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Sample records for cap omega spectrometer

  1. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, F.; Kemp, G. E.; Barrios, M. A.; Pino, J.; Scott, H.; Ayers, S.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Colvin, J. D.; Fournier, K. B.; Regan, S. P.; Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Agliata, A.; Yaakobi, B.; Marshall, F. J.; Hamilton, R. A.; Jaquez, J.; Farrell, M.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-11-15

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the OMEGA laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2–18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations.

  2. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega.

    PubMed

    Pérez, F; Kemp, G E; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Pino, J; Scott, H; Ayers, S; Chen, H; Emig, J; Colvin, J D; Bedzyk, M; Shoup, M J; Agliata, A; Yaakobi, B; Marshall, F J; Hamilton, R A; Jaquez, J; Farrell, M; Nikroo, A; Fournier, K B

    2014-11-01

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the Omega laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2-18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations. PMID:25430189

  3. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega.

    PubMed

    Pérez, F; Kemp, G E; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Pino, J; Scott, H; Ayers, S; Chen, H; Emig, J; Colvin, J D; Bedzyk, M; Shoup, M J; Agliata, A; Yaakobi, B; Marshall, F J; Hamilton, R A; Jaquez, J; Farrell, M; Nikroo, A; Fournier, K B

    2014-11-01

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the Omega laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2-18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations.

  4. Two crystal x-ray spectrometers for OMEGA experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, C.; Casner, A.; Girard, F.; Lecherbourg, L.; Loupias, B.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.

    2016-11-01

    Two x-ray spectrometers have been built for x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas on OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) by Commissariat a ̀ l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA). The accessible photon energy range is from 1.5 to 20 keV. The first spectrometer, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer with a Charge-Injection Device (XCCS-CID), records three spectra with three crystals coupled to a time integrated CID camera. The second one, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer (XCCS) with a framing camera, is time resolved and records four spectra with two crystals on the four frames of a framing camera. Cylindrical crystals are used in Johan geometry. Each spectrometer is positioned with a ten-inch manipulator inside the OMEGA target chamber. In each experiment, after choosing a spectral window, a specific configuration is designed and concave crystals are precisely positioned on a board with angled wedges and spacers. Slits on snouts enable 1D spatial resolution to distinguish spectra emitted from different parts of the target.

  5. Summer evolution of the north polar cap of Mars as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Y; Poulet, F; Bibring, J-P; Schmitt, B; Douté, S; Gondet, B

    2005-03-11

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) visible-infrared imaging spectrometer extensively observed regions of Mars with latitudes above 70 degrees N in late 2004 (heliocentric longitude from Ls 93 degrees to Ls 127 degrees ). The extent of water ice at the surface and the size of ice grains were monitored as a function of time. Bright, small-grained frost, which initially covered a large fraction of the polar cap, waned in favor of large-grained ice. In outlying regions, dominated by large-grained ice, the albedo increased over the period. Evaluating the dust content was model dependent. However, contamination of ice by dust was low.

  6. Physical Characterization of the South Seasonal Cap of Mars From OMEGA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douté, S.; Schmidt, F.; Schmitt, B.; Langevin, Y.; Vincendon, M.; Bibring, J.; Poulet, F.; Gondet, B.

    2007-12-01

    The time and space evolution of the South Seasonal Polar Cap (SSPC) is a major annual climatic signal. The composition, physical state and texture of the SSPC give clues about the exchange of CO2, H2O and dust with the atmosphere. The imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board Mars Express has acquired the most comprehensive set of observations to date in the near-infrared (0.93-5.1 microns) on the SSPC from winter solstice to the end of the recession at Ls=325° of the martian year 27 [1]. The time resolution is 3 days to one month and the spatial resolution ranges from 700m to 10 km/pixel. The spectral range covered by OMEGA is particularly relevant for our studies since it samples numerous absorption bands distinctive of CO2 and H2O in their solid state. Here we analyze with statistical techniques and a physical model a collection of OMEGA spectral images covering the SSPC at Ls ~223°, i.e. close to the maximum development of the cryptic region. Our goals are to (i) segment the SSPC into different CO2 ice terrains based on material composition and organization (ii) map the spatial variations of some of their physical properties: dust abundance, granularity, icy layer thickness, etc. In an earlier work [2] we introduced the "snowdrop time", i.e.: at a given location, the time necessary to decrease the areal coverage of CO2 from 98% to 2% during recession. We showed that it is mainly controlled by the dispersion of its local albedo distribution ~one martian month earlier. The physical characterization of the CO2 deposits allows to identify and understand the processes governing this albedo distribution variability: sub-pixel mixing, ice thickness, grain size, dust content, etc. [1] Langevin et al., JGR Vol. 112, 2007 [2] Schmidt et al., LPSC XXXVIII (2007), #1743.

  7. Mars Water Ice and Carbon Dioxide Seasonal Polar Caps: GCM Modeling and Comparison with Mars Express Omega Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, F.; Levrard, B.; Montmessin, F.; Schmitt, B.; Doute, S.; Langevin, Y.; Bibring, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the behavior of the Mars CO2 ice seasonal polar caps, and in particular interpret the the Mars Express Omega observations of the recession of the northern seasonal cap, we present some simulations of the Martian Climate/CO2 cycle/ water cycle as modeled by the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) global climate model.

  8. A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer for the OMEGA EP Laser (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Ehrne, F.; Mileham, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Jungquist, R. K.; Taylor, C.; Stillman, C. R.; Ivancic, S. T.; Boni, R.; Hassett, J.; Lonobile, D. J.; Kidder, R. W.; Shoup, M. J.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Froula, D. H.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer has been developed for the OMEGA EP Laser System based on a spherically bent Si [220] crystal with a radius of curvature of 330 mm and a Spectral Instruments (SI) 800 Series charge-coupled device. The instrument measures time-integrated x-ray emission spectra in the 7.97- to 8.11-keV range, centered on the Cu Kα1 line. To demonstrate the performance of the spectrometer under high-power conditions, Kα1,2 emission spectra were measured from Cu foils irradiated by the OMEGA EP laser with 100-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities above 1018 W/cm2. The ultimate goal is to couple the spectrometer to a picosecond x-ray streak camera and measure temperature-equilibration dynamics inside rapidly heated materials. The plan for these ultrafast streaked x-ray spectroscopy studies is discussed.

  9. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  10. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  11. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  12. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2013-04-15

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  13. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; et al

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describesmore » ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.« less

  14. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  15. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-04

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.

  16. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; McCluskey, M; Mastrosimone, D; Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.

  17. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; et al

    2014-06-04

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energymore » uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.« less

  18. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B. Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-15

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ∼±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ∼±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15−20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ∼±25−40 km/s.

  19. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  20. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, M; Regan, S P; Bahr, R E; Romanofsky, M; Sorce, C

    2012-10-01

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO∕QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals. PMID:23126929

  1. Big Bang nucleosynthesis: Accelerator tests and can. cap omega. /sub B/ really be large

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1987-10-01

    The first collider tests of cosmological theory are now underway. The number of neutrino families in nature, N/sub nu/, plays a key role in elementary particle physics as well as in the synthesis of the light elements during the early evolution of the Universe. Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis argues for N/sub nu/ = 3 +- 1. Current limits on N/sub nu/ from the CERN anti pp collider and e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders are presented and compared to the cosmological bound. Supernova SN 1987A is also shown to give a limit on N/sub nu/ comparable to current accelerator bounds. All numbers are found to be small thus verifying the Big Bang model at an earlier epoch than is possible by traditional astronomical observations. Future measurements at SLC and LEP will further tighten this argument. Another key prediction of the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is that the baryon density must be small (..cap omega../sub B/ less than or equal to 0.1). Recent attempts to try to subvert this argument using homogeneities of various types are shown to run afoul of the /sup 7/Li abundance which has now become a rather firm constraint. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Shielding design for the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) at OMEGA and the NIF using TART2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Haan, S.; Wilson, D. C.; Leeper, R.

    2005-10-01

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) is currently being developed, at both OMEGA and the NIF, for measurements of down-scattered neutrons from which ρR of cryogenic DT implosions can be inferred. As is the case for complementary methods to measure ρR,ootnotetextC. K. Li et al, Phys. Plasmas 8, 4902 (2001) minimizing the effect of the background is critical for successful implementation. The established minimum S/B of 20, folded with CR-39 neutron response, determines the tolerable neutron fluence. The transport code TART2002 was used to calculate the neutron fluence at the MRS detector and provided input for design of the shielding for the MRS. This poster will present the current status of this project. This work was supported in part by LLE, LLNL, the U.S. DoE, the Univ. of Rochester, and the N.Y. State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  3. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.

    2010-10-01

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum.

  4. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facility.

    PubMed

    Seely, J F; Szabo, C I; Feldman, U; Hudson, L T; Henins, A; Audebert, P; Brambrink, E

    2010-10-01

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. PMID:21034000

  5. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  6. Mapping of the water ice content within the Martian surficial soil on the periphery of the retreating seasonal northern polar cap based on the TES and the OMEGA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Zabalueva, E. V.; Evdokimova, N. A.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Analysis of seasonal data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) shows a significant increase in thermal inertia during autumn, winter and spring in the middle and high latitudes of Mars. At each stage of the northern seasonal polar cap's recession in spring a distinct high thermal inertia (HTI) annulus arises around the cap's edge. Within this annulus, we estimated and mapped the springtime water ice content in the daily thermal skin depth layer using spring and summer values of the thermal inertia in TES surface footprints. The results show that the average water content in the surface soil within the HTI annulus varies from ˜5 vol % at the early stages of the seasonal polar cap retreating (Ls = 340°-360°) to ˜1 vol % at later stages (Ls = 60°-70°). Maximum values of water ice content within the HTI annulus occur at Ls = 0°-20° (2-6 vol %) and Ls = 20°-40° (4-10 vol %). We analyzed the temporal and spatial relationship between the HTI annuli and the water ice (WI) annuli at the edge of the northern seasonal polar cap. The water ice within the WI annuli was mapped using a water ice spectral index (the absorption band depth at the 1.5 μm wavelength) derived from the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) imaging spectrometer aboard the Mars Express spacecraft. Recent OMEGA observations show that the WI annuli formation arises only around the retreating northern seasonal polar cap, never around the retreating southern seasonal cap. For this reason our study is confined only to the northern hemisphere. The observed relationship between the HTI and WI annuli in the northern hemisphere of Mars indicates a close physical interdependence between these two phenomena. Our results confirm that the seasonal permafrost exposed by the retreating northern polar cap (within the HTI annuli) is actively involved today in the condensation and sublimation processes in the modern water cycle on Mars. The water

  7. Infrared (IR) detectors for the OMEGA spectrometer on-board the Mars `94 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Michel; Lorans, Dominique; Flaux, Bruno; Picault, Robert; Hello, Yann; Puget, Pascal

    1994-09-01

    The MARS 94 spacecraft is devoted to a mission to the planet Mars. Planned to be launched in October 1994, it shall reach the planet in September 1995. The lifetime is one Mars year. A second spacecraft will follow two years later. This paper presents the characteristics of the IR detection modules for the IR OMEGA spectrometer which consists of InSb multiplexed detectors. The purpose of this Meudon Observatory instrument is to observe mineralogy, water, ice and atmosphere in the IR spectrum. SAT has developed the Identification Model, Development Model and Fight Models of detectors, each fitted with 2 arrays and IR filters in a dedicated space housing equipped with a cold flex line and a connector. An array is composed of 128 multiplexed InSb photovoltaic detectors surrounded by a specific IR filter. Each filter is divided into 2 zones. For the IR Short Wavelength filter, one zone operates from 1 to 1.8 micrometers and a second one from 1.8 to 2.7 micrometers ; for the IR Long Wavelength filter, the 2 zones are 2.7 to 4.7 and 4.7 to 5.3 micrometers . The housing is designed in collaboration with the Observation de Paris-Meudon. The InSb photodiodes of sensitive areas 90 X 120 micrometers , and pitch of 120 micrometers , operate at 77 K, with the following characteristics: by means of a scanning operation, the sensitive areas are measured at half maximum of height and the diameters are: 120 +/- 1 et 92 +/- 0,7 mum. The signal is illustrated by the I(V) curve: the main parameters are: I(subscript sc) equals 10 - 100 pA and R(subscript 0) equals 10 - 25 G(Omega) . The quantum efficiency is (eta) equals 60% - 65% and the peak responsivity 2,5 - 2.6 A/W. The detectivity of non multiplexed pixels is: D* at (lambda) pic (FOV, 1800 Hz, 1 Hz) equals 2 X 10(superscript 11) cm Hz(superscript 1/2) W(superscript -1). Measurements are made under low flux corresponding to the conditions of the OMEGA experience, the planet Mars being a cold body of about 270 K. The 1/f noise is

  8. High LMD GCM Resolution Modeling of the Seasonal Evolution of the Martian Northern Permanent Cap: Comparison with Mars Express OMEGA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levrard, B.; Forget, F.; Montmessin, F.; Schmitt, B.; Doute, S.; Langevin, Y.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J. P.; Gondet, B.

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of imaging data from Mariner, Viking and MGS have shown that surface properties (albedo, temperature) of the northern cap present significant differences within the summer season and between Mars years. These observations include differential brightening and/or darkening between polar areas from the end of the spring to midsummer. These differences are attributed to changes in grain size or dust content of surface ice. To better understand the summer behavior of the permanent northern polar cap, we perfomed a high resolution modeling (approximately 1 deg x 1 deg.) of northern cap in the Martian Climate/water cycle as simulated by the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) global climate model. We compare the predicted properties of the surface ice (ice thickness, temperature) with the Mars Express Omega summer observations of the northern cap. albedo and thermal inertia svariations model. In particular, albedo variations could be constrained by OMEGA data. Meteorological predictions of the LMD GCM wil be presented at the conference to interpret the unprecedently resolved OMEGA observations. The specific evolution of regions of interest (cap center, Chasma Boreal...) and the possibility of late summer global cap brightening will be discussed.

  9. Mariner 7 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment - Photometric function and roughness of Mars' polar cap surface.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, K.; Hord, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    Review of some of the results of the Mariner 7 ultraviolet spectrometer observations of the south polar cap of Mars. The near ultraviolet polar spectrum shows the predominance of surface reflection over atmospheric scattering. The intensity of the reflected radiation decreased steeply for a change in solar elevation of only about 10 deg. Neither a haze layer nor ground inhomogeneity is considered a likely explanation for this observation. An unusual photometric function of the surface is more probable. An analysis of reflected radiation intensity as a function of incidence and emission angles was made, assuming a photometric function for the surface. The angular inversion revealed a 'smoothness factor' suggestive of an icy or glazed surface. A hypothesis is advanced to explain the observed phenomena and associated polar features.

  10. Design of a compact, low-energy-charged-particle-spectrometer for stellar nucleosynthesis experiments at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-10-01

    A compact ``Orange'' Spectrometer is being designed for measurements of alpha and proton spectra in the range of ~ 1-5 MeV, produced in low-yield 3He3He experiments at the OMEGA laser and at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Particle ray-tracing through magnetic fields, modeled by COMSOL, were conducted with the code Python. The goal is to identify an optimal setup for a spectrometer to measure alpha particles at relatively low energies and at low yield. Ability to study the alpha particles in addition to the protons is essential for understanding the nuclear physics governing the final-state interactions between pairs of particles in the three-body final state. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE and NLUF.

  11. Design of an electronic charged particle spectrometer to measure (rho R), yield, and implosion symmetry on the OMEGA Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, D. G.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Wenzel, K. W.; Knauer, J. P.

    1994-11-01

    The preliminary design for a state-of-the-art diagnostic that will measure a broad energy spectrum of charged particles generated in the OMEGA Upgrade facility is investigated. Using a set of photodiodes approximately 10 and a 0.8 Tesla permanent magnet, the diagnostic will uniquely determine particle energies and identities from 0.2 MeV up to the maximum charged particle energies (10.6 MeV tritons, 12.5 MeV deuterons and 17.4 MeV protons). With its high density picture elements, each photodiode has 10(exp 6) single-hit detectors, giving the spectrometer a dynamic range of 1 - 10(exp 5) particles/shot. For example, in the case of a DT yield of 10(exp 9) neutrons, about 100 knock-on charged particles will be detected when the spectrometer aperture is 60 cm from the implosion. Furthermore, the measurement of knock-on D and T spectra will allow rho R's up to 0.15 g/sq cm to be measured (for a 1 keV plasma), or 0.3 g/sq cm if hydrogen doping is used. In addition, the yield and slowing down of secondary protons may be used to determine rho R up to 0.3 g/sq cm. Significantly, this diagnostic will also directly measure the DD fusion yield and energy degradation of nascent 3 MeV protons. By using two such compact spectrometers to measure the yield and spectra on widely separated ports around the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber, the implosion and bum symmetry can be determined. Furthermore, the ion temperature, and, in principle, even the electron temperature can be measured. The diagnostic and its development will be fully tested at several critical steps, utilizing 0.2-16 MeV protons (and several other charged particles and neutrons) from our absolutely calibrated Cockcroft-Walton facility.

  12. Design of a compact, low energy charged particle spectrometer for stellar nucleosynthesis experiments at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-11-01

    Simulations have been used to model an ``Orange Spectrometer'' for measuring alpha and proton energy spectra in the range ~1-5 MeV for experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). An important application will be the study of stellar nucleosynthesis reactions, in particular 3He +3He --> α + p +p, which is a step in the solar proton-proton chain. Experiments to study this reaction have been undertaken at OMEGA before, but no diagnostics have been able to measure the low-energy, low-yield alpha particles generated in the reaction. Feasibility studies were performed with particle trajectory calculations utilizing magnetic field models from COMSOL, and several designs have been identified for testing and development. Ability to study the alpha particles in addition to the protons is essential for understanding the nuclear physics governing the final-state interactions between pairs of particles in the three-body final state. This work was supported in part by NLUF, DOE, and LLE.

  13. Design of an electronic charged particle spectrometer to measure ({rho}R), yield, and implosion symmetry on the OMEGA Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D.G.; Li, C.K.; Petrasso, R.D.; Wenzel, K.W.; Knauer, J.P.

    1994-11-01

    The preliminary design for a state-of-the-art diagnostic that will measure a broad energy spectrum of charged particles generated in the OMEGA Upgrade facility is investigated. Using a set of photodiodes ({approximately}10) and a 0.8 Tesla permanent magnet, the diagnostic will uniquely determine particle energies and identities from 0.2 MeV up to the maximum charged particle energies (10.6 MeV tritons, 12.5 MeV deuterons and 17.4 MeV protons). With its high density picture elements, each photodiode has 10{sup 6} single-hit detectors, giving the spectrometer a dynamic range of 1 {minus} 10{sup 5} particles/shot. For example, in the case of a DT yield of 10{sup 9} neutrons, about 100 knock-on charged particles will be detected when the spectrometer aperture is 60 cm from the implosion. Furthermore, the measurement of knock-on D and T spectra will allow {rho}R`s up to 0.15 g/cm{sup 2} to be measured (for a 1 keV plasma), or 0.3 g/cm{sup 2}2 if hydrogen doping is used. In addition, the yield and slowing down of secondary protons may be used to determine {rho}R up to 0.3 g/cm{sup 2}. Significantly, this diagnostic will also directly measure the DD fusion yield and energy degradation of nascent 3 MeV protons. By using two such compact spectrometers to measure the yield and spectra on widely separated ports around the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber, the implosion and bum symmetry can be determined. Furthermore, the ion temperature, and, in principle, even the electron temperature can be measured. The diagnostic and its development will be fully tested at several critical steps, utilizing 0.2-16 MeV protons (and several other charged particles and neutrons) from our absolutely calibrated Cockcroft-Walton facility.

  14. Observations of atmospheric water vapor above the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars with the OMEGA/MEx imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltagliati, Luca; Titov, Dmitry V.; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Forget, Francois; Garcia-Comas, Maya; Keller, Horst U.; Langevin, Yves; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2008-03-01

    The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard the Mars Express spacecraft is particularly well suited to study in detail specific regions of Mars, thanks to its high spatial resolution and its high signal-to-noise ratio. We investigate the behavior of atmospheric water vapor over the four big volcanoes located on the Tharsis plateau (Olympus, Ascraeus, Pavonis and Arsia Mons) using the 2.6 μm band, which is the strongest and most sensitive H 2O band in the OMEGA spectral range. Our data sample covers the end of MY26 and the whole MY27, with gaps only in the late northern spring and in northern autumn. The most striking result of our retrievals is the increase of water vapor mixing ratio from the valley to the summit of volcanoes. Corresponding column density is often almost constant, despite a factor of ˜5 decrease in air mass from the bottom to the top. This peculiar water enrichment on the volcanoes is present in 75% of the orbits in our sample. The seasonal distribution of such enrichment hints at a seasonal dependence, with a minimum during the northern summer and a maximum around the northern spring equinox. The enrichment possibly also has a diurnal trend, being the orbits with a high degree of enrichment concentrated in the early morning. However, the season and the solar time of the observations, due to the motion of the spacecraft, are correlated, then the two dependences cannot be clearly disentangled. Several orbits exhibit also spatially localized enrichment structures, usually ring- or crescent-shaped. We retrieve also the height of the saturation level over the volcanoes. The results show a strong minimum around the aphelion season, due to the low temperatures, while it raises quickly before and after this period. The enrichment is possibly generated by the local circulation characteristic of the volcano region, which can transport upslope significant quantities of water vapor. The low altitude of the saturation level during the early summer can then

  15. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H; Manuel, M J-E; Gatu Johnson, M; Schaeffer, J C; Frankel, R; Sinenian, N; Childs, R A; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Burke, M; Roberts, S

    2011-07-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  16. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral

  17. Resonances in the {omega}{omega} system

    SciTech Connect

    Amelin, D. V.; Bugg, D. V.; Gavrilov, Yu. G.; Gouz, Yu. P.; Dzhelyadin, R. I.; Dorofeev, V. A.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zenin, A. V.; Ivashin, A. V.; Kabachenko, V. V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kachaev, I. A.; Konoplyannikov, A. N.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Matveev, V. D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Ostankov, A. P.; Polyakov, B. F.; Ryabchikov, D. I.

    2006-04-15

    Results of a partial-wave analysis for the reaction {pi}{sup -} {sup {yields}} {omega}{omega}n studied at the VES spectrometer (Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino) are presented. The behavior of the J{sup PC} = 2{sup ++} amplitudes in the {omega}{omega} system is described by the f{sub 2}(1565) and f{sub 2}(1910) resonances, whose parameters were fixed at M = 1.590 {+-} 0.010 GeV and {gamma} = 0.140 {+-} 0.011 GeV for the former and at M = 1.890 {+-} 0.010 GeV and {gamma} = 0.165 {+-} 0.019 GeV for the latter. The decay f{sub 4}(2050) {sup {yields}} {omega}{omega} was observed at parameters values of M = 1.960 {+-} 0.015 GeV, {gamma} = 0.290 {+-} 0.020 GeV.

  18. A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) for ρR_fuel and Ti measurements of warm, fizzle and ignited implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Deciantis, J. L.; Kurebayashi, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Soures, J. M.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hann, S. W.; Schmid, G. J.; Landen, O. L.; Izumi, N.

    2003-10-01

    A method for determining ρR_fuel of cryogenic deuterium-tritium plasmas involves measurement of the energy spectrum of elastically-scattered, primary neutrons. A spectrometer has been designed for doing this at OMEGA and the NIF, using scattered neutrons in the energy range 7-10 MeV to determine ρR_fuel and primary neutrons to measure T_i. The instrument utilizes a magnet and a conversion foil for production of charged particles. A large dynamic range (>10^6) will allow operation at yields as low as 10^12. This will allow ρR_fuel and Ti measurements of warm and cryogenic DT targets at OMEGA, and fizzle and ignited cryogenic DT targets at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the US DoE (contract W-7405-ENG-48 with LLNL, grant DE-FG03-99DP00300 and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), and LLNL (subcontract B313975).

  19. A technique for extending by ∼10{sup 3} the dynamic range of compact proton spectrometers for diagnosing ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility and OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Sio, H. Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-11-15

    Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers are routinely used on OMEGA and the NIF for diagnosing ρR and ρR asymmetries in direct- and indirect-drive implosions of D{sup 3}He-, D{sub 2}-, and DT-gas-filled capsules. By measuring the optical opacity distribution in CR-39 due to proton tracks in high-yield applications, as opposed to counting individual tracks, WRF dynamic range can be extended by 10{sup 2} for obtaining the spectral shape, and by 10{sup 3} for mean energy (ρR) measurement, corresponding to proton fluences of 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}, respectively. Using this new technique, ρR asymmetries can be measured during both shock and compression burn (proton yield ∼10{sup 8} and ∼10{sup 12}, respectively) in 2-shock National Ignition Facility implosions with the standard WRF accuracy of ±∼10 mg/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Omega Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Unwuchola, A. D.; Connell, Simon H.; Aurousseau, M.; Dalton, Mark M.

    2013-08-01

    The differential cross section for p(e, e'ω)p has been studied at Q{sup 2} ~ 5.5 (GeV/c)2. Here Q{sup 2} represents the four momentum squared of the virtual photon in the excitation of baryonic resonances by an electron projectile. In order to extract the ω-meson differential cross section from the JLAB data, the data was compared to a full Monte Carlo simulation of the detector based on events generated for omega production in a way that the production cross section was varied to achieve a match to the data. The bin selected for this procedure takes into account the measure of robustness of the stripping of the ω peak from the multi-pion background as well as the statistics in the measured data and the Monte Carlo simulation of the signal and background physics. An error estimation technique for the cross section was based on determining the dependence of the extracted cross section parameters on the experimental set-up (including parameters for the spectrometer, target beam geometeries and performance). We compare our results with a Regge-based model for hadronic content in the t-channel exchange of a photon in Q{sup 2} region of overlap. There is an extension of this data into a completely new region, which is the highest yet measured.

  1. A detailed investigation of the effects of molecules and defocusing in the high resolution mass spectrogram of Cassini Plasma Suites Ion Mass Spectrometer (CAPS IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappirio, M.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D. J.; Brown, S.; Simpson, D. G.; Young, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    CAPS IMS was designed to generate both a low and high resolution time of flight (TOF) mass spectra, with the low resolution spectra having a better count rate then the high resolution. The high resolution spectra is made possible by using a liner electric field (LEF) within the spectrometer to reflect those ions that retain a positive charge after passing through the carbon foils which generate the start signal. Because the LEF causes the ions to react like a mass on a spring the TOF of one cycle can be largely independent of energy. However in order to distinguish between atoms which come from molecules from those which are atomic in nature, the LEF was purposely defocused by making the electric field slightly stronger by the entrance to the TOF region then the far end. This causes low energy particles of any given species to have a shorter TOF than higher energy particles. By re-examining the original flight calibration data and analysis of additional data taken recently with the prototype model we are able to define the response of the IMS LEF to molecular species. This will allows us to develop our understanding of how to use the LEF spectra to determine relative abundances of molecular species such as O, OH, H2O and H3O within the magnetosphere of Saturn.

  2. Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, W.M.; Titus, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Previous observations have noted the change in albedo in a number of North Pole bright outliers and in the distribution of bright ice deposits between Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets. Changes over the summer season as well as between regions at the same season (Ls) in different years have been observed. We used the bolometric albedo and brightness temperature channels of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the MGS spacecraft to monitor north polar residual ice cap variations between Mars years and within the summer season for three northern Martian summers between July 1999 and April 2003. Large-scale brightness variations are observed in four general areas: (1) the patchy outlying frost deposits from 90 to 270??E, 75 to 80??N; (2) the large "tail" below the Chasma Boreale and its associated plateau from 315 to 45??E, 80 to 85??N, that we call the "Boreale Tongue" and in Hyperboreae Undae; (3) the troughed terrain in the region from 0 to 120??E longitude (the lower right on a polar stereographic projection) we have called "Shackleton's Grooves" and (4) the unit mapped as residual ice in Olympia Planitia. We also note two areas which seem to persist as cool and bright throughout the summer and between Mars years. One is at the "source" of Chasma Boreale (???15??E, 85??N) dubbed "McMurdo", and the "Cool and Bright Anomaly (CABA)" noted by Kieffer and Titus 2001. TES Mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap. Icarus 154, 162-180] at ???330??E, 87??N called here "Vostok". Overall defrosting occurs early in the summer as the temperatures rise and then after the peak temperatures are reached (Ls???110) higher elevations and outlier bright deposits cold trap and re-accumulate new frost. Persistent bright areas are associated with either higher elevations or higher background albedos suggesting complex feedback mechanisms including cold-trapping of frost due to albedo and elevation effects, as well as influence of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics

  3. B Meson Decays to mega K*, omega rho, omega omega, omega phi, and omega f0

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /Basilicata U., Potenza

    2006-07-28

    The authors describe searches for B meson decays to the charmless vector-vector final states {omega}K*, {omega}p, {omega}{omega}, and {omega}{phi} with 233 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at {radical}s = 10.58 GeV. They also search for the vector-scalar B decay to {omega}f{sub 0}.

  4. A technique for extending by ~103 the dynamic range of compact proton spectrometers for diagnosing ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility and OMEGAa)

    SciTech Connect

    Sio, H.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-11-01

    Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers are routinely used on OMEGA and the NIF for diagnosing ρR and ρR asymmetries in direct- and indirect-drive implosions of D3He-, D2-, and DT-gas-filled capsules. By measuring the optical opacity distribution in CR-39 due to proton tracks in high-yield applications, as opposed to counting individual tracks, WRF dynamic range can be extended by 102 for obtaining the spectral shape, and by 103 for mean energy (ρR) measurement, corresponding to proton fluences of 108 and 109 cm-2, respectively. Finally, using this new technique, ρR asymmetries can be measured during both shock and compression burn (proton yield ~108 and ~1012, respectively) in 2-shock National Ignition Facility implosions with the standard WRF accuracy of ±~10 mg/cm2.

  5. Inter-annual Variability of Mars Polar Processes as Observed by OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Y.; Bibring, J.-P.; Plaut, J.; Vincendon, M.; Gondet, B.; Poulet, F.; Schmidt, F.

    2010-05-01

    Mars Express has now been operated successfully more than 6 earth years after orbit insertion in late 2003. Thanks to a much longer than expected lifetime of the cryocoolers, which still perform nominally, the coverage of polar regions by OMEGA now spans more than three full Mars years, from Ls 338°, M-year 26 to Ls 85°, M-year 30. Therefore, the South perennial cap (Ls 310° to Ls 0°), the South seasonal cap (Ls 0° to Ls 310°) and the North seasonal cap (Ls 170° to Ls 90°) have been observed over four successive Mars year while the North perennial cap (Ls 90° to Ls 170°) has been observed over three successive martian years. Due to the precession of the pericenter and of the orbit plane of the elliptical orbit of the satellite, the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board this mission obtained data on polar regions at resolutions ranging from 300 m to 10 km over a wide range of Ls and local times [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. This provides an excellent data set for comparing the evolution of seasonal caps and the spectral characteristics of the perennial caps over different Martian years. For both the perennial cap and the seasonal cap, the CO2 ice signatures dominate in the South while H2O ice signatures dominate in the North. The lag by a few weeks of the retreat of the seasonal caps observed by OMEGA between different Martian years is consistent with that of the "Crocus lines" derived from TES temperature data in 1999 - 2001 [6], with a possible link with dust storm activity in 2007. The spectral component which is not dominant (H2O in the South, CO2 in the North) shows overall consistency but significant year to year variability. CRISM/MRO observations at a much higher spatial resolution support these conclusions. In late 2009, OMEGA observations of the South cap at the time of minimum extent (Ls 340°) showed a much larger extent of H2O ice signatures compared to what had been observed in early 2004 [1]. As these regions show only weak albedo contrast, the observed

  6. Interannual observations and quantification of summertime H2O ice deposition on the Martian CO2 ice south polar cap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Adrian J.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-01-01

    The spectral signature of water ice was observed on Martian south polar cap in 2004 by the Observatoire pour l'Mineralogie, l'Eau les Glaces et l'Activite (OMEGA) ( Bibring et al., 2004). Three years later, the OMEGA instrument was used to discover water ice deposited during southern summer on the polar cap ( Langevin et al., 2007). However, temporal and spatial variations of these water ice signatures have remained unexplored, and the origins of these water deposits remains an important scientific question. To investigate this question, we have used observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft of the southern cap during austral summer over four Martian years to search for variations in the amount of water ice. We report below that for each year we have observed the cap, the magnitude of the H2O ice signature on the southern cap has risen steadily throughout summer, particularly on the west end of the cap. The spatial extent of deposition is in disagreement with the current best simulations of deposition of water ice on the south polar cap (Montmessin et al., 2007). This increase in water ice signatures is most likely caused by deposition of atmospheric H2O ice and a set of unusual conditions makes the quantification of this transport flux using CRISM close to ideal. We calculate a ‘minimum apparent‘ amount of deposition corresponding to a thin H2O ice layer of 0.2 mm (with 70% porosity). This amount of H2O ice deposition is 0.6–6% of the total Martian atmospheric water budget. We compare our ‘minimum apparent’ quantification with previous estimates. This deposition process may also have implications for the formation and stability of the southern CO2 ice cap, and therefore play a significant role in the climate budget of modern day Mars.

