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Sample records for canyon northwestern mediterranean

  1. Cold-Water Corals and Anthropogenic Impacts in La Fonera Submarine Canyon Head, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lastras, Galderic; Canals, Miquel; Ballesteros, Enric; Gili, Josep-Maria; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We assess the occurrence and extent of cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata and Dendrophyllia cornigera, as well as gorgonian red coral Corallium rubrum, in La Fonera canyon head (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), as well as human impacts taking place in their habitats. Occurrence is assessed based on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) video imaging. Terrain classification techniques are applied to high-resolution swath bathymetric data to obtain semi-automatic interpretative maps to identify the relationship between coral distribution patterns and canyon environments. A total of 21 ROV immersions were carried out in different canyon environments at depths ranging between 79 and 401 m. Large, healthy colonies of M. oculata occur on abrupt, protected, often overhanging, rocky sections of the canyon walls, especially in Illa Negra branch. D. cornigera is sparser and evenly distributed at depth, on relatively low sloping areas, in rocky but also partially sedimented areas. C. rubrum is most frequent between 100 and 160 m on highly sloping rocky areas. The probable extent of CWC habitats is quantified by applying a maximum entropy model to predict habitat suitability: 0.36 km2 yield M. oculata occurrence probabilities over 70%. Similar predictive models have been produced for D. cornigera and C. rubrum. All ROV transects document either the presence of litter on the seafloor or pervasive trawling marks. Nets and longlines are imaged entangled on coral colonies. Coral rubble is observed at the foot of impacted colonies. Some colonies are partially covered by sediment that could be the result of the resuspension generated by bottom trawling on neighbouring fishing grounds, which has been demonstrated to be responsible of daily increases in sediment fluxes within the canyon. The characteristics of the CWC community in La Fonera canyon are indicative that it withstands high environmental stress of both natural and human origin.

  2. Cold-Water Corals and Anthropogenic Impacts in La Fonera Submarine Canyon Head, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Miquel; Ballesteros, Enric; Gili, Josep-Maria; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We assess the occurrence and extent of cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata and Dendrophyllia cornigera, as well as gorgonian red coral Corallium rubrum, in La Fonera canyon head (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), as well as human impacts taking place in their habitats. Occurrence is assessed based on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) video imaging. Terrain classification techniques are applied to high-resolution swath bathymetric data to obtain semi-automatic interpretative maps to identify the relationship between coral distribution patterns and canyon environments. A total of 21 ROV immersions were carried out in different canyon environments at depths ranging between 79 and 401 m. Large, healthy colonies of M. oculata occur on abrupt, protected, often overhanging, rocky sections of the canyon walls, especially in Illa Negra branch. D. cornigera is sparser and evenly distributed at depth, on relatively low sloping areas, in rocky but also partially sedimented areas. C. rubrum is most frequent between 100 and 160 m on highly sloping rocky areas. The probable extent of CWC habitats is quantified by applying a maximum entropy model to predict habitat suitability: 0.36 km2 yield M. oculata occurrence probabilities over 70%. Similar predictive models have been produced for D. cornigera and C. rubrum. All ROV transects document either the presence of litter on the seafloor or pervasive trawling marks. Nets and longlines are imaged entangled on coral colonies. Coral rubble is observed at the foot of impacted colonies. Some colonies are partially covered by sediment that could be the result of the resuspension generated by bottom trawling on neighbouring fishing grounds, which has been demonstrated to be responsible of daily increases in sediment fluxes within the canyon. The characteristics of the CWC community in La Fonera canyon are indicative that it withstands high environmental stress of both natural and human origin. PMID:27182776

  3. Downward and suspended sediment fluxes in the Palamós submarine canyon (North-Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanques, A.; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Guillén, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Palamós canyon is deeply incised in the Northern Catatonia continental shelf (North-western Mediterranean) which favour an active shelf-slope sediment transfer. To study particle dynamics in this canyon, seven moorings arrays equipped with current meters, turbidimeters and sediment traps were deployed near the bottom along the main canyon axis (400, 1200 and 1700 m depth), on both canyon walls (1200 m depth) and on the adjacent slope (1200 m depth). One set of these instruments was also deployed at intermediate waters (400 m water depth) in the canyon axis. At surface and mid-depths, suspended sediment fluxes were oriented along the mean flow direction (NE-SW), whereas near-bottom sediment fluxes were more constrained by the local bathymetry. The higher near-bottom downward and suspended particle fluxes were not recorded in the canyon head but in the mid-canyon axis, suggesting additional sediment supplies through or over the canyon walls and/or sediment resuspension in the mid canyon region. Several events of sharp sediment flux increases took place in the mid-canyon axis site during the water stratification season. These events could be related to the action of internal waves and even to fishing activities. In the canyon walls, downward and suspended particle fluxes were higher in the southern wall, where currents were lower than in the northern wall, evidencing an asymmetrical pattern. In the adjacent slope sediment fluxes were significantly lower than in the canyon. An important increase of downward particle fluxes in the canyon axis and both walls occurred by mid-November when a severe storm took place. The pattern of the sediment fluxes in the Palamós Canyon has some differences in relation to those observed in other Mediterranean submarine canyons and has downward particle fluxes from 2 to10 times higher than other studied canyons of this region.

  4. Lonely populations in the deep: genetic structure of red gorgonians at the heads of submarine canyons in the north-western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Portela, Rocío; Cerro-Gálvez, Elena; Taboada, Sergi; Tidu, Carlo; Campillo-Campbell, Carolina; Mora, Joan; Riesgo, Ana

    2016-09-01

    The red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata plays a central role in coralligenous ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea, being relatively abundant in shallow habitats (5-35 m depth). Recently, deeper populations have been discovered at the heads of submarine canyons in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, between 50 and 70 m deep. Colonies from some of these deeper populations were exceptionally large (>1 m high), contrasting with the general prevalence of smaller size classes in shallower populations. Importantly, the high pressure of trawling activities on the nearby continental shelf could threaten these populations of large and old colonies. Although the genetic diversity and structure of populations in shallow habitats is relatively well known, very little is known about deeper populations. We aimed to assess the genetic structure, connectivity and potential demographic decline of six deep populations of P. clavata located at the heads of La Fonera, Blanes and Arenys de Mar submarine canyons, as well as potential gene flow between those and the two nearest shallow populations. A total of 188 individuals were genotyped using nine microsatellite loci. Results showed strong genetic differentiation among populations in different submarine canyons, among populations within one of the canyons and between shallow and deep populations. Gene flow among populations was very limited, estimates of effective population size in some populations were small, and evidence of recent population reductions (bottlenecks) was detected in several populations. The large genetic differentiation in populations of P. clavata among canyons is related to limited effective dispersal.

  5. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  6. Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of cold-water coral populations in the Cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, A.; Orejas, C.; Madurell, T.; Bramanti, L.; Martins, M.; Quintanilla, E.; Marti-Puig, P.; Lo Iacono, C.; Puig, P.; Requena, S.; Greenacre, M.; Gili, J.

    2012-12-01

    Submarine canyons are known as one of the seafloor morphological features where living cold-water coral (CWC) communities develop in the Mediterranean Sea. We investigated the CWC community of the two westernmost submarine canyons of the Gulf of Lions canyon system: the Cap de Creus Canyon (CCC) and Lacaze Duthiers Canyon (LDC). Coral associations have been studied through video material recorded by means of a manned submersible and a remotely operated vehicle. Video transects have been conducted and analyzed in order to obtain information on (1) coral bathymetric distribution and density patterns, (2) size structure of coral populations, and (3) coral colony orientation with respect to the substrate. Madrepora oculata was the most abundant CWC in both canyons, while Lophelia pertusa and Dendrophyllia cornigera mostly occurred as isolated colonies or in small patches. An important exception was detected in a vertical cliff in LDC where a large Lophelia pertusa framework was documented. This is the first record of such an extended L. pertusa framework in the Mediterranean Sea. In both canyons coral populations were dominated by medium and large colonies, but the frequent presence of small-sized colonies also indicate active recruitment. The predominant coral orientation with respect to the substrate (90° and 135°) is probably driven by the current regime as well as by the sediment load transported by the current flows. In general no clear differences were observed between the CWC populations from CCC and LDC, despite large differences in particulate matter between canyons.

  7. Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of cold-water coral populations in the Cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, A.; Orejas, C.; Madurell, T.; Bramanti, L.; Martins, M.; Quintanilla, E.; Marti-Puig, P.; Lo Iacono, C.; Puig, P.; Requena, S.; Greenacre, M.; Gili, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    Submarine canyons are known as one of the seafloor morphological features where living cold-water coral (CWC) communities develop in the Mediterranean Sea. We investigated the CWC community of the two westernmost submarine canyons of the Gulf of Lions canyon system: the Cap de Creus Canyon (CCC) and Lacaze-Duthiers Canyon (LDC). Coral associations have been studied through video material recorded by means of a manned submersible and a remotely operated vehicle. Video transects have been conducted and analyzed in order to obtain information on (1) coral bathymetric distribution and density patterns, (2) size structure of coral populations, and (3) coral colony position with respect to the substrate. Madrepora oculata was the most abundant CWC in both canyons, while Lophelia pertusa and Dendrophyllia cornigera mostly occurred as isolated colonies or in small patches. An important exception was detected in a vertical cliff in LDC where a large L. pertusa framework was documented. This is the first record of such an extended L. pertusa framework in the Mediterranean Sea. In both canyons coral populations were dominated by medium and large colonies, but the frequent presence of small-sized colonies also indicate active recruitment. The predominant coral orientation (90° and 135°) is probably driven by the current regime as well as by the sediment load transported by the current flows. In general, no clear differences were observed in the abundance and in the size structure of the CWC populations between CCC and LDC, despite large differences in particulate matter between canyons.

  8. Towards an impact assessment of bauxite red mud waste on the knowledge of the structure and functions of bathyal ecosystems: The example of the Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2010-02-01

    Since 1967, the alumina plants in the Marseilles area (Barasse and Gardanne) have been discharging the mineral residue (i.e., red mud) resulting from the alkaline processing of bauxite into the submarine Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea) through pipes situated at 320-330 m in depth. The Barasse pipe stopped being used in 1988. From 1987 to 1996, many decrees and regulations were promulgated by the French State to rule the conditions under which the Gardanne alumina refinery was authorized to dispose of the bauxite residue in the sea. The refinery was required: (i) to study the hydrodynamic circulation in the Cassidaigne canyon to evaluate the potential dispersion and transport of fine elements discharged into the water mass and their impact on the pelagic ecosystem; (ii) to survey the marine environment every five years to control the expansion and thickness of the red mud deposit and compare the evolution of the benthic macrofauna at representative sampling sites in the environment affected by the red mud discharge with that of reference sites outside of the red mud plume; (iii) to study the effect of the discharge on fishing activities; and (iv) to investigate the toxicity of the red mud, particularly its persistence, accumulation, interaction and effect on the marine ecosystem, paying special attention to the bio-accumulation of chromium and vanadium. A Scientific Committee was created to insure an independent evaluation of the studies promised by the manufacturer in response to the State's regulations. Since the beginning of the 1960s, data have been accumulating on the structure and long-term functioning of the Cassidaigne bathyal ecosystem. This paper presents the collaborative efforts of the State-Manufacturer-Committee triplet and summarizes the main results obtained during the last period's sea campaigns (1991-2007). This paper also illustrates how national regulations concerning manufacturers, such as Gardanne alumina refinery, have

  9. New hexactinellid sponges from deep Mediterranean canyons.

    PubMed

    Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dubois, Maude; Goujard, Adrien; Fourt, Maïa; Pérez, Thierry; Chevaldonné, Pierre

    2017-02-21

    During the exploration of the NW Mediterranean deep-sea canyons (MedSeaCan and CorSeaCan cruises), several hexactinellid sponges were observed and collected by ROV and manned submersible. Two of them appeared to be new species of Farrea and Tretodictyum. The genus Farrea had so far been reported with doubt from the Mediterranean and was listed as "taxa inquirenda" for two undescribed species. We here provide a proper description for the specimens encountered and sampled. The genus Tretodictyum had been recorded several times in the Mediterranean and in the near Atlantic as T. tubulosum Schulze, 1866, again with doubt, since the type locality is the Japan Sea. We here confirm that the Mediterranean specimens are a distinct new species which we describe. We also provide18S rDNA sequences of the two new species and include them in a phylogenetic tree of related hexactinellids.

  10. Comparison between ROV video and Agassiz trawl methods for sampling deep water fauna of submarine canyons in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea with observations on behavioural reactions of target species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayma, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Bahamon, N.; Mecho, A.; Company, J. B.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present a comparison between Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Agassiz trawling methods for sampling deep-water fauna in three submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and describe the behavioural reactions of fishes and crustacean decapods to ROV approach. 10 ROV dives, where 3583 individuals were observed and identified to species level, and 8 Agassiz trawls were carried out in a depth range of 750-1500 m. As noticed in previous studies, abundances of fishes and decapod crustaceans were much higher in the ROV videos than in Agassiz trawl samples, as the latter are designed for the retrieval of benthic, less motile species in permanent contact with the bottom. In our observations fish abundance was one order of magnitude higher with ROV (4110.22 ind/km2) than with Agassiz trawl (350.88 ind/km2), whereas decapod crustaceans were six times more abundant in ROV videos (6362.40 ind/km2) than in Agassiz samples (1364.52 ind/km2). The behaviour of highly motile fishes was analysed in terms of stationary positioning over the seafloor and avoidance or attraction to ROV approach. The most frequently occurring fish species Coelorinchus mediterraneus, Nezumia aequalis, Bathypterois dubius, Lepidion lepidion, Trachyrincuss scabrus and Polyacanthonotus rissoanus did not react to the presence of the ROV in most cases (>50%). Only B. dubius (11%), Lepidion lepidion (14.8%), P. rissoanus (41%) and T. scabrus (14.3%) reacted to ROV approach. More than 60% of less motile species, such as crustacean decapods, did not respond to ROV presence either. Only 33.3% of Geryon longipes, 36.2% of Munida spp. and 29.79% of Pagurus spp. were observed avoiding or defensively reacting to the ROV. The comparison of results obtained with ROV and trawl sampling is of ecological relevance since ROV can report observations in areas where trawling is technically unfeasible. The lack of reaction by most fish and crustacean decapod specimens further confirms that ROV

  11. Potential particulate impacts at the Grand Canyon from northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Eatough, D J; Green, M; Moran, W; Farber, R

    2001-08-10

    Project MOHAVE was a major air quality and visibility research program conducted from 1990 to 1999 to investigate the causes of visibility impairment in the Grand Canyon National Park region. At Meadview, a remote monitoring site just west of the Grand Canyon National Park, on September 1 and 2, 1992, the concentrations of sulfate (3.1 and 4.3 microg sulfate/m3) were the highest seen in 6 years of monitoring at this site. During this period, the concentrations of SO2 at Meadview were also abnormally high and approximately three times the sulfate concentrations, on a nmol/m3 basis. High concentrations of sulfate and SO2 extended south into southern Arizona and northwestern Mexico. Based on ambient atmospheric conditions, emissions from the Mohave Power Project (MPP) 110 km upwind of Meadview could not have been responsible for the majority of the regionally observed sulfur oxides. The geographical distribution of SO2 and sulfate, and available source information suggest that northwestern Mexico was a significant source of the unusually high observed sulfur oxides. A CMB model developed during Project MOHAVE was used to apportion sulfur oxides at Meadview and other sampling sites throughout the study region for August 31-September 2, 1992. The results indicate that the contribution of MPP to sulfate at Meadview was typical. However, the transport of SOx from northwestern Mexico was elevated throughout much of the region during this time period. This led to the large increase in sulfate concentrations at Meadview on September 1 and 2. These results indicate that emissions from Mexico can be a significant source of particulate material in the Grand Canyon.

  12. Geologic Map of the Upper Parashant Canyon and Vicinity, Mohave County, Northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Harr, Michelle L.; Wellmeyer, Jessica L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction The geologic map of the upper Parashant Canyon area covers part of the Colorado Plateau and several large tributary canyons that make up the western part of Arizona's Grand Canyon. The map is part of a cooperative U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service project to provide geologic information for areas within the newly established Grand Canyon/Parashant Canyon National Monument. Most of the Grand Canyon and parts of the adjacent plateaus have been geologically mapped; this map fills in one of the remaining areas where uniform quality geologic mapping was needed. The geologic information presented may be useful in future related studies as to land use management, range management, and flood control programs for federal and state agencies, and private concerns. The map area is in a remote region of the Arizona Strip, northwestern Arizona about 88 km south of the nearest settlement of St. George, Utah. Elevations range from about 1,097 m (3,600 ft) in Parashant Canyon (south edge of map area) to 2,145 m (7,037 ft) near the east-central edge of the map area. Primary vehicle access is by dirt road locally known as the Mount Trumbull road; unimproved dirt roads and jeep trails traverse various parts of the map area. Travel on the Mount Trumbull road is possible with 2-wheel-drive vehicles except during wet conditions. Extra fuel, two spare tires and extra food and water are highly recommended when traveling in this remote area. The map area includes about 26 sections of land belonging to the State of Arizona, about 40 sections of private land, and a small strip of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area (southeast edge of the map area). The private land is mainly clustered around the abandoned settlement of Mt. Trumbull, locally known as Bundyville, and a few sections are scattered in the upper Whitmore Canyon area just south of Bundyville. Lower elevations within the canyons support a sparse growth of sagebrush, cactus, grass, creosote bush, and a

  13. Trophic structure of pelagic species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Coll, Marta; Layman, Craig A.; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Ecological knowledge of food web interactions within pelagic marine communities is often limited, impairing our capabilities to manage these ecologically and economically important marine fish species. Here we used stable isotope analyses to investigate trophic interactions in the pelagic ecosystem of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during 2012 and 2013. Our results suggest that European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, and anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, are consumers located at relatively low levels of the pelagic food web. Unexpectedly, the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, appeared to be located at a higher trophic level than the other small pelagic fish species, although previous studies found similarity in their diets. Isotope data suggested that trophic niches of species within the genera Trachurus spp. and Scomber spp., were distinct. Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda, European hake Merluccius merluccius and European squid Loligo vulgaris, appeared to feed at higher trophic levels than other species. Despite some intraspecific seasonal variability for some species, community trophic structure appeared relatively stable through the year. These data provide an important step for developing models of food web dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Bryozoan faunal composition and community structure from the continental shelf off Cap de Creus (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurell, T.; Zabala, M.; Dominguez-Carrió, C.; Gili, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Bryozoan specimens obtained in 2009-2010 from the continental shelf off Cap de Creus (Northwestern Mediterranean) were studied. Samples were collected using a Rauschert sled at depths ranging from 61 to 225 m. Bryozoans were present in all 26 samples examined, although they were only abundant in 20 of them. A total of 113 species of Bryozoa were identified (2 Ctenostomata, 90 Cheilostomata and 21 Cyclostomata), most of them are well known to science, although a few of the species have barely or never been cited in the Mediterranean Sea (Hincksinoflustra octodon, Alderina imbellis, Escharella immersa, Neolagenipora collaris and Escharina johnstoni), or are currently poorly described (Lagenipora lepralioides). The species Palmicellaria aff. aviculifera (sensu Gautier, 1957) is redescribed, for which the new name of Palmiskenea gautieri is proposed. Species richness, abundance and biomass were linked to the availability of suitable substrates. Multivariate analysis in relation to environmental data showed that the spatial distribution of the bryozoan species was related to the sediment type. Samples from areas dominated by silt and sandy sediments showed few or no bryozoans, whereas coarse sands and gravels presented higher diversity, abundance and biomass. Within the depth range studied, the faunistic composition of the bryozoan assemblages was similar for the whole continental shelf off Cap de Creus. The bulk of bryozoans was found near the canyon rim. This is related to the proximity of the submarine canyon and its associated hydrological processes. The high diversity and abundance of the bryozoan community located on the circalittoral and shelf-edge off Cap de Creus reflect the presence of critical habitats that are essential for the design of marine protected areas.

  15. Floating debris in the Ligurian Sea, north-western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Aliani, Stefano; Griffa, Annalisa; Molcard, Anne

    2003-09-01

    Results from visual sightings of large floating debris are presented, taken in the Ligurian Sea, a sub-basin of the north-western Mediterranean Sea which belongs to the recently stated "Cetacean Sanctuary". Data have been collected during three oceanographic cruises, during the summer of 1997 and 2000. Results for the 1997 data suggest a debris density of the order of 15-25 objects km(-2), while for the 2000 data, a lower density of the order of 3-1.5 objects km(-2) is found. The difference between the two results appears statistically significant using simple tests. Possible reasons for the observed variability are discussed, including meteorological forcing, marine currents and debris input variability.

  16. A case study of particulate impacts on the Grand Canyon from northwestern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Eatough, D.J.; Green, M.; Moran, W.; Farber, R.

    1999-07-01

    The concentrations of sulfate measured at Meadview, a remote monitoring site just west of the Grand Canyon National Park, on September 1 and 2, 1992 were the highest concentrations reported at this site in six years of monitoring. During this period, the concentrations of SO{sub 2} at Meadview were also high and about three times the sulfate concentrations. In addition, the concentrations of sulfate and SO{sub 2} were also comparably high between Meadview and the southernmost sampling sites near the Mexican border. Based on ambient atmospheric conditions, emissions from the Mohave Power Project (MPP) 110 km upwind of Meadview could not have been responsible for the majority of the regionally observed sulfur oxides. The geographical distribution of SO{sub 2} and sulfate suggest that northwestern Mexico was a significant source of the unusually high observed sulfur oxides. A CMB model developed during Project MOHAVE was used to apportion sulfur oxides at Meadview and other sampling sites throughout the study region for August 31--September 2, 1992. The results indicate that the contribution of MPP to sulfate at Meadview was typical. However, transport of SO{sub x} from northwestern Mexico was elevated throughout much of the region during this time period. This lead to the large increase in sulfate concentrations at Meadview on September 1 and 2. These results indicate that emissions from Mexico can be a significant source of sulfate in the Grand Canyon.

  17. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic

  18. Post-convection spreading phase in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testor, P.; Gascard, J.-C.

    2006-05-01

    This is a study about the spreading of newly formed deep waters following open ocean deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The main results are from the SOFARGOS large scale float experiment initiated in 1994-1995. During the SOFARGOS project, CTD stations and Lagrangian observations of ocean currents were carried out in the Gulf of Lion from December 1994 to July 1995. Hydrological observations confirmed that deep water formation occurred very early during winter 1994-1995 (late December, early January) in conjunction with atmospheric cooling, deep convection penetrating down to 2000 m in the so-called Medoc area. Numerous eddies (both anticyclonic and cyclonic) drifted away from the convection area and advected newly formed deep waters far away from the source region. In particular, compact anticyclones appeared to be the most coherent (long-lived) eddies and capable of transporting newly formed Western Mediterranean Deep Waters several hundreds of kilometers away from the convection area. Characterized by an inner core of about 5 km in radius, these eddies are submesoscale features in the outer domain and appear as key elements of the open ocean convection processes. During their long journeys, these eddies interacted with larger scale features such as the Northern Boundary Current, the North Balearic Front, topographic Rossby waves, and Sardinian eddies. These interactions influenced the long-term behavior of the eddies (mean drift, composition) and represented an important part of (1) the spreading phase following deep convection and (2) the large scale thermohaline circulation.

  19. Nutrients and phytoplankton in the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, Antonio; Velasquez, Zoila R.

    1990-09-01

    The mostly oligotrophic character of the Mediterranean Sea is altered drastically in areas receiving the outflow from large rivers. The Gulf of Lions, receiving discharges from the Rhoˆne River, has nutrient and phytoplankton concentration much higher than the adjacent open northwestern Mediterranean Sea. A surface layer of freshwater, with thickness that varies with the meteorological conditions between 2 and 40 m, overlies the deeper open seawater; this is advected onto the shelf and influences an area that covers the eastern half of the Gulf of Lions. Most of the waters affected by the river discharges show property relationships indicating conservative behaviour, with very little or no loss of nutrients through phytoplankton uptake, particularly in winter. Phytoplankton populations in winter are sparse, with maximum densities just above and below the boundary between the fresh- and seawater. Diatoms are the main group of organisms, although dinoflagellates, coceolithophorids and cyanobacteria are abundant. Small heterotrophs (cilliates, tintinnids, etc.) are also abundant and are positively correlated with the diatoms. A water balance model, linking the river discharge to the advective fluxes of water and nutrients, is proposed. The primary productivity supported by such fluxes is estimated.

  20. Submarine canyons along the upper Sardinian slope (Central Western Mediterranean) as repositories for derelict fishing gears.

    PubMed

    Cau, Alessandro; Alvito, Andrea; Moccia, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Pusceddu, Antonio; Rita, Cannas; Angiolillo, Michela; Follesa, Maria C

    2017-09-11

    By means of ROV surveys, we assessed the quantity, composition and bathymetric distribution of marine litter in 17 sites along the Sardinian continental margin (Central Western Mediterranean) at depths ranging from 100 to 480m. None of the investigated sites was litter free, but the mean density of litter (0.0175±0.0022itemsm(-2)) was lower than that reported from other Tyrrhenian regions. The difference in the total litter density among sites was negligible, but the density of derelict fishing gear (DFG) items (most of which ascribable to small scale fishery) in submarine canyons was higher in submarine canyons than in other habitats. Our result suggest that submarine canyons (known to be highly vulnerable ecosystems) act as major repositories of DFGs, and, therefore, we anticipate the need of specific measures aimed at minimizing the loss and abandonment of DFGs in submarine canyons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation of dioxins in deep-sea crustaceans, fish and sediments from a submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Rotllant, Guiomar; Ábalos, Manuela; Parera, Jordi; Dachs, Jordi; Company, Joan B.; Calafat, Antoni; Abad, Esteban

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are efficient pathways transporting sediments and associated pollutants to deep sea. The objective of this work was to provide with the first assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels and accumulation in deep-sea megafauna (crustacean and fish) and sediments in the Blanes submarine canyon (North-Western Mediterranean Sea). The influence of the selected species habitats (pelagic, nektobenthic, and benthic) and the trophic chain level on the accumulation of dioxins was also investigated. Bottom sediment and biota samples were collected at different depths and locations inside the canyon and in the adjacent slope outside the canyon influence. ∑2,3,7,8-PCDD/F concentrations in sediments varied from 102 to 680 pg g-1 dry weight (d.w.) (1-6 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 d.w.). Dioxins are enriched in bottom sediments at higher depths inside the canyon and in particular in the deepest parts of the canyon axis (1700 m depth), whereas no enrichment of dioxins was verified at the deepest sediments from the adjacent open slope outside the canyon influence. The proportion of ∑2,3,7,8-PCDF (furans) to ∑2,3,7,8-PCDD (dioxins) increased for sediments with higher soot carbon content consistent with the higher affinity of PCDF for sorption onto soot carbon. Higher ∑2,3,7,8-PCDD/F levels were found in crustaceans than in fish, ranging from 220 to 795 pg g-1 lipid weight (l.w.) (13-90 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 l.w.) and 110 to 300 pg g-1 l.w. (22-33 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 l.w.) in crustaceans and fish, respectively. Dioxin highest concentrations were found in nektobenthic organisms, i.e., benthic organism with swimming capabilities (both fish and crustaceans). These higher levels are consistent with the higher trophic level and predicted biomagnification factors (BMFs) of nektobenthic species. The reduced availability of sediment-bound PCDD/F for benthic species mainly due to soot and organic carbon sorption of these contaminants most

  2. Anthropogenic impacts on deep submarine canyons of the western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Tubau, X.; Llorca, M.; Woodall, L.; Canals, M.; Farré, M.; Barceló, D.; Thompson, R.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine canyons are seafloor geomorphic features connecting the shallow coastal ocean to the deep continental margin and basin. Often considered biodiversity hotspots, submarine canyons have been identified as preferential pathways for water, sediment, pollutant and litter transfers from the coastal to the deep ocean. Here we provide insights on the presence of some of the most insidious man-made debris and substances in submarine canyons of the western Mediterranean Sea, which are relevant to achieve a "Good Environmental Status" by 2020 as outlined in the European Union's ambitious Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Ranked by size on a decreasing basis, we review the origin, distribution and transport mechanisms of i) marine litter, including plastic, lost fishing gear and metallic objects; ii) microplastics in the form of fibers of rayon, polyester, polyamide and acetates; and iii) persistent organic pollutants including the toxic and persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. This integrated analysis allows us to understand the pivotal role of atmospheric driven oceanographic processes occurring in Mediterranean deep canyons (dense shelf water cascading, coastal storms) in spreading any type of man-made compound to the deep sea, where they sink and accumulate before getting buried.

  3. The engineering and geological constraints of the intraslope basins and submarine canyons of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, W.R.; Yuh Liu, J.; Ponthier, J.

    1995-10-01

    It is well realized that future hydrocarbon discoveries on the upper and lower continental slope and rise off Texas and Louisiana necessitate innovative methods for the construction of platforms and pipelines in a very difficult engineering and complex geological environment. There are 105 intraslope basins and 5 major submarine canyons on the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, many of which may be prime targets for hydrocarbon production. Examination of the physiographic, geophysical and geotechnical characteristics of the intraslope basins of Pigmy and Vaca basins and the Alaminos submarine canyon are used as examples to typify the various engineering and geological constraints that are most likely to be encountered on the continental slope and rise and along the Sigsbee Escarpment in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. High-resolution bathymetry identifies such constraints as high-angle intraslope basin walls, walls that exceed 40 degrees are not uncommon. Sediment slumps and other instabilities, such as long-term sediment creep and other affects of halokenesis and contemporaneous faulting, are illustrated and evaluated from high-resolution geophysics. The small canyons and large gullies that dissect the parameter flanks of Alaminos Canyon, that may be the results of both recent and old turbidity currents and debris flows, are structures that require engineering consideration in the implement of seafloor structures in, near or down slope of these features.

  4. Sequence stratigraphy of Pleistocene sediments, Northwestern Green Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Naravvro, A.F.; Weimer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A sequence stratigraphic study of Pleistocene sediments in northwestern portion of the Green Canyon Area has identified five depositional sequences: 1.1-0.8, 0.8-0.7, 0.7-0.5, 0.5-0.4, and 0.4-0.3 Ma. Detailed seismic and geologic facies maps were constructed for reach of these sequences. The data base for this study comprises 882 miles (1419 km) of multifold seismic, petrophysical information from 20 wells and 23 biostratigraphic reports. The area is characterized by several large mini-basins, separated by complex salt bodies and minor faults. The depositional settings are structurally controlled by these salt bodies and normal faults. Paleoecology indicates that the sequences were deposited in water depths ranging from lower slope to middle shelf. Bathyal turbidite systems represent most of sediments in the study area. Prominent basin-floor fan deposits are interpreted to be present only in sequences 1.1-0.8 Ma and 0.8-0.7 Ma in the southeastern portion of the study area. All of the sequences consist primarily of channel-levee systems and overbank deposits (slope fan facies). Abrupt facies changes within these deposits are common. Well logs indicate that most of the area is mud-dominated, with sands primarily occurring in channel-fill facies. Extensive slides are also present in these slope fan facies, and are the product of ragid rates of sedimentation and possibly high gradient or inclination of the slope. In the northern part of the study area, the younger sequences (0.7 Ma and younger) also contain sediments deposited in prodelta/delta environments (prograding complex/HST). Upward-coarsening log trends are present in well logs. Relatively thick TST are also present and stacked along the downthrown sides of faults. Fields/discoveries in the study area are in Green Canyon 18, and in the Mahogany sub-salt discovery (SS 349). The petroleum potential for additional prospects the area is good for both supra-salt and sub-salt targets.

  5. Wisconsinan-Holocene seismic stratigraphy of the Keathley Canyon Area and vicinity, northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gwang Hoon; Bryant, W.R.; Watkins, J.S. )

    1991-03-01

    The lower continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico is characterized by a hummocky topography with shallow salt masses interspersed by numerous salt-withdrawal basins containing thick Plio-Pleistocene and older sediments. Analysis of over 7500 km of multichannel seismic reflection data from the Keathley Canyon Area and vicinity defined the Wisconsinan-Holocene sequence and its seismic facies. In interbasinal areas and in the southern part of the study area where salt is shallow, the Wisconsinan-Holocene sequence consists mainly of low-amplitude (LA) facies underlain by strong basal-reflection (SBR) facies. The LA facies occasionally show subtle onlaps against SBR facies and grade upward into a draping pattern. Onlapping LA facies are interpreted to be a lowstand systems tract deposited by widespread low-energy turbidity currents. Draping LA facies at the top may consist of hemipelagic or pelagic sediments. The SBR facies are interpreted to consist of condensed sections formed during sea-level rises and highstands. Within basins, moderate-to-high amplitude-continuous (MHC) and hummocky-to-chaotic (HC) facies occur below LA facies. The MHC facies show a pattern of flat-lying or gently dipping reflections that onlap SBR facies. Onlapping MHC facies often grade upward into a conformable pattern and are obscured by transition into LA facies. The MHC facies are interpreted as alternating coarse- and fine-grained turbidites deposited during sea-level falls and/or lowstands. The HC facies occur commonly associated with MHC facies. The HC facies may represent slope fans formed by mass-transport processes or gravity flows during sea-level falls and/or lowstands.

  6. How does mesoscale impact deep convection? Answers from ensemble Northwestern Mediterranean Sea simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Robin; Herrmann, Marine; Somot, Samuel; Arsouze, Thomas; Benshila, Rachid; Bosse, Anthony; Chanut, Jérôme; Giordani, Hervé; Pennel, Romain; Sevault, Florence; Testor, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Ocean deep convection is a major process of interaction between surface and deep ocean. The Gulf of Lions is a well-documented deep convection area in the Mediterranean Sea, and mesoscale dynamics is a known factor impacting this phenomenon. However, previous modelling studies don't allow to address the robustness of its impact with respect to the physical configuration and ocean intrinsic variability. In this study, the impact of mesoscale on ocean deep convection in the Gulf of Lions is investigated using a multi-resolution ensemble simulation of the northwestern Mediterranean sea. The eddy-permitting Mediterranean model NEMOMED12 (6km resolution) is compared to its eddy-resolving counterpart with the 2-way grid refinement AGRIF in the northwestern Mediterranean (2km resolution). We focus on the well-documented 2012-2013 period and on the multidecadal timescale (1979-2013). The impact of mesoscale on deep convection is addressed in terms of its mean and variability, its impact on deep water transformations and on associated dynamical structures. Results are interpreted by diagnosing regional mean and eddy circulation and using buoyancy budgets. We find a mean inhibition of deep convection by mesoscale with large interannual variability. It is associated with a large impact on mean and transient circulation and a large air-sea flux feedback.

  7. Nutrients and trace metals in the northwestern Mediterranean under coastal upwelling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, Mohamed A.; Aminot, Alain; Kerouel, Roger

    1994-04-01

    Salinity, temperature, turbidity, nutrients and iron, manganese and copper were measured in 50 surface water samples collected from the Rhoˆne river and river plume, the Gulf of Lions and along a vertical profile in the open northwestern Mediterranean. The data obtained bring new information on the distribution of nutrients and trace metals in the northwestern Mediterranean under wind induced coastal upwelling. Persistent northwesterly winds lead to complex physical processes such as upwelling along the northwestern coast of the Gulf, local eddies and oscillating currents. These processes result in the redistribution of dissolved and particulate components, enriched in the upwelling water, throughout the water column. The effect of nutrient-enriched upwelling water on the primary production of the Gulf is expected to be of secondary importance relative to the river input. In addition to the enhanced wind transport of metal-rich continental dust, the effect of upwelling of the sub-thermocline water and particularly the nepheloid layer has been demonstrated. The behaviour of Fe, Mn and Cu in the mixed water appears to be governed by the common estuarine processes particularly the liquid-solid exchange. Great estuarine reactivity was exhibited by Cu and Mn.

  8. The Northern Current and its interaction with the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempoal, Miguel Angel Ahumada Sempoal

    2014-10-01

    A high-resolution (~1.2km) 3D circulation model nested in one-way to a coarse-resolution (~4km) 3D regional model was used to examine the interaction between the Northern Current and the Blanes submarine canyon (~41°00' -41°46'N; ∼02°24' -03°24'E); paying particular attention to upwelling/downwelling events and cross-shelf break water exchange. A Lagrangian particle-tracking algorithm coupled to the high-resolution 3D circulation model was also used to examine the role of the Northern Current (NC) and its seasonal variability on the dispersion of passive particles and residence time within Blanes Canyon (BC). Although it refers to a climatological simulation (i.e. no interannual variability), at this resolution, the Rossby radius of deformation for the Mediterranean Sea (5-12 km) is resolved. Therefore the numerical modeling system properly suites our purpose, since it adequately reproduces the NC mesoscale variability and its seasonality. Satisfactory validatio! n of model results with remote sensing and in-situ observations supports the present findings.

  9. An uncertainty framework to estimate dense water formation rates : case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Robin; Somot, Samuel; Herrmann, Marine; Sevault, Florence; Estournel, Claude; Testor, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Northwestern Mediterranean (NWMed) sea is a key region for the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation as it includes the main deep water formation sites of the Western Mediterranean. The Mediterranean Ocean Observing System for the Environment (MOOSE) has been implemented since 2007 over that region to characterize the space and time variability of the main water masses up to interannual (yearly summer cruises) scale. However, despite a large covering of the NWMed region, the limited number of conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) casts leads to subsampling errors and advocates for an uncertainty assessment of large-scale hydrology estimates. This study aims at estimating the error related to subsampling in time and space. For that purpose, an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is performed with an eddy-permitting Mediterranean sea model (NEMOMED12) and an eddy-resolving NWMed sea model (SYMPHONIE). A subsampling of the full model fields in time and space allows for an error estimate in terms of large-scale hydrology. The methodology is applied to dense water volume estimates for the period july 2012 - july 2013. Secondly, an optimization framework is proposed to evaluate and improve MOOSE network's performances under a series of scientific constraints. The results will be discussed for an application in MOOSE observing network, as well as the main assumptions, the stakes and limitations of this framework.

  10. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  11. Links between parasitism, energy reserves and fecundity of European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Faliex, Elisabeth; Vila, Sílvia; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758, is one of the most sought-after target species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. However, this stock currently consists of small individuals, and landings are reported to have decreased considerably. The main purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the interrelationships between size, fecundity, energy reserves and parasitism in female anchovies, in order to analyse the potential implications for the health of northwestern Mediterranean anchovy stocks arising from the current shortage of large individuals. Results revealed that smaller individuals show lower fecundity, lower lipid content and a higher intensity of certain parasites. As it is known that smaller individuals now predominate in the population, the relationships found in this study indicate that the health of anchovies from the northwestern Mediterranean is currently impaired. PMID:27293748

  12. Integrated study of Mediterranean deep canyons: Novel results and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canals, M.; Company, J. B.; Martín, D.; Sànchez-Vidal, A.; Ramírez-Llodrà, E.

    2013-11-01

    This volume compiles a number of scientific papers resulting from a sustained multidisciplinary research effort of the deep-sea ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea. This started 20 years ago and peaked over the last few years thanks to a number of Spanish and European projects such as PROMETEO, DOS MARES, REDECO, GRACCIE, HERMES, HERMIONE and PERSEUS, amongst others. The geographic focus of most papers is on the NW Mediterranean Sea including the Western Gulf of Lion and the North Catalan margin, with a special attention to submarine canyons, in particular the Blanes and Cap de Creus canyons. This introductory article to the Progress in Oceanography special issue on “Mediterranean deep canyons” provides background information needed to better understand the individual papers forming the volume, comments previous reference papers related to the main topics here addressed, and finally highlights the existing relationships between atmospheric forcing, oceanographic processes, seafloor physiography, ecosystem response, and litter and chemical pollution. This article also aims at constituting a sort of glue, in terms of existing knowledge and concepts and novel findings, linking together the other twenty papers in the volume, also including some illustrative figures. The main driving ideas behind this special issue, particularly fitting to the study area of the NW Mediterranean Sea, could be summarized as follows: (i) the atmosphere and the deep-sea ecosystem are connected through oceanographic processes originating in the coastal area and the ocean surface, which get activated at the occasion of high-energy events leading to fast transfers of matter and energy to the deep; (ii) shelf indented submarine canyons play a pivotal role in such transfers, which involve dense water, sedimentary particles, organic matter, litter and chemical pollutants; (iii) lateral inputs (advection) from the upper continental margin contributes significantly to the formation of

  13. Cross-sectional serosurvey of feline leishmaniasis in ecoregions around the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Iniesta, Laura; Quintana, Josefina; Pastor, Joseph; Espada, Yvonne; Portús, Montserrat; Alberola, Jordi

    2007-04-01

    A cross-sectional serosurvey using Leishmania infantum ELISA was performed on 445 cats living in ecoregions around the Northwestern Mediterranean basin; 58 cats from an area of the US where leishmaniasis is not endemic were used as negative controls. ELISA results were further confirmed in 69 cats by Western blot (WB). Finally, 76 of them were also tested for FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence by ELISA-prot A was 6.29%, and that by ELISA-IgG was 5.25%. Positive cat sera recognized patterns of polypeptides in WB, including L. infantum-specific antigenic fractions. There was no association with retroviruses. Leishmania-specific antibodies are prevalent in cats living in ecoregions around the Northwestern Mediterranean basin; thus, leishmaniasis must be included in the differential diagnosis of diseases in cats living in these ecoregions. Their role as peridomestic reservoirs for L. infantum needs further characterization, but it could be hypothesized that the cat is a secondary reservoir host, rather than an accidental one.

  14. Sediment dynamics and post-glacial evolution of the continental shelf around the Blanes submarine canyon head (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, Ruth; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Micallef, Aaron; Amblas, David; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Sanz, José Luis

    2013-11-01

    The Blanes submarine canyon (BC) deeply incises the Catalan continental shelf in the NW Mediterranean Sea. As a consequence of the closeness (only 4 km) of its head to the coastline and the mouth of the Tordera River, the canyon has a direct influence on the shelf dispersal system as it collects large amounts of sediment, mainly during high-energy events. Multibeam bathymetry, backscatter imagery and very-high resolution seismic reflection profiles have allowed characterizing the morphology of the continental shelf around the canyon head, also identifying sediment sources and transport pathways into the canyon. The morphological data have also been used to reconstruct the evolution of the continental shelf during the last sea-level transgression so that the current understanding of shelf-to-canyon sediment exchanges through time could be improved. The continental shelf surrounding the BC consists of both depositional and erosional or non-depositional areas. Depositional areas display prominent sediment bodies, a generally smooth bathymetry and variable backscatter. These include: (i) an area of modern coarse-grained sediment accumulation that comprises the inner shelf; (ii) a modern fine-grained sedimentation area on the middle shelf offshore Tossa de Mar; and (iii) a modern sediment depleted area that covers most of the middle and outer shelf to the west of the canyon head. Erosional and non-depositional areas display a rough topography and high backscatter, and occur primarily to the east of the canyon head, where the arrival of river-fed inputs is very small. In agreement with this pattern, the continental shelf north and west of the canyon head likely is the main source of shelf sediment into the canyon. To the north, a pattern of very high backscatter extends from the coastline to the canyon head, suggesting the remobilization and off-shelf export of fines. Additionally, relict near-shore sand bodies developed over the Barcelona shelf that extend to the canyon

  15. Geologic map of the Grand Canyon 30' x 60' quadrangle, Coconino and Mohave Counties, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data as well as new mapping by the author, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the map area. Together with the accompanying pamphlet, it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the Grand Canyon area. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:100,000 or smaller.

  16. Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Satta, Maria Paola; de Torres, Mariona; Ballesteros, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The collection of 152 samples from the upper sublittoral zone along the rocky coasts of Catalonia (Northwestern Mediterranean) was carried out in 1999 in order to test the suitability of littoral communities to be used as indicators of water quality in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive. Detrended correspondence analysis were performed to distinguish between different communities and to relate communities composition to water quality. Samples collected in reference sites were included in the analysis. Mediterranean rocky shore communities situated in the upper sublittoral zone can be used as indicators of the water quality: there is a gradient from high to bad status that comprises from dense Cystoseira mediterranea forests to green algae dominated communities. The geographical patterns in the distribution of these communities show that the best areas are situated in the Northern coast, where tourism is the main economic resource of the area, and the worst area is situated close to the metropolitan zone of Barcelona with high population and industrial development. Thus, Mediterranean sublittoral rocky shore communities are useful indicators of water quality and multivariate analysis are a suitable statistical tool for the assessment of the ecological status.

  17. Ecological niches of three teuthophageous odontocetes in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praca, E.; Gannier, A.

    2008-02-01

    In the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sperm whales, pilot whales and Risso's dolphins prey exclusively or preferentially on cephalopods. In order to evaluate their competition, we modelled their habitat suitability with the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) and compared their ecological niches using a discriminant analysis. We used a long term (1995-2005) small boat data set, with visual and acoustic (sperm whale) detections. Risso's dolphin had the shallowest and the more spatially restricted principal habitat, mainly located on the upper part of the continental slope (640 m mean depth). With a wider principal habitat, at 1750 m depth in average, the sperm whale used a deeper part of the slope as well as the closest offshore waters. Finally, the pilot whale has the most oceanic habitat (2500 m mean depth) mainly located in the central Ligurian Sea and Provençal basin. Therefore, potential competition for food between these species may be reduced by the differentiation of their habitats.

  18. Ecological niche of three teuthophageous odontocetes in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praca, E.; Gannier, A.

    2007-10-01

    In the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sperm whales, pilot whales and Risso's dolphins prey on cephalopods exclusively or preferentially. In order to evaluate their competition, we modelled their habitat suitability with the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) and compared their ecological niche using a discriminant analysis. We used a long term (1995-2005) small boat data set, with visual and acoustic (sperm whale) detections. Risso's dolphin had the shallowest and the more spatially restricted principal habitat, mainly located on the upper part of the continental slope (640 m mean depth). With a wider principal habitat, at 1750 m depth in average, the sperm whale used a deeper part of the slope as well as close offshore waters. Finally, the pilot whale has the most oceanic habitat (2500 m mean depth) mainly located in the central Ligurian Sea and Provençal basin. Therefore, potential competition for food between these species may be reduced by the differentiation of their ecological niches.

  19. Feeding ecology of two demersal opportunistic predators coexisting in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Nieves; Navarro, Joan; Barría, Claudio; Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of marine organisms is crucial to understanding their ecological roles and advancing our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. The aim of this study was to analyse the trophic ecology of two demersal predator species, black anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) and white anglerfish (L. piscatorius), in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Both species are important in the study area due to their high abundance and economic value, but information about their feeding behaviour is scarce. Here, we described the diet composition and ecological role of these two species, investigating whether trophic segregation exists between them and amongst fish of different sizes. In addition, by using experimental survey data we described the spatial distribution of both species to help us interpret trophic behaviour patterns. We gathered samples of two different sizes (small individuals of a total length <30 cm and large individuals ≥30 cm) of both species and combined stomach content analyses (SCA) and stable isotope analyses (SIA) of nitrogen and carbon with isotopic mixing models. Our results revealed that both anglerfish species are opportunistic predators, showing a diet composed mainly of fishes and, to a lesser extent, of crustaceans, with a small proportion of cephalopods, gastropods, bivalves and echinoderms. We found trophic segregation between the two species and the two sizes, indicating that they feed on different prey, in line with differences in their spatial distribution within the study area. This partial partition of food resources could also be explained by the differences in rhythms of activity that were reported in previous studies. In addition, although both species occupied a high position within the food web, our results showed that white anglerfish individuals and the large-sized fish of both species held higher trophic positions. This study demonstrates the usefulness of complementary approaches for trophic studies and

  20. High spatiotemporal variability in meiofaunal assemblages in Blanes Canyon (NW Mediterranean) subject to anthropogenic and natural disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Sara; Vanreusel, Ann; Romano, Chiara; Ingels, Jeroen; Puig, Pere; Company, Joan B.; Martin, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the natural and anthropogenic drivers controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the meiofauna in the submarine Blanes Canyon, and its adjacent western slope (NW Mediterranean margin of the Iberian Peninsula). We analyzed the relationships between the main sedimentary environmental variables (i.e. grain size, Chl-a, Chl-a: phaeopigments, CPE, organic carbon and total nitrogen) and the density and structure of the meiofaunal assemblages along a bathymetric gradient (from 500 to 2000 m depth) in spring and autumn of 2012 and 2013. Twenty-one and 16 major taxa were identified for respectively the canyon and slope, where the assemblages were always dominated by nematodes. The gradual decreasing meiofaunal densities with increasing depth at the slope showed little variability among stations and corresponded with a uniform pattern of food availability. The canyon was environmentally much more variable and sediments contained greater amounts of food resources (Chl-a and CPE) throughout, leading not only to increased meiofaunal densities compared to the slope, but also different assemblages in terms of composition and structure. This variability in the canyon is only partly explained by seasonal food inputs. The high densities found at 900 m and 1200 m depth coincided with significant increases in food availability compared to shallower and deeper stations in the canyon. Our results suggest that the disruption in expected bathymetric decrease in densities at 900-1200 m water depth coincided with noticeable changes in the environmental variables typical for disturbance and deposition events (e.g., higher sand content and CPE), evoking the hypothesis of an anthropogenic effect at these depths in the canyon. The increased downward particle fluxes at 900-1200 m depth caused by bottom trawling along canyon flanks, as reported in previous studies, support our hypothesis and allude to a substantial anthropogenic factor influencing benthic assemblages at these

  1. Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: importance of food sources.

    PubMed

    Cresson, P; Fabri, M C; Bouchoucha, M; Brach Papa, C; Chavanon, F; Jadaud, A; Knoery, J; Miralles, F; Cossa, D

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30±0.61 to 7.13±7.09 μg g(-1) dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends.

  2. Bacterioplankton and phytoplankton biomass and production during summer stratification in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Calderón-Paz, Juan-Isidro; Guixa-Boixereu, Núria; Estrada, Marta; Gasol, Josep M.

    1999-06-01

    We examined bacterioplankton biomass and heterotrophic production (BHP) during summer stratification in the northwestern Mediterranean in four successive stratification seasons (June-July of 1993-1996). Values of phytoplankton biomass and primary production were determined simultaneously so that the data sets for autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial plankton could be compared. Three standard stations were set along a transect from Barcelona to the channel between Mallorca and Menorca, representing coastally influenced shelf waters, frontal waters over the slope front, and open sea waters. Conversion factors from 3H-leucine incorporation to BHP were empirically determined and varied between 0.29 and 3.25 kg C mol -1. Bacterial biomass values were among the lowest found in any marine environment. BHP values (between 0.02 and 2.5 μg C L -1 d -1) were larger than those of low nutrient low chlorophyll areas such as the Sargasso Sea and lower than those from high nutrient low chlorophyll areas such as the equatorial Pacific. Growth rates of bacterioplankton were highest at the slope front (0.20 d -1) and lowest at the open sea station (0.04 d -1). Phytoplankton growth rates were similar at the three stations (˜0.50 d -1). Integrated values of bacterioplankton biomass, BHP and bacterial growth rates did not show significant differences among years, but differences between the three stations were clearly significant. Phytoplankton biomass, primary production, and phytoplankton growth rates did not show significant differences either with year or with station. As a consequence the bacterioplankton to phytoplankton biomass (BB/BPHY) and production (BHP/PP) ratios varied from the coastal to the open sea stations. The BB/BPHY ratio was 0.98 at the coast and ˜0.70 at the other two stations. These ratios are similar to those found in other oligotrophic marine environments. The BHP/PP ratio was 0.83 at the coast, 0.36 at the slope and 0.09 at the open sea station. The last

  3. Morphology of Submarine Canyons in the Palomares Margin (East of Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Hernandez, S.; Comas, M. C.; Escutia, C.

    2009-04-01

    Morphological analysis on the Palomares Margin has been done using high-resolution swath bathymetry data collected during the MARSIBAL-06 (2006) cruise on board of the R/V BIO Hespérides. Complemented with data from GEBCO 2000 and Ifremer (Medimap Group, 2007) the data-set provides the first complete bathymetric mosaic of the Palomares Margin. The bathymetric mosaic allows to study the physiographic provinces of the Palomares Margin and to conduct, for the first time, a detailed morphological analysis of the two main sediment-transfer conduits: the Gata and the Alias-Almanzora Canyons. The Gata Canyon extends for 64km from the outer shelf to the base of the slope with a general W-E direction. A tributary system of canyons originates at the shelf break and continues on the slope until they merge at 1230m water depth. The walls of the canyons are characterized by repeated slides. Perpendicular profiles to the Canyon pathway reveal gentle transversal "V" asymmetrical shapes with a marked axial incision on the canyon floor (highs between 65 to 103m in the southern flank, and between 30-90m in the northern flank ). The transition from an erosional canyon to a deposition channel is located at 2100m water depth, and is characterized by trapezoidal shapes on transversal profiles accompanied of lower relieves (40-65m). At the mouth of the canyon-channel system no sedimentary lobes are observed. The Alias-Almanzora canyon (73km long and preferential direction W-E) is located North of the Gata Canyon and extends from the continental shelf to the base of the slope. A tributary system to the Alias- Almanzora canyon-head locates less than 150m from the coast, facing a fluvial drainage system onland. Proximal tributary canyons and gullies feed the main canyon until it merges in the continental slope at 1516m water depth. The tributary system exhibits a marked "V" shape in transverse profiles and marked axial incisions. Down slope, transversal profiles have trapezoidal shapes

  4. The origin of Messinian canyons in the Mediterranean: the role of brine-related dense shelf water cascading currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveri, Marco; Bergamasco, Andrea; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Schreiber, B. Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies on modern deep-sea environments have documented the role of submarine processes, such as turbidity currents, fluvial flood-related hyperpycnal flows and dense shelf water cascading (DSWC), in the genesis and evolution of canyons and gullies. These processes are largely independent from sea-level fluctuations and significant erosion has been shown to occur even at present-day sea-level highstand conditions. The study of ancient deep-marine environments and processes may take great advantage from the knowledge produced during the last decade in this field of research. The study of some exceptional events of the past is an exciting issue for a common effort of specialists from different disciplines (geomorphology, geology, physical oceanography) in the understanding of modern and ancient deep seascape. An example is provided by the genesis of the widespread Messinian erosional surface (MES) and the associated gullies and canyons, which have been recognized through seismic data along the Mediterranean shelves and slopes. These features are commonly related to subaerial fluvial processes that imply a 1500 m drawdown and the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during what has been called the "Messinian salinity crisis" (MSC). Such an interpretation is one of the main arguments for the shallow-water deep-basin model (Hsü et al., 1973), which is the current paradigm for the MSC. However, no unquestionable evidence for subaerial deposits associated with the MES has been ever documented. We suggest that fully submarine erosional processes played a significant role in shaping the Mediterranean slopes also during the MSC; thus, no desiccation is needed to explain canyon formation and/or rejuvenation. We want to stress here the importance of the processes, driven by evaporative fluxes in shallow areas, that lead to the formation of seasonal high-density contrasts and cause the development of cascading along the continental slopes (Shapiro et al., 2003). These

  5. Seafloor morphology: nature of the seabed and the cold water corals of the Levante Canyon (eastern Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbono, Ivana; Ivaldi, Roberta; Pratellesi, Marta; Fanelli, Emanuela; Peirano, Andrea; Cocito, Silvia; Dialti, Lorenzo; Delfanti, Roberta

    2014-05-01

    The Levante Canyon, located approximately in the offshore area of Cinque Terre (eastern Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean), was investigated in autumn 2013 onboard Italian Navy Ships through high resolution multibeam (MB), side scan sonar (SSS) and image data acquired by a Remotely Operating Vehicle (ROV) in order to study the seafloor features and ecological characters. First data allow us to product a seabed mapping of the study area with high detail of seafloor shapes, to be extended to other similar sectors of the canyon catchment area, constituted by a dendritic pattern of each individual gully network. The highest values of slope (17°) can be found in the steep canyon heads and flanks. Slope values up to 10° can be seen depicting sea-bed mounds on the northernmost and central interfluve. MB and SSS data show higher acoustic backscatter in the deepest sections of the canyon than interfluve and the changes in the sea-bed nature over the mounds are highlighted as areas of variable intensity. ROV images were recorded from 510 m depth up to 370 m and suggested the presence of biological communities, mainly typical of deep muddy bottom, and small cold water coral colonies, possibly identified as Madrepora oculata. This survey provides not only a detailed mapping of the variable morphology of the proximal area of the Levante Canyon, but it also investigates the seabed nature and biological communities within the canyon system for the assessment of a potential Site of Community Importance (SCI) under the European Commission Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC). In particular cold water corals (CWC) provide a complex structural marine habitat hosting high levels of biological diversity, which are in the reef habitat three times higher compared to the surrounding seabed. For this reason they fall within the habitats that deserve protection (EU-Habitat 1170 "Reefs"). Preliminary observations and data interpretations suggest that the Levante Canyon shows interesting

  6. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurgin, J. M.; Allen, S. E.

