almost every entry…

  16. Flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, Cochise County, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Makings

    2005-01-01

    The flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA) consists of 618 taxa from 92 families, including a new species of Eriogonum and four new State records. The vegetation communities include Chihuahuan Desertscrub, cottonwood-willow riparian corridors, mesquite terraces, sacaton grasslands, rocky outcrops, and cienegas. Species...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1010 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of Hunters Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the shore of the San Francisco Naval Shipyard and the following lines: Beginning at a point on the northerly shore of the Shipyard bearing 292°40′, 950 yards, from Hunters Point Light; thence 35°27′,...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1010 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of Hunters Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the shore of the San Francisco Naval Shipyard and the following lines: Beginning at a point on the northerly shore of the Shipyard bearing 292°40′, 950 yards, from Hunters Point Light; thence 35°27′,...

  19. Slip rates on San Francisco Bay area faults from anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Andrews, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term slip rates on major faults in the San Francisco Bay area are predicted by modeling the anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere in response to regional relative plate motion. The model developed by Bird and Kong [1994] is used to simulate lithospheric deformation according to a Coulomb frictional rheology of the upper crust and a dislocation creep rheology at depth. The focus of this study is the long-term motion of faults in a region extending from the creeping section of the San Andreas fault to the south up to the latitude of Cape Mendocino to the north. Boundary conditions are specified by the relative motion between the Pacific plate and the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley microplate [Argus and Gordon, 2000]. Rheologic-frictional parameters are specified as independent variables, and prediction errors are calculated with respect to geologic estimates of slip rates and maximum compressive stress directions. The model that best explains the region-wide observations is one in which the coefficient of friction on all of the major faults is less than 0.15, with the coefficient of friction for the San Andreas fault being approximately 0.09, consistent with previous inferences of San Andreas fault friction. Prediction error increases with lower fault friction on the San Andreas, indicating a lower bound of ??SAF > 0.08. Discrepancies with respect to previous slip rate estimates include a higher than expected slip rate along the peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault and a slightly lower than expected slip rate along the San Gregorio fault.

  20. 36 CFR 7.19 - Canyon de Chelly National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyon de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 Canyon de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the canyons of Canyon de Chelly National Monument...

  1. 36 CFR 7.19 - Canyon de Chelly National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyon de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 Canyon de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the canyons of Canyon de Chelly National Monument...

  2. 36 CFR 7.19 - Canyon de Chelly National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyon de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 Canyon de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the canyons of Canyon de Chelly National Monument...

  3. 36 CFR 7.19 - Canyon de Chelly National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyon de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 Canyon de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the canyons of Canyon de Chelly National Monument...

  4. 36 CFR 7.19 - Canyon de Chelly National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyon de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 Canyon de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the canyons of Canyon de Chelly National Monument...

  5. Archaeological Sites Inventory of the Training Area 10 and 12 Portions of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Schuldenrein et al. 1985:25). The defined units are the steppes, hogback , arroyo/canyons, and the hills, and portions of each are found within Training... hogback have no bearing on the project’s spatial data though both contain sources of high-quality lithic material and artifacts produced from these quarry...the Hogback . This is a sheet-like basalt intrusion that was injected horizontally into the pre-existing Cretaceous strata. As the area was subjected

  6. The Whittard Canyon - A case study of submarine canyon processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Allcock, A. L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J. S.; Danovaro, R.; De Stigter, H. C.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A. J.; Gunton, L. M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K. L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C. E.; Lavaleye, M. S. S.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communities but owing to our lack of understanding of the processes shaping and driving this diversity, appropriate management strategies have yet to be developed. Here, we integrate all the current knowledge of one single system, the Whittard Canyon (Celtic Margin, NE Atlantic), including the latest research on its geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, oceanography, ecology, and biodiversity in order to address this issue. The Whittard Canyon is an active system in terms of sediment transport. The net suspended sediment transport is mainly up-canyon causing sedimentary overflow in some upper canyon areas. Occasionally sediment gravity flow events do occur, some possibly the result of anthropogenic activity. However, the role of these intermittent gravity flows in transferring labile organic matter to the deeper regions of the canyon appears to be limited. More likely, any labile organic matter flushed downslope in this way becomes strongly diluted with bulk material and is therefore of little food value for benthic fauna. Instead, the fresh organic matter found in the Whittard Channel mainly arrives through vertical deposition and lateral transport of phytoplankton blooms that occur in the area during spring and summer. The response of the Whittard Canyon fauna to these processes is different in different groups. Foraminiferal abundances are higher in the upper parts of the canyon and on the slope than in the lower canyon. Meiofaunal abundances in the upper and middle part of the canyon are higher than on adjacent slopes, but lower in the deepest part. Mega- and macrofauna abundances are higher in the canyon compared with the adjacent slope and are higher in the eastern than

  7. 75 FR 19422 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San... as the Airport Mesa/Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure order prohibits recreational shooting and target practice. The use of firearms will continue to...

  8. 77 FR 68813 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San.../Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure order prohibits recreational shooting and target practice. The use of firearms will continue to be allowed for...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  14. BAREPP: Earthquake preparedness for the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    The threat of major and damaging earthquakes in California is a fact. How people respond to that threat is a concern shared by many local, state, federal, volunteer and private sector organizations. The Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project (BAREPP) promotes comprehensive earthquake preparedness actions by these organizations and provides technical and planning assistance for a variety of programs.

  15. 33 CFR 167.401 - Off San Francisco: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... geographical positions: Latitude Longitude 37°42.70′ N 122°34.60′ W. 37°50.30′ N 122°38.00′ W. (2) The precautionary area is bounded to the east by a line connecting the following geographic positions:...

  16. Anderson Canyon--A Classic Area in South-Central Idaho for Teaching Alpine Glacial Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paull, Rachel Krebs

    1988-01-01

    Describes a source of diversity and enrichment for summer field experiences. Presents information on the geographic and geologic setting, glacial history and record, relative dating of deposits, and use for student experience. Tables include a generalized location of the area, summary of moraine morphology, and pictures. (RT)

  17. External impacts of an intraurban air transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, J. Y.; Gebman, J. R.; Kirkwood, T. F.; Mcclure, P. T.; Stucker, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects are studied of an intraurban V/STOL commuter system on the economic, social, and physical environment of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area was chosen mainly for a case study; the real intent of the analysis is to develop methods by which the effects of such a system could be evaluated for any community. Aspects of the community life affected include: income and employment, benefits and costs, noise, air pollution, and road congestion.

  18. Using packrat middens to assess how grazing influences vegetation change in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Jessica F.; Cole, Kenneth L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2006-01-01

    The fossil and sub-fossil plant macrofossils and pollen grains found in packrat middens can serve as important proxies for climate and vegetation change in the arid Southwestern United States. A new application for packrat midden research is in understanding post-settlement vegetation changes caused by the grazing of domesticated animals. This work examines a series of 27 middens from Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GLCA), spanning from 995 yr BP to the present, which detail vegetation during the periods just prior to, and following, the introduction of domesticated grazers. By comparing middens deposited before and after the start of grazing by domesticated sheep and cattle, the effect on the native plant communities through time can be determined. This analysis of change through time is augmented by measurements of change through space by contrasting contemporaneous middens from nearby similar grazed and ungrazed sites. These comparisons are only made possible by the presence of inaccessible ungrazed areas surrounded by steep cliffs. Multivariate ordinations of the plant assemblages from packrat middens demonstrated that even though all middens were selected from similar geologic substrates, soils, and vegetation type, their primary variability was site-to-site. This suggests that selecting comparable grazed versus ungrazed study treatments would be difficult, and that two similar sites several kilometers apart should not be assumed to have been the same prior to grazing without pre-grazing data. But, the changes through time on grazed areas, as well as the differences between grazed and ungrazed areas in the diversity of certain taxonomic groups, both suggest that grazing by domesticated ungulates has had a noticeable effect on the vegetation. The changes seen through time suggested that grazing lowered the number of taxa recorded and lessened the pre-existing differences within sites, homogenizing the resultant plant associations. Late Holocene pre

  19. Time-domain electromagnetic signatures of polymetallic vein deposits in Cottonwood Canyon area, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    This report tests the usefulness of airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data on three mineral-resource-related issues: (1) to test whether known mineral deposits at or near the surface display any signal in the TEM data; 2) determine whether TEM data can be used to locate bedrock concealed by basin fill; and (3) if the exposed mineral deposits display a signal in the TEM data, to determine if whether deposits are recognizable at depth in outcropping bedrock or in bedrock concealed beneath basin fill. Because Earth's total-intensity magnetic field data are also acquired with the TEM data, these data are included in the analysis. The Cottonwood Canyon area in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, contains several polymetallic vein deposits, including those of the Tyndall, Salero, and Wrightson mining districts, all of which have had significant mineral production. Polymetallic vein deposits, which generally consist of veins of disseminated metallic minerals, commonly exhibit a response to electrical geophysical methods. Also, on the basis of other studies, the conditions that produced the polymetallic vein mineralization in the region are believed to extend offshore into the bedrock concealed by basin fill. The polymetallic vein deposits of the Cottonwood Canyon area all display a geophysical signature in the TEM data. These deposits occur in bedrock that has, in general, a very low resistivity. The polymetallic vein deposits are associated with high-conductivity regions that extend from deep in the bedrock to the surface. These high-conductivity regions can be quite narrow (100 m) or quite wide (1 km); most are relatively narrow. Every known mineral deposit or prospect is associated with a high-conductivity feature. High-conductivity regions can also occur without an association with known mineral deposits. Airborne TEM data appear to be able to locate the basin fill/bedrock contact beneath basin fill. The basin fill (both dry and saturated) is generally more

  20. Planning and Execution of a Marine Methane Hydrate Pressure Coring Program for the Walker Ridge and Green Canyon Areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Gary

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project (and report) is to produce a guide to developing scientific, operational, and logistical plans for a future methane hydrate-focused offshore pressure coring program. This report focuses primarily on a potential coring program in the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks where previous investigations were undertaken as part of the 2009 Department of Energy JIP Leg II expedition, however, the approach to designing a pressure coring program that was utilized for this project may also serve as a useful model for planning pressure coring programs for hydrates in other areas. The initial portion of the report provides a brief overview of prior investigations related to gas hydrates in general and at the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks in particular. The main content of the report provides guidance for various criteria that will come into play when designing a pressure coring program.

  1. Bighorn sheep habitat studies, population dynamics, and population modeling in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Wyoming and Montana, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Francis J.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    The bighorn sheep population of the greater Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA) was extirpated in the 1800s, and then reintroduced in 1973. The herd increased to a peak population of about 211 animals (Kissell and others, 1996), but then declined sharply in 1995 and 1996. Causes for the decline were unknown. Numbers have remained around 100 ± 20 animals since 1998. Previous modeling efforts determined what areas were suitable bighorn sheep habitat (Gudorf and others, 1996). We tried to determine why sheep were not using areas that were modeled as suitable or acceptable habitat, and to evaluate population dynamics of the herd.

  2. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Waldo Canyon Burn Area near Colorado Springs, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon fire near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and potential volume of debris flows along the drainage network of the burned area and to estimate the same for 22 selected drainage basins along U.S. Highway 24 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (29 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (42 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (48 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 54 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from less than 1 to 74 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from less than 1 to 82 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the southern and southeastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Nine of the 22 drainage basins of interest have greater than a 40-percent probability of producing a debris flow in response to the 10-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 1,500 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce

  3. System designed for issuing landslide alerts in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, D.

    1987-01-01

    A system for forecasting landslides during major storms has been developed for the San Francisco Bay area by the U.S Geological Survey and was successfully tested during heavy storms in the bay area during February 1986. Based on the forecasts provided by the USGS, the National Weather Service (NWS) included landslide warnings in its regular weather forecasts or in special weather statements transmitted to local radio and television stations and other news media. USGS scientists said the landslide forecasting and warning system for the San Francisco Bay area can be used as a prototype in developing similar systems for other parts of the Nation susceptible to landsliding. Studies show damage from landslides in the United States averages an estimated $1.5 billion per year. 

  4. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    San Gorgonio Pass area. The water-bearing deposits were divided into three aquifers: (1) the perched aquifer, (2) the upper aquifer, and (3) the lower aquifer based on lithologic and downhole geophysical logs. Natural recharge in the San Gorgonio Pass area was estimated using INFILv3, a deterministic distributed- parameter precipitation-runoff model. The INFILv3 model simulated that the potential recharge of precipitation and runoff in the Beaumont and Banning storage units was about 3,710 acre-feet per year and that the potential recharge in 28 sub-drainage basins upstream of the storage units was about 6,180 acre-feet per year. The water supply for the Beaumont and Banning storage units is supplied by pumping ground water from wells in the Canyon (Edgar and Banning Canyons), Banning Bench, Beaumont, and Banning storage units. Total annual pumpage from the Beaumont and Banning storage units ranged from about 1,630 acre-feet in 1936 to about 20,000 acre-feet in 2003. Ground-water levels declined by as much as 100 feet in the Beaumont storage unit from 1926-2003 in response to ground-water pumping of about 450,160 acre-feet during this period. Since ground-water development began in the San Gorgonio Pass area, there have been several sources of artificial recharge to the basin including return flow from applied water on crops, golf courses, and landscape; septic-tank seepage; and infiltration of storm runoff diversions and imported water into recharge ponds. Return flow from applied water and septic-tank seepage was estimated to reach a maximum of about 8,100 acre-feet per year in 2003. Owing to the great depth of water in much of study area (in excess of 150 feet), the return flow and septic-tank seepage takes years to decades to reach the water table. Stable-isotope data indicate that the source of ground-water recharge was precipitation from storms passing through the San Gorgonio Pass as opposed to runoff from the higher altitudes of the San Bernar

  5. Near-Surface Structure of the Peninsula Segment of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, C.; Catchings, R.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Grove, K.; Prentice, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is a section of the fault that has the potential to produce the next large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, yet the slip history of the peninsula segment is relatively unknown. In most places, the surface location of the SAF has been determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features and from mapping surface ruptures associated with the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake. To more precisely locate traces of the SAF along the San Francisco peninsula in the subsurface, we acquired a high-resolution seismic imaging survey, using both seismic refraction and reflection profiling, south of Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir near Woodside, California in June 2012. We acquired coincident P- and S-wave data using a 60-channel seismograph system connected via cable to 40-Hz vertical-component and 4-Hz horizontal-component geophones, with spacing at 1-m intervals along a 60-m-long transect across the SAF. Seismic sources (shots) were generated by hammer impacts on a steel plate or aluminum block at each geophone location. All shots were recorded on all channels. This survey design permitted simultaneous acquisition of reflection and refraction data such that both refraction tomography and reflection images were developed. Analysis of the P- and S-wave data, using refraction tomography, shows abrupt variations in the P-wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocities, including the 1,500 m/s velocity contour that outlines the top to groundwater and images of Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. P-wave velocities range from about 700 m/s at the surface to more than 4000 m/s at 20-m depth. S-wave velocities range from about 300 m/s at the surface to about 800 m/s at 20-m depth. The combined data indicate that the near-surface trace of the SAF dips steeply to the southwest in the upper few tens of meters. Variations in the velocity images also suggest the possibility of two additional near-surface fault traces within about 25 m of the

  6. Petrogenesis of mesozoic, peraluminous granites in the Lamoille canyon area, Ruby mountains, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, S.-Y.; Barnes, C.G.; Snoke, A.W.; Howard, K.A.; Frost, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of closely associated, peraluminous, two-mica granitic gneiss were identified in the area. The older, sparsely distributed unit is equigranular (EG) with initial ??Nd ??? -8??8 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ???0??7098. Its age is uncertain. The younger unit is Late Cretaceous (???80 Ma), pegmatitic, and sillimanite-bearing (KPG), with ??Nd from -15??8 to -17??3 and initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0??7157 to 0??7198. The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Na, Ca, Sr, V, Zr, Zn and Hf are higher, and K, Rb and Th are lower in the EG. Major- and trace-element models indicate that the KPG was derived by muscovite dehydration melting (<35 km depth) of Neoproterozoic metapelitic rocks that are widespread in the eastern Great Basin. The models are broadly consistent with anatexis of crust tectonically thickened during the Sevier orogeny; no mantle mass or heat contribution was necessary. As such, this unit represents one crustal end-member of regional Late Cretaceous peraluminous granites. The EG was produced by biotite dehydration melting at greater depths, with garnet stable in the residue. The source of the EG was probably Paleoproterozoic metagraywacke. Because EG magmatism probably pre-dated Late Cretaceous crustal thickening, it required heat input from the mantle or from mantle-derived magma.

  7. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  8. Geologic Map of the San Luis Hills Area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a digital image of the U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1906, 'Geologic map of the San Luis Hills area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado,' which was published in 1989 by Thompson and Machette, scale 1:50,000 but has been unavailable in a digital version. The map area represents the southwestern portion of the Alamosa 30' x 60' quadrangle, which is currently being remapped by the U.S. Geological Survey. The northern and eastern margins of the San Luis Hills area have been remapped at greater detail and thus small portions of the map area have been updated. The northern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1392, the northeastern portion is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1124, and the eastern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1074. The most significant changes to the 1989 map area are recognition of Lake Alamosa and its deposits (Alamosa Formation), remapping of bedrock in the northeastern San Luis Hills, and redating of volcanic units in the San Luis Hills. Although unpublished, new 40Ar/39Ar ages for volcanic units in the Conejos and Hinsdale Formations add precision to the previous K/Ar-dated rocks, but do not change the basic chronology of the units. The digital version of this map was prepared by Theodore R. Brandt by scanning the original map at 300 pixels per inch, prior to creating the press-quality (96 Mb) and standard (5 Mb) .pdf files.

  9. 78 FR 34894 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... damage, plumes containing crude oil and gas have been discharging into the Gulf of Mexico, creating a... hurricane and mudslide. However, the latitude and longitude of that oil platform were incorrectly noted. The... mudslide resulted from Hurricane Ivan's storm surge that toppled the Mississippi Canyon (MC) 20 Platform A...

  10. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Eric; Angell, Christopher; Chodash, Perry

    2011-10-01

    We observed fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area beginning approximately 1 week after the earthquake. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. Soon after the observation of fallout in rainwater, we also observed low levels of Fukushima fallout in plant and food specimens collected in the the San Francisco area. This work was supported in part by the US Dept. of Homeland Security and by a Nuclear Non-Proliferation International Safeguards Graduate Fellowship (PAC) from the US Dept. of Energy.

  11. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Eric B.; Angell, Christopher T.; Chodash, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products – 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. PMID:21957447

  12. Look before you build; geologic studies for safer land development in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair-Tyler, Martha

    1995-01-01

    This Circular provides a general description of the types of geologic hazards that exist throughout the United States. In nontechnical language this book describes how geologic information can be incorporated in the land-use development process and contains useful discussion of several examples from the San Francisco Bay area and elsewhere in the United States of how geologic information is already being used in the development process by some cities and counties.

  13. VIEW TO THE SOUTH OVER CAJON CANYON THROUGH BLOOMING YUCCA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE SOUTH OVER CAJON CANYON THROUGH BLOOMING YUCCA, TOWARDS THE BNSF RAILROAD TRACKS. 124 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the industrial cogeneration potential in five San Francisco Bay Area counties. Consultant report

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, C. Jr.; Rodden, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of the industrial cogeneration potential in five San Francisco Bay Area counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, and San Francisco are developed. The estimates are developed using survey techniques including mailed questionaires and on-site visits. The following technical and economic feasibility criteria were used in screening potential industrial cogenerators; a heat demand rate criterion of 15,000 pounds of steam per hour and annual heat load factor of 0.60, which was determined by an after-tax return on investment requirement of 16%. Using these screening criteria, a survey was conducted at 75 industrial sites in the five county area, questionaires were received for 34 projects, and site visits were performed at 12 facilities. Based upon the above economic criteria there were 584 MW of viable cogeneration potential identified, about three quarters of which were found in oil refineries, chemical plants, or paper, plastic, or wallboard firms. The total industrial cogeneration capacity estimated for the five county area was 1334 MW. Extrapolating from this sample, this estimate involves a number of approximations and assumptions, and does not consider industrial growth in future years.

  15. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Tom, J.; Neumann, N.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2005-08-01

    The primary objective of this study at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and the risk index among factors including bird taxonomic groups, wind turbine and reference areas, wind turbine sizes and types, and geographic locations. The key questions addressed to meet this objective include: (1) Are there any differences in the level of bird activity, called ''utilization rate'' or ''use'', with the operating wind plant and within the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (2) Are there any differences in the rate of bird fatalities (or avian fatality) within the operating wind plant or the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (3) Does bird use, fatality rates, or bird risk index vary according to the geographic location, type and size of wind turbine, and/or type of bird within the operating wind plant and surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; and (4) How do raptor fatality rates at San Gorgonio compare to other wind projects with comparable data?

  16. Contrasts in compliant fault zone properties inferred from geodetic measurements in the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materna, Kathryn; Bürgmann, Roland

    2016-09-01

    In crustal fault zones, regions of damaged rock characterized by reduced elastic shear modulus can influence patterns of near-field interseismic deformation. In order to study these compliant fault zones (CFZs) and how they might develop over the lifetimes of faults, we compare two fault segments with contrasting fault age and lithology along the San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area. New geodetic measurements of the interseismic velocity fields at each location are used to constrain fault zone parameters through a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. At Black Mountain, in the Santa Cruz Mountains of the San Francisco Peninsula, we do not find evidence for a compliant fault zone; instead, we find that the geodetic data are more consistent with a model of a single fault in a homogeneous elastic half-space. At Lake San Andreas, a younger fault segment 35 km farther north, we find evidence for a compliant fault zone about 3.4 +1.1/-1.4 km wide, containing a shear modulus of about 40% of the shear modulus of the surrounding rock. We also find that the best fitting CFZ model at this location, unlike the best fitting homogeneous half-space model, has a locking depth that agrees well with the observed depth of microseismicity. Based on differences in fault age, cumulative displacement, and lithology between Black Mountain and Lake San Andreas, we infer that lithology plays an important and, in this case, perhaps a dominant role in the accumulation of fault zone damage structures and the development of CFZs over the lifetime of a fault.