  7. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

  8. Omega documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  9. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  10. Cradle cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... be prescribed. These may include medicated creams or shampoos. Most cases of cradle cap can be managed ... improve scalp circulation. Give your child daily, gentle shampoos with a mild shampoo as long as there ...

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  13. Retina and Omega-3

    PubMed Central

    Querques, Giuseppe; Forte, Raimondo; Souied, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, several epidemiological studies based on food frequency questionnaires suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could have a protective role in reducing the onset and progression of retinal diseases. The retina has a high concentration of omega-3, particularly DHA, which optimizes fluidity of photoreceptor membranes, retinal integrity, and visual function. Furthermore, many studies demonstrated that DHA has a protective, for example antiapoptotic, role in the retina. From a nutritional point of view, it is known that western populations, particularly aged individuals, have a higher than optimal omega-6/omega-3 ratio and should enrich their diet with more fish consumption or have DHA supplementation. This paper underscores the potential beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids on retinal diseases. PMID:22175009

  14. Gas-cap effects in pressure-transient response of naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bemani, A.S.; Ershaghi, I.

    1997-03-01

    During the primary production life of an oil reservoir, segregation of oil and gas within the fissures before reaching the producing wells could create a secondary gas cap if no original gas cap were present, or will join the expanding original gas-cap gas. This paper presents a theoretical framework of gas-cap effects in naturally fractured reservoirs. General pressure solutions are derived for both pseudosteady-state and unsteady-state matrix-fracture interporosity flow. Deviation from the fracture or fracture-matrix response occurs as the gas-cap effect is felt. Anomalous slope changes during the transition period depend entirely on the contrast between the fracture anisotropy parameter, {lambda}{sub l}, and matrix-fracture interporosity parameter, {lambda}, and between the total gas-cap storage capacitance (1 {minus} {omega}{sub 1}) and oil-zone matrix storage (1 {minus} {omega}). A composite double-porosity response is observed for {omega}{sub 1} {le} {omega}{sub 1c} and 1.0 {le} {lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda} {le} 1,000. A triple-porosity response is observed for {omega}{sub 1} {ge} {omega}{sub k} and 140 < {omega}{lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda} < 1.0E05.

  15. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  16. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  17. [Omega-3 and health].

    PubMed

    Herbaut, C

    2006-09-01

    N-3 PUFA (omega-3), and the n-6 PUFA (omega-6) are essential fatty acids. They must be absorbed by alimentation and play a very important role in the coagulation (inhibition of platelets aggregation) and in the inflammatory reaction (anti-inflammatory effects). Their effects have been studied in different sicknesses. In cardiovascular diseases, particularly in coronary diseases, studies demonstrated a decreased mortality in populations who eat an omega-3 rich diet or who take an omega-3 supplement. Among others, sudden death after myocardial infarction is decreased. In inflammatory diseases an effect seem to be found in some studies. In rheumatoid arthritis a decrease of different biological markers of inflammation and in some case a clinical improvement has been noticed. It may be the same in COPD. On the other hand, they seem not to give any protection against cancer in general. At this moment the recommendations for healthy people are to eat twice a week fat fish and to take omega-3 rich oils. For pathological cases, recommendations exist only for coronary disease: 1 g of fish oils : mixture of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA/DHA) should be given after a myocardial infarction. PMID:17091903

  18. Correlation spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  19. From Alpha To Omega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Doc

    2002-05-01

    Galileo, the Father of Modern Science put forth the first significant Modern Scientific Era/Philosophy. Best represented per: x' = x (+/-) vt. Locating/defining the dynamic x' per a fixed, Cartesian Coordinate, reference frame.----- Einstein, the popularized relativist, utilizing Lorentz's transformation Equations: x' = (x-vt)/squareroot [1 - (v squared/c squared)], c the velocity of light. Arbitrarily decreed that c must be the ultimate universal velocity. Thus, Reporters, the general Public, and Scientists consider/considered, Einstein's OPINION of our Universe, the 'Omega Concept'. ----- Castellano, since 1955, has PROVEN his "Castellano Transformation Equations": X' = (X - vt)/squareroot [ 1 - (v squared/c squared)]. Capital C = or greater than c; IS THE OMEGA CONCEPT. And his "MAPHICS" combining the Philosophy of Mathematics with the Philosophy of Physics is "THE OMEGA PHILOSOPHY". Sufficient PROOFS and details at: http://hometown.aol.com/phdco/myhomepage/index.html Thank you for your interest. My sincere appreciation for your attention and deserved acknowledgments.

  20. From Alpha To Omega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Doc

    2002-08-01

    Galileo, the Father of Modern Science, put forth the first significant Modern Scientific Era/Philosophy. Best represented per: x' = x (+/-) vt. Locating/defining the dynamic x' in an Euclidean, fixed frame Universe. Einstein, the popularized relativist, utilizing Lorentz's transformation equations: x' = (x - vt)/square root [ 1- (v squared/c squared)], c the velocity of light. Arbitrarily decreed that c must be the ultimate, universal velocity. Thus, Reporters, the general Public and Scientists consider/considered, Einstein's OPINION of our Universe, 'The Omega Concept'. Castellano, since 1954, has PROVEN the "C Transformation Equations": X' = (X - vt)/square root [ 1 - (v squared/C squared)], Capital C = or greater than c; IS THE OMEGA CONCEPT. And "MAPHICS", combining the Philosophy of Mathematics with the Philosophy of Physics is "THE OMEGA PHILOSOPHY". Sufficient PROOFS & details are at: http://hometown.aol.com/phdco/myhomepage/index/html ----- Thank you for your interest. My sincere appreciation for deserved acknowledgements.

  1. High accuracy OMEGA timekeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbier, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) operates a worldwide satellite tracking network which uses a combination of OMEGA as a frequency reference, dual timing channels, and portable clock comparisons to maintain accurate epoch time. Propagational charts from the U.S. Coast Guard OMEGA monitor program minimize diurnal and seasonal effects. Daily phase value publications of the U.S. Naval Observatory provide corrections to the field collected timing data to produce an averaged time line comprised of straight line segments called a time history file (station clock minus UTC). Depending upon clock location, reduced time data accuracies of between two and eight microseconds are typical.

  2. Multidimensional spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  3. Omega-AB

    SciTech Connect

    Siirola, John D.; Slepoy, Alexander; Sprigg, Jr., James A.; Jorgensen, Craig R.; Selzler, Gene; Pryor, Richard J.

    2007-05-01

    A hierarchical, modular modeling environment for hybrid simulations of sequential-modular, systems dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based paradigms Omega-AB models contain a hierarchically-defined module tree that specifies the execution logic for the simulation, and a multi-network graph that defines the environment within which the simulation occurs. Modules are the fundamental buildinig blocks of an Omega-AB model and can define anything from a basic mathematical operation to a complex behavioral response model. Modules rely on the "plug-in" concept which allows developers to build independent module libraries that are gathered, linked, and instantiated by the Omega-AB engine at run time. Inter-module communication occurs through two complimentary systems: pull-based "ports" for general computation patterns and push-based "plugs" for event processing. The simulation environment is an abstract graph of nodes and links. Agents (module sub-trees headed up by an Agent module) reside at nodes and relate to their neighbors through typed links. To facilitate the construction and visualization of complex, interacting networks with dramatically different structure, Omega-AB provides a system for organizing the nodes into hierarchica trees that describe "slices" of the overall network.

  4. Simplified OMEGA receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The details are presented of methods for providing OMEGA navigational information including the receiver problem at the antenna and informational display and housekeeping systems based on some 4 bit data processing concepts. Topics discussed include the problem of limiters, zero crossing detectors, signal envelopes, internal timing circuits, phase counters, lane position displays, signal integrators, and software mapping problems.

  5. Omega-AB

    2007-05-01

    A hierarchical, modular modeling environment for hybrid simulations of sequential-modular, systems dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based paradigms Omega-AB models contain a hierarchically-defined module tree that specifies the execution logic for the simulation, and a multi-network graph that defines the environment within which the simulation occurs. Modules are the fundamental buildinig blocks of an Omega-AB model and can define anything from a basic mathematical operation to a complex behavioral response model. Modules rely on the "plug-in" conceptmore » which allows developers to build independent module libraries that are gathered, linked, and instantiated by the Omega-AB engine at run time. Inter-module communication occurs through two complimentary systems: pull-based "ports" for general computation patterns and push-based "plugs" for event processing. The simulation environment is an abstract graph of nodes and links. Agents (module sub-trees headed up by an Agent module) reside at nodes and relate to their neighbors through typed links. To facilitate the construction and visualization of complex, interacting networks with dramatically different structure, Omega-AB provides a system for organizing the nodes into hierarchica trees that describe "slices" of the overall network.« less

  6. SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

    1960-06-21

    A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

  7. Apparent abundance and vertical profiles of ozone from OMEGA measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, F.; Zasova, L.; Grassi, D.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Formisano, V.; Ignatiev, N.; Drossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Fouchet, T.; OMEGA Team

    In this work we study the vertical and seasonal distribution of O2 by means the 1.27 micron day glow emission in the spectra acquired by OMEGA, the imaging spectrometer on board the ESA mission Mars Express. Limb OMEGA observations have been used to retrieve the vertical distribution of O3 up to 20 km, applying an "onion peeling" procedure. The quenching effect due to the collisions with the CO2 have been taken into account using simultaneously vertical CO2 profiles obtained by the PFS LWC data. OMEGA nadir observations have been used to map the latitude, local time and seasonal distribution of the apparent ozone abundance in the Martian atmosphere and results are discussed. We acknowledge the ESA Headquarters and IFSI-INAF for support to Russian CoIs and the Russian Foundation of Basic Research for grant RFFI 04-02-16856a.

  8. Omega-3 and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question In light of the increase in the number of school-aged children diagnosed with dyslexia, what is the role of omega-3 supplements in the management of this condition? Answer Dyslexia is the most common learning disability and is known to have multifactorial causes. Recent evidence suggests that there is a connection between defects in highly unsaturated fatty acid metabolism and neurodevelopmental disorders such as dyslexia. While the benefit of omega-3 supplementation for children with dyslexia has been studied, evidence remains limited. Unified diagnostic criteria for dyslexia, objective measures of fatty acid deficiency, and close monitoring of dietary intake are some of the factors that would improve the quality of research in the field. PMID:26371100

  9. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  10. Damper Spring For Omega Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1993-01-01

    Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

  11. HED physics frontiers on OMEGA/OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2008-04-01

    The 60 beam, 30 kJ, OMEGA laser facility has been operating at the University of Rochester for more than a decade. The OMEGA EP laser facility adjacent to it will be completed in Q3FY08. OMEGA EP will consist of four beamlines with NIF-like architecture. Each of the beams will ultimately produce 10 ns 6.5 kJ energy ultraviolet pulses directed into the EP target chamber. Two of the beamlines will also operate as high energy petawatt (HEPW) lasers, with up to 2.6 kJ each in 10 ps IR pulses. The HEPW beams can be injected into either the EP chamber or the existing OMEGA target chamber for integrated experiments. This talk will describe the OMEGA EP project status, HED physics possibilities using the combined system, and opportunities for external user access. The full OMEGA laser system (original 60 beam OMEGA and OMEGA EP) will allow unprecedented opportunities for HED physics research. These include backlighting of ICF implosions and integrated Fast Ignition Experiments in the OMEGA target chamber. The configuration flexibility of the OMEGA EP target area, will allow a wide variety of HED physics research, with the possibility of mixing and matching short and long pulse laser beams. Research areas will include episodic jets, the use of up to 40 ns long drive pulses for Equation of State measurements, short pulse, high intensity backlighting of otherwise opaque materials, and the possibility of creating an electron-positron plasma The ongoing OMEGA EP Use Planning process will be described.

  12. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  13. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  14. HISS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented.

  15. Albedo control of seasonal South Polar cap recession on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Frédéric; Douté, Sylvain; Schmitt, Bernard; Vincendon, Mathieu; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Omega Team

    2009-04-01

    Over the last few decades, General Circulation Models (GCM) have been used to simulate the current martian climate. The calibration of these GCMs with the current seasonal cycle is a crucial step in understanding the climate history of Mars. One of the main climatic signals currently used to validate GCMs is the annual atmospheric pressure cycle. It is difficult to use changes in seasonal deposits on the surface of Mars to calibrate the GCMs given the spectral ambiguities between CO 2 and H 2O ice in the visible range. With the OMEGA imaging spectrometer covering the near infra-red range, it is now possible to monitor both types of ice at a spatial resolution of about 1 km. At global scale, we determine the change with time of the Seasonal South Polar Cap (SSPC) crocus line, defining the edge of CO 2 deposits. This crocus line is not symmetric around the geographic South Pole. At local scale, we introduce the snowdrop distance, describing the local structure of the SSPC edge. Crocus line and snowdrop distance changes can now be used to calibrate GCMs. The albedo of the seasonal deposits is usually assumed to be a uniform and constant parameter of the GCMs. In this study, albedo is found to be the main parameter controlling the SSPC recession at both global and local scale. Using a defrost mass balance model (referred to as D-frost) that incorporates the effect of shadowing induced by topography, we show that the global SSPC asymmetry in the crocus line is controlled by albedo variations. At local scale, we show that the snowdrop distance is correlated with the albedo variability. Further GCM improvements should take into account these two results. We propose several possibilities for the origin of the asymmetric albedo control. The next step will be to identify and model the physical processes that create the albedo differences.

  16. Polar drive on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.; Marshall, F. J.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Edgell, D.; Epstein, R.; Frenje, J.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marozas, J. A.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.

    2013-11-01

    High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997)] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser-plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  17. Monitoring atmospheric dust spring activity at high southern latitudes on Mars using OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douté, S.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a monitoring of the atmospheric dust in the south polar region during spring of Martian year 27. Our goal is to contribute to identifying the regions where the dust concentration in the atmosphere shows specific temporal patterns, for instance high, variable, and on the rise due to lifting or transport mechanisms. This identification is performed in relation with the seasonal ice regression. Based on a phenomenological examination of the previous results, hypothesis regarding the origin of aerosol activity of the southern polar region is proposed. This is of paramount importance since local dust storms generated in this region sometimes grow to global proportions. The imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board Mars Express has acquired the most comprehensive set of observations to date in the near-infrared (0.93-5.1 μm) of the southern high latitudes of Mars from mid-winter solstice (Ls=110°, December 2004) to the end of the recession at Ls=320° (November 2005). We use two complementary methods in order to retrieve the optical depth of the atmospheric dust at a reference wavelength of 1 μm. The methods are independently operated for pixels showing mineral surfaces on the one hand and the seasonal cap on the other hand. They are applied on a time series of OMEGA images acquired between LS=220° and LS=280° . As a result the aerosol optical depth (AOD) is mapped and binned at a spatial resolution of 1.0° pixel-1 and with a mean period of AOD sampling ranging from less than two sols for latitudes higher than 80°S to approximately six sols at latitudes in the interval 65-75°S. We then generate and interpret time series of orthographic mosaics depicting the spatio-temporal distribution of the seasonal mean values, the variance and the local time dependence of the AOD. In particular we suspect that two mechanisms play a major role for lifting and transporting efficiently mineral particles and create dust events or storms: (i) nighttime katabatic

  18. The Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2012-03-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating ), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old technology. In this paper I would like to discuss its ancestors.

  19. The Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  20. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  1. Photophoretic spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.; Amani, Y.; Orenstein, A.

    1980-09-01

    An instrument is described which measures the spectral dependence of the radiometric (photophoretic) force on a micron-sized particle in a static configuration. This spectrometer consists of a servo-stabilized Millikan chamber which can be used as a photophoretic balance over the spectral range from 200 nm to 1000 nm. Spectra may be taken in a vacuum as small as 10/sup -4/ torr. The action spectrum of the photophoretic force on a crystallite of CdS is used as an example. The pressure dependence of the force at 500 nm is consistant with a radiometric mechanism.

  2. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  3. Low cost omega navigation receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a low cost Omega navigation receiver is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the completion and testing of a modular, multipurpose Omega receiver which utilizes a digital memory-aided, phase-locked loop to provide phase measurement data to a variety of applications interfaces. The functional units contained in the prototype device are described. The receiver is capable of receiving and storing phase measurements for up to eight Omega signals and computes two switch-selectable lines of position, displaying this navigation data in chart-recorded form.

  4. Convex crystal x-ray spectrometer for laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.; Heeter, R.; Emig, J.

    2004-10-01

    Measuring time and space-resolved spectra is important for understanding Hohlraum and Halfraum plasmas. Experiments at the OMEGA laser have used the Nova TSPEC which was not optimized for the OMEGA diagnostic space envelope or for the needed spectroscopic coverage and resolution. An improved multipurpose spectrometer snout, the MSPEC, has been constructed and fielded on OMEGA. The MSPEC provides the maximal internal volume for mounting crystals without any beam interferences at either 2x or 3x magnification. The RAP crystal is in a convex mounting geometry bent to a 20 cm radius of curvature. The spectral resolution, E/dE, is about 200 at 2.5 keV. The spectral coverage is 2 to 4.5 keV. The MSPEC can record four separate spectra on the framing camera at time intervals of up to several ns. The spectrometer design and initial field-test performance will be presented and compared to that of the TSPEC.

  5. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries - omega-3s; Coronary artery disease - omega-3s; Heart disease - omega-3s ... Omega-3s are good for your heart and blood vessels in several ways. They reduce triglycerides , a type of fat in your blood. They reduce the risk of an ...

  6. Characterization of the omega-conotoxin target. Evidence for tissue-specific heterogeneity in calcium channel types

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, L.J.; Johnson, D.S.; Olivera, B.M.

    1987-02-10

    Omega-Conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx-VIA) is a 27 amino acid peptide from the venom of the fish-hunting snail, Conus geographus, that blocks voltage-activated Ca channels. The characterization of a biologically active, homogeneous /sup 125/I-labeled monoiodinated Tyr/sup 22/ derivative of omega-conotoxin GVIA and its use in binding and cross-linking studies are described. The /sup 125/I-labeled toxin is specifically cross-linked to a receptor protein with an apparent M/sub r/ of 135,000. The stoichiometry between omega-conotoxin and nitrendipine binding sites in different chick tissues was determined. Skeletal muscle has a high concentration of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding sites but no detectable omega-conotoxin sites. Brain microsomes have both binding sites, but omega-conotoxin targets are in excess. These results, combined with recent electrophysiological studies define four types of Ca channels in chick tissues, N, T, L/sub n/ (omega sensitive), and L/sub m/ (omega insensitive), and are consistent with the hypothesis that the ..cap alpha..-subunits of certain neuronal Ca/sup 2 +/ channels (L/sub n/, N) are the molecular targets of omega-conotoxin GVIA.

  7. Short Zoom Into Omega Centauri

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a zoom into a simulated model of the globular star cluster Omega Centauri. All the stars appear to be moving in random directions, like a swarm of bees. Astronomers used Hubble's exquisite ...

  8. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  9. Characterization of omega-3 tablets.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Omega-3 nutraceuticals are extensively used as health supplements worldwide. Various administration forms for delivery of omega-3 are available. However, the niche omega-3 tablets have so far remained unexplored. In this work tablets containing 25-40% (w/w) omega-3 oil as triglycerides or ethyl esters were prepared utilizing a direct compaction grade powder with β-cyclodextrin as encapsulating agent. It was found that powders with up to 35% (w/w) triglyceride oil and 30% (w/w) ethyl ester oil, respectively, can be directly compressed into tablets of excellent quality. Physical properties of omega-3 containing powders and tablets are described. The powder X-ray diffractograms of the powders and crushed tablets show evidence of the formation of new crystalline phases not present in β-cyclodextrin. In addition, (1)H NMR data suggest that the ethyl esters form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. Compaction of other, commercially available, omega-3 powders was performed as a comparison and deemed unsuccessful. PMID:26616980

  10. Characterization of omega-3 tablets.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Omega-3 nutraceuticals are extensively used as health supplements worldwide. Various administration forms for delivery of omega-3 are available. However, the niche omega-3 tablets have so far remained unexplored. In this work tablets containing 25-40% (w/w) omega-3 oil as triglycerides or ethyl esters were prepared utilizing a direct compaction grade powder with β-cyclodextrin as encapsulating agent. It was found that powders with up to 35% (w/w) triglyceride oil and 30% (w/w) ethyl ester oil, respectively, can be directly compressed into tablets of excellent quality. Physical properties of omega-3 containing powders and tablets are described. The powder X-ray diffractograms of the powders and crushed tablets show evidence of the formation of new crystalline phases not present in β-cyclodextrin. In addition, (1)H NMR data suggest that the ethyl esters form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. Compaction of other, commercially available, omega-3 powders was performed as a comparison and deemed unsuccessful.

  11. Mars ice caps.

    PubMed

    Leovy, C

    1966-12-01

    Minimum atmospheric temperatures required to prevent CO(2) condensatio in the Mars polar caps are higher than those obtained in a computer experiment to simulate the general circulation of the Mars atmosphere. This observation supports the view that the polar caps are predominantly solid CO(2). However, thin clouds of H(2)0 ice could substantially reduce the surface condensation rate.

  12. Spatial profile reconstruction of individual componentsof the nonlinear susceptibility tensors {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, {omega}', {omega}' -{omega}, {omega}) and {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, 2{omega}{+-}{omega}', {+-}{omega}', {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2011-06-30

    We have proved for the first time and proposed an algorithm of unique spatial profile reconstruction of the components {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}{sub yyyy} of complex tensors {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, {omega}', {omega}', -{omega}, {omega}) and {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, 2{omega}{+-}{omega}', {+-}{omega}', {omega}, {omega}), describing four-photon interaction of light waves in a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous plate, whose medium has a symmetry plane m{sub y} that is perpendicular to its surface. For the media with an additional symmetry axis 2{sub z}, 4{sub z}, 6{sub z} or {infinity}{sub z} that is perpendicular to the plate surface, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct about one-fifth of all independent components of the above tensors. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  13. omega-Helices in proteins.

    PubMed

    Enkhbayar, Purevjav; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Matsushima, Norio

    2010-05-01

    A modification of the alpha-helix, termed the omega-helix, has four residues in one turn of a helix. We searched the omega-helix in proteins by the HELFIT program which determines the helical parameters-pitch, residues per turn, radius, and handedness-and p = rmsd/(N - 1)(1/2) estimating helical regularity, where "rmsd" is the root mean square deviation from the best fit helix and "N" is helix length. A total of 1,496 regular alpha-helices 6-9 residues long with p < or = 0.10 A were identified from 866 protein chains. The statistical analysis provides a strong evidence that the frequency distribution of helices versus n indicates the bimodality of typical alpha-helix and omega-helix. Sixty-two right handed omega-helices identified (7.2% of proteins) show non-planarity of the peptide groups. There is amino acid preference of Asp and Cys. These observations and analyses insist that the omega-helices occur really in proteins.

  14. omega-Helices in proteins.

    PubMed

    Enkhbayar, Purevjav; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Matsushima, Norio

    2010-05-01

    A modification of the alpha-helix, termed the omega-helix, has four residues in one turn of a helix. We searched the omega-helix in proteins by the HELFIT program which determines the helical parameters-pitch, residues per turn, radius, and handedness-and p = rmsd/(N - 1)(1/2) estimating helical regularity, where "rmsd" is the root mean square deviation from the best fit helix and "N" is helix length. A total of 1,496 regular alpha-helices 6-9 residues long with p < or = 0.10 A were identified from 866 protein chains. The statistical analysis provides a strong evidence that the frequency distribution of helices versus n indicates the bimodality of typical alpha-helix and omega-helix. Sixty-two right handed omega-helices identified (7.2% of proteins) show non-planarity of the peptide groups. There is amino acid preference of Asp and Cys. These observations and analyses insist that the omega-helices occur really in proteins. PMID:20496104

  15. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-10-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is "are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?" To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls = 120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for regions closer to the pole, and later for regions close to the periphery of the cap. The observations and calculations presented herein estimate that on average a water ice layer ∼70 microns thick is deposited during the Ls = 135-164 period. This is far larger than the results of deposition on the south pole during summer, where an average layer 0.6-6 microns deep has been estimated by Brown et al. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 406, 102-109.

  16. On the unmixing of MEx/OMEGA hyperspectral data using a MAP estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themelis, Kostas; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Sykioti, Olga; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos; Daglis, Ioannis; Schmidt, Frederic

    2010-05-01

    Visible and infrared imaging spectroscopy is a key remote sensing technique used to study and monitor planets. It allows the detection, mapping and characterization of minerals, as well as volatile species, whose presence often provide clues for the resolution of Martian key climatic and geological issues. The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express comprises 352 spectral channels from 0.3 to 5.1 μm at a spatial resolution ranging from 300 m to 4 km and provides the opportunity to investigate the mineralogy of the very top surface of Mars by looking at diagnostic spectral features in the visible and near infrared domains. The subject of this paper is to present a method of supervised unmixing applied on an OMEGA hyperspectral data cube. Data were obtained by looking to the South Polar Cap of Mars during local summer, where CO2 ice, water ice and dust were previously detected. This kind of prior knowledge on the above constituents (image endmembers) was obtained by using an unsupervised approach for hyperspectral data unmixing, namely the recently proposed Bayesian positive source separation (BSS) with positivity constraints [1]. We propose an efficient estimation for the endmembers' corresponding fractions in the pixels of the image, based on a recently proposed maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) method. This method is properly adjusted for hyperspectral data processing, and in particular for abundance estimation problems. To ensure the physical interpretation of the estimation results, the necessary properties of positivity and full additivity of the abundance fractions are both imposed. Closed form expressions are then derived for the statistical parameters required by the MAP estimator. Experimental results consisting of images of estimated abundance fractions are presented and compared to the corresponding existing results of the BSS algorithm. Simulated data are also used to demonstrate the performance and reliability of the proposed method. The

  17. CCiCap: Boeing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with The Boeing Company for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the initia...

  18. OMEGA: The Open MEG Archive.

    PubMed

    Niso, Guiomar; Rogers, Christine; Moreau, Jeremy T; Chen, Li-Yuan; Madjar, Cecile; Das, Samir; Bock, Elizabeth; Tadel, François; Evans, Alan C; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Baillet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with other imaging modalities, there is presently a scarcity of fully open resources in magnetoencephalography (MEG) available to the neuroimaging community. Here we present a collaborative effort led by the McConnell Brain Imaging Centre of the Montreal Neurological Institute, and the Université de Montréal to build and share a centralised repository to curate MEG data in raw and processed form for open dissemination. The Open MEG Archive (OMEGA, omega.bic.mni.mcgill.ca) is bound to become a continuously expanding repository of multimodal data with a primary focus on MEG, in addition to storing anatomical MRI volumes, demographic participant data and questionnaires, and other forms of electrophysiological data such as EEG. The OMEGA initiative offers both the technological framework for multi-site MEG data aggregation, and serves as one of the largest freely available resting-state and eventually task-related MEG datasets presently available.

  19. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  20. ROTOR END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1959-02-01

    An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

  1. KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Amala, P.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.

    2012-10-01

    The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes, which utilize several mechanisms for determining radiation transport (diffusion, discrete ordinates, and Monte Carlo). This flow is analogous to free molecular flow in a similar geometry.footnotetextE. Garelis and T.E. Wainwright. Phys. Fluids. 16, 4 (1973) A series of experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser in cases with a low-density heated cylindrical wall. The experiments consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder contained in an 80 μm thick carbon foam tube. Five shots panning three test cases were used: the nominal geometry described above (heated wall), the carbon tube replaced with solid gold, and a gold cap placed on the laser end of the cylinder assembly to block axial radiation flow. Simulations of each experimental target type were run with the KULL radiation code, and were used to compare the different radiation transport packages in KULL by employing synthetic diagnostics to match the experimental DANTE cavity radiation temperature time history and soft x-ray images taken by a streak camera imaging the far end of the hohlraum.

  2. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  3. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2016-03-02

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  4. Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

    2012-05-02

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  5. Observation of an excited charm baryon Omega c* decaying to Omega c0gamma.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Hart, A J; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Bard, D J; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-12-01

    We report the first observation of an excited singly charmed baryon Omega c* (css) in the radiative decay Omega c0gamma, where the Omega c0 baryon is reconstructed in the decays to the final states Omega(-)pi+, Omega(-)pi+pi0, Omega(-)pi+pi(-)pi+, and Xi(-)K(-)pi+pi+. This analysis is performed using a data set of 230.7 fb(-1) collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The mass difference between the Omega c* and the Omega c0 baryons is measured to be 70.8+/-1.0(stat)+/-1.1(syst) MeV/c2. We also measure the ratio of inclusive production cross sections of Omega c* and Omega c0 in e+e(-) annihilation. PMID:17280195

  6. Deeply virtual and exclusive electroproduction of omega mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Morand, L; Et. Al.

    2005-04-01

    The exclusive omega electroproduction off the proton was studied in a large kinematical domain above the nucleon resonance region and for the highest possible photon virtuality (Q{sup 2}) with the 5.75 GeV beam at CEBAF and the CLAS spectrometer. Cross sections were measured up to large values of the four-momentum transfer (-t < 2.7 GeV{sup 2}) to the proton. The contributions of the interference terms sigma{sub TT} and sigma{sub TL} to the cross sections, as well as an analysis of the omega spin density matrix, indicate that helicity is not conserved in this process. The t-channel pi{sup 0} exchange, or more generally the exchange of the associated Regge trajectory, seems to dominate the reaction {gamma}* p {yields} omega p, even for Q{sup 2} as large as 5 GeV{sub 2}. Contributions of handbag diagrams, related to Generalized Parton Distributions in the nucleon, are therefore difficult to extract for this process. Remarkably, the high-t behavior of the cross sections is nearly Q{sup 2}-independent, which may be interpreted as a coupling of the photon to a point-like object in this kinematical limit.

  7. Mars surface diversity as revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express observations.

    PubMed

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Gendrin, Aline; Gondet, Brigitte; Poulet, François; Berthé, Michel; Soufflot, Alain; Arvidson, Ray; Mangold, Nicolas; Mustard, John; Drossart, P

    2005-03-11

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) investigation, on board the European Space Agency Mars Express mission, is mapping the surface composition of Mars at a 0.3- to 5-kilometer resolution by means of visible-near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imagery. The data acquired during the first 9 months of the mission already reveal a diverse and complex surface mineralogy, offering key insights into the evolution of Mars. OMEGA has identified and mapped mafic iron-bearing silicates of both the northern and southern crust, localized concentrations of hydrated phyllosilicates and sulfates but no carbonates, and ices and frosts with a water-ice composition of the north polar perennial cap, as for the south cap, covered by a thin carbon dioxide-ice veneer.

  8. Measurement of the Omega0(c) lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Iori, M.; Ayan, A.S.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Balatz, M.Y.; Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Bondar, N.F.; Cooper, P.S.; Dauwe, L.J.; /Ball State U. /Bogazici U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Moscow, ITEP /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Moscow State U. /St. Petersburg, INP

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a precise measurement of the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} lifetime. The data were taken by the SELEX (E781) experiment using 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -}, {pi}{sup -} and p beams. The measurement has been made using 83 {+-} 19 reconstructed {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} in the {Omega}{sup -} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} and {Omega}{sup -} {pi}{sup +} decay modes. The lifetime of the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} is measured to be 65 {+-} 13(stat) {+-} 9(sys) fs.