    2014-10-01

    Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively) and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ) was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m). Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate), as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  7. An adjusted one year sea surface heat and water budget for the Northwestern Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, Guy; Prieur, Louis; Giordani, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The problem of heat and salt budget closure is an important subject in operational and research oceanography. The closure depends crucially on surface fluxes, as they are one of the most important processes in terms of the evolution of the heat and salt content in the oceanic top layers. However, in this problem, two points have to be considered. First, surface fluxes are affected by a variety of errors: those associated with the algorithms used for computing the turbulent fluxes, those due to the data used as input of bulk algorithms and the errors associated with the time and space resolution of the fluxes themselves. The second problem is that no surface flux dataset exists, that can be used as the truth, or as a reference, i.e. that can be used for closing observed heat and water budgets at various time and space scales. Here we address the question of adjusting surface heat and water fluxes so that they are in agreement with the evolution of the thermal and salt contents deduced from the extended dataset collected during the HyMex campaigns. These experiments were conducted in the North-western Mediterranean basin in 2012 and 2013. The method is based: (1) on the one-dimensional column modelling of the experimental area, by solving specific temperature and salinity equations and (2) on the optimization of adjustable coefficients with a genetic algorithm. The surface forcings, calculated from a mix of satellite retrievals, in-situ data, numerical weather prediction model observables and a bulk algorithm are also adjusted with the genetic algorithm. Finally, the adjusted fluxes allows to simulate the domain average sea surface temperature and salinity with errors less than 0.2 percent (or 0.03°C) and 0.08 percent (or 0.03 psu) respectively over one year. The adjusted fluxes are finally compared with various NWP models over the North-western Mediterranean basin and also locally with fluxes estimated at a mooring site (LION buoy).

  8. High resolution modelling of the oceanic circulation and winter vertical mixing in the northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damien, Pierre; Estournel, Claude; Marsaleix, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The North Western Mediterranean Sea is one of the few regions in the world where open-ocean deep convection occurs. The local cyclonic circulation brings weakly stratified waters close to the surface. In winter, atmospheric conditions (strong cold winds and high heat losses) trigger the deep convection. When the strong forcing stops, restratification of the mixed patch occurs by lateral advection of surrounding lighter water. Mesoscale and submesoscale structures play an important role during these events both in the sinking and spreading of the new dense water formed and in the advection of light surrounding water. The objective is first to check the capabilities of a high resolution model to reproduce the oceanic response to strong wind and, second, to identify processes involved in the water column restratification in terms of spacial and temporal scales. The SYMPHONIE model was implemented at 1 km resolution over the north-western Mediterranean. Simulations were initialized and forced at the open boundaries by the recent MERCATOR release PSY2V4R3. Two atmospheric forcings were use at the surface, ECMWF through bulk formulae and ARPERA. The recent years were simulated and comparisons were performed with the available data set particularly Argo and glider floats and the data of the CASCADE experiment in March 2011. A special attention was paid to the representation of the vertical stratification, of the mixed layer depth and of the properties of the water masses. The characteristics of the deep convection event and of its restratification are examined in terms of water mass formation and budgets. The role played by small scale structures is quantified.

  9. Impact of climate change on the northwestern Mediterranean Sea pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marine; Estournel, Claude; Adloff, Fanny; Diaz, Frédéric

    2014-09-01

    The northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) is biologically one of the most productive Mediterranean regions. NWMS pelagic planktonic ecosystem is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics, in particular by deep convection that could significantly weaken under the influence of climate change. Here we investigate the response of this ecosystem and associated carbon cycle to the long-term evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. For that we developed a tridimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model and performed two groups of annual simulations under the climate conditions of respectively the 20th and the end of 21st centuries. Our results suggest that the evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations does not modify the NWMS pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle at a first order. However, differences mainly induced by the deep convection weakening and the surface warming are obtained at a second order. The spring bloom occurs 1 month earlier. Resulting from the decrease in nutrients availability, the bottom up control of phytoplankton development and bacteria growth by the nitrogen and phosphorus availability strengthens and the microbial loop intensifies as the small-sized plankton biomass increases. Carbon net fixation and deep export do not change significantly. The choice of the biogeochemical initial and boundary conditions does not change the representation of the ecosystem seasonal cycle, but the associated uncertainty range can be one order of magnitude larger than the predicted interannual and long-term variabilities. The uncertainty range of long-term trends associated with the physical forcing (hydrological, atmospheric, hydrodynamical, and socioeconomic) is much smaller (<10%).

  10. Distribution and dispersal of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palanques, A.; Drake, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrographic data, water and bottom-sediment samples, and a GEOPROBE tripod experiment were used to examine the distribution and dynamics of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro shelf in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. In the absence of strong winds and storms, primary sediment supply from the Ebro River is dispersed along the shelf by a general southward flow. In such calm conditions, suspended-matter concentrations on the shelf are lower than 3 mg/l and transfer of material from the shelf to the slope takes place principally over the shelf edge north of the Columbretes Islands. Very fine sediment deposited in a mid-shelf mud belt (30-80 m deep) is cohesive and resistant to erosion. Only relatively rare, strong storms are able to resuspend particles from the deeper, central region of this cohesive deposit. When resuspension takes place, suspended-particulate-matter concentration increases and the general dispersal pattern of suspended matter is altered. Near the seafloor, distribution of suspended matter is greatly influenced by the distribution of the mid-shelf muds from which particles are resuspended. Resuspension occurs more intensively and frequently along the shallower (20-40 m) edge of the cohesive deposit and near the delta. ?? 1990.

  11. Testing BOPA index in sewage affected soft-bottom communities in the north-western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2009-08-01

    The implementation of the European directive (ELD) 2000/60/EC has produced the development of several biotic indices based in benthic communities. These indices try to summarise ecological quality status of different communities. However, a universal index that works in all situations is difficult to establish, because there are several sources of variation. Therefore, there is the need for testing and validation of these indices which is required for making management decisions on different scales, and in different regions and communities. In this study we test one of these indices, BOPA index, developed by Dauvin and Ruellet [Dauvin, J.C., Ruellet, T., 2007. Polychaete/amphipod ratio revisited. Marine Pollution Bulletin 55, 215-224] in five locations affected by sewage disposal. These disposals are often released via outfall into shallow subtidal habitats, leading to a common source of pollution in coastal marine environments. BOPA index provides a valuable overview of the gradient status of a benthic environment, discriminating between stations more affected by discharge. Nevertheless, BOPA index, used to establish the ecological quality status, seemed to overestimate the status and hence there is the need to calibrate the thresholds between EcoQs classes as defined for these medium-to-fine sand communities, which are characteristics of shallow sublittoral soft-bottoms of the north-western Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Toothed whales in the northwestern Mediterranean: insight into their feeding ecology using chemical tracers.

    PubMed

    Praca, Emilie; Laran, Sophie; Lepoint, Gilles; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Quetglas, Antoni; Belcari, Paola; Sartor, Paolo; Dhermain, Frank; Ody, Denis; Tapie, Nathalie; Budzinski, Hélène; Das, Krishna

    2011-05-01

    Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales rarely strand in the northwestern Mediterranean. Thus, their feeding ecology, through the analysis of stomach contents, is poorly known. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the segregation/superposition of the diet and habitat of Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales using chemical tracers, namely, stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) and organochlorines. Significantly different δ(15)N values were obtained in Risso's dolphins (11.7±0.7‰), sperm whales (10.8±0.3‰) and pilot whales (9.8±0.3‰), revealing different trophic levels. These differences are presumably due to various proportions of Histioteuthidae cephalopods in each toothed whale's diet. Similar δ(13)C contents between species indicated long-term habitat superposition or corroborated important seasonal migrations. Lower congener 180 concentrations (8.20 vs. 21.73 μg.g(-1) lw) and higher tDDT/tPCB ratios (0.93 vs. 0.42) were observed in sperm whales compared with Risso's dolphins and may indicate wider migrations for the former. Therefore, competition between these species seems to depend on different trophic levels and migration patterns.

  13. Appearance of Chelophyes appendiculata and Abylopsis tetragona (Cnidaria, Siphonophora) in the Bay of Villefranche, northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buecher, Emmanuelle

    1999-06-01

    The vertical and temporal distribution of two calycophoran siphonophores, Chelophyes appendiculata (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Abylopsis tetragona (Otto, 1823) in the Bay of Villefranche (northwestern Mediterranean) was investigated by an analysis of three different planktonic time series. A daily series (1993-1995) showed seasonal peaks of the nectophores of C. appendiculata during spring and particularly in late summer, while the abundance of A. tetragona remained similar throughout the year. A weekly series (1994-1995) showed that C. appendiculata (nectophores and eudoxids) became concentrated above the thermal discontinuity, in the most stratified and warm waters, whereas A. tetragona was collected in large numbers below this discontinuity. A 27-year survey (1966-1993) showed long-term fluctuations of these siphonophore populations, which became abundant in the Bay starting from 1980 and especially after 1984, when the water column grew warm and hypersaline, corresponding to a less rainy period. Temporal (seasonal and long-term) and bathymetric (between 10 and 60 m depth) successions of these two siphonophores were noted in this shallow coastal bay.

  14. Presence of trace metals in aquaculture marine ecosystems of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Brizio, P; Stella, C; Prearo, M; Pastorino, P; Serracca, L; Ercolini, C; Abete, M C

    2016-08-01

    Information regarding chemical pollutant levels in farmed fish and shellfish, along with the risks associated with their consumption is still scarce. This study was designed to assess levels of exposure to 21 trace elements in fish (Dicentrarchus labrax), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from aquaculture marine ecosystems of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Metal concentrations showed great variability in the three species; the highest values of the nonessential elements As and Cd were found in oysters while the highest levels of Al, Pb and V were found in mussels. The essential elements Cu, Mn and Zn were highest in oysters, but Fe, Cr, Ni, Se, Co and Mo levels were highest in mussels. Fish had the lowest concentrations for all trace elements, which were at least one order of magnitude lower than in bivalves. The rare earth elements cerium and lanthanum were found at higher levels in mussels than in oysters, but undetectable in fish. The maximum values set by European regulations for Hg, Cd and Pb were never exceeded in the examined samples. However, comparing the estimated human daily intakes (EHDIs) with the suggested tolerable copper and zinc intakes suggested a potential risk for frequent consumers of oysters. Similarly, people who consume high quantities of mussels could be exposed to concentrations of Al that exceed the proposed TWI (tolerable weekly intake).

  15. Multiscale modeling of air pollutants dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean basin during a typical summertime episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JiméNez, Pedro; Lelieveld, Jos; Baldasano, José M.

    2006-09-01

    The complex behavior of photochemical pollutants in the northwestern Mediterranean basin (NWMB) is conditioned by the superposition of circulations of different scale and the pattern of emissions. Therefore a new approach to the modeling of air quality in the NWMB has been adopted by combining the global climate-chemistry model ECHAM5/MESSy and the regional modeling system MM5-EMICAT2000-CMAQ to analyze the high levels of photochemical air pollution during a typical summertime episode. We show that this combination of models is well suited to address the range of scales involved. The complexity of the area requires the application of high spatial and temporal resolution (2 km and 1 hour) modeling to cover local to regional interactions. We address the local and large-scale processes controlling tropospheric ozone in the NWMB, notably emissions and photochemistry, convective and advective transport, deposition processes, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange. The simulation results indicate that the ozone buildup largely results from local photochemical production, which strongly exceeds the removal rates through transport and deposition. The contribution by advective transport is limited, associated with the stagnant meteorological conditions. In the lower troposphere, local recirculation systems are of key importance. The strength of the land-sea breeze circulation and thermally or mechanically driven convection over the complex orography of the eastern Iberian coast can induce vertical transport and the layering of air pollution.

  16. A first report of rare earth elements in northwestern Mediterranean seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Brizio, Paola; Battuello, Marco; Nurra, Nicola; Sartor, Rocco Mussat; Benedetto, Alessandro; Pessani, Daniela; Abete, Maria Cesarina

    2017-09-15

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) were determined by ICP-MS in dominant seaweed species, collected from three locations of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. This is the first study to define levels and patterns of REE in macro algae from these coastal areas. Rare elements are becoming emerging inorganic contaminants in marine ecosystems, due to their worldwide increasing applications in industry, technology, medicine and agriculture. Significant inter-site and interspecies differences were registered, with higher levels of REE in brown and green macro algae than in red seaweeds. Levels of light REE were also observed to be greater compared to heavy REE in all samples. One of the investigated locations (Bergeggi, SV) had higher REE and ΣREE concentrations, probably due to its proximity to an important commercial and touristic harbor, while the other two sites were less affected by anthropogenic contaminations, and showed comparable REE patterns and lower concentrations. Rare earth elements in seaweeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rare earth element distributions and fractionation in plankton from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Strady, Emilie; Kim, Intae; Radakovitch, Olivier; Kim, Guebuem

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured for the first time in plankton from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The REE concentrations in phytoplankton (60-200 μm) were 5-15 times higher than those in four size fractions of zooplankton: 200-500 μm, 500-1000 μm, 1000-2000 μm and >2000 μm. The concentrations within these zooplankton fractions exhibited the same ranges with some variation attributed to differences in zooplankton taxonomy. The REE concentrations in plankton were poorly related to the reported REE concentrations of seawater, but they correlated well with the calculated REE(3+), concentrations especially with regard to middle REE (MREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs). Plankton and seawater revealed different PAAS-normalised REE distributions, with the greatest differences observed in the light REEs. Interestingly, a comparison of PAAS-normalized sediment particles from the study of Fowler et al. (1992) showed concentrations of the same order of magnitude and a similar REE distribution without MREE enrichment. Based on this comparison, we propose a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of biological scavenging of REEs (especially LREEs) in surface waters.

  18. Trophic flows, ecosystem structure and fishing impacts in the South Catalan Sea, Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel; Tudela, Sergi; Sardà, Francesc

    2006-01-01

    An exploited ecosystem from the continental shelf and upper slope of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea was described by means of an Ecopath mass-balance model with the aim of characterising its functioning and structure and describing the ecosystem impacts of fishing. This application included some complexities added to the general modelling methodology due to the high biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the multispecific nature of the fishery, and to the difficulties of working with fishing data which are usually irregularly or imprecisely collected. The model comprised 40 functional groups including primary producers, the main species of benthic, demersal and pelagic invertebrates, fishes and non-fish vertebrates and three detritus groups. In addition, trawling, purse seine, longline and troll bait fishing fleets were included. Results showed that the functional groups were organized into four trophic levels with the highest levels corresponding to anglerfish, dolphins, large pelagic fishes and adult hake. The system was dominated by the pelagic fraction, where sardine and anchovy prevailed in terms of fish biomasses and catches. Detritus and detritivorous groups also played key roles in the ecosystem and important coupled pelagic-demersal interactions were described. Considering Odum's theory of ecosystem development, the ecosystem was placed on an intermediate-low developmental stage due, at least partially, to the impact of fishing activity. This highlighted the high intensity of fishing in the ecosystem, in accordance with the general assessment of western Mediterranean marine resources, and fishing fleets were ranked as top predators of the system. The low trophic level of the catch was in line with the long history of exploitation in the area. However, the steady decline of pelagic landings between 1994 and 2003, coupled with a decrease of the pelagic biomass within the system, underlined the low resistance of the system in front of perturbations

  19. Understanding north-western Mediterranean climate variability: a multi-proxy and multi-sequence approach based on wavelet analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent; Jalali, Bassem; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Sabatier, Pierre; Dezileau, Laurent; Peyron, Odile; Frigola, Jaime; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Forcings and physical mechanisms underlying Holocene climate variability still remain poorly understood. Comparison of different paleoclimatic reconstructions using spectral analysis allows to investigate their common periodicities and helps to understand the causes of past climate changes. Wavelet analysis applied on several proxy time series from the Atlantic domain already revealed the first key-issues on the origin of Holocene climate variability. However the differences in duration, resolution and variance between the time-series are important issues for comparing paleoclimatic sequences in the frequency domain. This work compiles 7 paleoclimatic proxy records from 4 time-series from the north-western Mediterranean all ranging from 7000 to 1000 yrs cal BP: -pollen and clay mineral contents from the lagoonal sediment core PB06 recovered in southern France, -Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) derived from alkenones, concentration of terrestrial alkanes and their average chain length (ACL) from core KSGC-31_GolHo-1B recovered in the Gulf of Lion inner-shelf, - δ18O record from speleothems recovered in the Asiul Cave in north-western Spain, -grain size record from the deep basin sediment drift core MD99-2343 north of Minorca island. A comparison of their frequency content is proposed using wavelet analysis and cluster analysis of wavelet power spectra. Common cyclicities are assessed using cross-wavelet analysis. In addition, a new algorithm is used in order to propagate the age model errors within wavelet power spectra. Results are consistents with a non-stationnary Holocene climate variability. The Halstatt cycles (2000-2500 years) depicted in many proxies (ACL, errestrial alkanes and SSTs) demonstrate solar activity influence in the north-western Mediterranean climate. Cluster analysis shows that pollen and ACL proxies, both indicating changes in aridity, are clearly distinct from other proxies and share significant common periodicities around 1000 and 600 years

  20. Observability of fine-scale ocean dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Carret, Alice; Birol, Florence; Nino, Fernando; Valladeau, Guillaume; Boy, Francois; Bachelier, Celine; Zakardjian, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances in the recent satellite altimeter missions of Jason-2, SARAL/AltiKa and CryoSat-2 have improved their signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to observe finer-scale ocean processes with along-track data. Here, we analyse the noise levels and observable ocean scales in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, using spectral analyses of along-track sea surface height from the three missions. Jason-2 has a higher mean noise level with strong seasonal variations, with higher noise in winter due to the rougher sea state. SARAL/AltiKa has the lowest noise, again with strong seasonal variations. CryoSat-2 is in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode in the Mediterranean Sea but with lower-resolution ocean corrections; its statistical noise level is moderate with little seasonal variation. These noise levels impact on the ocean scales we can observe. In winter, when the mixed layers are deepest and the submesoscale is energetic, all of the altimeter missions can observe wavelengths down to 40-50 km (individual feature diameters of 20-25 km). In summer when the submesoscales are weaker, SARAL can detect ocean scales down to 35 km wavelength, whereas the higher noise from Jason-2 and CryoSat-2 blocks the observation of scales less than 50-55 km wavelength. This statistical analysis is completed by individual case studies, where filtered along-track altimeter data are compared with co-located glider and high-frequency (HF) radar data. The glider comparisons work well for larger ocean structures, but observations of the smaller, rapidly moving dynamics are difficult to co-locate in space and time (gliders cover 200 km in a few days, altimetry in 30 s). HF radar surface currents at Toulon measure the meandering Northern Current, and their good temporal sampling shows promising results in comparison to co-located SARAL altimetric currents. Techniques to separate the geostrophic component from the wind-driven ageostrophic flow need further development in this coastal

  1. Coastal ocean acidification and increasing total alkalinity in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsenberg, Lydia; Alliouane, Samir; Gazeau, Frédéric; Mousseau, Laure; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Coastal time series of ocean carbonate chemistry are critical for understanding how global anthropogenic change manifests in near-shore ecosystems. Yet, they are few and have low temporal resolution. At the time series station Point B in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, seawater was sampled weekly from 2007 through 2015, at 1 and 50 m, and analyzed for total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and total alkalinity (AT). Parameters of the carbonate system such as pH (pHT, total hydrogen ion scale) were calculated and a deconvolution analysis was performed to identify drivers of change. The rate of surface ocean acidification was -0.0028 ± 0.0003 units pHT yr-1. This rate is larger than previously identified open-ocean trends due to rapid warming that occurred over the study period (0.072 ± 0.022 °C yr-1). The total pHT change over the study period was of similar magnitude as the diel pHT variability at this site. The acidification trend can be attributed to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) forcing (59 %, 2.08 ± 0.01 ppm CO2 yr-1) and warming (41 %). Similar trends were observed at 50 m but rates were generally slower. At 1 m depth, the increase in atmospheric CO2 accounted for approximately 40 % of the observed increase in CT (2.97 ± 0.20 µmol kg-1 yr-1). The remaining increase in CT may have been driven by the same unidentified process that caused an increase in AT (2.08 ± 0.19 µmol kg-1 yr-1). Based on the analysis of monthly trends, synchronous increases in CT and AT were fastest in the spring-summer transition. The driving process of the interannual increase in AT has a seasonal and shallow component, which may indicate riverine or groundwater influence. This study exemplifies the importance of understanding changes in coastal carbonate chemistry through the lens of biogeochemical cycling at the land-sea interface. This is the first coastal acidification time series providing multiyear data at high temporal resolution. The data confirm rapid warming in

  2. A New Deep-Sea Suctorian-Nematode Epibiosis (Loricophrya-Tricoma) from the Blanes Submarine Canyon (NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Román, Sara; Martin, Daniel

    2017-01-13

    During a pluri-disciplinary study carried out within the frame of the Spanish research project DOS MARES, multicore samples were collected along the Blanes submarine canyon and its adjacent open slope to study the structure and dynamics of the meiofaunal organisms, mainly nematodes. Among the 5808 nematode individuals identified, only 190 of them belonged to the genus Tricoma (Desmoscolecidae), and only two harboured epibiont suctorian ciliates. The three specimens were located near the tail of the basibionts. A careful examination of the ciliates revealed that they were suctorians, which are here described as a new species of Loricophrya, namely L. mediterranea sp. nov. The new species is characterized by having a conical, slightly elongated lorica, narrowing towards posterior end; an anterior end inward curved, surrounding the lorica opening; a body placed near the lorica opening, occupying 1/3 of the lorica length, 4-8 capitate tentacles, and a peripheral, oval to sausage-shaped macronucleus. Our findings represent the first known report of an association with a deep-sea species of Tricoma, and the first record in the Mediterranean Sea, for a species of Loricophrya. The significance of the relationships between suctorian ciliates and their host in extreme environments such as deep-sea submarine canyons is discussed.

  3. Modeling the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the copepod Centropages typicus in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during the year 2001 using a 3D ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, F.; Eisenhauer, L.; Campbell, R.; Diaz, F.

    2014-07-01

    the winte-spring food conditions are more favorable on the shelf for C. t., whereas in late summer and fall, the offshore depth-integrated food biomasses represent a larger resource for C. t., particularly when mesoscale structures and vertical discontinuities increase food patchiness. The development and reproduction of C. t. depend on the prey field within the mesoscale structures that induce a contrasting spatial distribution of successive developmental stages on a given observation date. In late fall and winter, the results of the model suggest the existence of three refuge areas where the population maintains winter generations near the coast and within the Rhone River plume, or offshore within canyons within the shelf break, or in the frontal system related to the Northern Current. The simulated spatial and temporal distributions as well as the life cycle and physiological features of C. t. are discussed in light of recent reviews on the dynamics of C. t. in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (γ-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

  5. Characterisation and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, V.; Meador, T. B.; Gogou, A.; Migon, C.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Collins, M. J.; Repeta, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM), focusing on the influence of thermal stratification and mixing. Samples were collected at the surface, 500 m and 1500 m, in April, July and October 2004 at the DYFAMED time-series site in the Northwestern Mediterranean. High molecular weight (HMW) DOM was concentrated using ultrafiltration. The HMW DOM fraction was characterised by 1H NMR, amino acid and neutral sugar analysis. Results were interpreted in the context of the wealth of information available on site DYFAMED. Three key observations were made. Firstly, the carbohydrate component of DOM decreased with depth, in agreement with previous studies, indicating degradation of this labile material. Secondly, the July surface water sample was particularly carbohydrate rich; it is proposed this may be the result of increased carbohydrate production by phytoplankton under low nutrient conditions, and accumulation in the surface layers due to stratification of the water column. Finally, the October samples showed a distinctly different chemical signature to the April and July samples, potentially indicating a shift from a net production system in the spring and summer to a net re-mineralisation system in autumn. The results of this study offer an insight into the dynamic nature of DOM at station DYFAMED. Peptidoglycan nitrogen (PG-N) = 5.7 × D-alanine-N (Rogers, 1983) Amino acid nitrogen (AA-N) = 12 × alanine-N (Cowie and Hedges, 1992a) Percent peptidoglycan contribution to amino acid nitrogen (PG-N%) = AA-N/PG-N × 100 m (McCarthy et al., 1998)

  6. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Key Exploited Marine Species in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Morfin, Marie; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Jadaud, Angélique; Bez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the temporal variability/stability of the spatial distributions of key exploited species in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea). To do so, we analyzed data from the MEDITS bottom-trawl scientific surveys from 1994 to 2010 at 66 fixed stations and selected 12 key exploited species. We proposed a geostatistical approach to handle zero-inflated and non-stationary distributions and to test for the temporal stability of the spatial structures. Empirical Orthogonal Functions and other descriptors were then applied to investigate the temporal persistence and the characteristics of the spatial patterns. The spatial structure of the distribution (i.e. the pattern of spatial autocorrelation) of the 12 key species studied remained highly stable over the time period sampled. The spatial distributions of all species obtained through kriging also appeared to be stable over time, while each species displayed a specific spatial distribution. Furthermore, adults were generally more densely concentrated than juveniles and occupied areas included in the distribution of juveniles. Despite the strong persistence of spatial distributions, we also observed that the area occupied by each species was correlated to its abundance: the more abundant the species, the larger the occupation area. Such a result tends to support MacCall's basin theory, according to which density-dependence responses would drive the expansion of those 12 key species in the Gulf of Lions. Further analyses showed that these species never saturated their habitats, suggesting that they are below their carrying capacity; an assumption in agreement with the overexploitation of several of these species. Finally, the stability of their spatial distributions over time and their potential ability to diffuse outside their main habitats give support to Marine Protected Areas as a potential pertinent management tool. PMID:22655079

  7. Modelling the habitat suitability of cetaceans: Example of the sperm whale in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praca, Emilie; Gannier, Alexandre; Das, Krishna; Laran, Sophie

    2009-04-01

    Cetaceans are mobile and spend long periods underwater. Because of this, modelling their habitat could be subject to a serious problem of false absence. Furthermore, extensive surveys at sea are time and money consuming, and presence-absence data are difficult to apply. This study compares the ability of two presence-absence and two presence-only habitat modelling methods and uses the example of the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus) in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The data consist of summer visual and acoustical detections of sperm whales, compiled between 1998 and 2005. Habitat maps were computed using topographical and hydrological eco-geographical variables. Four methods were compared: principal component analysis (PCA), ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA), generalized linear model (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). The evaluation of the models was achieved by calculating the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of the models and their respective area under the curve (AUC). Presence-absence methods (GLM, AUC=0.70, and MARS, AUC=0.79) presented better AUC than presence-only methods (PCA, AUC=0.58, and ENFA, AUC=0.66), but this difference was not statistically significant, except between the MARS and the PCA models. The four models showed an influence of both topographical and hydrological factors, but the resulting habitat suitability maps differed. The core habitat on the continental slope was well highlighted by the four models, while GLM and MARS maps also showed a suitable habitat in the offshore waters. Presence-absence methods are therefore recommended for modelling the habitat suitability of cetaceans, as they seem more accurate to highlight complex habitat. However, the use of presence-only techniques, in particular ENFA, could be very useful for a first model of the habitat range or when important surveys at sea are not possible.

  8. Exploring the connection between 210Po and organic matter in the northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Gillian; Kirk Cochran, J.; Xue, Jianhong; Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Armstrong, Robert A.; Masqué, Pere; Carlos Miquel, Juan

    2007-03-01

    The disequilibrium between 210Po and its grandparent 210Pb has been proposed as a tracer of the vertical flux of sinking particulate organic matter in the ocean. The mechanism of association between 210Po and organic matter is, however, still unclear. To investigate this association we measured trace metals, minerals, organic carbon, nitrogen, and the natural radioisotopes 234Th, 228Th, 210Po, and 210Pb in sinking particles collected in sediment traps at 200 m in the northwestern Mediterranean. Pigments, fatty acids, and amino acids were used to identify the types and sources of particulate organic matter. Multivariate analyses were used to determine which components of sinking particulate matter are traced by 210Po and/or by the 210Po/ 210Pb ratio. Statistical analysis of the results indicates that the distribution of polonium in sinking marine particles is influenced by fresh phytoplankton-derived, nitrogen-rich organic matter as well as sulfur-containing amino acids. These findings are consistent with previous laboratory observations that the distribution of 210Po in biota parallels the distributions of both sulfur and protein, and indicate that these associations persist as material sinks through the water column. While this research generally supports the use of 210Po as a specific tracer of the flux of organic matter, the signals traced by 210Po/ 210Pb and 234Th/ 238U are not as distinct in the field as in laboratory experiments. Further work is needed to determine more precisely what 210Po/ 210Pb traces in order to increase the correspondence of 210Po/ 210Pb measurements to biogeochemically important rates and quantities.

  9. Scales and dynamics of Submesoscale Coherent Vortices formed by deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Houpert, Loïc.; Damien, Pierre; Prieur, Louis; Hayes, Daniel; Taillandier, Vincent; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Coppola, Laurent; Karstensen, Johannes; Mortier, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Since 2010, an intense effort in the collection of in situ observations has been carried out in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea thanks to gliders, profiling floats, regular cruises, and mooring lines. This integrated observing system enabled a year-to-year monitoring of the deep waters formation that occurred in the Gulf of Lions area during four consecutive winters (2010-2013). Vortical structures remnant of wintertime deep vertical mixing events were regularly sampled by the different observing platforms. These are Submesoscale Coherent Vortices (SCVs) characterized by a small radius (˜5-8 km), strong depth-intensified orbital velocities (˜10-20 cm s-1) with often a weak surface signature, high Rossby (˜0.5) and Burger numbers O(0.5-1). Anticyclones transport convected waters resulting from intermediate (˜300 m) to deep (˜2000 m) vertical mixing. Cyclones are characterized by a 500-1000 m thick layer of weakly stratified deep waters (or bottom waters that cascaded from the shelf of the Gulf of Lions in 2012) extending down to the bottom of the ocean at ˜2500 m. The formation of cyclonic eddies seems to be favored by bottom-reaching convection occurring during the study period or cascading events reaching the abyssal plain. We confirm the prominent role of anticyclonic SCVs and shed light on the important role of cyclonic SCVs in the spreading of a significant amount (˜30%) of the newly formed deep waters away from the winter mixing areas. Since they can survive until the following winter, they can potentially have a great impact on the mixed layer deepening through a local preconditioning effect.

  10. Recent turbidity current activity in sediment-starved submarine canyons (Northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normandeau, Alexandre; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Bourgault, Daniel; Neumeier, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are known to be main conduits for the transport of sediments to deep-sea basins, mostly by turbidity currents. Turbidity currents flowing in submarine canyons are mostly triggered by hyperpycnal flows, small to large slope failures and advection of shelf sediment offshore. In these contexts, sediment supply is necessary to maintain canyon activity over time. In 2007, a high-resolution mapping of small-scale submarine canyons offshore Pointe-des-Monts (NW Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada) revealed a series of incisions characterized by the presence of numerous confined crescentic bedforms. The repeat mapping of the canyons in 2012 and 2015 revealed that the bedforms migrated upslope, indicating that they are cyclic steps produced by supercritical flows. Surprisingly, the comparison of multibeam surveys did not show any evidence of slope failures that could have triggered the turbidity currents responsible for recent bedform migration. Additionally, the rocky shores and coastal shelf do not supply sediments to these canyons, thus excluding turbidity current triggers such as advection of shelf sediments or hyperpycnal flows. In this context, we suggest that hydrodynamic processes are responsible for suspending in-situ sediments, which then may flow as turbidity currents when density of the water-sediment mixture is high enough. ADCPs deployed for 3,5 months during the summer of 2015 revealed along-canyon currents following tidal cycles with speeds up to 0.4 m/s, which were not strong enough to produce bedform migration. Therefore, the currents responsible for bedforms occur during infrequent events or during winter conditions, which both require longer instrument time-series to be observed.

  11. Influences of bioavailability, trophic position, and growth on methylmercury in hakes (Merluccius merluccius) from Northwestern Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Cossa, D; Harmelin-Vivien, M; Mellon-Duval, C; Loizeau, V; Averty, B; Crochet, S; Chou, L; Cadiou, J-F

    2012-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) determinations in hake, its food-chain, and the surrounding waters and sediments allowed us to show that the higher length or age normalized mercury concentrations of Northwestern Mediterranean (Gulf of Lions: GoL) muscle hakes compared to its Northeastern Atlantic (Bay of Biscay: BoB) counterpart are due to both biotic and abiotic differences between their ecosystems. Bioenergetic modeling reveals that the slower growth rate of Mediterranean hake favors the MeHg bioaccumulation in the fish muscle and explains most of the difference between GOL and BoB hake populations. In addition, the waters of the Mediterranean hake habitat favor a higher MeHg exposition, due to the upper position of the thermohalocline, where MeHg is formed. Furthermore, we show that, within the Mediterranean hake population, a major increase in the biomagnification power (the slope of the relationships between logMeHg and δ(15)N), from 0.36 up to 1.12, occurs when individuals enter adulthood, resulting from the combined effects of lowering growth rate and change in feeding habits. Finally, δ(15)N normalized Hg concentrations indicate that the highest Hg concentrations are for hake from the shelf edge and the lowest are for hake from the Rhône prodelta area, suggesting a lower Hg bioavailability in inshore environments, consistent with MeHg distributions in water, sediment, and preys. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Submarine canyon-head morphologies and inferred sediment transport processes in the Almanzora-Alías-Garrucha canyon system (SW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, R.; Puig, P.; Muñoz, A.; Elvira, E.; Guillén, J.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. Different transport processes and triggering mechanisms involving various time-scales can operate through them. Canyon heads are key areas for understanding the shelf-to-canyon sedimentary dynamics and assessing the predominant hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes shaping their morphology. High-resolution multibeam bathymetries were conducted at the various heads from the Almanzora-Alías-Garrucha canyon system to recognize their specific morphological features. A direct connection from the Almanzora River was evidenced by the coalescence of cyclic steps on the prodelta deposits and their continuation towards various canyon heads. This suggests the occurrence of flood events causing hyperpycnal flows that progress directly into the canyon. A second type of canyon head results from the formation and merging of linear gullies at the southern limit of the prodelta, being interpreted as the morphological expression of the distal off-shelf transport of flood-related hyperycnal flows potentially transformed into wave-supported sediment gravity flows. These two canyon head occur at 80-90 m water depth, incising only the outer shelf. A third canyon head morphological type was found at much shallower water depths (10-20 m), being disconnected from any major river source. They cut into the infralittoral prograding wedge and some tributaries show crescent shaped bedforms (CSB) along their axis. These CSB have been observed until a water depth of 90 m and have been interpreted as the result of storm-induced sediment gravity flows. An instrumented mooring was deployed from October 2014 to April 2015 to monitor the contemporary sediment transport processes through a canyon axis with CSB. The sedimentary dynamics was governed by storms, with several down-canyon transport events, but none of the storms triggered a sediment gravity flow.

  13. Sequence stratigraphy of Late Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments of northwestern Green Canyon Area/western Ewing Bank, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.E.; Weimer, P.

    1994-09-01

    Northwestern Green Canyon and Western Ewing Bank lease areas are characterized by complex faulting and salt deformation affecting the late Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments. The sequence stratigraphy has been studied using 1300 km of multifold seismic data, and 40 wells with biostratigraphy data (12 with high-resolution analysis). Fossil abundance and diversity curves were used to recognize condensed sections. Eight depositional sequences have been recognized (2.4, 1.9, 1.4, 0.8, 0.7, 0.5, and 0.4 Ma). Maximum thickness of these sediments is 6 km. Paleobathymetry indicates that sequences were deposited primarily in bathyal water depths. Most of the sediments are in the lowstand systems tracts and consist of basin-floor fans, slope fans, and prograding complexes. Thick blocky sand packages (basin-floor fan) are present in two major sequences (1.4 and 1.1 Ma) and represent potential reservoirs in the area. Transgressive and highstand systems tracts are fairly thin across the area and are thicker only in the younger sequences (< 0.5 Ma). The syndepositional structures play an important role in controlling the geometry and distribution of the depositional units, as well as creating structural highs for petroleum entrapment. Existing discoveries in the area include Green Canyon Blocks 6, 52, 184, and 228, and are associated primarily with amplitude anomalies on the flanks of salt structures and/or faults.

  14. Modelled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Gaël; Garreau, Pierre; Garnier, Valérie; Fraunié, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    A chain of three nested models, based on the MARS 3D code, is used to simulate the North-western Mediterranean Sea circulation with a finest grid of 1.2 km resolution and 30 vertical sigma levels. This modelling system allows to resolve the coastal dynamics taking into account the influence of the general basin circulation. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of the nested MARS-3D models to reproduce most of the circulation features observed in the North-western Mediterranean Basin and in the Gulf of Lions. Comparisons of modelled sea surface temperature and salinity with MEDAR/MEDATLAS climatology and NOAA/AVHRR satellite measurements show that the model accurately reproduces the large and coastal scale variability. Over the Northern Basin, the seasonal changes of the cyclonic gyre extension are correctly simulated, even though in summer, the modelled temperature of the surface layer remains in basin-average 1°C cooler than the satellite measured temperature. As soon as the stratification erodes, modelled and observed temperatures become closer. Over the Gulf of Lions, realistic coastal responses are obtained under different wind conditions. Upwellings are correctly located and their intensity and spatial extension were here improved by the use of Aladin wind fields (10 km spatial resolution) and the introduction of a drag coefficient fitted according to the stability of the planetary boundary layer. The dispersion of fresh Rhone water discharge and the mesoscale circulation simulated by MARS-3D also agree with satellite measurements.

  15. Production of carbonate particles by phytobenthic communities on the Mallorca-Menorca shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canals, M.; Ballesteros, E.

    In this paper the carbonate content and production, both at the species level and at the community level, is quantified in four areas of the Mallorca-Menorca shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Eight benthic communities are identified, each living at specific depth ranges and preferentially colonising either rocky or sedimented soft bottoms: (1) Photophilic algae, (2) Hemisciaphilic algae, (3) Coralligenous algal-dominated, (4) Coralligenous animal-dominated, (5) Caulerpa-Cymodocea meadows, (6) Posidonia oceanica meadows, (7) maërl and free-Peyssonelia beds, and (8) sandy bottom communities. Encrusting and maërl species of Corallinales and of the red algal genus Peyssonnelia and, to a lesser extent, the green alga Halimeda tuna, are the main carbonate producers. Most of the modern algal carbonate production in the Mallorca-Menorca shelf occurs at depths of less than 85-90 m, which is the lower limit of the coralligenous and maërl communities. Algal carbonate production in rocky areas is usually higher than that of soft bottoms, with the exception of the maërl beds in moderately deep waters (40-85 m). The highest algal carbonate production is found in coralligenous algal-dominated rocky bottoms (464.6 g m-2 year-1), photophilic algal communities (289.4 g m-2 year-1) and maërl beds (210 g m-2 year-1), while the lowest is displayed by seagrass meadows (60 to 70 g m-2 year-1) and sandy bottoms (0.5 g m-2 year-1). Nevertheless, the contribution of seagrass beds to benthic carbonate production in the Mallorca-Menorca shelf is outstanding due to the extent of the area occupied by these beds. The mean algal carbonate production rate over the upper 100 m water depth in the studied localities ranges from 90.60 to 123.89 g m-2 year-1, which correspond to the mostly sedimented Campos area and to the very rocky South Cabrera area, respectively. Overall mean carbonate production of the Mallorca-Menorca shelf is around 100 g CO3Ca m-2 year-1. These results may be viewed

  16. Variations of nitrogen nutrient concentrations in the sediment pore waters of the northwestern Mediterranean continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernex, François; Baratie, Raymond; Span, Daniel; Vandelei Fernandes, Lazaro

    1989-09-01

    This contribution presents information on nitrogen nutrients dissolved in the sediment pore waters of the oligotrophic northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The areas studied are situated in various geographical environments, adjacent to or offshore from a river mouth and on wide or narrow parts of the continental shelf. Near the pro-delta of the Rhoˆne River, which carries about 5 × 10 6 t y -1 of solid matter, measurements indicate that the rate of nitrogen nutrient production (ammonification) reaches frequently (or even exceeds) 2 × 10 6 μmol cm -3 s -1. The production rate near the mouth of the Siagne River, a mountain stream, is generally lower, at 10 -7 μmol -3 s -1; exceptionally, it reaches 10 6 to 1.5 × 10 -6 μmol cm -3 s -1. Adjacent to any river mouth, the concentrations of inorganic nitrogen species dissolved in the surficial sediments vary with time. A similar pattern occurs at locations far from a river mouth. High levels of organic matter in the sediments in the latter areas is related to planktonic blooms, which occur mainly in spring. There is more temporal variation in concentrations in sediments just below the sediment-seawater boundary, than in the deeper deposits. Ammonia concentrations increase regularly, with depth, within the sediment. In contrast, the nitrate profiles are frequently irregular and show a concentration maximum at 1 or 2 cm below the interface; then, below a minimum value at 5-8 cm, then a second maximum at 10-15 cm. According to incubation experiments, the production of nitrate occurs at 15-20 cm, where oxygen is still present at concentrations higher than 1-1.5 mg l -1. The low nitrate concentrations at about 6-8 cm appear to result from relatively high denitrifying activity at this level within the sediments. Concentrations of the nitrogen nutrients are generally higher in the surficial sediment pore waters, than in the overlying seawater. There is a flux of these species from the sediment to the seawater. In continental

  17. Development of submarine canyons after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition on the Ebro margin, NW Mediterranean: The role of fluvial connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauffrey, Marie-Aline; Urgeles, Roger; Berné, Serge; Canning, Jason

    2017-02-01

    After the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), the Ebro Margin, like other Mediterranean deltaic margins, rebuilt through progradation and increasingly significant aggradation. The Plio-Quaternary transition from a ramp-like system to a ;new; margin with large clinoforms is an opportunity to understand the processes that govern canyon initiation and evolution. We used a 3D seismic data set located at the outer shelf - upper slope of the Ebro margin. We tied major bounding surfaces to chrono-stratigraphic constraints from borehole data or, for the most recent interval, from averaged accumulation rates derived from borehole stratigraphy. The major shelfal erosion surfaces are interpreted as sequence boundaries, tied to major glacial maxima. Along these surfaces, seismic attributes characterize the fluvial/canyon connection, viewed as one of the key factors in canyon development. The first appearance of ;proto-canyons; (dense networks of channels and gullies 50-100 m deep and 1-2 km wide) occurs in the late Zanclean. Their size increased progressively throughout the Pliocene and early Quaternary, in relation to the increase in clinoform heights. ;True canyons; (with distinct interfluves, more than 200 m deep and 3-4 km wide) appeared during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, 1250-700 ka BP). The first evidence of direct connection between canyon heads and fluvial systems is observed during Marine Isotope Stage 22, one of the most pronounced glacial stages of the Quaternary. Similar connections also existed, at least, during MIS 16 and MIS 12, which are also stages of pronounced low sea level. The topography of fluvial channels in the outer shelf is not imaged in detail in the picked horizons at the resolution of our seismic data, but sinuous fluvial systems are very well imaged through amplitude and coherency attributes. Direct connection of fluvial systems during and after MIS 22 also favored headward erosion and the formation of shelf-indenting canyons, probably

  18. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part I: The North-Western Mediterranean, including the Pelagos sanctuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laran, Sophie; Pettex, Emeline; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; David, Léa; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary, the largest Marine Protected Area (MPA) designed for marine mammals in the Mediterranean. A total of 8 distinct species of cetaceans were identified, and their occurrence within the sanctuary was investigated. Abundance estimates were obtained for three groups of species: the small delphinids (striped dolphins mainly), the bottlenose dolphin and the fin whale. There was a seasonal variation in striped dolphin abundance between winter (57,300 individuals, 95% CI: 34,500-102,000) and summer (130,000, 95% CI: 76,800-222,100). In contrast, bottlenose dolphin winter abundance was thrice that of summer. It was also the only species to exhibit any preference for the Pelagos sanctuary. Fin whale abundance had the reverse pattern with winter abundance (1000 individuals, 95% CI: 500-2500) and summer (2500 individuals, 95% CI: 1500-4300), without any preference for the sanctuary. Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales did not exhibit strong seasonal pattern in their abundance. These results provide baseline estimates which can be used to inform conservation policies and instruments such as the Habitats Directive or the recent European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  19. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrocq, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash-floods, landslides and mudslides each year that cost several billions of dollars in damage and causing too often casualties. Within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX program dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean (http://www.hymex.org), a major field campaign has been dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-floods from September to November 2012. The 2-month field campaign took place over the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and its surrounding coastal regions in France, Italy and Spain. The observation strategy aimed at documenting four key components leading to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in that region: (i) the marine atmospheric flow that transport moist and conditionaly unstable air towards the coasts; (ii) the Mediterranean Sea as a moisture and energy source; (iii) the dynamics and microphysics of the convective systems; (iv) the hydrological processes during flash-floods. During the field campaign about twenty precipitation events were monitored, including mesoscale convective systems, Mediterranean cyclogenesis, shallow-convection orographic precipitation. Three aircraft performed about 250 flight hours for a survey of the upstream flow, the air-sea fluxes and the convective systems. About 700 additional radiosoundings were launched either from HyMeX sites or from operational RS sites in Europe, as well as about 20 boundary layer balloons were launched to monitor the low-level flow over the Mediterranean Sea and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Gliders, Argo floats, drifting buoys and ocean soundings from vessels monitored the Mediterranean Sea during the field campaign. Atmospheric and hydrological instruments such as radars, LIDARS, radiometers, wind profilers, lightning sensors, were deployed over 5 regions in France, Italy and Spain. The presentation will present the general

  20. Remote sensing /Nimbus-7 CZCS/ analysis of phytoplankton distribution in coastal waters of the Gulf of Lions /northwestern Mediterranean/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraux, D.; Austin, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton in the northwestern Mediterranean was studied using the experimental satellite Nimbus 7, which is equipped with a coastal zone color scanner (CZCS). The most characteristic boundaries of this biomass and its variations throughout the year of 1979 were also investigated by treating the CZCS data, collected through different channels with defined wavelengths, with a computer. Using specially adapted algorithms, characteristic features such as mesoscale cyclonic eddy, out-flow of freshwater from the Rhone river, and coastal upwelling were revealed. It is confirmed that the biomass of phytoplankton is a good indicator for the mesoscale distribution of water masses, and that the remote sensing in the visible spectrum can permit the study of frontal boundaries in the sea.

  1. Remote sensing /Nimbus-7 CZCS/ analysis of phytoplankton distribution in coastal waters of the Gulf of Lions /northwestern Mediterranean/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraux, D.; Austin, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton in the northwestern Mediterranean was studied using the experimental satellite Nimbus 7, which is equipped with a coastal zone color scanner (CZCS). The most characteristic boundaries of this biomass and its variations throughout the year of 1979 were also investigated by treating the CZCS data, collected through different channels with defined wavelengths, with a computer. Using specially adapted algorithms, characteristic features such as mesoscale cyclonic eddy, out-flow of freshwater from the Rhone river, and coastal upwelling were revealed. It is confirmed that the biomass of phytoplankton is a good indicator for the mesoscale distribution of water masses, and that the remote sensing in the visible spectrum can permit the study of frontal boundaries in the sea.

  2. Trophic relationships at intrannual spatial and temporal scales of macro and megafauna around a submarine canyon off the Catalonian coast (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Fanelli, Emanuela; Papiol, Vanesa; Maynou, Francesc

    2010-04-01

    The spatial and temporal changes of near-bottom macrofauna (suprabenthos and macroplankton) and the trophic relationships of megabenthic decapod crustaceans were analyzed off the Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean) around Berenguera submarine canyon in four periods (April and December 1991, March and July 1992) and four zones (within Berenguera Canyon at ca. 450 m, and on adjacent slope at ca. 400, 600 m and 1200 m). In March 1992, we found the highest macrofauna abundance and the smallest sizes in the canyon, suggesting a positive effect of river discharges on suprabenthos recruitment. By contrast, macroplankton (decapods, fishes and euphausiids) did not show higher recruitment into canyons. After analyzing the diet of 23 decapod crustaceans, we found a significant segregation between guilds feeding on zooplankton and on benthos. Zooplankton (euphausiids and Pasiphaeidae) and infauna (polychaetes, Calocaris macandreae and ophiuoroids) were consistently the main prey exploited by decapod crustaceans around Berenguera Canyon. We also found some macrophyte ( Posidonia oceanica) consumption, which was higher in periods of water column homogeneity (winter-spring and late autumn). Positive correlations between decapods' gut fullness ( F) and decapod abundance indicate feeding aggregations, while positive correlations were also found between F and Llobregat River (situated ca. 18 km from Berenguera head) flow 1 to 2 months before sampling. Increases in F were delayed only 1 month when zooplankton feeders were analyzed alone, while benthos feeders did not show significant relationships with any environmental variables. That indicates that the response of megabenthic decapods feeding on benthos to environmental shifts is slower than that of zooplankton feeders. The importance of river flows in enhancing food supply of macro- and megabenthos dwelling close to submarine canyons was apparent, with a delay in the fauna response of 0-2 months after river flow peaks.

  3. High resolution modelling of dense water formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean: benefits from an improved initial stratification in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estournel, Claude; Testor, Pierre; Damien, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Marsaleix, Patrick; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Ulses, Caroline; Kessouri, Faycal; Raimbault, Patrick; Coppola, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The period that extends from summer 2012 to summer 2013 was the subject of several field campaigns in the northwestern Mediterranean that allowed to characterize the stratification on a seasonal scale in this region of deep water formation. This period is therefore ideal for testing hydrodynamic models and assessing the accuracy required on initial conditions and meteorological forcing. A 1 km resolution simulation of the vertical stratification evolution of the northwestern Mediterranean between summer 2012 and spring 2013 was conducted. The representation of winter convection was shown to be highly dependent on initial conditions in summer. A method was developed to correct the initial state of the model using the observations of the annual summer cruise of the MOOSE monitoring program and data from ARGO profilers. In addition, an adjustment of the wind helped to better approach winter observations, the criterion being the profile of residual buoyancy, simple index of the potential of the water column to convect more or less deeply and rapidly. The simulation obtained after correction of the initial conditions and wind forcing allowed to accurately represent the characteristics of the water masses formed during the convective period, the area concerned by convection and its timing. We will first present the methodology used to correct the initial state of the simulation, and then the validation of the simulation based on the observations from the DEWEX cruise (MERMEX program) and from profilers deployed in the frame of the HyMeX program. Then the volume of dense water formed and its characteristics will be quantified as well as their sensitivity to initial conditions.

  4. Long-term variability and environmental preferences of calycophoran siphonophores in the Bay of Villefranche (north-western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, P.; Souissi, S.; Ibanez, F.; Carré, C.

    2012-05-01

    Long-term variability of the main calycophoran siphonophores was investigated between 1974 and 1999 in a coastal station in the north-western Mediterranean. The data were collected at weekly frequency using a macroplankton net (680 μm mesh size) adapted to quantitatively sample delicate gelatinous plankton. A 3-year collection (1967-1969) of siphonophores from offshore waters using the same methodology showed that the patterns of variability observed inshore were representative of siphonophores’ changes at a regional scale. The aims of the study were: (i) to investigate the patterns of variability that characterised the dominant calycophoran species and assemblages; (ii) to identify the environmental optima that were associated with a significant increase in the dominant siphonophore species and (iii) to verify the influence of hydroclimatic variability on long-term changes of siphonophores. Our results showed that during nearly 3 decades the standing stock of calycophoran siphonophores did not show any significant change, with the annual maximum usually recorded in spring as a result of high densities of the dominant species Lensia subtilis, Muggiaea kochi and Muggiaea atlantica. Nevertheless, major changes in community composition occurred within the calycophoran population. Since the middle 1980s, M. kochi, once the most dominant species, started to decrease allowing other species, the congeneric M. atlantica and Chelophyes appendiculata, to increasingly dominate in spring and summer-autumn, respectively. The comparison of environmental and biotic long-term trends suggests that the decrease of M. kochi was triggered by hydrological changes that occurred in the north-western Mediterranean under the forcing of large-scale climate oscillations. Salinity, water stratification and water temperature were the main hydroclimatic factors associated with a significant increase of siphonophores, different species showing different environmental preferences.

  5. How does ocean seasonality drive habitat preferences of highly mobile top predators? Part I: The north-western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, C.; Laran, S.; David, L.; Dorémus, G.; Pettex, E.; Van Canneyt, O.; Ridoux, V.

    2017-07-01

    Contrasting to the overall oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea, the north-western basin is characterised by high productivity and marked by seasonality, which induces spatiotemporal heterogeneity of habitat. Cetaceans and seabirds are expected to perceive this repetition of the seasonal cycle and to anticipate the recurrent variability of their environment. Because phenology imposes strong constraints over marine predators, especially through reproduction, we expected them to exhibit variations in their habitat preferences over seasons. Indeed, during reproductive period, marine predators have to face their own needs and those of their young, while out of this period, they can focus on maximising their own survival only. We therefore hypothesised that some species would change their habitat preferences to exploit the most favourable habitat during each season, while other species might accommodate the same habitat all year-round, for example thanks to the use of an habitat favourable all the year. To explore these hypotheses, we used aerial surveys data conducted over north-western Mediterranean Sea during winter 2011-2012 and summer 2012. Generalised Additive Models were used to link the species density to a set of 12 physiographic and oceanographic predictors describing their environment. Habitat models resulted in deviances from 12 to 47%. Our results provided the first assessment of habitat preferences for the winter season for most of our studied species. Small-sized delphinids (mostly stripped dolphins), fin whales, Globicephalinae (long-finned pilot whales and Risso's dolphins) and small-sized shearwaters (Yelkouan and Balearic shearwaters) exhibited no habitat variations between seasons, although for the first two, abundances were lower in winter. On the contrary, bottlenose dolphins switched from coastal habitat in summer to pelagic habitat in winter, while Cory's shearwaters and storm petrels exhibited the largest habitat variations between seasons with a

  6. Microclimatic Divergence in a Mediterranean Canyon Affects Richness, Composition, and Body Size in Saproxylic Beetle Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Buse, Jörn; Fassbender, Samuel; Entling, Martin H; Pavlicek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Large valleys with opposing slopes may act as a model system with which the effects of strong climatic gradients on biodiversity can be evaluated. The advantage of such comparisons is that the impact of a change of climate can be studied on the same species pool without the need to consider regional differences. The aim of this study was to compare the assemblage of saproxylic beetles on such opposing slopes at Lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel (also known as "Evolution Canyon") with a 200-800% higher solar radiation on the south-facing (SFS) compared to the north-facing slope (NFS). We tested specific hypotheses of species richness patterns, assemblage structure, and body size resulting from interslope differences in microclimate. Fifteen flight-interception traps per slope were distributed over three elevation levels ranging from 50 to 100 m a.s.l. Richness of saproxylic beetles was on average 34% higher on the SFS compared with the NFS, with no detected influence of elevation levels. Both assemblage structure and average body size were determined by slope aspect, with more small-bodied beetles found on the SFS. Both the increase in species richness and the higher prevalence of small species on the SFS reflect ecological rules present on larger spatial grain (species-energy hypothesis and community body size shift hypothesis), and both can be explained by the metabolic theory of ecology. This is encouraging for the complementary use of micro- and macroclimatic gradients to study impacts of climate warming on biodiversity.

  7. Muscular and hepatic pollution biomarkers in the fishes Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus in the Blanes Submarine Canyon (NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Solé, Montserrat; Hambach, Bastian; Cortijo, Verónica; Huertas, David; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B

    2009-07-01

    Submarine canyons are regarded as a sink for pollutants. In order to determine if this theory applied to deep-sea species from an important fishing ground (the Blanes submarine canyon) located in the NW Mediterranean, we sampled the commercial fish Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus. Specimens were sampled inside and outside (in the open continental slope) the submarine canyon; both are regarded as potentially affected by exposure to different anthropogenic chemicals. Several pollution biomarkers in muscle (activity of cholinesterases) and liver/hepatopancreas (catalase, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase in fish or mixed function oxygenase (MFO)-related reductases in crustacean, and lipid peroxidation levels) were measured. Chemical analysis of the persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was also performed on the fish and crustacean muscle. Biomarker activities and levels were discussed in relation to pollutant exposure, habitat, and parameters including sex, size, and species. Biochemical responses and chemical analysis of PCBs evidenced interspecies differences as well as sex and size-related ones, mainly in A. antennatus. An indication of higher exposure to pollutants inside the canyon was observed, which was more clearly reflected in the fish than in the crustacean. However, further research is required to confirm this observation.