  17. Particulate Matter Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Train Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, L.; Macias, S.; Romero, N.; Lockett, N.; Polar, J.; Madrigal, C.; Lopez, F.; Sanchez, R.; Webster, D.; Torio, M.; Rios, V.; Marks-Block, T.; Toli, F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a general effort to assess air quality in different regions of the San Francisco Bay Area, we collected Particulate Matter (PM) data within passenger train cars along multiple commuter train lines simultaneously during the summer and fall of 2012. We visited numerous Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system stations, including those along the Fremont, Pittsburg and SF/Daly City lines. In conducting this study we used a Dustrak 8530 aerosol sensor equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to measure PM size 2.5 μm concentrations every second. Of all the BART stations we visited, average PM concentration levels at the Embarcadero station in San Francisco were the highest during multiple visits, with a value of 104.95 μg/m3. We also noted that high levels of PM 2.5 were released when the cloth seats on the trains were struck, which resulted in significant, temporary increases of hazardous PM levels of up to 3000 μg/m3! Embarcadero station's high PM concentration correlates to past research in other underground train stations throughout the world, where PM produced through the abrasive interaction of train wheels and tracks or brake pads becomes trapped. Compared to levels measured at outdoor stations (average of 8.52μg/m3) and other underground stations, levels detected at the Embarcadero station are particularly alarming. We believe this is due to the fact that this station is located at one end of a long, underground and underwater transbay tunnel that connects the East San Francisco Bay area to San Francisco to the west. To reduce PM exposure risk to BART employees and passengers, we suggest increasing and/or installing filtration and ventilation systems, which should substantially reduce PM concentrations at Embarcadero station.

  18. High-resolution topography and geomorphology of select archeological sites in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Along the Colorado River corridor between Glen Canyon Dam and Lees Ferry, Arizona, located some 25 km downstream from the dam, archaeological sites dating from 8,000 years before present through the modern era are located within and on top of fluvial and alluvial terraces of the prehistorically undammed river. These terraces are known to have undergone significant erosion and retreat since emplacement of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Land managers and policy makers associated with managing the flow of the Colorado River are interested in understanding how the operations of Glen Canyon Dam have affected the archeological sites associated with these terraces and how dam-controlled flows currently interact with other landscape-shaping processes. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a research project in Glen Canyon to study the types and causes of erosion of the terraces. This report provides the first step towards this understanding by presenting comparative analyses on several types of high-resolution topographic data (airborne lidar, terrestrial lidar, and airborne photogrammetry) that can be used in the future to document and analyze changes to terrace-based archaeological sites. Herein, we present topographic and geomorphologic data of four archaeological sites within a 14 km segment of Glen Canyon using each of the three data sources. In addition to comparing each method’s suitability for adequately representing the topography of the sites, we also analyze the data within each site’s context and describe the geomorphological processes responsible for erosion. Our results show that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses, and that terrestrial and airborne lidar are essentially interchangeable for many important topographic characterization and monitoring purposes. However, whereas terrestrial lidar provides enhanced capacity for feature recognition and gully morphology delineation, airborne methods (whether by way of laser or optical sensors) are

  19. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  20. Asymmetric deformation across the San Francisco Bay Area faults from GPS observations in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, N.; Romanowicz, B.

    2011-02-01

    We show that geodetic data from the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network indicate asymmetric motion across the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), resulting from a strong contrast in rigidity across the fault, as determined previously from seismological data. Assuming asymmetric motion across the fault, we determine the location and size of the maximum strain rate in the region. We find that, compared to the determination using a symmetric model of deformation, it is shifted eastward and its value increases from ˜0.4 μstrain/yr to ˜0.65 μstrain/yr. Such strain rate amplitudes are consistent with previous geodetic slip rate estimates. We confirm that the geological units located east of SAF are entrained by the motion of the Pacific Plate and that the San Andreas fault (SAF) is the real rheological limit between the Pacific and North-American Plates. The asymmetry of rheology constrained in this study implies the strain rate maximum in SFBA is likely located between SAF and the Hayward fault system. This also has implications for hazards in the northern SFBA, in particular on the Rodgers creek fault.

  1. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  2. Earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area (1970-2003)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.; Wong, Florence L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.0 in the greater San Francisco Bay area. Twenty-two earthquakes magnitude 5.0 and greater are indicated on the map and listed chronologically in an accompanying table. The data are compiled from records from 1970-2003. The bathymetry was generated from a digital version of NOAA maps and hydrogeographic data for San Francisco Bay. Elevation data are from the USGS National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from seven Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes. Fault data are reproduced with permission from the California Geological Survey. The earthquake data are from the Northern California Earthquake Catalog.

  3. Geologic Map of the Warm Spring Canyon Area, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California, With a Discussion of the Regional Significance of the Stratigraphy and Structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrucke, Chester T.; Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.

    2007-01-01

    Warm Spring Canyon is located in the southeastern part of the Panamint Range in east-central California, 54 km south of Death Valley National Park headquarters at Furnace Creek Ranch. For the relatively small size of the area mapped (57 km2), an unusual variety of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rocks is present. The outcrop distribution of these rocks largely resulted from movement on the east-west-striking, south-directed Butte Valley Thrust Fault of Jurassic age. The upper plate of the thrust fault comprises a basement of Paleoproterozoic schist and gneiss overlain by a thick sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks, the latter of which includes diamictite generally considered to be of glacial origin. The lower plate is composed of Devonian to Permian marine formations overlain by Jurassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the area, and one pluton intrudes the Butte Valley Thrust Fault. Low-angle detachment faults of presumed Tertiary age underlie large masses of Neoproterozoic dolomite in parts of the area. Movement on these faults predated emplacement of middle Miocene volcanic rocks in deep, east-striking paleovalleys. Excellent exposures of all the rocks and structural features in the area result from sparse vegetation in the dry desert climate and from deep erosion along Warm Spring Canyon and its tributaries.

  4. Sequence stratigraphy of Late Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments of northwestern Green Canyon Area/western Ewing Bank, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.E.; Weimer, P.

    1994-09-01

    Northwestern Green Canyon and Western Ewing Bank lease areas are characterized by complex faulting and salt deformation affecting the late Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments. The sequence stratigraphy has been studied using 1300 km of multifold seismic data, and 40 wells with biostratigraphy data (12 with high-resolution analysis). Fossil abundance and diversity curves were used to recognize condensed sections. Eight depositional sequences have been recognized (2.4, 1.9, 1.4, 0.8, 0.7, 0.5, and 0.4 Ma). Maximum thickness of these sediments is 6 km. Paleobathymetry indicates that sequences were deposited primarily in bathyal water depths. Most of the sediments are in the lowstand systems tracts and consist of basin-floor fans, slope fans, and prograding complexes. Thick blocky sand packages (basin-floor fan) are present in two major sequences (1.4 and 1.1 Ma) and represent potential reservoirs in the area. Transgressive and highstand systems tracts are fairly thin across the area and are thicker only in the younger sequences (< 0.5 Ma). The syndepositional structures play an important role in controlling the geometry and distribution of the depositional units, as well as creating structural highs for petroleum entrapment. Existing discoveries in the area include Green Canyon Blocks 6, 52, 184, and 228, and are associated primarily with amplitude anomalies on the flanks of salt structures and/or faults.

  5. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1978 water year for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of ubanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1978 water years. (USGS)

  6. State of Arizona; Proposed Approval of Second 10-Year SO2 Maintenance Plan for San Manuel Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing to approve the second 10-year maintenance plan for the San Manuel area in Arizona for the 1971 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS or “standards”) for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

  7. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  8. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  9. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  10. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  11. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  12. Deployment of the National Transparent Optical Network around the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G.

    1996-06-01

    We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.

  13. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy...

  14. Maps Showing Ground-Water Conditions in the San Francisco Peaks Area, Coconino County, Arizona - 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Cynthia L.; Bills, Donald J.

    1981-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The San Francisco Peaks area includes about 2,300 mi2, of which about 500 mi2 is in the Navajo Indian Reservation, in north-central Arizona. Ground-water development has been slight except for the public-supply wells for Flagstaff and domestic wells in Fort Valley, Pitman Valley, and the area west of Elden Mountain. The public water supply for Flagstaff is primarily from Upper Lake Mary but is supplemented by ground water from wells near Woody Mountain and Lower Lake Mary and from wells and springs in the Inner Basin. In 1978 about 2,000 acre-ft of ground water was withdrawn for public, industrial, domestic, and stock supplies in the San Francisco Peaks area. The hydrologic data on which these maps are based are available, for the most part, in computer-printout form and may be consulted at the Arizona Department of Water Resources, 99 East Virginia, Phoenix, and at U.S. Geological Survey offices in: Federal Building, 301 West Congress Street, Tucson; Valley Center, Suite 1880, Phoenix; and 2255 North Gemini Drive, Building 3, Flagstaff. Material from which copies can be made at private expense is available at the Tucson, Phoenix, and Flagstaff offices of the U.S. Geological Survey. Only the springs for which discharge data are available are shown on the maps, and only selected wells are shown in areas of high well density.

  15. A geophysical study of the hydrogeology of the Carrizo plain area, San Luis Obispo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.W. )

    1991-02-01

    This investigation was conducted to attempt to locate structural geologic features and variations in aquifer characteristics in an area within the Carrizo plain, San Luis Obispo County, California. The investigation included a review of the established geologic knowledge for the region, followed by field studies. The field studies included surface magnetometer surveys, thermal borehole logging, and a piezometric level survey. Existing borehole electric logs were obtained. The conclusions of the investigation were then derived from a collective interpretation. The investigation concluded that a fault appears to extend beneath the valley fill in the northwestern part of the area, and that a subsurface basaltic dike is apparently located in the southeastern part of the area. Evaluations indicate that the valley has a deep aquifer overlain by a confining clay-rich layer in the central part of the area. Areal and depth-related variations in water quality are probably influenced by the presence of evaporites near Soda Lake and in the region near the San Andreas fault.

  16. Monitoring the subsurface hydrologic response to shallow landsliding in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Foster, K. A.; Knepprath, N.; Reid, M. E.; Schmidt, K. M.; Whitman, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Intense or prolonged rainfall triggers shallow landslides in steeplands of the San Francisco Bay Area each year. These landslides cause damage to built infrastructure and housing, and in some cases, lead to fatalities. Although our ability to forecast and map the distribution of rainfall has improved (e.g., NEXRAD, SMART-R), our ability to estimate landslide susceptibility is limited by a lack of information about the subsurface response to rainfall. In particular, the role of antecedent soil moisture content in setting the timing of shallow landslide failures remains unconstrained. Advances in instrumentation and telemetry have substantially reduced the cost of such monitoring, making it feasible to set up and maintain networks of such instruments in areas with a documented history of shallow landslides. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a pilot project to establish a series of shallow landslide monitoring stations in the San Francisco Bay area. The goal of this project is to obtain a long-term (multi-year) record of subsurface hydrologic conditions that occur from winter storms. Three monitoring sites are now installed in key landslide prone regions of the Bay Area (East Bay Hills, Marin County, and San Francisco Peninsula Hills) each consisting of a rain gage and multiple nests of soil-moisture sensors, matric-potential sensors, and piezometers. The sites were selected with similar characteristics in mind consisting of: (1) convergent bedrock hollow topographic settings located near ridge tops, (2) underlying sandstone bedrock substrates, (3) similar topographic gradients (~30°), (4) vegetative assemblages of grasses with minor chaparral, and (5) a documented history of landsliding in the vicinity of each site. These characteristics are representative of shallow-landslide-prone regions of the San Francisco Bay Area and also provide some constraint on the ability to compare and contrast subsurface response across different regions. Data streams from

  17. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hole, J.A.; Brocher, T.M.; Klemperer, S.L.; Parsons, T.; Benz, H.M.; Furlong, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic travel times from the northern California earthquake catalogue and from the 1991 Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment (BASIX) refraction survey were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area. Nonlinear tomography was used to simultaneously invert for both velocity and hypocenters. The new hypocenter inversion algorithm uses finite difference travel times and is an extension of an existing velocity tomography algorithm. Numerous inversions were performed with different parameters to test the reliability of the resulting velocity model. Most hypocenters were relocated 12 km under the Sacramento River Delta, 6 km beneath Livermore Valley, 5 km beneath the Santa Clara Valley, and 4 km beneath eastern San Pablo Bay. The Great Valley Sequence east of San Francisco Bay is 4-6 km thick. A relatively high velocity body exists in the upper 10 km beneath the Sonoma volcanic field, but no evidence for a large intrusion or magma chamber exists in the crust under The Geysers or the Clear Lake volcanic center. Lateral velocity contrasts indicate that the major strike-slip faults extend subvertically beneath their surface locations through most of the crust. Strong lateral velocity contrasts of 0.3-0.6 km/s are observed across the San Andreas Fault in the middle crust and across the Hayward, Rogers Creek, Calaveras, and Greenville Faults at shallow depth. Weaker velocity contrasts (0.1-0.3 km/s) exist across the San Andreas, Hayward, and Rogers Creek Faults at all other depths. Low spatial resolution evidence in the lower crust suggests that the top of high-velocity mafic rocks gets deeper from west to east and may be offset under the major faults. The data suggest that the major strike-slip faults extend subvertically through the middle and perhaps the lower crust and juxtapose differing lithology due to accumulated strike-slip motion. The extent and physical properties of the major geologic units as

  18. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, J. A.; Brocher, T. M.; Klemperer, S. L.; Parsons, T.; Benz, H. M.; Furlong, K. P.

    2000-06-01

    Seismic travel times from the northern California earthquake catalogue and from the 1991 Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment (BASIX) refraction survey were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area. Nonlinear tomography was used to simultaneously invert for both velocity and hypocenters. The new hypocenter inversion algorithm uses finite difference travel times and is an extension of an existing velocity tomography algorithm. Numerous inversions were performed with different parameters to test the reliability of the resulting velocity model. Most hypocenters were relocated <2 km from their catalogue locations. Large lateral velocity variations at shallow (<4 km) depth correlate with known surface geology, including low-velocity Cenozoic sedimentary basins, high-velocity Cenozoic volcanic rocks, and outcrop patterns of the major Mesozoic geologic terranes. Salinian arc rocks have higher velocities than the Franciscan melange, which in turn are faster than Great Valley Sequence forearc rocks. The thickess of low-velocity sediment is defined, including >12 km under the Sacramento River Delta, 6 km beneath Livermore Valley, 5 km beneath the Santa Clara Valley, and 4 km beneath eastern San Pablo Bay. The Great Valley Sequence east of San Francisco Bay is 4-6 km thick. A relatively high velocity body exists in the upper 10 km beneath the Sonoma volcanic field, but no evidence for a large intrusion or magma chamber exists in the crust under The Geysers or the Clear Lake volcanic center. Lateral velocity contrasts indicate that the major strike-slip faults extend sub vertically beneath their surface locations through most of the crust. Strong lateral velocity contrasts of 0.3-0.6 km/s are observed across the San Andreas Fault in the middle crust and across the Hayward, Rogers Creek, Calaveras, and Greenville Faults at shallow depth. Weaker velocity contrasts (0.1-0.3 km/s) exist across the San Andreas, Hayward

  19. When it happens again: impact of future San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M.; Boatwright, J.; Kornfield, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Rojahn, C.

    2005-12-01

    San Francisco Bay area earthquakes, like major floods and hurricanes, have the potential for massive damage to dense urban population centers concentrated in vulnerable zones-along active faults, in coastal regions, and along major river arteries. The recent destruction of Hurricane Katrina does have precedent in the destruction following the 1906 "San Francisco" earthquake and fire in which more than 3000 people were killed and 225,000 were left homeless in San Francisco alone, a city of 400,000 at the time. Analysis of a comprehensive set of damage reports from the magnitude (M) 7.9 1906 earthquake indicates a region of ~ 18,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Modified Mercalli Intensity of VIII or more - motions capable of damaging even modern, well-built structures; more than 60,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Intensity VII or greater - the threshold for damage to masonry and poorly designed structures. By comparison, Katrina's hurricane force winds and intense rainfall impacted an area of ~100,000 km2 on the Gulf Coast. Thus, the anticipated effects of a future major Bay Area quake to lives, property, and infrastructure are comparable in scale to Katrina. Secondary hazards (levee failure and flooding in the case of Katrina and fire following the 1906 earthquake) greatly compounded the devastation in both disasters. A recent USGS-led study concluded there is a 62% chance of one or more damaging (M6.7 or greater) earthquakes striking the greater San Francisco Bay area over the next 30 years. The USGS prepared HAZUS loss estimates for the 10 most likely forecast earthquakes which range in size from a M6.7 event on a blind thrust to the largest anticipated event, a M7.9 repeat of the 1906 earthquake. The largest economic loss is expected for a repeat of the 1906 quake. Losses in the Bay region for this event are nearly double those predicted for a M6.9 rupture of the entire Hayward Fault in the East Bay. However, because of high density of population along the

  20. Nitrogen and Sediment Inputs to the San Pedro River Riparian Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M.; Huth, A. K.; Hamblen, J.; Villinski, J.; Grimm, N.; Lewis, D.; Schade, J.

    2002-05-01

    The San Pedro River in southern Arizona is the last undammed major river in the Western U.S. The riparian habitat along the upper San Pedro is under pressure due to competing water use by nearby agriculture and municipal demands. Numerous nongovernmental organizations and government agencies are cooperating to investigate the functioning of the riparian area, including water and nutrient cycling. The multi-institutional NSF Science and Technology Center for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) is using two 500-m study sites along the upper San Pedro River (one gaining and one losing-intermittent) to investigate nutrient and sediment fluxes. Sampling of over 80 shallow piezometers installed in the stream, in gravel bars and in riparian terraces (among cottonwoods and willows) showed nitrate levels were highest in the riparian terrace and gravel bars throughout the year. Nitrate levels in shallow stream piezometers were lower and more variable. Seasonal algal blooms were correlated with decreases in nitrate and organic nitrogen in the stream channel. Intensive sampling during a 300 cfs flood (July 17-18, 2001) in the intermittant-losing reach showed significant increases in nitrate levels during the storm, apparently from the gravel bars and riparian terrace. Hydrograph separation indicated a substantial fraction of the water in the river had been in contact with the river banks. During storm events, substantial sediment transport occurs, as well as scour and fill. As much of the nitrogen cycling in microbially controlled, sediment scour and fill is being monitored concomitantly with respiration measurements in a meander point bar in the losing-intermittant reach. By focusing on key processes in the shallow stream sediments, gravel bars and riparian terraces, we are establishing linkages between the different zones of the riparian area in order to characterize nitrogen uptake capacity of the riparian system.

  1. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  2. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  3. Vertical stratification in the distribution of demersal fishes along the walls of the La Jolla and Scripps submarine canyons, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua G.; Lindholm, James

    2016-08-01

    The geographic distributions of many coastal marine fish assemblages are strongly driven by habitat features, particularly among demersal fishes that live along the seafloor. Ecologists have long recognized the importance of characterizing fish habitat associations, especially where spatial management is under consideration. However, little is known about fish distributions and habitat suitability in unique demersal habitats such as submarine canyons. The active continental margin of the California coast is cut by eight submarine canyons, several of which extend from the shore to the deep abyssal plain. We sampled the demersal fish assemblages in two of those canyons: (1) the Scripps submarine canyon in the San-Diego-Scripps State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) and (2) the La Jolla canyon in the Matlahuayl State Marine Reserve (SMR) to gain insight into both the distributions and habitat associations of demersal fishes in canyons. A remotely operated vehicle was used to conduct 21 vertically oriented transects along the canyon walls in depths ranging from 20 to 300 m. Species composition was assessed in three depth-stratified zones (100 m per zone) along the canyon walls. Species richness, abundance, and attributes of the surrounding canyon habitat structure (slope and benthic terrain ruggedness) were quantified. Three distinct assemblage groupings were identified, which comprised 35 species of demersal fishes from 17 families. Among all factors analyzed in this study, depth, slope, and ruggedness were strong explanatory variables of patterns of species richness and abundance; however, the relationship between depth and assemblage structure was non-linear. The greatest number of species was observed in the mid depth-stratified zone. These trends suggest that variation in canyon dynamics across depth strata may facilitate distinct assemblage groupings of demersal fishes, which can in turn be used to better manage these unique habitats.

  4. Recharge to and discharge from the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio area, Texas, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.S.; Patton, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer is the sole source of public water supply for more than 1 million people in the San Antonio area and supplies large quantities of water for agriculture, industry, and the military. The dissolutioned, faulted limestone aquifer is the major source of water for Bexar, Comal, Hays, Medina, and Uvalde Counties. The annual compilation of estimates of ground-water recharge to and discharge from the Edwards aquifer is part of a continuing program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation wilh the Edwards Underground Water District (EUWD).

  5. Stability studies of surficial sediments in the Wilmington-Lindenkohl Canyons area, eastern U.S. margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almagor, G.; Bennett, R.H.; Mc Gregor, B.A.; Shephard, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stability analysis, based on infinite slope analysis and geotechnical data from a suite of 34 cores collected from the continental slope between Wilmington and Lindenkohl Canyons, indicates that the Quaternary surficial silty clay sediments on gentle slopes are stable; that sediment stability on steeper slopes (14??-19??) is marginal; and that on precipitous slopes (>50??) only a thin veneer of unconsolidated sediments can exist. Small earthquake-induced accelerations or the effects of internal waves can result in slope sediment instabilities. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  6. Mineral resources of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.

  7. Mineral resources of the Castle Peaks Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.W.; Frisken, James G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Gese, Diann D.

    1986-01-01

    The Castle Peaks Wilderness Study Area (CDCA266) comprises approximately 45,000 acres in the northern New York Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 39,303 acres of the wilderness study area were studied. The area was investigated during 1982-1985 using combined geologic, geochemical, and geophysical methods. are considered preliminarily suitable for wilderness deignation. There are no mineral reserves or identified resources in the study area. Fluorspar, occurring in sparse veins, has moderate resource potential, as do silver and lead in fault zones, and gold and silver in sparse, high-grade veins and fault breccia. Each area of moderate resource potential encompasses less than one square mile. These same commodities have low resource potential in similar occurrences throughout much of the study area. In addition, there is low resource potential for gold in placer deposits, uranium in altered breccia and gouge, and rare-earth elements in pegmatite dikes. There is no resource potential for oil and gas resources over most of the study area, but the potential is unknown along its western margin. In this report, the area studied is referred to"the wilderness study area", or simply "the study area."

  8. Anomalous concentrations of seismically triggered rock falls in Pacoima Canyon: Are they caused by highly susceptible slopes or local amplification of seismic shaking?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Jibson, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Anomalously high concentrations of rock falls were triggered in Pacoima Canyon (Los Angeles, California) during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Similar concentrations were also documented from the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. Using an engineering rock-mass classification that evaluates the susceptibility of rock slopes to seismic failure based on the fracture properties of a rock mass (in terms of a numerical "Q-value" that describes rock quality), the rock slopes in Pacoima Canyon were compared with rock slopes in sorrounding areas where topography and lithology are similar, but rock-fall concentrations from the earthquakes were much lower. A statistical comparison of Q-values from five sites surrounding Pacoima Canyon indicates that seismic susceptibilities are similar to those within Pacoima Canyon; differences in the characteristics of rock slopes between these sites are not sufficient to account for the relatively high concentrations of rock falls within Pacoima Canyon as compared to low concentrations elsewhere. By eliminating susceptibility differences as a cause, the most likely explanations for the differences in rock-fall concentrations is anomalously high shaking levels in Pacoima Canyon, possibly resulting from topographic amplification within the canyon.