  9. Tyrrhena Terra: hydrated lobates ejecta and plains, as seen by OMEGA/MEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Bouley, S.; Mangold, N.; Meresse, S.; Costard, F.; Poulet, F.; Ansan, V.; Le Mouelic, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2009-04-01

    Tyrrhena Terra was reported [2; 1; 3; 4] as one of the Martian region displaying outcrops rich in hydrated miner-als, by the identification of a weak 1.9 µm absorption band on spectra acquired by OMEGA, the imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express. The region is located in cratered Noachian highlands in the southern hemisphere, south of Isidia Planitia and north of Hellas basin. It displays highland terrains partially dissected by fluvial valleys and several intercrater plains. Hydrated minerals are identified in two types of terrains in Tyrrhena Terra: on lobate ejecta blankets and in some plains. About 20 ejecta blankets showing hydrated minerals were identified with OMEGA in the studied area. The pres-ence of the 2.3 µm absorption band, together with the 1.93 µm band, indicates the possible presence of phyllosili-cates. Most of these ejecta blankets are located on the eastern, higher part of the studied region, above 2000 m in altitude. Their diameter varies from 2 to 26 km. They are well delimited and are contrasted compared to the rest of the highlands on THEMIS IR night imagery. The other, non-hydrated, ejecta blankets of the region do not show such a contrast. As the dust cover is very low throughout the region, the difference in the THEMIS IR nighttime imagery would come from a difference in the ejecta material or preservation [3]. The hydration as seen by OMEGA appears preferentially on the surrounding ejecta and not inside the crater. Py-roxene is also detected on the ejecta blankets. On another hand, most ejecta are devoid of olivine as detected by OMEGA, although it is detected on many intercrater plains of the region. In addition, CRISM observes phyllosilicates associated with crater ejecta blankets and in mounds and knobs on crater floors [5; 6]. We also identified with OMEGA around 10 areas showing outcrops of hydrated minerals in the studied region, not associated to crater ejecta. They generally correspond to plains at the end of valley

  10. Do Porins Pass CAPs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, C. B.; Pink, D. A.; Gill, T. A.; Beveridge, T. J.; Quinn, B. E.; Durrant, J. J.; Jericho, M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP) protamine is known to inhibit bacterial survival (Pink et al., Langmuir 19, 8852 (2003), and references therein), but the mechanism of attack is as yet undetermined. For Gram-negative bacteria, two pathways have been proposed: (a) self-promoted uptake, and (b) passage through porins. Here, we study the latter possibility, and model part of the outer membrane of a Gram-negative bacterium in an aqueous solution containing multivalent ions and CAPs. The intent is to determine whether CAPs could pass through porins and, if so, what aspects of external (e.g., ionic concentration) and internal (e.g., porin and O-sidechain characteristics) parameters affect their passage. This study is accomplished via Monte Carlo computer simulations of a ``minimal model'' of the outer membrane of a Gram-negative bacterium with an embedded porin.

  11. Magnetospheric polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.; Kan, J. R.

    Mount Denali (McKinley), the Alaska Range, and countless glaciers welcomed all 86 participants of the Chapman Conference on the Magnetospheric Polar Cap, which was held on the University of Alaska, Fairbanks campus (UAF), on August 6-9, 1984. The magnetospheric polar cap is the highest latitude region of the earth which is surrounded by the ring of auroras (the auroral oval). This particular region of the earth has become a focus of magnetospheric physicists during the last several years. This is because a number of upper atmospheric phenomena in the polar cap are found to be crucial in understanding the solar wind—magnetosphere interaction. The conference was opened by J. G. Roederer, who was followed by the UAF Chancellor, P. J. O'Rourke, who officially welcomed the participants.

  12. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.4 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of a typical martian north polar ice cap texture. The surface is pitted and rough at the scale of several meters. The north polar residual cap of Mars consists mainly of water ice, while the south polar residual cap is mostly carbon dioxide. This picture is located near 85.2oN, 283.2oW. The image covers an area approximately 1 km wide by 1.4 km high (0.62 by 0.87 miles). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  13. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  14. Ice caps on venus?

    PubMed

    Libby, W F

    1968-03-01

    The data on Venus obtained by Mariner V and Venera 4 are interpreted as evidence of giant polar ice caps holding the water that must have come out of the volcanoes with the observed carbon dioxide, on the assumption that Earth and Venus are of similar composition and volcanic history. The measurements by Venera 4 of the equatorial surface temperature indicate that the microwave readings were high, so that the polar ice caps may be allowed to exist in the face of the 10-centimeter readings of polar temperature. Life seems to be distinctly possible at the edges of the ice sheets.

  15. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  16. [Capping strategies in RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-04-01

    Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. PMID:22549871

  17. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  18. 3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; ALSO SEEN ARE THE BRAKE WHEEL, WINDSHAFT AND TOP BEARING OF THE UPRIGHT SHAFT - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  19. Advising. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Book (Advising) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are representative…

  20. Guard For Fuse Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    L-shaped guard attached to fuse holder. Guard prevents casual tampering with fuses in electrical junction box or fuse block. Protects fuses from being damaged by handling or by rope or string used to secure them. With fuse-cap guard, only responsible people have access to fuses.

  1. Arranging. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Booklet (Arranging) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  2. Murray and the Omega Minus

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, N.P.

    2010-08-20

    The exciting findings and activities in particle physics in the 50's and 60's will be discussed from an experimentalist's viewpoint. Particular emphasis will be placed on the description of several crucial discoveries (including the omega minus) and on the remarkable insight, guidance, and major contributions of Murray Gell-Mann to the understanding of the symmetry of hadrons which led to the development of the standard model of the strong interactions.

  3. Murray and the Omega Minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    The exciting findings and activities in particle physics in the 50's and 60's will be discussed from an experimentalist's viewpoint. Particular emphasis will be placed on the description of several crucial discoveries (including the omega minus) and on the remarkable insight, guidance, and major contributions of Murray Gell-Mann to the understanding of the symmetry of hadrons which led to the development of the standard model of the strong interactions.

  4. Murray and the Omega Minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    2011-11-01

    The exciting findings and activities in particle physics in the 50's and 60's will be discussed from an experimentalist's viewpoint. Particular emphasis will be placed on the description of several crucial discoveries (including the omega minus) and on the remarkable insight, guidance, and major contributions of Murray Gell-Mann to the understanding of the symmetry of hadrons which led to the development of the standard model of the strong interactions.

  5. Soft x-ray power diagnostic improvements at the Omega Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sorce, C.; Schein, J.; Weber, F.; Widmann, K.; Campbell, K.; Dewald, E.; Turner, R.; Landen, O.; Jacoby, K.; Torres, P.; Pellinen, D.

    2006-10-15

    Soft x-ray power diagnostics are essential for evaluating high temperature laser plasma experiments. The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer, a core diagnostic for radiation flux and temperature measurements of Hohlraums, installed on the Omega Laser Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics has recently undergone a series of upgrades. Work performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the development of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Dante spectrometer enables the Omega Dante to offer a total of 18 absolutely calibrated channels in the energy range from 50 eV to 20 keV. This feature provides Dante with the capability to measure higher, NIF relevant, radiation temperatures with increased accuracy including a differentiation of higher energy radiation such as the Au M and L bands. Diagnostic monitoring using experimental data from directly driven Au spherical shots is discussed.

  6. Omega-X micromachining system

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1978-01-01

    A micromachining tool system with X- and omega-axes is used to machine spherical, aspherical, and irregular surfaces with a maximum contour error of 100 nonometers (nm) and surface waviness of no more than 0.8 nm RMS. The omega axis, named for the angular measurement of the rotation of an eccentric mechanism supporting one end of a tool bar, enables the pulse increments of the tool toward the workpiece to be as little as 0 to 4.4 nm. A dedicated computer coordinates motion in the two axes to produce the workpiece contour. Inertia is reduced by reducing the mass pulsed toward the workpiece to about one-fifth of its former value. The tool system includes calibration instruments to calibrate the micromachining tool system. Backlash is reduced and flexing decreased by using a rotary table and servomotor to pulse the tool in the omega-axis instead of a ball screw mechanism. A thermally-stabilized spindle rotates the workpiece and is driven by a motor not mounted on the micromachining tool base through a torque-smoothing pulley and vibrationless rotary coupling. Abbe offset errors are almost eliminated by tool setting and calibration at spindle center height. Tool contour and workpiece contour are gaged on the machine; this enables the source of machining errors to be determined more readily, because the workpiece is gaged before its shape can be changed by removal from the machine.

  7. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning.

    PubMed

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania; Shafir, Sharoni

    2015-12-22

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3-poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3-rich diets, or omega-3-rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  8. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    PubMed Central

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  9. Women and omega-3 Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Saldeen, Pia; Saldeen, Tom

    2004-10-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) are constituents of the membranes of all cells in the body and are precursors of locally produced hormones, eicosanoids, which are important in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, especially in women. Omega-3 FA are of interest in some of the most common conditions affecting women. One mechanism underlying dysmenorrhea is a disturbed balance between antiinflammatory, vasodilator eicosanoids derived from omega-3 FA and proinflammatory, vasoconstrictor eicosanoids derived from omega-6 FA. Increased intake of omega-3 FA can reverse the symptoms in this condition by decreasing the amount of omega-6 FA in cell membranes. An increased prostacyclin/thromboxane ratio induced by omega-3 FA can facilitate pregnancy in women with infertility problems by increasing uterine blood flow. Supplementation with omega-3 FA during pregnancy lowers the risk of premature birth and can increase the length of pregnancy and birth weight by altering the balance of eicosanoids involved in labor and promote fetal growth by improving placental blood flow. Intake of omega-3 FA during pregnancy and breast feeding may facilitate the child's brain development. There is also some evidence that supplementation with omega-3 FA might help to prevent preeclampsia, postpartum depression, menopausal problems, postmenopausal osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Furthermore, because elevated triglyceride levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, especially in women; and because omega-3 FA have powerful effects on triglycerides, women in particular gain from an increased intake of these fatty acids. This is especially important in women receiving hormone therapy, which can increase triglyceride levels. The quality of the omega-3 FA preparation is important. It should have an appropriate antioxidant content not to induce lipid peroxidation, and its content of dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) should be well below the established safe limit.

  10. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning.

    PubMed

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania; Shafir, Sharoni

    2015-12-22

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3-poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3-rich diets, or omega-3-rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal.

  11. Compact Infrared Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-01-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  12. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  13. Cap protects aircraft nose cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. F., Jr.; Bryan, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Inexpensive, easily fabricated cap protects aircraft nose cone from erosion. Made of molded polycarbonate, cap has been flight tested at both subsonic and supesonic speeds. Its strength and erosion characteristics are superior to those of fiberglass cones.

  14. The Effect of Low Omega-3/Omega-6 Ratio on Auditory Nerve Conduction in Rat Pups.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Saeid; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Jalaie, Shohreh; Rahimi, Vida

    2015-01-01

    The biological effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are determined by their mutual interactions. This interaction extremely affects various functions. Lower consumption of omega-3 during gestation leads to various disorders, even in hearing. We aimed to assess the effect of low omega-3/omega-6 ratios on auditory nerve conduction. In this experimental study, the auditory brainstem response test was performed on 24-day-old rat (n=14). The rats were divided into case (low omega-3/omega-6 ratio during gestation and lactation) and control groups. Variables such as P1, P3, and P4 absolute latency period, interpeaks (P3-P4, P1-P3, and P1-P4), and P4/P1 amplitude ratio were measured. We found an increased P4 omega-3/omega-6 ratio in the group with a low omega-3/omega-6 ratio (P<0.01). No significant difference was observed in the P1 and P3 absolute latency period between the studied groups  (P>0.05).  Also, no significant difference was observed between the groups with respect to the P1-P3 interpeak latency (IPL) periods (P>0.05); while the P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPLs were significantly increased in the group with a low omega-3/omega-6 ratio (P<0.05). The P4/P1 amplitude ratio significantly decreased in the group with a low omega-3/omega-6 ratio (P<0.05). Results confirmed the negative effects of low omega-3/omega-6 ratio on the auditory system and hearing.

  15. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Jaclyn M; Bell, Stacey J; Roman, Ashley S

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that must be consumed in the diet. Adequate consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is vitally important during pregnancy as they are critical building blocks of fetal brain and retina. Omega-3 fatty acids may also play a role in determining the length of gestation and in preventing perinatal depression. The most biologically active forms of omega-3 fatty acids are docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, which are primarily derived from marine sources such as seafood and algae. Recent surveys, however, indicate that pregnant women in the United States and in other countries eat little fish and therefore do not consume enough omega-3 fatty acids, primarily due to concern about the adverse effects of mercury and other contaminants on the developing fetus. This review discusses the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid consumption during pregnancy and provides guidelines for obstetricians advising patients. PMID:21364848

  17. FY15 LLNL OMEGA Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Baker, K. L.; Barrios, M. A.; Beckwith, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Chen, H.; Coppari, F.; Fournier, K. B.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Frenje, J.; Huntington, C. M.; Kraus, R. G.; Lazicki, A. E.; Martinez, D. A.; McNaney, J. M.; Millot, M. A.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Ping, Y.; Pollock, B. B.; Smith, R. F.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Widmann, K.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Wan, A.; Hsing, W.

    2015-12-04

    In FY15, LLNL’s High-Energy-Density Physics (HED) and Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF-ID) programs conducted several campaigns on the OMEGA laser system and on the EP laser system, as well as campaigns that used the OMEGA and EP beams jointly. Overall these LLNL programs led 468 target shots in FY15, with 315 shots using just the OMEGA laser system, 145 shots using just the EP laser system, and 8 Joint shots using Omega and EP together. Approximately 25% of the total number of shots (56 OMEGA shots and 67 EP shots, including the 8 Joint shots) supported the Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Campaign (ICF-ID). The remaining 75% (267 OMEGA shots and 86 EP shots) were dedicated to experiments for High-Energy-Density Physics (HED). Highlights of the various HED and ICF campaigns are summarized in the following reports.

  18. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN CRITICAL ILLNESS

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julie M.; Stapleton, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of enteral nutritional formulas and parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions with omega-3 fatty acids is a recent area of research in patients with critical illness. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce inflammation in critically ill patients, particularly those with sepsis and acute lung injury. The objective of this article is to review the data on supplementing omega-3 fatty acids during critical illness; enteral and parenteral supplementation are reviewed separately. The results of the research available to date are contradictory for both enteral and parenteral omega-3 fatty acid administration. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may influence the acute inflammatory response in critically ill patients, but more research is needed before definitive recommendations about the routine use of omega-3 fatty acids in caring for critically ill patients can be made. PMID:20796218

  19. Summer South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 April 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each summer, a little bit of this carbon dioxide sublimes away. Pits grow larger, and mesas get smaller, as this process continues from year to year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of a small portion of the south polar cap as it appeared in mid-summer in January 2004. The dark areas may be places where the frozen carbon dioxide contains impurities, such as dust, or places where sublimation of ice has roughened the surface so that it appears darker because of small shadows cast by irregularities in the roughened surface. The image is located near 86.9oS, 7.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  20. MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

    2010-11-04

    The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

  1. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  2. Integration of Omega and satellite navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachta, Henry B.

    An extensive series of laboratory tests and flight trials has established that the hybrid Omega/VLF/GPS system effectively applies GPS to the enhancement of Omega with a cost-effective operator installation. The accuracy enhancement thus achieved also increases the reliability of navigation and furnishes aviation fuel savings superior to those of Omega, as a result of reduced flight-path wavering. The prospective GPS/GLONASS navigation system currently undergoing definition will be the first certifiable as a sole means on navigation; the Omega/VLF/GPS hybrid can serve as a transitional system.

  3. North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    North polar ice cap of Mars, as seen during mid summer in the northern hemisphere. The reddish areas consist of eolian dust, bright white areas consist of a mixture of water ice and dust, and the dark blue areas consist of sand dunes forming a huge 'collar' around the polar ice cap. (The colors have been enhanced with a decorrelation stretch to better show the color variability.) Shown here is an oblique view of the polar region, as seen with the Viking 1 spacecraft orbiting Mars over latitude 39 degrees north. The spiral bands consist of valleys which form by a combination of the Coriolis forces, wind erosion, and differential sublimation and condensation. In high-resolution images the polar caps are seen to consist of thick sequences of layered deposits, suggesting that cyclical climate changes have occurred on Mars. Cyclical climate changes are readily explained by quasi-periodic changes in the amount and distribution of solar heating resulting from perturbations in orbital and axial elements. Variations in the Earth's orbit have also been linked to the terrestrial climate changes during the ice ages.

  4. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26848697

  5. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Watts, Jennifer L

    2016-02-02

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids.

  6. The Challenges of omega Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, John E.

    2012-05-01

    It is now five decades since the demonstration that the color magnitude diagram (CMD) of omega Cen is unlike that of other globular clusters. This was followed, slowly but surely, by the appreciation that omega contains a large number (some five and counting) of discrete populations. The challenge being addressed is the determination of the spatial, chemical abundance, kinematic, and age distributions of these populations, and their inter-relationships - which will constrain our understanding of the origin and evolution of the system. The present contribution addresses the problems currently posed by our interpretation of the existing data set. With exquisite photometry, discrete sequences are now clearly seen in the CMD well down onto the main sequence. This is accompanied by high-resolution spectroscopy (albeit not to such faint levels), permitting insight into the abundance and kinematic distributions of large samples. Ages, however, are very difficult to determine, and those available defy simple interpretation in terms of population parameters. Major problems are now evident. Consider the multiple main sequence: if this results from postulated large helium abundance differences (Y in the range 0.25 - 0.40), what is the origin of the extremely high values. Is it really helium that is varying?! Second, one needs a reconciliation of the CMD sequences in terms of the abundances (He, CNO and Fe) and ages of the relevant populations. How do three populations on the main sequence telescope to five (or more) on the post main sequence giant branches? Where do the populations evolve onto the horizontal branch and the white dwarf sequence? What drives variations in population parameters with distance from cluster center? Finally, if omega Cen is the remnant of a nucleated dwarf galaxy captured long ago by the Milky Way, where is the debris of that event among the Galaxy's field halo population?

  7. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  8. Spherical grating spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  9. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyimide resins having improved thermo-oxidative stability are provided having aromatic vinyl end-caps. The polyimides are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a diamine, (2) an ester of tetracarboxylic acid and (3) an aromatic vinyl compound in a molar ratio of 1:2:3 of n: (n + 1):2 when the aromatic vinyl compound contains nitrogen and in a ratio of (n + 1):n:2 when the aromatic vinyl compound does not contain nitrogen, wherein n ranges from about 5 to about 20.

  10. Clock synchronization experiments using OMEGA transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, A. R.; Wardrip, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    The OMEGA transmissions from North Dakota on 13.10 and 12.85 kHz were monitored at several sites using a recently developed OMEGA timing receiver specifically designed for this purpose. The experiments were conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.; and at the NASA tracking station, Rosman, North Carolina. Results show that cycle identification of the two carrier frequencies was made at each test site, thus, coarse time (76 microseconds) from the OMEGA transmitted signals to within the ambiguity period of each OMEGA frequency was extracted. The fine time determination, which was extracted from the phase difference between the received OMEGA signals and locally generated signals, was about + or - 2 microseconds for daytime reception and about + or - 5 microseconds for nighttime reception.

  11. Light Vector Meson Photoproduction off of H at Jefferson Lab and rho-omega Interference in the Leptonic Decay Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies of light vector meson production in heavy nuclear targets has generated interest in {rho}-{omega} interference in the leptonic e{sup +}e{sup -} decay channel. An experimental study of the elementary process provides valuable input for theoretical models and calculations. In experiment E04-005 (g12), high statistics photoproduction data has been taken in Jefferson Lab's Hall B with the Cebaf Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The invariant mass spectrum is fitted with two interfering relativistic Breit-Wigner functions to determine the interference phase. Preliminary analysis indicate a measurable {rho}-{omega} interference.

  12. Optics Performance at 1(omega), 2 (omega), and 3 (omega): Final Report on LDRD Project 03-ERD-071

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J; Adams, J; Carr, C; Demos, S; Feit, M; Mehta, N; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; Rubenchik, A; Spaeth, M

    2006-02-08

    The interaction of intense laser light with dielectric materials is a fundamental applied science problem that is becoming increasingly important with the rapid development of ever more powerful lasers. To better understand the behavior of optical components in large fusion-class laser systems, we are systematically studying the interaction of high-fluence, high-power laser light with high-quality optical components, with particular interest on polishing/finishing and stress-induced defects and surface contamination. We focus on obtaining comparable measurements at three different wavelengths, 1{omega} (1053 nm), 2{omega} (527 nm), and 3{omega} (351 nm).

  13. Convex Crystal X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    May, M; Heeter, R; Emig, J

    2004-04-15

    Measuring time and space-resolved spectra is important for understanding Hohlraum and Halfraum plasmas. Experiments at the OMEGA laser have used the Nova TSPEC which was not optimized for the OMEGA diagnostic space envelope or for the needed spectroscopic coverage and resolution. An improved multipurpose spectrometer snout, the MSPEC, has been constructed and fielded on OMEGA. The MSPEC provides the maximal internal volume for mounting crystals without any beam interferences at either 2x or 3x magnification. The RAP crystal is in a convex mounting geometry bent to a 20 cm radius of curvature. The spectral resolution, E/dE, is about 200 at 2.5 keV. The spectral coverage is 2 to 4.5 keV. The MSPEC can record four separate spectra on the framing camera at time intervals of up to several ns. The spectrometer design and initial field-test performance will be presented and compared to that of the TSPEC. Work supported by U. S. DoE/UC LLNL contract W-7405-ENG-48

  14. The Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, E.; Harris, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer for experiments in an advanced-teaching laboratory. Discusses the theory of operation of the spectrometer and the factors affecting the resolution. Some examples of mass spectra obtained with this instrument are presented and discussed. (LC)

  15. [Cardiovascular disease and omega-3 fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ponte, E; Cafagna, D; Balbi, M

    1997-09-01

    Fish oil is rich in the long chain omega-3 (omega-3) polyinsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), Pioneering studies of Dyerberg and Bang primarily originate interests in this way. The low incidence of acute myocardial infarction they verified within the Greenland Eskimos suggested that a high dietary omega-3 PUFA intake due to marine food might protect against coronary heart disease. They showed that the Eskimos had a beneficial lipid pattern and that their balance between pro-aggregatory thromboxanes and anti-aggregatory prostacyclins was shifted towards an anti-thrombotic state. The two major omega-3 fatty acids are decosapentaenoic acid (EPA C 20:5, omega 3), with five double bonds, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA C 22:6, omega 3), with six double bonds. These fatty acids' significant effects include reduction of plasma triglycerides and lipoprotein levels as well as of platelets thrombogenicity in the microcirculation, which is due to effects on the mediators production derived from arachidonic acid (prostaglandins and leucotrienes), meddling in inflammatory and immune cell function, retarded atherosclerosis development. Experimental studies of atherogenesis and arterial thrombogenesis support the hypothesis that dietary omega-3 PUFA intake may play a leading role in primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

  16. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  17. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  18. Mars Express OMEGA Observations over Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Wolff, M.; Gendrin, A.; Morris, R. V.; Freeman, J. J.; Bellucci, G.

    2005-01-01

    The OMEGA hyperspectral imager (0.35 to 5.08 micrometers) covered the hematite-bearing plains and underlying etched terrains of Terra Meridiani during several orbits with spatial resolutions ranging from several hundred meters to approximately 2 km. We extracted and analyzed surface reflectance spectra from OMEGA data for the approximately 864,000 square kilometers surrounding the Opportunity site. In this paper we focus on analysis of OMEGA orbit 485 data for the plains and etched terrains located to the northeast of the Opportunity landing site.

  19. Polar-Direct-Drive Experiments on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F.J.; Craxton, R.S.; Bonino, M.J.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Noyes, S.G.; Radha, P.B.; Seka, W.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk

    2006-06-28

    Polar direct drive (PDD), a promising ignition path for the NIF while the beams are in the indirect-drive configuration, is currently being investigated on the OMEGA laser system by using 40 beams in six rings repointed to more uniformly illuminate the target. The OMEGA experiments are being performed with standard, “warm” targets with and without the use of an equatorial “Saturn-like” toroidally shaped CH ring. Target implosion symmetry is diagnosed with framed x-ray backlighting using additional OMEGA beams and by time-integrated x-ray imaging of the stagnating core.

  20. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Schiller, Katja; Schulze, Matthias B

    2013-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular interest in the nutritional therapy for diabetes, given their potential role in several pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular disease. Both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are beneficial for improving lipid profiles in healthy individuals and among type 2 diabetic patients: Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids lowers triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol. However, they might also increase LDL-cholesterol. Omega-3 fatty acids are, from the latest evidence, not related to mortality and cardiovascular disease. Similarly, glucose control and hypertension, as well as risk of microvascular complications, seem unaffected by omega-3 supplementation. Most studies involved mainly patients with type 2 diabetes, and future research needs to focus on the type 1 diabetic patient. Also, the role of omega-6 fatty acids remains largely unknown.

  1. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  2. Differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{omega}

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Krahn, Z.; McCracken, M. E.; Moriya, K.; Schumacher, R. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Careccia, S. L.; Dodge, G. E.; Klein, A.; Mayer, M.; Nepali, C. S.; Niroula, M. R.; Seraydaryan, H.; Tkachenko, S.; Weinstein, L. B.

    2009-12-15

    High-statistics differential cross sections and spin-density matrix elements for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{omega} have been measured using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass (c.m.) energies from threshold up to 2.84 GeV. Results are reported in 112 10-MeV wide c.m. energy bins, each subdivided into cos{theta}{sub c.m.}{sup {omega}} bins of width 0.1. These are the most precise and extensive {omega} photoproduction measurements to date. A number of prominent structures are clearly present in the data. Many of these have not previously been observed due to limited statistics in earlier measurements.

  3. Reactive Carbonyl Species Derived from Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Cui, Ping

    2015-07-22

    Inflammation-related reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are associated with the development of cancer. ROS and RNS can directly damage biomacromolecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids. Lipid peroxidation, however, can result in reactive carbonyl species (RCS) that can also modify proteins and DNA. In contrast to an extensive literature on the modification of proteins and DNA from omega-6 fatty acids, there are few studies on RCS generation from other fatty acids, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, which are frequently consumed from the diet and diet supplements. Therefore, a comparison between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids has been conducted. LC-MS/MS analysis of carbonyl-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) standards yielded characteristic fragment ions. Autoxidation products of α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid were then derivatized with DNPH and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, generated more acrolein and crotonaldehyde than did linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. Omega-3 fatty acids might be easily degraded to smaller monoaldehydes or dicarbonyls. Omega-3 fatty acids have been considered as health improvement components for a long time. However, on the basis of the results presented here, use of omega-3 fatty acids should be re-evaluated in vivo for safety purposes.

  4. Elementary Education: What Is Project Omega?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes Project Omega for Research in Remote Sensing Education, a program in space education designed for inservice training of elementary social studies teachers. Explains a few research areas dealing with the classroom applications of Landsat imagery. (CS)

  5. OMEGA for the Future of Biofuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    OMEGA: Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. To develop a photobioreactor (PBR) for growing algae (Oil, food, fertilizer) that does not compete with agriculture for land (deployed offshore), water or fertilizer (uses/treats wastewater).

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... omega-3s. They are mostly found in fatty fish like salmon, sardines, and trout. Some eggs are ... and yogurt. Should I Worry About Eating Certain Fish? Because of mercury contamination of our oceans, rivers, ...

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid). PMID:19173020

  8. Zooming in on Omega Centauri Stellar Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie sequence begins with a ground-based image of the giant globular star cluster Omega Centauri and zooms very tightly in to a Hubble Space Telescope image of the central region of the clust...

  9. The SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Greenlees, P. T.; Butler, P. A.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cox, D. M.; Cresswell, J. R.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Lazarus, I. H.; Letts, S. C.; Mistry, A.; Page, R. D.; Parr, E.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Rahkila, P.; Sampson, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Seddon, D. A.; Simpson, J.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.

    2014-03-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of -rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and -rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method.

  10. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 8 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected March 5, 2002 during the southern summer season. Layering in the South polar cap interior is readily visible and may indicate yearly ice/dust deposition.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.6, Longitude 156.8 East (203.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  11. Optical Omega network: a compact implementation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Cheng, L. M.

    1995-10-01

    We propose a technique for the compact implementation of an optical Omega network. This technique utilizes the concept that both the perfect-shuffle interconnection and the switching stages can be realized by the same procedures, i.e., duplicate, shift, superimpose, and mask. As a result, a single set of optics is sufficient to realize the whole Omega network in a time-multiplexed recursive manner. Optical setups were designed and a proof-of-principle experiment was performed.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25720716

  14. Omega-3-carboxylic acid (Epanova) for hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Alan; Lam, Sum

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a prevalent yet under-addressed condition, often seen in association with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, obesity, and physical inactivity. The control of triglyceride (TG) levels is essential to prevent the development of coronary artery disease and pancreatitis associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Omega-3-carboxylic acid (Epanova) is the third prescription omega-3 fatty acid product approved in the United States as an adjunct to diet for treating severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL). At the approved dosage, it reduced baseline serum TG levels by 25-30% in a placebo-controlled study. It reduced serum TG levels by an additional 8-15% in patients who were already taking statin therapy. It appeared to have a better bioavailability profile compared with an equivalent dose of omega-3-acid ethyl ester (Lovaza) in both low-fat and high-fat diets. However, evidence behind the effects of omega-3-carboxylic acid on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and pancreatitis risk, is lacking. Overall, it is well tolerated, but may induce common gastrointestinal side effects, such as abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. At this time, omega-3-carboxylic acid is an alternative adjunct therapy (in addition to diet) for hypertriglyceridemia. Its potential clinical benefits over other omega-3 formulations have yet to be evaluated.

  15. Transverse-Target-Spin Asymmetry in Exclusive {omega}-Meson Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avetissian, A.; Belostotski, S.; Blok, H. P.; Borissov, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Jackson, H. E.; Reimer, P. E.

    2015-12-17

    Hard exclusive electroproduction of omega mesons is studied with the HERMES spectrometer at the DESY laboratory by scattering 27.6 GeV positron and electron beams off a transversely polarized hydrogen target. The amplitudes of five azimuthal modulations of the single-spin asymmetry of the cross section with respect to the transverse proton polarization are measured. They are determined in the entire kinematic region as well as for two bins in photon virtuality and momentum transfer to the nucleon. Also, a separation of asymmetry amplitudes into longitudinal and transverse components is done. These results are compared to a phenomenological model that includes the pion pole contribution. Within this model, the data favor a positive pi omega transition form factor.

  16. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1993-09-13

    This invention is comprised of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer providing a series of images to a focal plane array camera. The focal plane array camera is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and as detected by a laser detector such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The images are transmitted to a computer for processing such that representations of the images as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral ``fingerprint`` pattern can be displayed on a monitor or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer.

  17. Composite Spectrometer Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Rodgers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient linear dispersive element for spectrometer instruments achieved using several different glasses in multiple-element prism. Good results obtained in both two-and three-element prisms using variety of different glass materials.

  18. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  19. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  20. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  1. Non-destructive ion trap mass spectrometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Frankevich, Vladimir E.; Soni, Manish H.; Nappi, Mario; Santini, Robert E.; Amy, Jonathan W.; Cooks, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to an ion trap mass spectrometer of the type having an ion trapping volume defined by spaced end caps and a ring electrode. The ion trap includes a small sensing electrode which senses characteristic motion of ions trapped in said trapping volume and provides an image current. Ions are excited into characteristic motion by application of an excitation pulse to the trapped ions. The invention also relates to a method of operating such an ion trap.

  2. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF).