  8. Anthropogenic versus mineral aerosols in the stimulation of microbial planktonic communities in coastal waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Marín, I; Nunes, S; Sánchez-Pérez, E D; Aparicio, F L; Estrada, M; Marrasé, C; Moreno, T; Wagener, T; Querol, X; Peters, F

    2017-01-01

    The atmosphere of the northwestern (NW) Mediterranean Sea is affected by continuous inputs of anthropogenic aerosols and episodic Saharan dust events. These atmospheric inputs deliver to the surface waters high amounts of macronutrients and trace metals that can constitute their main source at certain times of the year. The effect of both anthropogenic and crustal particles over the autotrophic and heterotrophic planktonic community assembles was evaluated through three microcosm experiments carried out in the summer of 2013 and in the winter and spring of 2014 at an urban coastal location of the NW Mediterranean (Barcelona, Spain). Particles were added to seawater at a concentration of 0.8mgl(-1). The results showed that (i) a greater stimulation of the whole community was observed in summer and spring than in winter; (ii) both kinds of aerosols produced an increase in the growth of phytoplankton, although the stimulation of nanoeukaryotes was significantly larger with anthropogenic aerosols; and (iii) bacterial abundance increased more with mineral dust, whereas bacterial production was more stimulated with anthropogenic inputs. Overall, the effect of atmospheric particles was dependent on their composition and solubility in seawater, as well as on the initial biogeochemical conditions present in the seawater and had the potential to change the net metabolic balance of the microbial planktonic community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiversity of suprabenthic peracarid assemblages from the Blanes Canyon region (NW Mediterranean Sea) in relation to natural disturbance and trawling pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Mariana; Frutos, Inmaculada; Company, Joan B.; Martin, Daniel; Romano, Chiara; Cunha, Marina R.

    2017-03-01

    Blanes Canyon and its adjacent margin are important fishery areas (mainly by bottom trawling) located in a highly energetic oceanographic setting in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Here we assess the spatial and temporal variability in abundance, diversity and community structure of the suprabenthic peracarid assemblages in this region and examine this variability in relation to the natural and anthropogenic (trawling fisheries) disturbance regimes. The sampling was conducted between March 2003 and May 2004 in three main fishing grounds, the canyon head (average depth: 490 m), the canyon wall (average depth: 550 m) and the eastern adjacent slope (average depth: 820 m), as well as in two non-exploited areas in the western (at 900 m depth) and eastern (at 1500 m depth) slope near the canyon mouth. A total of 138 species were identified, with amphipods being the most speciose and abundant group, followed by mysids in terms of abundance. Our results show high spatial and temporal variability in suprabenthic assemblages. Densities were higher in the canyon head and western slope, which appear to be the preferential routes for water masses and particle fluxes in months of flood events, and other energetic processes. In the canyon head, where periodic erosion processes are more active, low diversity, high dominance and higher turnover (β-diversity) were observed, apparently coupled with significant temporal fluctuations in the densities of the highly motile component of suprabenthos (mysids, predatory and scavenging amphipods). In the sedimentary more stable eastern slope, high diversity values were observed, accompanied by a higher relative contribution of the less motile groups (i.e. amphipods, most isopods, cumaceans). These groups have a closer interaction with the sediment where they exploit different food sources and are more susceptible to physical disturbance. Temporal variability in their diversity may be related to changes in food quality rather than quantity. In the

  10. Ecosystem structure and fishing impacts in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea using a food web model within a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Xavier; Coll, Marta; Tecchio, Samuele; Bellido, José María; Fernández, Ángel Mario; Palomera, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    We developed an ecological model to characterize the structure and functioning of the marine continental shelf and slope area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, from Toulon to Cape La Nao (NWM model), in the early 2000s. The model included previously modeled areas in the NW Mediterranean (the Gulf of Lions and the Southern Catalan Sea) and expanded their ranges, covering 45,547 km2, with depths from 0 to 1000 m. The study area was chosen to specifically account for the connectivity between the areas and shared fish stocks and fleets. Input data were based on local scientific surveys and fishing statistics, published data on stomach content analyses, and the application of empirical equations to estimate consumption and production rates. The model was composed of 54 functional groups, from primary producers to top predators, and Spanish and French fishing fleets were considered. Results were analyzed using ecological indicators and compared with outputs from ecosystem models developed in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Cadiz prior to this study. Results showed that the main trophic flows were associated with detritus, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates. Several high trophic level organisms (such as dolphins, benthopelagic cephalopods, large demersal fishes from the continental shelf, and other large pelagic fishes), and the herbivorous salema fish, were identified as keystone groups within the ecosystem. Results confirmed that fishing impact was high and widespread throughout the food web. The comparative approach highlighted that, despite productivity differences, the ecosystems shared common features in structure and functioning traits such as the important role of detritus, the dominance of the pelagic fraction in terms of flows and the importance of benthic-pelagic coupling.

  11. Dynamics of the bathyal Benthic Boundary Layer in the northwestern Mediterranean: depth and temporal variations in macrofaunal megafaunal communities and their possible connections within deep-sea trophic webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution patterns of benthopelagic fauna and the macrofauna-megafauna trophic relationships in the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL) were studied. The study is based on data collected during 6 sampling cruises off the Catalan coast (western Mediterranean) during 1991-1995 at depths ranging from 389-1355 m. Crustaceans were the dominant benthopelagic macrofauna in the BBL level closest to the sea bed (~0-1.5 m above bottom) on the Catalan Sea slope. Copepods and peracarid crustaceans (mysids, amphipods, isopods, and cumaceans) were dominant, whereas euphausiids and natantian decapods, some taxa of gelatinous plankton (siphonophores, medusae, and chaetognaths), and benthopelagic fishes were also well represented groups. Seasonal changes in megafaunal decapod crustaceans abundance seem to be linked to changes in the density and the biological cycle of BBL macrofauna, which constitute an important part of the available food exploited by megafauna. Both the advective and the vertical flow of organic matter in the north-western Mediterranean should simultaneously influence peaks of available food (BBL macrofauna) for bathyal-megafaunal decapods. Recruitment of macrofaunal (suprabenthos and infauna) species at the level of canyons and neighbouring slope zones mainly occurred between late autumn-late winter and would probably be mainly induced by an advective component. However, the macrofaunal sizes consumed by megafaunal decapods are found more abundantly represented in spring and summer populations. In parallel, the vertical fluxes seem to determine maxima in the abundance of planktonic organisms (especially copepods) which also occur in late spring-summer. Size, natatory capability, and energetic value are important factors in the selection of food-resources by megafaunal decapods, which would have a greater availability of food in late spring-summer. This would explain both the seasonal maxima of decapod abundance in summer, and maxima in the catches of some

  12. Balance and residence times of 210Pb and 210Po in surface waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masqué, P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Bruach, J. M.; Palacios, E.; Canals, M.

    2002-10-01

    Concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides 210Pb and 210Po were determined in both the dissolved (<0.2 μm) and particulate (>0.2 μm) fractions in surface waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. About 4-8% of the 210Pb activity was observed to be associated to particles, which were determined as being mostly biogenic. The 210Po content in the particulate fraction was generally greater than that of 210Pb, accounting for about 20% of the total activity. Total activities of 210Pb and 210Po were found to be in equilibrium. 226Ra concentrations were also determined in an effort to investigate its occurrence in Mediterranean waters. 226Ra was in excess to both 210Pb and 210Po, with a mean concentration of 1.72±0.03 Bq m -3. Steady-state balance equations of the three radionuclides permit calculation of residence times for 210Pb and 210Po in surface waters (0.8 and 3.0 yr, respectively). 210Po residence times were almost one order of magnitude higher than mostly reported values. Polonium is known to manifest higher affinity and different binding mechanisms (by entering the organic cycle) to biogenic material than 210Pb. Several processes, such as 210Po uptake by buoyant particles and recycling of organic matter in the surface layer, could lead to such long residence times of 210Po and, therefore, of organic particles in surface waters. Larger 210Po atmospheric fluxes than those here considered and inputs from rivers and/or fine-grained sediment resuspension could also help to explain the observation, although presumably to a lesser extent.

  13. Relationship between condition and recruitment success of red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) in the Balearic Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ana; Lloret, Josep; Demestre, Montserrat

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluates the reproductive potential and condition of the red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) population inhabiting the waters around the Balearic Islands (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), between 1991 and 2004. Red shrimp is one of the most valuable exploited demersal fishery resources in the western Mediterranean. To assess the condition of this species, we use two indices based on weight and length data, one including the gonad weight and another excluding it. Different biological parameters of the population dynamics and reproductive biology, such as sex-ratio, maturity, gonadosomatic index and presence of the spermatophore in females have also been analysed. A negative relationship was found between the gonadosomatic index and the condition of red shrimp, indicating that energy reserves are transferred from the body to the gonad during the reproductive period. The condition of adults reached minimum values during the maturation and spawning period after mating, when the gonadosomatic index, the spermatophore presence in females and the proportion of females in the population were highest. The relationship between the condition of adults during the months prior to spawning and the number of recruits in the following year was significant and positive. This relationship was stronger when only male condition was considered, suggesting that males have an important role on the reproductive potential of this species. Overall, our results suggest that condition of red shrimp, particularly males, is an important aspect for the reproductive and recruitment success of this species. The observed decreasing trend in male condition over years may raise concern on the future reproductive potential of that population.

  14. Interannual variability of deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean simulated with a coupled AORCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hévéder, Blandine; Li, Laurent; Sevault, Florence; Somot, Samuel

    2013-08-01

    A hindcast experiment of the Mediterranean present-day climate is performed using a fully-coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Regional Climate Model (AORCM) for the Mediterranean basin. The new model, called LMDz-NEMO-Med, is composed of LMDz4-regional as atmospheric component and of NEMOMED8 as oceanic component. This AORCM equilibrates freely, without any flux adjustment, neither in fresh water nor in heat. At its atmospheric lateral boundary conditions, it is driven by ERA-40 data from 1958 to 2001, after a spin-up of 40 years in coupled configuration. The model performance is assessed and compared with available observational datasets. The model skill in reproducing mean state and inter-annual variability of main atmospheric and oceanic surface fields is in line with that of state-of-the-art AORCMs. Considering the ocean behaviour, the inter-annual variations of the basin-scale heat content are in very good agreement with the observations. The model results concerning salt content could not be adequately validated. High inter-annual variability of deep convection in the Gulf of Lion is simulated, with 53 % of convective winters, representative of the present climate state. The role of different factors influencing the deep convection and its inter-annual variability is examined, including dynamic and hydrostatic ocean preconditioning and atmospheric surface forcing. A conceptual framework is outlined and validated in linking the occurrence of deep convection to the efficiency of the integrated surface buoyancy fluxes along the winter season to mix the initially stratified averaged water column down to the convective threshold depth. This simple framework (based only on 2 independent variables) is able to explain 60 % (resp. 69 %) of inter-annual variability of the deep water formation rate (resp. maximum mixed layer depth) for the West Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formation process.

  15. Vertical velocities associated with deep open-ocean convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea as indirectly observed by gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Legland, Guillaume; Mortier, Laurent; Houpert, Loïc; Prieur, Louis

    2014-05-01

    During winter 2012-2013, deep open-ocean convection occurred in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) and has been thoroughly documented thanks to the deployment of several gliders at the same time, Argo profiling floats, dedicated ship cruises, and a mooring located within the mixed patch. The data collected represent an unprecedented density of profiles during a event of open-ocean deep convection. We applied a method able to infer the vertical velocity signal from the glider navigation data. During active phase of mixing, the gliders faced significant vertical velocities (upward and downward displacement stronger than 10cm/s). Moving along a saw-tooth trajectory between the surface and 1000m, they could cross small scale convective plumes (L~1km) over a dive or ascent (2km and 2h between the surface and maximum depth), while recording temperature and salinity, as well as biogeochemical properties (dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity, ...). Our study provides a comprehensive dataset to get a characterization of convective plumes and a deeper understanding of their role in deep open-ocean convection.

  16. Use of bias correction techniques to improve seasonal forecasts for reservoirs - A case-study in northwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Raül; Llasat, Ma Carmen; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco

    2017-08-09

    In this paper, we have compared different bias correction methodologies to assess whether they could be advantageous for improving the performance of a seasonal prediction model for volume anomalies in the Boadella reservoir (northwestern Mediterranean). The bias correction adjustments have been applied on precipitation and temperature from the European Centre for Middle-range Weather Forecasting System 4 (S4). We have used three bias correction strategies: two linear (mean bias correction, BC, and linear regression, LR) and one non-linear (Model Output Statistics analogs, MOS-analog). The results have been compared with climatology and persistence. The volume-anomaly model is a previously computed Multiple Linear Regression that ingests precipitation, temperature and in-flow anomaly data to simulate monthly volume anomalies. The potential utility for end-users has been assessed using economic value curve areas. We have studied the S4 hindcast period 1981-2010 for each month of the year and up to seven months ahead considering an ensemble of 15 members. We have shown that the MOS-analog and LR bias corrections can improve the original S4. The application to volume anomalies points towards the possibility to introduce bias correction methods as a tool to improve water resource seasonal forecasts in an end-user context of climate services. Particularly, the MOS-analog approach gives generally better results than the other approaches in late autumn and early winter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Natural Sunlight on Bacterial Activity and Differential Sensitivity of Natural Bacterioplankton Groups in Northwestern Mediterranean Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Gasol, Josep M.; Lefort, Thomas; Hofer, Julia; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural sunlight on heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton in short-term experiments. We used a single-cell level approach involving flow cytometry combined with physiological probes and microautoradiography to determine sunlight effects on the activity and integrity of the cells. After 4 h of sunlight exposure, most bacterial cells maintained membrane integrity and viability as assessed by the simultaneous staining with propidium iodide and SYBR green I. In contrast, a significant inhibition of heterotrophic bacterial activity was detected, measured by 5-cyano-2,3 ditolyl tetrazolium chloride reduction and leucine incorporation. We applied microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization to test the sensitivity of the different bacterial groups naturally occurring in the Northwestern Mediterranean to sunlight. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes groups appeared to be highly resistant to solar radiation, with small changes in activity after exposure. On the contrary, Alphaproteobacteria bacteria were more sensitive to radiation as measured by the cell-specific incorporation of labeled amino acids, leucine, and ATP. Within Alphaproteobacteria, bacteria belonging to the Roseobacter group showed higher resistance than members of the SAR11 cluster. The activity of Roseobacter was stimulated by exposure to photosynthetic available radiation compared to the dark treatment. Our results suggest that UV radiation can significantly affect the in situ single-cell activity of bacterioplankton and that naturally dominating phylogenetic bacterial groups have different sensitivity to natural levels of incident solar radiation. PMID:16957198

  18. Effect of natural sunlight on bacterial activity and differential sensitivity of natural bacterioplankton groups in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Gasol, Josep M; Lefort, Thomas; Hofer, Julia; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2006-09-01

    We studied the effects of natural sunlight on heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton in short-term experiments. We used a single-cell level approach involving flow cytometry combined with physiological probes and microautoradiography to determine sunlight effects on the activity and integrity of the cells. After 4 h of sunlight exposure, most bacterial cells maintained membrane integrity and viability as assessed by the simultaneous staining with propidium iodide and SYBR green I. In contrast, a significant inhibition of heterotrophic bacterial activity was detected, measured by 5-cyano-2,3 ditolyl tetrazolium chloride reduction and leucine incorporation. We applied microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization to test the sensitivity of the different bacterial groups naturally occurring in the Northwestern Mediterranean to sunlight. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes groups appeared to be highly resistant to solar radiation, with small changes in activity after exposure. On the contrary, Alphaproteobacteria bacteria were more sensitive to radiation as measured by the cell-specific incorporation of labeled amino acids, leucine, and ATP. Within Alphaproteobacteria, bacteria belonging to the Roseobacter group showed higher resistance than members of the SAR11 cluster. The activity of Roseobacter was stimulated by exposure to photosynthetic available radiation compared to the dark treatment. Our results suggest that UV radiation can significantly affect the in situ single-cell activity of bacterioplankton and that naturally dominating phylogenetic bacterial groups have different sensitivity to natural levels of incident solar radiation.

  19. Antifouling Coatings Influence both Abundance and Community Structure of Colonizing Biofilms: a Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Mercedes; Barani, Aude; Gregori, Gérald; Bouchez, Agnès; Le Berre, Brigitte; Bressy, Christine; Blache, Yves

    2014-01-01

    When immersed in seawater, substrates are rapidly colonized by both micro- and macroorganisms. This process is responsible for important economic and ecological prejudices, particularly when related to ship hulls or aquaculture nets. Commercial antifouling coatings are supposed to reduce biofouling, i.e., micro- and macrofoulers. In this study, biofilms that primarily settled on seven different coatings (polyvinyl chloride [PVC], a fouling release coating [FRC], and five self-polishing copolymer coatings [SPC], including four commercial ones) were quantitatively studied, after 1 month of immersion in summer in the Toulon Bay (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France), by using flow cytometry (FCM), microscopy, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. FCM was used after a pretreatment to separate cells from the biofilm matrix, in order to determine densities of heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria, and pico- and nanoeukaryotes on these coatings. Among diatoms, the only microphytobenthic class identified by microscopy, Licmophora, Navicula, and Nitzschia were determined to be the dominant taxa. Overall, biocide-free coatings showed higher densities than all other coatings, except for one biocidal coating, whatever the group of microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria always showed the highest densities, and diatoms showed the lowest, but the relative abundances of these groups varied depending on the coating. In particular, the copper-free SPC failed to prevent diatom settlement, whereas the pyrithione-free SPC exhibited high picocyanobacterial density. These results highlight the interest in FCM for antifouling coating assessment as well as specific selection among microbial communities by antifouling coatings. PMID:24907329

  20. Shelf-slope exchanges and particle dispersion in Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea): A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada-Sempoal, M.-A.; Flexas, M. M.; Bernardello, R.; Bahamon, N.; Cruzado, A.; Reyes-Hernández, C.

    2015-10-01

    A climatological simulation performed with a fine-resolution (∼1.2 km) 3D circulation model nested in one-way to a coarse-resolution (∼4 km) 3D regional model is used to examine the cross-shelf break water exchange in the Blanes submarine canyon (∼41°00‧-41°46‧N; ∼02°24‧-03°24‧E). A Lagrangian particle-tracking model coupled to the fine-resolution 3D circulation model is used to investigate the role of the incident regional flow (i.e. the Northern Current, NC) and its seasonal variability on the dispersion and residence time of passive particles inside Blanes Canyon. The NC flows southwestward, along the slope, with the coastline to the right. Water is advected offshore/onshore at the upstream/downstream canyon walls, with a net water transport toward the slope (i.e. offshore). The amount of water moved across the shelf break of the upstream wall is approximately three times larger than the amount moved across the shelf break of the downstream wall. This preferential zone for cross-shelf break water exchange is explained by the asymmetric geometry of the canyon and the orientation of the incident current with respect to the canyon bathymetry. Passive particles released upstream Blanes Canyon between the mid-shelf and the upper-slope drift within the NC and accumulate over the shelf edge of the canyon. About half of the particles released at depths above the shelf break move towards shallower areas inside the canyon. In contrast, about two-thirds of particles released below the shelf break move to deeper areas. Particle dispersion is higher under weakly (e.g. winter) than strongly (e.g. summer) stratified conditions. The residence time of passive particles inside the canyon (∼4-6 days) is double than the residence time downstream of the canyon, indicating that the canyon acts as an efficient retention zone for passive particles.

  1. Sponges as biomonitors of heavy metals in spatial and temporal surveys in northwestern mediterranean: multispecies comparison.

    PubMed

    Cebrian, Emma; Uriz, María-J; Turon, Xavier

    2007-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals has increased drastically in the coastal Mediterranean during the last 20 years. A comparative study on metal bioaccumulation by four widespread sponge species (Crambe crambe, Chondrosia reniformis, Phorbas tenacior, and Dysidea avara) has been performed to select the most suitable species for metal monitoring. Copper bioaccumulation fits an accumulation strategy while Pb concentration seems to be regulated in most sponges. Crambe crambe was the only studied species that bioaccumulated Pb and Cu as a function of the available metal, proving its suitability for monitoring purposes. Then, we examined its effectiveness as a bioindicator at large spatial and temporal scales, comparing metal accumulation in this species and in sediments. Crambe crambe provided accurate information on the background levels of metals in the area at both spatial and temporal scales, and furthermore it reflected seasonal fluctuations of the bioavailable metals, which would be impossible to assess by means of a sediment survey.

  2. North-western Mediterranean sea-breeze circulation in a regional climate system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie; Arsouze, Thomas; Béranger, Karine; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Stéfanon, Marc

    2017-04-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, moisture transport can occur over large distance from remote regions by the synoptic circulation or more locally by sea breezes, driven by land-sea thermal contrast. Sea breezes play an important role in inland transport of moisture especially between late spring and early fall. In order to explicitly represent the two-way interactions at the atmosphere-ocean interface in the Mediterranean region and quantify the role of air-sea feedbacks on regional meteorology and climate, simulations at 20 km resolution performed with WRF regional climate model (RCM) and MORCE atmosphere-ocean regional climate model (AORCM) coupling WRF and NEMO-MED12 in the frame of HyMeX/MED-CORDEX are compared. One result of this study is that these simulations reproduce remarkably well the intensity, direction and inland penetration of the sea breeze and even the existence of the shallow sea breeze despite the overestimate of temperature over land in both simulations. The coupled simulation provides a more realistic representation of the evolution of the SST field at fine scale than the atmosphere-only one. Temperature and moisture anomalies are created in direct response to the SST anomaly and are advected by the sea breeze over land. However, the SST anomalies are not of sufficient magnitude to affect the large-scale sea-breeze circulation. The temperature anomalies are quickly damped by strong surface heating over land, whereas the water vapor mixing ratio anomalies are transported further inland. The inland limit of significance is imposed by the vertical dilution in a deeper continental boundary-layer.

  3. Faecal bacterial loads during flood events in Northwestern Mediterranean coastal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yin; Salles, Christian; Tournoud, Marie-George; Got, Patrice; Troussellier, Marc; Rodier, Claire; Caro, Audrey

    2011-08-01

    SummaryIn Mediterranean coastal rivers, floods last often less than a few hours but supply large amounts of contaminants to transitional and coastal waters. Estimating flood loads requires appropriate sampling strategies. We applied flood-scale sampling for the survey of two rivers flowing into the Thau lagoon (France). Two bacterial indicators were considered, thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) and faecal streptococci (FC). During floods, concentrations of indicator bacteria associated with non-mineral suspended solids increased quickly with the rising flow, their decrease during the recession period was slow and erratic. Statistical analysis was performed on total bacterial flood loads measured during 20 floods, versus hydrological variables and land-use characteristics. The analysis highlighted the significant impacts of human pollution sources together with the magnitude of the flood. Regarding the results, the best linear regression models linked total bacterial flood loads to peak discharge for both TTC and FS, reinforcing the assumption that in-stream bacterial stores play an important role in the level of bacterial flood loads in Mediterranean coastal rivers. At an annual scale, between 13.9 and 16.6 log 10cfu of TTC could be supplied depending on the hydrological conditions during the year. Over the 12 year period, from 1994 to 2006 it was shown that the flood loads were responsible for at least 98% of the TTC total annual load and in 8 of 12 years the floods contributed to at least 99.9% of the annual loads. Over the same period on average the single major flood represents 74% of the total annual load. The contribution of in-stream bacterial stores was demonstrated but spatial variations in total flood loads showed that this contribution is difficult to evaluate. Bacteria from land stores appeared to be negligible in both catchments.

  4. Highly diverse molluscan assemblages of Posidonia oceanica meadows in northwestern Alboran Sea (W Mediterranean): Seasonal dynamics and environmental drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urra, Javier; Mateo Ramírez, Ángel; Marina, Pablo; Salas, Carmen; Gofas, Serge; Rueda, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of the molluscan fauna associated with the westernmost populations of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, has been studied throughout an annual cycle in the northwestern coasts of the Alboran Sea. Samples were collected seasonally (5 replicated per season) using a non-destructive sampling technique (airlift sampler) on quadrats of 50 × 50 cm at 2 sites located 7 km apart. Several environmental variables from the water column (temperature, chlorophyll a), the sediment (percentage of organic matter) and the seagrass meadows (shoot density, leaf height and width, number of leaves per shoot) were also measured in order to elucidate their relationships with the dynamics of the molluscan assemblages. In these meadows, a total of 17,416 individuals of molluscs were collected, belonging to 71 families and 171 species, being Rissoidae, Pyramidellidae and Trochidae the best-represented families, and Mytilidae, Nassaridae and Trochidae the dominant ones in terms of abundance. The assemblages were dominated by micro-algal grazers, filter feeders and ectoparasites (including those feeding on sessile preys). The species richness and the abundance displayed significant maximum values in summer, whereas evenness and diversity displayed maximum values in spring, being significant for the evenness. Both abundance and species richness values were positively correlated to seawater temperature and percentage organic matter, only for the latter, and negatively to leaf width. Significant seasonal groupings were obtained with multivariate analyses (MDS, Cluster, ANOSIM) using qualitative and quantitative data that could be mainly related to biological aspects (i.e. recruitment) of single species. The molluscan assemblages are influenced by the biogeographical location of the area (Alboran Sea), reflected in the absence or scarcity of most Mediterranean species strictly associated with P. oceanica (e.g. Tricolia speciosa, Rissoa ventricosa) and by the

  5. Inorganic geochemistry of surface sediments of the Ebro shelf and slope, northwestern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Alonso, B.

    1990-01-01

    Distributions of major, minor, and trace elements in surface sediment of the continental shelf and upper slope of the northeastern Spanish continental margin reflect the influences of discharge from the Ebro River and changes in eustatic sea levels. Multivariate factor analysis of sediment geochemistry was used to identify five groupings of samples (factors) on the shelf and slope. The first factor is an aluminosilicate factor that represents detrital clastic material. The second factor is a highly variable amount of excess SiO2 and probably represents a quartz residuum originating from winnowing of relict detrital sediments. A carbonate factor (Factor 3) has no positive correlation with other geochemical parameters but is associated with the sand-size fraction. The carbonate in these sediments consists of a mixture of biogenic calcite and angular to subangular detrital grains. Organic carbon is associated with the aluminosilicate factor (Factor 1) but also factors out by itself (Factor 4); this suggests that there may be two sources of organic matter, terrestrial and marine. The fifth factor comprises upper slope sediments that contain high concentrations of manganese. The most likely explanation for these high manganese concentrations is precipitation of Mn oxyhydroxides at the interface between Mn-rich, oxygen-deficient, intermediate waters and oxygenated surface waters. During eustatic low sea levels of the glacial Pleistocene, the Ebro Delta built across the outer continental shelf and deposited sediment with fairly high contents of organic carbon and continental components. The period of marine transgression from eustatic low (glacial) to eustatic high (interglacial) sea levels was characterized by erosion of the outer shelf delta and surficial shelf sediments and the transport of sediment across the slope within numerous canyons. Once eustatic high sea level was reached, delta progradation resumed on the inner shelf. Today, coarse-grained sediment (silt and

  6. Dynamic of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows in the northwestern Mediterranean: Could climate change be to blame?

    PubMed

    Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Bein, Aymeric; Dedeken, Marine; Oberti, Pascal; Orsini, Antoine; Santucci, Jean-François; Short, Frederic

    2015-07-01

    The distribution and the vitality of the P. oceanica meadow were monitored in the western Mediterranean at 15 sites along the coasts of Corsica (1000 km of coastline) using two monitoring systems, the Posidonia Monitoring Network and SeagrassNet, between 2004 and 2013. While the vitality of the meadow is satisfactory overall, due to the low impact of human pressure along these coasts, patterns of change over time show a slight degradation of the main descriptors of the meadow. The meadow's vitality index had declined on average by 8.6%, the BiPo index by 9.8%, and there was a regression of the lower limit at six sites. While this pattern of change may reflect local alterations in the environment (increase or decline in human pressure), the regressive dynamic of the meadow observed at the lower limit at several reference sites (e.g., Marine Protected Areas, sites distant from sources of human impact) is more worrying. Two hypotheses might explain the regression observed: (i) the rise in mean sea level during the study period, which may have resulted in a significant regression in sectors where the slope is relatively slight, and (ii) the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which declined from 2002 to reach very low values in 2010.

  7. [Massive mortality of marine invertebrates: an unprecedented event in northwestern Mediterranean].

    PubMed

    Perez, T; Garrabou, J; Sartoretto, S; Harmelin, J G; Francour, P; Vacelet, J

    2000-10-01

    An unprecedented mass mortality event has been observed at the end of the summer 1999 along the coasts of Provence (France) and Ligury (Italy). This event has severely affected a wide array of sessile filter-feeder invertebrates from hard-substratum communities, such as sponges (particularly the keratose sponges Hippospongia and Spongia), cnidarians (particularly the anthozoans Corallium, Paramuricea, Eunicella and Cladocora), bivalves, ascidians and bryozoans. Along the Provence coasts, the outbreak spread from east to west. Exceptionally high and constant temperatures of the whole water column (23-24 degrees C, for over one month, down to 40 m) could have determined an environmental context favourable to the mass mortality event. Like the thermal anomaly, the mortality is limited in depth. However, we cannot ascertain whether temperature had a direct effect on organisms or acted in synergy with a latent and/or waterborne agent (microbiological or chemical). Taking into account the global warming context in the NW-Mediterranean, monitoring programs of physical-chemical parameters and vulnerable populations should rapidly be set up.

  8. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, B.; Sicre, M.-A.; Bassetti, M.-A.; Kallel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea) using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes), respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene ( ˜ 18 ± 0.4 °C) followed by a cooling of ˜ 3 °C between 7000 and 1000 BP, and rapid warming from ˜ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal to centennial-scale cold events of ˜ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were quantified in the same sedimentary horizons to identify periods of high Rhone River discharge and compare them with regional flood reconstructions. Concentrations show a broad increase from the Early Holocene towards the present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the Late Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  9. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, B.; Sicre, M.-A.; Bassetti, M.-A.; Kallel, N.

    2015-07-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea) using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes), respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene (∼ 18 ± 0.4 °C) followed by a cooling of ∼ 3 °C (from 7000 to 1000 BP) and rapid warming from ∼ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal cooling events of ∼ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were also quantified to identify periods of high river discharge in relation with flood events of the Rhone River and precipitations. Their concentrations show a broad increase from the early Holocene towards present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the second part of the Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive NAO.

  10. In situ fluorescence measurements of protein-, humic- and HAP-like materials in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Germain, Chloé; Ferretto, Nicolas; Bhairy, Nagib; Guigue, Catherine; Besson, Florent; Beguery, Laurent; Goutx, Madeleine

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical functioning of the ocean requires high frequency measurements of dissolved organic matter (DOM) descriptors. For 10 years, the technological developments of fluorescence sensors try to cover this need. In this context, our laboratory developed the MiniFluo-UV sensor, a prototype of miniaturized submersible fluorometer for the detection of aromatic compounds that fluoresce in the UV spectral domain. The qualification of the sensor consisted in measurements of drift, linearity, repeatability, sensitivity to light, temperature and pressure, and detection limits of phenanthrene (HAP) and tryptophan (aromatic amino acid) in standard solutions. Measurements were also conducted in crude oil water soluble fractions (WSFs). The MiniFluo-UV sensor was then deployed in two distinct areas of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: 1) in the Gulf of Lion during the continuous monitoring of the surface water layer (DEWEX cruise, winter and spring 2013) and 2) in the Bay of Marseilles, heavily impacted by urban activities, where the sensor was mounted onto the SeaExplorer underwater glider and onto a CTD vertical profiler (July-December 2014). These platforms were also equipped with a humic-like fluorescence sensor and other sensors for hydrological and biogeochemical parameters (T, S, Chla, oxygen, turbidity). The patterns of fluorescence signatures enabled to distinguish interesting distributions of DOM in relation with hydrological features and spring biological production in the Gulf of Lion, and showed the accumulation of contaminants in marine areas under anthropogenic pressure. This work was conducted within the framework of the ANR-09-ECOT-009-01 "IBISCUS" in collaboration with ALSEAMAR-ALCEN (Aix-en-Provence) and MicroModule (Brest) companies. It is relevant to WP5 NEXOS objectives. The SACEUP team of the DEWEX-MERMEX experiment is warmly acknowledged.

  11. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Brisset, Blandine; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity) of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies). Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  12. Transient Shifts in Bacterial Communities Associated with the Temperate Gorgonian Paramuricea clavata in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    La Rivière, Marie; Roumagnac, Marie; Garrabou, Joaquim; Bally, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial communities that are associated with tropical reef-forming corals are being increasingly recognized for their role in host physiology and health. However, little is known about the microbial diversity of the communities associated with temperate gorgonian corals, even though these communities are key structural components of the ecosystem. In the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, gorgonians undergo recurrent mass mortalities, but the potential relationship between these events and the structure of the associated bacterial communities remains unexplored. Because microbial assemblages may contribute to the overall health and disease resistance of their host, a detailed baseline of the associated bacterial diversity is required to better understand the functioning of the gorgonian holobiont. Methodology/Principal Findings The bacterial diversity associated with the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata was determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the construction of clone libraries of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA. Three study sites were monitored for 4 years to assess the variability of communities associated with healthy colonies. Bacterial assemblages were highly dominated by one Hahellaceae-related ribotype and exhibited low diversity. While this pattern was mostly conserved through space and time, in summer 2007, a deep shift in microbiota structure toward increased bacterial diversity and the transient disappearance of Hahellaceae was observed. Conclusion/Significance This is the first spatiotemporal study to investigate the bacterial diversity associated with a temperate shallow gorgonian. Our data revealed an established relationship between P. clavata and a specific bacterial group within the Oceanospirillales. These results suggest a potential symbiotic role of Hahellaceae in the host-microbe association, as recently suggested for tropical corals. However, a transient

  13. Transient shifts in bacterial communities associated with the temperate gorgonian Paramuricea clavata in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    La Rivière, Marie; Roumagnac, Marie; Garrabou, Joaquim; Bally, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial communities that are associated with tropical reef-forming corals are being increasingly recognized for their role in host physiology and health. However, little is known about the microbial diversity of the communities associated with temperate gorgonian corals, even though these communities are key structural components of the ecosystem. In the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, gorgonians undergo recurrent mass mortalities, but the potential relationship between these events and the structure of the associated bacterial communities remains unexplored. Because microbial assemblages may contribute to the overall health and disease resistance of their host, a detailed baseline of the associated bacterial diversity is required to better understand the functioning of the gorgonian holobiont. The bacterial diversity associated with the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata was determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the construction of clone libraries of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA. Three study sites were monitored for 4 years to assess the variability of communities associated with healthy colonies. Bacterial assemblages were highly dominated by one Hahellaceae-related ribotype and exhibited low diversity. While this pattern was mostly conserved through space and time, in summer 2007, a deep shift in microbiota structure toward increased bacterial diversity and the transient disappearance of Hahellaceae was observed. This is the first spatiotemporal study to investigate the bacterial diversity associated with a temperate shallow gorgonian. Our data revealed an established relationship between P. clavata and a specific bacterial group within the Oceanospirillales. These results suggest a potential symbiotic role of Hahellaceae in the host-microbe association, as recently suggested for tropical corals. However, a transient imbalance in bacterial associations can be tolerated by the holobiont

  14. Dynamics of the Northwestern Mediterranean during the HyMeX/ASICS Experiment: A PV-Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Mode water formation has long been treated as a buoyancy flux problem, however this approach fails to explain the spatial distribution and variability of dense water in the Northwestern Mediterranean. This paper proposes to adopt a PV-perspective (PV: Potential Vorticity) rather than the usual surface flux approach to identify the processes of dense water formation during the HyMeX/ASICS experiment. The PV-budget was diagnosed from an ocean simulation performed with the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36°-resolution), driven in surface by the hourly air-sea fluxes from the AROME-WMED forecasts model (2.5km-resolution) during winter 2012-2013. If a large part of dense water is produced at the centre of the cyclonic gyre, a significant production of dense water (rho>29 kg/m3) is also found along the rim of the cyclonic gyre where the current (North Current) and gradients of density are strong. The spatial distribution of dense waters is well collocated with the PV-destruction associated with the surface frictional and buoyancy PV-fluxes. This suggests that surface PV destructions by winds are sources of destratification and are the relevant forcings of dense water formation. The negative PV created around the gyre forces a cross-front ageostrophic circulation which subducts subsurface low-PV into interior and obducts high-PV from the thermocline to the surface. The horizontal and vertical advections associated with the 3D ageostrophic circulation in the frontal region are positive and plays a role of PV-refueling destroyed by surface winds. Finally eddies formed by baroclinic instability are expulsed from the cyclonic gyre and transport the low-PV produced in the frontal region towards the centre of the gyre. This non-local process contributes to destratify the convection area.

  15. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Demarcq, Hervé; Brisset, Blandine

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity) of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies). Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). PMID:26458254

  16. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Jovanna; Sciare, Jean; Mallet, Marc; Roberts, Greg C.; Marchand, Nicolas; Sartelet, Karine; Sellegri, Karine; Dulac, François; Healy, Robert M.; Wenger, John C.

    2017-06-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon), K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon), V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass). Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5) accounted for 70-90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich) and biomass burning (K-rich) particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC) and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA). This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which then

  17. Microbial communities associated with the degradation of oak wood in the Blanes submarine canyon and its adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagervold, S. K.; Bessette, S.; Romano, C.; Martin, D.; Plyuscheva, M.; Le Bris, N.; Galand, P. E.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons can trap and concentrate organic falls, like terrestrial debris, including wood. Sunken wood creates a unique ecosystem in the deep sea, which base, i.e. the microbial communities directly degrading this wood, remains poorly studied. Our aim was thus to examine the wood degrading microbial community by comparing oak samples experimentally deployed in experimental mooring arrays in the Blanes Canyon (BC) and its adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean Sea). We analyzed the microbial community by parallel tag pyrosequencing of the16S rRNA genes from wood samples recovered from different depths after 9 and 12 months of deployment. In this first study of the phylogenetic description of wood associated microbial community by high throughput molecular techniques, we found that the microbial diversity was higher in samples from BC compared to the open slope. The structure of the communities were, however, not significantly different from each other, although we observed an apparent clustering according to time of immersion. Furthermore, an in depth taxonomic analysis revealed that Alphaproteobacteria was the dominant microbial taxa, with the Roseobacter clade seeming to have a specialized role in the degradation of oak in BC and its adjacent slope.

  18. Composition and provenance of terrigenous organic matter transported along submarine canyons in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqual, Catalina; Goñi, Miguel A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Previous projects in the Gulf of Lion have investigated the path of terrigenous material in the Rhone deltaic system, the continental shelf and the nearby canyon heads. This study focuses on the slope region of the Gulf of Lion to further describe particulate exchanges with ocean’s interior through submarine canyons and atmospheric inputs. Nine sediment traps were deployed from the heads to the mouths of Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus submarine canyons and on the southern open slope from October 2005 to October 2006. Sediment trap samples were analyzed by CuO oxidation to investigate spatial and temporal variability in the yields and compositional characteristics of terrigenous biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols and cutin acids. Sediment trap data show that the Dense Shelf Water Cascading event that took place in the months of winter 2006 (January, February and March) had a profound impact on particle fluxes in both canyons. This event was responsible for the majority of lignin phenol (55.4%) and cutin acid (42.8%) inputs to submarine canyons, with lignin compositions similar to those measured along the mid- and outer-continental shelf, which is consistent with the resuspension and lateral transfer of unconsolidated shelf sediment to the canyons. The highest lithogenic-normalized lignin derived phenols contents in sediment trap samples were found during late spring and summer at all stations (i.e., 193.46 μg VP g-1 lithogenic at deep slope station), when river flow, wave energy and total particle fluxes were relatively low. During this period, lignin compositions were characterized by elevated cinnamyl to vanillyl phenol ratios (>3) at almost all stations, high p-coumaric to ferulic acid ratios (>3) and high yields of cutin acids relative to vanillyl phenols (>1), all trends that are consistent with high pollen inputs. Our results suggest marked differences in the sources and transport processes responsible for terrigenous material export along

  19. The response of SST to insolation and ice sheet variability from MIS 3 to MIS 11 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Flores, José Abel; Martrat, Belen; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record based on the Uk'37 index from the PRGL1 borehole (Promess1) drilled on the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions (GL). This is the first continuous and high-resolution record in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea from marine oxygen isotope stage 3 (MIS) 3 to MIS 11. Due the location of the GL, the SST proxy can be considered to be a reliable tool to study the climate link between high latitude and midlatitude. During glacial inceptions, the northern ice sheet signal via cold northwesterly winds was first recorded in our study area in comparison with southern locations, highlighting the strong sensitivity of this location to high-latitude dynamics. Moreover, the amplitude of the millennial-scale variability in the western Mediterranean basin seems to be the result of both ice sheet and insolation variability.

  20. Living deep-sea benthic foraminifera from the Cap de Creus Canyon (western Mediterranean): Faunal-geochemical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Rosales, L. A.; Koho, K. A.; Duijnstee, I. A. P.; de Stigter, H. C.; García, R.; Koning, E.; Epping, E.

    2012-06-01

    Rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera were sampled along a depth transect from the Cap de Creus Canyon and the adjacent slope. Well-stained individuals were studied in the top 5 cm of sediment and the faunal abundances and assemblages were compared against pore-water geochemistry and biochemical composition of the sediment. Total standing stocks (TSS) of foraminifera were positively correlated with the chloroplastic pigment equivalents inventory (CPEinv; here interpreted as food quantity) and the ratio of chlorophyll-a and phaeopigment inventories (Chl-ainv/Phaeoinv; here interpreted as food quality), suggesting food quality as well as quantity play an important role in structuring the foraminiferal community. Food quality and food quantity were also identified by detrended correspondence analyses (DCA) as being the most important environmental parameters shaping the foraminiferal community structure (abundance and faunal composition). In addition, sediment redox chemistry (based here on pore-water nitrate) played an important role in controlling the foraminiferal diversity (H‧) as a negative correlation was seen between this parameter and pore-water nitrate penetration depth (NPD). No conclusive evidence of intense physical disturbance on the benthic canyon community was observed, although it could be anticipated in the area due to shelf-water downwelling (SWD) and dense shelf-water cascading (DSWC). However, foraminiferal faunas living in the canyon head and upper canyon environments may profit from the higher organic-matter availability, which is likely to be related to SWD and DSWC. The similarity between the deeper canyon and slope faunas suggests that sediment characteristics and the associated organic-matter transported by SWC and DSWC do not have a permanent effect at these depths.

  1. Seasonal survey of metazoan meiofauna and surface sediment organics in a non-tidal turbulent sublittoral prodelta (northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi-Guilvard, Laurence D.; Buscail, Roselyne

    1995-05-01

    As part of the French research program ECOMARGE, metazoan meiofauna abundances along with local physical, chemical and microbial characteristics were monitored generally monthly over a 14-month period in a silty-muddy prodelta located at 26 m depth off the Teˆt River outlet in the northwestern (NW) Mediterranean. Meiofauna densities ranged from 1266 to 5586 individuals 10 cm -2, and were dominated by nematodes (91-98%), followed by harpacticoid copepods (1.37-6.96%) and kinorhynchs (up to 1.40%). Bottom water temperature varied between 9.5°C in winter to over 20°C in early autumn. All parameters analysed in the surface sediment also exhibited high temporal variability: fine particle content (7.6-18.4% < 40 μm), alcium carbonate (5-8.6%), total organic carbon (4.1-7.3 mg g -1), organic nitrogen (0.35-0.95 mg g -1), C:N ratios (5.6-19.7), total amino acids (159-2358 μg g -1) and sugars (315-1553 μg g -1), lignin by-products (6-61 μg g -1), chlorophyll- a (0.30-1.20 μg g -1), phaeopigments (1.12-3.62 μg g -1), total chloroplastic pigments (1.42-4.58 μg -1), viable bacterial numbers (1.9 x 10 5-3.9 x 10 7 Colony Forming Units ml -1), microheterotrophic total uptake (18.3-74.2% after 5 h) and respiration (5.2-28.8%) of 14C-glucose. Seasonal trends were not always obvious, and some variables were significantly correlated with each other. Because the survey was carried out in a complex system affected by strong frequent winds and irregular discharges of the river, different expressions of these climatic factors were included in the data set in an attempt to understand the relationships between variables and ultimately highlight the forces driving the observed abundance patterns. Further analysis showed that: (1) most of the parameters were strongly influenced by the climatic events that occurred prior to sampling, and (2) most of the correlations were largely explained by the concomittant influence of these events on the corresponding variables. Although some

  2. Characterizing, modelling and understanding the climate variability of the deep water formation in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somot, Samuel; Houpert, Loic; Sevault, Florence; Testor, Pierre; Bosse, Anthony; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Waldman, Robin; Cassou, Christophe; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Adloff, Fanny; Nabat, Pierre; Herrmann, Marine

    2016-08-01

    Observing, modelling and understanding the climate-scale variability of the deep water formation (DWF) in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea remains today very challenging. In this study, we first characterize the interannual variability of this phenomenon by a thorough reanalysis of observations in order to establish reference time series. These quantitative indicators include 31 observed years for the yearly maximum mixed layer depth over the period 1980-2013 and a detailed multi-indicator description of the period 2007-2013. Then a 1980-2013 hindcast simulation is performed with a fully-coupled regional climate system model including the high-resolution representation of the regional atmosphere, ocean, land-surface and rivers. The simulation reproduces quantitatively well the mean behaviour and the large interannual variability of the DWF phenomenon. The model shows convection deeper than 1000 m in 2/3 of the modelled winters, a mean DWF rate equal to 0.35 Sv with maximum values of 1.7 (resp. 1.6) Sv in 2013 (resp. 2005). Using the model results, the winter-integrated buoyancy loss over the Gulf of Lions is identified as the primary driving factor of the DWF interannual variability and explains, alone, around 50 % of its variance. It is itself explained by the occurrence of few stormy days during winter. At daily scale, the Atlantic ridge weather regime is identified as favourable to strong buoyancy losses and therefore DWF, whereas the positive phase of the North Atlantic oscillation is unfavourable. The driving role of the vertical stratification in autumn, a measure of the water column inhibition to mixing, has also been analyzed. Combining both driving factors allows to explain more than 70 % of the interannual variance of the phenomenon and in particular the occurrence of the five strongest convective years of the model (1981, 1999, 2005, 2009, 2013). The model simulates qualitatively well the trends in the deep waters (warming, saltening, increase in the

  3. Assessment of a NEMO-based downscaling experiment for the North-Western Mediterranean region: Impacts on the Northern Current and comparison with ADCP data and altimetry products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ourmières, Y.; Zakardjian, B.; Béranger, K.; Langlais, C.

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of numerical resolution on the simulation of the circulation in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea by comparing two realistic model configurations of 1/64° and 1/16°, the low resolution configuration (LRC) being also used at the high resolution configuration (HRC) open boundaries. The study mainly focuses on the Northern Current (NC), the major feature of the regional circulation in the area, influencing important processes such as meanders giving birth to eddies and NC intrusions on the shelf, strongly conditioning the interactions between coastal and off-shore waters. Both configurations use the NEMO code with the LRC covering the entire Mediterranean basin and the HRC being restricted to the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. The two numerical configurations are assessed by using hull-mounted ADCP data and geostrophic velocities derived from AVISO altimetry at key locations along the NC path. The two configurations develop a different solution regarding the current dynamics but both indicate an important variability of the NC position along its general path. The LRC simulations systematically exhibit a NC shifted too far off the coast and also spuriously displaced seaward along the Gulf of Lions shelf edge while high resolution simulations better fit the remote and in situ observations. In addition, the HRC is able to simulate more realistic coastal features such as a confined coastal jet in good agreement with the ADCP measurements. As satisfactory agreement is reached with the various observations used at different space and time scales, the development of this NEMO high resolution configuration stands as a promising experiment for various process studies or operational oriented applications.

  4. Major-element geochemistry of the Silent Canyon-Black Mountain peralkaline volcanic centers, northwestern Nevada Test Site: applications to an assessment of renewed volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowe, Bruce M.; Sargent, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    The Silent Canyon and Black Mountain volcanic centers are located in the northern part of the Nevada Test Site. The Silent Canyon volcanic center is a buried cauldron complex of Miocene age (13-15 m.y.). Black Mountain volcanic center is an elliptical-shaped cauldron complex of late Miocene age. The lavas and tuffs of the two centers comprise a subalkaline-peralkaline association. Rock types range from quartz normative subalkaline trachyte and rhyolite to peralkaline comendite. The Gold Flat Member of the Thirsty Canyon Tuff (Black Mountain) is a pantellerite. The major-element geochemistry of the Black Mountain-Silent Canyon volcanic centers differs in the total range and distribution of Si02, contents, the degree of peralkalinity (molecular Na2O+K2O>Al2O3) and in the values of total iron and alumina through the range of rock types. These differences indicate that the suites were unrelated and evolved from differing magma bodies. The Black Mountain volcanic cycle represents a renewed phase of volcanism following cessation of the Timber Mountain-Silent Canyon volcanic cycles. Consequently, there is a small but numerically incalculable probability of recurrence of Black Mountain-type volcanism within the Nevada Test Site region. This represents a potential risk with respect to deep geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site.

  5. An inverse method to derive surface fluxes from the closure of oceanic heat and water budgets: Application to the north-western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, G.; Prieur, L.; Giordani, H.; Redelsperger, J.-L.

    2017-04-01

    The large amount of data collected during DeWEX, MOOSE, and HyMeX campaigns in the north-western Mediterranean in 2012-2013 allowed to implement an inverse method to solve the difficult problem of heat and water budget closure. The inverse method is based on the simulation of the observed heat and water budgets, strongly constrained by observations collected during the campaigns and on the deduction of adjusted surface fluxes. The inverse method uses a genetic algorithm that generates 50,000 simulations of a single-column model and optimizes some adjustable coefficients introduced in the surface fluxes. Finally, the single-column model forced by the adjusted fluxes during 1 year and over a test area of about 300 × 300 km2 simulates the daily mean satellite bulk SST with an accuracy/uncertainty of 0.011 ± 0.072°C, as well as daily mean SSS and residual buoyancy series deduced from wintertime analyses with an accuracy of 0.011 ± 0.008 and 0.03 ± 0.012 m2 s-2, respectively. The adjusted fluxes close the annual heat and rescaled water budgets by less than 5 W m-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a flux data set is produced. It can thus be considered as a reference for the north-western Mediterranean and be used for estimating other flux data sets, for forcing regional models and for process studies. Compared with the adjusted fluxes, some operational numerical weather prediction models (ARPEGE, NCEP, ERA-INTERIM, ECMWF, and AROME), often used to force oceanic models, were evaluated: they are unable to retrieve the mean annual patterns and values.

  6. Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability of mixing and deep water masses for the 2007-2013 Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpert, L.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Testor, P.; Bosse, A.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Bouin, M. N.; Dausse, D.; Le Goff, H.; Kunesch, S.; Labaste, M.; Coppola, L.; Mortier, L.; Raimbault, P.

    2016-11-01

    We present here a unique oceanographic and meteorological data set focus on the deep convection processes. Our results are essentially based on in situ data (mooring, research vessel, glider, and profiling float) collected from a multiplatform and integrated monitoring system (MOOSE: Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment), which monitored continuously the northwestern Mediterranean Sea since 2007, and in particular high-frequency potential temperature, salinity, and current measurements from the mooring LION located within the convection region. From 2009 to 2013, the mixed layer depth reaches the seabed, at a depth of 2330m, in February. Then, the violent vertical mixing of the whole water column lasts between 9 and 12 days setting up the characteristics of the newly formed deep water. Each deep convection winter formed a new warmer and saltier "vintage" of deep water. These sudden inputs of salt and heat in the deep ocean are responsible for trends in salinity (3.3 ± 0.2 × 10-3/yr) and potential temperature (3.2 ± 0.5 × 10-3 C/yr) observed from 2009 to 2013 for the 600-2300 m layer. For the first time, the overlapping of the three "phases" of deep convection can be observed, with secondary vertical mixing events (2-4 days) after the beginning of the restratification phase, and the restratification/spreading phase still active at the beginning of the following deep convection event.