  9. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system, speed and flexibility, are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. The aircraft intraurban system is a technically feasible alternative to ground transportation systems. Although requiring some subsidy, it becomes socially viable where substantial commuter traffic exists at ranges of 10 to 15 mi or more and where topographic features constrain ground travel. The general problem areas of community noise, air traffic congestion, ground transportation interface, pollution, and safety appear to have workable solutions.

  10. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system-speed and flexibility-are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. This study attempts to determine if the aircraft can contribute toward solving the transportation problems of major metropolitan areas and be economically viable in such an environment.

  11. Evidence of enhanced atmospheric ammoniacal nitrogen in Hells Canyon national recreation area: implications for natural and cultural resources.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Linda H; Ingersoll, Anne R; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Copeland, Scott A

    2008-09-01

    Agriculture releases copious fertilizing pollutants to air sheds and waterways of the northwestern United States. To evaluate threats to natural resources and historic rock paintings in remote Hells Canyon, Oregon and Idaho, deposition of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at five stations along 60 km of the Snake River valley floor were passively sampled from July 2002 through June 2003, and ozone data and particulate chemistry were obtained from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) station at Hells Canyon. NH3 concentrations were high; biweekly averages peaked at 5-19 ppb in spring and summer and the nutrient-laden Snake River is a likely source. Fine particulate ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) averaged 2.6 microg/m3 during the 20% of worst visibility days with winter drainage of air masses from the Snake River Basin and possibly long distance transport from southern California. Other pollutants were within background ranges. NH3 is corrosive to clay-based pictographs; nitrogen deposition can alter natural biotic communities and terrestrial ecosystem processes at levels reported here.

  12. Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan; Lian, Bin

    2012-06-01

    The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis.

  13. Comparing the Hydrologic and Watershed Processes between a Full Scale Stochastic Model Versus a Scaled Physical Model of Bell Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, K. F.; Shah-Fairbank, S.

    2016-12-01

    The San Dimas Experimental Forest has been designated as a research area by the United States Forest Service for use as a hydrologic testing facility since 1933 to investigate watershed hydrology of the 27 square mile land. Incorporation of a computer model provides validity to the testing of the physical model. This study focuses on San Dimas Experimental Forest's Bell Canyon, one of the triad of watersheds contained within the Big Dalton watershed of the San Dimas Experimental Forest. A scaled physical model was constructed of Bell Canyon to highlight watershed characteristics and each's effect on runoff. The physical model offers a comprehensive visualization of a natural watershed and can vary the characteristics of rainfall intensity, slope, and roughness through interchangeable parts and adjustments to the system. The scaled physical model is validated and calibrated through a HEC-HMS model to assure similitude of the system. Preliminary results of the physical model suggest that a 50-year storm event can be represented by a peak discharge of 2.2 X 10-3 cfs. When comparing the results to HEC-HMS, this equates to a flow relationship of approximately 1:160,000, which can be used to model other return periods. The completion of the Bell Canyon physical model can be used for educational instruction in the classroom, outreach in the community, and further research using the model as an accurate representation of the watershed present in the San Dimas Experimental Forest.

  14. Historical macrobenthic community assemblages in the Avilés Canyon, N Iberian Shelf: Baseline biodiversity information for a marine protected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzao, Maite; Anadón, Nuria; Arrontes, Julio; Álvarez-Claudio, Consuelo; Fuente, Dulce María; Ocharan, Francisco; Anadón, Araceli; Acuña, José Luis

    2010-02-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems are highly diverse, and European countries seek to protect these environments by identifying conservation targets. One of these is the Avilés Canyon, southern Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic, Spain. We present the first analysis of historical benthic communities (1987-1988) of this canyon ecosystem, which is a valuable source of biodiversity baseline information. We found 810 taxa divided in five main macrobenthic assemblages, showing a highly diverse benthic community. Bathymetry was the major structuring agent of benthic community, separating shallow (assemblages I and II, 31 to 307 m depth) from deep stations (assemblages III, IV and V, 198 to 1400 m depth). Especially diverse was assemblage IV, located at the easternmost part of the continental slope (378-1100 m depth) where we found reef-forming corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. These and other communities (sea-pens [Order Pennatulacea, Phylum Cnidaria] and burrowing macrofauna) represent key habitats in NE Atlantic continental slopes, which are currently threatened. The present dataset has produced the most comprehensive assessment of diversity in this area to date, focusing on the taxonomic groups which may best reflect the health of the marine ecosystem and supporting previous studies which indicate that the continental slope of the southern Bay of Biscay hosts key benthic habitats.

  15. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1989-99.

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, D. J.; Smitht, D. S.; Hett, E. C.; Reingold, A. L.; Daily, P.; van Beneden, C. A.; Vugia, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections in the San Francisco Bay Area, population-based active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed iGAS was conducted by the California Emerging Infections Program in three California counties. From January 1989 to December 1999, 1415 cases of iGAS were identified. Mean iGAS incidence was 4.06/100,000 person-years and case fatality ratio was 13%, with no linear trends over time. Incidence was lowest in adolescents, was higher in men than women (4.4 vs. 3.2/100,000 person-years), and was higher in African-Americans (6.7) than in non-Hispanic (4.1) or Hispanic (3.4) Whites, Asians (2.2) or Native Americans (17/100,000 person-years). Injecting drug use was the riskiest underlying condition and was associated with the highest attributable risk. Cases were associated with several underlying conditions, but 23% occurred in previously healthy persons. From 1989-1999, iGAS infections in the San Francisco Bay Area became neither more common nor more deadly. PMID:12558329

  16. Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Salkeld, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    In California, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is transmitted by western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus). Cases of HGA are infrequent in California but do occur annually. We investigated nymphal and adult western black-legged tick populations in 20 recreational areas in California's San Francisco Bay Area (Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma counties). Overall, prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in adult ticks was 0.8% (11/1,465), and in nymphal ticks was 4.2% (24/568), though presence was patchy and prevalence varied locally. We detected significant sequence variation in our quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)–positive samples. This included four sequences that grouped within a clade that contains clinical human and veterinary isolates as well as four others that grouped with sequences from PCR-positive lizards from northern California. Tick populations in our study sites harbor genetically diverse strains of A. phagocytophilum, which may influence potential risk in the region. PMID:27139447

  17. Immigration status and use of health services among Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Hessol, Nancy A

    2009-08-01

    To assess the relationship between immigration status and use of health services among Latina women. From 2001 to 2004, information on immigration status and use of health services was collected from 710 Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area. The dependent variable was use of health services during the previous 12 months, which we defined as use of preventive health, dental, urgent care, and emergency services. The primary independent variable was self-reported immigration status, which we categorized as undocumented immigrant, documented immigrant, or citizen. More than half of the women were undocumented immigrants, one quarter were documented immigrants, and 18% were citizens. Forty percent of women were uninsured, one third had no preventive health visits in the previous year, and 58% had not used dental services. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, undocumented Latinas were 60% less likely and documented Latinas were 46% less likely to have dental visits in the previous year, relative to citizens. Health insurance status was independently associated with all four health service outcomes. Uninsured women were less likely to use preventive health, dental, or urgent care services compared with privately insured women. In addition, publicly insured women were less likely to use dental care and more likely to use emergency care than privately insured women. Immigration and health insurance status were associated with use of preventive and nonpreventive services among Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Clinical and policy efforts must address the barriers to care that affect Latina immigrants, particularly undocumented women.

  18. A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.

  19. Vulnerable assessment by sea level rise in San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C. J.; Suzuki, T.; Itoigawa, E.; Park, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The San Francisco South Bay Area in California is home to approximately seven million people that consist of nine counties and the prosperous core area of IT technology industry in the West Coast of America, well known as Silicon Valley. Sea level rising due to Global Warming is becoming the main issue in this area. Furthermore, the extreme weather events including flash flooding are observing more frequently. Urban infrastructures are faced vulnerable at risk of long-term flooding. Sea level rise by global warming in this area is estimated that it could rise by up to 16 inches (40 cm) by mid of this century and 55 inches (140 cm) by the end of this century. By the impact of 55 inches of sea level rise, there could be 62 billion dollars loss and 270,000 people could be faced at risk of flooding. Nevertheless, urban areas are expecting to extend approximately 5,063.71 km2 by 2020 and 6,098.20 km2 by year 2050. Thus, the land use legislation need to be discussed following that the 213,000 acres that could be vulnerable to flooding by the end of this century. Adaptation strategies should be considered from various aspects including policy, empirical observations and academic approaches. In this paper, for promoting further discussions, vulnerable areas and its characteristics by flooding is assessed and the finding potential urban growth areas for urban rezoning is implemented using Geographic Information System.

  20. Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1978-01-01

    The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9... Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the Malibu-Newton...

  2. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9... Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the Malibu-Newton...

  3. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9... Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the Malibu-Newton...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  5. Impacts of traffic composition and street-canyon geometry on on-road air quality in a high-rise building area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Seung-Bok; Woo, Sung Ho; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Sunwoo, Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Mobile measurements using a mobile laboratory and numerical simulations using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model were conducted over different time periods of multiple days in a high-rise building area, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Mobile measurement can provide actual on-road emission levels of air pollutants from vehicles as well as validation dataset of a CFD model. On the other hand, CFD modeling is required for the process analysis of mobile measurement data and the quantitative estimation of determining factors in complex phenomena. The target area is characterized as a busy street canyon elongated along a major road with hourly traffic volumes of approximately 4000 vehicles during working hours on weekdays. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and particle number (PN) concentrations were measured during 39 round trips of mobile laboratory. The associations of the measured NOx, BC, pPAH, and PN concentrations with the traffic volumes of individual compositions are analyzed by calculating the correlation coefficients (R2) based on linear regressions. It is found that SUV, truck, van, and bus are heavy emitters responsible for the on-road air pollution in the street canyon. Among the measured pollutants, the largest R2 is shown for pPAH. The measured NOx, BC, pPAH, and PN concentrations are unevenly distributed in the street canyon. The measured concentrations around an intersection are higher than those in between intersections, particularly for NOx and pPAH. The CFD modeling for different dispersion scenarios reveals that the intersection has counterbalancing roles in determining the on-road concentrations. The emission process acts to increase the on-road concentrations due to accelerating and idling vehicles, whereas the dispersion process acts to decrease the on-road concentrations due to lateral ventilations along the crossing street. It is needed to control the number of heavy emitters and

  6. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern California resource areas.

    Treesearch

    Bruce Hiserote; Joel Moen; Charles L. Bolsinger

    1986-01-01

    This report is one of five that provide timber resource statistics for 57 of the 58 counties in California (San Francisco is excluded). This report presents statistics from a 1982-84 inventory of the timber resources of Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San...

  7. Heavy metals in produce from urban farms in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Hannah; Chamberlain, C Page

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were analysed in 96 samples of produce from seven urban farms, three suburban farms and three grocery stores in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2011-2012. Cd concentrations were highest in urban chard (0.043 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in urban, suburban and grocery squash (0.003 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations were highest in urban kale (0.080 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in grocery squash (0.008 mg kg(-1)). The mean heavy metal concentrations for Cd and Pb in all produce types were well below the maximum limits as set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Individual concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limits of detection in 26 of 192 analyses. Cd and Pb concentrations in produce from urban farms were not significantly different from produce grown in suburban farms or grocery stores. It was concluded that produce from urban community farms in San Francisco, at least for the farms studied, is safe for human consumption.

  8. A Pilot Study of Retail ‘Vape Shops’ in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Burbank, Andrea D; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of electronic cigarettes or vape devices is increasing, and products are evolving rapidly. This study assessed retail vape shops in the San Francisco Bay Area to describe store characteristics, products offered, advertisements and health claims, as well as employees’ perceptions of their customers’ demographics, and practices to support smoking cessation. METHODS We conducted store audits of shops that exclusively sell vape devices with physical addresses in San Francisco and Alameda counties (n=23, response rate 72%) and interviewed vape shop owners/employees. RESULTS While all stores carried second and third generation vape devices, 83% of stores did not carry first generation devices. Employees estimated the majority of their customers bought devices for smoking cessation or to replace tobacco, and a small minority purchased for first-time recreational use. Employees most frequently recommended dosing nicotine based on usual cigarette consumption, adjusting doses based on “throat hit” or cravings, use of a second or third generation e-cigarette, and encouraged customers to experiment and customize to “whatever works for you” as smoking cessation advice. CONCLUSIONS Vape shops report a significant number of their customers are interested in smoking cessation, and employees are giving smoking cessation advice. A subpopulation of customers includes some nicotine novices. Studies of vape shops should include both observations and interviews with employees in order to detect important informal practices that may differ from posted signs or printed advertising. These practices include cessation counseling, product claims, and custom discount prices or bargaining. PMID:28393129

  9. Application of an area of review variance methodology to the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Norman, S.; Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.

    1995-12-01

    When the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Regulations were promulgated in 1980, existing Class II Injection wells operating at the time were excluded from Area of Review (AOR) requirements. EPA has expressed its intent to revise the regulations to include the requirement for AOR`s for such wells, but it is expected that oil and gas producing states will be allowed to adopt a variance strategy for these wells. An AOR variance methodology has been developed under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The general concept of the variance methodology is a systematic evaluation of basic variance criteria that were agreed to by a Federal Advisory Committee. These criteria include absence of USDWs, lack of positive flow potential from the petroleum reservoir into the overlying USDWs, mitigating geological factors, and other evidence. The AOR variance methodology has been applied to oilfields in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. This paper details results of these analyses, particularly with respect to the opportunity for variance for injection fields in the San Juan Basin.

  10. Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

  11. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly shore of upper San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning at a point on shore bearing 17° 800 yards, from “Tree” at Molate Point thence 270°,...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly shore of upper San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning at a point on shore bearing 17° 800 yards, from “Tree” at Molate Point thence 270°,...

  18. Tap water isotopes reveal the San Francisco Bay Area's plumbing and responses to a major drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Chau, T. H.; Mancuso, C. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Dufour, A.; Chesson, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. The demands for and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between population centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources and infrastructure. To better understand these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters from the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns across 21 months during 2013-2015. San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-known water management strategies and its water resources were dramatically affected by the 2012-2105 drought. Consistent with known water management strategies and previous reports of tap water isotope values, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ2H and δ18O values of tap waters, indicative of complex water transport systems and municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ2H and δ18O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of measured tap water data grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Water management responses to the drought, such as source switching, bringing in new sources, and conservation, could be observed within the isotope data from each of

  19. Preliminary Use of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to Investigate Seismogenic Faulting in the Grand Canyon Area, Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, V. S.; Cleveland, D. M.; Prochnow, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    This is a progress report on our application of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to the eastern Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. SLAM is a new integrated method for identifying potentially seismogenic faults using earthquake focal-mechanism solutions, geomorphic analysis and field work. There are two nodal planes associated with any double-couple focal-mechanism solution, one of which is thought to coincide with the fault that produced the earthquake; the slip vector is normal to the other (auxiliary) plane. When no uncertainty in the orientation of the fault-plane solution is reported, we use the reported vertical and horizontal uncertainties in the focal location to define a tabular uncertainty volume whose orientation coincides with that of the fault-plane solution. The intersection of the uncertainty volume and the ground surface (represented by the DEM) is termed a seismo-lineament. An image of the DEM surface is illuminated perpendicular to the strike of the seismo- lineament to accentuate geomorphic features within the seismo-lineament that may be related to seismogenic faulting. This evaluation of structural geomorphology is repeated for several different azimuths and elevations of illumination. A map is compiled that includes possible geomorphic indicators of faulting as well as previously mapped faults within each seismo-lineament, constituting a set of hypotheses for the possible location of seismogenic fault segments that must be evaluated through fieldwork. A fault observed in the field that is located within a seismo-lineament, and that has an orientation and slip characteristics that are statistically compatible with the fault-plane solution, is considered potentially seismogenic. We compiled a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Grand Canyon area from published data sets. We used earthquake focal-mechanism solutions produced by David Brumbaugh (2005, BSSA, v. 95, p. 1561-1566) for five M > 3.5 events reported between 1989 and 1995

  20. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  1. Ground-water outflow, San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area, upper Santa Ana Valley, Southern California, 1927 through 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Fenzel, F.W.

    1972-01-01

    The San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area is in the upper Santa Ana Valley, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Calif., where the Yucaipa and San Timoteo-Beaumont ground-water basins border Bunker .Hill basin on the south between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The area is broken by numerous faults, the topography is rough, and in a large part of the area few wells had been drilled prior to 196S. The alluvial deposits, which constitute the aquifers in the area, range in thickness from 0 where they lap onto exposed bedrock hills to about 1,000 feet. Beneath the southern part of the area near the San Jacinto fault the total thickness of alluvial and lacustrine deposits may be as much as 6,000 feet. The purpose of this study was to estimate ground-water outflow by an indirect method not involving balancing of the hydrologic budget. For this purpose it was necessary to estimate the permeability of the aquifer materials, the average annual hydraulic gradient, and the cross-sectional area through which the flow occurs; these values were estimated for five segments along a line of section between the San Jacinto fault and Crafton Hills. To provide data for the outflow estimates, several miles of reflection and refraction seismic traverses were made along and across the outflow section. Nineteen deep and shallow test holes were drilled; one of the deep test holes and several existing wells were pumped to obtain data on aquifer permeability. The estimated average permeabilities of the aquifer materials range from 5 gallons per day per square foot for the lower part of the San Timoteo beds of Frick (1921) and 40 gallons per day per square foot for the older alluvium to 220 gallons per day per square foot for the upper part of the San Timoteo beds. The estimated outflow in 1927 was 8,150 acre-feet. By 1967 the estimated total outflow was 5,350 acre-feet, a reduction of approximately 34 percent. During the 12-year period 1956 through 1967, however, the annual outflow

  2. Quality of ground water in agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edelmann, Patrick; Buckles, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ground water in the principal agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado was evaluated using chemical analyses of water collected from 57 wells completed in the unconfined aquifer and from 25 wells completed in the confined aquifer. Ground water in both aquifers generally contains dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 500 milligrams per liter. In most areas, calcium is the principal cation in the ground water. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations expressed as nitrogen, are generally less than 1 milligram per liter. However, the quality of ground water in certain areas may pose health and agricultural hazards. Water in the unconfined aquifer near Center contains high nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations. The highest measured concentration in this area was 33 milligrams per liter. Water containing more than 1 milligram per liter of nitrite as nitrogen, or 10 milligrams per liter nitrate, as nitrogen, poses a potential health hazard for infants and should not be used for drinking. In addition, dissolved-solids concentration in the ground water in some areas is greater than 500 milligrams per liter and, if used for irrigation may reduce crop yields. (USGS)

  3. Mineral resource potential map of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-217), San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Obi, Curtis M.; Powell, Robert E.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Griscom, Andrew; Sabine, Charles; Cwick, Gary J.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, together with a review of historical mining and prospecting activities, suggests that most of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area has low potential for the discovery of all types of mineral and energy resources-including precious and base metals, building stone and aggregate, fossil fuels, radioactive-mineral resources, and geothermal resources. Low-grade mineralization has been documented in one small area near Rattlesnake Canyon, and this area has low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of precious and base metals. Thorium and uranium enrichment have been documented in two small areas in the eastern part of the wilderness study area; these two areas have low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of radioactive-mineral resources.

  4. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  5. Seismic-reflection evidence that the hayward fault extends into the lower crust of the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents deep seismic-reflection data from an experiment across San Francisco Peninsula in 1995 using large (125 to 500 kg) explosive sources. Shot gathers show a mostly nonreflective upper crust in both the Franciscan and Salinian terranes (juxtaposed across the San Andreas fault), an onset of weak lower-crustal reflectivity beginning at about 6-sec two-way travel time (TWTT) and bright southwest-dipping reflections between 11 and 13 sec TWTT. Previous studies have shown that the Moho in this area is no deeper than 25 km (~8 to 9 sec TWTT). Three-dimensional reflection travel-time modeling of the 11 to 13 sec events from the shot gathers indicates that the bright events may be explained by reflectors 15 to 20 km into the upper mantle, northeast of the San Andreas fault. However, upper mantle reflections from these depths were not observed on marine-reflection profiles collected in San Francisco Bay, nor were they reported from a refraction profile on San Francisco Peninsula. The most consistent interpretation of these events from 2D raytracing and 3D travel-time modeling is that they are out-of-plane reflections from a high-angle (dipping ~70??to the southwest) impedance contrast in the lower crust that corresponds with the surface trace of the Hayward fault. These results suggest that the Hayward fault truncates the horizontal detachment fault suggested to be active beneath San Francisco Bay.

  6. New York Canyon Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  7. Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A.; Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J.

    1996-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

  8. Hydrochemical data for the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maclay, R.W.; Rettman, P.L.; Small, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents hydrochemical data that was collected as part of the investigations of the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio area, Te xas, during 1970-78 and indicates other sources of available data. The report includes the results of chemical analyses of 159 water samples from 123 well s and springs; tritium analyses for 242 water samples from 120 wells and springs; isotope and redox-potential analyses of 31 water samples from wells, springs, and streams; and calculated dissolved carbonate, partial C02 pressures, and saturation indices of selected minerals in 98 water samples from 81 wells, springs, and streams. The water types and hydrochemical facies are given for six zones of the aquifer.

  9. Trauma Affecting Asian-Pacific Islanders in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Jindal, Charulata; Efird, Jimmy T.

    2017-01-01

    Trauma is a transgenerational process that overwhelms the community and the ability of family members to cope with life stressors. An anthropologist trained in ethnographic methods observed three focus groups from a non-profit agency providing trauma and mental health services to Asian Americans living in the San Francisco Bay Area of United States. Supplemental information also was collected from staff interviews and notes. Many of the clients were immigrants, refugees, or adult children of these groups. This report consisted of authentic observations and rich qualitative information to characterize the impact of trauma on refugees and immigrants. Observations suggest that collective trauma, direct or indirect, can impede the success and survivability of a population, even after many generations. PMID:28895918

  10. Estimating methane emissions from biological and fossil-fuel sources in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Cui, Xinguang; Blake, Donald R.; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Stephen A.; Andrews, Arlyn; Guha, Abhinav; Martien, Philip; Bambha, Ray P.; LaFranchi, Brian; Michelsen, Hope A.; Clements, Craig B.; Glaize, Pierre; Fischer, Marc L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first sector-specific analysis of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) using CH4 and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements from six sites during September - December 2015. We apply a hierarchical Bayesian inversion to separate the biological from fossil-fuel (natural gas and petroleum) sources using the measurements of CH4 and selected VOCs, a source-specific 1 km CH4 emission model, and an atmospheric transport model. We estimate that SFBA CH4 emissions are 166-289 Gg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence), 1.3-2.3 times higher than a recent inventory with much of the underestimation from landfill. Including the VOCs, 82 ± 27% of total posterior median CH4 emissions are biological and 17 ± 3% fossil fuel, where landfill and natural gas dominate the biological and fossil-fuel CH4 of prior emissions, respectively.