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku; Berkley, James A; Calder, Philip C; Jones, Kelsey D; Liu, Lei; Manary, Mark; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2015-05-15

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neurocognitive and immune development led two independent groups to evaluate RUTFs. Jones et al. (BMC Med 13:93, 2015), in a study in BMC Medicine, and Hsieh et al. (J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015), in a study in the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, reformulated RUTFs with altered PUFA content and looked at the effects on circulating omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status as a measure of overall omega-3 status. Supplemental oral administration of omega-3 DHA or reduction of RUTF omega-6 linoleic acid using high oleic peanuts improved DHA status, whereas increasing omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid in RUTF did not. The results of these two small studies are consistent with well-established effects in animal studies and highlight the need for basic and operational research to improve fat composition in support of omega-3-specific development in young children as RUTF use expands.

  3. Measurements of B meson decays to (omega)K* and (omega)(rho)

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; . Wright, D M; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R H; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Y G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Abe, T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Keith, D W . S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, H; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Collaboration, B

    2006-03-14

    The authors describe searches for B meson decays to the charmless vector-vector final states {omega}K* and {omega}{rho} in 89 million B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at {radical}s = 10.58 GeV.

  4. Polar cap auroral electron fluxes observed with Isis 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winningham, J. D.; Heikkila, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Three types of auroral particle precipitation have been observed over the polar caps, well inside the auroral oval, by means of the soft particle spectrometer on the Isis 1 satellite. The first type is a uniform, very soft (about 100 eV) electron 'polar rain' over the entire polar cap; this may well be present with very weak intensity at all times, but it is markedly enhanced during worldwide geomagnetic storms. A second type of precipitation is a structured flux of electrons with energies near 1 keV, suggestive of localized 'polar showers'; it seems likely that these are the cause of the sun-aligned auroral arcs that have been observed during moderately quiet conditions. During periods of intense magnetic disturbance this precipitation can become very intense and exhibit a characteristic pattern that we have come to call a 'polar squall'.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: cap myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groote C, de Jonghe P, Marttila M, Laing NG, Pelin K, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Cap disease caused ... E, Wallefeld W, Memo M, Donner K, Laing NG, Marston S, Grönholm M, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Abnormal actin ...

  6. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  7. Midnight Sector Observations of Auroral Omega Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, J. A.; Woodfield, E. E.; Donovan, E. F.; Fear, R. C.; Grocott, A.; Lester, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Lucek, E. A.; Kadokura, A.; Hosokawa, K.; Carlson, C. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Björnsson, G.

    2010-12-01

    We present observations of auroral omega bands on 28 September 2009. Although generally associated with the substorm recovery phase and typically observed in the morning sector, the omega bands presented here occurred just after expansion phase onset and were observed in the midnight sector, immediately dawnward of the onset region. The Tjörnes “Rainbow” all-sky imager, located in north-eastern Iceland, revealed that the omega bands were ˜200 km in scale and propagated eastward from the onset region at ˜0.4 km/s while a co-located ground magnetometer recorded the simultaneous passage of Ps 6 pulsations. Although somewhat smaller and slower-moving than the majority of previously reported omega bands, the observed structures were clear examples of this phenomenon, albeit in an atypical location and much earlier in the substorm cycle than is usual. During the study interval the THEMIS A and C probes provided detailed measurements of the upstream interplanetary environment while the Cluster spacecraft were located in the tail plasma sheet conjugate to the ground-based all-sky imager. Cluster observed pulsed fluxes of electrons moving parallel to the magnetic field towards the northern hemisphere auroral ionosphere. Despite mapping uncertainties, there is some suggestion that keV electron fluxes in the tail were related to the auroral emissions in the omega bands. We suggest that omega band formation may be linked to expansion phase onset in the midnight sector and that the finite propagation speed through post-midnight and early morning local times may account for the interpretation of omega bands as a morning sector recovery phase phenomenon.

  8. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  9. 3(omega) Damage: Growth Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, M; Demos, S; Wu, Z-L; Wong, J; Penetrante, B; Hrubesh, L

    2001-02-22

    The design of high power UV laser systems is limited to a large extent by the laser-initiated damage performance of transmissive fused silica optical components. The 3{omega} (i.e., the third harmonic of the primary laser frequency) damage growth mitigation LDRD effort focused on understanding and reducing the rapid growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics. Laser-initiated damage can be discussed in terms of two key issues: damage initiated at some type of precursor and rapid damage growth of the damage due to subsequent laser pulses. The objective of the LDRD effort has been the elucidation of laser-induced damage processes in order to quantify and potentially reduce the risk of damage to fused silica surfaces. The emphasis of the first two years of this effort was the characterization and reduction of damage initiation. In spite of significant reductions in the density of damage sites on polished surfaces, statistically some amount of damage initiation should always be expected. The early effort therefore emphasized the development of testing techniques that quantified the statistical nature of damage initiation on optical surfaces. This work led to the development of an optics lifetime modeling strategy that has been adopted by the NIF project to address damage-risk issues. During FY99 interest shifted to the damage growth issue which was the focus of the final year of this project. The impact of the remaining damage sites on laser performance can be minimized if the damage sites did not continue to grow following subsequent illumination. The objectives of the final year of the LDRD effort were to apply a suite of state-of-the-art characterization tools to elucidate the nature of the initiated damage sites, and to identify a method that effectively mitigates further damage growth. Our specific goal is to understand the cause for the rapid growth of damage sites so that we can develop and apply an effective means to mitigate it. The

  10. 12 years of Phobos observations by Omega and Spicam on board MEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, Brigitte; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Omega team, Spicam team

    2016-10-01

    Mars Express made several encounters with Phobos and a few with Deimos since 2004. Observations with SPICAM and OMEGA imaging spectrometers on board Mars Express covers the range from UV (110-312 nm) to visible and mid IR up to 5 µm. In the following we consider the ultraviolet (UV) channel of SPICAM and only the visible channel of OMEGA and its small UV extension down to 390 nm, in order to compare with SPICAM. Preliminary results were presented already in the past [1]. Since then, a more detailed analysis was carried out, subtracting some internally scattered light affecting the SPICAM UV retrieved reflectance.The combined spectrum of Radiance Factor from SPICAM and OMEGA suggests the presence of a deep absorption feature. Both instruments, taken separately, support also this absorption feature.In the visible part of CRISM [2] on board MRO and recently confirmed by Omega, one feature is centered at 0.65 µm, with an absorption depth varying from 0 to 4%, an other one is centered at 2.8µm. These two Visible IR features were interpreted [2] either to highly desiccated Fe-phyllosilicate minerals indigenous to the bodies, or to a surface process involving Rayleigh scattering and absorption of small iron particles formed by exogenic space weathering processing.In this rather uncertain situation, the UV band detected by SPICAM and OMEGA on board Mars Express is of great importance to attempt discriminating between the two scenarios proposed above to explain the Visible-IR reflectance spectra of Phobos.[1] Bertaux J.L. et al. (2011) EPSC/DPS conference abstract, Nantes, November 2011. [[2] Freaman A.A. et al. (2014) Icarus, 229 , 196–205.

  11. Characterization of Mars' seasonal caps using neutron spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Mars' seasonal caps are characterized during Mars years 26 and 27 (April 2002 to January 2006) using data acquired by the 2001 Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. Time-dependent maps of the column abundance of seasonal CO 2 surface ice poleward of 60?? latitude in both hemispheres are determined from spatially deconvolved, epithermal neutron counting data. Sources of systematic error are analyzed, including spatial blurring by the spectrometer's broad footprint and the seasonal variations in the abundance of noncondensable gas at high southern latitudes, which are found to be consistent with results reported by Sprague et al. (2004, 2007). Corrections for spatial blurring are found to be important during the recession, when the column abundance of seasonal CO2 ice has the largest latitude gradient. The measured distribution and inventory of seasonal CO2 ice is compared to simulations by a general circulation model (GCM) calibrated using Viking lander pressure data, cap edge functions determined by thermal emission spectroscopy, and other nuclear spectroscopy data sets. On the basis of the amount of CO2 cycled through the caps during years 26 and 27, the gross polar energy balance has not changed significantly since Viking. The distribution of seasonal CO2 ice is longitudinally asymmetric: in the north, deposition rates of CO2 ice are elevated in Acidalia, which is exposed to katabatic winds from Chasma Borealis; in the south, CO2 deposition is highest near the residual cap. During southern recession, CO 2 ice is present longer than calculated by the GCM, which has implications for the local polar energy balance. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. A CHANDRA STUDY OF THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER OMEGA CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, Daryl; Cool, Adrienne M.; Davies, Melvyn B. E-mail: cool@sfsu.edu

    2009-05-20

    We analyze a {approx}70 ks Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer exposure of the globular cluster {omega} Cen (NGC 5139). The {approx}17' x 17' field of view fully encompasses three core radii and almost twice the half-mass radius. We detect 180 sources to a limiting flux of {approx}4.3 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (L{sub x} = 1.2 x 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} at 4.9 kpc). After accounting for the number of active galactic nuclei and possible foreground stars, we estimate that 45-70 of the sources are cluster members. Four of the X-ray sources have previously been identified as compact accreting binaries in the cluster-three cataclysmic variables (CVs) and one quiescent neutron star. Correlating the Chandra positions with known variable stars yields eight matches, of which five are probable cluster members that are likely to be binary stars with active coronae. Extrapolating these optical identifications to the remaining unidentified X-ray source population, we estimate that 20-35 of the sources are CVs and a similar number are active binaries. This likely represents most of the CVs in the cluster, but only a small fraction of all the active binaries. We place a 2{sigma} upper limit of L{sub x} < 3 x 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} on the integrated luminosity of any additional faint, unresolved population of sources in the core. We explore the significance of these findings in the context of primordial versus dynamical channels for CV formation. The number of CVs per unit mass in {omega} Cen is at least 2-3 times lower than in the field, suggesting that primordial binaries that would otherwise lead to CVs are being destroyed in the cluster environment.

  13. Omega Dante soft x-ray power diagnostic component calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K. M.; Weber, F. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O. L.; Turner, R. E.; Waide, P. A.

    2004-10-01

    The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer, installed on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, is a 12-channel filter-edge defined soft x-ray power diagnostic. It is used to measure the spectrally resolved, absolute flux from direct drive, indirect drive (hohlraums) and other plasma sources. Dante component calibration efforts using two beam lines, U3C (50 eV-1 keV) and X8A (1-6 keV) at the National Synchrotron Light Source have been implemented to improve the accuracy of these measurements. We have calibrated metallic vacuum x-ray diodes, mirrors and filters.

  14. Hydration of the Martian surface seen by OMEGA/MeX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouard, Joachim; Poulet, François; Vincendon, Mathieu; Gondet, Brigitte; Jouglet, Denis; Langevin, Yves; Bibring, Jean Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The surface of Mars presents an ubiquitous absorption in the 3 µm spectral region, caused by water molecules (structural water consituting the minerals and adsorbed water at their surface) and/or hydroxylation. We use OMEGA onboard Mars Express NIR imaging spectrometer to map the « water » weight content of the Martian surface and an energy balance code to predict the near surface relative humidity of the atmosphere. Results show a different behavior between the northern high latitudes and equatorial latitudes, reveal the potential influence of the subsurface ice table and allow us to quantify the exchanges between the regolith and the atmosphere.

  15. Omega Dante Soft X-Ray Power Diagnostic Component Calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K; Weber, F; Dewald, E; Glenzer, S; Landen, O; Turner, R; Waide, P

    2004-04-15

    The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer installed on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester is a twelve-channel filter-edge defined x-ray power diagnostic. It is used to measure the absolute flux from direct drive, indirect drive (hohlraums) and other plasma sources. Calibration efforts using two beam lines, U3C (50eV-1keV) and X8A (1keV-6keV) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been implemented to insure the accuracy of these measurements. We have calibrated vacuum x-ray diodes, mirrors and filters.

  16. Rare B Meson Decays With Omega Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; /Colorado U.

    2006-04-24

    Rare charmless hadronic B decays are particularly interesting because of their importance in understanding the CP violation, which is essential to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe, and of their roles in testing the ''effective'' theory of B physics. The study has been done with the BABAR experiment, which is mainly designed for the study of CP violation in the decays of neutral B mesons, and secondarily for rare processes that become accessible with the high luminosity of the PEP-II B Factory. In a sample of 89 million produced B{bar B} pairs on the BABAR experiment, we observed the decays B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}K{sup 0} and B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{rho}{sup +} for the first time, made more precise measurements for B{sup +} {yields} {omega}h{sup +} and reported tighter upper limits for B {yields} {omega}K* and B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{rho}{sup 0}.

  17. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  18. A protective lipidomic biosignature associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Astarita, Giuseppe; McKenzie, Jennifer H; Wang, Bin; Strassburg, Katrin; Doneanu, Angela; Johnson, Jay; Baker, Andrew; Hankemeier, Thomas; Murphy, James; Vreeken, Rob J; Langridge, James; Kang, Jing X

    2014-01-01

    A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-controlled manner, the molecular phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The fat-1 mouse can convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs, which protect against a wide variety of diseases including chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Both wild-type (WT) and fat-1 mice were subjected to an identical diet containing 10% corn oil, which has a high omega-6 content similar to that of the Western diet, for a six-month duration. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to compare the plasma lipidome between fat-1 and WT mice. In fat-1 mice, an unbiased profiling showed a significant increase in the levels of unesterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), EPA-containing cholesteryl ester, and omega-3 lysophosphospholipids. The increase in omega-3 lipids is accompanied by a significant reduction in omega-6 unesterified docosapentaenoic acid (omega-6 DPA) and DPA-containing cholesteryl ester as well as omega-6 phospholipids and triacylglycerides. Targeted lipidomics profiling highlighted a remarkable increase in EPA-derived diols and epoxides formed via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) pathway in the plasma of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. Integration of the results of untargeted and targeted analyses has identified a lipidomic biosignature that may underlie the healthful phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio, and can potentially be used as a circulating biomarker for monitoring the health status and the efficacy of omega-3 intervention in humans.

  19. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  20. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  1. OMEGA Observations of Mars Analogue Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonello, G.; Bibring, J. P.; Morris, R. V.; Mustard, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, imaging spectrometry in the visible and near infrared onboard spacecraft has become an essential technique to study surfaces and atmospheres of planetary objects, prior and in addition to in-situ analyses. Remote sensing experiments analyzing the sunlight reflected by planetary surfaces can be used to derive the mineralogical composition and physical properties of the natural surfaces and atmospheres observed. This technique was successfully used on Mars with ISM instrument. As an improvement of ISM, OMEGA onboard MARS-EXPRESS will play a key role in the mineralogical mapping of the Martian surface. We present the reflectance measurements made with OMEGA during on ground calibration sessions on natural slabs of rocks and minerals part of a database which will be used on similar future American instruments (as CRISM onboard MRO). We discuss the implication on the scientific capabilities of OMEGA instrument.

  2. [Omega-3 fatty acids and cognition].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio

    2014-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, the most abundant omega3 fatty acid in the brain, plays a role in cognitive development, learning ability, neuronal membrane plasticity, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis, all of which are involved in synaptic transmission and the well-being of normal brain functions, and search on the functionality is still in progress. Establishment of prevention and treatment of neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as dementia is not easy, but from numerous basic and epidemiological studies, increase of omega3 fatty acid dietary intake is reported likely to prevent the onset of dementia. This paper is outlined the relevance of cognitive function and omega3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid, and the possibility of preventive effect of the fatty acid on dementia.

  3. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  4. Comparison of imaging spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2000-01-09

    Realistic signal to noise performance estimates for the various types of instruments being considered for NGST are compared, based on the point source detection values quoted in the available ISIM final reports. The corresponding sensitivity of the various types of spectrometers operating in a full field imaging mode, for both emission line objects and broad spectral distribution objects, is computed and displayed. For the purpose of seeing the earliest galaxies, or the faintest possible emission line sources, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer emerges superior to all others, by orders of magnitude in speed.

  5. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  6. Dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids compete in producing tissue compositions and tissue responses.

    PubMed

    Lands, Bill

    2014-11-01

    Serious food-related health disorders may be prevented by recognizing the molecular processes that connect the dietary intake of vitamin-like fatty acids to tissue accumulation of precursors of potent hormone-like compounds that cause harmful tissue responses. Conversion of dietary 18-carbon omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids to tissue 20- and 22-carbon highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) is catalyzed by promiscuous enzymes that allow different types of fatty acid to compete among each other for accumulation in tissue HUFA. As a result, food choices strongly influence the types of accumulated tissue HUFA. However, the conversion of tissue HUFA to active hormones and their receptor-mediated actions occurs with discriminating enzymes and receptors that give more intense responses for the omega-6 and omega-3 hormones. Undesired chronic health disorders, which are made worse by excessive omega-6 hormone actions, can be prevented by eating more omega-3 fats, less omega-6 fats, and fewer calories per meal.

  7. Effects of Diets Enriched in Omega-9 or Omega-6 Fatty Acids on Reproductive Process

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Shafiei-Neek, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maternal type and amounts of dietary fatty acids affect on reproductive process in the mice. The present study investigated the effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of omega-6 or omega-9 during pregnancy on the number of offspring, sex-ratio and duration of gestation. Materials and methods: Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four dietary groups including low omega-6 (16%; LO6), low omega-9 (16%; LO9), high omega-6 (45%; HO6) and high omega-9 (45%; HO9) during gestation. Number of offspring, sex-ratio and duration of pregnancy were compared among four dietary groups. Results: There was significant difference between LO6 and HO6 (p < 0.0001), LO9 and HO9 (p < 0.0001) groups in total number of pups. The number of female and male offspring were significantly different between LO6 and LO9 (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively), LO9 and HO9 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.025) groups. Duration of pregnancy was significantly higher in low fat diet than high fat diet groups (< 0.001). Conclusion: High fat diet reduced number of pups, gestation duration and lead to early labor. Omega-9 fatty acids shifted sex of offspring to females. PMID:27648098

  8. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs. PMID:17254747

  9. Hierarchical Analysis of the Omega Ontology

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Paulson, Patrick R.

    2009-12-01

    Initial delivery for mathematical analysis of the Omega Ontology. We provide an analysis of the hierarchical structure of a version of the Omega Ontology currently in use within the US Government. After providing an initial statistical analysis of the distribution of all link types in the ontology, we then provide a detailed order theoretical analysis of each of the four main hierarchical links present. This order theoretical analysis includes the distribution of components and their properties, their parent/child and multiple inheritance structure, and the distribution of their vertical ranks.

  10. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-10-13

    The ultimate goal of studies of cold cap behavior in glass melters is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Regrettably, mathematical models, which are ideal tools for assessing the responses of melters to process parameters, have not paid adequate attention to the cold cap. In this study, we consider a cold cap resting on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady heat flux while temperature, velocity, and extent of conversion are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate. A one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model simulates this process by solving the differential equations for mass and energy balances with appropriate boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for material properties. The sensitivity analyses on the effects of incoming heat fluxes to the cold cap through its lower and upper boundaries show that the cold cap thickness increases as the heat flux from above increases, and decreases as the total heat flux increases. We also discuss the effects of foam, originating from batch reactions and from redox reactions in molten glass and argue that models must represent the foam layer to achieve a reliable prediction of the melting rate as a function of feed properties and melter conditions.

  11. Polar Cap Plasma and Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Heather A.; Craven, Paul D.; Comfort, Richard H.; Chandler, Michael O.; Moore, Thomas E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation will describe the character of the polar cap plasma in 10% AGU Spring 1998 particular the convection velocities at the perigee (about 1.8 Re) and apogee( about 8.9 Re) of Polar in relationship to Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and solar wind parameters. This plasma is thought to be due to several sources; the polar wind, cleft ion fountain, and auroral outflow. The plasma in the polar cap tends to be mostly field-aligned. At any given point in the polar cap, this plasma could be from a different regions since convection of magnetic field lines can transport this material. it is quite difficult to study such a phenomena with single point measurements. Current knowledge of the polar cap plasma obtained by in situ measurements will be presented along with recent results from the Polar mission. This study also examines the direct electrical coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere by comparing convection velocities measured by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) instruments in magnetosphere and measurements of the ionosphere by ground-based radars. At times such a comparison is difficult because the Polar satellite at apogee spends a large amount of time in the polar cap which is a region that is not coverage well by the current SuperDam coherent radars. This is impart due to the lack of irregularities that returns the radar signal.

  12. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  13. OMEGA EP: High-Energy Petawatt Capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.H.; Waxer, L.J.; Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Bromage, J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Kessler, T.J.; Loucks, S.J.; Maywar, D.N.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Oliver, J.B.; Rigatti, A.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Stoeckl, C.; Dalton, S.; Folnsbee, L.; Guardalben, M.J.; Jungquist, R.; Puth, J.; Shoup III, M.J.; Weiner, D.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2006-06-28

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a petawatt-class addition to the existing 30-kJ, 60-beam OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester. When completed, it will consist of four beamlines, each capable of producing up to 6.5 kJ at 351 nm in a 1 to 10 ns pulse. Two of the beamlines will produce up to 2.6 kJ in a pulse-width range of 1 to 100 ps at 1053 nm using chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). This paper reviews both the OMEGA EP performance objectives and the enabling technologies required to meet these goals.

  14. Solute enrichment in the omega phase in Ti-14Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, Y.; Hida, M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the {omega} (omega) phase formed in metastable {beta} (bcc) Ti alloys. Mechanical properties of the alloys have been studied in conjunction with the {omega} precipitation. However, the composition of the {omega} phase has not been well established yet. Hickman who reported that solute atoms are depleted in {omega}, studied the change of lattice parameters of {beta} matrix with an x-ray method as {omega} grew. The authors believe it is better to directly determine the composition of {omega}, and to this end, used a nano-probe technique with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). As will be shown, the authors have found that the solute concentration is higher in {omega} than in a {beta} matrix in a Ti-Mo alloy.

  15. Dual-shank attachment design for omega seals

    DOEpatents

    Sattinger, Stanley S.

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for attaching welded omega seal segments to reactor heads, standpipes, mechanisms, and plugs comprises a first shank in combination with a second shank to attach an omega seal at a metal-to-metal interface.

  16. Measurement of the spin of the omega(-) hyperon.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch

    2006-09-15

    A measurement of the spin of the Omega(-) hyperon produced through the exclusive process Xi(c)(0)-->Omega(-)K(+) is presented using a total integrated luminosity of 116 fb(-1) recorded with the BABAR detector at the e(+)e(-) asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC. Under the assumption that the Xi(c)(0) has spin 1/2, the angular distribution of the Lambda from Omega(-)-->LambdaK(-) decay is inconsistent with all half-integer Omega(-) spin values other than 3/2. Lower statistics data for the process Omega(c)(0)-->Omega(-)pi(+) from a 230 fb(-1) sample are also found to be consistent with Omega(-) spin 3/2. If the Xi(c)(0) spin were 3/2, an Omega(-) spin of 5/2 could not be excluded. PMID:17025877

  17. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  18. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the global atmospheric changes is difficult with today's current technology. However, with high resolution and nearly continuous observations from a satellite, it's possible to transform our understanding of the atmosphere. To enable the next generation of atmospheric science, a new class of orbiting atmospheric sensors is being developed. The foundation of this advanced concept is the Fourier Transform Spectrometer, or FTS.

  19. Calibration of a Flat Field Soft X-ray Grating Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E; May, M J; Porter, F S

    2010-05-12

    We have calibrated the x ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL, and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range from {approx} 6 to 60 {angstrom}. The calibration results present here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  20. Water in the Martian regolith from OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouard, Joachim; Poulet, François; Vincendon, Mathieu; Milliken, Ralph E.; Jouglet, Denis; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves

    2014-08-01

    Here we discuss one of the current reservoirs of water on Mars, the regolith and rocks exposed at the surface. This reservoir is characterized by the presence of H2O- and OH-bearing phases that produce a broad absorption at a wavelength of ~3 µm in near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra. This absorption is present in every ice-free spectrum of the Martian surface obtained thus far by orbital NIR spectrometers. We present a quantitative analysis of the global distribution of the 3 µm absorption using the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer that has been mapping the surface of Mars at kilometer scale for more than 10 years. Based on laboratory reflectance spectra of a wide range of hydrous minerals and phases, we estimate a model-dependent water content of 4 ± 1 wt % in the equatorial and midlatitudes. Surface hydration increases with latitude, with an asymmetry in water content between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The surface hydration is compared to various parameters (albedo, dust, geological units, time, relative humidity, atmospheric water pressure, and in situ measurements performed by Phoenix and Curiosity) to constrain the nature of the reservoir. We conclude that the nature of the surface hydration of the Martian low latitudes is not adsorbed water but rather more tightly bound water molecules and hydroxyl groups in the structure of the materials of the near-top surface. A frost-related process best explains the implementation of water into and onto the first microns of the high-latitude Martian regolith.

  1. Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

  2. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  3. The Enigmatic Martian Polar Caps

    SciTech Connect

    James, Philip

    2005-08-17

    The Martian polar caps have puzzled astronomers for over a century. Extensive study by many instruments on various spacecraft has resolved many questions but has at the same time created a new generation of puzzles. The polar caps are intimately coupled to the current Martian climate and volatile cycles. They also hold clues to climate variations on a variety of longer time scales. The results of recent missions will be reviewed, and the potential outlook for resolution of the outstanding questions will be examined.

  4. Ir Spectral Mapping of the Martian South Polar Residual CAP Using Crism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jacqueline; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be important in theories of abiogenesis (Allamandola, 2011) . There is evidence that PAHs have been detected on two icy Saturnian satellites using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft (Cruikshank et al., 2007). The hypothesised presence of PAHs in Mars south polar cap has not been systematically examined even though the Mars south polar cap may allow the preservation of organic molecules that are typically destroyed at the Martian surface by UV radiation (Dartnell et al. 2012). This hypothesis is supported by recent analyses of South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) structural evolution (Thomas et al., 2009) that suggest the possibility that seasonal and long term sublimation may excavate dust particles from within the polar ice. Periodic sublimation is believed to be responsible for the formation of so-called "Swiss Cheese Terrain", a unique surface feature found only in the Martian south polar residual cap consisting of flat floored, circular depressions (Byrne, 2009). We show the first examples of work towards the detection of PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain, using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). CRISM is designed to search for mineralogical indications of past and present water, thus providing extensive coverage of the south polar cap. In this work, we discuss whether CRISM infrared spectra can be used to detect PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain and demonstrate a number of maps showing shifts in spectral profiles over the SPRC.

  5. Electromagnetic interactions in the sigma-. omega. model

    SciTech Connect

    de Forest,Jr., T.

    1984-08-27

    The predictions of the sigma-..omega.. model for electromagnetic current are explored and found to be quite different from those given by the impulse approximation. In particular large variations in the quasielastic electron scattering cross section are found depending upon the choice of the operator used for the current.

  6. Baryon spectroscopy and the omega minus

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-12-31

    In this report, I will mainly discuss baryon resonances with emphasis on the discovery of the {Omega}{sup {minus}}. However, for completeness, I will also present some data on the meson resonances which together with the baryons led to the uncovering of the SU(3) symmetry of particles and ultimately to the concept of quarks.

  7. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  8. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy.

  9. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  10. Indirect pulp capping: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the acceptance of the clinical practice of indirect pulp capping. State and regional dental boards and postgraduate dental education programs throughout the United States were surveyed. Results indicate that no clear consensus exists for the acceptance of this clinical procedure.

  11. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  12. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics magnetic spectrometer designed to measure electrons, positrons, gamma rays and various nuclei and anti-nuclei from the cosmos up to TeV energy ranges. AMS weighs 7.5 tons and measures 5 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters. It contains 300,000 channels of electronics and 650 onboard microprocessors. It was delivered to the International Space Station onboard space shuttle Endeavour and installed on May 19, 2011. Since that time, more than 14 billion cosmic ray events have been collected. All the detectors function properly. At this moment, we are actively engaged in data analysis. AMS is an international collaboration involving 16 countries and 60 institutes. It took 16 years to construct and test. AMS is the only major physical science experiment on the International Space Station and will continue to collect data over the entire lifetime of the Space Station (10-20 years).

  13. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  14. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  15. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  16. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  17. Rapid scanning mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.

    1996-11-25

    Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  19. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  20. UV-Visible reflectance of Phobos from SPICAM and OMEGA and comparison with Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, Brigitte; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Montmessin, Franck; Reberarc, Aurelie

    2016-04-01

    Mars Express made several encounters with Phobos and a few with Deimos since 2004. Observations with SPICAM and OMEGA imaging spectrometers on board Mars Express covers the range from UV (110-312 nm) to visible and mid IR up to 5 μm. In the following we consider the ultraviolet (UV) channel of SPICAM and only the visible channel of OMEGA and its small UV extension down to 390 nm, in order to compare with SPICAM. Preliminary results were presented already in the past [1]. Since then, a more detailed analysis was carried out, subtracting some internally scattered light affecting the SPICAM UV retrieved reflectance. The combined spectrum of Radiance Factor from SPICAM and OMEGA suggests the presence of a deep absorption feature. Both instruments, taken separately, support also this absorption feature. In the visible part of CRISM [2] on board MRO, one feature is centered at 0.65 μm, with an absorption depth varying from 0 to 4%, an other one is centered at 2.8μm. These two Visible IR features were interpreted [2] either to highly desiccated Fe-phyllosilicate minerals indigenous to the bodies, or to a surface process involving Rayleigh scattering and absorption of small iron particles formed by exogenic space weathering processing. In this rather uncertain situation, the UV band detected by SPICAM and OMEGA on board Mars Express is of great importance to attempt discriminating between the two scenarios proposed above to explain the Visible-IR reflectance spectra of Phobos. [1] Bertaux J.L. et al. (2011) EPSC/DPS conference abstract, Nantes, November 2011, [5] Freaman A.A. et al. (2014) Icarus, 229 , 196-205.

  1. A simple way to prepare Cupric oleate capped AgI nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Song Meirong; Zhang Zhijun . E-mail: s234soow@henu.edu.cn

    2004-12-02

    Cupric oleate capped AgI (Cu(OA){sub 2}-AgI) nanoparticles were prepared by a simple method and they have good dispersibility in organic solvents. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometer were used to characterize the Cu(OA){sub 2}-AgI nanoparticles. The results show that the mean size is about 80 nm; the modified reagent has been chemically bonded on the surface of AgI. In addition, new absorption peaks in the UV region appear.

  2. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  3. Ion Composition in Titan's Exosphere from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, A.; Smith, H. T.; Johnson, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    A primary goal of the Cassini mission has been to characterize the complex interaction between Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's ionosphere. To this end, the Cassini spacecraft carries two instruments-the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS)-capable of energy- and mass-analysis. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS), one of three instruments composing CAPS, is designed to characterize diffuse plasmas throughout the magnetosphere while the INMS is optimized for measurements within Titan's upper atmosphere. As such, mass-resolved ion compositions confirming a variety of hydrocarbons and nitriles have been extracted from INMS data for numerous Titan encounters. Similar analysis of IMS data, however, has largely been resolution-limited to the identification of 'light' and 'heavy' ion groups in the wake. Herein we present a technique for extracting Dalton-resolved ion compositions from IMS spectra acquired below ~5 Titan radii. The method is then applied to data from the T40 encounter and the resulting relative abundances compared with those derived from the INMS data for the same encounter.

  4. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  5. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be eliminated by antibiotic treatment and animal co-housing, suggesting the involvement of the gut microbiota. Analysis of gut microbiota and fecal transfer revealed that elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acids enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), which induces changes in the gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability, and ultimately, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation. Our findings uncover an interaction between host tissue fatty acid composition and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Given the excess of omega-6 and deficiency of omega-3 in the modern Western diet, the differential effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia provide insight into the etiology and management of today’s health epidemics. PMID:26062993

  6. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-06-11

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be eliminated by antibiotic treatment and animal co-housing, suggesting the involvement of the gut microbiota. Analysis of gut microbiota and fecal transfer revealed that elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acids enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), which induces changes in the gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability, and ultimately, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation. Our findings uncover an interaction between host tissue fatty acid composition and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Given the excess of omega-6 and deficiency of omega-3 in the modern Western diet, the differential effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia provide insight into the etiology and management of today's health epidemics.