  7. Open-ocean convection process: A driver of the winter nutrient supply and the spring phytoplankton distribution in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, Tatiana; Kessouri, Faycal; Rembauville, Mathieu; Sánchez-Pérez, Elvia Denisse; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Ghiglione, Jean-François; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Mayot, Nicolas; Durrieu De Madron, Xavier; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude; Conan, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    This study was a part of the DeWEX project (Deep Water formation Experiment), designed to better understand the impact of dense water formation on the marine biogeochemical cycles. Here, nutrient and phytoplankton vertical and horizontal distributions were investigated during a deep open-ocean convection event and during the following spring bloom in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM). In February 2013, the deep convection event established a surface nutrient gradient from the center of the deep convection patch to the surrounding mixed and stratified areas. In the center of the convection area, a slight but significant difference of nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations was observed possibly due to the different volume of deep waters included in the mixing or to the sediment resuspension occurring where the mixing reached the bottom. One of this process, or a combination of both, enriched the water column in silicate and phosphate, and altered significantly the stoichiometry in the center of the deep convection area. This alteration favored the local development of microphytoplankton in spring, while nanophytoplankton dominated neighboring locations where the convection reached the deep layer but not the bottom. This study shows that the convection process influences both winter nutrients distribution and spring phytoplankton distribution and community structure. Modifications of the convection's spatial scale and intensity (i.e., convective mixing depth) are likely to have strong consequences on phytoplankton community structure and distribution in the NWM, and thus on the marine food web.Plain Language SummaryThe deep open-ocean convection in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea is an important process for the formation and the circulation of the deep waters of the entire <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, but also for the local spring phytoplankton bloom. In this study, we showed that variations of the convective mixing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.1297W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.1297W"><span>Modeling the intense 2012-2013 dense water formation event in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea: Evaluation with an ensemble simulation approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waldman, Robin; Somot, Samuel; Herrmann, Marine; Bosse, Anthony; Caniaux, Guy; Estournel, Claude; Houpert, Loic; Prieur, Louis; Sevault, Florence; Testor, Pierre</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea is a well-observed ocean deep convection site. Winter 2012-2013 was an intense and intensely documented dense water formation (DWF) event. We evaluate this DWF event in an ensemble configuration of the regional ocean model NEMOMED12. We then assess for the first time the impact of ocean intrinsic variability on DWF with a novel perturbed initial state ensemble method. Finally, we identify the main physical mechanisms driving water mass transformations. NEMOMED12 reproduces accurately the deep convection chronology between late January and March, its location off the Gulf of Lions although with a southward shift and its magnitude. It fails to reproduce the Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Deep Waters salinification and warming, consistently with too strong a surface heat loss. The Ocean Intrinsic Variability modulates half of the DWF area, especially in the open-sea where the bathymetry slope is low. It modulates marginally (3-5%) the integrated DWF rate, but its increase with time suggests its impact could be larger at interannual timescales. We conclude that ensemble frameworks are necessary to evaluate accurately numerical simulations of DWF. Each phase of DWF has distinct diapycnal and thermohaline regimes: during preconditioning, the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> thermohaline circulation is driven by exchanges with the Algerian basin. During the intense mixing phase, surface heat fluxes trigger deep convection and internal mixing largely determines the resulting deep water properties. During restratification, lateral exchanges and internal mixing are enhanced. Finally, isopycnal mixing was shown to play a large role in water mass transformations during the preconditioning and restratification phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1916163K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1916163K"><span>Nitrogen and phosphorus seasonal dynamics and annual budget in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> deep convection region inferred from a 3D physical/biogeochemical coupled model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kessouri, Fayçal; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude; Marsaleix, Patrick; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Severin, Tatiana; Caparros, Jocelyne; Raimbault, Patrick; Pasqueron de Fommervault, Orens; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Testor, Pierre; Conan, Pascal</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A multi-element biogeochemical model forced by a 1 km resolution hydrodynamical model was used to gain in understanding of the biogeochemical functioning of the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (NW Med), the only region in the whole <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea with a marked and recurrent spring bloom behavior related to the winter dense water formation characterizing this area. After an assessment of the simulation using satellite derived chlorophyll and Dewex project in situ nutrients observations, the nitrogen and phosphorus seasonal cycles were analyzed using model outputs on the period 2012-2013. Injections of nutrients during the wind intensification period allow the triggering of the autumn bloom. Then, convection in winter upwells large amounts of nutrients in the euphotic layer. When the conditions for phytoplankton development are gathered (reduction of vertical mixing, low grazing pressure), a bloom is triggered with a massive consumption of nutrients during more than one month resulting at the end of April in a depletion of nutrients at the surface. Nutrients consumption continues to deplete nutrients at increasing depth, increasing the nutriclines and deep chlorophyll maximum depths. That finally leads to the summer oligotrophy of the water column. Then a quantification of nitrogen and phosphorus budgets of the open-sea convection area was performed on an annual basis. The deep convection area represents a sink of nitrate and phosphate, and a source of organic nitrogen and phosphorus for the peripheric regions. Regarding the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, the deep-nitrate based new production is responsible for 19% of the total nitrogen uptake. This new production dominates during the winter deep convection and spring bloom periods. Finally, our results suggest that the NW Med open sea convection represents a major source of nutrients for the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> surface sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9097W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9097W"><span>1.4 kyrs of flash flood events in the Southern European Alps: implications for extreme precipitation patterns and forcing over the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Sabatier, P.; Crouzet, C.; Brisset, E.; Guiter, F.; Reyss, J. L.; Chaumillon, E.; Tachikawa, K.; Bard, E.; Delannoy, J. J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p> the general moisture, the hydrology of large rivers and temperature patterns of the south-western European region, i.e. a low flood activity during the warm/dry MCA and conversely during the cold/wet Little Ice Age (LIA). At a sub-centennial scale, a high variability of the flood frequency is superimposed to the general increase during the LIA and appeared in phase with solar maximum. Moreover peaks of flood frequency seem to be correlated with negative autumnal NAO phases, in agreement with previous paleoflood reconstructions of <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Spanish rivers. Finally the comparison of flood frequency patterns from <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> sites suggests a 50-150 years oscillation mode, probably related to a NAO-like pattern, in two main NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> atmospheric circulation patterns triggering extreme precipitations either over the Southern Alps or the Cevennes-Vivarais region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146501','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146501"><span>Monitoring Winter and Summer Abundance of Cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (<span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea) Through Aerial Surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Burt, Louise; Pierantonio, Nino; Donovan, Greg</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. To instigate such work in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. A total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer) sightings of 7 species was made. Sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% CI = 87–254) and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% CI = 12 939–29 273) and in summer (38 488; 95% CI = 27 447–53 968). Numbers of animals within the Sanctuary are significantly higher in summer, when human activities and thus potential population level impacts are highest. Comparisons with data from past shipboard surveys suggest an appreciable decrease in fin whales within the Sanctuary area and an appreciable increase in striped dolphins. Aerial surveys proved to be more efficient than ship surveys, allowing more robust estimates, with smaller CIs and CVs. These results provide essential baseline data for this marine protected area and continued regular surveys will allow the effectiveness of the MPA in terms of cetacean conservation to be evaluated and inform future management measures. The collected data may also be crucial in assessing whether ship strikes, one of the main causes of death for fin whales in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, are affecting the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> population. PMID:21829544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674086"><span>Effects of photochemical transformations of dissolved organic matter on bacterial metabolism and diversity in three contrasting coastal sites in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea during summer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abboudi, M; Jeffrey, W H; Ghiglione, J-F; Pujo-Pay, M; Oriol, L; Sempéré, R; Charrière, B; Joux, F</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>The effects of phototransformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on bacterial growth, production, respiration, growth efficiency, and diversity were investigated during summer in two lagoons and one oligotrophic coastal water samples from the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, differing widely in DOM and chromophoric DOM concentrations. Exposure of 0.2-microm filtered waters to full sun radiation for 1 d resulted in small changes in optical properties and concentrations of DOM, and no changes in nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate concentrations. After exposure to sunlight or dark (control) treatments, the water samples were inoculated with the original bacterial community. Phototransformation of DOM had contrasting effects on bacterial production and respiration, depending on the water's origin, resulting in an increase of bacterial growth efficiency for the oligotrophic coastal water sample (120%) and a decrease for the lagoon waters (20 to 40%) relative to that observed in dark treatments. We also observed that bacterial growth on DOM irradiated by full sun resulted in changes in community structure of total and metabolically active bacterial cells for the three locations studied when compared to the bacteria growing on un-irradiated DOM, and that changes were mainly caused by phototransformation of DOM by UV radiation for the eutrophic lagoon and the oligotrophic coastal water and by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for the mesoeutrophic lagoon. These initial results indicate that phototransformation of DOM significantly alters both bacterial metabolism and community structure in surface water for a variety of coastal ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate a more detailed appreciation of potential temporal and spatial variations of the effects measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS53B1043D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS53B1043D"><span>3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (<span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (<span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.5549L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.5549L"><span>Dense water formation in the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> area during HyMeX-SOP2 in 1/36° ocean simulations: Sensitivity to initial conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Bresson, Émilie; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia; Nuret, Mathieu</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur in autumn and winter. The succession of strong mistral and tramontane situations, leading to significant evaporation and ocean heat loss, is well known as the controlling factor in the dense water formation (DWF) with deep convection episodes. During HyMeX-SOP2 (1 February to 15 March 2013), several platforms sampled the area in order to document DWF and air-sea exchanges. This study investigates the ability of the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36°-resolution), driven in surface by the hourly air-sea fluxes from the AROME-WMED forecasts (2.5 km resolution), to represent DWF during HyMeX-SOP2 and focuses on the sensitivity to initial conditions. After a short evaluation of the atmospheric forcing, the high-resolution oceanic simulations using three different data sets as initial and boundary conditions are compared to observations collected during the field campaign. It evidences that using regional model outputs may lead to unrealistic thermohaline characteristics for the intermediate and deep waters, which degrade the simulated new dense water formed. Using ocean analyses built from observations, permits to obtain more realistic characteristics of the Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> dense water. However, a low stratification favors an overestimation of the convective area and of the DWF rate. The DWF chronology is also impacted. Nevertheless, in every run, SOP2 is characterized by the production of water denser than 29.11 kg m-3 with a peak during the strong mistral event of 23-25 February followed by a period of restratification, before a last event of bottom convection on 13-15 March.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..116...33M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..116...33M"><span>Bacteria as part of bioluminescence emission at the deep ANTARES station (<span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea) during a one-year survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martini, S.; Michotey, V.; Casalot, L.; Bonin, P.; Guasco, S.; Garel, M.; Tamburini, C.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Bioluminescent bacteria have been studied during a one-year survey in 2011 at the deep ANTARES site (<span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, 2000 m depth). The neutrino underwater telescope ANTARES, located at this station, has been used to record the bioluminescence at the same depth. Together with these data, environmental variables (potential temperature, salinity, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen) have been characterized in water samples. The year 2011 was characterized by relatively stable conditions, as revealed by minor variability in the monitored oceanographic variables, by low bioluminescence and low current speed. This suggests weak eukaryote participation and mainly non-stimulated light emission. Hence, no processes of dense water have affected the ANTARES station during this survey. Abundance of bioluminescent bacteria belonging to Photobacterium genus, measured by qPCR of the luxF gene, ranged from 1.4×102 to 7.2×102 genes mL-1. Their effective activity was confirmed through mRNA luxF quantification. Our results reveal that bioluminescent bacteria appeared more active than the total counterpart of bacteria, suggesting an ecological benefit of this feature such as favoring interaction with macro-organisms. Moreover, these results show that part of the bioluminescence, recorded at 2000 m depth over one year, could be due to bioluminescent bacteria in stable hydrological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.138..431O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.138..431O"><span>From egg production to recruits: Connectivity and inter-annual variability in the recruitment patterns of European anchovy in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ospina-Alvarez, Andres; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Bernal, Miguel; Roos, David; Palomera, Isabel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We show the application of a Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Model (SEIBM) to understand the recruitment process of European anchovy. The SEIBM is applied to simulate the effects of inter-annual variability in parental population spawning behavior and intensity, and ocean dynamics, on the dispersal of eggs and larvae from the spawning area in the Gulf of Lions (GoL) towards the coastal nursery areas in the GoL and Catalan Sea (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea). For each of seven years (2003-2009), we initialize the SEIBM with the real positions of anchovy eggs during the spawning peak, from an acoustics-derived eggs production model. We analyze the effect of spawners' distribution, timing of spawning, and oceanographic conditions on the connectivity patterns, growth, dispersal distance and late-larval recruitment (14 mm larva recruits, R14) patterns. The area of influence of the Rhône river plume was identified as having a high probability of larval recruitment success (64%), but up to 36% of R14 larvae end up in the Catalan Coast. We demonstrate that the spatial paths of larvae differ dramatically from year to year, and suggest potential offshore nursery grounds. We showed that our simulations are coherent with existing recruitment proxies and therefore open new possibilities for fisheries management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcDyn..66.1529D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcDyn..66.1529D"><span>Assessment of the coastal dynamics in a nested zoom and feedback on the boundary current: the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Declerck, Amandine; Ourmières, Yann; Molcard, Anne</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Northern Current (hereafter NC), the major current in the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (hereafter NWM) basin, has been largely investigated in the litterature for its mesoscale features. Its behaviour in the Var region can strongly condition the downstream flow along the Gulf of Lions shelf and Spain coast, making this zone a key area. However, the sub-mesoscale dynamics of the area and its potential impacts on the rest of the flow are not well known. This work reveals the potential interest of better simulating high-resolution dynamics in a restricted area and how this could improve the circulation representation in a larger area. To address this question, a very high resolution configuration (1/192∘) nested in an already existing high-resolution configuration (1/64∘) has been developed, using the NEMO model. Comparisons with observations show that the very high-resolution changes only weakly the mean NC characteristics but can significantly modify individual mesoscale events such as eddies and meanders occurring in the zoomed area. Furthermore, the coastal dynamics and episodic intrusions of a NC secondary branch inside a semi-enclosed bay appear to be significantly enhanced. In a second stage, the assessment of the feedback of this improved dynamics on the regional mesoscale dynamics is shown, this being allowed by the two-way coupling option of the embedded configuration using AGRIF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.7026U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.7026U"><span>Budget of organic carbon in the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> open sea over the period 2004-2008 using 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulses, C.; Auger, P.-A.; Soetaert, K.; Marsaleix, P.; Diaz, F.; Coppola, L.; Herrmann, M. J.; Kessouri, F.; Estournel, C.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model has been used to estimate a budget of organic carbon and its interannual variability over the 5 year period 2004-2008 in the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Open Sea (NWMOS). The comparison of its results with in situ and satellite observations reveals that the timing and the magnitude of the convection and bloom processes during the study period, marked by contrasted atmospheric conditions, are reasonably well reproduced by the model. Model outputs show that the amount of nutrients annually injected into the surface layer is clearly linked to the intensity of the events of winter convection. During cold winters, primary production is reduced by intense mixing events but then spectacularly increases when the water column restratifies. In contrast, during mild winters, the primary production progressively and continuously increases, sustained by moderate new production followed by regenerated production. Overall, interannual variability in the annual primary production is low. The export in subsurface and at middepth is however affected by the intensity of the convection process, with annual values twice as high during cold winters than during mild winters. Finally, the estimation of a global budget of organic carbon reveals that the NWMOS acts as a sink for the shallower areas and as a source for the Algerian and Balearic subbasins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.5367E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.5367E"><span>High resolution modeling of dense water formation in the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> during winter 2012-2013: Processes and budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estournel, Claude; Testor, Pierre; Damien, Pierre; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Marsaleix, Patrick; Conan, Pascal; Kessouri, Faycal; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Coppola, Laurent; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Belamari, Sophie; Mortier, Laurent; Ulses, Caroline; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Prieur, Louis</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The evolution of the stratification of the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> between summer 2012 and the end of winter 2013 was simulated and compared with different sets of observations. A summer cruise and profiler observations were used to improve the initial conditions of the simulation. This improvement was crucial to simulate winter convection. Variations of some parameters involved in air - sea exchanges (wind, coefficient of transfer used in the latent heat flux formulation, and constant additive heat flux) showed that the characteristics of water masses and the volume of dense water formed during convection cannot be simply related to the time-integrated buoyancy budget over the autumn - winter period. The volume of dense water formed in winter was estimated to be about 50,000 km3 with a density anomaly larger than 29.113 kg m-3. The effect of advection and air/sea fluxes on the heat and salt budget of the convection zone was quantified during the preconditioning phase and the mixing period. Destratification of the surface layer in autumn occurs through an interaction of surface and Ekman buoyancy fluxes associated with displacements of the North Balearic front bounding the convection zone to the south. During winter convection, advection stratifies the convection zone: from December to March, the absolute value of advection represents 58 % of the effect of surface buoyancy fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983288"><span>Occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbons in the surface microlayer and subsurface water from the urban coastal marine area off Marseilles, <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guigue, Catherine; Tedetti, Marc; Giorgi, Sébastien; Goutx, Madeleine</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Aliphatic (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in dissolved and particulate material from surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface water (SSW) sampled at nearshore observation stations, sewage effluents and harbour sites from Marseilles coastal area (<span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) in 2009 and 2010. Dissolved and particulate AH concentrations ranged 0.05-0.41 and 0.04-4.3 μg l(-1) in the SSW, peaking up to 38 and 1366 μg l(-1) in the SML, respectively. Dissolved and particulate PAHs ranged 1.9-98 and 1.9-21 ng l(-1) in the SSW, amounting up 217 and 1597 ng l(-1) in the SML, respectively. In harbours, hydrocarbons were concentrated in the SML, with enrichment factors reaching 1138 for particulate AHs. Besides episodic dominance of biogenic and pyrogenic inputs, a moderate anthropisation from petrogenic sources dominated suggesting the impact of shipping traffic and surface runoffs on this urbanised area. Rainfalls increased hydrocarbon concentrations by a factor 1.9-11.5 in the dissolved phase.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21482028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21482028"><span>An infection of Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960 (Monogenea) associated with the mortality of glass eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) on the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea board of Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grano-Maldonado, Mayra I; Gisbert, Enric; Hirt-Chabbert, Jorge; Paladini, Giuseppe; Roque, Ana; Bron, James E; Shinn, Andrew P</p> <p>2011-08-25</p> <p>The association of Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960 with the glass eel stage of Anguilla anguilla (L.) (total body length 61.4 ± 4.9 mm; range 55-70) is reported from the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coast of Spain for the first time. A sample of 12,600 glass eels, caught by professional fishermen operating in the mouth of the rivers Fluvià, La Muga and Ter (north-east Spain), was subject to mortalities of ∼ 1.75% of stock/day following transfer to a research facility. Subsequent losses over a 31-day period amounted to 56% of the initial stocked biomass. Although the moderate burdens of G. anguillae/host (20.2 ± 6; range 11-32) were the primary reason for a subsequent treatment, a simultaneous infection with Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958, Trichodina anguillae Wu, 1961 and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, makes it impossible to attribute the high mortality of glass eels in this case to a single pathogen. A histopathological examination of the gills of moribund fish showed them to be swollen, hyperplastic and necrotic. This study also redescribes G. anguillae, providing for the first time a full 27 character morphometric description of the attachment hooks, and importantly, a photographic record of the armature of the haptor and the male copulatory organ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26725754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26725754"><span>Marine litter on <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in <span class="hlt">north-western</span> Adriatic beaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Munari, Cristina; Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto; Mistri, Michele</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Marine litter is one descriptor in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This study provides the first account of an MSFD indicator (Trends in the amount of litter deposited on coastlines) for the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> Adriatic. Five beaches were sampled in 2015. Plastic dominated in terms of abundance, followed by paper and other groups. The average density was 0.2 litter items m(-2), but at one beach it raised to 0.57 items m(-2). The major categories were cigarette butts, unrecognizable plastic pieces, bottle caps, and others. The majority of marine litter came from land-based sources: shoreline and recreational activities, smoke-related activities and dumping. Sea-based sources contributed for less. The abundance and distribution of litter seemed to be particularly influenced by beach users, reflecting inadequate disposal practices. The solution to these problems involves implementation and enforcement of local educational and management policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ECSS...93..350C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ECSS...93..350C"><span>Ecological understanding for fishery management: Condition and growth of anchovy late larvae during different seasons in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Costalago, D.; Tecchio, S.; Palomera, I.; Álvarez-Calleja, I.; Ospina-Álvarez, A.; Raicevich, S.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The fishery of the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> needs several ecological approaches to be properly managed. As such, several surveys were carried out to study the ecology of larvae and juveniles of this species, which reproduces during the warmest period of the year (May through September) in the Gulf of Lions. In particular, we studied the late larvae (15 mm total length until metamorphosis), especially as other authors have focused on larvae below that size. Unexpectedly, we also collected anchovy late larvae during the December 2007 survey, whose range in size corresponded to a later spawning period than previously reported. Differences in the nutritional condition of these larvae were assessed by comparing indices of lipid composition and estimating growth rates from otolith measurements to provide information on the probability of survival between the two groups. The analysis of fatty acids, used as tracers of trophic relationships, indicates that these larvae fed mainly on zooplankton. Nutritional conditions of summer and late autumn larvae were very similar. In contrast, growth rates were higher for August larvae, probably due to the different temperatures in the two seasons. Our results are especially relevant in an ecological context where the increasing mean water temperatures in the Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> could favor the extension of the anchovy spawning period up to late-Autumn months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GML....33..319G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GML....33..319G"><span>The Dnepr <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: evidence for a continuous submarine channel link between the outer shelf and the deep-sea basin of the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Black Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gulin, Sergei B.; Artemov, Yuriy G.; Egorov, Viktor N.; Evtushenko, Dmitriy B.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Multibeam bathymetric surveys and single-beam profiles were collected in 2003-2010 from aboard the Ukrainian RV Professor Vodyanitskiy (cruises PV-58 and PV-60, 2003 and 2004), and the German RV Meteor (cruise M-72, legs 1 and 4, 2007) and RV Maria S. Merian (cruise MSM-15, leg 2, 2010) along the continental margin of the NW Black Sea. Integrating published, reprocessed and novel data has revealed the existence of a major continuous channel extending from the Dnepr paleo-delta into greater water depths. It is more than 90 km long, 1.1 km wide and up to 125 m deep. On the upper slope (120-960 m water depth), a number of smaller channels merge into the large, Y-shaped Dnepr <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, which then continues obliquely downslope via this submarine channel to at least 1,815 m water depth off the Crimean continental margin, NW Black Sea. The channel could be an important, hitherto unknown link between the shallow oxic and deep anoxic environments of the Black Sea, along which sediment and organic matter could be funneled into the deep-sea basin. This would have far-reaching implications for investigations dealing with marine geology and biology, climate change, as well as oil and natural gas exploitation. The unusual alignment of the channel along the margin of the basin, as well as the location and mode of channel termination in deeper waters deserve future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1584234','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1584234"><span>Trace metal concentrations in Posidonia oceanica of North Corsica (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea): use as a biological monitor?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gosselin, Marc; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Lefèbvre, Frédéric; Lepoint, Gilles; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Gobert, Sylvie</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Background Within semi-closed areas like the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, anthropic wastes tend to concentrate in the environment. Metals, in particular, are known to persist in the environment and can affect human health due to accumulation in the food chain. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely found in <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal waters, has been chosen as a "sentinel" to quantify the distribution of such pollutants within the marine environment. Using a technique similar to dendrochronology in trees, it can act as an indicator of pollutant levels over a timeframe of several months to years. In the present study, we measured and compared the levels of eight trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb) in sheaths dated by lepidochronology and in leaves of shoots sampled from P. oceanica meadows collected from six offshore sites in northern Corsica between 1988 and 2004; in the aim to determine 1) the spatial and 2) temporal variations of these metals in these areas and 3) to compared these two types of tissues. Results We found low trace metal concentrations with no increase over the last decade, confirming the potential use of Corsican seagrass beds as reference sites for the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. Temporal trends of trace metal concentrations in sheaths were not significant for Cr, Ni, Cu, As or Se, but Zn, Cd, and Pb levels decreased, probably due to the reduced anthropic use of these metals. Similar temporal trends between Cu levels in leaves (living tissue) and in sheaths (dead tissue) demonstrated that lepidochronology linked with Cu monitoring is effective for surveying the temporal variability of this metal. Conclusion Leaves of P. oceanica can give an indication of the metal concentration in the environment over a short time period (months) with good accuracy. On the contrary, sheaths, which gave an indication of changes over long time periods (decades), seem to be less sensitive to variations in the metal concentration in the environment. Changes in human</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMS...113...75C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMS...113...75C"><span>Deep-sea macroplankton distribution (at 400 to 2300 m) in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> in relation to environmental factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; López-Pérez, C.; Lebrato, M.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Changes in the composition and biomass distribution of deep-living zooplankton over wide gradients of depth (400-2300 m) and longitude (~ 180 km) have been analyzed in the Balearic Basin (western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>), seeking the environmental variables responsible for these changes. Zooplankton tends to aggregate at different levels of the water column (forming Deep Scattering Layers, DSL) and in the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL). Macrozooplankton biomass and composition were analyzed along a transect performed in July 2010 in midwater (between ~ 350 and 450 m) and near the bottom (at ~ 5-200 mab), over soundings of 450-2263 m, including the top of Valencia Seamount (at ~ 40° 25' N-02° 42' E, 1076 m). Zooplankton changed significantly in composition at the mesoscale (~ 180 km) in both the DSL and the BBL. Siphonophores and calanoid copepods were the most dominant deep zooplankton taxa, calanoids reaching higher abundance in the BBL (1761-5177 individuals/1000 m3) than in the DSL (1568-1743 individuals/1000 m3). There was a significant increase in near-bottom zooplankton biomass over the middle slope, at 1000-1300 m, linked to an increase in scyphozoans and siphonophores (Lensia spp. and Abylopsis tetragona) with peaks of 1.5-2.0 gWW/1000 m3. The peak of near-bottom zooplankton at 1000-1300 m coincided with the lowest temperatures (13.08 °C) and maximum O2 concentration (4.40 ml/l) near the bottom and below 1000 m with higher records in near-bottom turbidity. Gelatinous zooplankton are the main prey in the diet of the demersal fish Alepocephalus rostratus in the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, fish responsible for the peak of megafauna biomass reported at around 1200-1400 m in the deep <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> and at similar depths in other oceanic areas (e.g. the NW Atlantic). We suggest that deep-sea environmental conditions can govern peaks of near-bottom zooplankton, as well as influence the structure of the demersal fish community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..113...33T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..113...33T"><span>Role of deep convection on anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in the Gulf of Lions (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.; Houpert, L.; de Madron, X. Durrieu; Lefèvre, D.; Stabholz, M.; Guglielmi, V.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The most active deep convection area in the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea is located in the Gulf of Lions. Recent studies in this area provides some insights on the complexity of the physical dynamics of convective regions, but very little is known about their impacts on the biogeochemical properties. The CASCADE (CAscading, Surge, Convection, Advection and Downwelling Events) cruise, planed in winter 2011, give us the opportunity to compare vertical profiles of properties sampled either during stratified conditions or after/during a convection event. In the present study, we focus on the distributions of the carbonate system properties (mainly total alkalinity, AT; and total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT) because, in the context of the climate change, deep convection areas are suspected to significantly increase the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 (CANT). Given its limited size, the impact of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea on the global carbon budget is probably minor but this marginal sea can be used as a laboratory to better understand carbon sequestration and its transfer to the basin interior by deep convection processes. Distributions of AT and CT, both measured from bottle samples, and that of CANT (estimated with the TrOCA approach) are first analyzed in the light of other key properties (salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen). An objective interpolation procedure is then applied to estimate CT and AT from CTD measured properties. With this procedure, the vertical resolution goes from a maximum of 32 samples per station to one property estimate every meter (more detailed distributions are obtained). Results provide arguments to conclude that CANT is rapidly transferred to the deepest layer due to deep convection events. During deep convection events, the increase of CANT in the water column is positively correlated to that of potential density and oxygen content. The challenge of quantifying the amount of sequestered carbon is however not resolved due to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965615"><span>Trace metal concentrations in Posidonia oceanica of North Corsica (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea): use as a biological monitor?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gosselin, Marc; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Lefèbvre, Frédéric; Lepoint, Gilles; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Gobert, Sylvie</p> <p>2006-09-11</p> <p>Within semi-closed areas like the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, anthropic wastes tend to concentrate in the environment. Metals, in particular, are known to persist in the environment and can affect human health due to accumulation in the food chain. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely found in <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal waters, has been chosen as a "sentinel" to quantify the distribution of such pollutants within the marine environment. Using a technique similar to dendrochronology in trees, it can act as an indicator of pollutant levels over a timeframe of several months to years. In the present study, we measured and compared the levels of eight trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb) in sheaths dated by lepidochronology and in leaves of shoots sampled from P. oceanica meadows collected from six offshore sites in northern Corsica between 1988 and 2004; in the aim to determine 1) the spatial and 2) temporal variations of these metals in these areas and 3) to compared these two types of tissues. We found low trace metal concentrations with no increase over the last decade, confirming the potential use of Corsican seagrass beds as reference sites for the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. Temporal trends of trace metal concentrations in sheaths were not significant for Cr, Ni, Cu, As or Se, but Zn, Cd, and Pb levels decreased, probably due to the reduced anthropic use of these metals. Similar temporal trends between Cu levels in leaves (living tissue) and in sheaths (dead tissue) demonstrated that lepidochronology linked with Cu monitoring is effective for surveying the temporal variability of this metal. Leaves of P. oceanica can give an indication of the metal concentration in the environment over a short time period (months) with good accuracy. On the contrary, sheaths, which gave an indication of changes over long time periods (decades), seem to be less sensitive to variations in the metal concentration in the environment. Changes in human consumption of metals (e.g., the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CorRe..31..823G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CorRe..31..823G"><span>Reproductive cycle and trophic ecology in deep versus shallow populations of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> gorgonian Eunicella singularis (Cap de Creus, <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gori, A.; Viladrich, N.; Gili, J.-M.; Kotta, M.; Cucio, C.; Magni, L.; Bramanti, L.; Rossi, S.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The annual gonad development of a shallow (20 m depth) population of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> gorgonian Eunicella singularis was found to be closely synchronized with that of a deep (60 m depth) population, but differences were observed in the gonadal output, with the shallow population producing more and larger sexual products. Lipid content in the shallow population showed a marked seasonality, peaking during summer. In contrast, lipid content remained persistently lower in the deep population. Fatty acids as well as C/N composition were also seasonal in the shallow population and more constant in the deep one. The isotopic composition (δ15N and δ13C) of the shallow colonies was similar to values observed for passive suspension feeders with symbiotic algae, whereas the deep colonies exhibited values similar to those of aposymbiotic passive suspension feeders that primarily feed on microzooplankton and particulate organic matter. These results highlight the importance of considering the depth-related variability among populations in order to achieve a better understanding of the ecology of sessile benthic suspension feeders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ECSS..186...30L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ECSS..186...30L"><span>Nutrient dynamics under different ocean acidification scenarios in a low nutrient low chlorophyll system: The <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Louis, J.; Guieu, C.; Gazeau, F.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Two pelagic mesocosm experiments were conducted to study the impact of ocean acidification on <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> plankton communities. A first experiment took place in summer 2012 in the Bay of Calvi (France) followed by an experiment in winter 2013 in the Bay of Villefranche (France) under pre-bloom conditions. Nine mesocosms were deployed: three served as controls and six were acidified in a targeted partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) gradient from 450 to 1250 μatm. The evolution of dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient concentrations was observed using nanomolar techniques. The experiments were characterized by a large contribution of organic nutrients to nutrient pools and contrasting in situ conditions with an inorganic N/P ratio of 1.7 in summer and of 117 in winter. In the Bay of Calvi, initial conditions were representative of the summer oligotrophic <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. While inorganic phosphate concentrations were depleted during both experiments, in situ inorganic nitrogen concentrations were higher in winter. However, nitrate was rapidly consumed in winter in all mesocosms during the acidification phase, leading to a decrease in N/P ratio to 13. During these first mesocosm experiments conducted in a low nutrient low chlorophyll area, nutrient dynamics were insensitive to CO2 enrichment, indicating that nutrient speciation and related biological processes were likely not impacted. During both experiments, nitrate and phosphate dynamics were controlled by the activity of small species that are favored in low nutrient conditions. In contrast to the theoretical knowledge, no increase in iron solubility at high pCO2 was observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26869047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26869047"><span>Relationships between trace elements in Posidonia oceanica shoots and in sediment fractions along Latium coasts (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bravo, I; Focaracci, F; Cerfolli, F; Papetti, P</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica is widely used as a sensitive bioindicator of trace elements (TEs) in the coastal environment. Therefore, a bulk of data exist on TE levels from impacted versus unpolluted sites while only recent studies started comparing TE accumulation in plant compartments versus both water column and sediment characteristics. In this study, six TEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb) were analyzed in P. oceanica shoots related to depth (-10 and -20 m) and to TE concentrations in the different grain size fractions of the sediment, from two Sites of Community interest (SIC) in the central Tyrrhenian Sea. TE concentrations in both shoots and sediment were generally low, except for Cr. Cu was the only element showing significantly different concentrations at the two sites while As differed significantly between samples taken at different depths. TE concentrations in the unsieved sediment were found uncorrelated to TEs in shoots except for the important nutrient Cu (positive correlation). The finest sediment fractions were enriched in TEs and significantly correlated to Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations in the shoots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27262669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27262669"><span>Identifying the drivers of abundance and size of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> lagoons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Delpy, Floriane; Albouy-Boyer, Séverine; Pagano, Marc; Thibault, Delphine; Blanchot, Jean; Guilhaumon, François; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Bonnet, Delphine</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Acknowledged as among the worst invasive marine species, Mnemiopsis leidyi has spread through European Seas since the mid-1980's. Here we report a bimonthly survey conducted in 2010-11 in three lagoons (Bages-Sigean, Thau and Berre) and at two adjacent coastal stations (Sète and SOMLIT-Marseille) along the French <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coast. M. leidyi was present only in Berre and Bages-Sigean with maximum abundances observed in late summer. M. leidyi adults were present year round in Berre with the largest organisms (∼6 cm) observed in April. In Bages-Sigean, they occurred in sufficient abundance to be recorded by fishermen between August and November. Multiple linear regressions highlighted that abundance in both lagoons was mainly influenced by direct effects of salinity and chlorophyll-a, and temperature to a lesser extent. While M. leidyi has not yet been recorded in Thau, the lagoon is continually monitored to detect the potential establishment of M. leidyi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6696W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6696W"><span>Estimating dense water volume and its evolution for the year 2012-2013 in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea: An observing system simulation experiment approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waldman, Robin; Somot, Samuel; Herrmann, Marine; Testor, Pierre; Estournel, Claude; Sevault, Florence; Prieur, Louis; Mortier, Laurent; Coppola, Laurent; Taillandier, Vincent; Conan, Pascal; Dausse, Denis</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (NWMed) Sea includes one of the best observed ocean deep convection sites in the World. An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) is developed to provide a methodology for estimating observing network errors. It is applied to quantify dense water volumes in the NWMed during 2012-2013 with their observation error from MOOSE network. Results from the OSSE show low spatiotemporal sampling errors, which confirms MOOSE network ability to measure dense waters. However, results are highly sensitive to instrumental stability. The dense water volume is then estimated in observations from four ship cruises between summers 2012 and 2013. A large seasonal cycle is found, maximal in spring 2013 and dominated by the area west of 6.5°E. The dense water volume (σ0>29.11 kg/m3) is stable between summer 2012 (13.3±0.6 × 1013 m3) and winter 2013 (13.7±1.3 × 1013 m3). It increases dramatically in spring 2013 (17.7±0.9 × 1013 m3) due to an intense convective event, and it finally decreases rapidly in summer 2013 (15.1±0.6 × 1013 m3) due to restratification and spreading. We estimate an open-sea dense water formation (DWF) rate of 1.4±0.3 Sv between summer 2012 and spring 2013 over the studied area, extrapolated to 2.3±0.5 Sv over the whole NWMed Sea and for the optimal timing. This is to our knowledge the highest measured DWF rate, suggesting winter 2013 was exceptionally convective. The observed restratification rate between spring and summer 2013 is -0.8±0.4 Sv. This study provides robust quantifications of deep convection during an exceptional event that will allow to evaluate numerical simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.199..222C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.199..222C"><span>The open sea as the main source of methylmercury in the water column of the Gulf of Lions (<span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> margin)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cossa, Daniel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Schäfer, Jörg; Lanceleur, Laurent; Guédron, Stéphane; Buscail, Roselyne; Thomas, Bastien; Castelle, Sabine; Naudin, Jean-Jacques</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Despite the ecologic and economical importance of coastal areas, the neurotoxic bioaccumulable monomethylmercury (MMHg) fluxes within the ocean margins and exchanges with the open sea remain unassessed. The aim of this paper is to address the questions of the abundance, distribution, production and exchanges of methylated mercury species (MeHgT), including MMHg and dimethylmercury (DMHg), in the waters, atmosphere and sediments of the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> margin including the Rhône River delta, the continental shelf and its slope (Gulf of Lions) and the adjacent open sea (North Gyre). Concentrations of MeHgT ranged from <0.02 to 0.48 pmol L-1 with highest values associated with the oxygen-deficient zone of the open sea. The methylated mercury to total mercury proportion (MeHgT/HgT) increased from 2% to 4% in the Rhône River to up to 30% (averaging 18%) in the North Gyre waters, whereas, within the shelf waters, MeHgT/HgT proportions were the lowest (1-3%). We calculate that the open sea is the major source of MeHgT for the shelf waters, with an annual flux estimated at 0.68 ± 0.12 kmol a-1 (i.e., equivalent to 12% of the HgT flux). This MeHgT influx is more than 80 times the direct atmospheric deposition or the in situ net production, more than 40 times the estimated ;maximum potential; annual efflux from shelf sediment, and more than 7 times that of the continental sources. In the open sea, ratios of MMHg/DMHg in waters were always <1 and minimum in the oxygen deficient zones of the water column, where MeHg concentrations are maximum. This observation supports the idea that MMHg could be a degradation product of DMHg produced from inorganic divalent Hg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27670205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27670205"><span>Modelling the relationship between zooplankton biomass and environmental variations in the distribution of (210)Po during a one year cycle in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Färber Lorda, Jaime; Tateda, Yutaka; Fowler, Scott W</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>To clarify the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the environmental kinetics of the natural radionuclide (210)Po during a one-year period (October 1995 to November 1996) in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal waters, a modelling analysis was applied. Using (210)Po concentrations in seawater and zooplankton, the (210)Po uptake rate constant from food for zooplankton was evaluated using a biokinetics calculation involving the uptake and the excretion rate constants between seawater and zooplankton. Using the transfer constants obtained, the (210)Po concentrations in zooplankton were reconstructed and validated by observed concentrations. The simulation results were in good agreement with the measured (210)Po concentrations in zooplankton. Assuming that (210)Po fecal excretion represents the majority of the excretion of (210)Po from zooplankton, the fecal matter associated (210)Po vertical flux was calculated, and compared with the observed vertical fluxes of (210)Po measured in sediment traps. The modelling evaluation showed that fecal pellet vertical transport could not fully explain the observed sinking fluxes of particulate organic matter at 150 m depth, suggesting that other sinking biodetrital aggregates are also important components of the plankton-derived vertical flux of (210)Po. The relationship between (210)Po concentration in seawater and that in rain and dry fallout and their potential effect on (210)Po concentrations in zooplankton at this location were also examined. A similar, but diphased trend between (210)Po in zooplankton and (210)Po in rain and dry fallout deposition rate was demonstrated. (210)Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater tended to diminish as mean daily rainfall increased suggesting that rain inputs serve as a (210)Po dilution mechanism in seawater at this location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3067299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3067299"><span>Quantitative PCR Coupled with Melt Curve Analysis for Detection of Selected Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) from the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Andree, Karl B.; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Elandaloussi, Laurence M.; Quijano-Scheggia, Sonia; Sampedro, Nagore; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Diogène, Jorge</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The frequency and intensity of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms along the coast of Catalonia have been increasing over the past 20 years. As species from this genus that are documented as toxigenic have been found in local waters, with both toxic and nontoxic species cooccurring in the same bloom, there is a need to develop management tools for discriminating the difference. Currently, differentiation of toxic and nontoxic species requires time-consuming electron microscopy to distinguish taxonomic features that would allow identification as to species, and cryptic species can still remain misidentified. In this study, cells of Pseudo-nitzschia from clonal cultures isolated from seawater were characterized to their species identity using scanning electron microscopy, and subsamples of each culture were used to create an internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), 5.8S, and ITS-2 ribosomal DNA database for development of species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Once developed, these qPCR assays were applied to field samples collected over a 2-year period in Alfaques Bay in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea to evaluate the possibility of a comprehensive surveillance for all Pseudo-nitzschia spp. using molecular methods to supplement optical microscopy, which can discern taxonomy only to the genus level within this taxon. Total Pseudo-nitzschia cell density was determined by optical microscopy from water samples collected weekly and compared to results obtained from the sum of eight Pseudo-nitzschia species-specific qPCR assays using duplicate samples. Species-specific qPCR followed by melt curve analysis allowed differentiation of amplicons and identification of false positives, and results correlated well with the total Pseudo-nitzschia cell counts from optical microscopy. PMID:21193668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3795480','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3795480"><span>Can Satellite-derived Chlorophyll Imagery Be Used to Trace Surface Dynamics in Coastal Zone? A Case Study in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Forget, Philippe; André, Gael</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A comparison of chlorophyll data from SeaWiFS imagery and modeling results from a 3D hydrodynamical model was performed over the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> for the entire year of 2001. The study aims at investigating the information content brought by satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration ([Chl]) maps concerning surface dynamics in coastal zone. The study is mainly focused on the Gulf of Lions (GoL) and its outer region, which are mainly influenced by the Rhône River, local winds and the Northern Current (NC) flowing from the East along the continental slope. The physical hydrodynamical model was continuously run and 40 SeaWiFS images, presenting a significant coverage of the studied area, were selected. The comparison between [Chl] and sea surface salinity (SSS) fields on a pixel basis showed no definite correlation trends. Three reasons are given in discussion for that result. However, the comparison emphasized areas close to the coasts which were under the influence of different inputs not considered in the model and also of upwellings. A qualitative analysis of the data performed out of these regions exhibited significant similarities between [Chl] and SSS features. The signature of the Rhône ROFI (Region of Fresh Water Influence) and, in some cases, of the NC, was evidenced on [Chl] maps. We found that the intensity of this signature is seasonally modulated, e.g., it is low in open sea during the summer, oligotrophic, season. In addition, the signature of the Rhône ROFI in the western part of the GoL can be only partial due to local chlorophyll deficits. We conclude that, for the regional case studied, chlorophyll imagery can be used as a tracer of surface dynamics through surface salinity but with limitations, especially near the coasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21193668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21193668"><span>Quantitative PCR coupled with melt curve analysis for detection of selected pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) from the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andree, Karl B; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Elandaloussi, Laurence M; Quijano-Scheggia, Sonia; Sampedro, Nagore; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Diogène, Jorge</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The frequency and intensity of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms along the coast of Catalonia have been increasing over the past 20 years. As species from this genus that are documented as toxigenic have been found in local waters, with both toxic and nontoxic species cooccurring in the same bloom, there is a need to develop management tools for discriminating the difference. Currently, differentiation of toxic and nontoxic species requires time-consuming electron microscopy to distinguish taxonomic features that would allow identification as to species, and cryptic species can still remain misidentified. In this study, cells of Pseudo-nitzschia from clonal cultures isolated from seawater were characterized to their species identity using scanning electron microscopy, and subsamples of each culture were used to create an internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), 5.8S, and ITS-2 ribosomal DNA database for development of species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Once developed, these qPCR assays were applied to field samples collected over a 2-year period in Alfaques Bay in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea to evaluate the possibility of a comprehensive surveillance for all Pseudo-nitzschia spp. using molecular methods to supplement optical microscopy, which can discern taxonomy only to the genus level within this taxon. Total Pseudo-nitzschia cell density was determined by optical microscopy from water samples collected weekly and compared to results obtained from the sum of eight Pseudo-nitzschia species-specific qPCR assays using duplicate samples. Species-specific qPCR followed by melt curve analysis allowed differentiation of amplicons and identification of false positives, and results correlated well with the total Pseudo-nitzschia cell counts from optical microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS13B1521H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS13B1521H"><span>Will the French Riviera disappear? Ancient and present day submarine landslides along the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> Ligurian Margin (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) under the microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hassoun, V.; Migeon, S.; Larroque, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The integration between seismic-reflection and bathymetric data highlighted more than one thousand and three hundred ancient and recent scars and Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) related to submarine failures along the whole northern margin of the Ligurian Basin. Several types of failures are pointed out along the margin according to their morphology, distribution and origin: (1) Numerous superficial landslides affected largely the inner walls of <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and the upper continental slope at the vicinity of the main mountain-supplied rivers where the sedimentation rates are the strongest and thus contribute to the progressive stressing of the slope. This type of scars is mainly observed in the western margin where the thickness of plio-quaternary sediment is the lowest. (2) Large-scale scars and successive MTDs affecting the upper part of interfluves in the Gulf of Genova (Finale Slide and Portofino Slide) could have been triggered by earthquakes as well as by indirect effects of the last sea level drop. (3) At the north-eastern margin, offshore of Imperia, there is a large promontory bounded by a network of N60°E faults on its southern side and characterized by the presence of many landslides of variable sizes associated to unconformities could correspond to the different phases of recent, and perhaps present-day, uplift of the Imperia Promontory. (4) Deep scars along the base of the continental slope and possibly related to the seismic activity of a neighbouring fault, as the Cirque Marcel located near the Marcel Fault which appears on the seafloor as a 10-km long scarp trending N60°E. (5) In the western basin, near of the foot of the continental slope, the bathymetry is mark by a convexity which corresponds on the seismic data to the superposition of several thick MTDs. (6) In the deep basin and the eastern part of the Ligurian Basin, the thick plio-quaternary deposits are constitute by an alternation between continuous reflectors corresponding to hemipelagic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014116','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014116"><span>Modes of development of slope <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and their relation to channel and levee features on the Ebro sediment apron, off-shore northeastern Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>O'Connell, S.; Ryan, William B. F.; Normark, W.R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Six submarine slope <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in an area of the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, offshore from the Ebro River and Delta, were surveyed with bathymetric swathmapping (SeaBeam) and mid-range side-looking sonar (SeaMARC I). All of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> have slightly winding paths with concave-upwards gradients that are relatively steep shallower than 1,200 m. Two major types of <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are identified on the basis of their morphologic character at the base of the slope; Type-I <span class="hlt">canyons</span> lead to an unchannelled base-of-slope deposit and Type-II <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are continuous with channel-levee systems that cross the rise. Four Type-I <span class="hlt">canyons</span> were surveyed in the area. Two of these are broad, U-shaped, steep (average gradients of 1:14), do not indent the shelf, and terminate downslope at debris-flow deposits. These two <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, the most northern in the area, have rounded heads with extensive gullies separated by knife-edge ridges. Relief of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls is about equal on both sides of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, although the right-hand walls (looking downslope) are generally steeper. The other two Type-I <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in the area are similar in that they do not indent the shelf, but they are much smaller and shallower and coalesce before terminating in the base-of-slope region. The two Type-II <span class="hlt">canyons</span> that feed leveed-channels are U-shaped with flatter floors, longer profiles and gentler gradients than Type-I <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. They are closer to the Valencia Valley and have relatively small cross-sectional areas. We propose a four-stage evolutionary sequence to explain the development of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> observed in this section on the prograding Ebro margin. During the initial stage, slumping and erosion on the slope creates a network of small gullies. During the next stage, headward growth of one (or more) gully leads to a major indentation of the shelf. This is the critical factor for developing a channel that will incise the slope and provide a major conduit for moving sediment to the basin. Stage 3 is characterized by the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1286995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1286995"><span>Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.; Kellogg, Christina A.</p> <p>2015-01-14</p> <p>Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1286995-life-style-genome-structure-marine-pseudoalteromonas-siphovirus-b8b-isolated-from-northwestern-mediterranean-sea','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1286995-life-style-genome-structure-marine-pseudoalteromonas-siphovirus-b8b-isolated-from-northwestern-mediterranean-sea"><span>Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; ...</p> <p>2015-01-14</p> <p>Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested,more » >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25587991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25587991"><span>Life-style and genome structure of marine Pseudoalteromonas siphovirus B8b isolated from the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B; Acinas, Silvia G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294664','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294664"><span>Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new ‘rare virosphere’ phage–host model system. PMID:25587991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..159I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..159I"><span>Spatial and temporal infaunal dynamics of the Blanes submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-slope system (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>); changes in nematode standing stocks, feeding types and gender-life stage ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Romano, Chiara; Coenjaerts, Johan; Mar Flexas, M.; Zúñiga, Diana; Martin, Daniel</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Despite recent advances in the knowledge of submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> ecosystems, our understanding of the faunal patterns and processes in these environments is still marginal. In this study, meiobenthic nematode communities (from 300 m to 1600 m depth) obtained in November 2003 and May 2004 at eight stations inside and outside Blanes submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> were analysed for nematode standing stocks (SSs), feeding types and gender-life stage distributions. Environmental data were obtained by sediment traps and current meters, attached to moorings (April 2003-May 2004), and sediments samples analysed for biogeochemistry and grain size (May 2004). In November 2003, nematode SSs decreased with increasing depth (367.2 individuals and 7.31 μg C per 10 cm2 at 388 m water depth to 7.7 individuals and 0.18 μg C per 10 cm2 at 1677 m water depth), showing a significant negative relation (abundance: R2 = 0.620, p = 0.020; biomass: R2 = 0.512, p = 0.046). This was not the case in May 2004 (283.5 individuals and 3.53 μg C per 10 cm2 at 388 m water depth to 490.8 individuals and 4.93 μg C per 10 cm2 at 1677 m water depth; abundance: R2 = 0.003, p = 0.902; biomass: R2 = 0.052, p = 0.587), suggesting a temporal effect that overrides the traditional decrease of SSs with increasing water depth. Both water depth and sampling time played a significant role in explaining nematode SSs, but with differences between stations. No overall differences were observed between <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and open slope stations. Nematode standing stock (SS) patterns can be explained by taking into account the interplay of phytodetrital input and disturbance events, with station differences such as topography playing an important role. Individual nematode size decreased from November 2003 to May 2004 and was explained by a food-induced genera shift and/or a food-induced transition from a ‘latent’ to a ‘reproductive’ nematode community. Our results suggest that size patterns in nematode communities are not solely</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR....97...32S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR....97...32S"><span>Benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients in sublittoral fine sands in a <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sospedra, J.; Falco, S.; Morata, T.; Gadea, I.; Rodilla, M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Traditionally, benthic metabolism in sublittoral permeable sands have not been widely studied, although these sands can have a direct and transcendental impact in coastal ecosystems. This study aims to determine oxygen and nutrient fluxes at the sediment-water interface and the study of possible interactions among environmental variables and the benthic metabolism in well-sorted fine sands. Eight sampling campaigns were carried out over the annual cycle in the eastern coast of Spain (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) at 9 m depth station with permeable bottoms. Water column and sediment samples were collected in order to determine physico-chemical and biological variables. Moreover, in situ incubations were performed to estimate the exchange of dissolved solutes in the sediment-water interface using dark and light benthic chambers. Biochemical compounds at the sediment surface ranged between 160 and 744 μg g-1 for proteins, 296 and 702 μg g-1 for carbohydrates, and between 327 and 1224 μg C g-1 for biopolymeric carbon. Chloroplastic pigment equivalents in sediments were mainly composed by chlorophyll a (1.81-2.89 μg g-1). These sedimentary organic descriptors indicated oligotrophic conditions according to the biochemical approach used. In this sense, the most abundant species in the macrobenthic community were sensitive to organic enrichment. In dark conditions, benthic fluxes behaved as a sink of oxygen and a source of nutrients. Oxygen fluxes (between -26,610 and -10,635 μmol m-2 d-1) were related with labile organic fraction (r=-0.86, p<0.01 with biopolymeric carbon; r=-0.91, p<0.01 with chloroplastic pigment equivalents). Daily fluxes of dissolved oxygen, that were obtained by adding light and dark fluxes, were only positive in spring campaigns (6966 μmol m-2 d-1) owing to the highest incident irradiance levels (r=0.98, p<0.01) that stimulate microphytobenthic primary production. Microphytobenthos played an important role on benthic metabolism and was the main primary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615217H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615217H"><span>Monitoring of Intense Events of Deep Water Formations in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> over the last five years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houpert, Loïc; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Testor, Pierre; Bosse, Anthony; Mortier, Laurent</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A multi-platforms and integrated monitoring system in the framework of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE) enables to monitor the deep water formation processes. Since 2007, it provides high frequency in-situ temperature, salinity vertical profiles, derived from CTD measurements on moorings, ships, and gliders, as well as horizontal and vertical currents from moorings. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal scales associated to the deep convection phases. We also studied the interannual variability of the deep convection and its implication in the evolution of deep water thermohaline characteristics. Recent measurements from the mooring lines reveal the temporal evolution of the physical processes interfering in the phases of deep convection. Horizontal currents were strongly equivalent barotropic during each deployment and strong currents were also recorded during the different events of deep ocean convection: high frequencies vertical velocities exceeded 10 cm.s-1 during the violent vertical mixing phase and strong mesoscale horizontal currents reached 40cm.s-1 during the spreading/restratification phase. Using a eddy-detection method based on a kinematic model, more than 34 eddies crossing the mooring line were detected between November 2009 and July 2012, 19 cyclones and 15 anticyclones. The radii (resp. velocities) ranging from 1.9 km to 20.0 km (resp. 2.5 cm.s-1 to 25.1 cm.s-1 ). The main mode of the distribution of eddies radii is centered at 4km for the cyclones and 5km for the anticyclones. The apparition of newly-formed deep waters was detected in winter 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. In winter 2010, two newly-formed deep waters were detected after the deep convection event, both present a different potential temperature but a similar salinity, suggesting that both might be formed in the cyclonic gyre, but in different locations. In 2012, two new deep waters were detected at the mooring location, one was identified as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.5379R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.5379R"><span>Carbonate chemistry in sediment porewaters of the Rhône River delta driven by early diagenesis (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rassmann, Jens; Lansard, Bruno; Pozzato, Lara; Rabouille, Christophe</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The Rhône River is the largest source of terrestrial organic and inorganic carbon for the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. A large fraction of this terrestrial carbon is either buried or mineralized in the sediments close to the river mouth. This mineralization follows aerobic and anaerobic pathways, with a range of impacts on calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution in the sediment near the sediment-water interface. This study focuses on the production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) by early diagenesis, consequential pH variations and the effect on calcium carbonate precipitation or dissolution. The sediment porewater chemistry was investigated along a transect from the Rhône River outlet to the continental shelf. TA and concentrations of DIC, SO42- and Ca2+ were analyzed on bottom waters and extracted sediment porewaters, whereas pH and oxygen concentrations were measured in situ using microelectrodes. The average oxygen penetration depth into the sediment was 1.7 ± 0.4 mm close to the river mouth and 8.2 ± 2.6 mm in the continental shelf sediments, indicating intense respiration rates. Diffusive oxygen fluxes through the sediment-water interface ranged between 3 and 13 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. In the first 30 cm of the sediment, TA and DIC porewater concentrations increased with depth up to 48 mmol L-1 near the river outlet and up to 7 mmol L-1 on the shelf as a result of aerobic and anaerobic mineralization processes. Due to aerobic processes, at all stations pH decreased by 0.6 pH units in the oxic layer of the sediment accompanied by a decrease of the saturation state regarding calcium carbonate. In the anoxic layer of the sediments, sulfate reduction was the dominant mineralization process and was associated with an increase of porewater saturation state regarding calcium carbonate. Ultimately anoxic mineralization of organic matter caused calcium carbonate precipitation demonstrated by a large decrease in Ca2+ concentration with depth in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..249K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..249K"><span>Are deep-sea organisms dwelling within a submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> more at risk from anthropogenic contamination than those from the adjacent open slope? A case study of Blanes <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koenig, Samuel; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B.; Huertas, David; Solé, Montserrat</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Due to their geomorphological structure and proximity to the coastline, submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> may act as natural conduit routes for anthropogenic contaminants that are transported from surface waters to the deep-sea. Organisms dwelling in these <span class="hlt">canyon</span> environments might thus be at risk of experiencing adverse health effects due to higher pollution exposure. To address this question, chemical and biochemical analyses were conducted on two of the most abundant deep-sea fish species in the study area, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion, and the most abundant deep-sea commercial decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus sampled inside Blanes <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (BC) and on the adjacent open slope (OS). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in muscle tissue of selected samples from 900 m and 1500 m depth. Potential effects resulting from contaminant exposure were determined using hepatic biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LP). L. lepidion and A. antennatus tissues exhibited higher POP levels inside BC compared to the OS at 900 m depth. These findings were consistent with biomarker data (i.e. enzymatic response to presence of contaminant agents). Elevated xenobiotic-metabolizing (EROD and PROD) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and GPX) indicated higher contaminant exposure in both species caught within BC. No difference in POP accumulation between sites was observed in L. lepidion at 1500 m depth, nor in biomarker data, suggesting that the pollution gradient was less pronounced at greater depths. This trend was further corroborated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.141..248B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.141..248B"><span>Habitat use, vertical and horizontal behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea in relation to oceanographic conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Bonhommeau, Sylvain</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We investigated the habitat utilization, vertical and horizontal behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (ABFT) in relation to oceanographic conditions in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, based on 36 pop-up archival tags and different environmental data sets. Tags were deployed on early mature ABFT (127-255 cm) between July and November in 2007-2014, on the shelf area off Marseille, France. The data obtained from these tags provided 1643 daily summaries of ABFT vertical behaviour over 8 years of tag deployment. Based on a hierarchical clustering of this data, we could identify four principle daily vertical behaviour types, representing surface (≦ 10 m) and subsurface (10-100 m) orientation, moderate (50-200 m) and deep (≧ 200 m) diving behaviour. These vertical behaviour types showed seasonal variations with partly opposing trends in their frequencies. Accordingly, ABFT were more surface orientated during summer, while moderate diving behaviour was more common during winter. Depth time series data further revealed inverted day-night patterns for both of these periods. Tagged ABFT frequented the surface waters more regularly during daytime and deeper waters during the night in summer, while the opposite pattern was found in winter. Seasonal changes in the vertical behaviour of ABFT were accompanied by simultaneous changes in environmental conditions (SST, chla, thermal stratification). Accordingly, surface orientation and moderate diving behaviour appeared to be triggered by the thermal stratification of the water column, though less pronounced than previously reported for ABFT in the North Atlantic, probably indicating adaptive vertical behaviour related to the availability of epipelagic food resources (anchovies and sardines). Deep diving behaviour was particularly frequent during months of high biological productivity (February-May), although one recovered tag showed periodic and unusual long spike dives during summer-autumn, in relation to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22858642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22858642"><span>210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Monthly sampling in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide (210)Po/(210)Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995-November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and (210)Po/(210)Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton "bloom" was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of (210)Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest (210)Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained (210)Po and (210)Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5-486 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more (210)Po and (210)Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the (210)Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17108962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17108962"><span>Flushing submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Canals, Miquel; Puig, Pere; de Madron, Xavier Durrieu; Heussner, Serge; Palanques, Albert; Fabres, Joan</p> <p>2006-11-16</p> <p>The continental slope is a steep, narrow fringe separating the coastal zone from the deep ocean. During low sea-level stands, slides and dense, sediment-laden flows erode the outer continental shelf and the continental slope, leading to the formation of submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> that funnel large volumes of sediment and organic matter from shallow regions to the deep ocean(1). During high sea-level stands, such as at present, these <span class="hlt">canyons</span> still experience occasional sediment gravity flows(2-5), which are usually thought to be triggered by sediment failure or river flooding. Here we present observations from a submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> on the Gulf of Lions margin, in the northwest <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, that demonstrate that these flows can also be triggered by dense shelf water cascading (DSWC)-a type of current that is driven solely by seawater density contrast. Our results show that DSWC can transport large amounts of water and sediment, reshape submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floors and rapidly affect the deep-sea environment. This cascading is seasonal, resulting from the formation of dense water by cooling and/or evaporation, and occurs on both high- and low-latitude continental margins(6-8). DSWC may therefore transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter to the deep ocean. Furthermore, changes in the frequency and intensity of DSWC driven by future climate change may have a significant impact on the supply of organic matter to deep-sea ecosystems and on the amount of carbon stored on continental margins and in ocean basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015688','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015688"><span>Ascension Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, California - Evolution of a multi-head <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system along a strike-slip continental margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nagel, D.K.; Mullins, H.T.; Greene, H. Gary</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Ascension Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, which lies along the strike-slip (transform) dominated continental margin of central California, consists of two discrete <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> heads and six less well defined southeastern heads. These eight heads coalesce to form a single submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> near the 2700 m isobath. Detailed seismic stratigraphic data correlated with 19 rock dredge hauls from the walls of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system, suggest that at least one of the two <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> heads was initially eroded during a Pliocene lowstand of sea level ???3.8 m.y. B.P. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that at this time, <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Ascension <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> formed the distal channel of nearby Monterey <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and has subsequently been offset by right-lateral, strike-slip faulting along the San Gregorio fault zone. Some of the six southwestern heads of Ascension <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> may also have been initially eroded as the distal portions of Monterey <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> during late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sea-level lowstands (???2.8 and 1.75 m.y. B.P.) and subsequently truncated and offset to the northwest. There have also been a minimum of two <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-cutting episodes within the past 750,000 years, after the entire Ascension <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> system migrated to the northwest past Monterey <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. We attribute these late Pleistocene erosional events to relative lowstands of sea level 750,000 and 18,000 yrs B.P. The late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the six southeastern heads also appears to have been controlled by structural uplift of the Ascension-Monterey basement high at the southeastern terminus of the Outer Santa Cruz Basin. We believe that uplift of this basement high sufficiently oversteepened submarine slopes to induce gravitational instability and generate mass movements that resulted in the erosion of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> heads. Most significantly, though, our results and interpretations support previous proposals that submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> along strike-slip continental margins can originate by tectonic trunction and lateral</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047001"><span>Hot <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1047001','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1047001"><span>Hot <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>None</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.8093S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.8093S"><span>Organic biomarkers in deep-sea regions affected by bottom trawling: pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates in surface sediments from the La Fonera (Palamós) <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sañé, E.; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Deep-sea ecosystems are in general adapted to a limited variability of physical conditions, resulting in high vulnerability and slow recovery rates from anthropogenic perturbations such as bottom trawling. Commercial trawling is the most recurrent and pervasive of human impacts on the deep-sea floor, but studies on its consequences on the biogeochemistry of deep-sea sediments are still scarce. Pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates were analysed in sediments from the flanks of the La Fonera (Palamós) submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea), where a commercial bottom trawling fishery has been active for more than 70 yr. More specifically, we investigated how trawling-induced sediment reworking affects the quality of sedimentary organic matter which reaches the seafloor and accumulates in the sediment column, which is fundamental for the development of benthic communities. Sediment samples were collected during two oceanographic cruises in spring and autumn 2011. The sampled sites included trawl fishing grounds as well as pristine (control) areas. We report that bottom trawling in the flanks of the La Fonera <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> has caused an alteration of the quality of the organic matter accumulated in the upper 5 cm of the seafloor. The use of a wide pool of biochemical tracers characterized by different reactivity to degradation allowed for us to discriminate the long-term effects of trawl-induced sediment reworking from the natural variability caused by the seasonal cycle of production and sinking of biogenic particles. Differences between untrawled and trawled areas were evidenced by labile amino acids, while differences between spring and autumn samples were detected only by the more labile indicators chlorophyll a and monounsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that changes in the biochemical composition of the sedimentary organic matter caused by bottom trawling can be more relevant than those associated with natural seasonality and pose serious</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....918601S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....918601S"><span>Organic biomarkers in deep-sea regions affected by bottom trawling: pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates in surface sediments from the La Fonera (Palamós) <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sañé, E.; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Deep-sea ecosystems are in general adapted to a limited variability of physical conditions, resulting in high vulnerability and slow recovery rates from anthropogenic perturbations such as bottom trawling. Commercial trawling is the most recurrent and pervasive of human impacts on the deep-sea floor, but studies on its consequences on the biogeochemistry of deep-sea sediments are still scarce. Pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates were analyzed in sediments from the flanks of the La Fonera (Palamós) submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea), where a commercial bottom trawling fishery has been active for more than 70 yr. More specifically, we investigated how trawling-induced sediment reworking affects the quality of sedimentary organic matter which reaches the seafloor and accumulates in the sediment column, which is fundamental for the development of benthic communities. Sediment samples were collected during two oceanographic cruises in spring and autumn 2011. The sampled sites included trawl fishing grounds as well as pristine (control) areas. We report that bottom trawling in the flanks of the La Fonera <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> has caused an alteration of the quality of the organic matter accumulated in the upper 5 cm of the seafloor. The use of a wide pool of biochemical tracers characterized by different reactivity to degradation allowed us to discriminate the long-term effects of trawled-induced sediment reworking from the natural variability caused by the seasonal cycle of production and sinking of biogenic particles. Differences between untrawled and trawled areas were evidenced by labile amino acids, while differences between spring and autumn samples were detected only by the more labile indicators chlorophyll a and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that changes in the biochemical composition of the sedimentary organic matter caused by bottom trawling can be more relevant than those associated with natural seasonality and pose serious</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995CSR....15..843B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995CSR....15..843B"><span>Seasonal variability of the organic matter in a sedimentary coastal environment: sources, degradation and accumulation (continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions—<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buscail, Roselyne; Pocklington, Roger; Germain, Claire</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The temporal variations of the superficial (0-1 cm) sedimentary organic matter were studied at a depth of 26 m on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>). The samples were analyzed for total organic carbon, coarse organic carbon (>40 μm), hydrolyzable organic carbon, nitrogen, total amino acids, total and individual sugars (HPLC), lignin-derived compounds (HPLC) and kerogens (acid-soluble, humic substances and humin). Seasonal variations of the organic compounds are related to the sedimentological, hydrodynamical and physico-chemical environmental conditions. The mean annual values of the different organic compounds analyzed show the low quantities and their evolved character at the sediment-water interface: 0.5% total org C (TOC) (d.w.), 0.049% N (d.w.), C/N: 11.2, coarse org C (COQ: 62% of TOC, hydrolyzable org C: 45% TOC. The labile compounds represent a low percentage of the total organic matter (TOM), amino-acids: 12% of TOM and sugars: 5% of TOM. The relative proportions of soluble (humic) and insoluble kerogens (humin), respectively 6% and 94% of TOC are typical of a highly evolved organic matter. The large contribution of plant remains confirmed by the high proportion of COC, corresponds to a low proportion of humic substances and a high degree of condensation ( H/C = 1.3 ). The infrared spectroscopy determination of the functional groups of the humic substances permits us to confirm both autochtonous (marine) and allochtonous (terrestrial) sources of organic matter in the Têt prodeltaïc accumulation area. Numerous functional groups identified reveal the fresh quality of the organic inputs at the sediment-water interface. Aliphaticity is well marked and nitrogenous compounds (1 and 2 amines) correspond to autochtonous production (in spring: phyto- and zoo-planktonic blooms in the euphotic zone; in summer: primary production under the thermocline and phytobenthic blooms). Sugars are well represented, but from two origins</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913050A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913050A"><span>Long-term changes in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Atlantic and <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> SST from 1982 to 2016: A contribution of the Operational Oceanography to the determination of the present day Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Artale, Vincenzo; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Marullo, Salvatore; Pisano, Andrea; Santoleri, Rosalia; Tronconi, Cristina</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Estimating long-term SST changes is crucial to evaluate global warming impact at regional scales. Here, we analyze the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (MED) and the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Atlantic Box (NWA) SST changes over the last 34 years (1982 - 2016) by combining reprocessed (REP) and near-real-time (NRT) data. Actually, the Italian National Research Council (CNR) has recently produced daily (nighttime), 4 km resolution REP MED level 4 datasets (REP L4), also covering the adjacent Atlantic region, based on the latest Pathfinder v5.2 AVHRR dataset (1982-2012). These data represent the longest satellite MED SST L4 time series and are freely distributed through the European Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). However, as Pathfinder has not yet released an update of its product, the REP data end in 2012. To fill in the gap between 2013 and 2016, we investigated the possibility to extend the time series by using the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> near real time (NRT), multi-sensor L4 SST data at Ultra-High spatial Resolution (UHR) produced by CNR, which are distributed through CMEMS and now mirrored at GHRSST. Since this product is available since 2008, the consistency with the REP has been assessed. Combining the REP L4 data (1982-2012) and a bias-corrected version of the NRT L4 data (2013-2016), we built the SST time series and provided updated estimates of the MED and NWA SST trends. The analysis shows that The Atlantic Box and The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea have similar trend behavior until 2008. Afterward the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea SST continued to increase while the Atlantic Box persisted in its warming pause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0507P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0507P"><span>Rapid Changes on Sediment Accumulation Rates within Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> Caused By Bottom Trawling Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puig, P.; Masque, P.; Martin, J.; Paradis, S.; Juan, X.; Toro, M.; Palanques, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The physical disturbance of the marine sedimentary environments by commercial bottom trawling is a matter of concern. The direct physical effects of this fishing technique include scraping and ploughing of the seabed and increases of the near-bottom water turbidity by sediment resuspension. However, the quantification of the sediment that has been resuspended by this anthropogenic activity over years and has been ultimately exported across the margin remains largely unaddressed. The analysis of sediment accumulation rates from sediment cores collected along the axes of several submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in the Catalan margin (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) has allowed to estimate the contribution of this anthropogenic activity to the present-day sediment dynamics. 210Pb chronologies, occasionally supported by 137Cs dating, indicate a rapid increase of sediment accumulation rates since the 1970s, in coincidence with a strong impulse in the industrialization of the trawling fleets of this region. Such increase has been associated to the enhanced delivery of sediment resuspended by trawlers from the shelves and upper slope regions towards the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s interior, and to the rapid technical development at that time, in terms of engine power and gear size. This change has been observed in La Fonera (or Palamós) <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> at depths greater than 1700 m, while in other <span class="hlt">canyons</span> it is restricted to shallower regions (~1000 m in depth) closer to fishing grounds. Two sampling sites from La Fonera and Foix submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> that exhibited high sediment accumulation rates (0.6-0.7 cm/y) were reoccupied several years after the first chronological analyses. These two new cores reveal a second and more rapid increase of sediment accumulation rates in both <span class="hlt">canyons</span> occurring circa 2002 and accounting for about 2 cm/y. This second change at the beginning of the XXI century has been attributed to a preferential displacement of the trawling fleet towards slope fishing grounds surrounding submarine</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/24564','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/24564"><span>Influences of the vegetation mosaic on riparian and stream environments in a mixed forest-grassland landscape in "<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>" <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Hartwell H Welsh Jr; Garth R. Hodgson; Nancy E. Karraker</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We examined differences in riparian and aquatic environments within the three dominant vegetation patch types of the Mattole River watershed, a 789-km2 mixed conifer-deciduous (hardwood) forest and grassland-dominated landscape in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> California, USA. Riparian and aquatic environments, and particularly microclimates therein, influence...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcScD..11.1301S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcScD..11.1301S"><span>Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spurgin, J. M.; Allen, S. E.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (Northwest <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby number and Burger number were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively) and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ) was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10 day model period, however, the presence of the submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. Offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m). Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate) as well as stronger vorticity within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Results from previous studies were explained within this new dynamic framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413625S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413625S"><span>Temporal evolution of the anthropogenic CO2 and acidification of the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savy, J.-P.; Yao, K. M.; Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Since the beginning of the industrial era, humankind consumption of fossil fuels at increasing rates has led to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations by approximately 105 ppm. In the same time, the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal regions experienced a brutal population growth, from 94 million habitants in 1950 to 274 million in 2000, generating a strong anthropogenic pressure on the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> marine ecosystems. To follow the man-induced changes on the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> carbonate system properties (pH; total alkalinity, AT; total inorganic carbon CT, and CO2 partial pressure, pCO2), an entire body-research has recently emerged in order to quantify both the present and future penetration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea and the inferred acidification of its waters. From monthly observations accumulated over more than a decade (from 1993 to 2005) at DYFAMED time-series station (DYnamique des Flux Atmosphériques en MEDiterranée) located in the central part of the Ligurian Sea, Touratier and Goyet (2009) have estimated the temporal evolution of CANT of the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. This study highlights that concentrations of anthropogenic CO2 are much higher at DYFAMED site (> 50 mol.kg-1) than those found in the Atlantic Ocean. Our study, conducted with measurements performed at 10 meters depth from 1995 to 2011 at the same location, allowed us to investigate the temporal evolution of CANT into the upper seawater layer. Our results indicate an averaged annual CANT increase of 3 µmol.kg-1 and a linked pH drop of 0.0032 per year confirming the ongoing acidification of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> water masses. These results suggest the vulnerability and the endangerment of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> ecosystems by the massive human-induced CO2 emissions. Touratier F. and C. Goyet (2009). Decadal evolution of anthropogenic CO2 in the north western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea (at the Dyfamed site) from the mid-1990's to the mid-2000's. Deep Sea Research Part I, 56, 1708-1716</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28384574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28384574"><span>Temporal evolution of (137)Cs, (237)Np, and (239+240)Pu and estimated vertical (239+240)Pu export in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bressac, M; Levy, I; Chamizo, E; La Rosa, J J; Povinec, P P; Gastaud, J; Oregioni, B</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The evolution of (137)Cs, (237)Np and (239+240)Pu at the DYFAMED station (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) is discussed in relation to physical processes, downward fluxes of particles, and changes in the main input sources. The data set presented in this study represents the first complete (237)Np vertical profiles (0.12-0.27μBqL(-1)), and constitutes a baseline measurement to assess future changes. A similar behavior of Cs and Np has been evidenced, confirming that Np behaves conservatively. While the (137)Cs decrease has been driven by its radioactive decay, the vertical distribution of (237)Np has not substantially changed over the last decade. In the absence of recent major inputs, a homogenization of their vertical distribution occurred, partly due to deep convection events that became more intense during the last decade. In contrast, (239+240)Pu surface levels in the NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> waters have fallen in the past four decades by a factor of 5. This decrease in surface has been balanced by higher concentrations in the deep-water layers. A first estimate of the downward (239+240)Pu fluxes in the NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea is proposed over more than two decades. This estimation, based on the DYFAMED sediment trap time-series data and published (239+240)Pu flux measurements, suggests that sinking particles have accounted for 60-90% of the upper layer (0-200m) Pu inventory loss over the period 1989-2013. The upper layer residence time of Pu is estimated to be ~28years, twice as long as the residence time estimated for the whole western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (~15years). This difference highlights the slow removal of Pu in the open waters of the NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> and confirms that most of the Pu removal occurs along the coastal margin where sedimentation rates are high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4651356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4651356"><span>The Devil We Don't Know: Investigating Habitat and Abundance of Endangered Giant Devil Rays in the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Notarbartolo di Sciara, Giuseppe; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Donovan, Greg; Panigada, Simone</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The giant devil ray Mobula mobular, the only <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> mobulid, is subject to mortality caused by directed and accidental captures in fisheries throughout the region. Whilst the combination of human impacts, limited range and a low reproductive potential is not inconsistent with its endangered listing, there are insufficient data to enable a quantitative assessment of trends. Without this, it is difficult to assess and prioritise threats and develop effective conservation actions. Using results from aerial surveys conducted between 2009 and 2014 over the Ligurian, Corsican, Sardinian, northern and central Tyrrhenian seas (626,228 km2), this study provides the first quantitative information on giant devil ray abundance and habitat choice in the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. Devil rays were observed in all seasons except winter, with their estimated abundance in the study area peaking in summer. The overall uncorrected mean density in the study area during summer was estimated at 0.0257 individuals km-2 (range: 0.017–0.044), resulting in a total abundance estimate of 6,092 (12.7%CV) individuals at the surface; once corrected for availability bias, this estimate indicates a summer presence of >12,700 devil rays in the study area. Rays were mostly observed alone even if occasionally, larger aggregations up to a maximum of 18 individuals were observed. Although observed throughout the study area, spatial modelling identified their preferred habitat to be over a broad strip connecting the Tuscan Archipelago to Eastern Sardinia, over a wide range of water depths ranging from 10 to 2000m. The observed seasonal changes in giant devil ray distribution in this study, combined with similar evidence from other areas in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, support the hypothesis that the species undertakes latitudinal migrations across the region, taking advantage of highly productive waters in the north during summer, and warmer southern waters during winter. PMID:26580814</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580814"><span>The Devil We Don't Know: Investigating Habitat and Abundance of Endangered Giant Devil Rays in the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Notarbartolo di Sciara, Giuseppe; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Donovan, Greg; Panigada, Simone</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The giant devil ray Mobula mobular, the only <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> mobulid, is subject to mortality caused by directed and accidental captures in fisheries throughout the region. Whilst the combination of human impacts, limited range and a low reproductive potential is not inconsistent with its endangered listing, there are insufficient data to enable a quantitative assessment of trends. Without this, it is difficult to assess and prioritise threats and develop effective conservation actions. Using results from aerial surveys conducted between 2009 and 2014 over the Ligurian, Corsican, Sardinian, northern and central Tyrrhenian seas (626,228 km2), this study provides the first quantitative information on giant devil ray abundance and habitat choice in the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. Devil rays were observed in all seasons except winter, with their estimated abundance in the study area peaking in summer. The overall uncorrected mean density in the study area during summer was estimated at 0.0257 individuals km-2 (range: 0.017-0.044), resulting in a total abundance estimate of 6,092 (12.7%CV) individuals at the surface; once corrected for availability bias, this estimate indicates a summer presence of >12,700 devil rays in the study area. Rays were mostly observed alone even if occasionally, larger aggregations up to a maximum of 18 individuals were observed. Although observed throughout the study area, spatial modelling identified their preferred habitat to be over a broad strip connecting the Tuscan Archipelago to Eastern Sardinia, over a wide range of water depths ranging from 10 to 2000m. The observed seasonal changes in giant devil ray distribution in this study, combined with similar evidence from other areas in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, support the hypothesis that the species undertakes latitudinal migrations across the region, taking advantage of highly productive waters in the north during summer, and warmer southern waters during winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcMod..43...94L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcMod..43...94L"><span>Sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea coastal and thermohaline circulations simulated by the 1/12°-resolution ocean model NEMO-MED12 to the spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Béranger, Karine; Drobinski, Philippe</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (NWM) Sea is prone to intense weather events, associated with high winds, that are characterized by strong shallow jets and a high spatial and temporal variability. The ocean response in this area is very sensitive to the atmospheric conditions, particularly in the Gulf of Lions coastal zone. The ocean response to strong winds is here investigated using the NEMO-MED12 eddy-resolving model, driven by four atmospheric forcings differing in spatial resolution (20 km, 6.7 km) and temporal resolution (daily or 3 h) and produced with the non-hydrostratic mesoscale WRF model. The noticeable effects of the higher-frequency forcing are (i) to reduce the shelf dense-water formation and the deep offshore convection in winter due to the explicit simulation of the diurnal cycle that warms and stratifies the ocean upper layers and (ii) to increase the vertical velocity in the upwelling cells. The higher spatial resolution allows, in particular, the production of stronger winds and the accurate reproduction of the near-surface sub-mesoscale eddies in the coastal areas, in agreement with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..273R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..273R"><span>Effects of natural and anthropogenic processes in the distribution of marine litter in the deep <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; De Mol, Ben; Company, Joan B.; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francesc</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The distribution, type and quantity of marine litter accumulated on the bathyal and abyssal <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> seafloor has been studied in the framework of the Spanish national projects PROMETEO and DOS MARES and the ESF-EuroDEEP project BIOFUN. Litter was collected with an otter trawl and Agassiz trawl while sampling for megafauna on the Blanes <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and adjacent slope (Catalan margin, <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) between 900 and 2700 m depth, and on the western, central and eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basins at 1200, 2000 and 3000 m depth. All litter was sorted into 8 categories (hard plastic, soft plastic, glass, metal, clinker, fabric, longlines and fishing nets) and weighed. The distribution of litter was analysed in relation to depth, geographic area and natural (bathymetry, currents and rivers) and anthropogenic (population density and shipping routes) processes. The most abundant litter types were plastic, glass, metal and clinker. Lost or discarded fishing gear was also commonly found. On the Catalan margin, although the data indicated an accumulation of litter with increasing depth, mean weight was not significantly different between depths or between the open slope and the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. We propose that litter accumulated in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, with high proportions of plastics, has predominantly a coastal origin, while litter collected on the open slope, dominated by heavy litter, is mostly ship-originated, especially at sites under major shipping routes. Along the trans-<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> transect, although a higher amount of litter seemed to be found on the Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, differences of mean weight were not significant between the 3 geographic areas and the 3 depths. Here, the shallower sites, also closer to the coast, had a higher proportion of plastics than the deeper sites, which had a higher proportion of heavy litter and were often affected by shipping routes. The weight of litter was also compared to biomass of megafauna from the same samples. On the Blanes slope</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MarGR..32..225M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MarGR..32..225M"><span>Morphology, distribution and origin of recent submarine landslides of the Ligurian Margin (<span class="hlt">North-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>): some insights into geohazard assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Migeon, Sébastien; Cattaneo, Antonio; Hassoun, Virginie; Larroque, Christophe; Corradi, Nicola; Fanucci, Francesco; Dano, Alexandre; Mercier de Lepinay, Bernard; Sage, Françoise; Gorini, Christian</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Based on new multibeam bathymetric data, seismic-reflection profiles and side-scan sonar images, a great number of submarine failures of various types and sizes was identified along the northern margin of the Ligurian Basin and characterized with 3 distinct end-members concerning their location on the margin, sedimentary processes and possible triggering mechanisms. They include superficial landslides mainly located in the vicinity of the main mountain-supplied rivers and on the inner walls of <span class="hlt">canyons</span> (typically smaller that 108 m3 in volume: Type 1), deep scars 100-500 m high along the base of the continental slope (Type 2), and large-scale scars and Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) affecting the upper part of the slope (Type 3 failures). The MTDs are located in different environmental contexts of the margin, including the deep Var Sedimentary Ridge (VSR) and the upper part of the continental slope in the Gulf of Genova (Finale Slide and Portofino Slide), with volumes of missing sediment reaching up to 1.5 × 109 m3. High sedimentation rates related to hyperpycnal flows, faults and earthquake activity, together with sea-level fluctuations are the main factors invoked to explain the distribution and sizes of these different failure types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3872C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3872C"><span>Subinertial <span class="hlt">canyon</span> resonance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, Allan J.; Van Gorder, Stephen</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Near the bottom of a narrow <span class="hlt">canyon</span> currents that oscillate back and forth along the bottom slope hx in a stratified ocean of buoyancy frequency N do so with a natural internal gravitational frequency Nhx. From May 2012 to May 2013 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements were made at 715 m depth in the deep narrow part of the DeSoto <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> south of Pensacola, Florida, in water with 2π/Nhx ≈ 2.5 days. Above the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> the flow follows the large-scale isobaths, but beneath the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> rim the current oscillates along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis with 2-3 day periodicity, and is much stronger than and uncorrelated with the overlying flow. A simple theoretical model explains the resonant response. Published observations from the Hudson and Gully <span class="hlt">canyons</span> suggest that the strong subinertial current oscillations observed in these <span class="hlt">canyons</span> occur close to the relevant local frequency Nhx, consistent with the proposed simple model physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011472','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011472"><span>Active geologic processes in Barrow <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, northeast Chukchi Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eittreim, S.; Grantz, A.; Greenberg, J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Circulation patterns on the shelf and at the shelf break appear to dominate the Barrow <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> system. The <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s shelf portion underlies and is maintained by the Alaska Coastal Current (A.C.C.), which flows northeastward along the coast toward the northeast corner of the broad Chukchi Sea. Offshelf and onshelf advective processes are indicated by oceanographic measurements of other workers. These advective processes may play an important role in the production of bedforms that are found near the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head as well as in processes of erosion or non-deposition in the deeper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> itself. Coarse sediments recovered from the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis at 400 to 570 m indicate that there is presently significant flow along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The <span class="hlt">canyon</span> hooks left at a point north of Point Barrow where the A.C.C. loses its coastal constriction. The left hook, as well as preferential west-wall erosion, continues down to the abyssal plain of the Canada Basin at 3800 m. A possible explanation for the preferential west-wall erosion along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, at least for the upper few hundred meters, is that the occasional upwelling events, which cause nutrient-rich water to flow along the west wall would in turn cause larger populations of burrowing organisms to live there than on the east wall, and that these organisms cause high rates of bioerosion. This hypothesis assumes that the dominant factor in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s erosion is biological activity, not current velocity. Sedimentary bedforms consisting of waves and furrows are formed in soft mud in a region on the shelf west of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head; their presence there perhaps reflects: (a) the supply of fine suspended sediments delivered by the A.C.C. from sources to the south, probably the Yukon and other rivers draining <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Alaska; and (b) the westward transport of these suspended sediments by the prevailing Beaufort Gyre which flows along the outer shelf. ?? 1982.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990CSR....10.1147F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990CSR....10.1147F"><span>Macrobenthic physiological responses to environmental fluctuations: the reproductive cycle and enzymatic polymorphism of a eurybathic sea-urchin on the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> continental shelf and slope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Féral, Jean-Pierre; Ferrand, Jean-Guy; Guille, Alain</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>Two hundred and twenty-seven sea-urchins, Brissopsis lyrifera, were collected in the Gulf of Lions between 60 and ca 1000 m depth, over a21/2 year period. The reproductive cycle was found to be independent of depth. Males and females were sexually mature at the end of summer. After a period of gonadal rest during winter, gametogenesis resumed at the beginning of spring. Specific enzymatic reactions on gut extracts, after PAA-electrophoresis, indicated that B. lyrifera is not a very polymorphic species and is generally homozygotic at the tested loci, except for esterases. Individual regrouping (discriminant factorial analysis) did not appear to be sensitive to the depth factor. On the contrary, a relationship between zymogrammes of the digestive tube and the sampling season was enhanced when sex and maturation stage were considered (main concerned activities: alkaline phosphatase ALK 1 and α-amylase AMY 1 and AMY 2), especially for females. These results indicate that enzymatic activities may be seasonal. They also indicate metabolic differences dependent upon the sex in somatic tissues, on one hand, and depending on environmental fluctuations on the other. Biological cycles are seasonal in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, to 1000 m. In the case of B. lyrifera, a relationship could be established between flux increases of sediment carbon and sterols in winter and the beginning of gametogenesis. It is concluded that physiological signals, studied at different depths, would permit us to appreciate biological components of the margin ecosystem dynamics. This will also help define the place of life in the general oceanic fluxes (matter and energy).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129916','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129916"><span>Onset of the spring bloom in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea: influence of environmental pulse events on the in situ hourly-scale dynamics of the phytoplankton community structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thyssen, Melilotus; Grégori, Gerald J.; Grisoni, Jean-Michel; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Mousseau, Laure; Artigas, Luis F.; Marro, Sophie; Garcia, Nicole; Passafiume, Ornella; Denis, Michel J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Most of phytoplankton influence is barely understood at the sub meso scale and daily scale because of the lack of means to simultaneously assess phytoplankton functionality, dynamics and community structure. For a few years now, it has been possible to address this objective with an automated in situ high frequency sampling strategy. In order to study the influence of environmental short-term events (nutrients, wind speed, precipitation, solar radiation, temperature, and salinity) on the onset of the phytoplankton bloom in the oligotrophic Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea), a fully remotely controlled automated flow cytometer (CytoSense) was deployed on a solar-powered platform (EOL buoy, CNRS-Mobilis). The CytoSense carried out single-cell analyses on particles (1–800 μm in width, up to several mm in length), recording optical pulse shapes when analyzing several cm3. Samples were taken every 2 h in the surface waters during 2 months. Up to 6 phytoplankton clusters were resolved based on their optical properties (PicoFLO, Picoeukaryotes, Nanophytoplankton, Microphytoplankton, HighSWS, HighFLO). Three main abundance pulses involving the 6 phytoplankton groups monitored indicated that the spring bloom not only depends on light and water column stability, but also on short-term events such as wind events and precipitation followed by nutrient pulses. Wind and precipitation were also determinant in the collapse of the clusters' abundances. These events occurred within a couple of days, and phytoplankton abundance reacted within days. The third abundance pulse could be considered as the spring bloom commonly observed in the area. The high frequency data-set made it possible to study the phytoplankton cell cycle based on daily cycles of forward scatter and abundance. The combination of daily cell cycle, abundance trends and environmental pulses will open the way to the study of phytoplankton short-term reactivity to environmental conditions. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2953038','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2953038"><span>Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Reveals Tight Links between Viruses and Microbes in the Bathypelagic Zone of the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea▿ †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Winter, Christian; Weinbauer, Markus G.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The study site located in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea was visited eight times in 2005 and 2006 to collect samples from the epipelagic (5 m), mesopelagic (200 m, 600 m), and bathypelagic (1,000 m, 2,000 m) zones. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) analysis was used to obtain fingerprints from microbial and viral size fractions using two different primers each. Depending on the primer used, the number of bands in the water column varied between 12 to 24 and 6 to 19 for the microbial size fraction and between 16 to 26 and 8 to 22 for the viral size fraction. The majority of sequences from the microbial fraction was related to Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Eukaryota. Only 9% of sequences obtained from the viral fraction were of identifiable viral origin; however, 76% of sequences had no close relatives in the nr database of GenBank. Only 20.1% of complete phage genomes tested in silico resulted in potential RAPD-PCR products, and only 12% of these were targeted by both primers. Also, in silico analysis indicated that RAPD-PCR profiles obtained by the two different primers are largely representative of two different subsets of the viral community. Also, correlation analyses and Mantel tests indicate that the links between changes in the microbial and viral community were strongest in the bathypelagic. Thus, these results suggest a strong codevelopment of virus and host communities in deep waters. The data also indicate that virus communities in the bathypelagic zone can exhibit substantial temporal dynamics. PMID:20729320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...82..477B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...82..477B"><span>Deep-water stands of Cystoseira zosteroides C. Agardh (Fucales, Ochrophyta) in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>: Insights into assemblage structure and population dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballesteros, Enric; Garrabou, Joaquim; Hereu, Bernat; Zabala, Mikel; Cebrian, Emma; Sala, Enric</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Populations dominated by Cystoseira zosteroides, an endemic and threatened <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> seaweed, colonize deep-water rocky habitats down to more than 50 m depth. Assemblages dominated by this species display high algal and invertebrate species richness. Algal biomass averages 1134 g dw m -2. Erect and turf algae account for only 25% of total algal dry weight, while encrusting corallines are responsible for the remaining 75%. Sponges, bryozoans and ascidians constitute the dominant sessile macrofauna. Cystoseira zosteroides is the dominant erect algae, with a mean biomass of 60.6 g dw m -2, and densities ranging from 4 to 7 plants m -2. The alien turf alga Womersleyella setacea has a biomass of 104.2 g dw m -2 and covers most of the understory substrate. The size-frequency distribution of C. zosteroides populations shows differences over time. Mean annual growth of the main axis is around 0.5 cm and mean annual mortality rate is lower than 2%. Recruitment was almost nil during the studied period of time (10 years). Processes structuring these deep-water Cystoseira stands must be driven by episodic disturbances, after-disturbance recruitment pulses, and long periods of steady growth that last at least 10 years. However, it is also possible that recruitment is irreversibly inhibited by the alien alga W. setacea in which case these old-growth stands are faced with extinction. The highly diversified assemblages and the low growth and low mortality rates of C. zosteroides indicate high vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, and call for effective measures to ensure their conservation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997ECSS...44..723D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997ECSS...44..723D"><span>Seasonal Changes in Quality and Quantity of Food Available for Benthic Suspension-feeders in the Golfo Marconi (<span class="hlt">North-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Danovaro, R.; Fabiano, M.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Suspended particulate matter was collected, from the water layer at 10 cm above the sediments, over a period of 13 months in the Golfo Marconi (Ligurian Sea, NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>). Measurements of seston concentration as well as the elemental (particulate organic carbon and nitrogen; POC and PON, respectively) and biochemical composition (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, DNA) of particulate organic matter were carried out to assess quality and quantity of food potentially available to benthic suspension-feeders. Particulate organic matter showed wide qualitative and quantitative variations during the sampling year. Seston concentrations and POC did not reflect the quantity and quality of the food available to benthic suspension-feeders. The biopolymeric fraction of particulate matter (C-BPF, i.e. the sum of lipid, protein and carbohydrate carbon) was mostly composed of phytoplankton (which accounted for about 60% of C-BPF). The ratio of C-BPF to POC was utilized as a measure of the fraction which had the potential to be more readily available to consumers. Suspended organic matter showed higher values of the C-BPF:POC ratio during spring, and lower values in summer and autumn-winter. Quantitative estimates of the energy content of the suspended particulate matter were obtained from its biochemical composition. Bacterial dynamics were significantly related to changes in phytoplankton biomass. Bacteria accounted for a significant fraction of the biopolymeric carbon pool (annual average about 15%) and of the total particulate DNA (21·5%), thus enhancing the nutritional value of the particulate organic matter. The results achieved in this study indicate that the biochemical composition of the particulate matter provides additional information on the origin, quality and characteristics of the seston more readily available to benthic suspension-feeders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSOD14B2410A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSOD14B2410A"><span>Tracking the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Abyss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aracri, S.; Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; McDonagh, E.; Josey, S. A.; Hello, Y.; Borghini, M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea is well known to be a miniature ocean with small enough timescales to allow the observation of main oceanographic events, e.g. deep water formation and overturning circulation, in a human life time. This renders the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea the perfect observatory to study and forecast the behaviour of the world ocean. Considering the coherence between NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) and <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> oscillation and bearing in mind that the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> outflow at Gibraltar constitutes a constant source of intermediate, warm and saline water, it has been suggested that "the system composed of the North Atlantic, the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea/Gibraltar Strait and the Arctic Sea/Fram Strait might work as a unique oceanographic entity, with the physical processes within the straits determining the exchange of the fresh and salty waters between the marginal seas and the open ocean".In the light of the present knowledge the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> might, then, be considered as a key oceanographic observatory site. The deep sea is still challenging to monitor, especially given the latest years lack of fundings and ships availability. Therefore optimizing the existing methods and instrumentation has become a priority. This work is focused on the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin, where deep water formation events often occur in the Gulf of Lion as well as deep convection in the neighbour Ligurian Sea. A different application of submarine robots - Mermaids- designed to observe underwater seismic waves aiming to improve ocean tomography is presented. In order to improve our knowledge of the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> abyssal circulation we track Mermaids extracting their velocity, correcting it and comparing it with the historically estimated values and with the geostrophic velocity extracted from a 40 years long hydrographic datasets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP13A0932R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP13A0932R"><span>Influence of explosive volcanic events on the activation versus de-activation of a modern turbidite system: the example of the Dohrn <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-fan in the continental slope of the Campania volcanic district (Naples Bay, Italy - Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roca, M.; Budillon, F.; Pappone, G.; Insinga, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The interplay between volcanic activity, volcano-clastic yield and activation/deactivation of a turbidite system can be evaluated along the continental margin of Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea - Italy), an active volcanic area, where three wide <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-fans occur at short distances one to another. Actually, the Dohrn, Magnaghi and Cuma <span class="hlt">canyons</span> cut the continental slope and shelf off Ischia and Procida volcanic islands and off the Campania Plain where Phlegraean Field and Mt. Vesuvius active vents are located. This research, partly supported by the Italian Flagship Project Ritmare, is based on single-channel, high-resolution seismic profiles (Sparker-One 16 kJ, 0.5 s twtt), swath-bathymetry and litho- and tephra-stratigraphy of gravity cores. We focused on the stratigraphic constraint of paleo-thalweg features and channel/levees deposits in seismics, debris flow, turbidites and hemipelagites in cores, to learn more on the activation/deactivation stages of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> Dohrn, in the frame of relative eustatic sea level variations over the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene time span.Preliminary outcomes suggest that even major volcanic events occurred in the last 300 ky, such as ignimbrite eruptions or large fallouts, have caused the infilling of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head and the cover of pre-existing seabed morphology. As a consequence, the temporary deactivation of the turbidite system has occurred, despite the volcano-clastic overload in the coastal environment. Phases of renewed activities of the thalweg are observed to be in step with falling stages of sea level, which have driven the re-incision of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> valleys through continuous volcano-clastic debris and turbidites down-flows. Since Holocene, the quiescence of the Dohrn <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> has been documented, despite the intense volcano-tectonic activity in the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1612567E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1612567E"><span>Detection of Saharan dust and biomass burning events using near-real-time intensive aerosol optical properties in the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ealo, Marina; Alastuey, Andrés; Ripoll, Anna; Pérez, Noemí; Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The study of Saharan dust events (SDEs) and biomass burning (BB) emissions are both topics of great scientific interest since they are frequent and important polluting scenarios affecting air quality and climate. The main aim of this work is evaluating the feasibility of using near-real-time in situ aerosol optical measurements for the detection of these atmospheric events in the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Basin (WMB). With this aim, intensive aerosol optical properties (SAE: scattering Ångström exponent, AAE: absorption Ångström exponent, SSAAE: single scattering albedo Ångström exponent and g: asymmetry parameter) were derived from multi-wavelength aerosol light scattering, hemispheric backscattering and absorption measurements performed at regional (Montseny; MSY, 720 m a.s.l.) and continental (Montsec; MSA, 1570 m a.s.l.) background sites in the WMB. A sensitivity study aiming at calibrating the measured intensive optical properties for SDEs and BB detection is presented and discussed. The detection of SDEs by means of the SSAAE parameter and Ångström matrix (made up by SAE and AAE) depended on the altitude of the measurement station and on SDE intensity. At MSA (mountain-top site) SSAAE detected around 85 % of SDEs compared with 50 % at the MSY station, where pollution episodes dominated by fine anthropogenic particles frequently masked the effect of mineral dust on optical properties during less intense SDEs. Furthermore, an interesting feature of SSAAE was its capability to detect the presence of mineral dust after the end of SDEs. Thus, resuspension processes driven by summer regional atmospheric circulations and dry conditions after SDEs favoured the accumulation of mineral dust at regional level having important consequences for air quality. On average, SAE, AAE and g ranged between -0.7 and 1, 1.3 and 2.5 and 0.5 and 0.75 respectively during SDEs. Based on the aethalometer model, BB contribution to equivalent black carbon (BC) accounted for 36 and 40</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5992694','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5992694"><span>Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and fan offshore northern Baja California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Legg, M.R.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and fan system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/grants-mining-district/oak-canyon-action-memo','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/grants-mining-district/oak-canyon-action-memo"><span>Oak <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Action Memo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the 27 residential properties that compose the Oak <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Site located in the Village of Paguate, Pueblo of Laguna, near Cibola County, New Mexico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA08293.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA08293.html"><span>Dione Creeping <span class="hlt">Canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-10-23</p> <p>Bright fractures creep across the surface of icy Dione. This extensive <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system is centered on a region of terrain that is significantly darker that the rest of the moon. Part of the darker terrain is visible at right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25254474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25254474"><span>Flow in bedrock <span class="hlt">canyons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael</p> <p>2014-09-25</p> <p>Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock <span class="hlt">canyons</span> is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813213J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813213J"><span>Circulation in Vilkitsky <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in the eastern Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janout, Markus; Hölemann, Jens</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The eastern Arctic Ocean is characterized by steep continental slopes and vast shallow shelf seas that receive a large amount of riverine freshwater from some of the largest rivers on earth. The <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Laptev Sea is of particular interest, as it is a freshwater transport pathway for a swift surface-intensified current from the Kara Sea toward the Arctic Basin, as was recently highlighted by high-resolution model studies. The region features complex bathymetry including a narrow strait and a large submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, strong tides, polynyas and severe sea ice conditions throughout much of the year. A year-long mooring record as well as detailed hydrographic shipboard measurements resulted from summer expeditions to the area in 2013 and 2014, and now provide a detailed picture of the region's water properties and circulation. The hydrography is characterized by riverine Kara Sea freshwater near the surface in the southern part of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, while warmer (~0°C) saline Atlantic-derived waters dominate throughout the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> at depths >150m. Cold shelf-modified waters near the freezing point are found along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> edges. The mean flow at the 300 m-deep mooring location near the southern edge of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is swift (30 cm/s) and oriented eastward near the surface as suggested by numerical models, while the deeper flow follows the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> topography towards the north-east. Wind-driven deviations from the mean flow coincide with sudden changes in temperature and salinity. This study characterizes the general circulation in Vilkitsky <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and investigates its potential as a conduit for upwelling of Atlantic-derived waters from the Arctic Basin to the Laptev Sea shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/co0852.photos.316864p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/co0852.photos.316864p/"><span>18. VIEW OF A <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> IN THE CLEANUP PHASE. <span class="hlt">CANYONS</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>18. VIEW OF A <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> IN THE CLEANUP PHASE. <span class="hlt">CANYONS</span> WERE PROCESSING ROOMS USED TO HOUSE PLUTONIUM HANDLING OPERATIONS THAT WERE NOT CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES. <span class="hlt">CANYONS</span> WERE DESIGNED TO BECOME CONTAMINATED. (5/10/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H51C0392A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H51C0392A"><span>Morphogenetic Mesoscale Analysis of the Northeastern Iberian Margin, NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amblas, D.; Canals, M.; Urgeles, R.; Lastras, G.; Hughes-Clarke, J. E.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The compilation of several multibeam data sets unveil for the first time the seafloor of almost the entire northeastern Iberian margin, in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. This is achieved thanks to an international effort involving mainly Spanish and French research institutions. Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, turbiditic channels, landslides and a mid-oceanic valley are the main sedimentary features observed. The size and shape of these features vary throughout the margin. However, the morphometric analysis performed reveals geomorphologic affinities between the features, which form different sectors sharing similar patterns. This suggests the subdivision of the margin in three main segments: North Catalan Margin (NCM), South Catalan Margin (SCM) and Ebro Margin (EM). Which are the main mechanisms controlling the morphological variability between these margins? We propose a not frequently used scale to tackle this question: the mesoscale (from one to several hundred kilometres), which allows a comprehensive, holistic and detailed analysis of the seascaping mechanisms shaping the northeastern Iberia continental margin. Preliminary results suggest that, factors controlling the seascape involve a combination of tectonics, long-term fluvial sediment flux to the margin, sediment grain size and basin depth. Modelling of these morphogenetic relationships will contribute to a better knowledge of the seascape development in mid-latitude siliciclastic margins. Funding for this research was provided by EUROSTRATAFORM (EVK3-CT-2002-00079), EURODOM (HPRN-CT-2002-00212), EUROMARGINS (ERAS-CT-2003-980409), Generalitat de Catalunya GRC grant and a Spanish MECD FPU fellowship (DA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.141..203P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.141..203P"><span>Habitat modeling for cetacean management: Spatial distribution in the southern Pelagos Sanctuary (<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pennino, Maria Grazia; Mérigot, Bastien; Fonseca, Vinícius Prado; Monni, Virginia; Rotta, Andrea</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Effective management and conservation of wild populations requires knowledge of their habitats, especially by mean of quantitative analyses of their spatial distributions. The Pelagos Sanctuary is a dedicated marine protected area for <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> marine mammals covering an area of 90,000 km2 in the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea between Italy, France and the Principate of Monaco. In the south of the Sanctuary, i.e. along the Sardinian coast, a range of diverse human activities (cities, industry, fishery, tourism) exerts several current ad potential threats to cetacean populations. In addition, marine mammals are recognized by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive as essential components of sustainable ecosystems. Yet, knowledge on the spatial distribution and ecology of cetaceans in this area is quite scarce. Here we modeled occurrence of the three most abundant species known in the Sanctuary, i.e. the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), using sighting data from scientific surveys collected from 2012 to 2014 during summer time. Bayesian site-occupancy models were used to model their spatial distribution in relation to habitat taking into account oceanographic (sea surface temperature, primary production, photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll-a concentration) and topographic (depth, slope, distance of the land) variables. Cetaceans responded differently to the habitat features, with higher occurrence predicted in the more productive areas on submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. These results provide ecological information useful to enhance management plans and establish baseline for future population trend studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4128664','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4128664"><span>Impact of Bottom Trawling on Deep-Sea Sediment Properties along the Flanks of a Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martín, Jacobo; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Sánchez-Gómez, Anabel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The offshore displacement of commercial bottom trawling has raised concerns about the impact of this destructive fishing practice on the deep seafloor, which is in general characterized by lower resilience than shallow water regions. This study focuses on the flanks of La Fonera (or Palamós) submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, where an intensive bottom trawl fishery has been active during several decades in the 400–800 m depth range. To explore the degree of alteration of surface sediments (0–50 cm depth) caused by this industrial activity, fishing grounds and control (untrawled) sites were sampled along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks with an interface multicorer. Sediment cores were analyzed to obtain vertical profiles of sediment grain-size, dry bulk density, organic carbon content and concentration of the radionuclide 210Pb. At control sites, surface sediments presented sedimentological characteristics typical of slope depositional systems, including a topmost unit of unconsolidated and bioturbated material overlying sediments progressively compacted with depth, with consistently high 210Pb inventories and exponential decaying profiles of 210Pb concentrations. Sediment accumulation rates at these untrawled sites ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 cm y−1. Sediment properties at most trawled sites departed from control sites and the sampled cores were characterized by denser sediments with lower 210Pb surface concentrations and inventories that indicate widespread erosion of recent sediments caused by trawling gears. Other alterations of the physical sediment properties, including thorough mixing or grain-size sorting, as well as organic carbon impoverishment, were also visible at trawled sites. This work contributes to the growing realization of the capacity of bottom trawling to alter the physical properties of surface sediments and affect the seafloor integrity over large spatial scales of the deep-sea. PMID:25111298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA12036.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA12036.html"><span>Southern <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> of Titan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-06-10</p> <p>Complex and unique <span class="hlt">canyon</span> systems appear to have been intricately carved into older terrain by the ample flow of liquid methane rivers on Saturn moon Titan, as seen in this radar image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft on May 21, 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/41028','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/41028"><span>Fourmile <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Fire Findings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Russell Graham; Mark Finney; Chuck McHugh; Jack Cohen; Dave Calkin; Rick Stratton; Larry Bradshaw; Ned Nikolov</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Fourmile <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Fire burned in the fall of 2010 in the Rocky Mountain Front Range adjacent to Boulder, Colorado. The fire occurred in steep, rugged terrain, primarily on privately owned mixed ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. The fire started on September 6 when the humidity of the air was very dry (¡Ö</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.137..436F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.137..436F"><span>Cold-water coral ecosystems in Cassidaigne <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: An assessment of their environmental living conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fabri, M.-C.; Bargain, A.; Pairaud, I.; Pedel, L.; Taupier-Letage, I.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Cassidaigne <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is one of the two <span class="hlt">canyons</span> (together with Lacaze-Duthiers) of the French <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coast in which cold-water corals have settled and formed large colonies, providing a structural habitat for other species. Nevertheless, the communities settled in the Cassidaigne <span class="hlt">canyon</span> are physically impacted by discharges of bauxite residues. New information on the distribution of the species Madrepora oculata and the associated species diversity in Cassidaigne <span class="hlt">canyon</span> was provided by videos and photos acquired in 2013. An area investigated at 515 m depth harbored a high density of small colonies of M. oculata. The water column structure of the area was described by using a CTD transect deployed along the axis of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. High resolution (10 m and 2 m) bathymetric data were collected in the Cassidaigne <span class="hlt">canyon</span> in 2010 and 2014. Seafloor characteristics were derived from the 10 m resolution bathymetric data. Data on local hydrodynamic conditions in the first 10 m above the seafloor were produced by applying the MARS3D hydrodynamic model in the Cassidaigne <span class="hlt">canyon</span> at a horizontal resolution of 80 m (CASCANS model configuration). These environmental datasets combined with the geographic coordinates of the known occurrences of dense M. oculata colonies in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> allowed establishing a model using the MaxEnt software package to predict the habitat distribution in terms of probability of occurrence. According to the water mass analysis, M. oculata habitats are mainly located in the layer of the Intermediate waters originating from the Eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Basin. A high concentration of suspended sediment due to the bauxite residues expelled into the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> was observed in the axis of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> where we measured 1 NTU (2.5 mg/l) at 100 m above the bottom while concentrations were even higher (2 NTU; 5 mg/l) closer to the bottom. The habitat suitability model indicates that the living conditions of M. oculata can be found in areas of the Cassidaigne <span class="hlt">canyon</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021110','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021110"><span>The influence of the San Gregorio fault on the morphology of Monterey <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McHugh, C.M.G.; Ryan, William B. F.; Eittreim, S.; Donald, Reed</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A side-scan sonar survey was conducted of Monterey <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and the San Gregorio fault zone, off shore of Monterey Bay. The acoustic character and morphology of the sonar images, enhanced by SeaBeam bathymetry, show the path of the San Gregorio fault zone across the shelf, upper slope, and Monterey <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. High backscatter linear features a few kilometers long and 100 to 200 m wide delineate the sea-floor expression of the fault zone on the shelf. Previous studies have shown that brachiopod pavements and carbonate crusts are the source of the lineations backscatter. In Monterey <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, the fault zone occurs where the path of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> makes a sharp bend from WNW to SSW (1800 m). Here, the fault is marked by NW-SE-trending, high reflectivity lineations that cross the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor between 1850 m and 1900 m. The lineations can be traced to ridges on the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">canyon</span> wall where they have ~ 15 m of relief. Above the low-relief ridges, bowl-shaped features have been excavated on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> wall contributing to the widening of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. We suggest that shear along the San Gregorio fault has led to the formation of the low-relief ridges near the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> wall and that carbonate crusts, as along the shelf, may be the source of the high backscatter features on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor. The path of the fault zone across the upper slope is marked by elongated tributary <span class="hlt">canyons</span> with high backscatter floors and 'U'-shaped cross-sectional profiles. Linear features and stepped scarps suggestive of recent crustal movement and mass-wasting, occur on the walls and floors of these <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Three magnitude-4 earthquakes have occurred within the last 30 years in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> that may have contributed to the observed features. As shown by others, motion along the fault zone has juxtaposed diverse lithologies that outcrop on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls. Gully morphology and the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s drainage patterns have been influenced by the substrate into which the gullies have formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5367386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5367386"><span>National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Quadrangle, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baillieul, T.A.; Zollinger, R.C.</p> <p>1982-06-01</p> <p>The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Quadrangle (2/sup 0/), <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Arizona, was evaluated to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. This was done using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and hydrochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys were performed, although results were not available in time for field checking. The results of this investigation indicate environments favorable for: channel-controlled, peneconcordant sandstone deposits in the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation in the north-central part of the quadrangle, vein-type deposits in collapse breccias in all areas underlain by the Redwall Limestone, and unconformity-related deposits in the metasediments of the Vishnu Group within the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. All other rock units examined are considered unfavorable for hosting uranium deposits. Younger Precambrian rocks of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Supergroup, exposed only within the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park, remain unevaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613078','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613078"><span>Nearshore <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-09-30</p> <p>Nearshore <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Experiment Steve Elgar Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS #11 Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone: (508) 289-3614 fax: (508...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS #11... Woods Hole,,MA,02543 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA610259','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA610259"><span>Nearshore <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Experiment: Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-09-30</p> <p>Nearshore <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Experiment: Analysis Steve Elgar Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS #11 Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone: (508) 289-3614 fax...Britt Raubenheimer Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS #12 Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone: (508) 289-3427 fax: (508) 457-2194 email: britt...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Woods Hole Oceanographic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000675','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000675"><span>Large sand waves in Navarinsky <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> head, Bering Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Karl, Herman A.; Carlson, P.R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Sand waves are present in the heads of large submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Bering Sea. They vary in height between 2 to 15 m and have wavelengths of 600 m. They are not only expressed on the seafloor, but are also well defined in the subsurface and resemble enormous climbing bed forms. We conjecture that the sand waves originated during lower stands of sea level in the Pleistocene. Although we cannot explain the mechanics of formation of the sand waves, internal-wave generated currents are among four types of current that could account for these large structures. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02891.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02891.html"><span>Mars <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> with Los Angeles for Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-03-13</p> <p>A Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Mars slices across the Red Planet near its equator. This <span class="hlt">canyon</span> -- Valles Marineris, or the Mariner Valley -- is 10 times longer and deeper than Arizona Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and 20 times wider</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA443969','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA443969"><span>"The Great Cataract" Effects of Late Holocene Debris Flows on Lava Falls Rapid, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>p. Webb, R.H., and Betancourt, J.L., 1992, Climatic variability and flood frequency of the Santa Cruz River , Pima County , Arizona : U.S. Geological...<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Arizona , names commonly are lacking for stream channels and other drainage features. The drainage basin that contributes to the Colorado River at...Colorado River near Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.6069P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.6069P"><span>Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Rousakis, G.; Velaoras, D.; Krokos, G.; Lykousis, V.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Surface sediments collected from deep basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea (Ionian Sea, southern Aegean Sea and <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Levantine Sea) were analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of aliphatic hydrocarbons varied significantly, ranging from 1.34 to 49.2 μg g-1, 145 to 4810 ng g-1 and 0.73 to 36.7 μg g-1, respectively, while concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged between 11.6 and 223 ng g-1. Molecular profiles of determined hydrocarbons reflect a mixed contribution from both natural and anthropogenic sources in deep-sea sediments of the eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, i.e., terrestrial plant waxes, degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of grass, wood and coal. Hydrocarbon mixtures display significant variability amongst sub-regions, reflecting differences in the relative importance of inputs from various sources and phase associations/transport pathways of individual hydrocarbons that impact on their overall distribution and fate. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the organic carbon content of sediments, indicating that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in deep basins. Additionally, water masses' circulation characteristics also seem to influence the regional features and distribution patterns of hydrocarbons. Our findings highlight the role of deep basins/<span class="hlt">canyons</span> as repositories of both natural and anthropogenic chemical species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5198135','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5198135"><span>Geology and petroleum resources of <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peterson, J.A.; Klemme, H.D.</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>The main onshore basins of <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Africa are (1) basins in the Atlas folded geosynclinal belt adjacent to the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, (2) the Tindouf, Bechar, and Reggane basins of western Algeria and southern Morocco, and (3) the Taoudeni basin of Mauritania and Mali. Coastal basins are (1) the Essaouria basin of southwestern Morocco, (2) the Tarfaya basin of Western Sahara, (3) the Senegal basin of Senegal and western Mauritania, (4) the Sierra Leone-Liberia basin, and (5) the Ivory Coast basin. The petroleum geology and resource potential of these basins is detailed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6222T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6222T"><span>Sediment and organic carbon transport in Cap de Creus <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, Gulf of Lions (France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tesi, T.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.; Goni, M. A.; Miserocchi, S.; Langone, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The off-shelf transport of particles in continental margins is responsible for much of the flux of organic matter (OM)and nutrients towards deep-sea ecosystems, playing a key role in the global oceanic biogeochemical cycles. Off-shelf sediment transport mechanism have been well described for many continental margins being triggered by a series of physical forcings such as tides, storms, internal waves, floods, earthquakes, as well as the combination of some of these processes, while topographic structures such as submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> act as preferential sedimentary conduits toward deep ocean. However, the composition of the material supplied to the deep ocean during these events is still poorly understood since most studies have only investigated the magnitude of the down-slope fluxes or limited their analysis to the major bulk components. A special opportunity to characterize the biogeochemical composition of the off-shelf export in the Gulf of Lions (GoL) margin was provided during the winter 2004-2005, when an exceptional dense water cascading event occurred. Dense water overflowing off the shelf in the GoL has been recently recognized as one of the main process affecting particulate shelf-to-slope exchange in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. During the 2004-2005 cascading event, moored instruments were deployed at the Cap de Creus (CdC) <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head to monitor the physical parameters and to characterize the temporal variability of the exported material. Post-cascading sediment cores were collected along the sediment dispersal system to trace the sediment transport pathway. In this study we developed a source tracing method using elemental compositions, alkaline CuO reaction products (lignin, cutin, lipids, hydroxy benzenes, proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides products), biogenic silica, carbon stable isotope composition, radiocarbon measurements, and grain size as a fingerprint for each sample. The aforementioned analyses were carried out on both sediment trap and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.146...38A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.146...38A"><span>The Whittard <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> - A case study of submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Allcock, A. L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J. S.; Danovaro, R.; De Stigter, H. C.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A. J.; Gunton, L. M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K. L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C. E.; Lavaleye, M. S. S.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A. M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many <span class="hlt">canyons</span> do host diverse faunal communities but owing to our lack of understanding of the processes shaping and driving this diversity, appropriate management strategies have yet to be developed. Here, we integrate all the current knowledge of one single system, the Whittard <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (Celtic Margin, NE Atlantic), including the latest research on its geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, oceanography, ecology, and biodiversity in order to address this issue. The Whittard <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is an active system in terms of sediment transport. The net suspended sediment transport is mainly up-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> causing sedimentary overflow in some upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> areas. Occasionally sediment gravity flow events do occur, some possibly the result of anthropogenic activity. However, the role of these intermittent gravity flows in transferring labile organic matter to the deeper regions of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> appears to be limited. More likely, any labile organic matter flushed downslope in this way becomes strongly diluted with bulk material and is therefore of little food value for benthic fauna. Instead, the fresh organic matter found in the Whittard Channel mainly arrives through vertical deposition and lateral transport of phytoplankton blooms that occur in the area during spring and summer. The response of the Whittard <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> fauna to these processes is different in different groups. Foraminiferal abundances are higher in the upper parts of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and on the slope than in the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Meiofaunal abundances in the upper and middle part of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> are higher than on adjacent slopes, but lower in the deepest part. Mega- and macrofauna abundances are higher in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> compared with the adjacent slope and are higher in the eastern than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043718"><span>New York <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Stimulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raemy, Bernard</p> <p>2012-06-21</p> <p>The New York <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06726&hterms=color+blue&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcolor%2Bblue','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06726&hterms=color+blue&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcolor%2Bblue"><span><span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in DCS Color</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>[figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/> Released July 26, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering a portion of Ganges Chasma. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations. <p/> The northern <span class="hlt">canyon</span> at the top of this image is dominated by a bright red/magenta area consisting primarly basaltic materials on the floor of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and atmospheric dust. Within that area, there are patches of purple, on the walls and in the landslides, that may be due to an olivine rich mineral layer. In the middle of the image, the green on the mesa between the two <span class="hlt">canyons</span> is from a layer of dust. The patchy blue areas in the southern <span class="hlt">canyon</span> are likely due to water ice clouds. <p/> Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -6.6, Longitude 316 East (44 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. <p/> Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. <p/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.106..118S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.106..118S"><span>Habitat characterization of deep-water coral reefs in La Gaviera <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (Avilés <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> System, Cantabrian Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez, Francisco; González-Pola, Cesar; Druet, María; García-Alegre, Ana; Acosta, Juan; Cristobo, Javier; Parra, Santiago; Ríos, Pilar; Altuna, Álvaro; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Muñoz-Recio, Araceli; Rivera, Jesus; del Río, Guillermo Díaz</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Surveys conducted at the complex Avilés <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> System (southern Bay of Biscay) in order to identify vulnerable habitats and biological communities revealed the presence of noteworthy deep-water coral reefs in one of the tributaries of the system (La Gaviera <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>). The aim of the present study is to determine why this deep-sea <span class="hlt">canyon</span> provides suitable environmental conditions for corals to grow. This hanging <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is characterized by an irregular U-shaped floor with two narrow differentiated flanks. Sand ripples and rocky outcrops structured in diverse W-E directed steps are observed on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor, suggesting intense hydrodynamic activity. Accordingly, high-frequency near-bottom current and thermal structure profiles showed that there occur strong shifts in currents/hydrography behaving as front-like features at each tidal cycle. These involve the sudden increase of along-axis velocities to over 50 cm/s and vertical velocities of over 5 cm/s in each tidal cycle associated with the passage of sharp thermal fronts and thermal inversions suggesting overturning. A year-long near-bottom current record showed events with near-bottom velocities well over 1 m/s lasting for several days. Three cold-water coral settings were distinguished: a dense coral reef located on stepped rocky bottoms of the eastern and western flanks, carbonate mounds (20-30 m high) located on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor, and a cluster of shallower water dead coral framework at the head sector of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Video and still images from a towed sled and ROV verified the presence of dropstones and rippled sand sheets surrounding the mounds and revealed changes in the coral population (alive or dead; total or patchy coverage) in coral reef and carbonate mound areas. The dominant species of the reef are Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, which considerably increase the habitat‧s complexity and biodiversity in relation to other facies described in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The presence of living cold-water reefs is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..175R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..175R"><span>Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> than in nearby off-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> locations. Blanes <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5164508','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5164508"><span><span class="hlt">Canyon</span> waste dump case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Land, M.D.; Brothers, R.R. ); McGinn, C.W. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This data packet contains the Canyonville <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Waste Dump results of the various physical environmental sampling. Core samples were taken from the on site waste material. Vertical grab samples were made from these borings. The waste samples were screened fro volatile organic compounds (VOC) and logged for lithology. Soil samples were also tested for VOC. Composite sediment samples were taken using a coring device known as a clam gun. No surface water was available for testing from the intermittent <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wash. The hydrogeology of the <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Waste Dump was inferred from lithologic logs and hydraulic data from the five monitoring wells located along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor. Groundwater was monitored through five wells. The soil vapor and air screening techniques used were adaptations of the EPA ERT and NIOSH methodologies. 4 figs., 9 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.137..149B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.137..149B"><span>Properties and pathways of <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> water eddies in the Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bashmachnikov, I.; Neves, F.; Calheiros, T.; Carton, X.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Data from ship vertical casts (NODC data-set), ARGO profiling floats (Coriolis data-set) and RAFOS-type neutral density floats (WOCE data-set) are used to study characteristics of meddies in the Northeast Atlantic. In total 241 <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> water eddies (meddies) and 236 parts of float trajectories within meddies are selected for detailed analysis. The results suggest that the meddy generation rate at the southern and southwestern Iberian Peninsula (Portimao <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, cap St. Vincent, Estremadura Promontory, Gorringe Bank) is 3 times that at the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Iberian Peninsula (Porto-Aveiro <span class="hlt">Canyons</span>, Cape Finisterre and Galicia Bank). Meddies generated south of Estremadura Promontory (the southern meddies), as compared to those generated north of it (the northern meddies), have smaller radii, smaller vertical extension, higher aspect ratio, higher Rossby number and higher stability (stronger potential vorticity anomaly). These latter properties result from the southern meddies higher relative vorticity and stronger buoyancy frequency anomaly. Away from the generation regions, meddy drift concentrates along four main paths: three quasi-zonal paths (Northern, Central, Southern) and a path following the African coast (Coastal). The quasi-zonal paths are aligned to the isolines of the ambient potential vorticity field. Several cross-path exchanges, identified in this work, are aligned to topographic rises. Northward translation of the northern meddies within the North Atlantic Current to the subpolar gyre is detected. Within the first 600 km from the coast, meddy merger is proved to be a common event. This explains the observed difference in radii between the newly generated meddies and those away from the Iberian margin. The decay of the southern meddies proceeds mainly via the loss of their skirts and does not affect meddy cores until the latest stages. The decay of the northern meddies goes in parallel with the decay of their cores. In average meddy decay is achieved</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP54A..06P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP54A..06P"><span>Anatomy of La Jolla <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Ussler, W.; Lundsten, E.; McGann, M. L.; Conrad, J. E.; Edwards, B. D.; Covault, J. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>High-resolution multibeam bathymetry (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m) and chirp sub-bottom profiler data collected with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) reveal the fine-scale morphology of La Jolla <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, offshore southern California. The AUV was pre-programmed to fly three missions within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above bottom in water depths between 365 and 980 m. Sparker seismic reflection profiles define the overall geometry of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and its host sediments. A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was used to ground truth the AUV surveys by collecting video observations, 25 vibracores ≤1.5 m long and 38 horizontal push cores from outcrops on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls. These tools outline the shape and near sub-bottom character of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and thus provide insight into the processes that generated the present <span class="hlt">canyon</span> geomorphology. La Jolla <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is ~1.5 km across and contains a smaller-scale sinuous axial channel that varies in width from <50 m to >300 m. The total relief on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls is ~90 m and most of the elevation changes occur along a few steep faces that separate intervening terraces. Fine scale features include <1 m high steps on the surface of the major terraces and the existence of crescent shaped bedforms within the axial channel. Also notable are the numerous slide scars on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks and within its axial channel. The sharpness of the textures seen in the multibeam images and ROV observations suggest the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is active and sediment failures play an important role in generating the canyon’s present morphology. Vibracores show that the floor of the axial channel is typically covered with >1 m of medium- to fine-grained sand. While collecting vibracores within the axial channel, the sand within a radius of ~2 m were observed to flow down slope, apparently after becoming fluidized. The ease with which failure can be induced on the relatively gentle slopes (~1.4°) within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5215284','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5215284"><span>Mineral resources of the Desolation <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Turtle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and Floy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. )</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>This paper reports on the Desolation <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Turtle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and Floy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> area and in the western part of the Floy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> area and the southeastern part of the Desolation <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03598&hterms=Thermal+floors&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DThermal%2Bfloors','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03598&hterms=Thermal+floors&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DThermal%2Bfloors"><span><span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Floor Deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03598 <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Floor Deposits <p/> The layered and wind eroded deposits seen in this VIS image occur on the floor of Chandor Chasma. <p/> Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.2S, Longitude 283.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. <p/> Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. <p/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-10-19/pdf/00-26934.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-10-19/pdf/00-26934.pdf"><span>65 FR 62750 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-10-19</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group... organized and includes a federal advisory committee (the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group, or AMWG), a technical work group (the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group, or TWG), a monitoring and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8106P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8106P"><span>Increasing sediment accumulation rates in La Fonera (Palamós) submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis and their relationship with bottom trawling activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puig, P.; Martín, J.; Masqué, P.; Palanques, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Previous studies conducted in La Fonera (Palamós) submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>) found that trawling activities along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks cause resuspension and transport of sediments toward the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis. 210Pb chronology supported by 137Cs dating applied to a sediment core collected at 1750 m in 2002 suggested a doubling of the sediment accumulation rate since the 1970s, coincident with the rapid industrialization of the local trawling fleet. The same <span class="hlt">canyon</span> area has been revisited a decade later, and new data are consistent with a sedimentary regime shift during the 1970s and also suggest that the accumulation rate during the last decade could be greater than expected, approaching ~2.4 cm yr-1 (compared to ~0.25 cm yr-1 pre-1970s). These results support the hypothesis that commercial bottom trawling can substantially affect sediment dynamics and budgets on continental margins, eventually initiating the formation of anthropogenic depocenters in submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> diet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... provider if you should take a calcium supplement. Wine is a common part of a <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> eating ... but some people should not drink alcohol. Avoid wine if you are prone to alcohol abuse, pregnant, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17777263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17777263"><span>"Internal Waves" Advancing along Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shepard, F P; Marshall, N F; McLoughlin, P A</p> <p>1974-01-18</p> <p>Patterns of alternating up- and downcanyon currents have been traced along the axes of submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> off California. The patterns arrive later at stations nearer the heads of coastal <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Where a <span class="hlt">canyon</span> heads between two islands, the patterns advance down the axis. The propagation speeds of these patterns were estimated as 25 to 88 centimeters per second. Internal waves are the probable explanation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212570R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212570R"><span>Plio-Quaternary <span class="hlt">canyons</span> evolution on South Colombian convergent margin : Tectonic causes and implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ratzov, Gueorgui; Sosson, Marc; Collot, Jean-Yves; Migeon, Sebastien</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Investigations of seafloor morphology and sediment deposits associated with the incision of the South Colombia active margin by a major submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system are used to reveal out-of-sequence fault activity at least since the Middle Pleistocene. The South Colombian convergent margin is located along <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> South America, where the Nazca plate underthrusts eastward the South America plate with a 58 mm.yr-1 convergence rate. The morphology and deep multichannel seismic reflection lines obtained across the margin reflect a frontal accretionnary wedge, as well as antiform and faulted internal structural highs that locally extend up to near the continental shelf, suggesting wide-spread Plio-Quaternary tectonic activity. The Amadeus cruise conduced in 2005 brought new seismic and sedimentary data together with 150m and 60m-resolution EM12D multibeam bathymetry. The newly mapped Mira and Patia <span class="hlt">canyons</span> system incises the South Colombian margin slope over a distance of ~90 and ~150 km respectively, forming an unequivocal Z-shape in map view, breaching the deformation front and feeding a 30-km wide trench fan system. The morphology of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> exhibits meanders, steep over-incised walls (~25-30 degrees), alternation between concave-up and convex-up downstream profiles, slope failures scars, and buried channels. These features reflect interactions between tectonics, sedimentation and the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> evolution. A synthesis of all the data reveals that: A) Uplifting structural highs control <span class="hlt">canyons</span> path and incision stages. B) <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> developed asynchronously across the upper, mid and lower margin slopes according to three main stages: a) upper slope incision by downward cutting during Pleistocene, and possibly by retrogressive headward erosion, b) infill of a mid-slope basin bounded by uplifting structural highs, and c) overspill of the slope basin, and breaching its seaward bounding ridge, and the accretionary prism ~150 kyr ago. These processes led to the construction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034693','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034693"><span>Currents in monterey submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Flow fields of mean, subtidal, and tidal frequencies between 250 and 3300 m water depths in Monterey Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> are examined using current measurements obtained in three yearlong field experiments. Spatial variations in flow fields are mainly controlled by the topography (shape and width) of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The mean currents flow upcanyon in the offshore reaches (>1000 m) and downcanyon in the shallow reaches (100-m amplitude isotherm oscillations and associated high-speed rectilinear currents. The 15-day spring-neap cycle and a ???3-day??? band are the two prominent frequencies in subtidal flow field. Neither of them seems directly correlated with the spring-neap cycle of the sea level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1242690','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1242690"><span>Why SRS Matters - H <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Hunt, Paul; Lewczyk, Mike; Swain, Mike</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features H <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>'s mission and operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA15847.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA15847.html"><span>Colorado Destructive Waldo <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Fire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-06</p> <p>NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of the Waldo <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Fire, west of Colorado Springs, Colo., being called the worst fire in Colorado history. Healthy vegetation is red, water is dark blue, streets and buildings are gray, and the burned areas are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Grand+AND+Canyon&pg=2&id=EJ349940','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Grand+AND+Canyon&pg=2&id=EJ349940"><span>Thomas Moran: "The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brubaker, Ann</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan for introducing students in grades four through six to Thomas Moran's painting, "The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>." The goal of the lesson is to illustrate the importance of the American West as a subject for artists in the nineteenth century. (JDH)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930043869&hterms=stratigraphy+origins&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstratigraphy%2Borigins','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930043869&hterms=stratigraphy+origins&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstratigraphy%2Borigins"><span>The <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lucchitta, B. K.; Mcewen, A. S.; Clow, G. D.; Geissler, P. E.; Singer, R. B.; Schultz, R. A.; Squyres, S. W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Individual Martian equatorial troughs are described, and their stratigraphy, geomorphology and structure are discussed. Possible origins and the overall sequence of events are addressed. Wall rock, interior layered deposits, irregular floor deposits, fractured floor material, and surficial deposits are examined. Chasma walls, wall stability, pits and pit chains, tributary <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, and the transition from troughs to channels are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Grand+AND+Canyon&pg=2&id=EJ349940','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Grand+AND+Canyon&pg=2&id=EJ349940"><span>Thomas Moran: "The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brubaker, Ann</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan for introducing students in grades four through six to Thomas Moran's painting, "The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>." The goal of the lesson is to illustrate the importance of the American West as a subject for artists in the nineteenth century. (JDH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1242690','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1242690"><span>Why SRS Matters - H <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hunt, Paul; Lewczyk, Mike; Swain, Mike</p> <p>2015-02-17</p> <p>A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features H <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>'s mission and operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_78280.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_78280.htm"><span>Geologic map of the Peach Springs 30' x 60' quadrangle, Mohave and Coconino counties, <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Billingsley, George H.; Block, Debra L.; Dyer, Helen C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This map is a product of a cooperative project of the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. National Park Service, and the Bureau of Land Management to provide geologic map coverage and regional geologic information for visitor services and resource management of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>-Parashant-National Monument, and adjacent lands in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Arizona. This map is a synthesis of previous and new geologic mapping that encompasses the Peach Springs 30' x 60' quadrangle, Arizona. The geologic data will support future geologic, biologic, hydrologic, and other science resource studies of this area conducted by the National Park Service, the Hualapai Indian Tribe, the Bureau of Land Management, the State of Arizona, and private organizations. The Colorado River and its tributaries have dissected the southwestern Colorado Plateau into what is now the southwestern part of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. The erosion of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> has exposed about 426 m (1,400 ft) of Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks and granite, about 1,450 m (4,760 ft) of Paleozoic strata, and about 300 m (1,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Outcrops of Proterozoic crystalline rocks are exposed at the bottom of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> at Granite Park from Colorado River Mile 207 to 209, at Mile 212, and in the Lower Granite Gorge from Colorado River Mile 216 to 262, and along the Grand Wash Cliffs in the southwest corner of the map area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0222/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0222/report.pdf"><span>Uranium potential of the Burro <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Formation in western Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Craig, L.C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The Burro <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Formation of Early Cretaceous age overlies the Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic) and underlies the Dakota Sandstone (Late Cretaceous) over most of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado. It consists mainly of alternating beds of fluvial sandstone and overbank mudstone with sandstone dominating in the lower part of the formation and mudstone in the upper part. At the outcrop, the sandstones in the formation exhibit almost all the characteristics that are considered favorable for the occurrence of sandstone-type uranium deposits, but only a few small deposits have been discovered in the Colorado-Utah area. The major deficiency of the Burro <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in these outcrop areas is the absence of a reductant such as carbonaceous debris, humic or humate materials, or pyrite. Reductants were probably removed during a period of extensive oxidation at the time of deposition and during a subsequent erosional episode prior to deposition of the Dakota Sandstone. The formation reaches a lobate, inexactly located eastern margin that extends from near Meeker, Colorado, southward through the Piceance basin to near Aztec, New Mexico, in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> part of the San Juan Basin. Along much of this distance, the formation is in the subsurface and has been penetrated by only a few drill holes. Along this eastern margin, the lobes project eastward where fluvial distributary streams built minor alluvial fans of relatively high-energy deposits out from the main axis of Burro <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> stream deposition. The lower and distal reaches of these lobes may have survived the period of post depositional erosion and oxidation in a reduced condition because of low relief and the protection of a high water table. If so, the peripheral and distal parts of these lobes may have retained the precipitants necessary to form a uranium deposit. Two of the lobes extend into the southwest margin of the Piceance Basin and are considered the possible location of uranium deposits. Two additional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046087','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046087"><span>Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Log–log regression analyses of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> thalweg gradient (S) versus up-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, <span class="hlt">canyon</span> reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down <span class="hlt">canyon</span> have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale <span class="hlt">canyon</span> morphology and down-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> changes in sediment flow dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6117111','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6117111"><span>Mineral resources of the Coal <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Spruce <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and Flume <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Areas, Grand county, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dickerson, R.P.; Gaccetta, J.D.; Kulik, D.M.; Kreidler, T.J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports on the Coal <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Spruce <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and Flume <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Areas in the Book and Roan Cliffs in Grand Country, Utah, approximately 12 miles west of the Colorado state line. The wilderness study areas consist of a series of deep, stair-step-sided <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and high ridges eroded into the flatlying sedimentary rocks of the Book Cliffs. Demonstrated coal reserves totaling 22,060,800 short tons and demonstrated subeconomic coal resources totaling 39,180,000 short tons are in the Coal <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Area. Also, inferred subeconomic coal resources totaling 143,954,000 short tons are within the Coal <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Area. No known deposits of industrial minerals are in any of the study area. All three of the wilderness study areas have a high resource potential for undiscovered deposits of coal and for undiscovered oil and gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02618&hterms=Wildfires&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DWildfires','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02618&hterms=Wildfires&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DWildfires"><span>MISR Images Wildfires in <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>MISR image of smoke plumes from devastating wildfires in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> US. This view of the Clearwater and Salmon River Mountains in Idaho was acquired on August 5, 2000 (Terra orbit 3370). The body of water to the left of image center is the Cascade Reservoir, located about 100 km north of Boise and 80 km east of the Snake River. North is at the top, and the image is approximately 380 km across.<p/>In addition to the huge plumes traversing the mountains in the northern part of the image, smoke accumulating in the lower elevation <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and plains is visible. This image was generated using data from the MISR camera that looks forward at a steep angle (70.5 degrees). The smoke is far more visible when viewed at this highly oblique angle than it would be in a conventional, straight-downward view. In creating this color composite, data from the blue and green MISR bands, acquired at 1.1-km spatial resolution, were digitally 'sharpened' using 275-m resolution data acquired in the red band.<p/>MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.<p/>For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9402S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9402S"><span>The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suryawanshi, Vandana</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea The Formation of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013911','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013911"><span>SYCAMORE <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The Sycamore <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII..99...64L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII..99...64L"><span>Temporal changes in the growth of two <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> cold-water coral species, in situ and in aquaria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lartaud, Franck; Pareige, Simon; de Rafelis, Marc; Feuillassier, Lionel; Bideau, Marjorie; Peru, Erwan; De la Vega, Elwyn; Nedoncelle, Karine; Romans, Pascal; Le Bris, Nadine</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In situ growth patterns of two-species of reef-building cold-water corals were investigated for the first time at different temporal scales, based on the redeployment of coral nubbins in their natural environment. Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata were collected in November 2010 and May 2011 from the Lacaze-Duthiers <span class="hlt">canyon</span> in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea (520 m depth). Three in situ growth experiments were performed from November 2010 to May 2011, May to September 2011 and November 2010 to September 2011. For comparison, aquaria experiments over comparable lengths of time were conducted with coral colonies collected in November 2010. In the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, new polyps from M. oculata and L. pertusa displayed similar growth rates in summer (5.8±3.8 and 7.3±1.7 mm yr-1 respectively), but M. oculata growed significantly slower during winter/spring than L. pertusa (4.1±1.8 and 8.4±2.7 mm yr-1 respectively). Budding rates however (the rate of new polyp addition per mother polyp per year) were similar between both species in winter/spring (45±40% for M. oculata and 48±72% for L. pertusa), but were significantly lower in summer for M. oculata (14±19%) compared to L. pertusa (58±94%). This seasonal difference in the growth between L. pertusa and M. oculata might reflect differences in species-specific physiology (such as reproduction) or feeding strategy, or a higher sensitivity of M. oculata to the variability of food supply in the Lacaze-Duthiers <span class="hlt">canyon</span> resulting from periodic cascading events. The comparison of in situ and aquaria growth experiments showed no significant differences for budding and new polyp growth rates, which supports the validity of aquaria experiments for these kinds of investigations. However the budding rates observed were consistently lower in coral maintained in aquaria than those in in situ conditions, a finding which is to be considered when extrapolating laboratory based investigation results to the naturally occurring coral</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714671O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714671O"><span>Turkish Straits System and Southern Black Sea: Exchange. Mixing and Shelf / <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özsoy, Emin; Gürses, Özgür; Tutsak, Ersin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Based largely on an experiment employing high-resolution measurements carried out in June-July 2013 and re-interpretation of past experiments, the oceanographic variability of the exchange through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) and the interactions with the southern Black Sea are revealed through CTD, ADCP, oxygen and light transmission measurements. The exchange flow is primarily governed by the complex topography spanning two narrow straits, wide continental shelf regions, steep slopes and numerous <span class="hlt">canyons</span> connecting deep basins. Water properties and currents in the high energy environment depends on the mosaic of fine-scale processes and pathways. The TSS, often approximated as a two-layer system has a hydraulically controlled, upper ocean and straits intensified regime, leading to surface jets and bottom plumes participating in mixing and renewal processes. The exit of the '<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> effluent' onto the Black Sea past a sill overflow from the Bosphorus passes through two subsequent hydraulic jumps and proceeds along a narrow <span class="hlt">canyon</span> that veers to the west clear of the greater Bosphorus <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> finally cascading down the few small <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. A diffusive spread from the bottom vein of salty water reforms to the east and spills down the Bosphorus <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. The suspended particulate signature of the cascade, as well as its influence in hydrography is traced over the shelf and slope waters and through the numerous <span class="hlt">canyons</span> into deep water where the reformed flow is found to sustain signatures of the past evolution of intrusive waters. An evaluation of the processes is given with reference to model development carried out in parallel to the analyses of the measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28676173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28676173"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> seagrasses with Sentinel-2 imagery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Traganos, Dimosthenis; Reinartz, Peter</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> seagrasses have been hailed for their numerous ecosystem services, yet they are undergoing a decline in their coverage. The major complication with resolving this tendency is the sparsity of data on their overall distribution. This study addresses the suitability of the recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite for mapping the distribution of <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> seagrass meadows. A comprehensive methodology is presented which applies atmospheric and analytical water column corrections and compares the performance of three different supervised classifiers. Remote sensing of the Thermaikos Gulf, <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Aegean Sea (Greece, eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea) reveals that the utilization of Support Vector Machines on water column corrected reflectances yields best accuracies. Two <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, cover a total submerged area of 1.48km(2) between depths of 1.4-16.5m. With its 10-m spatial resolution and 5-day revisit frequency, Sentinel-2 imagery can mitigate the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> seagrass distribution data gap and allow better management and conservation in the future in a retrospective, time- and cost-effective fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3020/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3020/"><span>Research Furthers Conservation of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Sandbars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> sandbars. Throughout Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park, is a goal of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015882','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015882"><span>The Ebro margin study, <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea - an introduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Maldonado, A.; Hans, Nelson C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The Ebro continental margin from the coast to the deep sea off northeastern Spain was selected for a multidisciplinary project because of the abundant Ebro River sediment supply, Pliocene and Quaternary progradation, and margin development in a restricted basin where a variety of controlling factors could be evaluated. The nature of this young passive margin for the last 5 m.y. was investigated with particular emphasis on marine circulation, sediment dynamics, sediment geochemistry, depositional facies, seismic stratigraphy, geotechnical properties, geological hazards and human influences. These studies show the importance of marine circulation, variation in sediment supply, sea-level oscillation and tectonic setting for the understanding of modern and ancient margin depositional processes and growth patterns. ?? 1990.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-SL2-10-250.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-SL2-10-250.html"><span>Eastern Iowa, <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Illinois</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-06-22</p> <p>SL2-10-250 (May-June 1973) --- A vertical view of eastern Iowa and <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Illinois, as photographed from Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Davenport, Burlington and Muscatine, Iowa; and Rock Island and Moline, Illinois can be delineated on opposite sides of the Mississippi River. The Iowa River and tributaries of it can also be delineated. This photograph was taken with one of six lenses of the Itek-furnished Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment S190-A mounted in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) of the space station. A six-inch lens, using 70mm medium speed Ektachrome (SO-356) film, was used. Agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce and Interior; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior's Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6813L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6813L"><span>Evidence of clastic evaporites in the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of the Levant basin (Israel): implications for the Messinian salinity crisis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lugli, Stefano; Schreiber, B. Charlotte; Gvirtzman, Zohar; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The recognition of widespread and thick evaporite deposits below the floor of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea has boosted a long standing controversy concerning their depositional setting (shallow versus deep) and their correlation with the onshore sequences. Until a new scientific campaign might be launched to cross those deposits, the discussion is still open to speculation. Many Messinian evaporitic deposits have been interpreted as primary precipitates in very shallow-water or coastal environments, thus favouring the idea of a desiccated <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin (Hsu et al., 1973). Recent studies have questioned this interpretation (Hardie and Lowenstein, 2004) and widespread, thick, clastic evaporite facies have been identified in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (Manzi et al., 2005). These clastic deposits are not compatible with a desiccation model as they were clearly emplaced by fully subaqueous, deep-water processes, ranging from submarine slides, to high- and low-density gravity flows. One of the most relevant areas for the understanding of the salinity crisis is the Levant basin where the Messinian evaporites partially fill some of the erosional features (<span class="hlt">canyons</span>) considered to have formed as a consequence of significant drawdown related to the desiccation of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea (up to - 850 m, Druckman et al., 1995). Our complete revisitation of the available cores from onshore Israel cutting through the sedimentary filling of the Messinian <span class="hlt">canyons</span> (Afiq 1, Ashdod 2, Be'eri Sh1, Be'eri Sh4, Jaffa 1 and Talme-Yaffe 3) revealed exclusively clastic sulfate facies. This is the first direct evidence that the Lower Evaporite Unit offshore Israel may actually consist of deep-water resedimented evaporites that were originally deposited on the margin of the Levant Basin. References Druckman Y., Buchbinder B., Martinotti G.M., Tov R.S., Aharon P., 1995. The buried Afiq <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, Israel): a case study of a Tertiary submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> exposed in Late Messinian times</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3373O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3373O"><span>The multidecadal component of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> summer variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>OrtizBevia, M. J.; RuizdeElvira, A.; Alvarez-Garcia, F. J.; Tasambay-Salazar, M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This study targets the low frequency components of the anomalous <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> summer climatic variability. This last is characterised here by two indexes obtained from a statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> sea surface temperature anomalies. The evolution of the first of them, the Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Index, is dominated by a multidecadal timescale. This Index has a strong statistical impact on the summer air temperature anomalies in the European region. In the other index, the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Dipole Index, the decadal timescale plays a major part. This last Index is linked to anomalous summer precipitations in some central European regions. A statistical methodology is used in order to identify some feedback relationships between the two <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> indexes and other climate indexes which characterise some global or regional variability. In the case of the Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Index, the analysis reveals significant feedback relationships with two of these indexes. The selected predictors are introduced as variables in a statistical feedback model. The cross-skills scored in a cross-validation hindcast experiment reveals an important potential predictability. In this way, the multidecadal <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> summer sea surface temperature variability appears as the result of two forcings, one related to the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> Atlantic processes and the other connected to the north tropical Atlantic, and to a weak feedback onto the Atlantic. In the case of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Dipole Mode Index we have not found enough predictive potential in the feedback relationships identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013328','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013328"><span>Role of submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in shaping the rise between Lydonia and Oceanographer <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, Georges Bank</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGregor, B.A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Three large submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, Oceanographer, Gilbert, and Lydonia, indent the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf and, with four additional <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, dissect the continental slope in the vicinity of Georges Bank. On the upper rise, these <span class="hlt">canyons</span> merge at a water depth of approximately 3100 m to form only two valleys. Differences in channel morphology of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> on the upper rise imply differences in relative activity, which is inconsistent with observations in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> heads. At present, Lydonia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> incises the upper rise more deeply than do the other <span class="hlt">canyons</span>: however, seismic-reflection profiles show buried channels beneath the rise, which suggests that these other six <span class="hlt">canyons</span> were periodically active during the Neogene. The rise morphology and the thickness of inferred Neogene- and Quaternary-age sediments on the rise are attributed to the presence and activity of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. The erosional and depositional processes and the morphology of these <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are remarkably similar to those of fluvial systems. Bear Seamount, which has approximately 2000 m of relief on the rise, has acted as a barrier to downslope sediment transport since the Late Cretaceous. Sediment has piled up on the upslope side, whereas much less sediment has accumulated in the "lee shadow" on the downslope side. Seismic-reflection profile data show that Lydonia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> has not eroded down to the volcanic rock of Bear Seamount. ?? 1985.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5381679','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5381679"><span>Environmental assessment: Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>none,</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site. Although the Lavender <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5492684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5492684"><span>Environmental assessment: Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>none,</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site. Although the Lavender <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/85/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/85/"><span>Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Monitoring and Research Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hamill, John F.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The <span class="hlt">canyon</span> supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park sits Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1004615','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1004615"><span>ACCELERATED PILOT PROJECT FOR U <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> DEMOLITION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>KEHLER KL</p> <p>2011-01-13</p> <p>At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is underway on a first-of-a-kind project with the decommissioning and demolition of the U <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Record of Decision for the final remediation of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, CH2M HILL is combining old and new technology and techniques to prepare U <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> for demolition. The selected remedial action called first for consolidating and grouting equipment currently in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> into lower levels of the plant (openings called cells), after which the cell galleries, hot pipe trench, ventilation tunnel, drains and other voids below the operating deck and crane-way deck levels will be filled with approximately 20,000 cubic yards of grout and the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> roof and walls demolished down to the approximate level of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> deck. The remaining <span class="hlt">canyon</span> structure will then be buried beneath an engineered barrier designed to control potential contaminant migration for a 500-year life. Methods and lessons learned from this project will set the stage for the future demolition of Hanford's four other <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-type processing facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..68..127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..68..127B"><span>Urban street <span class="hlt">canyons</span>: Coupling dynamics, chemistry and within-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> chemical processing of emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bright, Vivien Bianca; Bloss, William James; Cai, Xiaoming</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Street <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, formed by rows of buildings in urban environments, are associated with high levels of atmospheric pollutants emitted primarily from vehicles, and substantial human exposure. The street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> forms a semi-enclosed environment, within which emissions may be entrained in a re-circulatory system; chemical processing of emitted compounds alters the composition of the air vented to the overlying boundary layer, compared with the primary emissions. As the prevailing atmospheric chemistry is highly non-linear, and the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> mixing and predominant chemical reaction timescales are comparable, the combined impacts of dynamics and chemistry must be considered to quantify these effects. Here we report a model study of the coupled impacts of dynamical and chemical processing upon the atmospheric composition in a street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> environment, to assess the impacts upon air pollutant levels within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, and to quantify the extent to which within-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> chemical processing alters the composition of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> outflow, in comparison to the primary emissions within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. A new model for the simulation of street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> atmospheric chemical processing has been developed, by integrating an existing Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) dynamical model of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> atmospheric motion with a detailed chemical reaction mechanism, a Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) comprising 51 chemical species and 136 reactions, based upon a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The combined LES-RCS model is used to investigate the combined effects of mixing and chemical processing upon air quality within an idealised street <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The effect of the combination of dynamical (segregation) and chemical effects is determined by comparing the outputs of the full LES-RCS <span class="hlt">canyon</span> model with those obtained when representing the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> as a zero-dimensional box model (i.e. assuming mixing is complete and instantaneous). The LES-RCS approach predicts lower (<span class="hlt">canyon</span>-averaged) levels of NOx, OH and HO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221776"><span>H-<span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Recovery Crawler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kriikku, E. M.; Hera, K. R.; Marzolf, A. D.; Phillips, M. H.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Nuclear Material Disposition Project group asked the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) department to help procure, test, and deploy a remote crawler to recover the 2014 Inspection Crawler (IC) that tipped over in the H-<span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Air Exhaust Tunnel. R&DE wrote a Procurement Specification for a Recovery Crawler (RC) and SRNS Procurement Department awarded the contract to Power Equipment Manufacturing Inc. (PEM). The PEM RC was based on their standard sewer inspection crawler with custom arms and forks added to the front. The arms and forks would be used to upright the 2014 Inspection Crawler. PEM delivered the RC and associated cable reel, 2014 Inspection Crawler mockup, and manuals in late April 2015. R&DE and the team tested the crawler in May of 2015 and made modifications based on test results and Savannah River Site (SRS) requirements. R&DE delivered the RC to H-Area at the end of May. The team deployed the RC on June 9, 10, and 11, 2015 in the H-<span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Air Exhaust Tunnel. The RC struggled with some obstacles in the tunnel, but eventually made it to the IC. The team spent approximately five hours working to upright the IC and eventually got it on its wheels. The IC travelled approximately 20 feet and struggled to drive over debris on the air tunnel floor. Unfortunately the IC tripped over trying to pass this obstacle. The team decided to leave the IC in this location and inspect the tunnel with the RC. The RC passed the IC and inspected the tunnel as it travelled toward H-<span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. The team turned the RC around when it was about 20 feet from the H-<span class="hlt">Canyon</span> crossover tunnel. From that point, the team drove the RC past the manway towards the new sand filter and stopped approximately 20 feet from the new sand filter. The team removed the RC from the tunnel, decontaminated the RC, and stored it the manway building, 294-2H. The RC deployment confirmed the IC was not in a condition to perform useful tunnel inspections and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012185','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012185"><span>Geology and biology of Oceanographer submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Valentine, P.C.; Uzmann, J.R.; Cooper, R.A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Santonian beds more than 100 m thick are the oldest rocks collected from the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Quaternary silty clay veneers the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls in many places and is commonly burrowed by benthic organisms that cause extensive erosion of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls, especially in the depth zone (100-1300 m) inhabited by the crabs Geryon and Cancer. Bioerosion is minimal on high, near-vertical cliffs of sedimentary rock, in areas of continual sediment movement, and where the sea floor is paved by gravel. A thin layer of rippled, unconsolidated silt and sand is commonly present on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls and in the axis. Shelf sediments are transported from Georges Bank over the E rim and in the <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> by the SW drift and storm currents; tidal currents and internal waves move the sediment downcanyon along the walls and axis.- from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5528625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5528625"><span>Environmental assessment overview, Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>none,</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2741L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2741L"><span>An experimental approach to submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> with well-developed channel networks. Normalized <span class="hlt">canyon</span> long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting <span class="hlt">canyon</span> morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25071220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25071220"><span>Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B</p> <p>2014-08-12</p> <p>Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136604','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136604"><span>Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wills, W. H.; Drake, Brandon L.; Dorshow, Wetherbee B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical “collapse” associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860–1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world. PMID:25071220</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1083/q/ofr20101083q.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1083/q/ofr20101083q.pdf"><span>Seismicity of the Earth 1900‒2013 <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea and vicinity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Herman, Matthew W.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Turner, Rebecca; Turner, Bethan; Jenkins, Jennifer; Davies, Sian; Parker, Amy; Sinclair, Allison; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio</p> <p>2015-09-08</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> region is seismically active due to the convergence of the Africa Plate with the Eurasia plate. Present day Africa-Eurasia motion ranges from ~4 millimeters per year (mm/yr) in a northwest-southeast direction in the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> to ~10 mm/yr (north-south) in the eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. The Africa-Eurasia plate boundary is complex, and includes extensional and translational zones in addition to the dominant convergent regimes characterized by subduction and continental collision. This convergence began at approximately 50 million years ago and was associated with the closure of the Tethys Sea; the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea is all that remains of the Tethys. The highest rates of seismicity in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> region are found along the Hellenic subduction zone of southern Greece and the North Anatolian Fault Zone of <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Turkey, but significant rates of current seismicity and large historical earthquakes have occurred throughout the region spanning the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.217 - Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.217 - Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.217 - Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.217 - Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.19 - <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.19 - <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.19 - <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.19 - <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol1-sec7-19.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.19 - <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> de Chelly National Monument...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021095','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021095"><span>Zircon geochronology of the Webb <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Gneiss and the Mount Owen Quartz Monzonite, Teton Range, Wyoming: Significance to dating late Archean metamorphism in the Wyoming craton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zartman, R.E.; Reed, J.C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The Webb <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Gneiss is a strongly foliated and lineated orthogneiss intercalated with layered Archean gneisses in the northern part of the Teton Range in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Wyoming. The Mount Owen Quartz Monzonite is a non-foliated or weakly flow foliated rock which forms a discordant pluton exposed in the central part of the range and that cuts the Webb <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Gneiss and the associated layered gneisses. U-Pb zircon geochronology reported here indicates that euhedral pink zircon grew in the Webb <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Gneiss at about 2680 Ma, probably during the peak of regional metamorphism and that the Mount Owen was emplaced at 2547??3 Ma. These dates provide the best constraints so far reported on the age of Late Archean regional metamorphism in the western part of the Wyoming craton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-05-13/pdf/99-12046.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-05-13/pdf/99-12046.pdf"><span>64 FR 25905 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-13</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-02-24/pdf/00-4205.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-02-24/pdf/00-4205.pdf"><span>65 FR 9296 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-02-24</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work... ``Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group,'' a technical work group, a monitoring and research... meeting. The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) will conduct one public meeting as follows: March...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01908.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01908.html"><span>Perspective view over the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-10-22</p> <p>This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01908</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04892&hterms=Mars+space+travel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMars%2Bspace%2Btravel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04892&hterms=Mars+space+travel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMars%2Bspace%2Btravel"><span>Mars Science Laboratory at <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>December 2, 2003<p/>NASA's Mars Science Laboratory travels near a <span class="hlt">canyon</span> on Mars in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.<p/>Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.<p/>NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04892&hterms=lifespan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlifespan','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04892&hterms=lifespan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlifespan"><span>Mars Science Laboratory at <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>December 2, 2003<p/>NASA's Mars Science Laboratory travels near a <span class="hlt">canyon</span> on Mars in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.<p/>Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.<p/>NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA16098.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA16098.html"><span>Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Similar to Mount Sharp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-27</p> <p>Before NASA Curiosity rover landed on Mars, the strata exposed in Mount Sharp were compared to those in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of the western United States, shown here. Scientists are surprised by just how close the similarities are.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7178327','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7178327"><span>Wintertime meteorology of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whiteman, C.D.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8vFAfBh8Dw','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8vFAfBh8Dw"><span>Satellites See Smoke from Fourmile <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Fire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>On the morning of September 6, 2010, a wildfire known as the Fourmile <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Fire broke out just west of Boulder, Colorado. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10187987','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10187987"><span>Wintertime meteorology of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whiteman, C.D.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcDyn..66.1353B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcDyn..66.1353B"><span>Gravity currents down <span class="hlt">canyons</span>: effects of rotation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berntsen, Jarle; Darelius, Elin; Avlesen, Helge</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The flow of dense water in a V-shaped laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is investigated by using a non-hydrostatic numerical ocean model with focus on the effects of rotation. By using a high-resolution model, a more detailed analysis of plumes investigated in the laboratory (Deep-Sea Res I 55:1021-1034 2008) for laminar flow is facilitated. The inflow rates are also increased to investigate plume structure for higher Reynolds numbers. With rotation, the plumes will lean to the side of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, and there will be cross-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> geostrophic currents and Ekman transports. In the present study, it is found that the cross-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> velocities are approximately 5 % of the down-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> velocities over the main body of the plume for the rotational case. With rotation, the flow of dense water through the body of the plume and into the plume head is reduced. The plume head becomes less developed, and the speed of advance of the head is reduced. Fluid parcels near the top of the plume will to a larger extent be left behind the faster flowing dense core of the plume in a rotating system. Near the top of the plume, the cross-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> velocities change direction. Inside the plume, the cross-flow is up the side of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, and above the interface to the ambient there is a compensating cross-flow down the side of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. This means that parcels of fluid around the interface become separated. Parcels of fluid around the interface with small down-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> velocity components and relative large cross-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> components will follow a long helix-like path down the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. It is found that the entrainment coefficients often are larger in the rotational experiments than in corresponding experiments without rotation. The effects of rotation and higher inflow rates on the areal patterns of entrainment velocities are demonstrated. In particular, there are bands of higher entrainment velocities along the lateral edges of the plumes in the rotational cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP24B..04V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP24B..04V"><span>Flow Structure in a Bedrock <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venditti, J. G.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.; Bomhof, J.; Lin, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Bedrock <span class="hlt">canyon</span> incision is widely recognized as setting the pace of landscape evolution. A variety of models link flow and sediment transport processes to the bedrock <span class="hlt">canyon</span> incision rate. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are quite well developed in some models. In contrast, the model components that represent fluid flow remain rudimentary. Part of the reason is that there have been relatively few observations of flow structure in a bedrock <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Here, we present observations of flow obtained using an array of three acoustic Doppler current profilers during a 524 km long continuous centerline traverse of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada as it passes through a series of bedrock <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Through this portion of the river, the channel alternates between gravel-bedded reaches that are deeply incised into semi-consolidated glacial deposits and solid bedrock-bound reaches. We present observations of flow through 41 bedrock bound reaches of the river, derived from our centerline traverses and more detailed three-dimensional mapping of the flow structure in 2 <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Our observations suggest that flow in the most well-defined <span class="hlt">canyons</span> (deep, laterally constrained, completely bedrock bound) is far more complex than that in a simple prismatic channel. As flow enters the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, a high velocity core plunges from the surface to the bed, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities at the bed and low velocities at the surface). This plunging flow then upwells along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> wall, resulting in a three-dimensional flow with counter-rotating, along-stream eddies that diverge near the bed. We observe centerline ridges along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floors that result from the divergence and large-scale surface boils caused by the upwelling. This flow structure causes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor, and ensures the base of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls are swept of debris that otherwise may be deposited due to lower shear stresses abutting the walls. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5430079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5430079"><span>Environmental assessment: Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>none,</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site. Although the Lavender <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84..384E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84..384E"><span>Different Views of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elders, Wilfred A.</p> <p></p> <p>Each year the spectacular scenery of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Arizona awes its more than 4,000,000 visitors. Just as its enormous scale dwarfs our human sense of space, its geology also dwarfs our human sense of time. Perhaps here, more than anywhere else on the planet, we can experience a sense of ``Deep Time.'' The colorful rocks exposed in the vertical walls of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> display a span of 1.8 billion years of Earth's history [Beus and Morales, 2003]. But wait! There is a different view! According to Vail [2003], this time span is only 6,000 years and the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and its rocks are a record of the Biblical 6 days of creation and Noah's flood. During a visit to Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, in August 2003, I learned that Vail's book, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: A Different View, is being sold within the National Park. The author and compiler of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: A Different View is a Colorado River guide who is well acquainted with the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> at river level. He has produced a book with an attractive layout and beautiful photographs. The book is remarkable because it has 23 co-authors, all male, who comprise a veritable ``Who's Who'' in creationism. For example, Henry Morris and John Whitcomb, the authors of the seminal young Earth creationist text, The Genesis Flood [Whitcomb and Morris, 1961], each contribute a brief introduction. Each chapter of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: A Different View begins with an overview by Vail, followed by brief comments by several contributors that ``have been peer reviewed to ensure a consistent and Biblical perspective.'' This perspective is strict Biblical literalism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02668.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02668.html"><span>3-D View of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-07-21</p> <p>The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago). The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011841','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011841"><span>Wilmington Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: a marine fluvial-like system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGregor, B.; Stubblefield, W.L.; Ryan, William B. F.; Twichell, D.C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Midrange sidescan sonar data show that a system of gullies and small channels feeds into large submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> on the Middle Atlantic Continental Slope of the US. The surveyed <span class="hlt">canyons</span> all have relatively flat floors, but they have different channel morphologies. Wilmington <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> has a meandering channel that extends down the Continental Slope and across the Continental Rise, whereas two <span class="hlt">canyons</span> south of Wilmington <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> have straight channels that trend directly downslope onto the rise. The morphology of these submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> systems is remarkably similar to that of terrestrial fluvial systems.-Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38613','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38613"><span>Killing tanoak in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>D. F. Roy</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p>Residual tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehd.) trees and tanoak sprouts often are an important component of the vegetation which competes with conifer reproduction in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> California. Sometimes enough tanoak is present in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands to dominate the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1428C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1428C"><span>Comparison of the oceanic deep convection in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> and Irminger Seas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caniaux, Guy; Piron, Anne; Thierry, Virginy; Mercier, Herlé; Giordani, Hervé</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Oceanic convection is an important process because it forms intermediate or deep waters that feed the global circulation. Convection is limited to a restricted number of sites in the world ocean. If deep convection in the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> is well known, deep convection in the Irminger Sea (south-east of Greenland) has been established recently and its different phases (preconditioning, cyclonic circulation, buoyancy forcing) described only in the very last years. While the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin is known to be the site of the formation of the Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Deep Water (WMDW), the Irminger Sea participates to the formation of a certain amount of newly ventilated Labrador Sea Water (LSW). In both basins, intense surface heat loss is due to cold, dry and gale force wind events (respectively the northern Mistral and <span class="hlt">north-western</span> Tramontane, and eastern tip jets to the east of Cape Farewell) during the autumn and winter periods. Cooling promotes the reinforcement of the circulation that leads to the increase of the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> cyclonic gyre as well as the Irminger cyclonic gyre. Moreover elevated wind stress curl on the left side of the gale force wind pathways add to the preconditioning of the water column. These ingredients (surface cooling, reinforcement of the cyclonic circulation and Ekman pumping) may result, certain years, to intense convective overturning. In this presentation, we discuss the similarities and differences that characterize the different phases of deep convection that have affected the two basins during the last 15 years. Among the most striking differences, the Irminger Sea is an open basin directly influenced by its vicinity to the Labrador and the more northern seas, while the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin appears more isolated: this difference may lead to distinct mechanisms in the preconditioning of the water masses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118...61A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118...61A"><span>Northern Current variability and its impact on the Blanes <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> circulation: A numerical study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahumada-Sempoal, M.-A.; Flexas, M. M.; Bernardello, R.; Bahamon, N.; Cruzado, A.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>A high-resolution (∼1.2 km) 3D numerical model was used to analyze the interaction of the Northern Current (a right-bounded flow) with the Blanes submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (BC, NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>). Although it refers to a climatological simulation the model properly suites our purpose since it simulates the Northern Current (NC) mesoscale variability, as well as its seasonal variability. Model results were validated with satellite sea surface temperature and current-meter data. The simulated NC tends to be faster and deeper in winter, and slower and shallower in summer. According to our results, NC meanders and eddies are recurrent in the BC area and produce highly fluctuating three-dimensional circulation patterns within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. We found that NC meanders and anticyclonic eddies propagating along the current pathway tend to be deep and, consequently, their effects extend down to the deeper part of the BC. We also found that the meandering of the NC plays a key role in enhancing vertical motions inside the BC. Upwelling and downwelling events occurring on timescales of 4-20 days are associated with NC meanders crests and troughs passing over the BC. Net upwelling/downwelling events are accordingly influenced by the NC seasonality. They are more predominant in winter, while damped in summer. Our results show the importance of NC meanders in creating local net upwelling/downwelling and strengthen the evidence that continuous right-bounded (downwelling favorable) flows can also produce net upwelling inside submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24296242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24296242"><span>Muscular cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in deep-sea fish from the NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Organisms inhabiting submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> can be potentially exposed to higher inputs of anthropogenic chemicals than their counterparts from the adjacent areas. To find out to what extend this observation applies to a NW <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (i.e. Blanes <span class="hlt">canyon</span>) off the Catalan coast, four deep-sea fish species were collected from inside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (BC) and the adjacent open slope (OS). The selected species were: Alepocephalus rostratus, Lepidion lepidion, Coelorinchus mediterraneus and Bathypterois mediterraneus. Prior to the choice of an adequate sentinel species, the natural variation of the selected parameters (biomarkers) in relation to factors such as size, sex, sampling depth and seasonality need to be characterised. In this study, the activities of cholinesterases (ChEs) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were determined in the muscle of the four deep-sea fish. Of all ChEs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was dominant and selected for further monitoring. Overall, AChE activity exhibited a significant relationship with fish size whereas LDH activity was mostly dependent on the sex and gonadal development status, although in a species-dependent manner. The seasonal variability of LDH activity was more marked than for AChE activity, and inside-outside <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (BC-OS) differences were not consistent in all contrasted fish species, and in fact they were more dependent on biological traits. Thus, they did not suggest a differential stress condition between sites inside and outside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27393212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27393212"><span>Marine protected area design patterns in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea: Implications for conservation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Blanco, J M; Abdul Malak, D</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> marine protected area (MPA) design patterns regarding geographic distribution, size, spacing and shape were analysed as a proxy of the region's MPA's ecological effectiveness and a first step towards an ecologically coherent MPA network. Results for legally designated MPAs and ecologically functional MPAs accounting for overlaps are presented. Geographically, <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> MPA area is very unevenly distributed, with four-fifths concentrated in just three countries of the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> part of the basin. Average distance between functional MPAs lies within recommended ecological thresholds, which suggests adequate potential connectivity of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> MPA system. <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> designated MPAs are larger than MPAs worldwide on average, although they are generally smaller than international guidance suggests at different levels: ecoregion, country and designation category. On average, <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> designated and functional MPAs have relatively high compactness, which makes them prone to spillover and adequate viability, and less vulnerable to edge effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..390..169H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..390..169H"><span>Karst hydrology of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, C. A.; Polyak, V. J.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>SummaryCaves in Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona, USA fall into two main categories: those formed under unconfined conditions and those formed under confined conditions. This study focuses on the hydrology and paleohydrology of the confined caves in the Redwall-Muav aquifer, where the aquifer is overlain by rocks of the Supai Group and underlain by the Bright Angel Shale. Unconfined caves are discussed only in their relation to confined caves. Discharge for confined groundwater was, as it is today, primarily from the Redwall Limestone where it has been incised by the main <span class="hlt">canyon</span> or its tributaries and where it has converged along a structural low or fault. Descent of the potentiometric surface (or water table) over time is recorded by one ore episode and six cave episodes: (1) emplacement of Cu-U ore, (2) precipitation of iron oxide in cavities, (3) dissolution of cave passages, (4) precipitation of calcite-spar linings over cave passage walls, (5) precipitation of cave mammillary coatings, (6) minor replacement of cave wall and ceiling limestone by gypsum, and (7) deposition of subaerial speleothems. The mammillary episode records the approximate position of the water table when the incision of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> was at that level. Discharge toward spring points has reorganized and adjusted with respect to ongoing <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and side-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> incision. The dissolution of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> confined caves was the result of the mixing of epigene waters with hypogene waters so that undersaturation with respect to calcite was achieved. The karst hydrology of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> may be unique compared to other hypogene cave areas of the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6869317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6869317"><span>Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Environmental Investigation, 1984.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>CH2M Hill, Inc.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>The results of an environmental investigation of the nonpower impacts on the Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Complex resulting from water budget participation are presented. The water budget plan would increase flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve survival of migrating salmon and steelhead. The study was conducted using existing data and consultation with agencies with responsibilities in the project area. Three scenarios, drawdown of Brownlee Reservoir to 3 elevations (2036, 2050 and 2065) were evaluated. The models used to develop the scenarios drafted Brownlee Reservoir only during May, and reduced outflows to the minimum permitted during June and July to accommodate refilling the reservoir. The scenarios showed that only May, June and July would be affected. A flow duration approach was used to compare each scenario with the existing conditions. A total of nine discipline areas were studied. These include natural features (geology); water use; water quality; fish, botanical, and wildlife resources; air quality; land use; historical and archaeological resources; recreational resources; and aesthetic resources. Within each discipline, the report presents the existing conditions, the potential impacts associated with each scenario, information deficiencies and needed studies. 171 references, 18 figures, 45 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRI..123..129L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRI..123..129L"><span>Living and dead foraminiferal assemblages from an active submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and surrounding sectors: the Gioia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> system (Tyrrhenian Sea, Southern Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Letizia, Di Bella; Martina, Pierdomenico; Roberta, Porretta; Chiocci, Francesco Latino; Eleonora, Martorelli</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>) whereas at greater depth (550 m) typical open slope species dominate (Gyroidina spp., Uvigerina mediterranea). Within the Gioia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, benthic assemblage indicates environmental conditions similar to those observed in other <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> and extra-<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. The assemblage is characterized by eutrophic and low oxygen taxa (Bolivina spp., Bulimina spp.) in relation to periodical fluxes of sediment and organic matter. Similar relationships arise from the analysis of dead foraminiferal assemblages. However, the comparison between living and dead faunas highlight compositional and structural changes related to taphonomic processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6582131','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6582131"><span>Mineral resources of the Fish Creek <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Road <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and Mule <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bove, D.J.; Shawe, D.R.; Lee, G.K.; Hanna, W.F. ); Jeske, R.E. )</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This book reports the Fish Creek <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (UT-060-204), Road <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>(UT-060-201), and Mule <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone and sand and gravel have no unique qualities but could have limited local use for road metal or other construction purposes. However, similar materials are abundant outside the study areas. The three study areas have moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, including uranium and thorium, coal, and geothermal energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3113/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3113/"><span>Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Humpback Chub Population Improving</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Andersen, Matthew E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> population under the auspices of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/466284','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/466284"><span>Air pollutant transport in a street <span class="hlt">canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Luke Chen; Hsu-Cheng Chang</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>An air pollutant (CO) distribution in a typical street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is simulated to evaluate pedestrian exposure. In this study, we consider factors those may affect the pollutant distribution in a typical street <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The considered factors include aspect ratio of a street <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy effect. A two-dimensional domain that includes suburban roughness and urban street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is considered. The factors such as atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy are imposed through the associated boundary conditions. With numerical simulation, the critical aspect ration of a street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> the includes two vortices and results in pollutant accumulation are found. The buoyant effect is found to raise the same pollutant concentration up to the position higher than the results come out from the case without buoyancy. The pedestrian exposure to the street air pollutant under various traffic loads and atmospheric stability are evaluated. This study conclude that the local building regulations that specify the building height/street width ratio will not cause significant pedestrian exposure to the street air pollution in most of traffic loads and atmospheric stability conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112900T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112900T"><span>Modelling Aerosol Dispersion in Urban Street <span class="hlt">Canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tay, B. K.; Jones, D. P.; Gallagher, M. W.; McFiggans, G. B.; Watkins, A. P.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Flow patterns within an urban street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> are influenced by various micrometeorological factors. It also represents an environment where pollutants such as aerosols accumulate to high levels due to high volumes of traffic. As adverse health effects are being attributed to exposure to aerosols, an investigation of the dispersion of aerosols within such environments is of growing importance. In particular, one is concerned with the vertical structure of the aerosol concentration, the ventilation characteristics of the street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and the influence of aerosol microphysical processes. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of the aerosol concentrations within the street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and the lack of spatial resolution of measurement campaigns, these issues are an on-going debate. Therefore, a modelling tool is required to represent aerosol dispersion patterns to provide insights to results of past measurement campaigns. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are able to predict detailed airflow patterns within urban geometries. This capability may be further extended to include aerosol dispersion, by an Euler-Euler multiphase approach. To facilitate the investigation, a two-dimensional, multiphase CFD tool coupled with the k-epsilon turbulence model and with the capability of modelling mixed convection flow regimes arising from both wind driven flows and buoyancy effects from heated walls was developed. Assuming wind blowing perpendicularly to the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis and treating aerosols as a passive scalar, an attempt will be made to assess the sensitivities of aerosol vertical structure and ventilation characteristics to the various flow conditions. Numerical studies were performed using an idealized 10m by 10m <span class="hlt">canyon</span> to represent a regular <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and 10m by 5m to represent a deep one. An aerosol emission source was assigned on the centerline of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> to represent exhaust emissions. The vertical structure of the aerosols would inform future directives regarding the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138193','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138193"><span>Origin of Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and the role of spring sapping on the formation of submarine box <span class="hlt">canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paull, Charles K.; Spiess, Fred N.; Curray, Joseph R.; Twichell, David C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, one of a series of major submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> on the southwestern edge of the Florida Platform, was surveyed using GLORIA, SeaBeam, and Deep-Tow technologies, and it was directly observed during three DSRV Alvin dives. Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> exhibits two distinct morphologies: a broad V-shaped upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and a deeply entrenched, flat-floored, U-shaped lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The flat- floored lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span> extends 20 km into the Florida Platform from the abyssal Gulf. The lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span> ends abruptly at an ∼3 km in diameter semicircular headwall that rises 750 m with a >60° slope angle to the foot of the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The sides of the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span> are less steep than its headwall and are characterized by straight faces that occur along preferred orientations and indicate a strong joint control. The upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is characterized by a gently sloping, straight V-shaped central valley cut into a broad terrace. The flat floor of the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> continues as terraces along the upper walls of the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. On the flanks of the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, there are five >50-m-deep, >0.5-km-wide, closed sink-hole-like depressions which indicate subsurface dissolution within the platform. The origin of the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is difficult to explain with traditional models of submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> formation by external physical processes. The movement of ground water, probably with high salinities and reduced compounds along regional joints, may have focused the corrosive force of submarine spring sapping at the head of the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span> to produce the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s present shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23937169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23937169"><span>Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> by large sediment failures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0199.photos.008853p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0199.photos.008853p/"><span>43. and Design, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park, dated August 23, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>43. and Design, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park, dated August 23, 1934, and September 17, 1934 (original located at Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado, #113/3084-set of 2) SEWAGE PLANT ADDITION. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Coconino County, AZ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA14896.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA14896.html"><span>NASA Satellite Reveals Grandeur of Arizona Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-14</p> <p>Arguably one of America most magnificent national parks is the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in northern Arizona. NASA Terra spacecraft captured this image looking to the northeast, the buildings and roads in the center foreground are Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Village.