  11. Climate change, heat, and mortality in the tropical urban area of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo A.; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Martínez, Odalys; Taboas, Mariela; Bocanegra, Arelis; Méndez-Tejeda, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat episodes are becoming more common worldwide, including in tropical areas of Australia, India, and Puerto Rico. Higher frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat episodes are triggering public health issues in most mid-latitude and continental cities. With urbanization, land use and land cover have affected local climate directly and indirectly encouraging the Urban Heat Island effect with potential impacts on heat-related morbidity and mortality among urban populations. However, this association is not completely understood in tropical islands such as Puerto Rico. The present study examines the effects of heat in two municipalities (San Juan and Bayamón) within the San Juan metropolitan area on overall and cause-specific mortality among the population between 2009 and 2013. The number of daily deaths attributed to selected causes (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, pneumonia, and kidney disease) coded and classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases was analyzed. The relations between elevated air surface temperatures on cause-specific mortality were modeled. Separate Poisson regression models were fitted to explain the total number of deaths as a function of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, while adjusting for seasonal patterns. Results show a significant increase in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Stroke (relative risk = 16.80, 95% CI 6.81-41.4) and cardiovascular diseases (relative risk = 16.63, 95% CI 10.47-26.42) were the primary causes of death most associated with elevated summer temperatures. Better understanding of how these heat events affect the health of the population will provide a useful tool for decision makers to address and mitigate the effects of the increasing temperatures on public health. The enhanced temperature forecast may be a crucial component in decision

  12. Climate change, heat, and mortality in the tropical urban area of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo A; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Martínez, Odalys; Taboas, Mariela; Bocanegra, Arelis; Méndez-Tejeda, Rafael

    2016-12-15

    Extreme heat episodes are becoming more common worldwide, including in tropical areas of Australia, India, and Puerto Rico. Higher frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat episodes are triggering public health issues in most mid-latitude and continental cities. With urbanization, land use and land cover have affected local climate directly and indirectly encouraging the Urban Heat Island effect with potential impacts on heat-related morbidity and mortality among urban populations. However, this association is not completely understood in tropical islands such as Puerto Rico. The present study examines the effects of heat in two municipalities (San Juan and Bayamón) within the San Juan metropolitan area on overall and cause-specific mortality among the population between 2009 and 2013. The number of daily deaths attributed to selected causes (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, pneumonia, and kidney disease) coded and classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases was analyzed. The relations between elevated air surface temperatures on cause-specific mortality were modeled. Separate Poisson regression models were fitted to explain the total number of deaths as a function of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, while adjusting for seasonal patterns. Results show a significant increase in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Stroke (relative risk = 16.80, 95% CI 6.81-41.4) and cardiovascular diseases (relative risk = 16.63, 95% CI 10.47-26.42) were the primary causes of death most associated with elevated summer temperatures. Better understanding of how these heat events affect the health of the population will provide a useful tool for decision makers to address and mitigate the effects of the increasing temperatures on public health. The enhanced temperature forecast may be a crucial component in decision

  13. Flood of January 1982 in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.; Chin, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    A major winter storm originating over the Pacific Ocean moved through central California in early January 1982. As much as 16 inches of rain fell in Marin County and 25 inches in the mountains bordering Santa Cruz County. The storm of January 3-5, 1982 had a stable atmospheric structure, and the layer of moist maritime air was confined to altitudes between 50 and 700 ft; this phenomenon caused the rain to fall most heavily along the lower slopes of the coastal mountains. As a result of antecedent rainfall, streamflow in the San Francisco Bay area exceeded normal from the end of October to the end of December 1981. For most streams, the January 1982 flood was the largest since the flood of December 1955, but it was not significantly large in comparison with historic peak-flow data. Damages associated with the storm were substantial, but flooding from stream runoff was not the major problem. Greater than normal antecedent rainfall, together with the prolonged heavy rain, liquified the supersaturated soil cover and caused numerous slope failures and debris flows on steep, unstable slopes. The median recurrence interval of the 1982 peak for 66 streamflow-gaging stations in the San Francisco Bay area is 10 years; for the 1955 flood, the median recurrence interval for 16 stations is 11 years. Streams with highest unit peak runoff were in the Santa Cruz Mountains and North Bay subareas. Median recurrence intervals of flood volumes for durations of 1, 3, and 8 consecutive days during the January 1982 flood are 18, 11, and 8; these recurrence intervals are comparable to those of the December 1955 flood, which are 13 , 16, and 14 years. (USGS)

  14. Impacts of vehicles on natural terrain at seven sites in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Shipley, S.; Prestegaard, K.

    1978-01-01

    The impacts of off-road vehicles on vegetation and soil were investigated at seven representative sites in the San Francisco Bay area. Plant cover of grass and chaparral (with shrubs to 4 m tall) have been stripped by the two- and four-wheel vehicles in use. Impacts on loamy soils include increased surface strength (as much as 275 bars), increased bulk density (averaging 18%) to depths of 90 cm or more, reduction of soil moisture by an average 43% to 30 cm depths, greatly reduced infiltration, extension of the diurnal temperature range by as much as 12??C, and reduction of organic carbon by an average 33% in exposed soils. Very sandy soils respond similarly to vehicular use except that moisture is increased and surface strength of beach sand is decreased. These physical and chemical impacts reduce the land's capability of restoring its vegetative cover, which in turn adversely affects animal populations. Both the loss of plant cover and the physical changes caused by vehicles promote erosion. Measured soil and substrate losses from vehicular use zones range from 7 to 1180 kg/m2. The estimated erosion rate of the Chabot Park site exceeds the rate of erosion considered a serious problem by a factor 30, it exceeds United States Soil Conservation Service tolerance values by a factor of 46, and it exceeds average San Francisco Bay area erosion rates by a factor of 17. The resulting soil losses are effectively permanent. Neither the increased sediment yield nor the increased runoff is accomodated on the sites of use, and both are causing adverse effects to neighboring properties. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Research Furthers Conservation of Grand Canyon Sandbars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Grand Canyon National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen Canyon Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen Canyon Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars. Throughout Grand Canyon, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, is a goal of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen Canyon Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.

  16. Late Quaternary paleoceanography of the Pervenets Canyon area of the Bering Sea: evidence from the diatom flora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starratt, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Sediments from three gravity cores from an east-west shelf-to-slope transect along the axis of Pervenets Canyon in the northern Navarin basin, Bering Sea were analyzed for diatoms. The diatom floras present in the cores were divided into four assemblages. The Bering Basin (deep water open ocean) and Sea Ice (ice cover at least six months per year) Assemblages were dominant in each core. The taxa that comprise the Bering Shelf Assemblage (continental shelf) indicate that downslope transport plays only a minor part in the development of the thanatocenoses. The presence (up to 10% of the total valve count) of the Productivity Assemblage, which consists mainly of poorly silicified, easily dissolved taxa, indicates that nutrient flux is relatively high in the region. Several taxa can be used as proxy indicators for specific water masses. The relative downcore abundance of these taxa was used to approximate the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary (recognized in Core 80-65 at a depth of about 75 cm). -from Author

  17. Canyon in DCS Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 26, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering a portion of Ganges Chasma. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The northern canyon at the top of this image is dominated by a bright red/magenta area consisting primarly basaltic materials on the floor of the canyon and atmospheric dust. Within that area, there are patches of purple, on the walls and in the landslides, that may be due to an olivine rich mineral layer. In the middle of the image, the green on the mesa between the two canyons is from a layer of dust. The patchy blue areas in the southern canyon are likely due to water ice clouds.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -6.6, Longitude 316 East (44 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics

  18. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  19. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  20. Why SRS Matters - H Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul; Lewczyk, Mike; Swain, Mike

    2016-07-12

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features H Canyon's mission and operations.

  1. Colorado Destructive Waldo Canyon Fire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-06

    NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of the Waldo Canyon Fire, west of Colorado Springs, Colo., being called the worst fire in Colorado history. Healthy vegetation is red, water is dark blue, streets and buildings are gray, and the burned areas are

  2. Why SRS Matters - H Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul; Lewczyk, Mike; Swain, Mike

    2015-02-17

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features H Canyon's mission and operations.

  3. Geology and biology of Oceanographer submarine canyon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Uzmann, J.R.; Cooper, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Santonian beds more than 100 m thick are the oldest rocks collected from the canyon. Quaternary silty clay veneers the canyon walls in many places and is commonly burrowed by benthic organisms that cause extensive erosion of the canyon walls, especially in the depth zone (100-1300 m) inhabited by the crabs Geryon and Cancer. Bioerosion is minimal on high, near-vertical cliffs of sedimentary rock, in areas of continual sediment movement, and where the sea floor is paved by gravel. A thin layer of rippled, unconsolidated silt and sand is commonly present on the canyon walls and in the axis. Shelf sediments are transported from Georges Bank over the E rim and in the Canyon by the SW drift and storm currents; tidal currents and internal waves move the sediment downcanyon along the walls and axis.- from Authors

  4. Air Quality Benefits of Ship Fuel Regulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Harley, R. A.; Fairley, D.; Martien, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important emission source of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning July 1, 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of low-sulfur marine fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle composition data from 4 urban sites and 2 more remote sites (Point Reyes and Pinnacles) from the IMPROVE network. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a useful and specific tracer for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in primary aerosol emissions from ships. The results indicate a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change, and a 13 to 38% decrease in SO2 concentration, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We inferred from emission factors documented in the literature that marine vessel contributions to primary fine particulate matter mass in the Bay Area, prior to the fuel change, were on the order of 1 to 5%.

  5. Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes

  6. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  7. Floodplain statement of findings for corrective actions in Potrillo Canyon technical area-36, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David Charles

    2016-05-18

    In 2014, baseline storm water monitoring samples for Potrillo Canyon Sample Management Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Individual Permit No. NM0030759 target action level (TAL) of 15 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for gross-alpha radioactivity (393 pCi/L) and a TAL of 30 pCi/L for radium-226 and radium-228 (95.9 pCi/L). Consequently, erosion control measures within the management area are proposed to minimize sediment migration, a corrective action under the permit that is a requirement of the New Mexico Environment Department consent decree and a good management practice to limit off-site sediment migration. The area proposed for erosion controls consists of portions of Technical Area 36 that were used as firing sites primarily involving high explosives (HE) and metal (e.g., depleted uranium, lead, copper, aluminum, and steel), small-explosives experiments and burn pits (burn pits were used for burning and disposal of test debris). In addition, underground explosive tests at an approximate depth of 100 feet were also conducted. These watershed-based storm water controls will focus on addressing erosion occurring within the floodplain through mitigating and reducing both current and future channelization and head cutting.

  8. Distribution of DDT and other persistent organic contaminants in Canyons and on the continental shelf off the central California coast.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, S Ian

    2008-04-01

    Sediment samples were collected to delineate the distribution of contaminants along the central California coast. Sampling included a variety of Canyons and shelf/slope areas to evaluate contaminant transport patterns and potential delivery to Canyons and the continental slope to a depth of 1200 m. Sediments were collected and analyzed for organic contaminants using standard techniques of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program (NS&T). DDT is distributed on the shelf within a zone of fine-grained sediments between Half Moon and Monterey Bays. DDT was found at higher concentrations in Ascension, Año Nuevo, and Monterey/Soquel Canyons than in Pioneer and Carmel Canyons, the Gulf of the Farallones, or the continental slope. The Monterey Bay watershed appears to be the primary source of DDT. In contrast, PAHs and PCBs on the shelf appear to be derived primarily from San Francisco Bay. DDT appears to be delivered to the deep ocean via the Canyons more than from cross-shelf sediment transport. Sediment budget estimates for the continental shelf north of Monterey Bay need further refinement and more data to account for the movement of material from Monterey Bay onto the shelf.

  9. Perspective view over the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand Canyon was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand Canyon Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel Canyon and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01908

  10. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  11. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  12. Hydrogeology of Middle Canyon, Oquirrh Mountains, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph Spencer

    1963-01-01

    Geology and climate are the principal influences affecting the hydrology of Middle Canyon, Tooele County, Utah. Reconnaissance in the canyon indicated that the geologic influences on the hydrology may be localized; water may be leaking through fault and fracture zones or joints in sandstone and through solution openings in limestone of the Oquirrh formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Surficial deposits of Quaternary age serve as the main storage material for ground water in the canyon and transmit water from the upper canyon to springs and drains at the canyon mouth. The upper canyon is a more important storage area than the lower canyon because the surficial deposits are thicker, and any zones of leakage in the underlying bedrock of the upper canyon probably would result in greater leakage than would similar outlets in the lower canyon.The total annual discharge from Middle Canyon, per unit of precipitation, decreased between 1910 and 1939. Similar decreases occurred in Parleys Canyon in the nearby Wasatch Range and in other drainage basins in Utah, and it is likely that most of the decrease in discharge from Middle Canyon and other canyons in Utah is due to a change in climate.Chemical analyses of water showed that the high content of sulfate and other constituents in the water from the Utah Metals tunnel, which drains into Middle Canyon, does not have a significant effect on water quality at the canyon mouth. This suggests that much of the tunnel water is lost from the channel by leakage, probably in the upper canyon, during the dry part of the year.Comparison of the 150 acre-feet of water per square mile of drainage area discharged by Middle Canyon in 1947 with the 623 and 543 acre-feet per square mile discharged in 1948 by City Creek and Mill Creek Canyons, two comparable drainage basins in the nearby Wasatch Range, also suggests that there is leakage in Middle Canyon.A hydrologic budget of the drainage basin results in an estimate that about 3,000 acre

  13. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  18. Subinertial canyon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Allan J.; Van Gorder, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Near the bottom of a narrow canyon currents that oscillate back and forth along the bottom slope hx in a stratified ocean of buoyancy frequency N do so with a natural internal gravitational frequency Nhx. From May 2012 to May 2013 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements were made at 715 m depth in the deep narrow part of the DeSoto Canyon south of Pensacola, Florida, in water with 2π/Nhx ≈ 2.5 days. Above the canyon the flow follows the large-scale isobaths, but beneath the canyon rim the current oscillates along the canyon axis with 2-3 day periodicity, and is much stronger than and uncorrelated with the overlying flow. A simple theoretical model explains the resonant response. Published observations from the Hudson and Gully canyons suggest that the strong subinertial current oscillations observed in these canyons occur close to the relevant local frequency Nhx, consistent with the proposed simple model physics.

  19. Fault zone architecture of the San Jacinto fault zone in Horse Canyon, southern California: A model for focused post-seismic fluid flow and heat transfer in the shallow crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Nissa; Girty, Gary H.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    2012-05-01

    We report results of a new study of the architecture of the San Jacinto fault zone in Horse Canyon, California, where stream incision has exposed a nearly continuous outcrop of the fault zone at ~ 0.4 km depth. The fault zone at this location consists of a fault core, transition zone, damage zone, and tonalitic wall rocks. We collected and analyzed samples for their bulk and grain density, geochemical data, clay mineralogy, and textural and modal mineralogy. Progressive deformation within the fault zone is characterized by mode I cracking, subsequent shearing of already fractured rock, and cataclastic flow. Grain comminution advances towards the strongly indurated cataclasite fault core. Damage progression towards the core is accompanied by a decrease in bulk and grain density, and an increase in porosity and dilational volumetric strain. Palygorskite and mixed-layer illite/smectite clay minerals are present in the damage and transition zones and are the result of hydrolysis reactions. The estimated percentage of illite in illite/smectite increases towards the fault core where the illite/smectite to illite conversion is complete, suggesting elevated temperatures that may have reached 150 °C. Chemical alteration and elemental mass changes are observed throughout the fault zone and are most pronounced in the fault core. We conclude that the observed chemical and mineralogical changes can only be produced by the interaction of fractured wall rocks and chemically active fluids that are mobilized through the fault zone by thermo-pressurization during and after seismic events. Based on the high element mobility and absence of illite/smectite in the fault core, we expect that the greatest water/rock ratios occur within the fault core. These results indicate that hot pore fluids circulate upwards through the fractured fault core and into the surrounding damage zone. Though difficult to constrain, we speculate that the site studied during this investigation may represent

  20. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from the San Francisco Bay area of northern California.

    PubMed

    York, M K; Gibbs, L; Perdreau-Remington, F; Brooks, G F

    1999-06-01

    During 1994 and 1995, 157 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from patients with invasive disease were consecutively collected in the San Francisco Bay area to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards by the disk method and by broth microdilution. For comparison of susceptibility patterns, an additional 149 strains were randomly collected from patients with pharyngitis. For San Francisco County, 32% of the isolates from invasive-disease-related specimens but only 9% of the isolates from throat cultures from the same period were resistant to erythromycin (P = 0.0007). Alameda County and Contra Costa County had rates of resistance of San Francisco County Hospital had a statistically higher rate of erythromycin resistance (39%) among the strains from serious infections compared to those from other counties (P = <0. 0003). For tetracycline, high rates of resistance were observed in San Francisco County for both isolates from patients with invasive disease (34%) and pharyngitis (21%) in the same period. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, two clones, one at the San Francisco County Hospital and a second in the entire area, were identified. The latter clone exhibited resistance to bacitracin. Of 146 strains that were tested by microdilution, all were susceptible to penicillin. Clindamycin resistance was not seen among the erythromycin-susceptible strains, but two of the 39 erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to clindamycin. An additional 34 strains showed resistance to clindamycin when exposed to an erythromycin disk in the double-disk diffusion test, suggesting that the mechanism of erythromycin resistance is due to an erm gene. This study demonstrates a high rate of resistance to macrolides and tetracycline among S. pyogenes isolates

  1. Convolutional Neural Network Classification of Hyperspectral Imagery in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, D.; Clark, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have found success in classifying classical 2-dimensional imagery and recently hyperspectral image data. Unlike other neural network topologies, CNN learn features from the data in the form of convolutional kernels. These trained kernels isolate the class-specific discriminating features from the data and are subsequently used to classify the data. In this study, CNN architecture was developed, trained and applied to classify land cover from three-season, simulated Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) imagery covering a 30,000 km2area of the San Francisco Bay Area in year 2015. For comparison, Random Forests (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers were also trained with the same image and reference data. Further, the analysis of the CNN inner data product visualizations were provided to show insight into significant features that exist in the multi-temporal hyperspectral data and how important these features are for classification accuracy. Overall accuracies with unbalanced vs. balanced reference data were 89.8%/75.5% for CNN, 91.0%/74.0% for SVM, and 84.2%/65.8% for RF. In general, all classification methods perform well when generating land cover maps at a broad scale. However, there were some obvious misclassifications with the RF classified maps in local areas while the CNN and SVM maps disagree on harder to classify areas. Visualization methods were developed to show the distinguishing characteristics between the classes across the dimension of the convolution defined within this topology. A novel feature impact/importance metric is provided as a means to determine how important a learned feature is with respect to the classification task. We conclude that the classifier is a good candidate for hyperspectral classification applications because of the interpretability of these visualizations and relatively high classification accuracy. Keywords: Hyperspectral Imagery, Convolutional Neural Networks, Support

  2. Isopach and structure contour maps of the Burro Canyon(?) Formation in the Chama-El Vado Area, Chama Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, Jennie L.

    1983-01-01

    In the Chama Basin a wequence of conglomerate, sandstone, and red, gray-green, and pale-purple mudstone occurs stratigraphically between the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation and Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. This stratigraphic interval has been called the Burro Canyon Formation by several workers (Craig and others, 1959; Smith and others, 1961; Saucier, 1974). Although similarities in lithology and stratigraphic position exist between this unit and the Burro Canyon Formation in Colorado, no direct correlation has been made between the two. For this reason the unit in the Chama Basin is called the Burro Canyon(?) Formation. 

  3. Isopach and structure contour maps of the Burro Canyon(?) Formation in the Mesa Golondrina and Mesa de los Viejos areas, Chama Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, Jennie L.

    1983-01-01

    In the Chama Basin a wequence of conglomerate, sandstone, and red, gray-green, and pale-purple mudstone occurs stratigraphically between the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation and Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. This stratigraphic interval has been called the Burro Canyon Formation by several workers (Craig and others, 1959; Smith and others, 1961; Saucier, 1974). Although similarities in lithology and stratigraphic position exist between this unit and the Burro Canyon Formation in Colorado, no direct correlation has been made between the two. For this reason the unit in the Chama Basin is called the Burro Canyon(?) Formation. 

  4. Ascension Submarine Canyon, California - Evolution of a multi-head canyon system along a strike-slip continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagel, D.K.; Mullins, H.T.; Greene, H. Gary

    1986-01-01

    Ascension Submarine Canyon, which lies along the strike-slip (transform) dominated continental margin of central California, consists of two discrete northwestern heads and six less well defined southeastern heads. These eight heads coalesce to form a single submarine canyon near the 2700 m isobath. Detailed seismic stratigraphic data correlated with 19 rock dredge hauls from the walls of the canyon system, suggest that at least one of the two northwestern heads was initially eroded during a Pliocene lowstand of sea level ???3.8 m.y. B.P. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that at this time, northwestern Ascension Canyon formed the distal channel of nearby Monterey Canyon and has subsequently been offset by right-lateral, strike-slip faulting along the San Gregorio fault zone. Some of the six southwestern heads of Ascension Canyon may also have been initially eroded as the distal portions of Monterey Canyon during late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sea-level lowstands (???2.8 and 1.75 m.y. B.P.) and subsequently truncated and offset to the northwest. There have also been a minimum of two canyon-cutting episodes within the past 750,000 years, after the entire Ascension Canyon system migrated to the northwest past Monterey Canyon. We attribute these late Pleistocene erosional events to relative lowstands of sea level 750,000 and 18,000 yrs B.P. The late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the six southeastern heads also appears to have been controlled by structural uplift of the Ascension-Monterey basement high at the southeastern terminus of the Outer Santa Cruz Basin. We believe that uplift of this basement high sufficiently oversteepened submarine slopes to induce gravitational instability and generate mass movements that resulted in the erosion of the canyon heads. Most significantly, though, our results and interpretations support previous proposals that submarine canyons along strike-slip continental margins can originate by tectonic trunction and lateral

  5. Movement and effects of spilled oil over the outer continental shelf; inadequacy of existent data for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, Harley J.