  7. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be eliminated by antibiotic treatment and animal co-housing, suggesting the involvement of the gut microbiota. Analysis of gut microbiota and fecal transfer revealed that elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acids enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), which induces changes in the gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability, and ultimately, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation. Our findings uncover an interaction between host tissue fatty acid composition and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Given the excess of omega-6 and deficiency of omega-3 in the modern Western diet, the differential effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia provide insight into the etiology and management of today's health epidemics. PMID:26062993

  8. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual funding cap on federal universal service support for schools and libraries shall be $2.25 billion per... into subsequent funding years for use in the schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance...

  9. Dynamic Modeling of an Evapotranspiration Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven Piet; Rafael Soto; Gerald Sehlke; Harold Heydt; John Visser

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is scheduled to design and install hundreds of landfill caps/barriers over the next several decades and these caps will have a design life expectancy of up to 1,000 years. Other landfill caps with 30 year design lifetimes are reaching the end of their original design life; the changes to these caps need to be understood to provide a basis for lifetime extension. Defining the attributes that make a successful cap (one that isolates the waste from the environment) is crucial to these efforts. Because cap systems such as landfill caps are dynamic in nature, it is impossible to understand, monitor, and update lifetime predictions without understanding the dynamics of cap degradation, which is most often due to multiple interdependent factors rather than isolated independent events. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of cap degradation, a computer model using system dynamics is being developed to capture the complex behavior of an evapotranspiration cap. The specific objectives of this project are to capture the dynamic, nonlinear feedback loop structures underlying an evapotranspiration cap and, through computer simulation, gain a better understanding of long-term behavior, influencing factors, and, ultimately, long-term cap performance.

  10. Indoleacetic acid movement in the root cap.

    PubMed

    Pernet, J J; Pilet, P E

    1976-01-01

    When applied on the root cap of Zea mays L., indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) may enter the root tip and move basipetally inside the cap. From the cap to the apex (quiescent centre and meristem) the IAA transport is very slow. Polarity of IAA movement, in relation to growth, is discussed.

  11. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  14. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding the... schools and libraries mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding the annual cap... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In...

  15. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding the... schools and libraries mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding the annual cap... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  17. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  1. OMEGA FY13 HED requests - LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, Jonathan B; Loomis, Eric N

    2012-06-25

    This is a summary of scientific work to be performed on the OMEGA laser system located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics in Rochester New York. The work is funded through Science and ICF Campagins and falls under the category of laser-driven High-Energy Density Physics experiments. This summary is presented to the Rochester scheduling committee on an annual basis for scheduling and planning purposes.

  2. Progress in Cryogenic Target Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Hu, S. X.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Short, R. W.; Shvarts, D.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Séguin, F. H.; Casey, D. T.

    2016-10-01

    Cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets are imploded on the OMEGA Laser System in a direct-drive configuration. Areal densities of approximately 200 mg/cm2 have been measured with implosion velocities of 3 × 107 cm/s. These implosions are used to study the dynamics of cryogenic target compression and to develop areal-density diagnostics that will be used as part of the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility.

  3. Overview of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bradberry, J. Chris; Hilleman, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    The triglyceride (TG)-lowering benefits of the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are well documented. Available as prescription formulations and dietary supplements, EPA and DHA are recommended by the American Heart Association for patients with coronary heart disease and hypertriglyceridemia. Dietary supplements are not subject to the same government regulatory standards for safety, efficacy, and purity as prescription drugs are; moreover, supplements may contain variable concentrations of EPA and DHA and possibly other contaminants. Reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remains the primary treatment goal in the management of dyslipidemia. Dietary supplements and prescription formulations that contain both EPA and DHA may lower TG levels, but they may also increase LDL-C levels. Two prescription formulations of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are available in the U.S. Although prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM-3-A EEs, Lovaza) contain high-purity EPA and DHA, prescription icosapent ethyl (IPE, Vascepa) is a high-purity EPA agent. In clinical trials of statin-treated and non–statin-treated patients with hypertriglyceridemia, both OM-3-A EE and IPE lowered TG levels and other atherogenic markers; however, IPE did not increase LDL-C levels. Results of recent outcomes trials of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, and niacin have been disappointing, failing to show additional reductions in adverse cardiovascular events when combined with statins. Therefore, the REDUCE–IT study is being conducted to evaluate the effect of the combination of IPE and statins on cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients. The results of this trial are eagerly anticipated. PMID:24391388

  4. Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Endo, Jin; Arita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs.

  5. OMEGA / Mars Express observations of Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, B.

    2013-12-01

    The OMEGA / Mars Express instrument [1] has acquired a number of image-cubes, in both the visible and the NIR, at a variety of seasons, local times and spatial resolution. Specifically, it has been monitoring the Curiosity landing and exploring sites over the past months. We shall present some of the major outcomes, with a focus on i) the spectral characterization in the range (0.35 to 1.0 μm), which enables a comparison with the in situ ChemCam [2] and Mastcam [3] relevant measurements; ii) the day and night thermal inertia, extending to a variety of local times the maps produced by the THEMIS/Odyssey instrument and iii) limbs campaign, just initiated, designed to constrain the mechanism of the formation of CO2 ice clouds, by identifying the nucleation grains [4,5]. (in parallel with nadir observations) [1] Bibring, J.P. ., et al., OMEGA: Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité, ESA SP 1240, 37-49, 2004a [2] Johnson J.R. et al LPSC 2013 #1372 [3] Johnson J.R. et al LPSC 2013 #1374 [4] Vincendon, M:. New near-IR observations of mesospheric CO2 and HO2 clouds on Mars 2012, JGR, VOL 116 [5] Gondet et al Mars CO2 ice clouds: observations by Omega/Mex EPSC 2012

  6. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Omega Baryons in a Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Muslema Pervin; Winston Roberts; Simon Capstick

    2006-03-24

    The semileptonic decays of {Omega}{sub c} and {Omega}{sub b} are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model developed in a previous paper on the semileptonic decays of heavy {Lambda} baryons. Analytic results for the form factors for the decays to ground states and a number of excited states are evaluated. For {Omega}{sub b} to {Omega}{sub c} the form factors obtained are shown to satisfy the relations predicted at leading order in the heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point. A modified fit of nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians generates configuration-mixed baryon wave functions from the known masses and the measured {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}e{sup +}{nu} rate, with wave functions expanded in both harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. Decay rates of {Omega}{sub b} to pairs of ground and excited {Omega}{sub c} states related by heavy-quark symmetry calculated using these configuration-mixed wave functions are in the ratios expected from heavy-quark effective theory, to a good approximation. Our predictions for the semileptonic elastic branching fraction of {Omega}{sub Q} vary minimally within the models we use. We obtain an average value of (84 {+-} 2%) for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Xi}{sup (*)} decays to ground states, and 91% for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Omega}{sup (*)} decays to the ground state {Omega}. The elastic fraction of {Omega}{sub b} {yields} {Omega}{sub c} ranges from about 50% calculated with the two harmonic-oscillator models, to about 67% calculated with the two Sturmian models.

  7. MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK

    DOEpatents

    Shields, W.R.

    1960-10-18

    An improved valve is described for precisely regulating the flow of a sample fluid to be analyzed, such as in a mass spectrometer, where a gas sample is allowed to "leak" into an evacuated region at a very low, controlled rate. The flow regulating valve controls minute flow of gases by allowing the gas to diffuse between two mating surfaces. The structure of the valve is such as to prevent the corrosive feed gas from contacting the bellows which is employed in the operation of the valve, thus preventing deterioration of the bellows.

  8. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  9. Automated transportable mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echo, M. W.

    1981-09-01

    The need was identified for a mass spectrometer (MS) which can be conveniently transported among several facilities for rapid verification of the isotopic composition of special nuclear material. This requirement for a light weight, transportable MS for U and Pu mass analysis was met by deleting the gas chromograph (GC) portions of a Hewlett-Packard Model 5992 Quadrupole GCMS and substituting a vacuum lock sample entry system. A programmable power supply and vacuum gauge were added and circuitry modifications were made to enable use of the supplied software.

  10. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  11. Helix Capping in RNA Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung C.; Gutell, Robin R.

    2014-01-01

    Helices are an essential element in defining the three-dimensional architecture of structured RNAs. While internal basepairs in a canonical helix stack on both sides, the ends of the helix stack on only one side and are exposed to the loop side, thus susceptible to fraying unless they are protected. While coaxial stacking has long been known to stabilize helix ends by directly stacking two canonical helices coaxially, based on analysis of helix-loop junctions in RNA crystal structures, herein we describe helix capping, topological stacking of a helix end with a basepair or an unpaired nucleotide from the loop side, which in turn protects helix ends. Beyond the topological protection of helix ends against fraying, helix capping should confer greater stability onto the resulting composite helices. Our analysis also reveals that this general motif is associated with the formation of tertiary structure interactions. Greater knowledge about the dynamics at the helix-junctions in the secondary structure should enhance the prediction of RNA secondary structure with a richer set of energetic rules and help better understand the folding of a secondary structure into its three-dimensional structure. These together suggest that helix capping likely play a fundamental role in driving RNA folding. PMID:24691270

  12. Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approach to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.

  13. Status of 0{sup -+} in {omega}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} channels

    SciTech Connect

    Amelin, Dmitry

    1998-05-29

    Resonance-like behavior of phase of the 0{sup -+}{rho}{pi}{sup -} wave is found at M{approx_equal}1.6 MeV at VES spectrometer in {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} system. The results of the combined fit of 0{sup -+} waves obtained from PWA of the {omega}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} systems are presented.

  14. Omega Centauri Looks Radiant in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    A cluster brimming with millions of stars glistens like an iridescent opal in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Called Omega Centauri, the sparkling orb of stars is like a miniature galaxy. It is the biggest and brightest of the 150 or so similar objects, called globular clusters, that orbit around the outside of our Milky Way galaxy. Stargazers at southern latitudes can spot the stellar gem with the naked eye in the constellation Centaurus.

    Globular clusters are some of the oldest objects in our universe. Their stars are over 12 billion years old, and, in most cases, formed all at once when the universe was just a toddler. Omega Centauri is unusual in that its stars are of different ages and possess varying levels of metals, or elements heavier than boron. Astronomers say this points to a different origin for Omega Centauri than other globular clusters: they think it might be the core of a dwarf galaxy that was ripped apart and absorbed by our Milky Way long ago.

    In this new view of Omega Centauri, Spitzer's infrared observations have been combined with visible-light data from the National Science Foundation's Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. Visible-light data with a wavelength of .55 microns is colored blue, 3.6-micron infrared light captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera is colored green and 24-micron infrared light taken by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer is colored red.

    Where green and red overlap, the color yellow appears. Thus, the yellow and red dots are stars revealed by Spitzer. These stars, called red giants, are more evolved, larger and dustier. The stars that appear blue were spotted in both visible and 3.6-micron-, or near-, infrared light. They are less evolved, like our own sun. Some of the red spots in the picture are distant galaxies beyond our own.

    Spitzer found very little dust

  15. Mariner 9 observations of the south polar CAP of Mars - Evidence for residual CO2 frost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, D. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Murray, B. C.

    1990-02-01

    The first spacecraft observations of the south residual polar cap of Mars were obtained by the Mariner 9 orbiter during the Martian southern summer season, 1971-1972. Analyses of Viking orbiter observations obtained 3 Mars years later have shown that residual carbon dioxide frost was present at the south polar cap in 1977. In this study, Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer spectra and television camera images are used in conjuction with multispectral thermal emission models to constrain the temperatures of dark bare ground and bright frost regions within the south residual cap. The results provide strong evidence that carbon dioxide frost was present throughout the summer season despite the fact that the residual frost deposits observed by Mariner 9 were less extensive than those observed by Viking.

  16. A microphysically-based approach to modeling emissivity and albedo of the martian seasonal caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Moncet, J.-L.; Titus, T.N.; Hansen, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    A new model of albedo and emissivity of the martian seasonal caps represented as porous CO2 slabs containing spherical voids and dust particles is described. In the model, a radiative transfer model is coupled with a microphysical model in order to link changes in albedo and emissivity to changes in porosity caused by ice metamorphism. The coupled model is capable of reproducing temporal changes in the spectra of the caps taken by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor and it can be used as the forward model in the retrievals of the caps' physical properties (porosity, dust abundance, void and dust grain size) from the spectra. Preliminary results from such inversion studies are presented. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mariner 9 observations of the south polar cap of Mars - Evidence for residual CO2 frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Murray, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The first spacecraft observations of the south residual polar cap of Mars were obtained by the Mariner 9 orbiter during the Martian southern summer season, 1971-1972. Analyses of Viking orbiter observations obtained 3 Mars years later have shown that residual carbon dioxide frost was present at the south polar cap in 1977. In this study, Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer spectra and television camera images are used in conjuction with multispectral thermal emission models to constrain the temperatures of dark bare ground and bright frost regions within the south residual cap. The results provide strong evidence that carbon dioxide frost was present throughout the summer season despite the fact that the residual frost deposits observed by Mariner 9 were less extensive than those observed by Viking.

  18. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function in older persons.

    PubMed

    Lauretani, F; Bandinelli, S; Bartali, B; Benedetta, B; Cherubini, A; Iorio, A D; Blè, A; Giacomini, V; Corsi, A M; Guralnik, J M; Ferrucci, L

    2007-07-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest that both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve function. Rats feed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes and improvement of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function. Changes between baseline and the 3-year follow-up in peripheral nerve function was assessed by standard surface ENG of the right peroneal nerve in 384 male and 443 female participants of the InCHIANTI study (age range: 24-97 years). Plasma concentrations of selected fatty acids assessed at baseline by gas chromatography. Independent of confounders, plasma omega-6 fatty acids and linoleic acid were significantly correlated with peroneal NCV at enrollment. Lower plasma PUFA, omega-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid, ratio omega-6/omega-3, arachidonic acid and docosahexanoic acid levels were significantly predicted a steeper decline in nerve function parameters over the 3-year follow-up. Low plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels were associated with accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function with aging.

  19. Optical fiber interferometric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Yan; Zhai, Yufeng; Wang, An

    2006-02-01

    We design an optical fiber spectrometer based on optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In optical fiber Fourier transform spectrometer spectra information is obtained by Fourier transform of interferogram, which recording intensity change vs. optical path difference. Optical path difference is generated by stretching one fiber arm which wound around fiber stretch drive by high power supply. Information from detector is linear with time rather than with optical path difference. In order to obtain high accuracy wavenumber, reference beam is used to control the optical path difference. Optical path difference is measured by reference laser interference fringe. Interferogram vs. optical path difference is resampled by Brault algorithm with information from reference beam and test beam. In the same condition, one-sided interferogram has higher resolution than that of two-sided interferogram. For one-sided interferogram, zero path difference position must be determined as accurately as possible, small shift will result in phase error. For practical experiment in laboratory, position shift is inevitable, so phase error correction must be considered. Zero order fringe is determined by curve fitting. Spectrum of light source is obtained from one-sided interferogram by Fourier cosine transform. A spectral resolution of about ~3.1 cm -1 is achieved. In practice, higher resolution is needed. This compact equipment will be used in emission spectra and absorption spectra, especially in infrared region.

  20. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  1. Dynamics Explorer 1: Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.; Collin, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS) experiment was selected as part of the Dynamics Explorer (DE) Program. One of the primary goals of the DE program was to investigate in detail the plasma physics processes responsible for energizing thermal (approximately 1 eV) ionospheric ions and transporting them to the earth's plasma sheet and distant polar cap. The results of the EICS data analysis (including support of other investigators) and of the archiving efforts supported by this contract are summarized in this document. Also reported are some aspects of our operational support activities.

  2. ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions...

  3. Measuring the masses of the charged hadrons using a RICH as a precision velocity spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Peter S.; Engelfried, Jurgen; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2010-08-01

    The Selex experiment measured several billion charged hadron tracks with a high precision magnetic momentum spectrometer and high precision RICH velocity spectrometer. We have analyzed these data to simultaneously measure the masses of all the long lived charged hadrons and anti-hadrons from the {pi} to the {Omega} using the same detector and technique. The statistical precision achievable with this data sample is more than adequate for 0.1% mass measurements. We have used these measurements to develop and understand the systematic effects in using a RICH as a precision velocity spectrometer with the goal of measuring 10 masses with precision ranging from 100 KeV for the lightest to 1000 KeV for the heaviest. This requires controlling the radius measurement of RICH rings to the {approx} 10{sup -4} level. Progress in the mass measurements and the required RICH analysis techniques developed are discussed.

  4. Determining the coordinate dependence of some components of the cubic susceptibility tensor {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous absorbing plate at an arbitrary frequency dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2010-12-29

    The possibility of unique reconstruction of the spatial profile of the cubic nonlinear susceptibility tensor component {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous plate whose medium has a symmetry plane m{sub y} perpendicular to its surface is proved for the first time and the unique reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The amplitude complex coefficients of reflection and transmission (measured in some range of angles of incidence) as well as of conversion of an s-polarised plane signal monochromatic wave into two waves propagating on both sides of the plate make it possible to reconstruct the profile. These two waves result from nonlinear interaction of a signal wave with an intense plane wave incident normally on the plate. All the waves under consideration have the same frequency {omega}, and so its variation helps study the frequency dispersion of the cubic nonlinear susceptibility tensor component {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}). For media with additional symmetry axes 2{sub z}, 4{sub z}, 6{sub z}, or {infinity}{sub z} that are perpendicular to the plate surface, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct the profile and to examine the frequency dispersion of about one third of all independent complex components of the tensor {chi}-hat{sup (3)}. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  5. A Comparison of 1 T(Omega) and 10 T (Omega) High Resistance Standards Between NIST and Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrett, D.G.; Dziuba, R.F.; Kraft, M.E.

    1999-04-23

    NIST-built 10 T{Omega} and commercial 1 T{Omega} standard resistors were hand carried between NIST and Sandia for a high resistance comparison. The comparison tested the ruggedness of the new NIST-built standard resistors, provided a check of the scaling between the two laboratories, supported measurements to reestablish NIST calibration services at 10 T{Omega} and 100 T{Omega}, and demonstrated the possibility of establishing a NIST high resistance measurement assurance program (MAP). The comparison has demonstrated agreement on the order of 0.07% which is within the expanded uncertainties (coverage factor = 2) of NIST and Sandia at 1 T{Omega} and 10 T{Omega}.

  6. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  7. Optical fiber smartphone spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2016-05-15

    An optical fiber-based smartphone spectrometer incorporating an endoscopic fiber bundle is demonstrated. The endoscope allows transmission of the smartphone camera LED light to a sample, removing complications from varying background illumination. The reflected spectra collected from a surface or interface is dispersed onto the camera CMOS using a reflecting diffraction grating. A spectral resolution as low as δλ∼2.0  nm over a bandwidth of Δλ∼250  nm is obtained using a slit width, ωslit=0.7  mm. The instrument has vast potential in a number of industrial applications including agricultural produce analysis. Spectral analysis of apples shows straightforward measurement of the pigments anthocyanins, carotenoid, and chlorophyll, all of which decrease with increasing storage time. PMID:27176971

  8. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  9. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  10. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status.

  11. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status. PMID:27482299

  12. Relationship between cap structure and energy gap in capped carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shota; Tanikawa, Kousei; Kuwahara, Riichi; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Revealing a universal relation between geometrical structures and electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the current objectives in nanocarbon community. Here, we investigate the local curvature of capped CNTs and define the cap region by a crossover behavior of the curvature energy versus the number of carbon atoms integrated from the tip to the tube region. Clear correlations among the energy gap of the cap localized states, the curvature energy, the number of carbon atoms in the cap region, and the number of specific carbon clusters are observed. The present analysis opens the way to understand the cap states.

  13. Relationship between cap structure and energy gap in capped carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shota; Tanikawa, Kousei; Kuwahara, Riichi; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-07-14

    Revealing a universal relation between geometrical structures and electronic properties of capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the current objectives in nanocarbon community. Here, we investigate the local curvature of capped CNTs and define the cap region by a crossover behavior of the curvature energy versus the number of carbon atoms integrated from the tip to the tube region. Clear correlations among the energy gap of the cap localized states, the curvature energy, the number of carbon atoms in the cap region, and the number of specific carbon clusters are observed. The present analysis opens the way to understand the cap states. PMID:27421422

  14. The role of the tissue omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in regulating tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jing X; Liu, Angela

    2013-06-01

    Angiogenesis is a necessary step in tumor growth and metastasis. It is well established that the metabolites of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, which must be obtained through the diet and cannot be synthesized de novo in mammals, have differential effects on cellular processes. Omega-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA)-derived metabolites promote angiogenesis by increasing growth factor expression whereas omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) have anti-angiogenic and antitumor properties. However, most studies thus far have failed to account for the role of the n-6 FA/n-3 FA ratio in angiogenesis and instead examined the absolute levels of n-6 and n-3 FA. This review highlights the biochemical interactions between n-6 and n-3 FA and focuses on how the n-6/n-3 FA ratio in tissues modulates tumor angiogenesis. We suggest that future work should consider the n-6/n-3 FA ratio to be a key element in experimental design and analysis. Furthermore, we recommend that clinical interventions should aim to both reduce n-6 metabolites and simultaneously increase n-3 FA intake.

  15. Nuclear diagnostics utilizing robust CR-39 for OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinenian, N.; Casey, D. T.; Manuel, M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2009-11-01

    Harsh EMP/x-ray/gamma-ray environments such as those found at OMEGA and OMEGA-EP (and soon the NIF) hinder electronic detection schemes for sensitive measurements of charged particles and neutrons. This has made passive particle detectors such as CR-39 attractive, especially since they measure the position, energy, and species of individual charged particles. To enhance the accuracy of CR-39-based measurements, and to lay the groundwork for new applications, new measurements of CR-39 response to accelerator-generated protons (from 0.35 MeV to 11.7 MeV) and 2.5-MeV neutrons have been made using a variety of CR-39 types and CR-39 processing techniques. Results include determination of energy-measurement accuracy and the sensitivity of energy measurements to CR-39 thickness, vacuum exposure, heat exposure, and various processing parameters. Application to a new and sensitive neutron detector for OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, and the NIF will be presented. This work was supported in part by US DoE, LLNL, and LLE.

  16. Gamma bang time analysis at OMEGA.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, A M; Herrmann, H W; Horsfield, C J; Young, C S; Miller, E K; Mack, J M; Kim, Y; Stoeffl, W; Rubery, M; Evans, S; Sedillo, T; Ali, Z A

    2010-10-01

    Absolute bang time measurements with the gas Cherenkov detector (GCD) and gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic have been performed to high precision at the OMEGA laser facility at the University of Rochester with bang time values for the two diagnostics agreeing to within 5 ps on average. X-ray timing measurements of laser-target coupling were used to calibrate a facility-generated laser timing fiducial with rms spreads in the measured coupling times of 9 ps for both GCD and GRH. Increased fusion yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will allow for improved measurement precision with the GRH easily exceeding NIF system design requirements. PMID:21033846

  17. Gamma bang time analysis at OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    McEvoy, A. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Stoeffl, W.; Ali, Z. A.

    2010-10-15

    Absolute bang time measurements with the gas Cherenkov detector (GCD) and gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic have been performed to high precision at the OMEGA laser facility at the University of Rochester with bang time values for the two diagnostics agreeing to within 5 ps on average. X-ray timing measurements of laser-target coupling were used to calibrate a facility-generated laser timing fiducial with rms spreads in the measured coupling times of 9 ps for both GCD and GRH. Increased fusion yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will allow for improved measurement precision with the GRH easily exceeding NIF system design requirements.

  18. Model for Formation of Martian Residual Cap Depressions (Swiss Cheese)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    In an effort for explain the formation of the `Swiss-cheese' terrain visible on the southern residual cap of Mars (Thomas et al., Nature, 404,2000); we have developed a radiative model to follow the growth/decay of an initial depression due to sublimation/condensation of carbon dioxide. The pits making up this terrain have many distinctive features; they are shallow (~10m deep), with steep walls and flat floors and contain an interior moat that runs along the bottom of the walls. Their diameters range from a few 10's of meters to a kilometer. The model accounts for incident sunlight, emitted thermal radiation, and scattered short and long wave radiation. We have included the effects of a layer of water ice placed under the carbon dioxide at adjustable depth. The water ice layer is free to store heat during the summer (when the carbon dioxide has been removed) through subsurface diffusion of heat. Release of this heat at the end of the summer can inhibit frost formation. We have investigated many cases involving pure dry ice with constant albedo, albedo as a function of insolation, and differing albedo for fresh and residual frost (the latter has lower albedo). In most cases the initial depressions heal themselves and disappear into the surrounding terrain. Cases involving the layer of water ice provide a much closer approximation to the shape of the observed features (especially the flat bottoms). A problem arises of how much exposed water ice we can have during the summer season and still have temperatures averaged over the footprint of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer be close to the carbon dioxide sublimation temperatures. The depth to the water ice layer is a strong controlling factor of the evolution of depression shape and depth in our model. Matching this shape with observations yields important information regarding the depth to any putative water ice layer within the residual cap itself. It is known from laboratory measurements that carbon dioxide is too

  19. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  20. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  1. Variability of the martian seasonal CO2 cap extent over eight Mars Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, Sylvain; Kleinböhl, Armin; Hayne, Paul O.; Kass, David M.; Schofield, John T.; McCleese, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    We present eight Mars Years of nearly continuous tracking of the CO2 seasonal cap edges from Mars Year (MY) 24 to 31 using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) thermal infrared data. Spatial and temporal resolutions are 1 pixel per degree and 10°Ls (aerocentric longitude of the Sun). The seasonal caps are defined as the regions where the diurnal radiometric temperature variations at ∼32 μm wavelength do not exceed 5 K. With this definition, terrains with small areal fraction of defrosted regolith able to experience measurable diurnal temperature cycles are not mapped as part of the cap. This technique is adequate to distinguish CO2 from H2O ices, and effective during the polar night or under low illumination conditions. The present analysis answers outstanding questions stemming from fragmented observations at visible wavelengths: (1) the previously sparsely documented growth of the North seasonal caps (160° < Ls < 270°) is shown to be repeatable within 1-2° equivalent latitude, and monotonic over the MY 24-31 time period; high repeatability is observed during the retreat of the caps in non-dusty years (∼1° or less equivalent latitude); (2) the MY 25 storm does not seem to have impacted the growth rate, maximal extents, or recession rate of the North seasonal caps, whereas the MY 28 dust storm clearly sped up the recession of the cap (∼2° smaller on average after the storm, during the recession, compared to other years); (3) during non-dusty years, the growth of the South seasonal cap (350° < Ls < 100°) presents noticeable variability (up to ∼4° equivalent latitude near Ls = 20°) with a maximum extent reached near Ls = 90°; (4) the retreat of the Southern seasonal cap (100° < Ls < 310°) exhibits large inter-annual variability, especially near 190° < Ls < 220°; (5) the recession of the MY 25 South seasonal cap is significantly accelerated during the

  2. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  3. Albedo Variations on the Martian Northern Polar Cap as Seen by MGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, A. S.; Bass, D. S.; Tamppan, L. K.

    2003-01-01

    The Viking Orbiters determined that the surface of Mars northern residual cap is water ice. Many researchers have related observed atmospheric water vapor abundances to seasonal exchange between reservoirs such as the polar caps, but the extent to which the exchange between the surface and the atmosphere remains uncertain. Early studies of the ice coverage and albedo of the northern residual Martian polar cap using Mariner 9 and Viking images reported that there were substantial internannual differences in ice deposition on the polar cap, a result that suggested a highly variable Martian climate. However, some of the data used in these studies were obtained at differing values of heliocentric solar longitude (Ls). Reevaluation of this dataset in indicated that the residual cap undergoes seasonal brightening throughout the summer, and indicated that this process repeats from year to year. In this study we continue this work with data acquired with Mars Global Surveyor s Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments. We use MOC Wide Angel (WA) red filter images

  4. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, L.; Maas, F. E.; Noll, O.; Rodriguez Pineiro, D.; Valente, R.

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% ⊕ 2%/√E/GeV . It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO4 crystals and will be operated at -25°C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The current pulses from the APDs will be integrated, amplified and shaped by ASIC chips which were developed for this purpose. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is presented.

  5. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  6. Advanced-ignition-concept exploration on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, W.; Anderson, K. S.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu; Gotchev, O. V.; Kelly, J. H.; Li, C. K.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Norreys, P. A.; Nilson, P. M.; Patel, P. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Ren, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Solodov, A. A.; Stephens, R. B.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2009-12-01

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40 µm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1 × 1016 W cm-2) for shock generation.

  7. Integrated Fast-Ignition Experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Anderson, K. S.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R. S.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nilson, P. M.; Sangster, T. C.; Solodov, A. A.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hey, D.; Patel, P. K.; Stephens, R. B.; Lauck, R.; Norreys, P. A.

    2009-11-01

    Integrated fast-ignition experiments using room-temperature cone-in-shell targets have begun at the Omega/Omega EP Laser Facility. Empty 40-μm-thick CD shells are imploded using 54 UV beams. At the time of peak compression, a short-pulse (˜10 ps) IR laser with energy >1 kJ is focused into the tip of the hollow cone. A three-fold increase in time-integrated 2- to 7-keV x-ray emission was observed, indicating that fast-electron energy is coupled into the core. Neutron detectors are strongly affected by the emission of an intense γ-ray pulse, making it challenging to measure neutron yield. Significant reduction of the γ-ray background has been achieved by gating the MCP detector and using a liquid scintillator to suppress the afterglow. The D2 neutron yield is being measured. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC52-08NA28302, DE-FC02-04ER54789, and DE-FG02-05ER54839.

  8. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm-2) for shock generation.

  9. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm^-2) for shock generation.

  10. Analysis of OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral images with a linear unmixing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sotin, C.; Le Deit, L.; Gendrin, A.; Mustard, J.; Bibring, J.-P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Pinet, P.

    The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express has completed a near global coverage of Mars in 352 spectral channels from 0.3 to 5.1 µm at a spatial resolution ranging from 300 m to 4 km. This unprecedented data set provides the opportunity to investigate the mineralogy of the surface of Mars by looking at diagnostic spectral features in the visible and near infrared domains [1]. We have focused our data reduction approach on the linear unmixing strategies. Working on a pixel by pixel basis, we find the best linear combination of a suite of laboratory spectra of pure minerals which match the OMEGA data. A spectrally flat and dark artificial component is introduced to account for shading effects. Similarly, we use two pure positive and negative slopes to account at first order for continuum slope variations linked to scattering, grain size and photometric effects. This approach allows us to draw several conclusions on the overall mineralogy of the observed regions. In particular, the Syrtis Major area appears dominated by a mixing between low and high Calcium pyroxenes in various amounts, with localized exposures of iron-rich olivines. At a global scale, the southern hemisphere appears enriched in both low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxenes. Signatures of iron oxides are detected in the bright regions of the northern hemisphere. These results agree with those obtained with different approaches such as MGM or ratio images [1,2]. The advantages and limits of the unmixing approach applied to OMEGA hyperspectral images will be discussed. References: [1] Bibring et al. (2005), Science, vol. 307, 5715, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard et al., Science (2005), vol. 307, 5715, 1594-1597.

  11. Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte

    2005-03-11

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer observed the northern circumpolar regions of Mars at a resolution of a few kilometers. An extended region at 240 degrees E, 85 degrees N, with an area of 60 kilometers by 200 kilometers, exhibits absorptions at wavelengths of 1.45, 1.75, 1.94, 2.22, 2.26, and 2.48 micrometers. These signatures can be unambiguously attributed to calcium-rich sulfates, most likely gypsum. This region corresponds to the dark longitudinal dunes of Olympia Planitia. These observations reveal that water alteration played a major role in the formation of the constituting minerals of northern circumpolar terrains.