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ut0119.photos.158647p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ut0119.photos.158647p/"><span>10. August, 1971. GV W FROM PROVO <span class="hlt">CANYON</span>. AT PRESSURE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>10. August, 1971. GV W FROM PROVO <span class="hlt">CANYON</span>. AT PRESSURE HOUSE SHOWING POWER STATION AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Telluride Power Company, Olmsted Hydroelectric Plant, mouth of Provo River <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> West of U.S. Route 189, Orem, Utah County, UT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0609.photos.580924p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0609.photos.580924p/"><span>Long view from <span class="hlt">canyon</span> edge, east of the overlook, showing ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Long view from <span class="hlt">canyon</span> edge, east of the overlook, showing guard rails, fencing, stairs and masonry; view to north - Mather Point Overlook, South Entrance Road, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Village, Coconino County, AZ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nv0244.photos.365989p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nv0244.photos.365989p/"><span>Overview of the Colorado River <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> from the helicopter pad. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Overview of the Colorado River <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> from the helicopter pad. View of the Nevada side where new bridge will cross <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LPICo1791.1129L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LPICo1791.1129L"><span>Deciphering Outburst Flood Discharges from the Morphology of Hesperian <span class="hlt">Canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Williams, R. M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We model the hydraulics of outburst floods over <span class="hlt">canyon</span> escarpments. We show that <span class="hlt">canyons</span> only maintain a constant width under a certain hydraulic regime. We combine the hydraulic model to an erosion law to constrain paleodischarges at Echus Chasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013006','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013006"><span>Microbial Communities in Sunken Wood Are Structured by Wood-Boring Bivalves and Location in a Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fagervold, Sonja K.; Romano, Chiara; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Borowski, Christian; Nunes-Jorge, Amandine; Martin, Daniel; Galand, Pierre E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> submarine Blanes <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> were different and more diverse than the ones outside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are sites of diverse marine life. PMID:24805961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805961"><span>Microbial communities in sunken wood are structured by wood-boring bivalves and location in a submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fagervold, Sonja K; Romano, Chiara; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Borowski, Christian; Nunes-Jorge, Amandine; Martin, Daniel; Galand, Pierre E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> submarine Blanes <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> were different and more diverse than the ones outside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are sites of diverse marine life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6685M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6685M"><span>Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>: The Cook Strait <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> system, New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from <span class="hlt">canyon</span> morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in <span class="hlt">canyon</span> longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SedG..223...35G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SedG..223...35G"><span>Submarine origin for the Neoproterozoic Wonoka <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, South Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giddings, J. A.; Wallace, M. W.; Haines, P. W.; Mornane, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the deeply incised Ediacaran Wonoka <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in the Adelaide Geosyncline (most recently interpreted as subaerial valleys) demonstrates their submarine origin, and confirms them as some of the best examples of ancient outcropping submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in the world. The entire <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-fill succession is interpreted to be of deep-water (below wave base) origin, consisting of calcareous shale and siltstone together with a variety of mass-flow deposits including turbidites, grain flows and debris flows. The <span class="hlt">canyon</span> fill lacks definitive shallow-water structures (e.g. mud cracks, fenestral fabrics or wave ripples) at all stratigraphic levels. <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>-lining carbonate crusts that have previously been interpreted as non-marine calcretes or tufas (and used to suggest a non-marine origin for the <span class="hlt">canyons</span>) are argued to be of deep-water, marine, microbial origin. Extremely negative carbon isotope values from the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-fill and <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-lining crusts have a primary marine origin. Previously interpreted deepening upward trends in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> fill (used as evidence of a subaerial erosion episode followed by drowning) are suggested to be fining upward trends, caused by the transition from <span class="hlt">canyon</span> cutting to <span class="hlt">canyon</span> filling, with the majority of the fill being of deep-water slope origin. The basal conglomeratic <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-fill sediments represent the last vestiges of the high-energy, deep-water, <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-erosion environment in which the incisions formed. A deep-water origin for the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> is consistent with all previous stratigraphic observations of the Wonoka <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, including the conspicuous lack of regional unconformities in the lower Wonoka Formation, and their emanation from the deep-water facies of the Wonoka Formation. A submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> origin also removes the need for extreme (~ 1 km) relative sea level fluctuation and associated problems (i.e. an enclosed basin with Messinian-style evaporative drawdown or thermal uplift above a migrating mantle plume) required by the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME33B..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME33B..01R"><span>Particle Transport and Accumulation in Norfolk and Baltimore <span class="hlt">Canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, C.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Prouty, N.; Davies, A. J.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Mid-Atlantic Bight is incised by several large <span class="hlt">canyons</span> two of which were studied as part of a multi-disciplinary project initiated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM, USA) and jointly funded by BOEM, NOAA and USGS. The heads of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, which are situated 140 km apart, both lie at a distance of 90 km off shore on the same shelf margin and lack direct input from rivers. Two hypotheses were formulated at the start of the study: i) <span class="hlt">canyons</span> incising the MAB shelf, including Norfolk and Baltimore, capture sediment and organic carbon. This transport ultimately enriches the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor sediment, resulting in higher concentration and quality of carbon than the adjacent slope, and ii) given Baltimore and Norfolk <span class="hlt">canyons</span> have a very different morphology and orientation from each other, and previous reports indicated differences in sediment grain size and transport properties, the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> have different sedimentation patterns and accumulation rates, which explains the differing faunal communities between the two <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Core samples collected along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis and for comparison on the adjacent open slope were analyzed for their sediment composition, organic matter content and accumulation rates. Additionally water column properties, including turbidity were measured with CTD. In contrast to our expectations, sediment distribution, sedimentation rates and organic matter content differed strongly between both <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Although accumulation rates in both <span class="hlt">canyons</span> were higher than accumulation rates on the open slope, Norfolk <span class="hlt">canyon</span> showed an even distribution of sediment and organic matter along the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis. While two distinct zones were observed in Baltimore <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>; coarse grained sediments with low organic matter in the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and finer grained sediments with high organic matter content in the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Differences are attributed to <span class="hlt">canyon</span> morphology, physical processes and active particle transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4593591','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4593591"><span>Deep-Sea, Deep-Sequencing: Metabarcoding Extracellular DNA from Sediments of Marine <span class="hlt">Canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guardiola, Magdalena; Uriz, María Jesús; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Wangensteen, Owen Simon; Turon, Xavier</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Marine sediments are home to one of the richest species pools on Earth, but logistics and a dearth of taxonomic work-force hinders the knowledge of their biodiversity. We characterized α- and β-diversity of deep-sea assemblages from submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> using an environmental DNA metabarcoding. We used a new primer set targeting a short eukaryotic 18S sequence (ca. 110 bp). We applied a protocol designed to obtain extractions enriched in extracellular DNA from replicated sediment corers. With this strategy we captured information from DNA (local or deposited from the water column) that persists adsorbed to inorganic particles and buffered short-term spatial and temporal heterogeneity. We analysed replicated samples from 20 localities including 2 deep-sea <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, 1 shallower canal, and two open slopes (depth range 100–2,250 m). We identified 1,629 MOTUs, among which the dominant groups were Metazoa (with representatives of 19 phyla), Alveolata, Stramenopiles, and Rhizaria. There was a marked small-scale heterogeneity as shown by differences in replicates within corers and within localities. The spatial variability between <span class="hlt">canyons</span> was significant, as was the depth component in one of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> where it was tested. Likewise, the composition of the first layer (1 cm) of sediment was significantly different from deeper layers. We found that qualitative (presence-absence) and quantitative (relative number of reads) data showed consistent trends of differentiation between samples and geographic areas. The subset of exclusively benthic MOTUs showed similar patterns of β-diversity and community structure as the whole dataset. Separate analyses of the main metazoan phyla (in number of MOTUs) showed some differences in distribution attributable to different lifestyles. Our results highlight the differentiation that can be found even between geographically close assemblages, and sets the ground for future monitoring and conservation efforts on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26436773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26436773"><span>Deep-Sea, Deep-Sequencing: Metabarcoding Extracellular DNA from Sediments of Marine <span class="hlt">Canyons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guardiola, Magdalena; Uriz, María Jesús; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Wangensteen, Owen Simon; Turon, Xavier</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Marine sediments are home to one of the richest species pools on Earth, but logistics and a dearth of taxonomic work-force hinders the knowledge of their biodiversity. We characterized α- and β-diversity of deep-sea assemblages from submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> using an environmental DNA metabarcoding. We used a new primer set targeting a short eukaryotic 18S sequence (ca. 110 bp). We applied a protocol designed to obtain extractions enriched in extracellular DNA from replicated sediment corers. With this strategy we captured information from DNA (local or deposited from the water column) that persists adsorbed to inorganic particles and buffered short-term spatial and temporal heterogeneity. We analysed replicated samples from 20 localities including 2 deep-sea <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, 1 shallower canal, and two open slopes (depth range 100-2,250 m). We identified 1,629 MOTUs, among which the dominant groups were Metazoa (with representatives of 19 phyla), Alveolata, Stramenopiles, and Rhizaria. There was a marked small-scale heterogeneity as shown by differences in replicates within corers and within localities. The spatial variability between <span class="hlt">canyons</span> was significant, as was the depth component in one of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> where it was tested. Likewise, the composition of the first layer (1 cm) of sediment was significantly different from deeper layers. We found that qualitative (presence-absence) and quantitative (relative number of reads) data showed consistent trends of differentiation between samples and geographic areas. The subset of exclusively benthic MOTUs showed similar patterns of β-diversity and community structure as the whole dataset. Separate analyses of the main metazoan phyla (in number of MOTUs) showed some differences in distribution attributable to different lifestyles. Our results highlight the differentiation that can be found even between geographically close assemblages, and sets the ground for future monitoring and conservation efforts on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nm0203.photos.348418p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nm0203.photos.348418p/"><span>5. DARK <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> SIPHON Photographic copy of historic photo, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>5. DARK <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> SIPHON - Photographic copy of historic photo, November 11, 1906 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'LOWER END OF DARK <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> SIPHON CONSTRUCTION' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Dark <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Siphon, On Main Canal, 1 mile South of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec9-217.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.217 - Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.70 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... boundary of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park: (1) No person shall operate a vessel engaging in predominantly... Superintendent of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... protection of the ecological and environmental values of the area. (i) The Superintendent of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-23/pdf/2012-17884.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-23/pdf/2012-17884.pdf"><span>77 FR 43117 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-23</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam, consistent with the Grand...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-02/pdf/2011-10533.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-02/pdf/2011-10533.pdf"><span>76 FR 24516 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-05-02</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam, consistent with the Grand...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-3651.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-3651.pdf"><span>77 FR 9265 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-16</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam, consistent with the Grand...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-10/pdf/2013-08334.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-10/pdf/2013-08334.pdf"><span>78 FR 21415 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-10</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam, consistent with the Grand...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-17/pdf/2012-9220.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-17/pdf/2012-9220.pdf"><span>77 FR 22801 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-17</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam operations and other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-04/pdf/2013-02365.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-04/pdf/2013-02365.pdf"><span>78 FR 7810 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-04</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam, consistent with the Grand...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-03-17/pdf/98-6775.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-03-17/pdf/98-6775.pdf"><span>63 FR 13071 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group; Public Meetings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-03-17</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group; Public Meetings SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) on September 10, 1997. The TWG members were named by the members of the AMWG and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-03-04/pdf/99-5322.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-03-04/pdf/99-5322.pdf"><span>64 FR 10487 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-03-04</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG). The TWG members were named by members...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-09-01/pdf/98-23486.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-09-01/pdf/98-23486.pdf"><span>63 FR 46467 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) on September 10, 1997. The TWG...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-09-22/pdf/97-25022.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-09-22/pdf/97-25022.pdf"><span>62 FR 49526 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-09-22</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) on September 10, 1997. The TWG...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-05-01/pdf/2014-09933.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-05-01/pdf/2014-09933.pdf"><span>79 FR 24748 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Monitoring and Research Center, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-04-17/pdf/2015-08862.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-04-17/pdf/2015-08862.pdf"><span>80 FR 21261 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-17</p> <p>....05940913.7000000] Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG... committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Monitoring and Research Center, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-12-18/pdf/97-33009.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-12-18/pdf/97-33009.pdf"><span>62 FR 66385 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-12-18</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, DOI. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) on September 10, 1997. The TWG...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-11-28/pdf/97-31286.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-11-28/pdf/97-31286.pdf"><span>62 FR 63383 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-11-28</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Amended Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) on September 10, 1997....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-12-18/pdf/97-33010.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-12-18/pdf/97-33010.pdf"><span>62 FR 66385 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-12-18</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, DOI. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) on September 10, 1997. The TWG...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. 9... Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the Malibu-Newton...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. 9... Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the Malibu-Newton...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. 9... Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the Malibu-Newton...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95f2405S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95f2405S"><span>Crossing fitness <span class="hlt">canyons</span> by a finite population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander S.; Hu, Chin-Kun</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We consider the Wright-Fisher model of the finite population evolution on a fitness landscape defined in the sequence space by a path of nearly neutral mutations. We study a specific structure of the fitness landscape: One of the intermediate mutations on the mutation path results in either a large fitness value (climbing up a fitness hill) or a low fitness value (crossing a fitness <span class="hlt">canyon</span>), the rest of the mutations besides the last one are neutral, and the last sequence has much higher fitness than any intermediate sequence. We derive analytical formulas for the first arrival time of the mutant with two point mutations. For the first arrival problem for the further mutants in the case of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> crossing, we analytically deduce how the mean first arrival time scales with the population size and fitness difference. The location of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> on the path of sequences has a crucial role. If the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is at the beginning of the path, then it significantly prolongs the first arrival time; otherwise it just slightly changes it. Furthermore, the fitness hill at the beginning of the path strongly prolongs the arrival time period; however, the hill located near the end of the path shortens it. We optimize the first arrival time by applying a nonzero selection to the intermediate sequences. We extend our results and provide a scaling for the valley crossing time via the depth of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and population size in the case of a fitness <span class="hlt">canyon</span> at the first position. Our approach is useful for understanding some complex evolution systems, e.g., the evolution of cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1619k/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1619k/report.pdf"><span>Hydrogeology of Middle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Oquirrh Mountains, Tooele County, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gates, Joseph Spencer</p> <p>1963-01-01</p> <p>Geology and climate are the principal influences affecting the hydrology of Middle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Tooele County, Utah. Reconnaissance in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> indicated that the geologic influences on the hydrology may be localized; water may be leaking through fault and fracture zones or joints in sandstone and through solution openings in limestone of the Oquirrh formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Surficial deposits of Quaternary age serve as the main storage material for ground water in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and transmit water from the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> to springs and drains at the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> mouth. The upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is a more important storage area than the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span> because the surficial deposits are thicker, and any zones of leakage in the underlying bedrock of the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> probably would result in greater leakage than would similar outlets in the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span>.The total annual discharge from Middle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, per unit of precipitation, decreased between 1910 and 1939. Similar decreases occurred in Parleys <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in the nearby Wasatch Range and in other drainage basins in Utah, and it is likely that most of the decrease in discharge from Middle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and other <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in Utah is due to a change in climate.Chemical analyses of water showed that the high content of sulfate and other constituents in the water from the Utah Metals tunnel, which drains into Middle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, does not have a significant effect on water quality at the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> mouth. This suggests that much of the tunnel water is lost from the channel by leakage, probably in the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, during the dry part of the year.Comparison of the 150 acre-feet of water per square mile of drainage area discharged by Middle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in 1947 with the 623 and 543 acre-feet per square mile discharged in 1948 by City Creek and Mill Creek <span class="hlt">Canyons</span>, two comparable drainage basins in the nearby Wasatch Range, also suggests that there is leakage in Middle <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.A hydrologic budget of the drainage basin results in an estimate that about 3,000 acre</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.474..248F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.474..248F"><span>Westernmost Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> incision: Testing thermochronometric resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fox, M.; Tripathy-Lang, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Winn, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Kelley, S.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The timing of carving of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> has been debated for over 100 years with competing endmember hypotheses advocating for either a 70 Ma (;old;) or <6 Ma (;young;) Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Several geological constraints appear to support a ;young; <span class="hlt">canyon</span> model, but thermochronometric measures of cooling history and corresponding estimates of landscape evolution have been in debate. In particular, 4He/3He thermochronometric data record the distribution of radiogenic 4He (from the 238U, 235U and 232Th decay series) within an individual apatite crystal and thus are highly sensitive to the thermal history corresponding to landscape evolution. However, there are several complicating factors that make interpreting such data challenging in geologic scenarios involving reheating. Here, we analyze new data that provide measures of the cooling of basement rocks at the base of westernmost Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and use these data as a testbed for exploring the resolving power and limitations of 4He/3He data in general. We explore a range of thermal histories and find that these data are most consistent with a ;young; Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. A problem with the recovered thermal history, however, is that burial temperatures are under predicted based on sedimentological evidence. A solution to this problem is to increase the resistance of alpha recoil damage to annealing, thus modifying He diffusion kinetics, allowing for higher temperatures throughout the thermal history. This limitation in quantifying radiation damage (and hence crystal retentivity) introduces non-uniqueness to interpreting time-temperature paths in rocks that resided in the apatite helium partial retention zone for long durations. Another source of non-uniqueness, is due to unknown U and Th distributions within crystals. We show that for highly zoned with a decrease in effective U of 20 ppm over the outer 80% of the radius of the crystal, the 4He/3He data could be consistent with an ;old; <span class="hlt">canyon</span> model. To reduce this non-uniqueness, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03816&hterms=difference+rocks+minerals&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddifference%2Brocks%2Bminerals','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03816&hterms=difference+rocks+minerals&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddifference%2Brocks%2Bminerals"><span>Surface Composition Differences in Martian <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>(Released 29 May 2002) Color differences in this daytime infrared image taken by the camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft represent differences in the mineral composition of the rocks, sediments and dust on the surface. The image shows a portion of a <span class="hlt">canyon</span> named Candor Chasma within the great Valles Marineris system of <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, at approximately 5 degrees south latitude, 285 degrees east (75 degrees west) longitude. The area shown is approximately 30 by 175 kilometers (19 by 110 miles). The image combines exposures taken by Odyssey's thermal emission imaging system at three different wavelengths of infrared light: 6.3 microns, 7.4 microns and 8.7 microns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013837','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013837"><span>HELLS <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> STUDY AREA, OREGON AND IDAHO.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Simmons, George C.; Close, Terry J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> study area occupies nearly 950 sq mi along and near Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of the Snake River in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho. Geologic, geochemical, aeromagnetic, and mine and prospect investigations to determine the mineral-resource potential of the area were carried out. As a result, 42 sq mi or about 4 percent of the lands, in 21 separate areas, were classified as having probable or substantiated resource potential for base and precious metals, molybdenum, and tungsten. No energy resource potential was identified in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED477321.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED477321.pdf"><span>Let's Bet on Sediments! Hudson <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Cruise--Grades 9-12. Focus: Sediments of Hudson <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.</p> <p></p> <p>These activities are designed to teach about the sediments of Hudson <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Students investigate and analyze the patterns of sedimentation in the Hudson <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, observe how heavier particles sink faster than finer particles, and learn that submarine landslides are avalanches of sediment in deep ocean <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. The activity provides learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-10-07/pdf/99-26118.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-10-07/pdf/99-26118.pdf"><span>64 FR 54639 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-10-07</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work... Management Work Group, a technical work group, a monitoring and research center, and independent review... to act upon. DATES AND LOCATION: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group will conduct two...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-11-27/pdf/00-30104.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-11-27/pdf/00-30104.pdf"><span>65 FR 70735 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>; Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-11-27</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>; Technical Work... has been organized and includes a federal advisory committee (the AMWG), a technical work group (the... AND LOCATION: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group will conduct the following public meetings:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-11-20/pdf/00-29657.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-11-20/pdf/00-29657.pdf"><span>65 FR 69787 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-11-20</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG); Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings... Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG). The document contained incorrect dates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-08-09/pdf/00-20181.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-08-09/pdf/00-20181.pdf"><span>65 FR 48731 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-08-09</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work... Management Work Group,'' a technical work group, a monitoring and research center, and independent review... <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group will conduct a public meeting: Phoenix, Arizona--January...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-03-21/pdf/00-6899.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-03-21/pdf/00-6899.pdf"><span>65 FR 15173 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-03-21</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Bureau of... an upcoming public meeting of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The meeting...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-11-09/pdf/99-29244.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-11-09/pdf/99-29244.pdf"><span>64 FR 61122 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-11-09</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG); Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY..., concerning the announcement of an upcoming public meeting of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-12-18/pdf/00-32187.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-12-18/pdf/00-32187.pdf"><span>65 FR 79122 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-12-18</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work... has been organized and includes a federal advisory committee (the AMWG), a technical work group (the... and Location: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group will conduct the following public meetings:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-12-16/pdf/98-33275.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-12-16/pdf/98-33275.pdf"><span>63 FR 69304 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-12-16</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group will conduct an open public meeting to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.S33B2825T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.S33B2825T"><span>3D modeling of seismic waves propagation in the Israeli continental shelf: soft sediments, buried <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and their effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsesarsky, M.; Volk, O.; Shani-Kadmiel, S.; Gvirtzman, Z.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Sedimentary wedges underlay many coastal areas, specifically along passive continental margins. Although a large portion of the world`s population is concentrated along coastal areas, relatively few studies investigated the seismic hazard related to internal structure of these wedges. This is particularly important, when the passive margin is located in proximity to active plate boundaries. Sedimentry wedges have low angles compared to fault bounded basins, hence commonly treated using 1D methods. In various locations the sedimentary wedges are transected by deep buried <span class="hlt">canyons</span> typically filled with sediments softer than their surrounding bedrock. Such structures are found is the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coast of Israel. Here, a sedimentary wedge and buried <span class="hlt">canyons</span> underlay some of the country's most densely populated regions. Seismic sources can be found both at sea and on land at epicentral distances ranging from 50 to 200 km. Although this region has a proven seismic record, it has, like many other parts of the world, limited instrumental coverage and long return periods. This makes assessment of ground motions in a future earthquake difficult and highlights the importance of non-instrumental methods. We employ numerical modeling (SW4 FD code) to study seismic ground motions and their amplification atop the sedimentary wedge and <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. This goal is a part of a larger objective aiming at developing a systematic approach for distinction between individual contributions of basin structures to the highly complex overall basin response. We show that the sedimentary wedge and buried <span class="hlt">canyon</span> both exhibit a unique response and modeling them as one-dimensional structures could significantly underestimate seismic hazard. The sedimentary wedge exhibit amplification ratios, relative to a horizontally layered model, up to a factor of 2. This is mainly due to the amplification of Rayleigh waves traveling into the wedge from its thin side. The buried <span class="hlt">canyon</span> structure shows a simple</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS31A0977L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS31A0977L"><span>Morphology of Neptune Node Sites, Barkley <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Cascadia Margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Riedel, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp seismic reflection profiles collected with MBARI's mapping autonomous underwater vehicle reveal the fine-scale morphology and shallow seafloor structure of the flanks and floor of Barkley <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> on the Cascadia continental margin off British Columbia. The surveys characterize the environment surrounding three nodes on the Neptune Canada cabled observatory located within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor between 960 and 1020 m water depth lacks channeling and contains ≥ 24 m of acoustically uniform sediment fill, which is ponded between the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s steep sidewalls. The fill overlies a strong reflector that outlines an earlier, now buried, <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor channel system. Debris flow tongues contain meter scale blocks sticking-up through the fill. Apparently the present geomorphology surrounding the <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Axis node in 985 m is attributable to local debris flows, rather than organized down <span class="hlt">canyon</span> processes. In the survey area the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> sidewalls extend ~300 m up and in places the slope of the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> sides exceed 40°. Both the Hydrate node in 870 m water depths and the Mid-<span class="hlt">Canyon</span> node at 890 m are located on a headland that forms intermediate depth terraces on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s western flank. While the seafloor immediately surrounding the Mid-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> node is smooth, the Hydrate node is marked by 10 circular mounds up to 2 m high and 10 m in diameter, presumable associated with hydrate formation. Although wedges of sediment drape occur in places on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> sides, the chirp profiles show no detectible sediment drape at either node site and suggest these nodes are situated on older, presumably pre-Quaternary strata. The lack of reflectors in the chirp profiles indicates most of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s sidewalls are largely sediment-bare. Lineations in the bathymetry mark the exposed edges of truncated beds. Rough, apparently fresh textures, within slide scarps show the importance of erosion on the development of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6719173','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6719173"><span>Geohydrology of White Rock <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.</p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME34B0797R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME34B0797R"><span>Ecological Functioning in Two Mid-Atlantic Bight Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyons</span>: Macrofauna Community Trends and the Role of <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Specific Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, C.; Bourque, J. R.; Davies, A. J.; Duineveld, G.; Mienis, F.; Brooke, S.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are complex systems, acting as major conduits of organic matter along continental shelves and promoting gradients in food resources, turbidity flows, habitat heterogeneity, and areas of sediment resuspension and deposition. In the western North Atlantic, a large multidisciplinary program was conducted in two major Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) <span class="hlt">canyons</span> (Baltimore and Norfolk <span class="hlt">canyons</span>). This Atlantic Deepwater <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> project was funded by BOEM, NOAA, and USGS. Here we investigate the `<span class="hlt">canyon</span> effect' on benthic ecosystem ecology and functioning of two <span class="hlt">canyon</span> systems by defining <span class="hlt">canyon</span> specific processes influencing MAB shelf benthic community trends. Sediment cores were collected in 2012 and 2013 with a NIOZ box corer along the main axes ( 180-1200m) of Baltimore and Norfolk <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and at comparable depths on the adjacent continental slope. Whole community macrofaunal (>300 μm) abundance and biomass data provided insight into community trends across depth and biogeochemical gradients by coupling diversity metrics and biological trait analyses with sediment biogeochemistry and hydrodynamic data. The <span class="hlt">canyons</span> exhibited clear differences in sediment profiles, hydrodynamic regimes and enrichment depocenters as well as significantly distinct infauna communities. Interestingly, both <span class="hlt">canyons</span> showed bimodal distributions in abundances and diversity of infauna and a shallowing of species maxima which was not present on adjacent slopes. We hypothesize that physical <span class="hlt">canyon</span> processes are important regulators in the depth of observed species maxima and community functioning on the MAB shelf, on local and regional scales. Unique sediment dynamics, organic enrichment, and hydrographic conditions were significant factors in structuring benthic community differences in MAB <span class="hlt">canyons</span> The study provides a complete benthic infaunal appraisal of two <span class="hlt">canyon</span> systems in the western Atlantic, incorporating biogeochemistry and oceanography to increase our understanding of <span class="hlt">canyon</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7219K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7219K"><span>Provenance and fate of organic carbon in three submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> from the Portuguese Margin: Implications for transport processes of material in continental margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiriakoulakis, Kostas; Wolff, George; Blackbird, Sabena</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are key environments on the continental margin that are affected by unique and dynamic but often episodic and complex processes, and are difficult to study. <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> are considered hotspots of biodiversity and enhancement of primary productivity at <span class="hlt">canyon</span> heads has often been postulated to support this, although the evidence is sparse. Additionally <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are considered to be fast-track corridors for material transported from the land to the deep sea and they are considered major pathways for the transportation and burial of organic carbon, acting as buffers for sediment and carbon storage. Organic geochemical and isotopic markers are often used as reliable indicators for the supply, quality and fate of organic matter in marine systems. In this study they have been used to test the above hypotheses in three contrasting submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> (Nazaré, Setubal/Lisbon and Cascais) of the Portuguese Margin. The elemental and lipid biomarker composition of suspended particulate organic matter of surface waters close to the studied <span class="hlt">canyon</span> heads had a fresh phytoplankton signal, however there was no clear evidence for enhanced primary productivity by comparison to the neighbouring open slope. By contrast, mid-depth waters (700-1600 m), that are dominated by the northward flowing <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Outflow Water, had high lipid content and abundant mesozooplankton biomarkers, perhaps reflecting zooplankton activity focused at the boundaries of distinct water masses. In the waters close to the floor of the Nazaré <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> the presence of elemental sulphur (a product of sediment diagenesis) and high molecular weight hydrocarbons (recalcitrant, terrestrial markers) indicated high levels of resuspended material, particularly at the Upper section (</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002389&hterms=mead&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmead','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002389&hterms=mead&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmead"><span>Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, the Colorado enters the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19085.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19085.html"><span>Simulated Flyover of Mars <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Map Animation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-12</p> <p>This frame from an animation simulates a flyover of a portion of a Martian <span class="hlt">canyon</span> detailed in a geological map produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and based on observations by the HiRISE camera on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5935868','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5935868"><span>Navajo generating plant and Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> haze</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Norris, J.E.</p> <p>1991-01-15</p> <p>This article examines the question of whether the Navajo generating plant pollution is contributing to pollution of the air in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region. The topics include the regulatory context of the plant, the experiment known as the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment (WHITEX), the National Research Council evaluation of the WHITEX, and The Navajo Generating Station Visibility Study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Colorado+AND+River&id=EJ721650','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Colorado+AND+River&id=EJ721650"><span>Map Your Way to the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yoder, Holly</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In the introductory assignment, each randomly assigned group spends about 10 to 15 minutes at each station. The author incorporates as much sensory stimulation in the activity as possible. At the first station, students view a PowerPoint show from a geology class the author participated in at the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. At station two, students look at a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Colorado+AND+River&id=EJ434916','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Colorado+AND+River&id=EJ434916"><span>The Colorado River in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Speece, Susan</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002389&hterms=nevada+plateau&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dnevada%2Bplateau','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002389&hterms=nevada+plateau&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dnevada%2Bplateau"><span>Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, the Colorado enters the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27954','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27954"><span>Clark <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (Mono County) Riparian Demonstration Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>John W. Key; Mark A. Gish</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The Clark <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> riparian demonstration area was established in 1984 within the East Walker River subbasin of Mono County, California. Destabilization of the meadow sections of the stream and the upper stream reaches contributed to an increase of suspended sediments, turbidity, and stream channel widening in the lower stream reaches where a viable population of rainbow...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA13656.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA13656.html"><span>Mars Odyssey All Stars: Noctis <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-09</p> <p>This false-color mosaic focuses on one junction in Noctis Labyrinthus where <span class="hlt">canyons</span> meet to form a depression 4,000 meters 13,000 feet deep. This image is from NASA Mars Odyssey, one of an All Star set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dissolved+AND+oxygen&pg=3&id=EJ434916','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dissolved+AND+oxygen&pg=3&id=EJ434916"><span>The Colorado River in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Speece, Susan</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-14/pdf/2011-3225.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-14/pdf/2011-3225.pdf"><span>76 FR 8359 - Boulder <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-14</p> <p>...) is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates. The current base charge and rates expire September 30, 2011, under Rate Schedule BCP-F8. The current... jmurray@wapa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed base charge and rates for BCP electric...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+rocks&pg=6&id=EJ721650','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+rocks&pg=6&id=EJ721650"><span>Map Your Way to the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yoder, Holly</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In the introductory assignment, each randomly assigned group spends about 10 to 15 minutes at each station. The author incorporates as much sensory stimulation in the activity as possible. At the first station, students view a PowerPoint show from a geology class the author participated in at the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. At station two, students look at a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6281315','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6281315"><span>North Atlantic slope and <span class="hlt">canyon</span> study. Volume 1. Executive summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Butman, B.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>A field program to investigate the currents and sediment transport along the outershelf and upper slope along the southern flank of Georges Bank was conducted between 1980 and 1984. A major part of the field experiment was conducted in Lydonia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, a large submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> which cuts northward about 20 km into the continental shelf from the shelfbreak. A smaller experiment was conducted in Oceanographer <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> to compare the currents in these two major <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. The long-term current observations made in Lydonia and Oceanographer <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> show that the current regime in these topographic features differs from the adjacent slope, and between <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Sediments near the head (depths shallower than about 600 m) in both Lydonia and Oceanographer are frequently resuspended. This frequent resuspension may allow the sediments to strip pollutants from the water column. Currents in Oceanographer <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> are stronger and the sediments coarser than in Lydonia at comparable depths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4500242','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4500242"><span>Early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, NM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Watson, Adam S.; Plog, Stephen; Culleton, Brendan J.; Gilman, Patricia A.; LeBlanc, Steven A.; Whiteley, Peter M.; Claramunt, Santiago; Kennett, Douglas J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High-precision accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C dates of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) skeletal remains provide the first direct evidence from Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> New Mexico that these Neotropical birds were procured from Mesoamerica by Pueblo people as early as ∼A.D. 900–975. Chaco was a prominent prehistoric Pueblo center with a dense concentration of multistoried great houses constructed from the 9th through early 12th centuries. At the best known great house of Pueblo Bonito, unusual burial crypts and significant quantities of exotic and symbolically important materials, including scarlet macaws, turquoise, marine shell, and cacao, suggest societal complexity unprecedented elsewhere in the Puebloan world. Scarlet macaws are known markers of social and political status among the Pueblos. New AMS 14C-dated scarlet macaw remains from Pueblo Bonito demonstrate that these birds were acquired persistently from Mesoamerica between A.D. 900 and 1150. Most of the macaws date before the hypothesized apogeal Chacoan period (A.D. 1040–1110) to which they are commonly attributed. The 10th century acquisition of these birds is consistent with the hypothesis that more formalized status hierarchies developed with significant connections to Mesoamerica before the post-A.D. 1040 architectural florescence in Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. PMID:26100874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26100874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26100874"><span>Early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, NM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watson, Adam S; Plog, Stephen; Culleton, Brendan J; Gilman, Patricia A; LeBlanc, Steven A; Whiteley, Peter M; Claramunt, Santiago; Kennett, Douglas J</p> <p>2015-07-07</p> <p>High-precision accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) (14)C dates of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) skeletal remains provide the first direct evidence from Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> New Mexico that these Neotropical birds were procured from Mesoamerica by Pueblo people as early as ∼ A.D. 900-975. Chaco was a prominent prehistoric Pueblo center with a dense concentration of multistoried great houses constructed from the 9th through early 12th centuries. At the best known great house of Pueblo Bonito, unusual burial crypts and significant quantities of exotic and symbolically important materials, including scarlet macaws, turquoise, marine shell, and cacao, suggest societal complexity unprecedented elsewhere in the Puebloan world. Scarlet macaws are known markers of social and political status among the Pueblos. New AMS (14)C-dated scarlet macaw remains from Pueblo Bonito demonstrate that these birds were acquired persistently from Mesoamerica between A.D. 900 and 1150. Most of the macaws date before the hypothesized apogeal Chacoan period (A.D. 1040-1110) to which they are commonly attributed. The 10th century acquisition of these birds is consistent with the hypothesis that more formalized status hierarchies developed with significant connections to Mesoamerica before the post-A.D. 1040 architectural florescence in Chaco <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/243986','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/243986"><span>A geophysical-geological transect of the Silent <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> caldera complex, Pahute Mesa, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ferguson, J.F.; Cogbill, A.H.; Warren, R.G.</p> <p>1994-03-10</p> <p>Revision of lithological logs for boreholes penetrating the volcanic center at Pahute Mesa, Neveda, has led to a thorough review of the volcanic stratigraphy and geologic structure. The authors have combined this review with a compilation of old and newly acquired gravity and seismic travel time data, producing a unified interpretation along a northwest to southeast profile. The analysis supports a new interpretation of the Silent <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> caldera complex. The caldera is found to be more asymmetric than previously suggested, with the southeastern boundary formed by linear, high-angle normal faults and a more gently sloping <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> boundary. The total thickness of volcanic units within the caldera complex does not appear to exceed 5 km. The shallow structure at Pahute Mesa could have a profound effect on the seismic response for regional and teleseismic signals from this nuclear test site. The Silent <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> caldera complex is actually a set of nested calderas first filled by thick (>1 km) postcaldera lavas and subsequently buried by outflow sheets of the Timber Mountain caldera to the south. Thick, postcaldera lavas filled a half-graben structure formed west of the West Greeley fault, dropping the tops of the youngest caldera-forming units to depths in excess of 2 km. Therefore the western boundary of the caldera complex is poorly defined. East of the West Greeley fault, two overlapping calderas are defined, and stratigraphic data suggest the presence of even older calderas. The youngest caldera, the calc-alkaline Area 20 caldera, is well defined from drill hole data. The Area 20 caldera overlaps the 13.6 Ma peralkaline Grouse <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> caldera, which is less well defined, but apparently collapsed in trap-door style along the Almendro fault. For both these calderas, collapse continued after the main caldera-forming eruption, concurrent with the accumulation of thick (>1 km) lavas within the peripheral collapse zones. 67 refs., 13 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046587','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046587"><span>Anatomy of La Jolla submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system; offshore southern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> especially with respect to the pre-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head, lacks outcrops of the pre-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls help constrain the age of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> underneath some terraces within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85....4F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85....4F"><span>Creationism in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Texas Textbooks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Folger, Peter</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wi0805.sheet.00001a/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wi0805.sheet.00001a/"><span>Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Branch ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6497752','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6497752"><span>Mineral resources of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Twelve Mile Creek, and Willow Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peterson, J.A.; Rytuba, J.J.; Plouff, D.; Vercountere, T.L.; Turner, R.L.; Sawatzky, D.L. ); Leszcykowski, A.M.; Peters, T.J.; Schmauch, S.W.; Winters, R.A. )</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The four contiguous study areas are located in a volcanic terrane dominated by tuffs that were erupted from calderas of the McDermitt Caldera complex and the Whitehorse Caldera. None of these areas have identified resources, despite the proximity of mercury, uranium, and lithium mineralization to the south. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek and the Oregon <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Areas have a low potential for mercury and uranium. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and Willow Creek and the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> part of the Oregon Wilderness Study Areas have low potential for antimony, bismuth, mercury, silver,molybdenum, and zinc. In the Oregon <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Area, the tuff of Oregon <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and the rim of the caldera of the McDermitt Caldera complex have a low potential for gold and silver in epithermal veins. The study areas have a low potential for zeolite minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy throughout, and restricted parts of the study areas have a low potential for pumice, rare-earth elements, zirconium, and decorative building stone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRF..120.1227L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRF..120.1227L"><span>Hydraulics of floods upstream of horseshoe <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and waterfalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Lamb, Michael P.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Horseshoe waterfalls are ubiquitous in natural streams, bedrock <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, and engineering structures. Nevertheless, water flow patterns upstream of horseshoe waterfalls are poorly known and likely differ from the better studied case of a one-dimensional linear step because of flow focusing into the horseshoe. This is a significant knowledge gap because the hydraulics at waterfalls controls sediment transport and bedrock incision, which can compromise the integrity of engineered structures and influence the evolution of river <span class="hlt">canyons</span> on Earth and Mars. Here we develop new semiempirical theory for the spatial acceleration of water upstream of, and the cumulative discharge into, horseshoe <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and waterfalls. To this end, we performed 110 numerical experiments by solving the 2-D depth-averaged shallow-water equations for a wide range of flood depths, widths and discharges, and <span class="hlt">canyon</span> lengths, widths and bed gradients. We show that the upstream, normal flow Froude number is the dominant control on lateral flow focusing and acceleration into the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head and that focusing is limited when the flood width is small compared to a cross-stream backwater length scale. In addition, for sheet floods much wider than the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, flow focusing into the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head leads to reduced discharge (and drying in cases) across the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> sidewalls, which is especially pronounced for <span class="hlt">canyons</span> that are much longer than they are wide. Our results provide new expectations for morphodynamic feedbacks between floods and topography, and thus <span class="hlt">canyon</span> formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CSR....28.2031D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CSR....28.2031D"><span>Sediment accumulation in the western Gulf of Lions, France: The role of Cap de Creus <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in linking shelf and slope sediment dispersal systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeGeest, A. L.; Mullenbach, B. L.; Puig, P.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Drexler, T. M.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Orange, D. L.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Previous work in the Gulf of Lions (western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea) has suggested that significant amounts of sediment escape through the western part of this tectonically passive margin, despite it being far removed from the primary sediment source (the Rhone River, ˜160 km to the NE). The primary mechanism behind this export is hypothesized to be the interaction of a regional, southwestward sediment-transport path with a <span class="hlt">canyon</span> deeply incising the southwestern part of the shelf, Cap de Creus <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. To understand the pattern of off-shelf sediment export from the western Gulf of Lions, and more specifically, the role of Cap de Creus <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in this transport, box cores were collected within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and on the adjacent shelf during five cruises from November 2003 to April 2005. Geochronology ( 210Pb-derived accumulation rates), grain-size distributions, and sedimentary structures (X-radiography) were analyzed to assess temporal and spatial sedimentation patterns. Results indicate two mid-shelf depocenters (30-90 m water depth) in the northern and southern portions of the study area, separated by a zone of bypassing due to current acceleration around a headland (Cap Bear). Estimates of a sediment budget indicate that ˜6-8% of the sediment input to the Gulf is sequestered on the shelf region. Within the Cap de Creus <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, there is a significant spatial asymmetry in both grain size and accumulation rates. The northern flank is a modern depocenter of fine-grained sediments, while the southern flank is primarily non-depositional for mud and includes locations of apparent erosion. This suggests the influence of multiple oceanographic processes supplying sediment to the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>: advection of nepheloid layers from the northern rim that provide a relatively continuous sediment supply (over decadal timescales), and episodic strong currents affecting the southern rim, which can scour sediment from the southern flank. The mid-depth thalweg has an ephemeral mud layer, overlying</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02668&hterms=sport+canyon&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsport%2Bcanyon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02668&hterms=sport+canyon&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsport%2Bcanyon"><span>3D View of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/>The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).<p/>The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.<p/>Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10527&hterms=lava+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlava%2Brock','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10527&hterms=lava+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlava%2Brock"><span>Lava Flows in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Over vast expanses of time, natural processes like floods and volcanoes deposit layers of rock on the Earth's surface. To delve down through layers of rock is to explore our planet's history. Sometimes rock layers are exposed through human activity, such as drilling or excavation. Other times, rivers carve through the rock. One of the best, and most well-known, examples of a river exposing ancient rocks is Colorado River in Arizona's Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. What fewer people know is that the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> also has a history of relatively recent (on geologic time scales) volcanism. The evidence--hardened lava--spills down the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls all the way to the river. On June 22, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, near 36.2 degrees north latitude and 113.2 degrees west longitude. ASTER detects light visible to human eyes as well as 'invisible' infrared light. Because different minerals reflect different portions of the light spectrum, ASTER can see varying mineral compositions of the rocks it observes, as well as detecting vegetation. In this three-dimensional visualization, lava fields appear brownish gray, darker than the layers of limestone, sandstone and other rock in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Vegetation appears green, and sparsely vegetated areas appear mustard. Water in the Colorado River is blue-purple. Geologists estimate that between 1.8 million and 400,000 years ago, lava flows actually dammed the Colorado River more than a dozen times. Some of the lava dams were as high as 600 meters (about 1,969 feet), forming immense reservoirs. Over time, enough water and sediment built up to push the river flow over the tops of these dams and eventually erode them away. Today, remnants of these lava dams remain throughout the area, along with the much older rock layers they cover. Among the most well known examples of these 'frozen' lava cascades is Lava Falls, which spills down to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3534C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3534C"><span>The role of the sea on the flash floods events over Liguria (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cassola, F.; Ferrari, F.; Mazzino, A.; Miglietta, M. M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The sensitivity to sea surface temperature (SST) of small-scale, flood-causing convective systems in <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coastal areas is analyzed by means of mesoscale numerical simulations. Two different SST initializations are considered: a coarse field provided by a global atmospheric model and a high-resolution multisatellite analysis. Quantitative precipitation forecasts are evaluated for a number of recent severe rainfall episodes in Liguria (<span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Italy). In several cases, using a higher-resolution SST leads to more realistic precipitation estimates in the forecasting range 36-48 h. In the shorter range, the satellite SST has a limited, or even negative, impact, due to the relatively slow adjustment of initial atmospheric fields. In one case, the satellite SST is beneficial for the only run forced with accurate large-scale initial conditions. The results of this work suggest that a potentially significant improvement in severe precipitation forecasting in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> could be achieved using realistic small-scale SST fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SedG..115..315C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SedG..115..315C"><span>Heterogeneity and lithotype distribution in ancient deep-sea <span class="hlt">canyons</span>: Point Lobos deep-sea <span class="hlt">canyon</span> as a reservoir analogue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cronin, Bryan T.; Kidd, Robert B.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>An evolution and history of filling is proposed for an exceptionally exposed ancient deep-sea <span class="hlt">canyon</span> on a Paleocene oblique-slip tectonic margin which, on a number of scales, reveals, successive phases of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> activity. The quantitative methods adopted for this study make it of direct use to modellers as an example of reservoir heterogeneity in an ancient <span class="hlt">canyon</span> fill, where facies distribution from boreholes can be scaled up to reconstruct the reservoir, using the methods outlined in this paper. The Point Lobos submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, near Carmel in California, provides a complete cross-section of an ancient <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, with a fill which displays a whole range of channel morphologies, and laterally extensive coverage of the internal architecture of associated conglomerate packages and related debris flows. This paper presents quantitative documentation of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-fill sediments and <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-wide fill packages, on scales which vary from bed-to-bed analysis, reflecting processes in operation during individual events, to <span class="hlt">canyon</span>-wide analysis, reflecting the overall evolution of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The northern and southern <span class="hlt">canyon</span> margins are both exposed, and the Paleocene fill onlaps the subvertical <span class="hlt">canyon</span> wall. The <span class="hlt">canyon</span> was incised into Cretaceous granodiorite. The fill comprises five thick sequences which correspond to five successive phases of sediment deposition within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Each sequence typically consists of resedimented conglomerates that are stacked and channelised, with a vertical architecture which resembles that of subaerial braided stream deposits. These are overlain by channelised turbidite sandstones, interbedded with intraformational conglomerates and mud-chip breccias. These in turn are overlain by mudstones and shales, which are commonly slumped and disturbed. Published classification schemes that show the range of deep-water facies were found insufficient to describe the Point Lobos <span class="hlt">canyon</span> fill. Methods were developed for recording the lithologic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160008','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160008"><span>Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam, the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.7457K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.7457K"><span>NO2 photolysis frequencies in street <span class="hlt">canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as <span class="hlt">canyons</span> with variable height and width. The effect of a street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1012827K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1012827K"><span>NO2 photolysis frequencies in street <span class="hlt">canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as <span class="hlt">canyons</span> with variable height and width. The effect of a street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street against those with free horizon, which allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in the street, averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, is reduced to less than 20% for narrow streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets, each with about ±5% uncertainty. A parameterization of RJ with the global solar irradiance is given for values that are averaged over the meteorological conditions and the street orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..690M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..690M"><span>Hydrological response of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> catchments- A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merheb, Mohammad; Moussa, Roger; Abdallah, Chadi; Colin, François; Perrin, Charles; Baghdadi, Nicolas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> region is a water stressed environment with increasing climatic and anthropogenic pressures. This work presents a review of 120 hydrological studies carried out in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> region. It contributes to the ongoing hydrological research initiative on "Hydrology in a changing world" launched by the IAHS in 2014. It aims to understand the characteristics of hydrological response under <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> conditions, taking into account changes driven by anthropogenic and climatic factors; and to compare modeling and regionalization approaches in use. The study region is divided into three sub-regions: <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (NWM), Eastern (EM) and Southern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> (SM). Information on catchments responses and modeling approaches at different time scales (annual, dry season and event) were extracted from published studies, and analyzed. Results indicate regional discrepancies (between NWM, EM and SM sub-regions) in the distribution of climatic and hydrological response characteristics at the annual and the event scale. The NWM catchments are the wettest, and the SM catchments are the driest, while the EM catchments are intermediate and exhibit the largest variability. The NWM sub-region shows the most extreme rainfall regime in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, particularly, in an arc that extends from Northeastern Spain to Northeastern Italy. Observations indicate decreasing tendency in water resources due to both anthropogenic and climatic impacts, and a more extreme rainfall regime. Moreover, <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> catchments show very heterogeneous responses in time and space which make the modeling of their hydrological functioning very complicated and data demanding, with increasing model limitations and uncertainties. Nevertheless, the models in use are classical ones; very few were developed to address these regional specificities. Regionalization studies in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> are scarce even in term of low flows and FDCs which is surprising in a water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95Q.492O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95Q.492O"><span>Circulation a key factor in <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> algal growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orwig, Jessica</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The early appearance of nitrate in December appears to have been the driving force for favorable conditions for algal blooms in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, a new study indicates. To better understand the role of nutrients' availability to enable the growth of phytoplankton in temperate seas, D'Ortenzio et al. installed nitrate concentration sensors on two profiling floats in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin in summer 2011. Each spring, the phytoplankton in this basin rapidly grow to form a bloom that blankets the surface and contributes to the transport of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. Scientists are still unsure exactly what produces the conditions for these blooms, but they know that the availability of nutrients, induced by large-scale circulation in the oceans, during the winter is a factor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.137...38E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.137...38E"><span>The marine soundscape of the Perth <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erbe, Christine; Verma, Arti; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander; Parnum, Iain</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Perth <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is a submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> off Rottnest Island in Western Australia. It is rich in biodiversity in general, and important as a feeding and resting ground for great whales on migration. Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) has moorings in the Perth <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> monitoring its acoustical, physical and biological oceanography. Data from these moorings, as well as weather data from a near-by Bureau of Meteorology weather station on Rottnest Island and ship traffic data from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority were correlated to characterise and quantify the marine soundscape between 5 and 3000 Hz, consisting of its geophony, biophony and anthrophony. Overall, biological sources are a strong contributor to the soundscape at the IMOS site, with whales dominating seasonally at low (15-100 Hz) and mid frequencies (200-400 Hz), and fish or invertebrate choruses dominating at high frequencies (1800-2500 Hz) at night time throughout the year. Ships contribute significantly to the 8-100 Hz band at all times of the day, all year round, albeit for a few hours at a time only. Wind-dependent noise is significant at 200-3000 Hz; winter rains are audible underwater at 2000-3000 Hz. We discuss how passive acoustic data can be used as a proxy for ocean weather. Passive acoustics is an efficient way of monitoring animal visitation times and relative densities, and potential anthropogenic influences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1994.photos.181685p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1994.photos.181685p/"><span>4. View to northwest from within Castro Creek <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, looking ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. View to northwest from within Castro Creek <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, looking up at 'Antique' Building (HABS-CA-2611-C) at left and center, 'Champagne' Building (HABS-CA-2611-D) at right behind redwood trees. View gives indication of steepness of <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, siting of these two buildings at <span class="hlt">canyon</span>'s edge. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA598904','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA598904"><span>SW06 Data Analysis and Slope/<span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Experiment Planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-30</p> <p>Abbot, Y.-J. Yang and S. Jan, “Experimental and numerical studies of sound propagation over a submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> northeast of Taiwan,” accepted...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SW06 Data Analysis and Slope/ <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Experiment Planning...i.e. the slope/ <span class="hlt">canyon</span> region. (Dates for experiments are approximate.) OBJECTIVES Our primary objectives this year were: 1) to finish</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA574965','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA574965"><span>SW06 Data Analysis and Slope/<span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Experiment Planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-30</p> <p>1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SW06 Data Analysis and Slope/ <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Experiment Planning...i.e. the slope/ <span class="hlt">canyon</span> region. OBJECTIVES Our primary objectives this year were: 1) to finish publishing our SW06 results in a JASA Special...of 2012 to IEEE JOE for a Special Issue, and 3) begin 2014 (bottom acoustics) and 2016 (shelfbreak, slope and <span class="hlt">canyon</span> ) experimental planning, both on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.104..120M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.104..120M"><span>Holocene sedimentary activity in a non-terrestrially coupled submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>: Cook Strait <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> system, New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Stevens, C. L.; Stirling, M. W.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The Cook Strait <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> system, located between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting <span class="hlt">canyon</span> on an active subduction margin. The <span class="hlt">canyon</span> comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially coupled system. Sediment transport associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults, is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and the processes driving it. A substantial dataset of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data have been collected across the region between 2002 and 2011. The <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system. Analysis of the data reveals a two-staged sediment transport system where: (1) oceanographic (tidal) processes mobilise sediment from the continental shelf and transport it to depocentres in the upper-central <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, and (2) tectonic (earthquake) processes remobilise sediment that is transported through the lower <span class="hlt">canyon</span> to the deep ocean. Tidal boundary-layer currents within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> reach velocities up to 0.53 m/s and are capable of mobilising fine sand in the central reach of the upper <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. The velocity is higher at the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> rim and capable of mobilising coarse sand. Sediment depocentres resulting from this tidally forced sediment transport have a well formed geomorphology within the mid-upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> arms of Cook Strait and Nicholson <span class="hlt">Canyons</span>. Pseudo-static stability modelling, supported by sediment core analysis, indicates that sediment accumulated in the upper <span class="hlt">canyons</span> fails during seismic events approximately every 100 years. The 100 year return period ground shaking-level (peak ground</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116182"><span>Greening of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> -- developing a sustainable design for the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gordon, H.T.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park (GCNP) is faced with increasing visitor demand that is threatening the natural and cultural resources of one of the most popular recreation sites in the United States. The National Park Service (NPS) developed a draft General Management Plan (GMP), which provides management objectives and visions for the entire park, with alternative plans for the park`s developed areas. With the GMP as a starting point, a Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Sustainable Design Workshop was conducted to make the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park more environmentally and economically sustainable. The workshop, which used the Environmental Design Charrette process, addressed integrated environmental solutions and their implementation in three primary areas: Integrated Information, Visitor Experience, and Resource Efficiency. This paper describes the Environmental Design Charrette process and the efforts of the Resource Efficiency group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4111485','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4111485"><span>Morphological and Genetic Diversity of the Wood-Boring Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia): New Species and Records from Deep-Sea Iberian <span class="hlt">Canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Romano, Chiara; Voight, Janet Ruth; Pérez-Portela, Rocío; Martin, Daniel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Deep-sea bivalves of the Xylophagaidae, a poorly known group, are obligate wood-borers. Deployment of wood in three submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> off the Iberian coast, the Blanes and La Fonera <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> (<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea) and the Avilés <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (Cantabric Sea, Bay of Biscay), lead to the discovery of four xylophagaid species in our samples. Xylophaga dorsalis (the dominant species), X. atlantica, X. cf. anselli and the new species X. brava, were identified on the basis of morphological data, and supported by a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the nuclear genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA and including several genus of Xylophagaidae. Genetic divergence between species of Xylophaga varied between genes, ranging from 0.5 to 4.0% for the 18SrDNA and from 4.1 to 16.6% for the 28SrDNA. Xylophaga brava sp. nov. appeared to be restricted to the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> and morphologically resembled the closely related X. cf. anselli from the Cantabrian Sea. However, they clearly diverged in two well-supported clades. Low levels of intraspecific variability and higher interspecific divergence between species also supported the existence of these two different species. Morphologically they differ in the number of cirri at the siphon openings, in the shape of the posterior shell and in the size of prodissoconch II. The new species is characterized by having weak, poorly mineralized mesoplax and siphons united throughout, covered by a periostracal, non-calcified tube; distinct proximal and distal siphons, the former translucent and soft, the latter muscular, with concentric rings. Xylophaga atlantica, previously known only from the western Atlantic, is reported for the first time in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. Whether its presence in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> indicates its natural distribution or reflects its recent introduction is unknown. Although xylophagaids have been previously reported to recruit heavily to wood deposited on the seabed, these four species colonized wood suspended 30 m above the seafloor</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061913"><span>Morphological and genetic diversity of the wood-boring Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia): new species and records from deep-sea Iberian <span class="hlt">canyons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Romano, Chiara; Voight, Janet Ruth; Pérez-Portela, Rocío; Martin, Daniel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Deep-sea bivalves of the Xylophagaidae, a poorly known group, are obligate wood-borers. Deployment of wood in three submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> off the Iberian coast, the Blanes and La Fonera <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> (<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea) and the Avilés <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (Cantabric Sea, Bay of Biscay), lead to the discovery of four xylophagaid species in our samples. Xylophaga dorsalis (the dominant species), X. atlantica, X. cf. anselli and the new species X. brava, were identified on the basis of morphological data, and supported by a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the nuclear genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA and including several genus of Xylophagaidae. Genetic divergence between species of Xylophaga varied between genes, ranging from 0.5 to 4.0% for the 18SrDNA and from 4.1 to 16.6% for the 28SrDNA. Xylophaga brava sp. nov. appeared to be restricted to the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> and morphologically resembled the closely related X. cf. anselli from the Cantabrian Sea. However, they clearly diverged in two well-supported clades. Low levels of intraspecific variability and higher interspecific divergence between species also supported the existence of these two different species. Morphologically they differ in the number of cirri at the siphon openings, in the shape of the posterior shell and in the size of prodissoconch II. The new species is characterized by having weak, poorly mineralized mesoplax and siphons united throughout, covered by a periostracal, non-calcified tube; distinct proximal and distal siphons, the former translucent and soft, the latter muscular, with concentric rings. Xylophaga atlantica, previously known only from the western Atlantic, is reported for the first time in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. Whether its presence in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> indicates its natural distribution or reflects its recent introduction is unknown. Although xylophagaids have been previously reported to recruit heavily to wood deposited on the seabed, these four species colonized wood suspended 30 m above the seafloor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BoLMe.159..259N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BoLMe.159..259N"><span>Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The ventilation processes in three different street <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street <span class="hlt">canyons</span> were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied <span class="hlt">canyon</span> model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD14006N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD14006N"><span>Internal Wave Scattering in Idealized and Realistic Continental Slope <span class="hlt">Canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nazarian, Robert; Legg, Sonya</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>When internal waves interact with topography, such as continental slopes, they can deposit their energy to local dissipation and mixing. Submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> comprise about ten percent of global continental slopes, and can enhance the local dissipation of internal wave energy, yet parameterizations of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> mixing processes are currently missing from ocean models. As a first step in developing such parameterizations, a parameter space study of M2 tidal-frequency, low-mode internal waves interacting with idealized <span class="hlt">canyon</span> topographies was conducted. A two-pronged approach was employed in which a suite of MITgcm simulations was compared with a novel, analytical ray tracing scheme. The most noticeable result was that, as the ratio of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> mouth width to <span class="hlt">canyon</span> length decreased, there was a marked increase in the relative energy loss. This energy loss also increased as the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> sidewall steepness increased. Processes leading to this increased energy loss include increased energy focusing, increasing vertical wavenumber via multiple reflections for non-vertical sidewalls and the presence of arrested lee waves for vertical sidewalls. To test the robustness of these results, we model the energy lost from remotely-generated M2 internal tides in three realistic <span class="hlt">canyons</span> with very different geometries: Veatch, La Jolla and Eel <span class="hlt">Canyons</span>, comparing results with both idealized simulations and microstructure data taken from these locations. We also discuss how current parameterizations of tidally-driven diapycnal mixing can be extended to include the effects of continental slope <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. NOAA Award NA08OAR4320752.