    1974-01-01

    A deductive approach to the problem of determining the movement and effects of spilled oil over the Outer Continental Shelf requires that the potential paths of oil be determined first, in order that critical subareas may be defined for later studies. The paths of spilled oil, in turn, depend primarily on the temporal and spatial variability of four factors: the thermohaline structure of the waters, the circulation of the water, the winds, and the distribution of suspended matter. A review of the existent data concerning these factors for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area (a relatively well studied segment of the Continental Shelf) reveals that the movement and dispersal of potential oil spills cannot be reliably predicted. Variations in the thermohaline structure of waters and in the distribution of suspended matter are adequately known; the uncertainty is due to insufficient wind and storm statistics and to the lack of quantitative understanding of the relationship between the nontidal drift and its basic driving mechanisms. Similar inadequacies should be anticipated for other potentially leasable areas of the shelf because an understanding of the movement of spilled oil has not been the underlying aim of most previous studies.

  6. Evaluation of seismic reflection data in the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area, Paradox Basin, Utah. [Faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kitcho, C.A.; Wong, I.G.; Turcotte, F.T.

    1986-08-01

    Seismic reflection data purchased from petroleum industry brokers and acquired through group speculative surveys were interpreted for information on the regional subsurface geologic structure and stratigraphy within and surrounding the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. Structures of interest were faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures related to salt dissolution. The seismic reflection data were used to interpret stratigraphy by identifying continuous and discontinuous reflectors on the seismic profiles. Thickening and thinning of strata and possible areas of salt flowage or dissolution could be identified from the seismic data. Identifiable reflectors included the tops of the Precambrian and Mississippian, a distinctive interbed close to the middle of the Pennsylvanian Paradox salt formation (probably the interval between Salt Cycles 10 and 13), and near the top of the Paradox salt. Of the 56 faults identified from the seismic reflection interpretation, 33 trend northwest, west-northwest, or west, and most affect only the deeper part of the stratigraphic section. These faults are part of the deep structural system found throughout the Paradox Basin, including the fold and fault belt in the northeast part of the basin. The faults bound basement Precambrian blocks that experienced minor activity during Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian deposition, and showed major displacement during early Paradox salt deposition as the Paradox Basin subsided. Based on the seismic data, most of these faults appear to have an upward terminus between the top of the Mississippian and the salt interbed reflector.

  7. Morphology of Neptune Node Sites, Barkley Canyon, Cascadia Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Riedel, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp seismic reflection profiles collected with MBARI's mapping autonomous underwater vehicle reveal the fine-scale morphology and shallow seafloor structure of the flanks and floor of Barkley Canyon on the Cascadia continental margin off British Columbia. The surveys characterize the environment surrounding three nodes on the Neptune Canada cabled observatory located within the canyon. The canyon floor between 960 and 1020 m water depth lacks channeling and contains ≥ 24 m of acoustically uniform sediment fill, which is ponded between the canyon's steep sidewalls. The fill overlies a strong reflector that outlines an earlier, now buried, canyon floor channel system. Debris flow tongues contain meter scale blocks sticking-up through the fill. Apparently the present geomorphology surrounding the Canyon Axis node in 985 m is attributable to local debris flows, rather than organized down canyon processes. In the survey area the canyon sidewalls extend ~300 m up and in places the slope of the canyons sides exceed 40°. Both the Hydrate node in 870 m water depths and the Mid-Canyon node at 890 m are located on a headland that forms intermediate depth terraces on the canyon's western flank. While the seafloor immediately surrounding the Mid-canyon node is smooth, the Hydrate node is marked by 10 circular mounds up to 2 m high and 10 m in diameter, presumable associated with hydrate formation. Although wedges of sediment drape occur in places on the canyon sides, the chirp profiles show no detectible sediment drape at either node site and suggest these nodes are situated on older, presumably pre-Quaternary strata. The lack of reflectors in the chirp profiles indicates most of the canyon's sidewalls are largely sediment-bare. Lineations in the bathymetry mark the exposed edges of truncated beds. Rough, apparently fresh textures, within slide scarps show the importance of erosion on the development of the canyon flanks.

  8. Ground Water Resources of the Bryce Canyon National Park Area, Utah: With a Section on the Drilling of a Test Well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marine, I. Wendell

    1963-01-01

    The water need at Bryce Canyon National Park in 1957 was about 1.3 million cubic feet for a tourist season that lasted from the middle of May to the middle of October. To evaluate the adequacy of water-supply sources, a hypothetical future need of 5 million cubic feet of water per season is used. This amount of water might be obtained from the East Fork of the Sevier River, from wells in the alluvium of the East Fork, from Yellow Creek Spring and nearby springs, which are below the canyon rim, or from a well drilled about 2,000 feet to the top of the Tropic shale. Although the present source of water, consisting of wells in the alluvium of East Creek valley, may be an important supplemental source in the future, it will not yield sufficient water in dry years to meet the total demand for water at the park. The yield of Yellow Creek Spring and nearby springs is estimated at a total of 7.8 million cubic feet of water per season. The springs provide water of satisfactory chemical quality, and are a reliable source even in times of drought. A serious disadvantage of using this source of water is the difficulty of constructing a pipeline over extremely rugged terrain from the source to the lodge and headquarters area. A well drilled to the top of the Tropic shale of Cretaceous age in the lodge and headquarters area might penetrate two or more aquifers, one at the base of the Wasatch formation of Eocene age and one or more in the Wahweap and Straight Cliffs sandstones of Cretaceous age. The yield of this well would depend to a large degree on the number of fractures encountered. To assure the most favorable conditions for intercepting fracture zones in the bedrock, a test-well site is proposed near the crest of a gentle anticline where tension fractures in the rocks should be common. Shallow wells in the alluvium of East Creek valley cannot be depended upon to yield sufficient water in times of drought, but they are nevertheless an important source. The water

  9. Candidate-penetrative-fracture mapping of the Grand Canyon area, Arizona, from spatial correlation of deep geophysical features and surficial lineaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, Mark E.; Bultman, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Some aquifers of the southwestern Colorado Plateaus Province are deeply buried and overlain by several impermeable shale layers, and so recharge to the aquifer probably is mainly by seepage down penetrative-fracture systems. The purpose of this 2-year study, sponsored by the U.S. National Park Service, was to map candidate deep penetrative fractures over a 120,000-km2 area, using gravity and aeromagnetic-anomaly data together with surficial-fracture data. The study area was on the Colorado Plateau south of the Grand Canyon and west of Black Mesa; mapping was carried out at a scale of 1:250,000. The resulting database constitutes a spatially registered estimate of deep-fracture locations. Candidate penetrative fractures were located by spatial correlation of horizontal- gradient and analytic-signal maximums of gravity and magnetic anomalies with major surficial lineaments obtained from geologic, topographic, side-looking-airborne-radar, and satellite imagery. The maps define a subset of candidate penetrative fractures because of limitations in the data coverage and the analytical technique. In particular, the data and analytical technique used cannot predict whether the fractures are open or closed. Correlations were carried out by using image-processing software, such that every pixel on the resulting images was coded to uniquely identify which datasets are correlated. The technique correctly identified known and many new deep fracture systems. The resulting penetrative-fracture-distribution maps constitute an objectively obtained, repeatable dataset and a benchmark from which additional studies can begin. The maps also define in detail the tectonic fabrics of the southwestern Colorado Plateaus Province. Overlaying the correlated lineaments on the normalized-density-of-vegetation-index image reveals that many of these lineaments correlate with the boundaries of vegetation zones in drainages and canyons and so may be controlling near-surface water availability in

  10. Geological evaluation of San Diego Norte Pilot Project, Zuata area, Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    De Rojas, I.

    1987-10-01

    The San Diego Norte Pilot Project consists of twelve inclined wells (7 producing wells 300 m (984 ft) apart, plus 5 observation wells) drilled from a cluster, to study the production and compaction behavior under steam soak (huff and puff) of the Tertiary heavy crude oil reservoirs of the Zuata area. This area is located within the Orinoco Heavy Oil belt of Venezuela. A geological model was needed as a base for the reservoir studies and to understand the geological setting. This model was constructed from extensive log information, seismic lines, well samples, and cores. The reservoir sands are friable with an average porosity of 34% and permeabilities ranging from 1 to 7 ..mu..m/sup 2/ (1 to 7 darcys). The sands were deposited in meander belts that stacked up forming multistory bodies. Point bars and channel fills account for 80-90% of the total sand. These sands are internally heterogeneous, sinuous and elongated, and larger than the 1 km/sup 2/ area covered by the project. The topmost two productive sands, which together average 22 m (72 ft), show the best porosities and permeabilities and are isolated by thick clays that make them suitable for selective steam injection. In the project, the oil has a density of about 1.0 g/cm/sup 3/ (10/sup 0/ API) and fills all the sands down to the oil-water contact. The depth of this contact is controlled by regional faults. Based on core compressibility tests, compaction is expected to be the principal production mechanism that could increase the expected primary recovery of 4 to 12% by huff and puff steam injection, leading to a possible recovery of 0.64 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ (4 million bbl) in six years with four cycles of steam injection. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  11. The 1987 estimate of undiscovered uranium endowment in solution-collapse breccia pipes in the Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona and adjacent Uta

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, W.I.; Sutphin, H.B.; Pierson, C.T.; McCammon, R.B.; Wenrich, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book is based on a new method published in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 994 and is the second assessment made in accordance with the 1984 Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first estimate was published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 80-2. The endowment estimates are reported for 26 areas in the following 1{degrees} {times} 2{degrees} guadrangles: Grand Canyon, Marble Canyon, Williams, Flagstaff, Prescott, Holbrook, and St. Johns, Ariz., and Cedar City, Utah. The total uranium endowment is about eight times larger than reported in 1980 by the Department of Energy. The Grand Canyon region has the potential of becoming the second most important domestic uranium producer after the most production San Juan Basin uranium region in New Mexico.

  12. Quality of urban runoff, Tecolote Creek drainage area, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, James G.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of storm runoff from a 9.2-square-mile urbanized watershed, Tecolote Creek, San Diego County, Calif., was studied during nine storms from September 1976 through May 1977. Specific conductance reached 2,100 micromhos and total residue concentrations reached 2,770 milligrams per liter. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in 95% of the samples exceeded 50 milligrams per liter, a concentration that may be sufficient to cause severe oxygen depletion in areas of the receiving water, Mission Bay. Lead concentrations in all samples exceeded concentrations thought to affect some aquatic organisms. Median total nitrogen and total orthophosphorus concentrations were far in excess of concentrations known to cause nuisance growth of algae in lakes. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations greatly exceeded recommended levels for primary contact recreation water. Concentrations of pesticides--heptachlor, malathion, chlordane, DDT, diazinon, and dieldrin--frequently exceeded the recommended maximums for marine or freshwater aquatic systems. Total loads of selected constituents are calculated and may be used to estimate the impact of runoff on the receiving water. (USGS)

  13. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A.; Bates, Michael N.; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007–2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. PMID:27188942

  14. Sexual behavior of foreign backpackers in the Khao San Road area, Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Kaehler, Nils; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Kyi, Ye Paing; Adhikari, Bipin; Sibunruang, Suda; Jearraksuwan, Suwimol; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2013-07-04

    Travelers play a role in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV because of having unprotected sex. We studied the incidence of casual sex among foreign backpack tourists in the Khao San Road area of Bangkok, Thailand. We also evaluated their attitudes about sexual health and their actual practices. A cross sectional study was conducted using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. The target population was backpackers aged > or =18 years, from Europe, North America and Australia. In total, 415 questionnaires were filled out and analyzed. Sixty-four percent of participants were male, the overall median age was 27 years and the mean duration of stay was 14.6 days. One hundred seven respondents (25%) had casual sex while staying in Thailand; of these, 55% always used condoms. The selection of sex partner influenced the use of condoms. The highest rate of condom use was among backpackers who had sex with sex workers (63%), while those who had sex with their travel partners had the lowest rate of condom use (35.6%). One-fourth of backpackers in our study had casual sex during their trip. Their attitudes towards safe sex practices were not ideal. Methods to change attitudes and behavior about unprotected sex need to be explored in this population.

  15. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  16. Spatial correlation of shear-wave velocity in the San Francisco Bay Area sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Ground motions recorded within sedimentary basins are variable over short distances. One important cause of the variability is that local soil properties are variable at all scales. Regional hazard maps developed for predicting site effects are generally derived from maps of surficial geology; however, recent studies have shown that mapped geologic units do not correlate well with the average shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 m, Vs(30). We model the horizontal variability of near-surface soil shear-wave velocity in the San Francisco Bay Area to estimate values in unsampled locations in order to account for site effects in a continuous manner. Previous geostatistical studies of soil properties have shown horizontal correlations at the scale of meters to tens of meters while the vertical correlations are on the order of centimeters. In this paper we analyze shear-wave velocity data over regional distances and find that surface shear-wave velocity is correlated at horizontal distances up to 4 km based on data from seismic cone penetration tests and the spectral analysis of surface waves. We propose a method to map site effects by using geostatistical methods based on the shear-wave velocity correlation structure within a sedimentary basin. If used in conjunction with densely spaced shear-wave velocity profiles in regions of high seismic risk, geostatistical methods can produce reliable continuous maps of site effects. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral health status of special athletes in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Beltrán, E D; Malvitz, D M; Perlman, S P

    1998-05-01

    A standardized oral health screening protocol was developed for assessing the oral health status of athletes participating in annual Special Olympics events at sites across the country. This paper reports on results at the San Francisco Bay Area Special Olympics event, where 385 athletes participated in the oral health screening. Trained dental screeners determined the presence or absence of edentulism, untreated decay, filled teeth, missing teeth, tooth injury, fluorosis, and gingival signs, as well as treatment urgency. The frequency of mouth cleaning, having a mouth guard, use of tobacco, and presence or absence of pain were self-reported. Overall, child athletes 9-20 years of age had more untreated decay and substantially more missing permanent teeth than 9-20-year-old children represented in the 1986-87 National Institute of Dental Research Survey of U.S. School Children. Prevalence of missing teeth among adult athletes compared favorably with data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. Approximately one-third of child and adult athletes were determined to need dental care. Continued use of a standardized screening protocol could allow state-specific data to be available on the oral health status of this population; trends could be tracked; and needs could be identified, with strategies developed to meet those needs.

  18. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  19. Distribution of nitrate in the unsaturated zone, Highland-East Highlands area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, John M.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrogen in the unsaturated soil zone in the Highland-East Highlands area of San Bernardino County, Calif., has been suspected as the source of nitrate in water from wells. Plans to recharge the local aquifers with imported surface water would raise the water table and intercept that nitrogen. This study was made to describe the distribution of inorganic nitrogen and other chemical constituents and nitrogen-using bacteria in the unsaturated zone, to relate nitrogen occurrences, in a general way, to present and historical land use, and to attempt to predict nitrogen concentrations in ground water after recharge. Some generalized correlations between nitrogen occurrence and land use were observed. In 11 of 13 test holes, the maximum nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations occurred within 10 feet of the surface, suggesting that the major source of nitrogen is from the surface at these sites. Test holes were ranked according to maximum NO3--N in the top 10 feet, total NO3--N in the top 10 feet, and total NO3--N in the top 40 feet. In all three rankings, the top seven test holes were the same--five in or near present or historical agricultural areas (primarily citrus groves), one in a feedlot, and one adjacent to an abandoned sewage-treatment plant. Two test holes in historically uninhabited areas ranked lowest. The control test hole in an uninhabited area ranked high in geometric mean of ammonium-nitrogen concentration (NH4+-N), suggesting that present in freshly weathered granite. The geometric means of NH4+-N concentrations in six of eight citrus-related test holes were significantly lower than in the control hole, suggesting that irrigation in citrus groves may have created conditions favoring nitrification of the primary NH4+-N. Rank correlation analyses between various measurements in test holes showed that high NO3--N concentrations tend to occur with high specific conductance and chloride concentrations in soil extracts. If recharge is carried out as planned

  20. Surface Geometry and Geomorphology of the Rodgers Creek Fault, San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Rodgers Creek fault, part of the right-lateral San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area, is geometrically segmented by bends on multiple scales. North of Sonoma Mountain, along the northern half of the fault, sections of the fault trace trend approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion (~N34°W) and display a right-stepping pattern across releasing double bends. Within the releasing bends, the fault trends >5° oblique to plate motion and shows geomorphic evidence of extension. The largest right bend, ~1 km at Santa Rosa, corresponds to the lowest elevations along the fault. To the south, the fault makes a broad restraining double bend around the southwest flank of Sonoma Mountain and trends up to ~13° compressively oblique to plate motion. Long-term uplift (Sonoma Mountain) east of the bend suggests a reduction in slip on the fault to the south. The restraining bend corresponds to the north end of a pronounced aseismic region along the fault that may represent a spatial change in the mode of strain accommodation. Aerial photo analysis (1:6 k) of well-preserved geomorphology at the south end of the Rodgers Creek fault, where the fault makes another left bend with respect to plate motion, reveals a section that is undergoing progressive inversion from localized transtension (at a right bend) to transpression. This inversion is manifest as a northwest- lengthening zone of uplift within the fault zone. The youngest push-ups appear to be overprinting a relict pull-apart and sag pond. This and possibly older sag deposits along the margin of the uplift may mark former positions of a releasing geometry in the fault trace, presently located directly north of the uplift front. Geometric and overprinting relations suggest that the main trace of the fault rotates and translates through the passing bends. This mode of fault-bend migration contrasts with a previously proposed model in which new transverse structures develop progressively

  1. Ecological Functioning in Two Mid-Atlantic Bight Submarine Canyons: Macrofauna Community Trends and the Role of Canyon Specific Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, C.; Bourque, J. R.; Davies, A. J.; Duineveld, G.; Mienis, F.; Brooke, S.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine canyons are complex systems, acting as major conduits of organic matter along continental shelves and promoting gradients in food resources, turbidity flows, habitat heterogeneity, and areas of sediment resuspension and deposition. In the western North Atlantic, a large multidisciplinary program was conducted in two major Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) canyons (Baltimore and Norfolk canyons). This Atlantic Deepwater Canyons project was funded by BOEM, NOAA, and USGS. Here we investigate the `canyon effect' on benthic ecosystem ecology and functioning of two canyon systems by defining canyon specific processes influencing MAB shelf benthic community trends. Sediment cores were collected in 2012 and 2013 with a NIOZ box corer along the main axes ( 180-1200m) of Baltimore and Norfolk Canyon and at comparable depths on the adjacent continental slope. Whole community macrofaunal (>300 μm) abundance and biomass data provided insight into community trends across depth and biogeochemical gradients by coupling diversity metrics and biological trait analyses with sediment biogeochemistry and hydrodynamic data. The canyons exhibited clear differences in sediment profiles, hydrodynamic regimes and enrichment depocenters as well as significantly distinct infauna communities. Interestingly, both canyons showed bimodal distributions in abundances and diversity of infauna and a shallowing of species maxima which was not present on adjacent slopes. We hypothesize that physical canyon processes are important regulators in the depth of observed species maxima and community functioning on the MAB shelf, on local and regional scales. Unique sediment dynamics, organic enrichment, and hydrographic conditions were significant factors in structuring benthic community differences in MAB canyons The study provides a complete benthic infaunal appraisal of two canyon systems in the western Atlantic, incorporating biogeochemistry and oceanography to increase our understanding of canyon

  2. Summary of hydrologic data for the San Gabriel River basin and Edwards Aquifer, Georgetown area, Texas, water year 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, William E.; Land, Larry F.

    1992-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer is the principal source of freshwater for municipal, domestic, and industrial users in the Georgetown area.  Other sources of freshwater are Lake Georgetown and the streams draining the San Gabriel River basin.  Lake Georgetown, located on the North Fork San Gabriel River west of Georgetown, is a freshwater supply for some municipalities in the area.  Water in the San Gabriel River basin also suppliesa variety of needs east of Georgetown.  Because of the importance of the Edwards aquifer and the surface waters as a source of freshwater in the area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Georgetown, established a local streamflow and ground-water monitoring network in principal streams and teh Edwards aquifer, and conducted surveys of the network in water years 1987, 1988, and 1990.  The study area was centered on Georgetown and emcompassed an area of about 150 mi2 (fig. 1).

  3. 33. SAR1, LOOKING DOWN CANYON OVER TAILRACE CONSTRUCTION. EEC print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. SAR-1, LOOKING DOWN CANYON OVER TAILRACE CONSTRUCTION. EEC print no. G-C-01-00269, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  5. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore » Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  6. Geologic structure of the Yucaipa area inferred from gravity data, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Langenheim, V.E.; Morita, Andrew; Danskin, Wesley R.

    2016-09-30

    In the spring of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District, began working on a gravity survey in the Yucaipa area to explore the three-dimensional shape of the sedimentary fill (alluvial deposits) and the surface of the underlying crystalline basement rocks. As water use has increased in pace with rapid urbanization, water managers have need for better information about the subsurface geometry and the boundaries of groundwater subbasins in the Yucaipa area. The large density contrast between alluvial deposits and the crystalline basement complex permits using modeling of gravity data to estimate the thickness of alluvial deposits. The bottom of the alluvial deposits is considered to be the top of crystalline basement rocks. The gravity data, integrated with geologic information from surface outcrops and 51 subsurface borings (15 of which penetrated basement rock), indicated a complex basin configuration where steep slopes coincide with mapped faults―such as the Crafton Hills Fault and the eastern section of the Banning Fault―and concealed ridges separate hydrologically defined subbasins.Gravity measurements and well logs were the primary data sets used to define the thickness and structure of the groundwater basin. Gravity measurements were collected at 256 new locations along profiles that totaled approximately 104.6 km (65 mi) in length; these data supplemented previously collected gravity measurements. Gravity data were reduced to isostatic anomalies and separated into an anomaly field representing the valley fill. The ‘valley-fill-deposits gravity anomaly’ was converted to thickness by using an assumed, depth-varying density contrast between the alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock.To help visualize the basin geometry, an animation of the elevation of the top of the basement-rocks was prepared. The animation “flies over” the Yucaipa groundwater basin, viewing the land surface

  7. Tectonic framework of the Parkfield-Cholame area, central San Andreas fault zone, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.D.; Ross, D.C.; Irwin, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping of the NW-trending San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ) in the southern Diablo Range reveals details of this structurally complex region. Movement on the fault juxtaposes dissimilar tectonic terranes. The region on the NE side is characterized by complexly folded and faulted rocks of the Franciscan assemblage, the Coast Range ophiolite, and sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley sequence and younger formations. The region on the SW side is characterized by crystalline basement rocks of the Salinia terrane overlain by slightly deformed Pliocene and Pleistocene gravel and Miocene and Pliocene sedimentary rocks. The active trace of the SAFZ is along the SW side of a belt of melange that separates the Salinia terrane from the terranes to the NE. The active main trace is notable for a right step over of about 1 km in the southern part of the area and a 5/sup 0/ left bend in the northern part of the area. The melange consists of highly sheared and deformed rocks of late Cenozoic units, and exotic blocks of granite, gabbro, and marble. Deformation of Late Cretaceous and younger rocks east of the SAFZ varies with their age as follows: 1) Late Cretaceous rocks are strongly deformed and overlain by late Cenozoic rocks with angular unconformity, 2) early(.) and middle Miocene rocks are the most complexly folded, 3) late Miocene and early Pliocene strata are less complexly deformed, and 4) Pliocene and Pleistocene rocks the least deformed. Folding resulted from north-south compression across the SAFZ since early (.) Miocene time.