  12. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a novel feline IFN-omega.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Min; Xue, Qing-Hua; Sun, Lei; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2007-02-01

    The interferons (IFNs) are a large family of multifunctional secreted protein involved in antiviral defense, cell growth regulation, and immune activation. The human IFNs are used worldwide as antiviral drugs. Here, we present cDNAs encoding 13 novel feline IFN-omega (FeIFN-omega) subtypes that share 95%-99% amino acid sequence identity. FeIFN-omega2 and FeIFN-omega4 have seven additional amino acids at position 109 that are not present in other subtypes. Sequence identity of the present FeIFN proteins encoded by the 13 subtypes is approximately 57% compared with human IFN-omega (HuIFN-omega). All 13 FeIFN-omega subtypes were expressed in Escherichia coli using a periplasmic expression system. The antiviral activity of each product was evaluated in vitro. In addition, subtype FeIFN-omega2 was cytoplasm expressed in E. coli and secretion expressed in Pichia pastoris. The purified mature recombinant protein demonstrated significant antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in vitro. PMID:17316139

  14. Relativistic quark model for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima, Franz Gross

    2009-08-01

    We compute the Omega- electromagnetic form factors and the decuplet baryon magnetic moments using a quark model application of the Covariant Spectator Theory. Our predictions for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors can be tested in the future by lattice QCD simulations at the physical strange quark mass.

  15. Role of Omega-3 PUFAs in Neurobiological Health.

    PubMed

    Grant, R; Guest, J

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the essential, dietary-derived, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-6 and omega-3 to human health was first reported over 85 years ago. Subsequent research has revealed many beneficial effects of the omega-3 PUFAs in particular. This has been linked to their involvement in multiple biochemical functions, including synthesis of inflammatory mediators, cell membrane fluidity, intracellular signalling and gene expression. Through these pathways, the omega-3 PUFAs help modulate aspects of inflammation and immunity, cell growth and tissue repair. While a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the role of omega-3 PUFAs to health in the central nervous system (CNS) is still to be elucidated, a role for both inflammatory modulation and a direct impact on neuronal membrane fluidity and receptor function is apparent. At least partially through these mechanisms, low omega-3 levels have been associated with CNS-linked disorders such as poor cognition, depression, anxiety disorders, poor anger control, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and accelerated neurodegeneration in the elderly.Following a brief introduction to the history and chemistry of the omega-3 family of PUFAs, this chapter will provide an overview of the omega-3 fatty acids and how various members of this PUFA family influence central nervous system function leading towards either health or disease.

  16. Role of Omega-3 PUFAs in Neurobiological Health.

    PubMed

    Grant, R; Guest, J

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the essential, dietary-derived, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-6 and omega-3 to human health was first reported over 85 years ago. Subsequent research has revealed many beneficial effects of the omega-3 PUFAs in particular. This has been linked to their involvement in multiple biochemical functions, including synthesis of inflammatory mediators, cell membrane fluidity, intracellular signalling and gene expression. Through these pathways, the omega-3 PUFAs help modulate aspects of inflammation and immunity, cell growth and tissue repair. While a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the role of omega-3 PUFAs to health in the central nervous system (CNS) is still to be elucidated, a role for both inflammatory modulation and a direct impact on neuronal membrane fluidity and receptor function is apparent. At least partially through these mechanisms, low omega-3 levels have been associated with CNS-linked disorders such as poor cognition, depression, anxiety disorders, poor anger control, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and accelerated neurodegeneration in the elderly.Following a brief introduction to the history and chemistry of the omega-3 family of PUFAs, this chapter will provide an overview of the omega-3 fatty acids and how various members of this PUFA family influence central nervous system function leading towards either health or disease. PMID:27651257

  17. Selected bibliography of OMEGA, VLF and LF techniques applied to aircraft navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A bibliography is presented which includes references to the OMEGA navigation system, very low frequencies, time-frequency measurements, air traffic control, radio navigation, and applications of OMEGA.

  18. Hydrodynamics simulations of 2 (omega) laser propagation in underdense gasbag plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N B; Divol, L; Marinak, M M; Kerbel, G D; Suter, L J; Stevenson, R M; Slark, G E; Oades, K

    2004-04-05

    Recent 2{omega} laser propagation and stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) experiments performed on the Helen laser have been analyzed using the radiation-hydrodynamics code hydra. These experiments utilized two diagnostics sensitive to the hydrodynamics of gasbag targets: a fast x-ray framing camera (FXI) and an SRS streak spectrometer. With a newly implemented nonlocal thermal transport model, hydra is able to reproduce many features seen in the FXI images and the SRS streak spectra. Experimental and simulated side-on FXI images suggest that propagation can be explained by classical laser absorption and the resulting hydrodynamics. Synthetic SRS spectra generated from the hydra results reproduce the details of the experimental SRS streak spectra. Most features in the synthetic spectra can be explained solely by axial density and temperature gradients. The total SRS backscatter increases with initial gasbag fill density up to {approx} 0.08 times the critical density, then decreases. Images from a near-backscatter camera (NBI) show that severe beam spray is not responsible for the trend in total backscatter. Filamentation does not appear to be a significant factor in gasbag hydrodynamics. The simulation and analysis techniques established here can be used in upcoming experimental campaigns on the Omega laser facility and the National Ignition Facility.

  19. Hydrodynamics simulations of 2{omega} laser propagation in underdense gasbag plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N.B.; Divol, L.; Marinak, M.M.; Kerbel, G.D.; Suter, L.J.; Stevenson, R.M.; Slark, G.E.; Oades, K.

    2004-12-01

    Recent 2{omega} laser propagation and stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) experiments performed on the Helen laser have been analyzed using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA [M. M. Marinak, G. D. Kerbel, N. A. Gentile, O. Jones, D. Munro, S. Pollaine, T. R. Dittrich, and S. W. Haan, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)]. These experiments utilized two diagnostics sensitive to the hydrodynamics of gasbag targets: a fast x-ray framing camera (FXI) and a SRS streak spectrometer. With a newly implemented nonlocal thermal transport model, HYDRA is able to reproduce many features seen in the FXI images and the SRS streak spectra. Experimental and simulated side-on FXI images suggest that propagation can be explained by classical laser absorption and the resulting hydrodynamics. Synthetic SRS spectra generated from the HYDRA results reproduce the details of the experimental SRS streak spectra. Most features in the synthetic spectra can be explained solely by axial density and temperature gradients. The total SRS backscatter increases with initial gasbag fill density up to {approx_equal}0.08 times the critical density, then decreases. Data from a near-backscatter imaging camera show that severe beam spray is not responsible for the trend in total backscatter. Filamentation does not appear to be a significant factor in gasbag hydrodynamics. The simulation and analysis techniques established here can be used in ongoing experimental campaigns on the Omega laser facility and the National Ignition Facility.

  20. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  1. Tracking Retreat of the North Seasonal Ice Cap on Mars: Results from the THEMIS Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Wagstaff, K. L.; Ttus, T. N.

    2005-01-01

    The CO2 ice caps on Mars advance and retreat with the seasons. This phenomenon was first observed by Cassini and then confirmed by numerous ground based observations in 19th and 20th centuries. With the advent of the space age observations of the seasonal ice cap were done by all orbiting spacecraft starting with Mariner 7. Viking Orbiters and more recently the Mars Global Surveyor (particularly Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments) have accumulated significant data on the retreat of the CO2 seasonal cap. During Mars year 2 of THEMIS operations at Mars, we planned an observational campaign in which the THEMIS instrument (onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft) repeatedly observed the north seasonal polar cap from midwinter to late spring. THEMIS allows simultaneous observations in both Thermal IR (12.57 m) and Visible wavelengths (0.65 m). One of the goals for this work is to initiate an interannual program for observations of the seasonal ice caps using the THEMIS instrument. The most efficient way to detect the edge between frost and bare ground is directly onboard of the spacecraft. Prior to onboard software design effort, we have developed two groundbased algorithms for automatically finding the edge of the seasonal polar cap in THEMIS IR data. The first algorithm relies on fully calibrated data and can be used for highly reliable groundbased analyses. The second method was specifically developed for processing raw, uncalibrated data in a highly efficient way. It has the potential to enable automatic, onboard detections of the seasonal cap retreat. We have experimentally confirmed that both methods produce similar results, and we have validated both methods against a model constructed from the MGS TES data from the same season.

  2. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  3. The OPERA muon spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfagnini, A.; Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Cazes, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Di Troia, C.; Dulach, B.; Felici, G.; Mengucci, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Terranova, F.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Candela, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.

    2007-03-01

    The OPERA experiment will study νμ to ντ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 48 planes of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) operated in streamer mode. Each plane covers about 70 m2. A general introduction to the system installation and commissioning will be given. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behavior of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality test performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m2. Single and multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with the expectations. Finally, a description of the readout electronics and of the slow control system is given.

  4. Mesospheric aerosol sampling spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kohnert, Rick

    . The Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) instrument has been launched on two sounding rockets in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway to detect charged sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. The MASS instrument is designed to collect charged aerosols, cluster ions, and electrons on four pairs of graphite electrodes, three of which are biased with increasing voltage. The design of the MASS instrument was complicated by the short mean free path in the mesosphere. The opening to MASS was deliberately built to increase the mean free path and to reduce the shock wave within the instrument. The design procedure began with aerodynamics simulations of the flow through the instrument using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) in 3-D. The electric fields within the instrument were calculated using a Laplace solver in 3-D. With the aerodynamic and electric field simulations completed, an algorithm was created to find the trajectories of charged aerosols including collisions within MASS. Using this algorithm the collection efficiencies for each electrode was calculated as a function of the charge to mass ratio of the incoming particle. The simulation results have been confirmed experimentally using an Argon RF ion beam. The data from the August launches have been analyzed and the initial results show the MASS instrument operated as expected. Additional studies are underway to determine if there were effects from payload charging or spurious charge generation within the instrument. This project is supported by NASA.

  5. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  6. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  7. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  8. Compactible powders of omega-3 and β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2015-10-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used in both nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals in the form of triglycerides and ethyl esters. Administration forms available for omega-3 include bulk oil, soft gel capsules, emulsions and some powder compositions. Cyclodextrins are substances well known for their ability to encapsulate lipophilic molecules. In the present work, powders loaded with omega-3 oil, ranging from 10 to 40% (w/w), have been prepared by vacuum drying, freeze drying or spray granulation of aqueous mixtures of omega-3 oil and β-cyclodextrin. The powders were found to be partially crystalline by powder X-ray diffraction and to contain crystalline phases not present in pure β-cyclodextrin, indicating true complexation. The compactibility of the powders has been explored, revealing that a dry and compactible powder can be prepared from various omega-3 oils and β-cyclodextrin. Spray granulation was found to be the superior drying method for the preparation of compactible powders.

  9. Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Patients with ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LaChance, Laura; McKenzie, Kwame; Taylor, Valerie H.; Vigod, Simone N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have been shown to be deficient in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to controls (Hawkey & Nigg, 2014). Clinical trials of omega-3 and omega-6 supplements as treatment for ADHD have demonstrated minimal efficacy (Bloch & Qawasmi, 2011; Gillies, Sinn, Lad, Leach, & Ross, 2011; Hawkey & Nigg, 2014; Puri & Martins, 2014; Sonuga-Barke et al., 2013). Existing trials have analyzed omega-3 and omega-6 separately although the tissue ratio of these fatty acids (n6/n3) may be more important than absolute levels of either. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between blood n6/n3 and arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid (AA/EPA), to ADHD symptoms. Method: A systematic literature review identified original articles measuring blood n6/n3 or AA/EPA ratio in children and youth with ADHD, compared to controls without ADHD. Three databases were searched. Blood n6/n3, and AA/EPA ratios were compared between individuals with ADHD and controls. Results were pooled across studies using quantitative synthesis. Results: Five articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The pooled mean difference between patients with ADHD and controls was 1.97 (0.90–3.04) for n6/n3 (n=5 studies, I2 83%) and 8.25 (5.94–10.56) for AA/EPA (n=3 studies, I2 0%). Conclusions: Children and youth with ADHD have elevated ratios of both blood n6/n3 and AA/EPA fatty acids compared to controls. Thus an elevated n6/n3, and more specifically AA/EPA, ratio may represent the underlying disturbance in essential fatty acid levels in patients with ADHD. These findings have implications for the development of future interventions using essential fatty acids to treat ADHD, and for the use of these ratios as biomarkers for titrating and monitoring ADHD treatment with essential fatty acids. PMID:27274744

  10. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  11. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  12. Gamma ray spectrometer for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gin, D.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.; Khilkevitch, E.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Pasternak, A.; Polunovsky, I.; Kiptily, V.

    2014-08-21

    Gamma diagnostics is considered to be primary for the confined α-particles and runaway electrons measurements on ITER. The gamma spectrometer will be embedded into a neutron dump of the ITER Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic complex. It will supplement NPA measurements on the fuel isotope ratio and confined alphas/fast ions. In this paper an update on ITER gamma spectrometer developments is given. A new geometry of the system is described and detailed analysis of expected signals for the spectrometer is presented.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Peet, Malcolm; Stokes, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for physical health is now well recognised and there is increasing evidence that omega-3 fatty acids may also be important to mental health. The two main omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important biological functions in the CNS. DHA is a major structural component of neuronal membranes, and changing the fatty acid composition of neuronal membranes leads to functional changes in the activity of receptors and other proteins embedded in the membrane phospholipid. EPA has important physiological functions that can affect neuronal activity. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between depression and low dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and biochemical studies have shown reduced levels of omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cell membranes in both depressive and schizophrenic patients. Five of six double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia, and four of six such trials in depression, have reported therapeutic benefit from omega-3 fatty acids in either the primary or secondary statistical analysis, particularly when EPA is added on to existing psychotropic medication. Individual clinical trials have suggested benefits of EPA treatment in borderline personality disorder and of combined omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The evidence to date supports the adjunctive use of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of treatment unresponsive depression and schizophrenia. As these conditions are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus, omega-3 fatty acids should also benefit the physical state of these patients. However, as the clinical research evidence is preliminary, large, and definitive randomised controlled trials similar to those required for the licensing of any new pharmacological treatment are needed.

  14. Seasonal dynamic of water on the surface of Mars during MY27 and M28 apheleon and pre-aphelion seasons based on the OMEGA/Mars-Express data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, Nadezda; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Rodin, Alexander V.; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    OMEGA is a mapping spectrometer of the visible and near-infrared ranges. The instrument began its scientific phase on Mars orbit since January 2005 and it is till providing data. The instrument has 3 spectral ranges and we take into account two of them: 0.3-1 and 1-2.5 µm. In this study we focus on changes in the surface composition and structures concerned with global water redistribution during martian year - ices, water vapour, frost, as well as rocks and soils, which possess bound and adsorbed water. We have compared two aphelion seasons, the MY41 and M42 aphelion campaigns, that resulted in global mapping of Mars. Data treatment procedure involved atmospheric corrections, including correction of minor instrumental effects such as pixel-to-pixel nonlinearity and digital noise, and elimination of CO2 and water vapor absorption, based on the European Mars Climate Model,. For mapping of water ice, frosts and water bearing minerals we use features in the 1-2.5 µm spectral range. Spectral imaging data have been treated to retrieve maps of spectral indices related to surface water ice, based on 1.03, 1.2 and 1.5 bands, with the relationships between three H2 O ice features implying the estimate of ice grain size. We used model for BRF calculation (Mishchenko et al,1999) to infer possible water ice grain size variations. So, we studied the evolution of icy polar cap during spring and summer for 2 years. Bound water has been estimated based on the 1.93 feature. The zonal distribution of water ice and bound water around the North pole, frost microphysical structure and its seasonal variations suggest the strong contribution of stationary and quasistationary planetary atmospheric waves residing in the circumpolar vortex, to the water cycle during the aphelion season. Also we analyzed the latitudinal global redistribution of bound water. The results are consistent with simulations of the Mars water cycle we carried out with help of the GFDL General Circulation model

  15. CAPS Capsule. Volume 5, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry, Ed.; And Others

    Published 3 times yearly by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, CAPS Capsule acquaints the reader with recent projects, meetings, publications and materials which are of interest to those in the helping professions. This issue introduces several new publications offered by CAPS under the name, "The Counselor's S x-Pack."…

  16. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  17. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  18. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  19. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  20. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments. PMID:26483183

  2. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  3. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  4. The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present

  5. OMEGA timing receiver, design and system test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. J.; Britt, J. E.; Chi, A.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a two frequency OMEGA Timing Receiver is discussed. The receiver tracks the arrival time of the signals by precise phase matching at the receiving antenna. Provision is made for inserting a propagation delay correction for each signal path. Time is measured as the difference between the zero crossing coincidence of the corrected signals and the local time. This number is displayed on the front panel in microseconds. The receiver can also function as a precise phase tracking receiver for collection of propagation data essential to augmenting the propagation corrections. All phase and time information is made available in a BCD format for flexibility in interfacing with other equipment. Results of preliminary tests using experimental transmissions are given. Preliminary results indicate time may be transferred by this technique to an accuracy of a few microseconds.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this sturning image provided by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Omega Nebula (M17) resembles the fury of a raging sea, showing a bubbly ocean of glowing hydrogen gas and small amounts of other elements such as oxygen and sulfur. The nebula, also known as the Swan Nebula, is a hotbed of newly born stars residing 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The wavelike patterns of gas have been sculpted and illuminated by a torrent of ultraviolet radiation from the young massive stars, which lie outside the picture to the upper left. The ultraviolet radiation is carving and heating the surfaces of cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed surfaces glow orange and red in this photograph. The green represents an even hotter gas that masks background structures. Various gases represented with color are: sulfur, represented in red; hydrogen, green; and oxygen blue.

  7. Pulsating Hot Subdwarfs in Omega Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, S. K.; Calamida, A.; Fontaine, G.; Monelli, M.; Bono, G.; Alonso, M. L.; Van Grootel, V.; Brassard, P.; Chayer, P.; Catelan, M.; Littlefair, S.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    We recently discovered the first globular cluster hot subdwarf pulsators in Omega Centauri (ω Cen). These stars were initially thought to belong to the class of rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars, which are well established among the field star population and have become showcases for asteroseismology. However, our spectroscopic analysis revealed the ω Cen variables to be significantly hotter than expected, indicating that they form a new class of subdwarf O pulsators clustered around 50 000 K, not known among the field star population. Non-adiabatic pulsation modelling suggests that the driver for the pulsations occurs via the same iron opacity mechanism that is at work in the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars.

  8. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  9. Implosion spectroscopy in Rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Bitaud, Laurent; Seytor, Patricia; Reverdin, Charles

    2014-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept has been validated in previous experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. This new hohlraum type can now be used as a well-characterized experimental platform to study indirect drive implosion, at higher radiation temperatures than would be feasible at this scale with classical cylindrical hohlraums. Recent experiments have focused on the late stages of implosion and hotspot behavior. The capsules included both a thin buried Titanium tracer layer, 0-3 microns from the inner surface, Argon dopant in the deuterium gas fuel and Germanium doped CH shells, providing a variety of spectral signatures of the plasma conditions in different parts of the target. X-ray spectroscopy and imaging were used to study compression, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities growth at the inner surface and mix between the shell and gas.

  10. BVRI CCD photometry of Omega Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1987-12-01

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of V vs B-V, V vs V-I, and V vs B-I have been constructed based on 179 BVRI CCD frames of two adjoining 4x2.5-arcmin fields in Omega Cen (NGC 5139) obtained with the 1.54-m Danish La Silla telescope. The spread in the main sequences noted in the three CMDs indicates that the wide range in chemical composition among the evolved stars in this cluster persists as well in the unevolved stars. This result suggests that the abundance variations are primordial. A difference in magnitude between the turnoff and the horizontal branch of 3.8 + or - 0.15 is found which is greater than a previous value. 38 references.

  11. Long duration backlighter experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A. B.; Glendinning, S. G.; Young, P. E.; Hsing, W. W.; Foord, M.; Schneider, M.; Lu, K.; Dittrich, T.; Wallace, R.; Sorce, C.

    2008-10-15

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {mu}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {mu}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {mu}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  12. New portrait of Omega Nebula's glistening watercolours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    The Omega Nebula, sometimes called the Swan Nebula, is a dazzling stellar nursery located about 5500 light-years away towards the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). An active star-forming region of gas and dust about 15 light-years across, the nebula has recently spawned a cluster of massive, hot stars. The intense light and strong winds from these hulking infants have carved remarkable filigree structures in the gas and dust. When seen through a small telescope the nebula has a shape that reminds some observers of the final letter of the Greek alphabet, omega, while others see a swan with its distinctive long, curved neck. Yet other nicknames for this evocative cosmic landmark include the Horseshoe and the Lobster Nebula. Swiss astronomer Jean-Philippe Loys de Chéseaux discovered the nebula around 1745. The French comet hunter Charles Messier independently rediscovered it about twenty years later and included it as number 17 in his famous catalogue. In a small telescope, the Omega Nebula appears as an enigmatic ghostly bar of light set against the star fields of the Milky Way. Early observers were unsure whether this curiosity was really a cloud of gas or a remote cluster of stars too faint to be resolved. In 1866, William Huggins settled the debate when he confirmed the Omega Nebula to be a cloud of glowing gas, through the use of a new instrument, the astronomical spectrograph. In recent years, astronomers have discovered that the Omega Nebula is one of the youngest and most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way. Active star-birth started a few million years ago and continues through today. The brightly shining gas shown in this picture is just a blister erupting from the side of a much larger dark cloud of molecular gas. The dust that is so prominent in this picture comes from the remains of massive hot stars that have ended their brief lives and ejected material back into space, as well as the cosmic detritus from which future suns form. The

  13. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Diets.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Candela, C; Roldan Puchalt, M C; Palma Milla, S; Lopez Plaza, B; Bermejo, L

    2015-01-01

    The article is a summary of Dra. Carmen Gómez Candela's presentation at the Science in Nutrition 3rd International Congress in Milan, March 2014. The article covers omega-3 fatty acids use in different medical areas and several institutions' opinions in relation to the topic. Omega-3 acids are essential fatty acids. A certain amount of omega-3 is needed in our daily diet; however, the usual consumption is generally less than the recommended amount. Changes in dietary patterns in the course of history have led to deficit levels of omega-3 in the human body. Currently, there is increasing evidence of the benefits of omega-3 in different medical specialities. There are still some gaps regarding its role in illnesses such as dementia, psychiatric disorders, and inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, stronger evidence is being proved in cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This article provides a reflection on possible ways to increase omega-3 daily consumption and the constraints associated with food with high contents of heavy metals, which, in turn, are also rich in omega-3s.

  14. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  15. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  16. Observation of parity violation in the Omega- ---> Lambda K- decay

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.C.; Burnstein, R.A.; Chakravorty, A.; Chen, Y.C.; Choong, W.-S.; Clark, K.; Dukes, E.C.; Durandet, C.; Felix, J.; Fu, Y.; Gidal, G.; Gustafson, H.R.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; James, C.; Jenkins, C.M.; Jones, T.D.; Kaplan, D.M.; Longo, M.J.; Luebke, W.; Luk, K.-B.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, Berkeley /Fermilab /Guanajuato U. /IIT, Chicago /Lausanne U. /LBL, Berkeley /Michigan U. /South Alabama U. /Virginia U.

    2005-05-01

    The {alpha} decay parameter in the process {Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}K{sup -} has been measured from a sample of 4.50 million unpolarized {Omega}{sup -} decays recorded by the HyperCP (E871) experiment at Fermilab and found to be [1.78 {+-} 0.19(stat) {+-} 0.16(syst)] x 10{sup -2}. This is the first unambiguous evidence for a nonzero {alpha} decay parameter, and hence parity violation, in the {Omega}{sup -} {Lambda}K{sup -} decay.

  17. Search for lepton flavor violating decays tau+/--->l+/-omega.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Ayad, R; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Biesiada, J; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Miyashita, T S; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2008-02-22

    A search for lepton flavor violating decays of a tau to a lighter-mass charged lepton and an omega vector meson is performed using 384.1 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center PEP-II storage ring. No signal is found, and the upper limits on the branching ratios are determined to be B(tau(+/-)-->e;{+/-}omega)<1.1 x10 (-7) and B(tau(+/-)-->micro(+/-)omega)<1.0 x 10(-7) at 90% confidence level. PMID:18352541

  18. Multi-Kev X-Ray Emission from High-Z Gas Targets Fielded at Omega and NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Mark; Fournier, Kevin; Colvin, Jeff; Kane, Jave

    2010-11-01

    We report on the measured X-ray flux from gas-filled targets shot at both the OMEGA and NIF laser facilities. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at ˜ 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3φ (˜350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. The NIF targets were thin walled (25 μm), 4 mm long, 4 mm inner-diameter epoxy pipes filled with 1.2 atm of a 65:35 Ar:Xe mixture. The NIF experiments heated these targets with 350 kJ of 3φ (˜350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 5 ns square pulse at up to 75 TW of laser power. The emitted X-ray flux was monitored with the X-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional X-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated X-ray detectors. The X-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. The results from both experiments will be compared. This work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Edge of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  20. A Comparison of Composite Reliability Estimators: Coefficient Omega Confidence Intervals in the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Coefficient omega and alpha are both measures of the composite reliability for a set of items. Unlike coefficient alpha, coefficient omega remains unbiased with congeneric items with uncorrelated errors. Despite this ability, coefficient omega is not as widely used and cited in the literature as coefficient alpha. Reasons for coefficient omega's…

  1. Characterizing Hot Electron Generation and Transport via Bremsstrahlung Emission on the High Intensity OMEGA EP Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, J.; McGuffey, C.; Krauland, C.; Sorokovikova, A.; Qiao, B.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Stephens, R. B.; Chen, C. D.; Westover, B.; McLean, H. S.

    2014-10-01

    The investigation of high intensity laser generated fast electron beams is important for a number of High Energy Density Science applications, which include proton sources and fast ignition among others. A series of experimental campaigns performed using the kilojoule, 10-ps OMEGA EP laser closely examined the impact of a preformed plasma on laser plasma interaction and electron generation. Here we present the analysis of the measured bremsstrahlung x-ray radiation and the inferred results on fast electron characteristics. Simulations, performed with the Monte-Carlo code package ITS 3.0, generate the x-ray response of the target to an injected electron beam with a given temperature, energy and divergence angle. The simulated x-rays are then compared to those collected by the bremsstrahlung spectrometers, which allows us to characterize fast electrons created in the experiment. Preliminary results show a decrease in hot electron temperature with an increase in pre-pulse, which is further corroborated by magnetic electron and Cu-K α spectrometers. This work performed under the auspices of the US DOE under contracts DE-FOA-0000583 (FES, NNSA), DE-NA0002026 (NLUF) and DE-FC02-04ER54789 (FSC).

  2. Effect of intravenous omega-6 and omega-3 fat emulsions on nitrogen retention and protein kinetics in burned rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, N; Tashiro, T; Yamamori, H; Takagi, K; Morishima, Y; Otsubo, Y; Sugiura, T; Furukawa, K; Nitta, H; Nakajima, N; Suzuki, N; Ito, I

    1999-02-01

    The effect of omega-3 fat emulsion on nitrogen retention and kinetics in relation to fatty acid profile were investigated in burned rats receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). A fat emulsion of a structured symmetrical triacylglycerol containing only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (2:1) was prepared. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by fat-free chow for 2 wk. Then rats were fed exclusively with one of three types of TPN for 7 d. Animals in group C received fat-free TPN (n = 11). Group omega 6 received safflower oil fat emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total caloric intake (n = 11). Group omega 3 received fat emulsion containing only EPA and DHA (1% of total calories, n = 11), in addition to safflower oil emulsion (19% of total calories). On day 5, each rat was subjected to 20% full-thickness scald burns. Rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia 48 h after burning. The rats in group C became deficient in omega-6 essential fatty acids. Cumulative nitrogen balance was decreased significantly in group omega 6. The rates of whole-body protein synthesis were increased significantly in both groups omega 6 and omega 3. In omega 6, however, the rates of whole-body protein breakdown were increased significantly. In conclusion, the rates of whole-body protein breakdown increased and nitrogen retention was aggravated significantly in animals administered the safflower oil emulsion. Significant increases of urinary excretion of total catecholamine were also observed. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 concentrations were not significantly different among three groups. Supplementation with the new omega-3 fat emulsion, however, improved protein metabolism in burned rats receiving TPN. PMID:9990578

  3. High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Camilla M M; Kac, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies suggest association between low concentrations of omega-3 family fatty acids and greater risk for post-partum depression (PPD). The objective was to investigate the effect of unbalanced dietary intake of omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 in the prevalence for PPD. The study comprises a prospective cohort with four waves of follow-up during pregnancy and one following delivery. PPD was evaluated according to the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (PPD ≥ 11) in 106 puerperae between 2005 and 2007, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Independent variables included socio-demographic, obstetric, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake data, which were obtained by means of a food frequency questionnaire in the first trimester of pregnancy. Statistical analysis involved calculation of PPD prevalence and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. PPD prevalence amounted to 26.4% [n = 28; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 18.0-34.8], and higher prevalences of PPD were observed in women who consumed an omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 (60.0%) and in those with pre-pregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) (66.7%). These variables held as factors associated to PPD in the multivariate model, elevating the chances of occurrence of the outcome in 2.50 (CI 95%: 1.21-5.14) and 4.01 times (CI 95%: 1.96-8.20), respectively. Analyses were adjusted for age, schooling, pre-pregnancy BMI, lipids consumption and time elapsed since delivery. It verified an association between omega-6/omega-3 ratio above 9:1, the levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine, and the prevalence of PPD. These results add to the evidence regarding the importance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the regulation of mental health mechanisms. PMID:22136220

  4. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  5. Syntheses of [omega]-alkynyl aldehydes and ketones via oxidation of [omega]-alkynyl alcohols with pyridinium dichromate

    SciTech Connect

    Bierer, D.E.; Kabalka, G.W. )

    1988-01-01

    Pyridinium dichromate (PDC) is an effective reagent for the oxidation of alcohols and a number of modifications of the original procedure have been reported. Interestingly, PDC has never been used to oxidize non-conjugated acetylenic alcohols. As a part of a project involving the chemical preparation of a number of unsaturated amino acids, the authors investigated the synthesis of a series of [omega]-alkynyl aldehydes. The authors now report that the PDC oxidation of [omega]-alkynyl alcohols is an effective route to the corresponding [omega]-alkynyl carbonyl compounds.

  6. Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Mi; Chung, Eun-Jung; Um, Young-Sook; Park, Taesun

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disorders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and selected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 +/-1.5 yrs) and matched controls. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Sigmaw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were significantly lower and the Sigmaomega-6/Sigmaomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Sigmaomega-3 and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Sigmaomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study. PMID:19329391

  7. Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Mi; Chung, Eun-Jung; Um, Young-Sook; Park, Taesun

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disorders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and selected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 +/-1.5 yrs) and matched controls. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Sigmaw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were significantly lower and the Sigmaomega-6/Sigmaomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Sigmaomega-3 and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Sigmaomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study.

  8. Resolution-enhanced Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Aubrun, J. N.; Rosenberg, W. J.; Roche, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    A familiar mapping spectrometer implementation utilizes two dimensional detector arrays with spectral dispersion along one direction and spatial along the other. Spectral images are formed by spatially scanning across the scene (i.e., push-broom scanning). For imaging grating and prism spectrometers, the slit is perpendicular to the spatial scan direction. For spectrometers utilizing linearly variable focal-plane-mounted filters the spatial scan direction is perpendicular to the direction of spectral variation. These spectrometers share the common limitation that the number of spectral resolution elements is given by the number of pixels along the spectral (or dispersive) direction. Resolution enhancement by first passing the light input to the spectrometer through a scanned etalon or Michelson is discussed. Thus, while a detector element is scanned through a spatial resolution element of the scene, it is also temporally sampled. The analysis for all the pixels in the dispersive direction is addressed. Several specific examples are discussed. The alternate use of a Michelson for the same enhancement purpose is also discussed. Suitable for weight constrained deep space missions, hardware systems were developed including actuators, sensor, and electronics such that low-resolution etalons with performance required for implementation would weigh less than one pound.