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276526','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276526"><span>Vertebrate-bearing eolian unit from the Ogallala Group (Miocene) in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Winkler, D.A.</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>The upper Couch Formation is part of the lower of two formations composing the Ogallala Group in Blanco and Yellowhouse <span class="hlt">canyons</span> in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Texas. An eolian origin for the upper Couch Formation is indicated by its mean grain size, pedogenic carbonate nodules, massive bedding, and blanketlike morphology. The unit conforms poorly to the usual eolian depositional models; it resulted from a combination of the processes involved in loess and sand-sheet formation. Grassland or savanna vegetation probably existed over the area and aided in sediment trapping. Vertebrates are unusual in eolian units, but the adaptations and mode of preservation of those in the upper Couch Formation also support an eolian interpretation. This and other widespread silty sand sheets in the Ogallala indicate major fluctuations in depositional style, possibly climatically controlled. Lateral continuity and preservation of vertebrates give silty sand sheets great potential as correlation tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AtmEn..33.3377V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AtmEn..33.3377V"><span>Isotopic evidence of pollutant lead sources in <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Véron, Alain; Flament, Pascal; Bertho, Marie Laure; Alleman, Laurent; Flegal, Russell; Hamelin, Bruno</p> <p></p> <p>Ratios of stable lead isotopes ( 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) are used to characterize both spatial and temporal variations in anthropogenic emissions of industrial lead aerosols to the atmosphere of <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> France. Differences in isotopic compositions of aerosols collected from a rural area (Wimereux) in the Nord-Pas de Calais region along the English Channel in 1982-1983 ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.108±0.005) and 1994 ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.148±0.003) are paralleled by similar variations in urban aerosols within France during the same period (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.115±0.008 from 1981-1989 and 1.143±0.006 from 1992-1995). These results correlate well with recent findings in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin (Alleman, 1997) where this radiogenicity increase is clearly associated with industrial sources other than leaded gasoline that has remained relatively constant during its phasing out ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.08-1.11). Here we used archived data, air mass trajectories and aerosol diameters combined with isotopic signatures to confirm this trend at a regional scale. Indeed, the main industrial signatures from lead smelting ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.133±0.001) and steel metallurgy ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.196±0.015) in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> France appear more radiogenic than that of leaded gasoline. The shift in isotopic compositions also conform with the systematic change in the mean size (diameter) of aerosols at Wimereux, which ranged from 0.30 to 0.61 μm in 1982-1984 and from 0.70 to 0.89 μm in 1994.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25649364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25649364"><span>Familial <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Fever.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kucuk, Adem; Gezer, Ilknur Albayrak; Ucar, Ramazan; Karahan, Ali Yavuz</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Familial <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Fever which is commonly seen in our population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6784060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6784060"><span>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the marine environment, particularly in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Geyer, H.; Freitag, D.; Korte, F.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possess a low water solubility, a high n-octanol/water partition coefficient, and a high persistence, particularly those which are highly chlorinated. Because of these properties they are bioaccumulated in many organisms in the environment. PCBs are still manufactured industrially and used in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, and France). Production figures for these countries and for the FRG, the United Kingdom, and the United States between 1973 and 1979 are given. The concentrations of PCBs in marine air, water, sediments, microplankton , algae, mussels, fish, and other marine organisms including seabirds from the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> area are reviewed and compared with PCB concentrations in marine samples from non-<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> regions. Levels of PCBs in seawater are highest in the western and central <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. The data for mussels and fish give a clear indication that the PCB levels are higher in the Northwest and the Tyrrhenian Sea than in the eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. The FDA in June 1979 set 2 mg/kg as the temporary maximum concentration for PCBs in fish and shellfish. The PCB residues in some fish from the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> and Tyrrhenian Sea and in some mussels from the Adriatic Sea are higher than this limit. The amount of PCBs ingested via food by the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> population is unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.8611G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.8611G"><span><span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin-wide correlations between Saharan dust deposition and ocean chlorophyll concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gallisai, R.; Peters, F.; Basart, S.; Baldasano, J. M.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The fertilizing potential of atmospheric deposition on ocean production in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> is a matter of debate. In this study, eight years (from 2000 to 2007) of weekly chlorophyll concentration data derived from SeaWiFS satellite observations and dust deposition data provided by the BSC-DREAM8b model are investigated in a basin-wide scale in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea to describe the geographical distribution and dynamics of both variables and to find potential relationships between them. In all analyses the largest positive cross correlation values are found with a time lag of 0 8-d periods. The coupling between annual cycles of chlorophyll and dust deposition may on average explain an 11.5% in chlorophyll variation in a large part of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. The Eastern <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> shows the largest annual correlations, while the responsiveness to large events is small. The contrary is true for the Western and <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> where, if anything, only large events may add to the chlorophyll variability. The Central <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> shows the highest responsiveness of chlorophyll to mineral dust deposition with annual contributions from seasonal variability as well as stimulations owing to large events. These results highlight the importance of dust deposition from African and Middle East origin in the potential stimulation of phytoplankton production in the nutrient depleted surface layers of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18544092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18544092"><span>Loss of large predatory sharks from the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferretti, Francesco; Myers, Ransom A; Serena, Fabrizio; Lotze, Heike K</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Evidence for severe declines in large predatory fishes is increasing around the world. Because of its long history of intense fishing, the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea offers a unique perspective on fish population declines over historical timescales. We used a diverse set of records dating back to the early 19th and mid 20th century to reconstruct long-term population trends of large predatory sharks in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. We compiled 9 time series of abundance indices from commercial and recreational fishery landings, scientific surveys, and sighting records. Generalized linear models were used to extract instantaneous rates of change from each data set, and a meta-analysis was conducted to compare population trends. Only 5 of the 20 species we considered had sufficient records for analysis. Hammerhead (Sphyrna spp.), blue (Prionace glauca), mackerel (Isurus oxyrinchus and Lamna nasus), and thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus) declined between 96 and 99.99% relative to their former abundance. According to World Conservation Union (IUCN) criteria, these species would be considered critically endangered. So far, the lack of quantitative population assessments has impeded shark conservation in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. Our study fills this critical information gap, suggesting that current levels of exploitation put large sharks at risk of extinction in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. Possible ecosystem effects of these losses involve a disruption of top-down control and a release of midlevel consumers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41D..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41D..06L"><span>Hydraulic Implications of Different Megaflood <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Incision Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, I. J.; Lamb, M. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Deeply incised <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are some of the most dramatic features of landscapes carved by megafloods. The geometry of these <span class="hlt">canyons</span> may reveal information regarding flood magnitudes during the last ice age on Earth and the volume of water flowing on early Mars. <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> on both planets have been alternatively modeled as 'channels', where the modern topography was completely inundated with water to the elevation of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> rims, or as 'valleys' that were progressively incised by lesser discharges. Here we combine numerical flood simulations and sediment transport mechanics to explore the hydraulic implications that result from modeling the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> as 'channels' versus 'valleys'. Over 300 floods were simulated for Moses Coulee, a 60 km-long <span class="hlt">canyon</span> in the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington, USA, using a 2D, depth-averaged hydraulic model. We simulated floods with discharges ranging from 0.1 million m3 s-1 to 6 million m3 s-1 using both the modern landscape as a topographic boundary condition and synthetic topographies that restored the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> floor to different elevations as guided by strath terraces. For each simulation we tracked whether shear stresses on the terrace treads exceeded thresholds for sliding of basalt columns. Simulations using the modern topography indicate shear stresses were sufficiently high to erode the terraces at discharges lower than bankfull, and surprisingly, shear stresses decrease with increasing discharge at some sites due to backwater dynamics, which constrains <span class="hlt">canyon</span> formation to moderate discharges. Simulations performed on the synthetic topography suggest the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> could have been incised progressively by floods smaller than those required to fill the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> to bankfull stage. These results suggest the <span class="hlt">canyons</span> can be viewed as valleys that incised progressively, as opposed to channels filled with water, which has implications for placing bounds on paleoflood hydraulic reconstruction on Earth and Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02618.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02618.html"><span>MISR Images Wildfires in <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-08-16</p> <p>These images from NASA Terra satellite are of smoke plumes from devastating wildfires in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> U.S. This view of the Clearwater and Salmon River Mountains in Idaho was acquired on August 5, 2000 Terra orbit 3370.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26872','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26872"><span>Old growth in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> California national forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Debby Beardsley; Ralph. Warbington</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This report estimates old-growth forest area and summarizes stand characteristics of old growth in <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> California National Forests by forest type. Old-growth definitions for each forest type are used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Postdoctoral+AND+fellowship&id=EJ680070','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Postdoctoral+AND+fellowship&id=EJ680070"><span>Scholarship, Policy, and Personal Development at <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leviton, Laura C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Describes the author's experiences in the evaluation training program at <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> University (1978-1980) in a postdoctoral fellowship in methodology and evaluation research. Also discusses the value of the friendships and professional relationships formed at that time. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38124','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38124"><span><span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> California, Chapter 13</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/familial-mediterranean-fever/basics/definition/CON-20025734?p=1','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/familial-mediterranean-fever/basics/definition/CON-20025734?p=1"><span>Familial <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Fever</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... don't use genetic tests as the sole method of diagnosing familial <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> fever. There's no cure ... may be options, though these treatments are considered experimental. Other medications include rilonacept (Arcalyst) and anakinra (Kineret). ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DSRI...57..420B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DSRI...57..420B"><span>Metazoan meiofauna in deep-sea <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and adjacent open slopes: A large-scale comparison with focus on the rare taxa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianchelli, S.; Gambi, C.; Zeppilli, D.; Danovaro, R.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Metazoan meiofaunal abundance, total biomass, nematode size and the richness of taxa were investigated along bathymetric gradients (from the shelf break down to ca. 5000-m depth) in six submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and on five adjacent open slopes of three deep-sea regions. The investigated areas were distributed along >2500 km, on the Portuguese to the Catalan and South Adriatic margins. The Portuguese and Catalan margins displayed the highest abundances, biomass and richness of taxa, while the lowest values were observed in the Central <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. The comparison between <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and the nearby open slopes showed the lack of significant differences in terms of meiofaunal abundance and biomass at any sampling depth. In most <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and on most slopes, meiofaunal variables did not display consistent bathymetric patterns. Conversely, we found that the different topographic features were apparently responsible for significant differences in the abundance and distribution of the rare meiofaunal taxa (i.e. taxa accounting for <1% of total meiofaunal abundance). Several taxa belonging to the temporary meiofauna, such as larvae/juveniles of Priapulida, Holothuroidea, Ascidiacea and Cnidaria, were encountered exclusively on open slopes, while others (including the Tanaidacea and Echinodea larvae) were found exclusively in <span class="hlt">canyons</span> sediments. Results reported here indicate that, at large spatial scales, differences in deep-sea meiofaunal abundance and biomass are not only controlled by the available food sources, but also by the region or habitat specific topographic features, which apparently play a key role in the distribution of rare benthic taxa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-17/pdf/2010-14627.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-17/pdf/2010-14627.pdf"><span>75 FR 34476 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-17</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the Secretary...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>....” (2) Then south along Kanan Dume Road to the point where an unnamed, unimproved dirt road referred to... <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Road to an unnamed, unimproved dirt road referred to by the petitioner as Newton Mountain Way at... southeastern ridgeline of Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, to an unnamed, unimproved dirt road referred to by the petitioner as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec9-152.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>....” (2) Then south along Kanan Dume Road to the point where an unnamed, unimproved dirt road referred to... <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Road to an unnamed, unimproved dirt road referred to by the petitioner as Newton Mountain Way at... southeastern ridgeline of Newton <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, to an unnamed, unimproved dirt road referred to by the petitioner as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474850.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474850.pdf"><span>Academy of the <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> Report, Fall 2000-Spring 2002.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meuschke, Daylene M.; Dixon, P. Scott; Gribbons, Barry C.</p> <p></p> <p>Summarizes findings from an evaluation of the Academy of the <span class="hlt">Canyons</span>, a "middle college high school" which operates on the College of the <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> (California) campus and is open to 11th and 12th grade students whose needs are not being met by the large comprehensive high schools. This evaluation, prepared as a component of the Academy's…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol1-sec7-4.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol1-sec7-4.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.4 - Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park. (a) Commercial...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/25204','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/25204"><span>Geology and geomorphology of the Lower Deschutes River <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Oregon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Robin A. Beebee; Jim E. O' Connor; Gordon E. Grant</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This field guide is designed for geologists floating the approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the Deschutes River from the Pelton-Round Butte Dam Complex west of Madras to Maupin, Oregon. The first section of the guide is a geologic timeline tracing the formation of the units that compose the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> walls and the incision of the present <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The second section...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.70 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... Superintendent of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.70 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... Superintendent of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.70 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... Superintendent of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol1-sec7-70.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.70 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... Superintendent of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46623','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46623"><span>Mapping wilderness character in Sequoia and Kings <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> National Parks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>James Tricker; Peter Landres; Gregg Fauth; Paul Hardwick; Alex Eddy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Sequoia-Kings <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness was established in September of 1984 when President Ronald Reagan signed the California Wilderness Act (PL 98-425). In March 2009, President Barack Obama signed the Omnibus Public Land Management Act (PL 111-11) designating the John Krebs Wilderness and the Sequoia-Kings <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Addition (all wholly contained within SEKI)....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28233856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28233856"><span>Bottom-trawling along submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> impacts deep sedimentary regimes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert</p> <p>2017-02-24</p> <p>Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of <span class="hlt">canyons</span>' morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20(th) century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled <span class="hlt">canyons</span> worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/id0437.photos.224546p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/id0437.photos.224546p/"><span>Bridge 223, view looking east up Rock Creek <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> at ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Bridge 22-3, view looking east up Rock Creek <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> at Milepost 22.82. The line passes through tunnel 4 onto Bridge 22-3 and heads eastward up Rock Creek <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> out onto the Camas Prairie - Camas Prairie Railroad, Second Subdivision, From Spalding in Nez Perce County, through Lewis County, to Grangeville in Idaho County, Spalding, Nez Perce County, ID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-02-08/pdf/99-2969.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-02-08/pdf/99-2969.pdf"><span>64 FR 6116 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-02-08</p> <p>... work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) on September 10, 1997. The TWG members were named by the members of the AMWG...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-01-23/pdf/2014-01263.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-01-23/pdf/2014-01263.pdf"><span>79 FR 3873 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-23</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...-575) of 1992. The GCDAMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2006-08-03/pdf/06-6659.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2006-08-03/pdf/06-6659.pdf"><span>71 FR 44042 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-08-03</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and provide recommendations to the Secretary...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-12-18/pdf/97-33008.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-12-18/pdf/97-33008.pdf"><span>62 FR 66384 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-12-18</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, DOI. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) will... Work Group (1999 program, management objectives, approach to beach/habitat building flow...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2008-08-01/pdf/E8-17587.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2008-08-01/pdf/E8-17587.pdf"><span>73 FR 45070 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-08-31/pdf/99-22653.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-08-31/pdf/99-22653.pdf"><span>64 FR 47517 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-08-31</p> <p>... No: 99-22653] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group... Technical Work Group (TWG) was formed as an official subcommittee of the Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG). The TWG members were named by members of the AMWG and provide advice and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1921.photos.190822p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1921.photos.190822p/"><span>4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE PLAQUE AT LEE VINING <span class="hlt">CANYON</span>. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE PLAQUE AT LEE VINING <span class="hlt">CANYON</span>. NOTE ROAD CUT ON <span class="hlt">CANYON</span> WALL. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 30.3 / 119 13 44.8 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01908&hterms=economy+Blue&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Deconomy%2BBlue','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01908&hterms=economy+Blue&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Deconomy%2BBlue"><span>Perspective view over the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p><p/> This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire. <p/> ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. <p/> The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. <p/> The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. <p/> Size: 5 km in foreground to 40 km Location: 36.3 degrees north latitude, 112 degrees west longitude Orientation: North-northeast at top Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters Dates Acquired: May 12, 2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/949220','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/949220"><span>Big <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Creek watershed are Big <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (mouth to 7km) and Little <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/270165','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/270165"><span>River resource management in the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The objective of GCES was to identify and predict the effects of variations in operating strategies on the riverine environment below Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam within the physical and legal constraints under which the dam must operate. Critical elements for the development of GCES and other such projects include a list of resources directly or indirectly affected by management, a list of management options, and an ecosystem framework showing the causal connections among system components, potential management strategies that include humans as integral parts of the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136707','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136707"><span>20140430_Green Machine Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Hourly Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Thibedeau, Joe</p> <p>2014-05-05</p> <p>Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 April to 30 April 2014.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1148821','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1148821"><span>Green Machine Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Hourly Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Vanderhoff, Alex</p> <p>2013-07-15</p> <p>Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 6/1/13 to 6/30/13</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1148818','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1148818"><span>Green Machine Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Hourly Data 20130731</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Vanderhoff, Alex</p> <p>2013-08-30</p> <p>Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 7/1/13 to 7/31/13.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149728','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149728"><span>20130416_Green Machine Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Hourly Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Vanderhoff, Alex</p> <p>2013-04-24</p> <p>Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 4/16/13.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BoLMe.124...43S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BoLMe.124...43S"><span>Transfer processes in a simulated urban street <span class="hlt">canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solazzo, E.; Britter, R. E.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The transfer processes within and above a simulated urban street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> were investigated in a generic manner. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to aid understanding and to produce some simple operational parameterisations. In this study we addressed specifically the commonly met situation where buoyancy effects arising from elevated surface temperatures are not important, i.e. when mechanical forces outweigh buoyancy forces. In a geophysical context this requires that some suitably defined Richardson number is small. From an engineering perspective this is interpreted as the important case when heat transfer within and above urban street <span class="hlt">canyons</span> is by forced convection. Surprisingly, this particular scenario (for which the heat transfer coefficient between buildings and the flow is largest), has been less well studied than the situation where buoyancy effects are important. The CFD technique was compared against wind-tunnel experiments to provide model evaluation. The height-to-width ratio of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> was varied through the range 0.5 5 and the flow was normal to the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axis. By setting the canyon’s facets to have the same or different temperatures or to have a partial temperature distribution, simulations were carried out to investigate: (a) the influence of geometry on the flow and mixing within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and (b) the exchange processes within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and across the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> top interface. Results showed that the vortex-type circulation and turbulence developed within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> produced a temperature distribution that was, essentially, spatially uniform (apart from a relatively thin near-wall thermal boundary layer) This allowed the temperatures within the street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> to be specified by just one value T can , the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> temperature. The variation of T can with wind speed, surface temperatures and geometry was extensively studied. Finally, the exchange velocity u E across the interface between the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and the flow above was calculated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6175186','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6175186"><span>North Atlantic slope and <span class="hlt">canyon</span> study. Volume 2. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Butman, B.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>A field program to investigate the currents and sediment transport along the outershelf and upper slope along the southern flank of Georges Bank was conducted between 1980 and 1984. A major part of the field experiment was conducted in Lydonia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, a large submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> which cuts northward about 20 km into the continental shelf from the shelfbreak. A smaller experiment was conducted in Oceanographer <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> to compare the currents in these two major <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Long-term current observations were made at 20 locations in or adjacent to Lydonia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and at 9 stations on the continental slope. Detailed semi-synoptic hydrographic observations were made on 9 cruises. The currents associated with Gulf Stream warm core rings (WCR's) strongly affect the flow along the outer shelf and upper slope; eastward currents in excess of 75cm/s were associated with WCR's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6987797','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6987797"><span>Pleistocene entrenched valley/<span class="hlt">canyon</span> systems, Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steffens, G.S.</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>The Mississippi Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is the seaward extension of the late Wisconsin entrenched alluvial valley. Geophysical and geologic data provide evidence for the continuity of the Mississippi entrenched valley, the Timbalier channel, and the submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. The Mississippi entrenched valley/<span class="hlt">canyon</span> system is one of several systems recognized in the Pleistocene section of offshore Louisiana. Most of these systems were produced by the ancestral Mississippi River. They typically exhibit a three-gradient profile with their maximum erosional relief at the preexisting shelf margin. The <span class="hlt">canyons</span> extend onto the pre-existing shelf for 20 to 50 mi, with erosion commonly exceeding 1000 ft. All of these systems delivered large quantities of sediment to the Pleistocene slope and abyssal plain. The fan deposits are the products of sediment passing through and being removed from the entrenched valley/<span class="hlt">canyon</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.D1003W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.D1003W"><span>Internal tide convergence and mixing in a submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waterhouse, Amy</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Observations from Eel <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, located on the north coast of California, show that elevated turbulence in the full water column arises from the convergence of remotely-generated internal wave energy. The incoming semidiurnal and bottom-trapped diurnal internal tides generate complex interference patterns. The semidiurnal internal tide sets up a partly standing wave within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> due to reflection at the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> head, dissipating all of its energy within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. Dissipation in the near-bottom is associated with the diurnal trapped tide, while midwater isopycnal shear and strain is associated with the semidiurnal tide. Dissipation is elevated up to 600 m off the bottom, in contrast to observations over flat continental shelf where dissipation occurs closer to the topography. Slope <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are sinks for internal wave energy and may have important influences on the global distribution of tidally-driven mixing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1191/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1191/report.pdf"><span>The Black <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of the Gunnison: Today and Yesterday</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hansen, Wallace R.</p> <p>1965-01-01</p> <p>Since the early visit of Captain John William Gunnison in the middle of the last century, the Black <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of the Gunnison has stirred mixed apprehension and wonder in the hearts of its viewers. It ranks high among the more awesome gorges of North America. Many great western <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are as well remembered for their brightly colored walls as for their airy depths. Not so the Black <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Though it is assuredly not black, the dark-gray tones of its walls and the hazy shadows of its gloomy depths join together to make its name well deserved. Its name conveys an impression, not a picture. After the first emotional impact of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, the same questions come to the minds of most reflective viewers and in about the following order: How deep is the Black <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, how wide, how does it compare with other <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, what are the rocks, how did it form, and how long did it take? Several western <span class="hlt">canyons</span> exceed the Black <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> in overall size. Some are longer; some are deeper; some are narrower; and a few have walls as steep. But no other <span class="hlt">canyon</span> in North American combines the depth, narrowness, sheerness, and somber countenance of the Black <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. In many places the Black <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is as deep as it is wide. Between The Narrows and Chasm View in the Black <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of the Gunnison National Monument (fig. 15) it is much deeper than wide. Average depth in the monument is about 2,000 feet, ranging from a maximum of about 2,700 feet, north of Warner Point (which also is the greatest depth anywhere in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>), to a minimum of about 1,750 feet at The Narrows. The stretch of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> between Pulpit Rock and Chasm View, including The Narrows, though the shallowest in the monument, is also the narrowest, has some of the steepest walls, and is, therefore, among the most impressive segments of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> (fig. 3). Profiles of several well-known western <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are shown in figure 1. Deepest of these by far is Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> of the Snake, on the Idaho-Oregon border. Clearly, it dwarfs the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1707b/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1707b/report.pdf"><span>Mineral resources of the East Fork High Rock <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Area, Washoe and Humboldt counties, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ach, Jay A.; Plouff, Donald; Turner, R.L.; Schmauch, S.W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The part of the East Fork High Rock <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Wilderness Study Area (CA-020-914/NV-020-006A) included in this study encompasses 33,460 acres in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> part of Nevada. Throughout this report, "wilderness study area" and "study area" refertothe 33,460 acres for which mineral surveys were requested. The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted geological, geophysical, and geochemical surveys to assess the mineral resources (known) and the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the study area. Fieldwork for this report was carried out in 1985 and 1986. No mines, significant prospects, or mining claims are located inside the study area, and no identified resources were found. The wilderness study area has moderate mineral resource potential for gold, silver, and mercury and for zeolite minerals. A low potential also exists for geothermal energy resources, and potential for oil and gas is unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.104...83H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.104...83H"><span>Hanging <span class="hlt">canyons</span> of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> geomorphology along active continental margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of <span class="hlt">canyons</span> located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, <span class="hlt">canyons</span> along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging <span class="hlt">canyons</span> occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">canyons</span> are compared and contrasted with the Sur <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where <span class="hlt">canyons</span> thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2001-02-05/pdf/01-2975.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2001-02-05/pdf/01-2975.pdf"><span>66 FR 8980 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-02-05</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work... has been organized and includes a federal advisory committee (the AMWG), a technical work group (the...: The Adaptive Management Work Group will conduct the following public meetings: Phoenix,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2001-06-27/pdf/01-16007.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2001-06-27/pdf/01-16007.pdf"><span>66 FR 34240 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-06-27</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG); Cancellation of Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Work Group Meeting Scheduled for July 17-18, 2001, in Phoenix, Arizona, in order to complete work...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-12-21/pdf/98-33684.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1998-12-21/pdf/98-33684.pdf"><span>63 FR 70421 - Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-12-21</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Technical Work Group (TWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings;...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03805&hterms=difference+rocks+minerals&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddifference%2Brocks%2Bminerals','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03805&hterms=difference+rocks+minerals&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddifference%2Brocks%2Bminerals"><span>Surface Composition Differences in Martian <span class="hlt">Canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Color differences in this daytime infrared image taken by the camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft represent differences in the mineral composition of the rocks, sediments and dust on the surface.<p/>The image shows a portion of a <span class="hlt">canyon</span> named Candor Chasma within the great Valles Marineris system of <span class="hlt">canyons</span>, at approximately 5 degrees south latitude, 285 degrees east (75 degrees west) longitude. The area shown is approximately 30 by 175 kilometers (19 by 110 miles).<p/>The image combines exposures taken by Odyssey's thermal emission imaging system at three different wavelengths of infrared light: 6.3 microns, 7.4 microns and 8.7 microns.<p/>NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5509943','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5509943"><span>Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Environmental Investigation : Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>United States. Bonneville Power Administration.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The Water Budget plan would provide additional flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve the survival of downstream migrating salmon and steelhead. The plan calls for 20,000 cubic feet per second-months (beyond the firm power flow) to be delivered to Lower Granite pool as the Snake River contribution to the Water Budget. This water would come from Idaho Power Company's (IPCo) Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Complex (principally, Brownlee Reservoir) and the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dworshak Reservoir. This report contains the results of an environmental investigation of the nonpower impacts on the Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Complex investigation. The environmental investigation evaluated three Water Budget scenarios, or levels of participation, developed by IPCo. These scenarios involve drawdowns of Brownlee Reservoir to three elevations, or floor levels (2036, 2050, and 2065), for Water Budget flows. A total of nine discipline areas were studied. These include natural features (geology); water use; water quality; fish, botanical, and wildlife resources; air quality; land use; historical and archeological resources; recreational resources; and aesthetic resources. Within each discipline, the report presents the existing conditions, the potential impacts associated with each scenario, information deficiencies and needed studies, and references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6691923','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6691923"><span>Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Environmental Investigation : Summary, 1984.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>The Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 provided for the establishment of a Regional Power Planning Council (Regional Council) and mandated the development of a Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (F and W Program). The F and W Program was adopted in November 1982, and is intended to mitigate fish and wildlife losses resulting from the development of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. One element of the F and W Program is the Water Budget. It calls for additional flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve the survival of juvenile salmon and steelhead migrating downstream. The Snake River's contribution to the Water Budget is 20,000 cubic feet per second-months over and above water that would normally flow for power production. The water for the Water Budget would come out of Idaho Power Company's (IPCo) Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Complex (Brownlee Reservoir) and the Corps of Engineers' (Corps) Dworshak Reservoir. IPCo's participation in the Water Budget could affect the level of the Brownlee Reservoir and flows downstream of the Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Complex on the Snake River. The potential changes that could occur to the environment are summarized in the following areas: (1) natural features, water use, and air and water quality; (2) fish, wildlife, and vegetation; (3) land use, recreation, and aesthetics; and (4) historical and archaeological resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173922','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173922"><span>Atmospheric Fragmentation of the <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Diablo Meteoroid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierazzo, E.; Artemieva, N. A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>About 50 kyr ago the impact of an iron meteoroid excavated Meteor Crater, Arizona, the first terrestrial structure widely recognized as a meteorite impact crater. Recent studies of ballistically dispersed impact melts from Meteor Crater indicate a compositionally unusually heterogeneous impact melt with high SiO2 and exceptionally high (10 to 25% on average) levels of projectile contamination. These are observations that must be explained by any theoretical modeling of the impact event. Simple atmospheric entry models for an iron meteorite similar to <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Diablo indicate that the surface impact speed should have been around 12 km/s [Melosh, personal comm.], not the 15-20 km/s generally assumed in previous impact models. This may help explaining the unusual characteristics of the impact melt at Meteor Crater. We present alternative initial estimates of the motion in the atmosphere of an iron projectile similar to <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Diablo, to constraint the initial conditions of the impact event that generated Meteor Crater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V22C0604S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V22C0604S"><span>Volcanic Features in the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Hawaiian Islands Revealed by SWATH Mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, J. R.; Miller, J.; Evans, B. K.; Johnson, P.; Weirich, J. B.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve (NWHICRER) has only recently been established, and has already caused an infusion of interest and funds for studies to assess what is there to preserve and how best to do it. The <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> chain stretches over 2200 km to the northwest of the 775 km-long Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). The MHI have only in recent years been systematically mapped with modern multibeam swath sonar systems and the work is not yet complete. With these southeastern islands being the population center, it is easy to imagine the lack of coverage along the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> chain where no one lives except those stationed at remote outposts for scientific study. Manned and robotic submersible studies and limited multibeam mapping have been carried out by the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab every year in the NWHICRER for the past several years though focused on relatively shallow water biological sites. In late 2002, the first dedicated exploratory multibeam mapping expedition took place aboard the new University of Hawaii SWATH ship R/V Kilo Moana. While the primary mission was shallow mapping on carbonate platforms in support of the NWHICRER boundaries, a large amount of data were collected over the deeper volcanic foundations of the atolls. These surveys revealed dramatic rift zones on the same scale as those in the MHI, sea level terraces, submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> cutting through the platforms with debris chutes continuing down to base of the islands, additional submarine landslide scars and debris fields in more detail than the USGS GLORIA sidescan program of the previous decade, and previously unmapped seamounts with some likely resulting from Hawaiian hot spot activity while others formed during creation of the Pacific Plate. A diving program is planned on many of these features in late 2003 and preliminary results will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25534631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25534631"><span>Modelling the transport and accumulation of floating marine debris in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mansui, J; Molcard, A; Ourmières, Y</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>In the era of plastic and global environmental issues, when large garbage patches have been observed in the main oceanic basins, this work is the first attempt to explore the possibility that similar permanent accumulation structures may exist in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. The questions addressed in this work are: can the general circulation, with its sub-basins scale gyres and mesoscale instabilities, foster the concentration of floating items in some regions? Where are the more likely coastal zones impacted from open ocean sources? Multi-annual simulations of advected surface passive debris depict the Tyrrhenian Sea, the <span class="hlt">north-western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> sub-basin and the Gulf of Sirte as possible retention areas. The western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> coasts present very low coastal impact, while the coastal strip from Tunisia to Syria appears as the favourite destination. No permanent structure able to retain floating items in the long-term were found, as the basin circulation variability brings sufficient anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRC..117.9008F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRC..117.9008F"><span>Turbulent mixing in the eddy transport of Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Intermediate Water to the Alboran Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forryan, A.; Allen, J. T.; Edhouse, E.; Silburn, B.; Reeve, K.; Tesi, E.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Intermediate Water (WIW) is formed in winter in the <span class="hlt">North-Western</span> <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. WIW, identifiable as a distinct temperature minimum layer between Atlantic-<span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Interface waters and the denser Levantine Intermediate Water, is carried down the east coast of Spain in anticyclonic mode water eddies, or “weddies” eventually reaching the Alboran sea. A previous detailed analysis of a weddy in the vicinity of the Almeria-Oran front indicated that it could have accounted for 10% of a winter's production of WIW, but this analysis was unable to consider turbulent dissipation. In this study we present microstructure measurements across a similar observation of WIW in the vicinity of the Almeria-Oran front and show that this figure could be conservative by 15-50% due to the turbulent dissipation associated with a weddy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.5104R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.5104R"><span>European and <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> hydroclimate responses to tropical volcanic forcing over the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rao, M. P.; Cook, B. I.; Cook, E. R.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Krusic, P. J.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Buckley, B. M.; Davi, N. K.; Leland, C.; Griffin, K. L.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Volcanic eruptions have global climate impacts, but their effect on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood. We use a modified version of superposed epoch analysis, an eruption year list collated from multiple data sets, and seasonal paleoclimate reconstructions (soil moisture, precipitation, geopotential heights, and temperature) to investigate volcanic forcing of spring and summer hydroclimate over Europe and the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> over the last millennium. In the western <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, wet conditions occur in the eruption year and the following 3 years. Conversely, <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> Europe and the British Isles experience dry conditions in response to volcanic eruptions, with the largest moisture deficits in posteruption years 2 and 3. The precipitation response occurs primarily in late spring and early summer (April-July), a pattern that strongly resembles the negative phase of the East Atlantic Pattern. Modulated by this mode of climate variability, eruptions force significant, widespread, and heterogeneous hydroclimate responses across Europe and the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-05/pdf/2013-16045.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-05/pdf/2013-16045.pdf"><span>78 FR 40381 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, AZ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-05</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Grand..., at the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> VOR/DME navigation aid, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, AZ, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-01/pdf/2013-10290.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-01/pdf/2013-10290.pdf"><span>78 FR 25404 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, AZ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>... Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, AZ, to facilitate vectoring... route domestic airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface at the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> VOR/DME... airspace at the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> VOR/DME, Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, AZ. This proposal will be subject to an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/8197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/8197"><span>Structural Geology of the <span class="hlt">Northwestern</span> Portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico: Implications for Seismic Surface Rupture Potential from TA-3 to TA-55</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jamie N. Gardner: Alexis Lavine; Giday WoldeGabriel; Donathon Krier; David Vaniman; Florie Caporuscio; Claudia Lewis; Peggy Reneau; Emily Kluk; M. J. Snow</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>Los Alamos National Laboratory lies at the western boundary of the Rio Grande rift, a major tectonic feature of the North American Continent. Three major faults locally constitute the modem rift boundary, and each of these is potentially seismogenic. In this study we have gathered structural geologic data for the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory through high-precision geologic mapping, conventional geologic mapping, stratigraphic studies, drilling, petrologic studies, and stereographic aerial photograph analyses. Our study area encompasses TA-55 and TA-3, where potential for seismic surface rupture is of interest, and is bounded on the north and south by the townsite of Los Alamos and Twomile <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, respectively. The study area includes parts of two of the potentially active rift boundary faults--the Pajarito and Rendija <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> faults-that form a large graben that we name the Diamond Drive graben. The graben embraces the western part of the townsite of Los Alamos, and its southern end is in the TA-3 area where it is defined by east-southeast-trending cross faults. The cross faults are small, but they accommodate interactions between the two major fault zones and gentle tilting of structural blocks to the north into the graben. North of Los Alamos townsite, the Rendija <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> fault is a large normal fault with about 120 feet of down-to-the-west displacement over the last 1.22 million years. South from Los Alamos townsite, the Rendija <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> fault splays to the southwest into a broad zone of deformation. The zone of deformation is about 2,000 feet wide where it crosses Los Alamos <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and cuts through the Los Alamos County Landfill. Farther southwest, the fault zone is about 3,000 feet wide at the southeastern corner of TA-3 in upper Mortandad <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and about 5,000 feet wide in Twomile <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Net down-to-the-west displacement across the entire fault zone over the last 1.22 million years decreases to the south as the fault zone broadens as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008bmi..book.....G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008bmi..book.....G"><span>Biogeography of <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Invasions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Groves, R. H.; di Castri, F.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa, and southern Australia share a <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. These five regions have differing patterns of human settlement, but similarities in natural vegetation and some faunal assemblages. These likenesses are enhanced with time by an increasing level of biotic exchange among the regions. An initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), which realized that the integrity of many natural ecosystems is being threatened by the ingress of invasive species, this book uniquely documents the introduced floras and faunas, especially plants, buds, and mammals, in these five regions of <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> climate, and aims to increase our understanding of the ecology of biological invasions. In doing so, it points a way to more effectively manage the biota of these regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18817115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18817115"><span>Evidence of enhanced atmospheric ammoniacal nitrogen in Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> national recreation area: implications for natural and cultural resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geiser, Linda H; Ingersoll, Anne R; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Copeland, Scott A</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Agriculture releases copious fertilizing pollutants to air sheds and waterways of the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> United States. To evaluate threats to natural resources and historic rock paintings in remote Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Oregon and Idaho, deposition of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at five stations along 60 km of the Snake River valley floor were passively sampled from July 2002 through June 2003, and ozone data and particulate chemistry were obtained from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) station at Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. NH3 concentrations were high; biweekly averages peaked at 5-19 ppb in spring and summer and the nutrient-laden Snake River is a likely source. Fine particulate ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) averaged 2.6 microg/m3 during the 20% of worst visibility days with winter drainage of air masses from the Snake River Basin and possibly long distance transport from southern California. Other pollutants were within background ranges. NH3 is corrosive to clay-based pictographs; nitrogen deposition can alter natural biotic communities and terrestrial ecosystem processes at levels reported here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743332P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743332P"><span>Bottom-trawling along submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> impacts deep sedimentary regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons’ morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20th century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled <span class="hlt">canyons</span> worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Geomo..95..316H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Geomo..95..316H"><span>A Karst Connection model for Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, C. A.; Eberz, N.; Buecher, R. H.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>A new model for the connection of the eastern and western Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is proposed that involves westward flow of Redwall karst aquifer water under the Kaibab arch along the steepest hydraulic gradient to discharge at a structural low in a headward-eroding protowestern Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. A karst-aquifer hydrological connection was first established between the eastern and western Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, then collapse, incision, and headward erosion of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> followed this subterranean route. This proposed model is based on what is happening today on the northern Marble Platform where the Redwall-Muav aquifer is still intact. The three sinkhole/caves Ah Hol Sah, Indian Pit, and Black Abyss provide vertical flow routes down to the Redwall karst aquifer, joining water discharging from the Kaiparowits hydrologic basin to the Colorado River along the Fence Springs system. Projecting this process back in time and spatially southward, we propose that at around 6 Ma a sinkhole or sinkholes existed at the confluence of the Colorado River with the Little Colorado River. Little Colorado River water, then flowing northward to an interior lake basin ("Glen Lake") in southern Utah, became pirated down this sinkhole(s), thus causing a reversal of drainage (barbed tributaries) in Marble <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Headward erosion then proceeded up Marble and Little Colorado <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> from the collapsing sinkhole, with Marble <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> incision breaching Glen Lake at around 5.5 Ma. This effected the "final connection" and total integration of the Colorado River from Colorado to the Gulf of California.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5324136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5324136"><span>Bottom-trawling along submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> impacts deep sedimentary regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine <span class="hlt">canyons</span> incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper <span class="hlt">canyon</span> reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved <span class="hlt">canyon</span> flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons’ morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20th century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled <span class="hlt">canyons</span> worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities. PMID:28233856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.214..465S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.214..465S"><span>Inner gorge-slot <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system produced by repeated stream incision (eastern Alps): Significance for development of bedrock <span class="hlt">canyons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanders, Diethard; Wischounig, Lukas; Gruber, Alfred; Ostermann, Marc</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Many inner bedrock gorges of the Alps show abrupt downstream changes in gorge width, as well as channel type and gradient, as a result of epigenetic incision of slot <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. Many slot <span class="hlt">canyons</span> also are associated with older gorge reaches filled with Quaternary deposits. The age of slot <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and inner bedrock gorges, however, commonly is difficult to constrain. For the inner-bedrock gorge system of the Steinberger Ache catchment (eastern Alps), active slot <span class="hlt">canyons</span> as well as older, abandoned gorge reaches filled with upper Würmian proglacial deposits record three phases of gorge development and slot-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> incision. A 234U/230Th age of cement of 29.7 ± 1.8 ka in fluvial conglomerates onlapping the flank of an inner gorge fits with late Würmian valley-bottom aggradation shortly before pleniglacial conditions; in addition, the age indicates that at least the corresponding <span class="hlt">canyon</span> reach must be older. During advance of ice streams in the buildup of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the catchment was blocked, and a proglacial lake formed. Bedrock gorges submerged in that lake were filled with fluviolacustrine deposits. During the LGM, the entire catchment was overridden by ice. During post-glacial reincision, streams largely found again their preexisting inner bedrock <span class="hlt">canyons</span>. In some areas, however, the former stream course was 'missed', and a slot <span class="hlt">canyon</span> formed. The distribution of Pleistocene deposits, the patterns of <span class="hlt">canyon</span> incision, and the mentioned U/Th cementation age, however, together record a further discrete phase of base-level rise and stream incision well before the LGM. The present course of Steinberger Ache and its tributaries is a patchwork of (1) slot <span class="hlt">canyons</span> incised during post-glacial incision; (2) vestiges of slot <span class="hlt">canyons</span> cut upon an earlier (middle to late Würmian?) cycle of base-level rise and fall; (3) reactivated reaches up to ~ 200 m in width of inner bedrock gorge that are watershed at present, and more than at least ~ 30 ka in age; and (4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8524M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8524M"><span><span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>, our sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markaki, Foteini</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span>. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DSRII..49.4225S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DSRII..49.4225S"><span>Eddy generation in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> undercurrent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Serra, Nuno; Ambar, Isabel</p> <p></p> <p>In the framework of the European Union MAST III project Canary Islands Gibraltar Azores Observations, 24 RAFOS floats were deployed in the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> Water (MW) undercurrent off south Portugal between September 1997 and September 1998. A preliminary analysis of this Lagrangian approach, complemented with XBT and current-meter data, show some of the major aspects of the flow associated with the undercurrent as well as associated eddy activity. Floats that stayed in the undercurrent featured a downstream deceleration and a steering by bottom topography. Three meddy formations at Cape St. Vincent could be isolated from the float data. The dynamical coupling of meddies and cyclones was observed for a considerable period of time. The generation of two dipolar structures in the Portimão <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> region also was observed with the float data. A major bathymetric relief—Gorringe Bank—was not only an important constraint to the eddy trajectories and of the flow at the MW levels but also a site for meddy formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27131955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27131955"><span>Transport and fluxes of terrestrial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a small mountain river and submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Bing-Sian; Lee, Chon-Lin; Brimblecombe, Peter; Liu, James T</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the Gaoping River were investigated in the wet and dry seasons. PAH characteristics allowed us to trace the particulate matter transported in a river-sea system containing a small mountain river, continental shelf, and submarine <span class="hlt">canyon</span>. PAH signatures of the Gaoping River showed that particles were rapidly transported from the high mountain to the Gaoping coastal areas in the wet season, even arriving at the deep ocean via the Gaoping Submarine <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. By contrast, in the dry season, the particles were delivered quite slowly and included mostly pyrogenic contaminants. The annual riverine flux estimates for PAHs were 2241 kg in the Gaoping river-sea system. Only 18.0 kg were associated with the dissolved phase; the rest was bound onto particles. The fluxes caused by typhoons and their effects accounted for 20.2% of the dissolved and 68.4% of the particulate PAH fluxes from the river. Normalized partition coefficients for organic carbon suggested that PAHs were rigid on the particles. Distinct source characteristics were evident for PAHs on riverine suspended particles and coastal surface sediments: the particles in the wet season (as background signals) were similar to petrogenic sources, whereas the particles in the dry season had characteristics of coal burning and vehicular emissions. The sediments in the <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> shelf were similar to pyrogenic sources (including vehicular emissions and coal and biomass burning), whereas the sediments in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and southeastern shelf arose from mixed sources, although some diesel signature was also evident.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....99.4323F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....99.4323F"><span>A geophysical-geological transect of the Silent <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> caldera complex, Pahute Mesa, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, John F.; Cogbill, Allen H.; Warren, Richard G.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>Revision of lithological logs for boreholes penetrating the volcanic center at Pahute Mesa, Nevada, has led to a thorough review of the volcanic stratigraphy and geologic structure. We have combined this review with a compilation of old and newly acquired gravity and seismic travel time data, producing a unified interpretation along a northwest to sutheast profile. The analysis supports a new interpretation of the Silent <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> caldera complex. The caldera is found to be more asymmetric than previously suggested, with the southeastern boundary formed by linear, high-angle normal faultsand a more gently sloping <span class="hlt">northwestern</span> boundary. The total thickness of volcanic units within the caldera complex does not appear to exceed 5 km. The shallow structure at Pahute Mesa could have a profound effect on the seismic response for regional and teleseismic signals from this nuclear test site. The Silent <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> caldera complex is actually a set of nested calderas first filled by thick (greater than 1 km) postcaldera lavas and subsequently buried by outflow sheets of the Timber Mountain caldera to the south. Thick, postcaldera lavas filled a half-graben structure formed west of the West Greeley fault, dropping the tops of the youngest caldera-forming units to depths in excess of 2 km. Therefore the western boundary of the caldera complex is poorly defined. East of the West Greeley fault, two overlapping calderas are defined, and stratigraphic data suggest the presence of even older calderas. The youngest caldera, the calc-alkaline Area 20 caldera, is well defined from drill hole data. The Area 20 caldera overlaps the 13.6 Ma peralkaline Grouse <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> caldera, which is less well defined, but apparently collapsed in trap-door style along the Almendro fault. For both these calderas, collapse continued after the main caldera-forming eruption, concurrent with the accumulation of thick (greater than 1 km) lavas within the peripheral collapse zones. The geophysical interpretation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/0030/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/0030/"><span>Physiographic rim of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, Arizona: a digital database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Billingsley, George H.; Hampton, Haydee M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This Open-File report is a digital physiographic map database. This pamphlet serves to introduce and describe the digital data. There is no paper map included in the Open-File report. The report does include, however, PostScript and PDF format plot files, each containing an image of the map. For those interested in a paper plot of information contained in the database or in obtaining the PostScript plot files, please see the section entitled "For Those Who Don't Use Digital Geologic Map Databases" below. This physiographic map of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is modified from previous versions by Billingsley and Hendricks (1989), and Billingsley and others (1997). The boundary is drawn approximately along the topographic rim of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and its tributary <span class="hlt">canyons</span> between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead (shown in red). Several isolated small mesas, buttes, and plateaus are within this area, which overall encompasses about 2,600 square miles. The Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> lies within the southwestern part of the Colorado Plateaus of northern Arizona between Lees Ferry, Colorado River Mile 0, and Lake Mead, Colorado River Mile 277. The Colorado River is the corridor for raft trips through the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Limestone rocks of the Kaibab Formation form most of the north and south rims of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>, and a few volcanic rocks form the north rim of parts of the Uinkaret and Shivwits Plateaus. Limestones of the Redwall Limestone and lower Supai Group form the rim of the Hualapai Plateau area, and Limestones of Devonian and Cambrian age form the boundary rim near the mouth of Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> at the Lake Mead. The natural physiographic boundary of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> is roughly the area a visitor would first view any part of the Grand <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> and its tributaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986AtmEn..20..455D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986AtmEn..20..455D"><span>Measurements of wind velocities in a street <span class="hlt">canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DePaul, F. T.; Sheih, C. M.</p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of wind velocities in an urban street <span class="hlt">canyon</span> with a height-to-width ratio of about 1.4 were made when ambient winds aloft were approximately perpendicular to the street. The mean wind velocities were determined by analysis of trajectories of tracer balloons that were released in the <span class="hlt">canyon</span> and photographed in rapid sequence. The trajectories indicate the presence of a primary vortex cell within the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, provided the ambient wind velocity exceeds 1.5-2.0 m s -1. Measurements with hot-wire anemometers suggest that vehicular traffic at the street level is significant in increasing turbulence up to heights of approximately 7 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910936','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910936"><span>Report Summary, Final Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Environmental Investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>United States. Bonneville Power Administration.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 provided for the establishment of a Regional Power Planning Council (Regional Council) and mandated the development of a Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (F&W Program). The F&W Program was adopted by the Regional Council in November 1982. and is intended to mitigate fish and wildlife losses resulting from the development of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. One element of the FLW Program is the Water Budget. It calls for additional flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve the survival of juvenile salmon and steelhead migrating downstream. The Snake River's contribution to the Water Budget is 20,000 cubic feet per second-months (A volume of water equal to a flow of 20.000 cubic feet per second, 24 hours per day, for a period of a month) over and above water that would normally flow for power production. The water for the Water Budget would come out of Idaho Power Company's (IPCo) Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Complex and the Corps of Engineers' (Corps) Dvorshak Reservoir. IPCo's Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Complex consists of three dams, Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. Brownlee, at the upstream end, contains a large reservoir and controls flow to the lower dams. IPCo's participation in the Water Budget could affect the level of the Brownlee Reservoir and flows downstream of the Hells <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Complex on the Snake River. In light of this, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and IPCo contracted with the consulting firm of CH2!4 Hill to study the potential changes that could occur to the environment. The Environmental Investigation (EI) takes into account concerns that were expressed by the public at a series of public meetings held in the Snake River area during June 1983 and again during September 1984. Existing information and consultations with agencies which have management responsibilities in the project area formed the basis for the data used in the EI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910031946&hterms=rifle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drifle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910031946&hterms=rifle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drifle"><span>Compositional range in the <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Diablo meteoroid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The compositional range within the <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from Las Vegas (Nevada) and Moab (Utah) that Buchwald (1975) suggested to be transported CD fragments. Results show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are, most likely, mislabeled CD specimens. On the other hand, meteorites named Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are identified as compositionally distinct independent falls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6834990','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6834990"><span>Lynch <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> combination thermal drive project. [Termination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stair, J. R.</p> <p>1980-11-01</p> <p>The following report provides a summary of the Lynch <span class="hlt">Canyon</span> Thermal Drive Project. This demonstration project was begun in 1978 and terminated in 1980. The project originally was divided into four phases; Geologic Evaluation, Injectivity Test, Field Development Combined with Air-Water Injection, and a Project Review. Following the First Phase operations, which included drilling of four wells for geologic evaluation, a joint decision to cancel the project was made. The conditions which were thought to exist at the initiation of the project, would have provided an excellent opportunity to conduct a Pilot Combination Thermal Drive. However, potential problems which were discovered in the Phase One Operations significantly altered the economics of the project and removed the favorable conditions under which the project was begun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8065P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8065P"><span>Liquid-filled <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> on Titan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poggiali, Valerio; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Hayes, Alexander; Seu, Roberto; Birch, Samuel; Lorenz, Ralph; Grima, Cyril; Kargel, Jeffrey; Hofgartner, Jason</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>During a close flyby, Cassini's RADAR altimeter observed a system of channels pertaining to the Vid Flumina system that drain into Titan's Ligeia Mare. While SAR images have been used to identify fluvial valleys in networks that extend for hundreds of kilometers, they can't directly prove the presence and/or physical extent of liquid channels filling them. Analysis of altimeter echoes shows that the channels are located in deep (~500 m) <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and have strongly specular surface reflections that indicate they are currently liquid-filled. Liquid elevations in Vid Flumina and its lower tributaries are at the same level of Ligeia Mare to within the altimeter's vertical accuracy of ~15m, which is a function of both the RADAR instrument as well as the precision of Cassini's reconstructed ephemeris. Specular reflections are also observed in higher order tributaries that occur hundred meters above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.7887P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.7887P"><span>Liquid-filled <span class="hlt">canyons</span> on Titan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poggiali, V.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Hayes, A. G.; Seu, R.; Birch, S. P. D.; Lorenz, R.; Grima, C.; Hofgartner, J. D.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In May 2013 the Cassini RADAR altimeter observed channels in Vid Flumina, a drainage network connected to Titan's second largest hydrocarbon sea, Ligeia Mare. Analysis of these altimeter echoes shows that the channels are located in deep (up to 570 m), steep-sided, <span class="hlt">canyons</span> and have strong specular surface reflections that indicate they are currently liquid filled. Elevations of the liquid in these channels are at the same level as Ligeia Mare to within a vertical precision of about 0.7 m, consistent with the interpretation of drowned river valleys. Specular reflections are also observed in lower order tributaries elevated above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/48537','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/48537"><span>The <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> pine engraver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jana C. Lee; Sheri L. Smith; Steven J. Seybold</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In May 2004, a new exotic bark beetle for North America was discovered in baited flight traps in Fresno, California during an annual bark beetle and woodborer survey by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. This bark beetle was identified as Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), the <span class="hlt">Mediterranean</span> pine engraver, a well-documented pest of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016038','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016038"><span>The structure of subtidal currents within and around Lydonia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>: evidence for enhanced cross-shelf fluctuations over the mouth of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Noble, M.; Butman, B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The Coriolis force on the cross-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> flow, turbulent Reynolds stresses, and acceleration of the along-<span class="hlt">canyon</span> flow balanced the imposed pressure gradient for flow near the rim of Lydonia <span class="hlt">Canyon</span>. The Coriolis force was not important in the deeper portions of the <span class="hlt">canyon</span>, where baroclinic adjustments of the density field began to be an important factor in the momentum balance. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP51A0961L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP51A0961L"><span>Flow Focusing as a Control on the Width of <span class="hlt">Canyons</span> Formed by Outburst Floods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lapotre, M. G.; Lamb, M. P.; Halliday, C. K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Spectacular <span class="hlt">canyons</span> exist on the surfaces of Earth and Mars that were carved by ancient outburst megafloods. These <span class="hlt">canyons</span> often have steep headwalls and were eroded into jointed rock. This suggests that <span class="hlt">canyon</span> formation is driven by upstream retreat of waterfalls through toppling failure. Discharge reconstructions remain difficult, however, because we do not understand quantitatively the links between <span class="hlt">canyon</span>