  8. The Morpho-Acoustic Structure of Sakarya Canyon, Southwestern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasıf, Aslıhan; Dondurur, Derman

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Black Sea outlet of Sakarya River in the western Black Sea continental margin is analyzed using a total of 1400 km multichannel seismics, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric datasets. Three scientific cruises between 2012 and 2016 have been conducted in the area to map and reveal the morphological structure of the Sakarya Canyon along the southwestern Black Sea margin. The Western Black Sea Turkey coastal area is also home to many active canyons. These canyons extend from deep shallow shelf areas of about 100 m to deep water depths of 1800-2000 m. The largest and most active of the Western Black Sea canyons is the Sakarya Canyon, which is located at the exit of the Sakarya River. Research on submarine canyons are important for military submarine operations, positioning of marine engineering structures and understanding the sedimentology, ecological and oceanographic functions of canyons. The canyon systems observed on continental slopes lead to the most convenient sedimentary transportation from the shelf platform. The dataset from study area was analyzed to identify the acoustic structure of Sakarya Canyon, the morphology of which is not widely known. Bathymetric data shows that the canyon consists of two separate canyon heads in the shallow continental shelf to the south, both of which coalesce at 867 m water depth. This meandering canyon then deepens along the continental slope towards to north. Another wide canyon from west, named as Kefken Canyon, then conjoins this main canyon at approximately 1000 m water depths to form the deeper structure of the modern Sakarya Canyon. In the distal parts, canyon gets wider and wider, and its thalweg becomes significantly flat eroded by the present day activity of small scale turbidity channels. Multichannel seismic data indicate that the Sakarya Canyon was formed by the activity of hyperphycnal flows and also clearly show the extensive sediment erosion along the canyon.

  9. Public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-08-01

    The authors examine the nature of the public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station located in San Luis Obispo, California, from the early 1960s to the present. Four distinct phases of public intervention were discerned, based on change in both plant-related issues and in the nature of the antinuclear constituencies in the region. The level of public concern varied both geographically and temporally and is related to the area's social structure, environmental predispositions, and distribution of plant-related economic benefits. External events, such as the prolonged debate over the risk assessment of the seismic hazard and the Three Mile Island accident were found to be important factors in explaining variation in public concern and political response.

  10. Maps of the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley, San Diego County, California, showing geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.

    1985-01-01

    In November 1984, 84 wells and 1 spring in the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley were inventoried by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Depth to water in 38 wells ranged from 1.3 to 38 ft and 23 wells had depths to water less than 10 feet. Dissolved solids concentration of water from 29 wells and 1 spring sampled in autumn 1983 and spring 1984 ranged from 574 to 2,370 mgs/L. Groundwater with a dissolved solids concentration less than 1,000 mgs/L was generally restricted to the eastern part of the aquifer. The total volume of alluvial fill in the Bonsall area is 113,000 acre-feet; the amount of groundwater storage available in the alluvial aquifer is 18,000 acre-feet. The alluvial aquifer is, in part, surrounded and underlain by colluvium and weathered crystalline rock that add some additional groundwater storage capacity to the system. Data in this report are presented on five maps showing well locations , thickness of alluvial fill, water level contours in November 1983 and hydrographs of selected wells, groundwater quality in spring 1960 and graphs showing changes in dissolved solids concentrations of water from selected wells with time, and groundwater quality in spring 1984. This report is part of a larger cooperative project between the Rainbow Municipal Irrigation District and the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of the larger project is to develop an appropriate groundwater management plan for the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley. (USGS)

  11. Carnotite resources of the Spud Patch area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Henry

    1953-01-01

    The Spud Patch area comprises about 8 square in T. 43 M., R. 18 and 19 W., San Miguel County, Colo., and is about 4 miles northeast of Egnar, Colo. Claims of the United States Vanadium Co. and the Vanadium Corp. of America cover about half the area. Claims of other owners, public land, and patented agricultural land, comprise the remainder of the area. The area is about 38 miles from the Government mill at Montecello, Utah, and 55 miles from the Vanadium Corp. of America mill at Naturita, Colo. Between 1940 and 1951, the Spud Patch area yielded about 24,000 short tons of carnotite ore that probably averaged 0.21 percent U3O8 and 2.2 percent V2O5. The deposits are in a broad sandstone lens near the top of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Although the deposits mined have been mainly impregnations of sandstone by carnotite and gray vanadium-bearing clay minerals, some of the richer deposits found by Geological Survey drilling have a finely disseminated black uranium mineral but no carnotite. The deposits commonly are thin irregular tabular layers, which locally thicken to form elongate masses called "rolls". These rolls have a dominant northeasterly trend. Geologic features found to be most useful as guides to ore are listed. From November 1949 to May 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 415 diamond-drill holes totaling 67,215 feet in the Spud Patch area. The purpose of this drilling was to find deposits that would make new mines and to appraise the reserves in the unexplored area. As a result of Geological Survey drilling, indicated and inferred reserves computed at the cutoff of 1 foot or more thick and 0.10 percent U3O8 or 1.0 percent V2O5 total 20,500 short tons, averaging 0.28 percent U3O8 and 2.1 percent V2O5. These reserves and those computed at a lower grade cutoff of 0.05 percent U3O8 or 0.50 percent V2O5 and the pounds of contained metal are summarized in table 1. Potential reserves, whose existence is based on geologic evidence

  12. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the central Mississippi Canyon area: Interaction of salt tectonics and slope processes in the formation of engineering and geologic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, John Richard

    Approximately 720 square miles of digital 3-dimensional seismic data covering the eastern Mississippi Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico, continental shelf was used to examine the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the geology in the study area. The analysis focused on salt tectonics and sequence stratigraphy to develop a geologic model for the study area and its potential impact on engineering and geologic hazards. Salt in the study area was found to be established structural end-members derived from shallow-emplaced salt sheets. The transition from regional to local salt tectonics was identified through structural deformation of the stratigraphic section on the seismic data and occurred no later than ˜450,000 years ago. From ˜450,000 years to present, slope depositional processes have become the dominant geologic process in the study area. Six stratigraphic sequences (I-VI) were identified in the study area and found to correlate with sequences previously defined for the Eastern Mississippi Fan. Condensed sections were the key to the correlation. The sequence stratigraphy for the Eastern Mississippi Fan can be extended ˜28 miles west, adding another ˜720 square miles to the interpreted Fan. A previously defined channel within the Eastern Fan was identified in the study area and extended the channel ˜28 miles west. Previous work on the Eastern Fan identified the source of the Fan to be the Mobile River; however, extending the channel west suggests the sediment source to be from the Mississippi River, not the Mobile River. Further evidence for this was found in ponded turbidites whose source has been previously established as the Mississippi River. Ages of the stratigraphic sequences were compared to changes in eustatic sea level. The formation stratigraphic sequences appear decoupled from sea level change with "pseudo-highstands" forming condensed sections during pronounced Pleistocene sea level lowstands. Miocene and Pleistocene depositional analogues

  13. The impact of the San Diego wildfires on a general mental health population residing in evacuation areas.

    PubMed

    Tally, Steven; Levack, Ashley; Sarkin, Andrew J; Gilmer, Todd; Groessl, Erik J

    2013-09-01

    San Diego County Mental Health system clients completed a questionnaire after the October 2007 wildfires. As compared to those not in an evacuation area, those residing in an evacuation area reported significantly more impact of the fires. Clients who evacuated were most affected, followed by those in an evacuation area who did not evacuate. Evacuation strongly impacted client-reported emotional effects of the fire, confusion about whether to evacuate, and ability to obtain medications. Gender and clinical diagnosis interacted with evacuation status for some fire impact variables. Loss of control and disruption of routine are discussed as possibly related factors.

  14. Recognition of body image and food behavior factors among middle school students in San Francisco area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recognition of body image and food behavior factors according to the BMI. The subjects of this study were 242 7th grade students resided in San Francisco area. The degree of recognition for self-estimated physique of subjects by gender and by race showed no significant differences by gender but significant differences by race, showing that 20.0% was considered as underweight in Asian and 7.5% was considered as underweight in White students. This showed the same tendency as actual physique status (BMI). Also, the ratio of being recognized as more than overweight was 17.3% in Asian, 23.3% in Hispanic, and 13.4% in White students. In case of female students, the ratio of dieting experience was 63.3%, and 49.3% of White students and 63.3% of Hispanic students experienced dieting. In case of students answered not healthy, their body weight were significantly higher than those answered as healthy, and the BMI was also over 19, showing significant differences. Thus cases that answered as not healthy had greater body weight and BMI. Also it showed that frequent dieting experience is related to higher height and weight. The analysis of food behavior factors perceived by body shape showed that the group perceived itself as overweight consumed more 'fast food' but had low scores in 'vegetables' intake, with frequent intake of 'soda' and tendency to 'overeat'. Also, the tendency for 'balanced life' was significantly lower and for skipping breakfast was significantly higher, suggesting problematic food behavior.

  15. Benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information System - San Francisco Bay Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Johnson, L. E.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in monitoring and prediction of precipitation and severe storms can provide significant benefits for water resource managers, allowing them to mitigate flood damage risks, capture additional water supplies and offset drought impacts, and enhance ecosystem services. A case study for the San Francisco Bay area provides the context for quantification of the benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) system. The AQPI builds off more than a decade of NOAA research and applications of advanced precipitation sensors, data assimilation, numerical models of storms and storm runoff, and systems integration for real-time operations. An AQPI would dovetail with the current National Weather Service forecast operations to provide higher resolution monitoring of rainfall events and longer lead time forecasts. A regional resource accounting approach has been developed to quantify the incremental benefits assignable to the AQPI system; these benefits total to $35 M/yr in the 9 county Bay region. Depending on the jurisdiction large benefits for flood damage avoidance may accrue for locations having dense development in flood plains. In other locations forecst=based reservoir operations can increase reservoir storage for water supplies. Ecosystem services benefits for fisheries may be obtained from increased reservoir storage and downstream releases. Benefits in the transporation sectors are associated with increased safety and avoided delays. Compared to AQPI system implementation and O&M costs over a 10 year operations period, a benefit - cost (B/C) ratio is computed which ranges between 2.8 to 4. It is important to acknowledge that many of the benefits are dependent on appropriate and adequate response by the hazards and water resources management agencies and citizens.

  16. Prior history of allergies and pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Holly, Elizabeth A; Eberle, Carey A; Bracci, Paige M

    2003-09-01

    Data from a large population-based case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed to examine the association between pancreatic cancer and history of allergic conditions. Pancreatic cancer cases (n = 532) had to be 21-85 years of age and were identified using rapid case ascertainment. Random digit dialing and Health Care Financing Administration lists (age, > or = 65 years) were used to obtain 1,701 controls who were frequency-matched to cases by sex and age within 5 years. In-person interviews were conducted and detailed allergy history data were obtained for all participants. Prior history of any allergy was associated with a reduced risk estimate for pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.95). Inverse associations were observed for common allergens, including house dust (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.94), cats (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.85), plants (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96), and mold (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.75), and for all allergic symptoms, although some confidence intervals included unity. Trends were observed for decreased risks associated with increasing number of allergies (p = 0.0006) and severity of allergic symptoms (p = 0.003). These results provide support for the plausibility that immune function in relation to allergies may play a role in the etiology of pancreatic cancer.

  17. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  18. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Voice disorders in the Metropolitan Area of San Juan, Puerto Rico: profiles of occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Reyes, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 28,000,000 workers in the United States experience voice problems everyday. In general, voice problems are very common, but they are more frequent among certain occupational groups. Descriptive cross-sectional study. We analyzed 129 available records of voice-disordered cases reported during the period of 2000-2005 from the Corporación del Fondo del Seguro del Estado in the Metropolitan Areas of Puerto Rico of Bayamón, San Juan, and Carolina. The following variables were studied: sex, age, occupation, possible job hazards, diagnosis, and type of treatment. Measures of central tendency, including percentage frequencies, were used. The findings revealed that 81% of all the cases of voice disorders available during the study period were females. The average age at diagnosis for different voice disorders was 42 years (± 10 years). Vocal problems were reported with a higher frequency by teachers at the elementary and high school levels (72%). The most common complaints were job-related voice overuse (30%) and excessive dust at the workplace. The most frequent medical diagnoses related to voice disorders were rhynopharyngitis (27%), several types of laryngitis (21%), and laryngopharyngitis (10%). The most frequent treatment modality for laryngeal disease and voice problems was the prescription of medication. The most relevant factor of voice disorders for professional voice users is the vocal overload during their job. It is advisable to implement voice disorder-prevention programs for teachers because of the high rate of vocal dysfunction among these professionals. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. InSAR deformation time series for an agricultural area in the San Luis Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. A.; Knight, R.; Zebker, H. A.; Schreüder, W. A.; Shanker, P.; Lauknes, T. R.

    2009-05-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV) is an 8000 km2 region in southern Colorado that is home to a thriving agricultural economy. This valley is currently in a period of extreme drought, with county and state regulators struggling to develop appropriate management policies for both the surface water and the ground water. In 1998 the state of Colorado commissioned the Rio Grande Decision Support System to refine the hydogeologic characterization of the system, including the development of a MODFLOW finite difference model of groundwater flow. The main challenge in the SLV is acquiring sufficient data to characterize the spatially heterogeneous, time-varying behavior of the groundwater system. Here we apply the small baseline subset analysis (SBAS) interferometric radar (InSAR) technique to provide such data. InSAR techniques yield the deformation of Earth's surface at fine spatial resolution occurring between two satellite overflights, and SBAS permits solution for a time series of deformation maps. The measured deformation can be related to changes in the water table in underlying confined aquifers. The ability to map these changes, over time, in the SLV will provide critical information about the groundwater system. Historically, InSAR measurements have been difficult to make in agricultural areas. The change in cm-scale crop structure with time leads to signal decorrelation and the loss of useful information about surface deformation. The recently-developed SBAS method allows stable deformation estimates at certain ground points in an otherwise decorrelated time series of data. We applied this approach to data collected by the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites over the western SLV from track 98 frame 2853 for the years 1992-2001. We used the Generic SAR (GSAR) SBAS software developed by Norut to produce time series deformation measurements for many positions across the entire SLV. We find that the 2000 km2 area captured in track 98 frame 2853 shows very high

  1. Seismically induced rock slope failures resulting from topographic amplification of strong ground motions: The case of Pacoima Canyon, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, S.A.; Murphy, W.; Jibson, R.W.; Petley, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    The 1994 Northridge earthquake (Mw = 6.7) triggered extensive rock slope failures in Pacoima Canyon, immediately north of Los Angeles, California. Pacoima Canyon is a narrow and steep canyon incised in gneissic and granitic rocks. Peak accelerations of nearly 1.6 g were recorded at a ridge that forms the left abutment of Pacoima Dam; peak accelerations at the bottom of the canyon were less than 0.5 g, suggesting the occurrence of topographic amplification. Topographic effects have been previously suggested to explain similarly high ground motions at the site during the 1971 (Mw = 6.7) San Fernando earthquake. Furthermore, high landslide concentrations observed in the area have been attributed to unusually strong ground motions rather than higher susceptibility to sliding compared with nearby zones. We conducted field investigations and slope stability back-analyses to confirm the impact of topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides during the 1994 earthquake. Our results suggest that the observed extensive rock sliding and falling would have not been possible under unamplified seismic conditions, which would have generated a significantly lower number of areas affected by landslides. In contrast, modelling slope stability using amplified ground shaking predicts slope failure distributions matching what occurred in 1994. This observation confirms a significant role for topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides at the site, and emphasises the need to select carefully the inputs for seismic slope stability analyses. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of SAXS and SANS in evaluation of porosity, pore size distribution and surface area of coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radlinski, A.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hinde, A.L.; Hainbuchner, M.; Rauch, H.; Baron, M.; Lin, J.S.; Fan, L.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques for determining the porosity, pore size distribution and internal specific surface area in coals. The method is noninvasive, fast, inexpensive and does not require complex sample preparation. It uses coal grains of about 0.8 mm size mounted in standard pellets as used for petrographic studies. Assuming spherical pore geometry, the scattering data are converted into the pore size distribution in the size range 1 nm (10 A??) to 20 ??m (200,000 A??) in diameter, accounting for both open and closed pores. FTIR as well as SAXS and SANS data for seven samples of oriented whole coals and corresponding pellets with vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values in the range 0.55% to 5.15% are presented and analyzed. Our results demonstrate that pellets adequately represent the average microstructure of coal samples. The scattering data have been used to calculate the maximum surface area available for methane adsorption. Total porosity as percentage of sample volume is calculated and compared with worldwide trends. By demonstrating the applicability of SAXS and SANS techniques to determine the porosity, pore size distribution and surface area in coals, we provide a new and efficient tool, which can be used for any type of coal sample, from a thin slice to a representative sample of a thick seam. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SAN JACINTO WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Brett F.; Conyac, Martin D.

    1984-01-01

    The San Jacinto Wilderness, located in the San Jacinto Mountains approximately 4 to 11 mi west of Palm Springs, California, was investigated by field and laboratory studies. The wilderness contains no known mineral deposits and no evidence of past mineral production. Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies indicate that the San Jacinto Wilderness has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. However, if future studies of plutonism and related processes of mineralization are conducted in the San Jacinto Mountains and vicinity, the metasedimentary rocks and bordering intrusive contacts in the south parcel of the wilderness might merit further examination. In particular, such future studies might further evaluate the origin and significance of minor stream-sediment geochemical anomalies for tungsten, cerium, and lanthanum detected in our panned-concentrate samples collected near the heads of Murray and Andreas Canyons.

  4. Infrared survey of the Pisgah Crater area, San Bernardino County, California - a geologic interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gawarecki, Stephen J.

    1968-01-01

    The infrared survey of the Pisgah Crater Area, San Bernardino County, California was primarily undertaken to establish parameters by which rock types, structures, and textures peculiar to this locale could be recognized or differentiated. A secondary purpose was to provide an adequate evaluation and calibration of airborne and ground-based instruments used in the survey. Pisgah Crater and its vicinity was chosen as one of the fundamental test sites for the NASA remote sensing program because of its relatively fresh basaltic flows and pyroclastics. Its typical exposure of basalt also made it a possible lunar analogue. A fundamental test site for the purpose of the program is defined as a readily accessible area for which the topography, geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation and other features are relatively well known. All remote sensor instrument teams, i.e. infrared, radar, microwave, and photography, were obligated to use the fundamental test sites for instrument evaluation and to establish terrain identification procedures. Pisgah Crater, nearby Sunshine Cone, and their associated lava flows are in the southern Mojave Desert about 40 miles east-southeast of Barstow, California. (See fig. 1.) U. S. Highway 66 skirts .the northern part of the area and provides access via asphalt-paved and dirt roads to the Crater and to the perimeters of the flows. Pisgah Crater, which is a pumiceous cone, is owned and occasionally quarried by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. The remaining part of the area to the south is within the boundary of the Marine Corps Base, Twentynine Palms, California and is currently being used as a gunnery, and bombing range. The proximate area to east, west, and north of Pisgah Crater is public domain. Originally, an area totaling 10 square miles was outlined for detailed study. (See plate 1.) This included an 8 mile long strip extending south- east from and including Pisgah Crater to Lavic Dry Lake, and a 2 mile strip aligned to include a

  5. Mineral resource potential map of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Study Area, Graham and Greenlee counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donlad H.; Klein, Douglas P.; Lawrence, Viki A.; Lane, Michael

    1982-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Study Area (AZ-040-022/023/024) is low (fig. 2). Although favorable geologic environments for placer gold deposits and manganese vein deposits are present in the study area, the probability of discovering economically exploitable deposits of these metals is low, and not encouraging. Even more speculative is the study area's porphyry copper potential which is based solely on the possibility of favorable host terranes underlying the study area at depth. The study area does contain substantial deposits of pumice, but their economic significance is probably minor. A part of the study area has been previously designated a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA).