  9. Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Green, Robert; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Cable, Morgan; Ehlmann, Bethany; Haag, Justin; Lamborn, Andrew; McKinley, Ian; Rodriguez, Jose; van Gorp, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a modular visible to short wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer architecture which could be adapted to a variety of mission concepts requiring low mass and low power. Imaging spectroscopy is an established technique to address complex questions of geologic evolution by mapping diagnostic absorption features due to minerals, organics, and volatiles throughout our solar system. At the core of UCIS is an Offner imaging spectrometer using M3 heritage and a miniature pulse tube cryo-cooler developed under the NASA Maturation of Instruments for Solar System Exploration (MatISSE) program to cool the focal plane array. The TRL 6 integrated spectrometer and cryo-cooler provide a basic imaging spectrometer capability that is used with a variety of fore optics to address lunar, mars, and small body science goals. Potential configurations include: remote sensing from small orbiters and flyby spacecraft; in situ panoramic imaging spectroscopy; and in situ micro-spectroscopy. A micro-spectroscopy front end is being developed using MatISSE funding with integration and testing planned this summer.

  10. Double-Shell Capsule Implosions at NOVA and OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, R. G.; Barnes, Cris W.; Chrien, Robert E.; Delamater, Norman D.; Duke, Joseph R.; Elliott, Norman E.; Gobby, Peter L.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Moore, Joyce E.; Pollak, Gregory D.; Varnum, William S.; Colvin, Jeffrey D.; Lerche, Richard A.; Phillips, Thomas W.

    1998-11-01

    Recent calculations indicate that double shell targets may provide an alternative, non-cryogenic path to ignition on NIF. Experiments have been conducted at the NOVA and OMEGA lasers to study indirectly driven double shell implosions. Double shell implosions in cylindrical hohlraums on NOVA show yields in the range of 1-2% of clean 1D calculations. NOVA implosions may be dominated by the inherent m = 5 beam pattern on either end of the cylindrical hohraum, and have significant time dependent drive asymmetry. Implosions at the OMEGA facility were done in the tethrahedral holhraum geometry which provides improved time dependent symmetry. Primary diagnostics in these implosions are the neutron diagnostics available at both facilities. NOVA shots used DD, while the OMEGA shots used both DD and DT to maximize the available information from the implosions. Individual implosion data and comparison to simulations will be shown for NOVA and OMEGA double shell implosions.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids: a growing ocean of choices.

    PubMed

    Fares, Hassan; Lavie, Carl J; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V

    2014-02-01

    There has been increasing interest in the health benefits of supplemental and/or dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly in their role in disease prevention. This interest escalated once their effects on cardiovascular health were observed from numerous observational studies in populations whose diet consisted mainly of fish. Research has since been undertaken on omega-3 PUFAs to investigate their health benefits in a vast array of medical conditions, including primary and secondary prevention. This article discusses the evidence and controversies concerning omega-3 PUFAs in various health conditions. In addition to the effects on cardiovascular health, omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to prevent the development of dementia, reduce systemic inflammatory diseases, prevent prostate cancer, and possibly have a role in the treatment of depression and bipolar disorder. PMID:24395390

  12. 50 omega characteristic impedance low-pass metal powder filters.

    PubMed

    Milliken, F P; Rozen, J R; Keefe, G A; Koch, R H

    2007-02-01

    We have fabricated several 50 omega characteristic impedance low-pass metal powder filters. The filters are made with bronze or copper metal powder with varying amounts of metal powder in a metal powder/epoxy mixture. Our goal is to make a filter with a characteristic impedance Z = 50 omega at frequencies up to 10 GHz. Using a 78% bronze powder/epoxy mixture in a suitable geometry, we achieved an impedance Z = 54 omega at 4.2 K, with a cutoff frequency fc approximately/= 0.3 GHz and an attenuation A = Vout/Vin=0.0001 (-80 dB) at 10 GHz. We also made several non-50 omega low-pass bronze powder filters with fc = 1 MHz and A = 0.0001 at 10 MHz. Fabrication details and performance data will be presented for both types of filter.

  13. Homoclinic {omega}-explosion and domains of hyperbolicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sten'kin, O V; Shil'nikov, L P

    1998-04-30

    The existence of domains of hyperbolicity is proved for general one-parameter families of multidimensional systems that undergo a homoclinic {omega}-explosion and the structure of the hyperbolic sets is studied for such families.

  14. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  15. The ATLAS TRT end-cap detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dobos, D.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rø; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

    2008-10-01

    The ATLAS TRT end-cap is a tracking drift chamber using 245,760 individual tubular drift tubes. It is a part of the TRT tracker which consist of the barrel and two end-caps. The TRT end-caps cover the forward and backward pseudo-rapidity region 1.0 < |η| < 2.0, while the TRT barrel central η region |η| < 1.0. The TRT system provides a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. Along with other two sub-system, namely the Pixel detector and Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), the TRT constitutes the ATLAS Inner Detector. This paper describes the recently completed and installed TRT end-cap detectors, their design, assembly, integration and the acceptance tests applied during the construction.

  16. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  17. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  18. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  19. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  20. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  1. CCiCap: Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the...

  2. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  3. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  4. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  5. Multichannel Spectrometer of Time Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akindinova, E. V.; Babenko, A. G.; Vakhtel, V. M.; Evseev, N. A.; Rabotkin, V. A.; Kharitonova, D. D.

    2015-06-01

    For research and control of characteristics of radiation fluxes, radioactive sources in particular, for example, in paper [1], a spectrometer and methods of data measurement and processing based on the multichannel counter of time intervals of accident events appearance (impulses of particle detector) MC-2A (SPC "ASPECT") were created. The spectrometer has four independent channels of registration of time intervals of impulses appearance and correspondent amplitude and spectrometric channels for control along the energy spectra of the operation stationarity of paths of each of the channels from the detector to the amplifier. The registration of alpha-radiation is carried out by the semiconductor detectors with energy resolution of 16-30 keV. Using a spectrometer there have been taken measurements of oscillations of alpha-radiation 239-Pu flux intensity with a subsequent autocorrelative statistical analysis of the time series of readings.

  6. Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

    2005-11-01

    The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to allow

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J.; Galloway, Stuart D. R.; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-19

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  10. Study of the decay B0bar -> D* omega pi

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-24

    We report on a study of the decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -} with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Based on a sample of 232 million B{bar B} decays, we measure the branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -}) = (2.88 {+-} 0.21(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}. We study the invariant mass spectrum of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} system in this decay. This spectrum is in good agreement with expectations based on factorization and the measured spectrum in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -} {nu}{sub {tau}}. We also measure the polarization of the D*{sup +} as a function of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} mass. In the mass region 1.1 to 1.9 GeV we measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization of the D*{sup +} to be {Lambda}{sub L}/{Lambda} = 0.654 {+-} 0.042(stat.) {+-} 0.016(syst.). This is in agreement with the expectations from heavy-quark effective theory and factorization assuming that the decay proceeds as {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{rho}(1450), {rho}(1450) {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}.

  11. Rapid lipid enrichment in omega3 fatty acids: plasma data.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2008-03-01

    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to normal subjects was recently reported to enrich within 60 min the phospholipid content of leucocytes and platelets in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present study, conducted in second generation omega3-depleted rats, aimed at investigating whether such a procedure may also increase within 60 min the phospholipid content of omega3 fatty acids in cells located outwards the bloodstream, in this case liver cells, and whether this coincides with correction of the perturbation in the liver triglyceride fatty acid content and profile otherwise prevailing in these rats. This first report deals mainly with the fatty acid pattern of plasma lipids in male omega3-depleted rats that were non-injected or injected with either the omega3-rich emulsion or a control medium-chain triglyceride:olive oil emulsion. The results provide information on the fate of the exogenous lipids present in the lipid emulsions and injected intravenously 60 min before sacrifice. Moreover, in the uninjected omega3-depleted rats the comparison between individual plasma and liver measurements indicated positive correlations in the fatty acid profile of phospholipids and triglycerides. PMID:18288383

  12. Secondary capping beams for offshore drilling platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E. K.

    1985-08-13

    A pair of I-shaped elongated girders secured to, and extending outwardly from, the capping beams of a four pile platform, to form cantilever secondary capping beams which support modified self-contained drilling rigs of a size and weight normally installed on eight pile platforms. Rig modifications comprise separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe rack extension, and a novel skidding system.

  13. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  14. A cometary ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

  15. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  16. JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

  17. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  18. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  19. Impact behaviour of omega stiffened composite panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, A.; Ricchiuto, R.; Saputo, S.; Raimondo, A.; Caputo, F.; Antonucci, V.; Lopresto, V.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical response of reinforced composite structures under impact loads is particularly challenging owing to the rising of multiple and simultaneous failure phenomena. Indeed, low velocity impacts may produce intra-laminar damages, like fibre breakage and matrix cracking, and inter-laminar damages, such as delaminations and skin-stringer debonding. As already remarked, these failure phenomena often take place simultaneously, leading to a significant reduction in strength and stability of the composite components. In this paper, the behaviour of stiffened composite panels, with omega shaped stringers, under low velocity impacts is numerically investigated by means of non-linear explicit FEM analyses. Different impact energy levels are considered and correlation with experimental data is provided, in terms of impact force, displacement and energy. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the influence of numerical models' approximations on the accuracy of the obtained numerical results. Models with an increasing level of damage simulation details have been adopted to study the effects of combined and separated intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures providing an interesting insight on the modelling requirements for an accurate simulation of the investigated phenomena.

  20. Supernova Hydrodynamics on the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    R. Paul Drake

    2004-01-16

    (B204)The fundamental motivation for our work is that supernovae are not well understood. Recent observations have clarified the depth of our ignorance, by producing observed phenomena that current theory and computer simulations cannot reproduce. Such theories and simulations involve, however, a number of physical mechanisms that have never been studied in isolation. We perform experiments, in compressible hydrodynamics and radiation hydrodynamics, relevant to supernovae and supernova remnants. These experiments produce phenomena in the laboratory that are believed, based on simulations, to be important to astrophysics but that have not been directly observed in either the laboratory or in an astrophysical system. During the period of this grant, we have focused on the scaling of an astrophysically relevant, radiative-precursor shock, on preliminary studies of collapsing radiative shocks, and on the multimode behavior and the three-dimensional, deeply nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at a decelerating, embedded interface. These experiments required strong compression and decompression, strong shocks (Mach {approx}10 or greater), flexible geometries, and very smooth laser beams, which means that the 60-beam Omega laser is the only facility capable of carrying out this program.

  1. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurementsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  2. Source geometric considerations for OMEGA Dante measurementsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Patterson, J. R.; Sorce, C.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Perez, F.

    2012-10-01

    The Dante is a 15 channel filtered diode array which is installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The system yields the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from 50 eV to 10 keV from various targets (i.e., Hohlraum, gas pipes, etc.). The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and an unfold algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The unfold algorithm assumes an emitting source that is spatially uniform and has a constant area as a function of photon energy. The emitting x-ray source is usually considered to be the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a given diameter for Hohlraum type targets or the effective wall area of high conversion efficiency K-shell type targets. This assumption can be problematic for several reasons. High intensity regions or "hot spots" in the x-ray are observed where the drive laser beams strike the target. The "hot spots" create non-uniform emission seen by the Dante. Additionally, thinned walled (50 μm) low-Z targets (C22H10N2O5) have an energy dependent source size since the target's walls will be fully opaque for low energies (E < 2-3 keV) yet fully transmissive at higher energies. Determining accurate yields can be challenging for these types of targets. Discussion and some analysis will be presented.

  3. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    May, M J; Widmann, K; Sorce, C; Park, H; Schneider, M

    2010-05-07

    The Dante is an 18 channel X-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g. hohlraums, etc.) at X-ray energies between 50 eV to 10 keV. It is a main diagnostics installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the X-ray diodes, filters and mirrors and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte-Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  4. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurements

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-10-15

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  5. A high-throughput neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampfl, Anton; Noakes, Terry; Bartsch, Friedl; Bertinshaw, Joel; Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica; Nateghi, Ebrahim; Raeside, Tyler; Yethiraj, Mohana; Danilkin, Sergey; Kearley, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    A cross-disciplinary high-throughput neutron spectrometer is currently under construction at OPAL, ANSTO's open pool light-water research reactor. The spectrometer is based on the design of a Be-filter spectrometer (FANS) that is operating at the National Institute of Standards research reactor in the USA. The ANSTO filter-spectrometer will be switched in and out with another neutron spectrometer, the triple-axis spectrometer, Taipan. Thus two distinct types of neutron spectrometers will be accessible: one specialised to perform phonon dispersion analysis and the other, the filter-spectrometer, designed specifically to measure vibrational density of states. A summary of the design will be given along with a detailed ray-tracing analysis. Some preliminary results will be presented from the spectrometer.

  6. Structure of products of the condensation of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated aldehydes with dimedone

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchenko, O.I.; Pushkareva, K.S.; Zheldubovskaya, G.A.; Komarov, N.V. Berkova, G.A.

    1987-10-10

    ..cap alpha..,..beta..-Acetylenic aldehydes and cinnamaldehyde in reaction with dimedone give the corresponding unsaturated bis(dimedonyl)methanes. In the case of acrolein and crotonaldehyde intramolecular cyclization occurs with the participation of hydroxyl of the dimedone fragment and the double bond with the formation of pyran systems. The PMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-487C (80 MHz) and Tesla BS-467C (60 MHz) spectrometers in chloroform-d, pyridine-d/sub 5/, and trifluoroacetic acid solutions. Internal standards HMDS and methylene chloride.

  7. Ions in the Enceladus plume: Cassini/CAPS ion measurements at high energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, F.; Coates, A. J.; Hill, T. W.; Jones, G. H.; Tokar, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    During several Cassini encounters with Saturn's satellite, Enceladus, the spacecraft crossed through the plume of water vapor and dust south of the satellite with a spacecraft orientation which allowed the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) to observe ions and nanograin dust particles associated with the plume. During three of these encounters, E7 (November 2, 2009), E17 (March XX, 2012) and E18 (April YY, 2012), the trajectories were very similar and parallel to the equatorial plane (i.e. little north-south velocity, so that the spacecraft moved perpendicular to the rotation axis of Enceladus.) Previous analysis, using data from the CAPS ion mass spectrometer (IMS) and electron spectrometer (ELS), identified cold ions at rest with respect to Enceladus [1], negative water group and water cluster ions [2], and both positively and negatively charged dust particles in the 0.5 to 2 nm (1000 to 20,000 AMU) size range [3,4]. We present observations from the third CAPS sensor, the ion beam spectrometer (IBS). Although this sensor lacks the angular resolution of the other CAPS sensors, it has an energy resolution of 1.4%, roughly an order of magnitude greater than the ELS and IMS sensors. The IBS data allows us to estimate the temperature and flow speed of the low energy ions in the plume, and characterize the structure of the plume ionosphere. We find that the plume is highly structured, down to the 2-s (17 km along track) limit of the instrument's sampling. Distinct regions of cold, dense ions, resembling a collisional ionosphere, are intermixed with a broad background of warmer, non-thermal ions, possibly resulting from charge exchange between magnetospheric ions and plume neutrals. Despite the sensor's lack of intrinsic angular resolution, the ion flux and energy spectra are consistent with a drift velocity away from Saturn and in the direction of the upstream flow. References: [1] Tokar et al., 2009, Cassini detection of Enceladus' cold water-group plume ionosphere

  8. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 concentrations and risk of cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Sarah C; Hughes, Maria Celia; Green, Adèle C; van der Pols, Jolieke C

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory-based evidence suggests that omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may affect skin photocarcinogenesis, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. In 1,191 White Australian adults, we prospectively investigated associations between baseline plasma concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated on the basis of number of histologically confirmed tumors diagnosed during follow-up (1997-2007). Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations and omega-3/-6 ratio showed significant inverse associations with SCC tumors, comparing higher tertiles with the lowest, in age- and sex-adjusted models (Ptrend = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) which weakened after adjustment for past sun exposure. Associations between EPA and SCC were stronger among participants with a history of skin cancer at baseline (n = 378; highest vs. lowest tertile: RR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.92; Ptrend = 0.01). Total omega-6 was inversely associated with BCC tumors in multivariate models (P = 0.04; highest vs. lowest tertile: RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99), and more strongly in the subgroup with past skin cancer. Linoleic and linolenic acids were also inversely associated with BCC occurrence in this subgroup. When fatty acids were analyzed as continuous variables, however, there was no evidence of any linear or nonlinear associations. This study provides some support for reduced skin cancer risk with high plasma concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, but results depended on how fatty acid data were modeled. Further investigation of these associations in larger datasets is needed.

  9. Omega-3 and omega-6 content of medicinal foods for depressed patients: implications from the Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Motavasselian, Malihe; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nematy, Mohsen; Eslami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in modern societies and the positive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, this study aims to investigate the omega-3 and omega-6 content of various foodstuffs, prescribed or prohibited by Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Materials and Methods: Firstly, reliable sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were reviewed in order to identify the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. Afterwards, according to the online database of United States Department of Agriculture (URL: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list), the ratio of linoleic acid to alpha linolenic acid (as representatives of omega-6 and omega-3, respectively) was identified in each foodstuff. Finally, the ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 were compared between seven food groups of vegetables, fruits, dry goods, high protein products, dairies, breads, and spices. Results: Based on the resources of Iranian Traditional Medicine, the following foods are prescribed for depressed patients: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, beet, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, trout, milk, bread without bran, saffron, oregano, and coriander seeds. On the other hand, cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, beef, whole wheat bread, and mustard are prohibited. It should be noted that omega-3 content in some prescribed foods is more than that of the prohibited ones. Conclusion: The present study showed that mint, basil, spinach, lettuce, squash, lamb, saffron, oregano, cucumber, pistachio, milk, and also wild trout can be considered as medicinal foods for depressed patients. PMID:25068136

  10. Balancing proportions of competing omega-3 and omega-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in tissue lipids.

    PubMed

    Bibus, Doug; Lands, Bill

    2015-08-01

    People eating different balances of omega-3 and omega-6 nutrients develop predictably different proportions of competing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in their tissue lipids. While epidemiological studies have associated wide differences in HUFA balance with disease severity, some clinical studies that did not examine wide differences failed to confirm the association. We examined the degree to which the relative amount of arachidonic acid, the major precursor of omega-6 eicosanoids, differs among people who have widely different dietary intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 nutrients. Gas chromatographic analyses of human blood samples describe the balance among n-3 and n-6 HUFA for different individuals. The proportion of the omega-6 arachidonic acid, from which potent eicosanoids are formed, is not constant. It ranges from 30% to 70% of HUFA while the competing n-3 HUFA range from 60% to 10% of HUFA. Significant differences in clinical outcomes between control and intervention groups have been seen when using dietary interventions that shift the balance of n-3 and n-6 nutrients far enough to create a biologically significant difference in the HUFA balance.

  11. Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective seeds mixture diet rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Makni, Mohamed; Fetoui, Hamadi; Garoui, El Mouldi; Gargouri, Nabil K; Jaber, Hazem; Makni, Jamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2010-01-01

    In vitro physicochemical and antioxidant properties of mixture of Flax/Sesame (LS) and Flax/Peanut (LA) and in vivo hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities were carried out to ascertain the claim of its utilisation against diseases. The seeds mixture rich in unsaturated fatty acids were prepared with 5/1 ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids and were orally administered ad libitum to rats by standard diet for 30 days. High cholesterol fed diet rats (CD-chol) exhibited a significant increase in total plasma and liver lipid parameters and atherogenicity and a significant decrease in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and HDL/TC ratio (HTR). Administration of (LS) or (LA) seeds mixture to hypercholesterolemic rats (MS-LSchol and MS-LAchol groups respectively) significantly ameliorated lipid parameters and showed an increase of PUFAs (ALA and LA) and MUFAs and a decrease of SFAs in plasma and liver of MS-LSchol and MS-LAchol groups. Furthermore, malondialdehyde levels decreased and the efficiency of antioxidant defense system was improved compared to CD-chol group. Liver histological sections showed lipid storage in hepatocytes of CD-chol group and an improvement was noted in both supplemented groups. Our results suggested that seeds mixtures of Flax/Sesame and Flax/Peanut have anti-atherogenic and hepatoprotective effects. PMID:20510326

  12. Helping women to good health: breast cancer, omega-3/omega-6 lipids, and related lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2014-03-27

    In addition to genetic predisposition and sex hormone exposure, physical activity and a healthy diet play important roles in breast cancer (BC). Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) associated with decreased omega-6 (n-6), resulting in a higher n-3/n-6 ratio compared with the western diet, are inversely associated with BC risk, as shown by Yang et al. in their meta-analysis in BMC Cancer. High consumption of polyphenols and organic foods increase the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in turn may decrease BC risk. Intake of high fiber foods and foods with low glycemic index decreases insulin resistance and diabetes risk, and in turn may decrease BC risk. The modernized Mediterranean diet is an effective strategy for combining these recommendations, and this dietary pattern reduces overall cancer risk and specifically BC risk. High-risk women should also eliminate environmental endocrine disruptors, including those from foods. Drugs that decrease the n-3/n-6 ratio or that are suspected of increasing BC or diabetes risk should be used with great caution by high-risk women and women wishing to decrease their BC risk.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/105/abstract.

  13. Separation of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in food by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Laiel C; Donkor, Kingsley K; Church, John S; Cinel, Bruno; Prema, Dipesh; Dugan, Michael E R

    2013-10-01

    A lower dietary omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid ratio (<4) has been shown to be beneficial in preventing a number of chronic illnesses. Interest exists in developing more rapid and sensitive analytical methods for profiling fatty acid levels in foods. An aqueous CE method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 n-3 and n-6 relevant fatty acids. The effect of pH and concentration of buffer, type and concentration of organic modifier, and additive on the separation was investigated in order to determine the best conditions for the analysis. Baseline separations of the 15 fatty acids were achieved using 40 mM borate buffer at pH 9.50 containing 50 mM SDS, 10 mM β-cyclodextrin, and 10% acetonitrile. The developed CE method has LODs of <5 mg/L and good linearity (R(2) > 0.980) for all fatty acids studied. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in flax seed, Udo® oils and a selection of grass-fed and grain-fed beef muscle samples.

  14. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  15. Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

  16. Acoustically-tuned optical spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lens arrangement corrects for aberrations and gives resolution of 0.7 seconds of arc. In spectrometer, light from telescope is relayed by doublet lens to acoustically tuned optical filter. Selected wavelengths are relayed by triplet lens to charge coupled device camera. Intervening cylindrical lens, tilted at 12 degree angle, corrects for astigmatism and coma introduced by two element birefringent crystal in filter.

  17. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid /sup 4/He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer.

  18. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  19. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  20. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  1. Mars residual north polar cap - Earth-based spectroscopic confirmation of water ice as a major constituent and evidence for hydrated minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Mccord, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of new earth-based reflectance spectra of the Martian north residual polar cap. The spectra indicate that the composition is at least mostly water ice plus another component with a 'gray' reflectance. The other minerals in the ice cap appear to be hydrated. The data were obtained with a cooled circular variable filter spectrometer on February 20, 1978, using the 2.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It is pointed out that the identification of water ice in the north polar cap alone does not indicate that water makes up all or even most of the bulk of the cap. Kieffer (1970) has shown that a small amount of water will mask the spectral features of CO2.

  2. Results from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P R; Anderson, D L; Chase, S C; Clancy, R T; Clark, R N; Conrath, B J; Kieffer, H H; Kuzmin, R O; Malin, M C; Pearl, J C; Roush, T L; Smith, M D

    1998-03-13

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer spectra of low albedo surface materials suggests that a four to one mixture of pyroxene to plagioclase, together with about a 35 percent dust component provides the best fit to the spectrum. Qualitative upper limits can be placed on the concentration of carbonates (<10 percent), olivine (<10 percent), clay minerals (<20 percent), and quartz (<5 percent) in the limited regions observed. Limb observations in the northern hemisphere reveal low-lying dust hazes and detached water-ice clouds at altitudes up to 55 kilometers. At an aerocentric longitude of 224 degrees a major dust storm developed in the Noachis Terra region. The south polar cap retreat was similar to that observed by Viking.

  3. Results from the Mars global surveyor thermal emission spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, P.R.; Anderson, D.L.; Chase, S.C.; Clancy, R.T.; Clark, R.N.; Conrath, B.J.; Kieffer, H.H.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Malin, M.C.; Pearl, J.C.; Roush, T.L.; Smith, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer spectra of low albedo surface materials suggests that a four to one mixture of pyroxene to plagioclase, together with about a 35 percent dust component provides the best fit to the spectrum. Qualitative upper limits can be placed on the concentration of carbonates (<10 percent), olivine (<10 percent), clay minerals (<20 percent), and quartz (<5 percent) in the limited regions observed. Limb observations in the northern hemisphere reveal low-lying dust hazes and detached water-ice clouds at altitudes up to 55 kilometers. At an aerocentric longitude of 224??a major dust storm developed in the Noachis Terra region. The south polar cap retreat was similar to that observed by Viking.

  4. Omega phase formation in titanium and titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III; Morris, C.E.; Lawson, A.C.

    1992-05-01

    Although the response of titanium alloys to dynamic loading is receiving increased attention in the literature (particularly in the area of shear-band formation), a more limited experimental database exists concerning the detailed structure/property relationships of titanium alloys subjected to shock loading. In this study, preliminary results concerning the influence of alloy chemistry on the property of omega-phase formation and its structure in three titanium alloys are presented. The influence of shock-wave deformation on the phase stability and substructure evolution of high-purity (low-interstitial) titanium, A-70 (3700 ppm oxygen) titanium, and Ti-6Al-4V were probed utilizing real-time velocity interferometry (VISAR) and ``soft`` shock-recovery techniques. VISAR wave profiles of shock-loaded high-purity titanium revealed the omega-phase pressure-induced transition to occur at approximately 10.4 GPa. Wave profile measurements on A-70 Ti shocked to pressures up to 35 GPa and Ti-6Al-4V shocked to pressures up to 25 GPa exhibited no evidence of a three-wave structure indicative of a pressure-induced phase transition. Neutron and X-ray diffractometry and TEM analysis confirmed the presence of retained {omega}-phase in the electrolytic-Ti and the absence of {omega}-phase in the shock-recovered A-70 Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Suppression of the {alpha}-{omega} phase transition in A-70 Ti, containing a high interstitial oxygen content, is seen to simultaneously correlate with suppression of deformation twinning. Neutron diffraction was used to measure the in-situ bulk lattice constants and volume fraction of the {alpha} and {omega} phases in the recovered high-purity titanium samples that were shock loaded. The influence of alloy content on the kinetics of formation/retention of {omega}-phase and substructure evolution is discussed and contrasted in light of previous literature studies.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This sturning image, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is an image of the center of the Omega Nebula. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3,500 times wider than our solar system. The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: blue, near infrared, hydrogen alpha, and doubly ionized oxygen. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  6. Source geometric considerations for OMEGA Dante measurements

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J.; Patterson, J. R.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Perez, F.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The Dante is a 15 channel filtered diode array which is installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The system yields the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from 50 eV to 10 keV from various targets (i.e., Hohlraum, gas pipes, etc.). The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and an unfold algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The unfold algorithm assumes an emitting source that is spatially uniform and has a constant area as a function of photon energy. The emitting x-ray source is usually considered to be the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a given diameter for Hohlraum type targets or the effective wall area of high conversion efficiency K-shell type targets. This assumption can be problematic for several reasons. High intensity regions or 'hot spots' in the x-ray are observed where the drive laser beams strike the target. The 'hot spots' create non-uniform emission seen by the Dante. Additionally, thinned walled (50 {mu}m) low-Z targets (C{sub 22}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) have an energy dependent source size since the target's walls will be fully opaque for low energies (E < 2-3 keV) yet fully transmissive at higher energies. Determining accurate yields can be challenging for these types of targets. Discussion and some analysis will be presented.

  7. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as... Adjustment Assistance on June 24, 2010, applicable to workers of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot..., Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot Group, formerly known as Caps Group Acquisition,...

  8. Actin capping proteins, CapZ (β-actinin) and tropomodulin in amphioxus striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yulong; Kake, Takei; Hanashima, Akira; Nomiya, Yui; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Sumiko

    2012-11-15

    CapZ (β-actinin) and tropomodulin (Tmod) are capping proteins involved in the maintenance of thin filaments in vertebrate skeletal muscles. In this study, we focused on amphioxus, the most primitive chordate. We searched for CapZ and Tmod genes in the amphioxus genome and determined their primary structures. Amphioxus possess one CapZα gene (CAPZA) and one CapZβ gene (CAPZB), and the transcripts of these genes were found to be 67%-85% identical to those of human CapZ genes. On the other hand, amphioxus contain one Tmod gene (TMOD), and the product of this gene has an identity of approximately 50% with human Tmod genes 1-4. However, helix 2 of amphioxus Tmod, which is involved in protein-binding to tropomyosin, was highly conserved with approximately 74% identity to human Tmod genes. Western blotting indicated the presence of CapZ and Tmod in the striated muscle of amphioxus. These results suggest that unlike most of vertebrates, such as fish, amphibian, bird, and mammal, CapZ from amphioxus striated muscle is derived from two genes CAPZA and CAPZB, and Tmod is derived from one TMOD gene.

  9. CAP - JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CONTAMINATION ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Contamination Analysis Program (CAP) is a generalized transient executive analysis computer code which solves realistic mass transport problems in the free molecular flow environment. These transport problems involve mass flux from surface source emission and re-emission, venting, and engine emission. CAP solution capability allows for one-bounce mass reflections if required. CAP was developed to solve thin-film contamination problems in the free molecular flow environment, the intent being to provide a powerful analytic tool for evaluating spacecraft contamination problems. The solution procedure uses an enclosure method based on a lumped-parameter multinodal approach with mass exchange between nodes. Transient solutions are computed by the finite difference Euler method. First-order rate theory is used to represent surface emission and reemission (user care must be taken to insure the problem is appropriate for such behavior), and all surface emission and reflections are assumed diffuse. CAP does not include the effects of post-deposition chemistry or interaction with the ambient atmosphere. CAP reads in a model represented by a multiple-block data stream. CAP allows the user to edit the input data stream and stack sequential editing operations (or cases) in order to make complex changes in behavior (surface temperatures, engine start-up and shut-down, etc.) in a single run if desired. The eight data blocks which make up the input data stream consist of problem control parameters, nodal data (area, temperature, mass, etc.), engine or vent distribution factors (based upon plume definitions), geometric configuration factors (diffuse surface emission), surface capture coefficient tables, source emission rate constant tables, reemission rate constant tables, and partial node to body collapse capability (for deposition rates only). The user must generate this data stream, since neither the problem-specific geometric relationships, the

  10. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Observations Close to Enceladus: E3, E5 and E7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar, R. L.; Johnson, R. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; Wilson, R. J.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Goldstein, R.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sittler, E. C.; Coates, A. J.; Paty, C. S.; Jia, Y.; Omidi, N.; Russell, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected freshly-produced water-group ions (O+, OH+, H2O+, H3O+) and heavier water dimer ions (HxO2)+ very close to Enceladus where the plasma begins to emerge from the south polar plume (1). The data were obtained during two close (52 and 25 km) flybys of Enceladus in 2008 (E3 and E5) and are consistent with measurements from the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS). The ions are observed in CAPS detectors looking in the Cassini ram direction close to the ram kinetic energy, indicative of a nearly stagnant plasma flow in the plume. North of Enceladus the plasma slowing commences about 4 to 6 Enceladus radii away, while south of Enceladus signatures of the plasma interaction with the plume are detected 22 Enceladus radii away. Here we review and contrast these observations including the E7 flyby (anticipated Nov. 2, 2009). E7 is planned for a closest approach ~103 km south of Enceladus and CAPS should detect ions at rest with respect to Enceladus and over a broad range of gyrophase angles. Plasma fluid parameters both upstream and downstream of these encounters are extracted from the CAPS data. In addition, we compare the CAPS ion measurements with both fluid and 3D hybrid simulations. The MHD simulations (BATSRUS) are tuned to agree with Cassini Magnetometer (MAG) observations during the encounters then compared with CAPS observations. For example, for the E3 encounter the CAPS/BATSRUS comparison is striking, with features reproduced such as: the overall spatial scale of the interaction, the slowing of the ion flow within the dust plume to less than 5 km/s with respect to Enceladus, the temperature, flow and density signature of the geometric wake, and the flow perturbation along the magnetic field due to wake expansion. For E5, BATSRUS tuned against MAG suggests a 15 km/s bulk plasma flow toward Saturn during the encounter. We search for signatures of this flow in the CAPS ion data. 1.) Tokar,R.L. et al. Geophys. Res

  11. Transmission Through Carbon Nanotubes with Polyhedral Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study electron transport between capped carbon nanotubes and a substrate, and relate this transport to the local density of states in the cap. Our results show that that the transmission probability mimics the behavior of the density of states at all energies except those that correspond to localized states. For a capped carbon nanotube that is not connected to a substrate, the localized states do not couple to the coexisting continuum states. However, close proximity of a substrate causes hybridization between these states. As a result, new transmission paths open from substrate states to nanotube continuum states via the localized states in the cap. We show that the interference between various paths gives rise to transmission antiresonances with the minimum equal to zero at the energy of the localized state. The presence of defects in the tube places close to the cap transforms antiresonances into resonances. Depending on the spatial position of defects, these resonant states are capable of carrying a large current. The results of this paper are of relevance to carbon nanotube based studies on molecular electronics and probe tip applications.