  6. 41. SAR2, GENERAL VIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. SAR-2, GENERAL VIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA FROM THE NEW TRAIL ACROSS THE CANYON. SCE negative no. 4320, no date (but probably March 15, 1918: see HAER no. CA-130-44, no. 4321). Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Comparison of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Satellites for Forest Alliance Classification in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess multi-temporal, Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) satellite imagery for improved forest class mapping relative to multispectral satellites. The study area was the western San Francisco Bay Area, California and forest alliances (e.g., forest communities defined by dominant or co-dominant trees) were defined using the U.S. National Vegetation Classification System. Simulated 30-m HyspIRI, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery were processed from image data acquired by NASA's AVIRIS airborne sensor in year 2015, with summer and multi-temporal (spring, summer, fall) data analyzed separately. HyspIRI reflectance was used to generate a suite of hyperspectral metrics that targeted key spectral features related to chemical and structural properties. The Random Forests classifier was applied to the simulated images and overall accuracies (OA) were compared to those from real Landsat 8 images. For each image group, broad land cover (e.g., Needle-leaf Trees, Broad-leaf Trees, Annual agriculture, Herbaceous, Built-up) was classified first, followed by a finer-detail forest alliance classification for pixels mapped as closed-canopy forest. There were 5 needle-leaf tree alliances and 16 broad-leaf tree alliances, including 7 Quercus (oak) alliance types. No forest alliance classification exceeded 50% OA, indicating that there was broad spectral similarity among alliances, most of which were not spectrally pure but rather a mix of tree species. In general, needle-leaf (Pine, Redwood, Douglas Fir) alliances had better class accuracies than broad-leaf alliances (Oaks, Madrone, Bay Laurel, Buckeye, etc). Multi-temporal data classifications all had 5-6% greater OA than with comparable summer data. For simulated data, HyspIRI metrics had 4-5% greater OA than Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery and 3-4% greater OA than HyspIRI reflectance. Finally, HyspIRI metrics had 8% greater OA than real Landsat 8 imagery. In conclusion, forest

  8. Database of well and areal data, South San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, D.A.; Fio, J.L.; Metzger, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    A database was developed to organize and manage data compiled for a regional assessment of geohydrologic and water-quality conditions in the south San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area in California. Available data provided by local, State, and Federal agencies and private consultants was utilized in the assessment. The database consists of geographicinformation system data layers and related tables and American Standard Code for Information Interchange files. Documentation of the database is necessary to avoid misinterpretation of the data and to make users aware of potential errors and limitations. Most of the data compiled were collected from wells and boreholes (collectively referred to as wells in this report). This point-specific data, including construction, water-level, waterquality, pumping test, and lithologic data, are contained in tables and files that are related to a geographic information system data layer that contains the locations of the wells. There are 1,014 wells in the data layer and the related tables contain 35,845 water-level measurements (from 293 of the wells) and 9,292 water-quality samples (from 394 of the wells). Calculation of hydraulic heads and gradients from the water levels can be affected adversely by errors in the determination of the altitude of land surface at the well. Cation and anion balance computations performed on 396 of the water-quality samples indicate high cation and anion balance errors for 51 (13 percent) of the samples. Well drillers' reports were interpreted for 762 of the wells, and digital representations of the lithology of the formations are contained in files following the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The usefulness of drillers' descriptions of the formation lithology is affected by the detail and thoroughness of the drillers' descriptions, as well as the knowledge, experience, and vocabulary of the individual who described the drill cuttings. Additional data layers were created that

  9. Damage asymmetry from hydro-geomorphic signals along the trifurcation area of the San- Jacinto Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsler, N.; Rockwell, T. K.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    An important earthquake research topic is the question of whether there are geological controls on rupture propagation direction. A persistent preferred propagation direction should produce asymmetric damage structure that is recorded in the volume of rock surrounding a fault, and there may be geomorphic manifestations on active faults that can be recognized and analyzed in a quantitative fashion. The San-Jacinto Fault (SJF) is one of the most active faults in southern California, with well expressed geomorphology, a fast geologic slip rate, and a strong GPS strain signal. We use standard morphometric analysis to detect the damage asymmetry across a part of the SJF in the trifurcation area where the Clark, Coyote-Creek and Buck-Ridge segments meet. The analysis is done at two scales: 1. Small scale DEM with 30m per pixel resolution derived from SRTM data. 2. Large scale DEM with 1m per pixel resolution derived from LIDAR data, covering the fault at ~1 km width. The geomorphic analysis is done using the GIS software ArcMap and the TauDEM tool box. We compare several morphometric parameters (drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, bifurcation ratio, ruggedness number, hypsometric integral) for drainages on both sides of the fault. North of the trifurcation point, the north-east side of the fault is more damaged, in agreement with Dor el at (2006) and Lewis et al (2005), but south of the trifurcation the situation is reversed. A number of factors can affect the results of the morphometric analysis, including the proximity of several fault strands, a restraining bend on the main strand, and different lithologies on the two sides of the fault. The current results are not conclusive since the morphometric analysis depends on various additional factors, such as different slopes, rates of erosion, vegetation, etc., that were only partially accounted for. Nevertheless, these preliminary results on reversed damage asymmetry suggest that large earthquakes on the

  10. Mineral resources of the Arrastra Mountain People Canyon wilderness study area, LaPaz, Mohave, and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, F.; Miller, R.J.; Pitkin, J.A.; Bagby, W.C.; Hassemer, J.R.; McCarthy, J.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Conant Callas, M.L.; Lane, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    This area of western Arizona has identified mineral resources of manganese, uranium, and gold. This book discusses the potential for undiscovered mineral resources which is high for sediment-hosted manganese and uranium and is high and moderate for gold with minor silver in fault and shear zones. The mineral resource potential is moderate for silver, gold, lead, and zinc in vein, for tungsten, rare-earth elements, quartz, and feldspar in pegmatites, and for geothermal energy. Low mineral resource potential exists for copper, lead, and zinc in massive sulfide deposits, for additional uranium and for thorium, zeolite minerals, clay, gypsum, coal, and oil and gas.

  11. The Adjustment of Native American Students to Public Schools in the East San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molohon, Kathryn Theresa

    Adjustment of American Indians to a major urban institution, exemplified by public schools, and adaptations to urban life in general were examined, using data collected between 1965 and 1969, and focusing on intensive observations of 24 randomly-selected American Indian students (19 high school, 5 elementary) attending East San Francisco Bay Area…

  12. Detecting areas disturbed by mining activities through Landsat images, San Luis Potosi City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Vera, M.-A.

    2009-04-01

    Mining history in San Luis Potosí (Mexico) goes back to more than four centuries, and the accumulation of mining waste poses an important problem to ecological risk prevention. Epithermal deposits are the most common in this region and the impact of mining exploitation must be evaluated to propose sustainable development of the natural resources, which have a strong contribution of the national economy. The state San Luis Potosi is situated in the central part of Mexico between parallels 21°11' and 24°34' of north latitude and 98°23' and 102°14' of west longitude, 424 km northeast from Mexico City. Today is a sprawling city with more than half a million residents. The aim of this study was to analyse land cover and vegetation changes between 1972 and 2000 in San Luis Potosi Valley, using satellite image data. Since large changes in land cover and vegetation are taking place in the Valley and there is a lack of good data, such as maps, statistics and aerial photographs, it was appropriate to use satellite data for assessment of land cover and vegetation to estimate the environmental impact of the mining industry. Field data samples were used to evaluate the change results obtained with the multispectral satellite images. The results show that land cover change in the San Luis Potosi Valley has occurred in the past decade as a result of both natural forces and human activities, which have in turn impacted on the regional sustainable development of the mining resources.

  13. Effect of channelization of Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels in the San Juan metropolitan area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padilla, Ingrid

    1991-01-01

    Channelization and concrete lining of the Rio Puerto Nuevo and its tributaries in the San Juan Metropolitan area has been proposed to control flooding in low lying areas adjacent to the stream. Concern about the effect of these channel modifications on the ground-water system prompted the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to conduct an investigation of surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Rio Puerto Nuevo basin in 1988. A principal objective of this investigation was to determine the potential effect of channelization of the Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels.

  14. Wed. May 13, Hayward, Calif. -- EPA Administrator McCarthy joins San Francisco Bay Area agencies to celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Wednesday, May 13, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Bay Area agencies to celebrate the nation's largest local government collaborative for solar power and launch the nation's first federal solar partnership. Administ

  15. Monitoring and modeling conditions for regional shallow landslide initiation in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Godt, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Intense winter storms in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California often trigger widespread landsliding, including debris flows that originate as shallow (<3 m) landslides. The strongest storms result in the loss of lives and millions of dollars in damage. Whereas precipitation-based rainfall intensity-duration landslide initiation thresholds are available for the SFBA, antecedent soil moisture conditions also play a major role in determining the likelihood for landslide generation from a given storm. Previous research has demonstrated that antecedent triggering conditions can be obtained using pre-storm precipitation thresholds (e.g., 250-400 mm of seasonal pre-storm rainfall). However, these types of thresholds do not account for the often cyclic pattern of wetting and drying that can occur early in the winter storm season (i.e. October - December), and which may skew the applicability of precipitation-only based thresholds. To account for these cyclic and constantly evolving soil moisture conditions, we have pursued methods to measure soil moisture directly and integrate these measurements into predictive analyses. During the past three years, the USGS installed a series of four subsurface hydrology monitoring stations in shallow landslide-prone locations of the SFBA to establish a soil-moisture-based antecedent threshold. In addition to soil moisture sensors, the monitoring stations are each equipped with piezometers to record positive pore water pressure that is likely required for shallow landslide initiation and a rain gauge to compare storm intensities with existing precipitation-based thresholds. Each monitoring station is located on a natural, grassy hillslope typically composed of silty sands, underlain by sandstone, sloping at approximately 30°, and with a depth to bedrock of approximately 1 meter - conditions typical of debris flow generation in the SFBA. Our observations reveal that various locations respond differently to seasonal

  16. Phytophthora ramorum causes cryptic bole cankers in Canyon line Oak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unusual mortality of large canyon live oaks was observed in natural stands in San Mateo, California starting in 2007. A survey of affected stands showed that symptomatic trees were spatially associated with California bay, the primary source of Phytophthora ramorum spores in this forest type. Trunk ...

  17. 66. VAL BRIDGE AND BARGES FLOATING FROM ISLIP CANYON TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VAL BRIDGE AND BARGES FLOATING FROM ISLIP CANYON TO THE VAL SITE, April 12, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 56. ASSEMBLY OF THE VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE AT ISLIP CANYON, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. ASSEMBLY OF THE VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE AT ISLIP CANYON, July 31, 1947. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Late pleistocene aggradation and degradation of the lower colorado river: Perspectives from the Cottonwood area and other reconnaissance below Boulder Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Paces, J.B.; Hudson, M.R.; House, P.K.; Malmon, D.V.; Blair, J.L.; Howard, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Where the lower Colorado River traverses the Basin and Range Province below the Grand Canyon, significant late Pleistocene aggradation and subsequent degrada tion of the river are indicated by luminescence, paleomagnetic, and U-series data and stratigraphy. Aggradational, finely bedded reddish mud, clay, and silt are underlain and overlain by cross-bedded to plane-bedded fine sand and silt. That sequence is commonly disconformably overlain by up to 15 m of coarse sand, rounded exotic gravel, and angular, locally derived gravel. Luminescence dates on the fine sediments range from ca. 40 ka to 70 ka, considering collective uncertainties. A section of fine grained sediments over a vertical range of 15 m shows normal polarity magnetization and little apparent secular variation beyond dispersion that can be explained by com paction. Aggradation on large local tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash appears to have been coeval with that of the Colorado River. The upper limits of erosional rem nants of the sequence define a steeper grade above the historical river, and these late Pleistocene deposits are greater than 100 m above the modern river north of 35??N. Ter race gravels inset below the upper limit of the aggradational sequence yield 230Th dates that range from ca. 32 ka to 60 ka and indicate that degradation of the river system in this area closely followed aggradation. The thick sequence of rhythmically bedded mud and silt possibly indicates set tings that were ponded laterally between valley slopes and levees of the aggrading river. Potential driving mechanisms for such aggradation and degradation include sediment-yield response to climate change, drought, fire, vegetation-ecosystem dynam ics, glaciation, paleofloods, groundwater discharge, and building and destruction of natural dams produced by volcanism and landslides. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  20. Sedimentology of the lower part of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and its relationship to uranium deposits, White Canyon area, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, Russell F.

    1983-01-01

    Closely spaced measured stratigraphic sections of the lower part of the Late Triassic Chinle Formation in the White Canyon area of southeastern Utah depict a fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine depositional sequence that hosts uranium deposits in basal fluvial sandstones. The basal Shinarump Member consists of predominantly trough-crossbedded, coarse-grained sandstone and minor gray, carbonaceous mudstone and is interpreted as a valley-fill sequence overlain by deposits of a braided stream system. The overlying Monitor Butte Member is composed of cyclic- and foreset-bedded siltstone, sandstone, and mudstone and is interpreted as a succession of low-energy fluvial, deltaic and orqanicrich, lacustrine-marsh sediments. The overlying Moss Back Member is composed of a laterally extensive, coarse- to medium-grained, conglomeratic sandstone and is interpreted as a braided-stream system that flowed north to northwest. The entire sequence was deposited in response to changes in local base level associated with a large lake that lay to the west. Isopachs of lithofacies indicate distinct lacustrine basins and a correspondence between these facies and modern structural synclines. Facies changes and coincidence of isopach thicks suggest that structural synclines were active in the Late Triassic and influenced the pattern of sediment distribution within the basins. Uranium mineralization appears to be related to certain low-energy depositional environments in that uranium is localized in fluvial sandstones that lie beneath organic-rich lacustrine-marsh mudstones and carbonaceous delta-front sediments. The reducing environment preserved in these facies may have played an important role in the localization of uranium.

  1. Tertiary oxidation in Westwater Canyon member of Morrison formation

    SciTech Connect

    Saucier, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Hematitic oxidation in the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member of the Morrison Formation extends along the outcrop from the Pipeline fault northeast of Gallup, New Mexico, to the San Mateo fault north of Grants, New Mexico. The hematitic sandstone forms a broad lobe in the subsurface to a depth of 2,400 ft (730 m). The downdip edge of this sandstone arcs eastward from northeast Church Rock through Crownpoint, and southeastward to the west edge of the Ambrosia Lake district. The red sandstone is bordered on the downdip side by a band of limonitic oxidation, which interfingers with reduced sandstones basinward. The limonitic oxidation forms a relatively narrow band along the north and west sides of the hematitic lobe but expands progressively in an east and southeast direction. Weak limonitic oxidation, as indicated by the absence of pyrite and by a bleached to faint yellowish-gray color, appears to extend from the San Mateo fault eastward under Mount Taylor to the Rio Puerco of the east. The hematitic oxidation is epigenetic and is believed to be of early Miocene to late Pliocene age. The limonitic oxidation follows the present ground-water flow pattern and probably dates from late Pliocene to the Holocene. The oxidation patterns are important in uranium exploration because the hematitic area is essentially barren, whereas the limonitic areas contain ore deposits that are in the process of being destroyed by oxidation.

  2. Multi-Scale Structure and Earthquake Properties in the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-12-01

    I review multi-scale multi-signal seismological results on structure and earthquake properties within and around the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) in southern California. The results are based on data of the southern California and ANZA networks covering scales from a few km to over 100 km, additional near-fault seismometers and linear arrays with instrument spacing 25-50 m that cross the SJFZ at several locations, and a dense rectangular array with >1100 vertical-component nodes separated by 10-30 m centered on the fault. The structural studies utilize earthquake data to image the seismogenic sections and ambient noise to image the shallower structures. The earthquake studies use waveform inversions and additional time domain and spectral methods. We observe pronounced damage regions with low seismic velocities and anomalous Vp/Vs ratios around the fault, and clear velocity contrasts across various sections. The damage zones and velocity contrasts produce fault zone trapped and head waves at various locations, along with time delays, anisotropy and other signals. The damage zones follow a flower-shape with depth; in places with velocity contrast they are offset to the stiffer side at depth as expected for bimaterial ruptures with persistent propagation direction. Analysis of PGV and PGA indicates clear persistent directivity at given fault sections and overall motion amplification within several km around the fault. Clear temporal changes of velocities, probably involving primarily the shallow material, are observed in response to seasonal, earthquake and other loadings. Full source tensor properties of M>4 earthquakes in the complex trifurcation area include statistically-robust small isotropic component, likely reflecting dynamic generation of rock damage in the source volumes. The dense fault zone instruments record seismic "noise" at frequencies >200 Hz that can be used for imaging and monitoring the shallow material with high space and time details, and

  3. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I.A.; Burgmann, R.; Schmidt, D.A.; Murray, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (BA??VU??, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ?? 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4??W ?? 0.8?? at San Francisco (??2??). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ?? 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ?? 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ?? 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ?? 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ?? 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/ Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Uranium potential of the Burro Canyon Formation in western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Burro Canyon Formation of Early Cretaceous age overlies the Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic) and underlies the Dakota Sandstone (Late Cretaceous) over most of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado. It consists mainly of alternating beds of fluvial sandstone and overbank mudstone with sandstone dominating in the lower part of the formation and mudstone in the upper part. At the outcrop, the sandstones in the formation exhibit almost all the characteristics that are considered favorable for the occurrence of sandstone-type uranium deposits, but only a few small deposits have been discovered in the Colorado-Utah area. The major deficiency of the Burro Canyon in these outcrop areas is the absence of a reductant such as carbonaceous debris, humic or humate materials, or pyrite. Reductants were probably removed during a period of extensive oxidation at the time of deposition and during a subsequent erosional episode prior to deposition of the Dakota Sandstone. The formation reaches a lobate, inexactly located eastern margin that extends from near Meeker, Colorado, southward through the Piceance basin to near Aztec, New Mexico, in the northwestern part of the San Juan Basin. Along much of this distance, the formation is in the subsurface and has been penetrated by only a few drill holes. Along this eastern margin, the lobes project eastward where fluvial distributary streams built minor alluvial fans of relatively high-energy deposits out from the main axis of Burro Canyon stream deposition. The lower and distal reaches of these lobes may have survived the period of post depositional erosion and oxidation in a reduced condition because of low relief and the protection of a high water table. If so, the peripheral and distal parts of these lobes may have retained the precipitants necessary to form a uranium deposit. Two of the lobes extend into the southwest margin of the Piceance Basin and are considered the possible location of uranium deposits. Two additional

  5. Geologic map and digital database of the Apache Canyon 7.5' quadrangle, Ventura and Kern counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Cossette, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Apache Canyon 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in southwestern California about 55 km northeast of Santa Barbara and 65 km southwest of Bakersfield. This report presents the results of a geologic mapping investigation of the Apache Canyon quadrangle that was carried out in 1997-1999 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project. This quadrangle was chosen for study because it is in an area of complex, incompletely understood Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of potential importance for regional tectonic interpretations, particularly those involving the San Andreas fault located just northwest of the quadrangle and the Big Pine fault about 10 km to the south. In addition, the quadrangle is notable for its well-exposed sequences of folded Neogene nonmarine strata including the Caliente Formation of Miocene age from which previous workers have collected and described several biostratigraphically significant land-mammal fossil assemblages. During the present study, these strata were mapped in detail throughout the quadrangle to provide an improved framework for possible future paleontologic investigations. The Apache Canyon quadrangle is in the eastern part of the Cuyama 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle and is largely part of an erosionally dissected terrain known as the Cuyama badlands at the east end of Cuyama Valley. Most of the Apache Canyon quadrangle consists of public lands in the Los Padres National Forest.

  6. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Treesearch

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  7. 3-D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-21

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago). The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02668

  8. The End of Monterey Submarine Canyon Incision and Potential River Source Areas-Os, Nd, and Pb Isotope Constraints from Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T. A.; Nielsen, S.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Blusztajn, J.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Monterey Canyon off central California is the largest submarine canyon off North America and is comparable in scale to the Grand Canyon. The age and history of the Monterey Canyon are poorly constrained due to thick sediment cover and sediment disruption from turbidity currents. To address this deficit we analyzed isotopic proxies (Os, Pb, Nd) from hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts, which grow over millions of years on elevated rock surfaces by precipitation of metals from seawater. Fe-Mn crusts were studied from Davidson Seamount near the base of the Monterey submarine fan, the Taney Seamount Chain, and from Hoss Seamount, which serves as a regional control (Fig.). Fe-Mn crusts were dated using Os isotope ratios compared to those that define the Cenozoic Os isotope seawater curve. Four Fe-Mn crust samples from Davidson and Taney Seamounts deviate from the Os isotopic seawater curve towards radiogenic values after 4.5±1 Ma. Osmium is well mixed in the global ocean and is not subject to significant diffusive reequilibration in Fe-Mn crusts. We therefore attribute deviations from the Os isotope seawater curve to large-scale terrestrial input that ended about 4.5±1 Ma. The two Davidson samples also show more radiogenic Nd isotope values from about 4.5±1 Ma. Lead isotopes in one Davidson Seamount crust, measured by LA-ICPMS, deviate from regional values after 4.5±1 Ma for about 500 ka towards terrestrial sources. The Taney Seamount Fe-Mn crust does not deviate from regional Nd nor Pb isotope values due to its greater distance from Monterey Canyon and the shorter marine residence times of Nd and Pb. Isotope plots of our crust data and compiled data for potential source rocks indicate that the river that carved Monterey Canyon carried sediment with values closer to the Sierra Nevada than to a Colorado Plateau source, with cessation of major riverine input occurring approximately 4.5±1 Ma, an age that we interpret as the end of the Monterey Canyon

  9. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  10. Patterns of chlorophyll-a distribution linked to mesoscale structures in two contrasting areas Campeche Canyon and Bank, Southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Campos, Elizabeth; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Monreal-Gómez, María Adela; Coria-Monter, Erik

    2017-05-01

    The chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) distribution in Campeche Canyon and Campeche Bank, at the Southern Gulf of Mexico, as well as its relationship with hydrographic structure were analyzed. The results show the existence of the Gulf Common Water (GCW), the Caribbean Tropical Surface Water (CTSW) and the Caribbean Subtropical Underwater (CSUW) in the 120 m upper layer at the Campeche Canyon. While at the Campeche Bank only the Caribbean Tropical Surface Water (CTSW) was found. The 15 °C and 18.5 °C isotherms topography depict the presence of a mesoscale anticyclone-cyclone dipole. The nutrient pumping mechanism fertilizes the eutrophic zone promoted by the cyclonic eddy. Submesoscale processes in the border of an anticyclone and a cyclone results in maximum of nitrate concentration and vertically integrated Chl-a at the frontal zone. Two Chl-a vertical distribution patterns were found, a deep maximum at the base of the euphotic layer not associated to the thermocline over the Campeche Canyon and a peak associated to the thermocline related to the shallow bottom at the Campeche Bank. Oligotrophic conditions were observed in the 50 m upper layer and mesotrophic conditions were found below this layer. The differences between the Campeche Bank and Campeche Canyon are that: in the canyon, the nutrient and Chl-a peaks were linked with the cyclone, and the submesoscale processes in the border of an anticyclone and a cyclone, respectively. In the vertical the maximum Chl-a was associated to the base of the euphotic layer and dominated by coccolithophores. In the Campeche Bank the nutrient and Chl-a peaks were influenced by the shelf break in the vertical the maximum Chl-a was associated with the thermocline and the silicoflagellate was identified as the dominant species.

  11. Post-Miocene Right Separation on the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek Faults, with Supporting Chronostratigraphy, Western San Gabriel Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, Larry A.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Denison, Rodger E.; Morin, Ronald W.; Enrico, Roy J.; Barron, John A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    on the Vasquez Creek Fault adds to the generally accepted 22-23 km of middle-late Miocene right separation established for the San Gabriel Fault east of the bifurcation, resulting in total right separation of 34-35 km northwest of the bifurcation. Clast sizes and lithologies in Saugus Formation deformed alluvial fan deposits in the Gold and Little Tujunga Canyons area indicate that alluvial stream flow was from the north or north-northeast. The alluvial fan complex is beheaded at the San Gabriel Fault Zone, and no correlative deposits have been found north of the fault zone. Likely sources of several distinctive clast types are east of the bifurcation and north of the Vasquez Creek Fault. Combining these data with right slip caused by the 34 deg +-6 deg of clockwise local block rotation suggests that post-Saugus Formation (<2.6 to 0.78 Ma) right separation along the fault zone is 4+-2 km. The fossils, lithology, and age of the Gold Canyon beds correlate with the basal Pico Formation. The beds presumably connected southward or southwestward to a more open marine setting. A search for correlative strata to the south and southwest found that some strata previously mapped as Towsley Formation correlate with the Modelo Formation. Oyster spat in some Modelo Formation beds are the first recorded fossil occurrences and are especially remarkable because of associations with Miocene bathyal benthic foraminifers, planktonic calcareous nannofossils, and diatoms. Topanga Group basalt resting on basement rocks between Little and Big Tujunga Canyons gives an age of 16.14+-0.05 Ma from 40Ar/39Ar analysis. Improved understanding of the upper Miocene stratigraphy indicates large early movement on the eastern Santa Susana Fault at about 7-6 Ma.

  12. Chemistry and isotopic composition of ground water along a section near the Newmark area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Danskin, Wesley R.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses and flow-meter measurements in pumped wells were used to determine the source, movement, and age of ground water along a section of the valley-fill aquifer from the San Jacinto Fault to the base of the San Bernardino Mountains near the Newmark area in the Bunker Hill Basin of southern California. Water samples were collected from four multiple-depth well sites, from different depths within three production wells, and from two nearby streams; these samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium), tritium, and carbon-14. Within the production wells, variations in vertical flowrate with depth were recorded during pumped conditions using a standard spinner tool. Where saturated, the upper 200 feet of unconsolidated deposits contributed as much as 60 percent of the well discharge; deposits at depths greater than 700 feet contributed less than 10 percent. Chemical analyses indicate that three general zones of ground-water quality are present along a north-south section--an oxygenated zone near the base of the San Bernardino Mountains, an oxygen-depleted zone near the San Jacinto Fault, and a deeper zone characterized by concentrations of fluoride greater than 1 mg/L and by a general water-quality composition similar to that of base flow in East Twin Creek. The presence of tritium in water from wells along the section indicates that post-1952 recharge has moved rapidly through the valley-fill aquifer to depths as great as 800 feet. Carbon-14 data indicate that the maximum age of ground water, sampled at depths ranging from 600 to 1,000 feet, is less than 5,000 years before present. Ground water along the study section is much younger than ground water from similar depths in other nearby basins. Delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium data indicate that as much as 25 percent of the discharge from some wells near the base of the San Bernardino Mountains is

  13. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  14. Summary of hydrologic data for the San Gabriel River basin and Edwards Aquifer, Georgetown area, Texas, water year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.; Dorsey, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present a summary of the hydrologic data collected from the streams draining the San Gabriel River basin and from the Edwards aquifer during the 1988 water year (October 1987–September 1988). A secondary purpose is to add perspective to the 1988 data by including data from the previous 2 years (1986 and 1987) when available. The scope of the report is limited to the Georgetown area (fig. 1) and to data collected by the Geological Survey.

  15. Oak Canyon Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the 27 residential properties that compose the Oak Canyon Site located in the Village of Paguate, Pueblo of Laguna, near Cibola County, New Mexico.

  16. Dione Creeping Canyons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-23

    Bright fractures creep across the surface of icy Dione. This extensive canyon system is centered on a region of terrain that is significantly darker that the rest of the moon. Part of the darker terrain is visible at right

  17. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial...

  18. Interactions between Cool Roofs and Urban Irrigation: Do Cooling Strategies Reduce Water Consumption in the San Francisco Bay Area?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    California has experienced progressive drought since 2012, with 2012-2014 constituting a nearly 10,000-year drought event, resulting in a suite of policies with the goal of reducing water consumption. At the same time, climate warming effects of accelerated urbanization along with projected global climate change raise an urgent need for sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies to cool urban climates. In this study, for the first time, we assess the overarching benefits of cooling strategies on urban water consumption. We employ a satellite-supported regional climate-modeling framework over the San Francisco Bay Area to assess the effects of cool roofs on urban irrigation, a topic of increasing importance as it accounts for a significant fraction of urban water use particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. We use a suit of climatological simulations at high (1.5 km) spatial resolution, based on a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Urban Canopy Model (UCM) modeling framework, reinforced with remotely sensed observations of Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF), leaf area index (LAI), and albedo. Our analysis shows that widespread incorporation of cool roofs would result in a mean daytime cooling of about 0.7° C, which in turn results in roughly 4% reduction in irrigation water, largely due to decreases in surface evapotranspiration rates. We further investigate the critical interactions between cool roofs, wind, and sea-breeze patterns as well as fog formation, a dominant weather pattern in San Francisco Bay area.

  19. Compilation of a biogenic hydrocarbon emissions inventory for evaluating ozone-control strategies in the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Moreland, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The body of information presented is directed to planners and engineers concerned with developing ozone control strategies. A biogenic hydrocarbon emissions inventory for the San Francisco Bay Area has been prepared for use in determining the degree of hydrocarbon emissions control needed to attain the ozone standard. Remote sensing imagery was used to characterize the regional vegetation distribution, and a Delphi survey of scientists familiar with biogenic emissions was used to provide biogenic hydrocarbon emission factors. For a hypothetical 24-hour period of twelve hours of darkness and twelve hours of light, biogenic sources in the nine-county Bay Area were estimated to produce about 4.5 x 10/sup 5/ kg (500 tons) of total non-methane hydrocarbons; the uncertainty of this estimate was calculated to be +- 50%. The biogenic emissions were found to represent about 33% of the man-made and natural hydrocarbon emissions in the region. The magnitude of the biogenic emissions inventory is not the key factor from which the contribution of biogenic sources to urban ozone production can be discerned. Photochemical dispersion modeling of the total (man-made plus natural) hydrocarbon emissions inventory is recommended as a tool to help understand the contribution of biogenic sources to excessive amounts of the ozone standard in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  20. Holocene sedimentary activity in a non-terrestrially coupled submarine canyon: Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Stevens, C. L.; Stirling, M. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Cook Strait Canyon system, located between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting canyon on an active subduction margin. The canyon comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially coupled system. Sediment transport associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults, is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the canyon and the processes driving it. A substantial dataset of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data have been collected across the region between 2002 and 2011. The canyon system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine canyon system. Analysis of the data reveals a two-staged sediment transport system where: (1) oceanographic (tidal) processes mobilise sediment from the continental shelf and transport it to depocentres in the upper-central canyons, and (2) tectonic (earthquake) processes remobilise sediment that is transported through the lower canyon to the deep ocean. Tidal boundary-layer currents within the canyon reach velocities up to 0.53 m/s and are capable of mobilising fine sand in the central reach of the upper canyons. The velocity is higher at the canyon rim and capable of mobilising coarse sand. Sediment depocentres resulting from this tidally forced sediment transport have a well formed geomorphology within the mid-upper canyon arms of Cook Strait and Nicholson Canyons. Pseudo-static stability modelling, supported by sediment core analysis, indicates that sediment accumulated in the upper canyons fails during seismic events approximately every 100 years. The 100 year return period ground shaking-level (peak ground

  1. Flow in bedrock canyons.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

  2. Pre-earthquake assessment and recovery planning for the regional transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    In May 1995, ABAG began a cooperative project with Caltrans District 4 to perform a vulnerability analysis of the regional transportation system in the San Francisco Bay Area. This assessment will be used for pre-earthquake planning to speed the recovery process for the transportation system, including both freeways and local roads. The project is using geographic information system (GIS) technology and computer simulation models to assist in the vulnerability analyses, assessment of hazard mitigation strategies, and pre-earthquake planning activities. It is expected that this project will result in improving post-earthquake short-term emergency response as well as in shortening the time for long-term recovery. In addition, this innovative and timely approach should be applicable to other large metropolitan areas of the state, as well as to other metropolitan areas in the nation.

  3. Broadband Waveform Modeling to Evaluate the USGS Seismic Velocity Model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

  4. Remote sensing of tetraoxygen (O4) levels in San Salvador urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti Arroyo, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we report on levels of O4 in San Salvador (El Salvador) measured by Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS).We measured the O4differential Slant Column Density (dSCD in mol2cm-5 of O4) in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a fitting window from 340 nm to 370 nm. The measurements were taken during a campaign which included the days of November 26th , 27th and 30th in 2011 at different elevation angles, namely, 30, 10, 30 and 90. Diurnal average values of O4 dSCD which ranges between 5x1042 mol2cm-5 and 6x1043 mol2cm-5 are observed. On November 26th lower values of O4 dSCD were obtained in comparison to the other two days. Since the atmospheric O4 profile is well known and nearly constant in the first kilometers in the atmosphere for this could be considered a surprisingly result. However, the meteorological conditions in San Salvador influenced by the presence of a cold front which affected in different ways the three days, allow, to some extent, a plausible explanation of these results by considering the role of the aerosol distribution and his impact in the atmospheric photon paths leading to an apparent decreasing of the O4 levels. The role of the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere of San Salvador and it influence in the obtained O4 dSCD results and it diurnal behavior will be extensively discussed in this investigation.

  5. Sedimentologic evidence for structural and topographic evolution following the onset of strike slip, E San Francisco Bay area, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Buising, A.V. )

    1992-01-01

    Mid- to Upper Miocene continental (Orinda and Mulholland Fms.) and shallow marine (Neroly Fm.) strata in the Upper San Leandro Reservoir watershed (SLR) area east of San Francisco Bay preserve important information on structural and landscape evolution during the early phases of strike slip along the Pacific-North American plate boundary. The SLR area lies between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults, major strands of the San Andreas Fault system, and is bisected by the NW-striking Cull Creek Fault (CCF). Geologic mapping delineates five completely intercalated lithofacies in the Mulholland Fm. at SLR. The conglomerate-dominated, sandstone-dominated, and interbedded conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone facies represent fluvial channel and floodplain deposits; the sandstone + mudstone facies represent lacustrine-deltaic and shallow lacustrine deposits; the shale facies records open lacustrine deposition. Sparse unidirectional paleocurrent indicators show southerly and easterly transport west of the CCF and both westerly and easterly transport east of the CCF. Conglomerate-rich and sand-rich facies tracts are juxtaposed along the CCF. Clast assemblages in Mulholland conglomerates include abundant chart, graywacke, blueschist, and vein quartz, suggesting derivation from a Franciscan-dominated source terrane. Clast assemblages in the gradationally underlying and interfingering Neroly Fm. suggest that it shared the same source terrane; this is atypical for the primarily andesitic (Sierra-derived) Neroly. Fluvial deposits are volumetrically dominant in the Mulholland Fm. at SLR; open-lacustrine shales occur in stratigraphically isolated lenses ranging from > 1 km to < 100 m along strike. This suggests numerous small lakes on a broad drainage plain rather than the single large lake envisioned by previous workers.

  6. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Becker, N.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-12-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative.

  7. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Calif.; restricted area. (a) Restricted area at Bravo Pier, Naval Air Station—(1) The area. The water of... restricted area except that no transit will be allowed within 100 feet of the ammunition pier (Bravo Pier...

  8. Creep on the faults of the northern San Francisco Bay Area documented by PS- InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funning, G. J.; Burgmann, R.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Fumagalli, A.

    2006-12-01

    Pacific-North America relative motion is accommodated north of San Francisco on a series of sub-parallel strike-slip faults. These structures are believed to pose an active seismic hazard in the northern San Francisco Bay Area. However, compared with the contiguous structures further south, little is known of the behaviour of these faults in the North Bay -- for instance, how much of the deformation may be accommodated aseismically by creep. In order to address this question, we apply the Permanent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique to a 30 ERS-SAR image dataset covering the North Bay area acquired in the interval 1992-2001. In our preliminary analysis, over 70,000 permanent scatterers have been identified, broadly distributed across an area 100 km square. A plate boundary-perpendicular profile of line-of-sight velocities across the region shows that our observations are largely consistent with measurements made with GPS. On a local scale, a step in the line-of-sight velocities of the order of 1 mm/yr measured from detrended cross- fault profiles across the Rodgers Creek fault in the Santa Rosa area suggests that the fault is creeping in that location. If the line-of-sight velocities are projected into the orientation of the fault and pure right-lateral motion is assumed, this corresponds to a surface creep rate of approximately 4 mm/yr. A similar step in velocities can be identified as the fault continues to the northwest, suggesting that the fault continues to creep until its northern termination. This creep rate is similar to that seen for the northern Hawyard fault to the south (3-6 mm/yr), a structure believed to be the continuation of the Rodgers Creek fault. In addition to fault creep, we also see evidence for relatively rapid (6 mm/yr and greater) subsidence to the south and southwest of Santa Rosa. One area of subsidence, around Rohnert Park, correlates very well with Pleistocene floodplain deposits, and may represent mud settling; another, an elongate

  9. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  10. Association of earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area using Bayesian inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.; Bakun, W.H.; Perkins, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference provides a method to use seismic intensity data or instrumental locations, together with geologic and seismologic data, to make quantitative estimates of the probabilities that specific past earthquakes are associated with specific faults. Probability density functions are constructed for the location of each earthquake, and these are combined with prior probabilities through Bayes' theorem to estimate the probability that an earthquake is associated with a specific fault. Results using this method are presented here for large, preinstrumental, historical earthquakes and for recent earthquakes with instrumental locations in the San Francisco Bay region. The probabilities for individual earthquakes can be summed to construct a probabilistic frequency-magnitude relationship for a fault segment. Other applications of the technique include the estimation of the probability of background earthquakes, that is, earthquakes not associated with known or considered faults, and the estimation of the fraction of the total seismic moment associated with earthquakes less than the characteristic magnitude. Results for the San Francisco Bay region suggest that potentially damaging earthquakes with magnitudes less than the characteristic magnitudes should be expected. Comparisons of earthquake locations and the surface traces of active faults as determined from geologic data show significant disparities, indicating that a complete understanding of the relationship between earthquakes and faults remains elusive.

  11. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). All unauthorized vessels entering the restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct... from transiting the area. However, they shall proceed through the area by the most direct route without... the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (d) Restricted area at the...

  12. Deep-Water Coral Diversity and Habitat Associations: Differences among Northeast Atlantic Submarine Canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    From 2012 to 2015, annual seafloor surveys using the towed camera TowCam were used to characterize benthic ecosystems and habitats to groundtruth recently developed habitat suitability models that predict deep-sea coral locations in northwest Atlantic canyons. Faunal distribution, abundance, and habitat data were obtained from more than 90 towed camera surveys in 21 canyons, specifically Tom's, Hendrickson, Veatch, Gilbert, Ryan, Powell, Munson, Accomac, Leonard, Washington, Wilmington, Lindenkohl, Clipper, Sharpshooter, Welker, Dogbody, Chebacco, Heel Tapper, File Bottom, Carteret, and Spencer Canyons, as well as unnamed minor canyons and inter-canyon areas. We also investigated additional canyons including Block, Alvin, Atlantis, Welker, Heezen, Phoenix, McMaster, Nantucket, and two minor canyons and two intercanyon areas through high-definition ROV image surveys from the NOAA CANEX 2013 and 2014 expeditions. Significant differences in species composition and distribution correlated with specific habitat types, depth, and individual canyons. High abundances and diversity of scleractinians, antipatharians, octocorals and sponges were highly correlated with habitat substrates, includingvertical canyon walls, margins, sediments, cobbles, boulders, and coral rubble habitat. Significant differences in species composition among canyons were observed across similar depths suggesting that many canyons may have their own biological and geological signature. Locating and defining the composition and distribution of vulnerable coral ecosystems in canyons in concert with validating predictive species distribution modeling has resulted in the regional management and conservation recommendations of these living resources and the largest proposed Marine Protected Area in North American waters.

  13. Karst hydrology of Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. A.; Polyak, V. J.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryCaves in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA fall into two main categories: those formed under unconfined conditions and those formed under confined conditions. This study focuses on the hydrology and paleohydrology of the confined caves in the Redwall-Muav aquifer, where the aquifer is overlain by rocks of the Supai Group and underlain by the Bright Angel Shale. Unconfined caves are discussed only in their relation to confined caves. Discharge for confined groundwater was, as it is today, primarily from the Redwall Limestone where it has been incised by the main canyon or its tributaries and where it has converged along a structural low or fault. Descent of the potentiometric surface (or water table) over time is recorded by one ore episode and six cave episodes: (1) emplacement of Cu-U ore, (2) precipitation of iron oxide in cavities, (3) dissolution of cave passages, (4) precipitation of calcite-spar linings over cave passage walls, (5) precipitation of cave mammillary coatings, (6) minor replacement of cave wall and ceiling limestone by gypsum, and (7) deposition of subaerial speleothems. The mammillary episode records the approximate position of the water table when the incision of the canyon was at that level. Discharge toward spring points has reorganized and adjusted with respect to ongoing canyon and side-canyon incision. The dissolution of Grand Canyon confined caves was the result of the mixing of epigene waters with hypogene waters so that undersaturation with respect to calcite was achieved. The karst hydrology of Grand Canyon may be unique compared to other hypogene cave areas of the world.

  14. Submarine canyon and slope processes of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Two regions on the U.S. Atlantic continental margin were surveyed using single-channel, seismic-reflection profiling techniques: the Mid-Atlantic Continental Slope and Rise seaward of New Jersey in the vicinity of Baltimore Canyon and the Continental Slope and upper Rise just north of Cape Hatteras. Submarine canyons are the dominant morphologic feature in both areas. The Continental Slope in the Baltimore Canyon area has a general sea-floor gradient of 3?-4? and a width of approximately 40 km, whereas the study area north of Cape Hatteras has a general sea-floor gradient of approximately 9? and a width of 20 km. The dominant slope process differs in each area. In the Baltimore Canyon area, subbottom reflectors suggest that sediment deposition with progradation of the slope is related to canyon processes. In the study area north of Cape Hatteras, the canyons appear erosional and mass wasting is the dominant erosional process. Dominant slope processes appear to be correlated with the width and sea-floor gradient of the Continental Slope. Although the absolute age of the canyons is difficult to determine without rotary-drill cores for stratigraphic control, Baltimore Canyon is suggested to be older than the shelf-indenting canyon just north of Cape Hatteras. An anomalously large ridge flanking Baltimore Canyon on the upper rise appears to be related to canyon depositional and erosional processes.

  15. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of lower Eocene San Jose formation, central San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G.; Smith, L.N. )

    1989-09-01

    The lower Eocene San Jose Formation in the central portion of the San Juan basin (Gobernador-Vigas Canyon area) consists of the Cuba Mesa, Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members. Well log data indicate that, from its 100-m thickness, the Cuba Mesa Member thins toward the basin center and pinches out to the northeast by lat. 36{degree}40'N, long. 107{degree}19'W. The Regina Member has the most extensive outcrops in the central basin, and it decreases in sandstone/mud rock ratio to the north. The Llaves and Tapicitos Members occur only at the highest elevations, are thin due to erosion, and are not mappable as separate units. Well log data and 1,275 m of measured stratigraphic section in the Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members indicate these strata are composed of approximately 35% medium to coarse-grained sandstone and 65% fine-grained sandstone and mud rock. Sedimentology and sediment-dispersal patterns indicate deposition by generally south-flowing streams that had sources to the northwest, northeast, and east. Low-sinuosity, sand-bedded, braided( ) streams shifted laterally across about 1 km-wide channel belts to produce sheet sandstones that are prominent throughout the San Jose Formation. Subtle levees separated channel environments from floodplain and local lacustrine areas. Avulsion relocated channels periodically to areas on the floodplain, resulting in the typically disconnected sheet sandstones within muddy overbank deposits of the Regina Member.

  16. The most recent large earthquake on the Rodgers Creek fault, San Francisco bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hecker, S.; Pantosti, D.; Schwartz, D.P.; Hamilton, J.C.; Reidy, L.M.; Powers, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) is a principal component of the San Andreas fault system north of San Francisco. No evidence appears in the historical record of a large earthquake on the RCF, implying that the most recent earthquake (MRE) occurred before 1824, when a Franciscan mission was built near the fault at Sonoma, and probably before 1776, when a mission and presidio were built in San Francisco. The first appearance of nonnative pollen in the stratigraphic record at the Triangle G Ranch study site on the south-central reach of the RCF confirms that the MRE occurred before local settlement and the beginning of livestock grazing. Chronological modeling of earthquake age using radiocarbon-dated charcoal from near the top of a faulted alluvial sequence at the site indicates that the MRE occurred no earlier than A.D. 1690 and most likely occurred after A.D. 1715. With these age constraints, we know that the elapsed time since the MRE on the RCF is more than 181 years and less than 315 years and is probably between 229 and 290 years. This elapsed time is similar to published recurrence-interval estimates of 131 to 370 years (preferred value of 230 years) and 136 to 345 years (mean of 205 years), calculated from geologic data and a regional earthquake model, respectively. Importantly, then, the elapsed time may have reached or exceeded the average recurrence time for the fault. The age of the MRE on the RCF is similar to the age of prehistoric surface rupture on the northern and southern sections of the Hayward fault to the south. This suggests possible rupture scenarios that involve simultaneous rupture of the Rodgers Creek and Hayward faults. A buried channel is offset 2.2 (+ 1.2, - 0.8) m along one side of a pressure ridge at the Triangle G Ranch site. This provides a minimum estimate of right-lateral slip during the MRE at this location. Total slip at the site may be similar to, but is probably greater than, the 2 (+ 0.3, - 0.2) m measured previously at the

  17. Local and regional governments and age-friendly communities: a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which cities, county departments of adult and aging services, county transportation authorities, and public transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area have in place age-friendly policies, programs, and infrastructure in the areas of community design, housing, transportation, health care and supportive services, and opportunities for community engagement. The most common age-friendly features include those that target alternative forms of mobility (for example, incentives for mixed-use neighborhoods and changes to improve the accessibility of public transit), while the least common policies and programs are those that aim to help older adults continue driving, such as driver education programs, driver assessment programs, and slow-moving vehicle ordinances. The article concludes with policy and research implications of these findings.

  18. Walking, Bicycling, and Urban Landscapes: Evidence From the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Cervero, Robert; Duncan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Some claim that cardependent cities contribute to obesity by discouraging walking and bicycling. In this article, we use household activity data from the San Francisco region to study the links between urban environments and nonmotorized travel. We used factor analysis to represent the urban design and land-use diversity dimensions of built environments. Combining factor scores with control variables, like steep terrain, that gauge impediments to walking and bicycling, we estimated discrete-choice models. Builtenvironment factors exerted far weaker, although not inconsequential, influences on walking and bicycling than control variables. Stronger evidence on the importance of urban landscapes in shaping foot and bicycle travel is needed if the urban planning and public health professions are to forge an effective alliance against cardependent sprawl. PMID:12948966

  19. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (5) No vessel or craft of any size shall lie-to or anchor in the restricted area at any time other than a...

  20. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (5) No vessel or craft of any size shall lie-to or anchor in the restricted area at any time other than a...