  12. Eddy intrustion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Gorney, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Under the simple postulate that multiple large scale detachable magnetospheric convection eddies can exist in the vicinity of the convection reversal boundary and in the polar cap, by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or otherwise, it is shown that a number of seemingly disconnected plasma and electric field observations in the polar cap can be organized into a theory of magnetosheath and plasmasheet plasma intrusion into the polar cap. Current theory of inverted V structures then predicts existence of similar, but weaker, structures at the eddy convection reversal boundaries in the polar cap. A possible consequence is that the polar cap auroras are natural offshoots from discrete oval arcs and evidently are formed by similar processes. The two arc systems can occassionally produce an optical image in the form of the theta aurora.

  13. First measurements of the {rho}{sup 3} spin density matrix elements in {gamma}p --> p {omega} using CLAS at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Vernarsky, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort towards a ''complete'' experiment for the ω meson, we present studies from an experiment with an unpolarized target and a circularly polarized photon beam (g1c), carried out using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. The experiment was analyzed using an extended maximum likelihood fit with partial wave amplitudes. New likelihood functions were calculated to account for the polarization of the photon beam. Both circular and linear polarizations are explored. The results of these fits are then used to project out the spin density matrix for the {omega}. First measurements of the {rho}{sup 3} spin density matrix elements will be presented using this method.

  14. Electron/proton spectrometer certification documentation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleeson, P.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of analyses generated during the development of the electron-proton spectrometer for the Skylab program is presented. The data documents the analyses required by the electron-proton spectrometer verification plan. The verification plan was generated to satisfy the ancillary hardware requirements of the Apollo Applications program. The certification of the spectrometer requires that various tests, inspections, and analyses be documented, approved, and accepted by reliability and quality control personnel of the spectrometer development program.

  15. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid and nutrient deficits in adverse neurodevelopment and childhood behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gow, Rachel V; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2014-07-01

    Nutritional insufficiencies of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may have adverse effects on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A recent meta-analysis reported a small to modest effect size for the efficacy of omega-3 in youth. Several controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs combined with micronutrients show sizable reductions in aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior in youth and young adult prisoners. Studies of HUFAs in youth, however, remain lacking. As the evidence base for omega-3 HUFAs as potential psychiatric treatment develops, dietary adjustments to increase omega-3 and reduce omega-6 HUFA consumption are sensible recommendations based on general health considerations. PMID:24975625

  17. Martian volatiles determined using the Mars observer gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Boynton, W. V.; Trombka, J. I.; Arnold, J. R.; Englert, P. A. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.

    1992-01-01

    The relative abundances of H2O and CO2 and their latitude, longitude, and depth profiles on Mars sensitively reflect, as well as help control, past and present Martian climate patterns. Seasonal variations of their distributions at high latitudes also reflect and help control global weather patterns and erosion through surface weathering. A combined analysis of gamma ray line and neutron flux maps constructed from data measured using the Mars Observer Gamma Ray Spectrometer (MOGRS) should allow a determination of seasonal changes in both the horizontal and vertical structure of CO2 ice that covers the north polar cap during winter and the south polar cap throughout the year and both the horizontal and vertical structure of residual H2O ice within the top meter of the surface that was predicted from Viking observations to exist primarily at high latitudes. Particularly important in this regard will be maps of thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes measured using the MOGRS anticoincidence shield, the intensity of the hydrogen, neutron capture gamma ray line at 2.223 MeV, the intensity of a capture gamma ray line as 1.725 MeV from iron, and the intensity of an inelastic scatter gamma ray line as 1.779 MeV from silicon.

  18. Antiatherosclerotic and antithrombotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Stone, Neil J

    2006-08-21

    Omega-3 fatty acids from both marine and plant sources have been shown to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease death. Although their beneficial cardiovascular effects are thought to be due to their antiarrhythmic properties, omega-3 fatty acids also have been shown to have a wide range of antiatherosclerotic and antithrombotic effects in animal and human studies. Review of the findings of randomized, controlled trials published through August 2005 shows that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin consistently lower elevated plasma triglyceride levels in a dose-dependent fashion, with greater efficacy at higher triglyceride levels. Smaller effects on lowering blood pressure, improving endothelial function, and increasing plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also found. No consistent effects on other lipid, hemostatic, inflammatory, glucose tolerance, or plaque stabilization parameters were found. Epidemiologic studies show more consistent reductions in the incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke than do the clinical trials of increased omega-3 fatty acid intake, which suggests important confounding factors in observational studies. Ongoing clinical trials may clarify the non-antiarrhythmic benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. PMID:16919516

  19. Mineralogy of Aram Chaos on Mars derived from OMEGA hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouélic, S.; Masse, M.; Bourgeois, O.; Sotin, C.; . Le Deit, L.; Mangold, N.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2007-08-01

    The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express has completed a near global coverage of Mars in 352 spectral channels from 0.3 to 5.1 μm at a spatial resolution ranging from 300 m to 4 km. This data set provides the opportunity to investigate the mineralogy of the surface of Mars by looking at diagnostic spectral features in the visible and near infrared domains [1]. We have focused our study on the Aram Chaos region of Mars. Aram Chaos is a circular depression which is 300 km in diameter. It is thought to be filled by sediments which were mixed with a significant amount of water ice. A melting of the water ice due either to a global warming or to the rise of a hot mantle plume is at the origin of observed chaotic terrains. The liquid water exited the Chaos through a channel which feeds the Ares Vallis system. We have reduced OMEGA data on Aram Chaos in order to look for particular mineralogical signatures. The atmospheric contribution in the spectra has been removed by using a ratio of two spectra at the summit and bottom of Olympus Mons scaled to the depth of the 2 μm CO2 feature. Maps of spectral parameters have then been produced, together with maps of the main mineralogical families derived from a linear unmixing deconvolution algorithm [2]. These OMEGA processing products have been integrated into a GIS in order to compare the spectral characteristics with high resolution imagery (Themis, MOC, HRSC, Hirise). A flat top unit display signatures of typical dust with a small amount of pyroxenes. Strong signatures of ferric oxides have been found in the intermediate exposed layers, where the flat top unit has been removed by erosion (probably driven by the wind). They are correlated to a significant 1.92 μm hydration band. The lowest part of the excavated materials show signatures typical of monohydrated sulfates (consistent with either szomolnokite or more probably kieserite). The geological implications of the mineralogical detections will be discussed in

  20. Aerosol propellant interference with clinical mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Kharasch, E D; Sivarajan, M

    1991-04-01

    Metered dose inhalers containing halogenated propellants may interfere with mass spectrometer quantitation of halogenated inhalation anesthetics. We identify the propellant(s) in a commercially available metered dose inhaler that caused erroneous mass spectrometer readings. In addition, we identify the causes of different types of interference in different mass spectrometers. PMID:2072131

  1. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  2. Sirolimus-loaded CaP coating on Co-Cr alloy for drug-eluting stent

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxin; Lee, In-Seop; Cui, Fuzhai

    2016-01-01

    To achieve polymer-free and controllable drug-eluting system, there have been many efforts to modify the surface composition and topography of metal stent. Recently, calcium phosphate is commonly applied to metallic implants as a coating material for fast fixation and firm-implant bone attachment on the account of its demonstrated bioactive and osteoconductive properties. In the present study, the release of sirolimus could be controllable because of immobilization of sirolimus during the process of biomimetic CaP coating forming. A completely new concept is the drug carrier of biomimetic CaP coating with sirolimus for an absorbable drug eluting system, which in turn can serve as a drug reservoir. We here describe the characteristic, mechanisms and drug release in vitro of new drug-eluting system in comparison to conventional system equivalent. Nano-structured calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was formed on the cobalt–chromium (Co-Cr) alloy substrate. By immersing coated sample in solution with sirolimus (rapamycin), the sirolimus could be immobilized in the newly formed CaP layer. The morphology, composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that a uniform CaP coating incorporated with sirolimus was observed on Co-Cr alloy. PMID:27252886

  3. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  4. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  5. Omega-3 biotechnology: Thraustochytrids as a novel source of omega-3 oils.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2012-01-01

    Thraustochytrids are large-celled marine heterokonts and classified as oleaginous microorganisms due to their production of docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) ω-3-fatty acids. The applications of microbial DHA and EPA for human health are rapidly expanding, and a large number of clinical trials have been carried out to verify their efficacy. The development of refined isolation and identification techniques is important for the cultivation of thraustochytrids. With a high proportion of lipid biomass, thraustochytrids are also amenable to various production strategies which increase omega-3 oil output. Modifications to the existing lipid extraction methods and utilisation of sophisticated analytical instruments have increased extraction yields of DHA and EPA. Other metabolites such as enzymes, carotenoids and extracellular polysaccharides can also be obtained from these marine protists. Approaches such as the exploration for more diverse isolates having fast growth rates, metabolic engineering including gene cloning, and growing thraustochytrids on alternate low cost carbon source, will further enhance the biotechnological potential of thraustochytrids.

  6. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  7. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  8. Concerning the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lenzner, Matthias; Diels, Jean -Claude

    2016-01-22

    A modified Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) is used for measuring atomic emission spectra with high resolution. This device is basically a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, but the Fourier transform is taken in the directions perpendicular to the optical propagation and heterodyned around one preset wavelength. In recent descriptions of this device, one specific phenomenon - the tilt of the energy front of wave packets when diffracted from a grating - was neglected. This led to an overestimate of the resolving power of this spectrograph, especially in situations when the coherence length of the radiation under test is in the order ofmore » the effective aperture of the device. In conclusion, the limits of usability are shown here together with some measurements of known spectral lines.« less

  9. A simple ice nucleation spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wharton, David A; Mutch, Jodi S; Wilson, Peter W; Marshall, Craig J; Lim, Miang

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a simple ice nucleation spectrometer is described. It uses 10 microliter droplets loaded into glass capillary tubes which are then inserted into an aluminium holder. Each holder takes six capillary tubes surrounding a central thermocouple. Four holders are placed into a cooling block, cooled by fluid from a programmable refrigerated circulator, and the thermocouples interfaced to a computer to record temperatures. Freezing of each sample is detected by an exotherm on the temperature recording, with 24 samples recorded per run. The spectrometer was tested using deionized water, an extract from a New Zealand alpine cockroach and an extract of lawn grass. The cockroach extract is estimated to contain about 10(3) more nucleators, active at -5 degrees C, than the grass extract. PMID:15618985

  10. Holographic Fabry-Perot spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Matos, O; Rodrigo, José A; Vaveliuk, P; Calvo, M L

    2011-02-15

    We propose a spectrum analyzer based on the properties of a hologram recorded with the field transmitted by a Fabry-Perot etalon. The spectral response of this holographic Fabry-Perot spectrometer (HFPS) is analytically investigated in the paraxial approximation and compared with a conventional Fabry-Perot etalon of similar characteristics. We demonstrate that the resolving power is twice increased and the free spectral range (FSR) is reduced to one-half. The proposed spectrometer could improve the operational performance of the etalon because it can exhibit high efficiency and it would be insensible to environmental conditions such as temperature and vibrations. Our analysis also extends to another variant of the HFPS based on holographic multiplexing of the transmitted field of a Fabry-Perot etalon. This device increases the FSR, keeping the same HFPS performance.

  11. On-chip plasmonic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-08-01

    We report a numerical and experimental study of an on-chip optical spectrometer, utilizing propagating surface plasmon polaritons in the telecom spectral range. The device is based on two holographic gratings, one for coupling, and the other for decoupling free-space radiation with the surface plasmons. This 800 μm×100 μm on-chip spectrometer resolves 17 channels spectrally separated by 3.1 nm, spanning a freely tunable spectral window, and is based on standard lithography fabrication technology. We propose two potential applications for this new device; the first employs the holographic control over the amplitude and phase of the input spectrum, for intrinsically filtering unwanted frequencies, like pump radiation in Raman spectroscopy. The second prospect utilizes the unique plasmonic field enhancement at the metal-dielectric boundary for the spectral analysis of very small samples (e.g., Mie scatterers) placed between the two gratings.

  12. On-chip plasmonic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-08-01

    We report a numerical and experimental study of an on-chip optical spectrometer, utilizing propagating surface plasmon polaritons in the telecom spectral range. The device is based on two holographic gratings, one for coupling, and the other for decoupling free-space radiation with the surface plasmons. This 800 μm×100 μm on-chip spectrometer resolves 17 channels spectrally separated by 3.1 nm, spanning a freely tunable spectral window, and is based on standard lithography fabrication technology. We propose two potential applications for this new device; the first employs the holographic control over the amplitude and phase of the input spectrum, for intrinsically filtering unwanted frequencies, like pump radiation in Raman spectroscopy. The second prospect utilizes the unique plasmonic field enhancement at the metal-dielectric boundary for the spectral analysis of very small samples (e.g., Mie scatterers) placed between the two gratings. PMID:27472609

  13. Concerning the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lenzner, Matthias; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-25

    A modified Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) is used for measuring atomic emission spectra with high resolution. This device is basically a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, but the Fourier transform is taken in the directions perpendicular to the optical propagation and heterodyned around one preset wavelength. In recent descriptions of this device, one specific phenomenon - the tilt of the energy front of wave packets when diffracted from a grating - was neglected. This led to an overestimate of the resolving power of this spectrograph, especially in situations when the coherence length of the radiation under test is in the order of the effective aperture of the device. The limits of usability are shown here together with some measurements of known spectral lines. PMID:26832561

  14. Landfill capping: The Croton Point Landfill experience

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasaraghaven, R.; Gavin, J.M.; Landi, A.M.; Ritchie, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Croton Point Landfill Capping involved the installation of an impermeable, geosynthetic cap and the attendant geotechnical cover soils over a 113 acre hazardous waste landfill in Croton-On-Hudson, New York. The remediation process - Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Remedial Design and Remedial Construction lasted six years. This paper sets forth some of the insights and experiences gained during that process and provides some practical recommendations. In particular, the paper evaluates the Croton Landfill experience in regard to Health and Safety; Stormwater Control; erosion and sediment control; QA/QC; leachate treatment and disposal; and wildlife control.

  15. Valve Cap For An Electric Storage Cell

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof; Genton, Alain

    2000-04-18

    The valve cap for an electric storage cell includes a central annular valve seat (23) and a membrane (5) fixed by its peripheral edge and urged against the seat by a piston (10) bearing thereagainst by means of a spring (12), the rear end of said spring (12) bearing on the endwall (8) of a chamber (20) formed in the cap and containing the piston (10) and the spring. A vent (19) puts the chamber (20) into communication with the atmosphere. A central orifice (26, 28) through the piston (10) and the membrane (5), enables gas from within the cell to escape via the top vent (19) when the valve opens.

  16. Steel Foil Improves Performance Of Blasting Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Perry, Ronnie; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Blasting caps, which commonly include deep-drawn aluminum cups, give significantly higher initiation performance by application of steel foils on output faces. Steel closures 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) thick more effective than aluminum. Caps with directly bonded steel foil produce fragment velocities of 9,300 ft/s (2.8 km/s) with large craters and unpredictable patterns to such degree that no attempts made to initiate explosions. Useful in military and aerospace applications and in specialized industries as mining and exploration for oil.

  17. Pharmacy benefit caps and the chronically ill.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Geoffrey F; Goldman, Dana P; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Zheng, Yuhui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine medication use among retirees with employer-sponsored drug coverage both with and without annual benefit limits. We find that pharmacy benefit caps are associated with higher rates of medication discontinuation across the most common therapeutic classes and that only a minority of those who discontinue use reinitiate therapy once coverage resumes. Plan members who reach their cap are more likely than others to switch plans and increase their rate of generic use; however, in most cases, the shift is temporary. Given the similarities between these plans and Part D, we make some inferences about reforms for Medicare.

  18. High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Joseph M.; Herring, Mark; Norris, David D.

    1988-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS), related data system, orbit, and mission operations are described. The pushbroom instrument simultaneously images the terrestrial surface in 192 spectral bands from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The swath width is 30 km and spatial resolution is 30 m. It is planned to be launched with the Earth Observing System aboard the Space Station Polar Platform in 1995. Array detectors allow concurrent integration of the signals at 192,000 detector elements.

  19. Search for Lepton Flavor Violating Decays Tau+- to L+- Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, S.; /Heidelberg U.

    2011-11-30

    This paper reports on a search for lepton flavor violating decays of a {tau} lepton to a lighter-mass charged lepton and an {omega} vector meson. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb{sup -1} recorded by the BaBar experiment at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory. No evidence for a signal is found and the upper limits on the branching ratios are determined to be B({tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} e{sup {+-}}{omega}) < 1.1 x 10{sup -7} and B({tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{omega}) < 1.0 x 10{sup -7} at 90% confidence level.

  20. [Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride levels, which is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Recent clinical studies showed that intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduced cardiovascular events. In addition, combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin is a safe and effective way to improve lipid levels and cardiovascular prognosis beyond the benefits provided by statin therapy alone. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.

  1. Recent field test results using OMEGA transmissions for clock synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, A. R.; Wardrip, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of clock synchronization experiments using OMEGA transmissions from North Dakota on 13.10 kHz and 12.85 kHz. The OMEGA transmissions were monitored during April 1974 from NASA tracking sites located at Madrid, Spain; Canary Island; and Winkfield, England. The sites are located at distances between 6600 kilometers (22,100 microseconds) to 7300 kilometers (24,400 microseconds) from North Dakota. The data shows that cycle identification of the received signals was accomplished. There are, however, discrepancies between the measured and calculated propagation delay values which have not been explained, but seem to increase with distance between the receiver and the transmitter. The data also indicates that three strategically located OMEGA transmitting stations may be adequate to provide worldwide coverage for clock synchronization to within plus or minus two (2) microseconds.

  2. The Fifth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Fifth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual Omega users and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback to LLE management from the users about ways to improve the facility and future experimental campaigns.

  3. Evidence for the decay X(3872) -> J/\\psi\\omega

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-11

    We present a study of the decays B{sup 0,+} --> J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup 0,+}, using 467x10{sup 6} B{anti B} pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. We present evidence for the decay mode X(3872) --> J/{psi}{omega}, with product branching fractions B(B{sup +} --> X(3872)K{sup +}) x B(X(3872) --> J/{psi}{omega}) = [0.6 {+-} 0.2(stat) {+-} 0.1(syst)] x 10{sup -5}, and B(B{sup 0} --> X(3872)K{sup 0}) x B(X(3872) --> J/{psi}{omega}) = [0.6 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 0.1(syst)] x 10{sup -5}. A detailed study of the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} mass distribution from X(3872) decay favors a negative-parity assignment.

  4. The Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual OMEGA users, and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback from the users to LLE management about ways to improve and keep the facility and future experimental campaigns at the cutting edge.

  5. A Survey of Cassini CAPS Ion Observations During Titan Flybys TA-T83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, A. K.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Crary, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) sampled Titan's plasma environment during each of 83 encounters with the moon between orbit insertion on June 30, 2004 and June 1, 2012. The CAPS Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) acquired energy- and mass-per-charge-discriminated time-of-flight (TOF) spectra associated with ionospheric H+, H2+, H3+, CHx+, and C2Hx+ during at least 68 of those encounters. Herein we discuss ion energy distributions extracted from these spectra, each accumulated over an ~4 minute interval along the spacecraft trajectory. This is accomplished by fitting calibration peak models to TOF spectra in order to determine the TOF range associated with each aforementioned ion group, and then summing counts over each TOF range to obtain well-resolved energy peaks for each group. Energy distributions are determined by fitting the logistic power peak function to each of the resulting energy spectra. We then plot the resulting distribution parameters (peak energy, peak amplitude, and peak width or temperature) for each species and each encounter against Titan latitude, longitude, and altitude to generate a map of ion parameters. In addition, the encounters are grouped according to ambient plasma and magnetic field measurements in order to characterize the ion distribution parameters in different regions of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  6. micrOMEGAs: Version 1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.

    2006-04-01

    We present the latest version of micrOMEGAs, a code that calculates the relic density of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). All tree-level processes for the annihilation of the LSP are included as well as all possible coannihilation processes with neutralinos, charginos, sleptons, squarks and gluinos. The cross-sections extracted from CalcHEP are calculated exactly using loop-corrected masses and mixings as specified in the SUSY Les Houches Accord. Relativistic formulae for the thermal average are used and care is taken to handle poles and thresholds by adopting specific integration routines. The input parameters can be either the soft SUSY parameters in a general MSSM or the parameters of a SUGRA model specified at the GUT scale. In the latter case, a link with Suspect, SOFTSUSY, Spheno and Isajet allows one to calculate the supersymmetric spectrum, Higgs masses, as well as mixing matrices. Higher-order corrections to Higgs couplings to quark pairs including QCD as well as some SUSY corrections ( Δm) are implemented. Routines calculating (, b→sγ and B→μμ are also included. In particular the b→sγ routine includes an improved NLO for the SM and the charged Higgs while the SUSY large tanβ effects beyond leading-order are included. This new version also provides cross-sections for any 2→2 process as well as partial decay widths for two-body final states in the MSSM allowing for easy simulation at colliders. Program summaryProgram title:micrOMEGAs1.3 Catalogue identifier:ADQR_v1_3 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQR_v1_3 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:none Computer:PC, Alpha, Silicon graphics, Sun Programming language:C and Fortran Operating system:UNIX (Linux, OSF1, IRIX64, SunOS) RAM:20 MB depending on the number of processes required No of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc

  7. Biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Malasanos, T H; Stacpoole, P W

    1991-12-01

    Fish oils exert important biological effects on several pathways predisposing to atherosclerosis. Epidemiological studies provided the initial evidence that omega-3 fatty acids may be the principal factor in fish oils responsible for these effects and have led to several short-term clinical trials in which fish-oil concentrates have been administered to various populations at risk for coronary heart disease, including patients with diabetes mellitus. omega-3 Fatty acids reduce serum lipids and lipoproteins, impair platelet aggregation, increase cell membrane fluidity, and lower blood pressure in humans. In this review, we highlight these and other potentially antiatherogenic properties of marine lipids in diabetic subjects.

  8. High-performance inertial confinement fusion target implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R L; Betti, R; Boehly, T R; Casey, D T; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Fletcher, K A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, Y Yu; Goncharov, V N; Harding, D R; Hu, S X; Igumenshchev, I V; Knauer, J P; Li, C K; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McKenty, P W; Nilson, P M; Padalino, S P; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Regan, S P; Sangster, T C; Seguin, F H; Seka, W; Short, R W; Shvarts, D; Skupsky, S; Soures, J M; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Yaakobi, B

    2011-04-18

    The Omega Laser Facility is used to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concepts. This paper describes progress in direct-drive central hot-spot (CHS) ICF, shock ignition (SI) and fast ignition (FI) since the 2008 IAEA FEC conference. CHS cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) target implosions on OMEGA have produced the highest DT areal densities yet measured in ICF implosions (~300 mg cm{sup -2}). Integrated FI experiments have shown a significant increase in neutron yield caused by an appropriately timed high-intensity, high-energy laser pulse.

  9. Diagnosing Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions Using the D^3He Spectrum Line Width at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Rygg, R.; Hicks, D.; Friedrich, S.; Landen, O.; MacKinnon, A.; Bionta, R.; Kilkenny, J.; Nikroo, A.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, C.; McKenty, P.; Betti, R.; Olson, R.; Wilson, D.

    2010-11-01

    Wedge Range Filter (WRF) spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectrum due to the D+^3He -> p (14.7 MeV) + ^4He (3.6 MeV) reactions produced in implosions containing D and ^3He gas. The line width of the measured spectrum is due to the thermal Doppler broadening, instrumental broadening, and several capsule effects such as a finite source size and implosion asymmetries. Models for these broadening sources are presented. Using these models we calculate an ion temperature in OMEGA and NIF exploding pusher shots. This Doppler-derived temperature is compared to independent measurements. Alternatively we use this model to constrain the amplitude of high-mode ρR asymmetries in NIF indirect-drive CH shell implosions. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DoE, LLNL, LLE, FSC, and NLUF. A.Zylstra is supported by the DoE NNSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship.

  10. Ion Composition in Titan’s Exosphere from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, Adam K.; Johnson, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    A primary goal of the Cassini mission has been to characterize the complex interaction between Saturn’s magnetosphere and Titan’s ionosphere. To this end, the Cassini spacecraft carries two instruments-the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS)-capable of energy- and mass-analysis. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS), one of three instruments composing CAPS, is designed to characterize diffuse plasmas throughout the magnetosphere while the INMS is optimized for measurements within Titan’s upper atmosphere. As such, mass-resolved ion compositions confirming a variety of hydrocarbons and nitriles have been extracted from INMS data for numerous Titan encounters. Similar analysis of IMS data, however, has been resolution-limited to the identification of “light” and “heavy” ion groups in the wake. Herein we present a technique for extracting Dalton-resolved ion compositions from IMS spectra acquired at altitudes below 5 Titan radii. The method is then applied to data from the T40 encounter and the resulting composition and fluxes compared with those derived from the INMS data for the same encounter.

  11. Omega-3s in Fish Tied to Better Colon Cancer Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160007.html Omega-3s in Fish Tied to Better Colon Cancer Outcomes ... cancer patients who take in higher amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, mainly from oily fish, may have ...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic). 721.10214 Section 721.10214... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  13. Retrieval of the Martian surface reflectance by means of Principal Component analysis and Target Transformation using OMEGA/Mex data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geminale, A.; Grassi, D.; Altieri, F.; Serventi, G.; Carli, C.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Sgavetti, M.; Orosei, R.; D'Aversa, E.; Bellucci, G.; Frigeri, A.

    The aim of this work is to extract the surface contribution in the Martian visible/near-infrared spectra removing the atmospheric components by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and target transformation (TT). The developed technique is suitable for separating spectral components in a data set large enough to enable an effective usage of statistical methods, in support to the more common approaches to remove the gaseous component. Data collected by imaging spectrometers, such as the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) instrument on board the ESA mission Mars Express (MEx), are particularly suitable for this purpose since it includes in the same session of observation a large number of spectra with different content of aerosols, gases and mineralogy. The methodology presented in this work has been applied to the analysis of OMEGA sessions over Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis regions, which have been already widely studied because of the presence of hydrated minerals. Once the surface reflectance, free from atmospheric contributions, has been obtained, the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) has been applied to spectra showing the hydrated phase. Silicates and iron-bearing hydrated minerals have been identified by means of the electronic transitions of Fe2+ between 0.8-1.2 mu m, while at longer wavelengths the hydrated mineralogy is identified by overtones of the OH group.

  14. Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in tilapia and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Kaolin

    2009-01-01

    A recent publication questions the nutritional value of tilapia in the human diet following the movement to eat fish for their omega fatty acid (FA) content. It suggests that tilapia have an elevated amount of omega-6 FAs (n-6) and a deficient amount of omega-3 FAs (n-3), a possibly unhealthy proportion for humans. A high n-6:n-3 ratio is problematic because too much arachidonic acid, an n-6 FA, promotes inflammation, which aggravates heart disease and other illnesses. This paper analyzes the numbers from different tilapia composition studies in an effort to understand the range of n-6 and n-3 totals and ratios present in both farmed and wild tilapia. Generally, wild tilapia have more n-3 FAs than farmed tilapia, but diet adjustments can alter the body composition of the domesticated variety. Consumers should consider fish as part of a balanced diet and evaluate their FA needs on an individual basis.

  15. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  16. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  17. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  18. Plasma structuring in the polar cap

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Weber, E.J.; Bishop, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Propagation experiments providing scintillation, total electron content and drift data in the field of view of an all-sky imager near the magnetic polar in Greenland are utilized to investigate the manner in which ionospheric plasma becomes structured within the polar cap. It is found that under IMF Bz southward conditions, large scale ionization patches which are convected through the dayside cusp into the polar cap get continually structured. The structuring occurs through the ExB gradient drift instability process which operates through an interaction between the antisunward plasma convection in the neutral rest frame and large scale plasma density gradients that exist at the edges of the ionization patches. It is shown that with the increase of solar activity the strength of the irregularities integrated through the ionosphere is greatly increased. Under the IMF Bz northward conditions, the plasma structuring occurs around the polar cap arcs in the presence of inhomogeneous electric field or disordered plasma convection. In that case, the irregularity generation is caused by the competing processes of non-linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability driven by sheared plasma flows and the gradient drift instability process which operates in the presence of dawn-dusk motion of arc structures. The integrated strength of this class of irregularities also exhibits marked increase with increasing solar activity presumably because the ambient plasma density over the polar cap is enhanced.

  19. 47 CFR 54.675 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cap. 54.675 Section 54.675 Telecommunication..., the Administrator shall implement a filing window period that treats all eligible health care providers filing within the window period as if their applications were simultaneously received. (3) (4)...

  20. H. cap alpha. in RS CVn binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, B.W.; Talcott, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The 1976--78 results of a spectroscopic program to monitor H..cap alpha.. in several RS CVn-type binaries are reported. For six objects well observed over orbital phase, four (HR 4665, HR 5110, sigma Gem, Z Her) show H..cap alpha.. as an absorption feature having a constant ( +- 15%) equivalent width (EW). AR Lac exhibits an absorption profile also, but the EW varies by a factor of three due to partial filling by emission. This variation is sporadic and not phase dependent. The H..cap alpha.. feature in HK Lac shows the most extreme variation: normally seen as an absorption feature with variable EW, it has been observed as a pure emission feature on three spectrograms, showing a blueshift with respect to the photosphere of approx.50--100 km sec/sup -1/. On a single occasion HK Lac showed double H..cap alpha.. emission with a separation of the peaks of approx.300 km sec/sup -1/. These high velocity features are interpreted in terms of prominence-like structure in the atmosphere of the active star.

  1. Capping blowouts from Iran's 8-year war

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, B. )

    1991-07-01

    Control well blown up by the Iraqi military were a 2 1/2 year legacy left the National Iranian Oil Co. at the end of this long conflict. This final installment of a 2-part series describes capping of the largest wind oil well.

  2. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... collect menstrual flow or to aid artificial insemination. This generic type of device is not...

  3. Natural attenuation processes during in situ capping.

    PubMed

    Himmelheber, David W; Pennell, Kurt D; Hughes, Joseph B

    2007-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents are common groundwater contaminants that threaten surface water quality and benthic health when present in groundwater seeps. Aquatic sediments can act as natural biobarriers to detoxify chlorinated solvent plumes via reductive dechlorination. In situ sediment capping, a remedial technique in which clean material is placed at the sediment-water interface, may alter sedimentary natural attenuation processes. This research explores the potential of Anacostia River sediment to naturally attenuate chlorinated solvents under simulated capping conditions. Results of microcosm studies demonstrated that intrinsic dechlorination of dissolved-phase PCE to ethene was possible, with electron donor availability controlling microbial activity. A diverse microbial community was present in the sediment, including multiple Dehalococcoides strains indicated by the amplification of the reductive dehalogenases tceA, vcrA, and bvcA. An upflow column simulating a capped sediment bed subject to PCE-contaminated groundwater seepage lost dechlorination activity with time and only achieved complete dechlorination when microorganisms present in the sediment were provided electron donor. Increases in effluent chloroethene concentrations during the period of biostimulation were attributed to biologically enhanced desorption and the formation of less sorptive dechlorination products. These findings suggest that in situ caps should be designed to account for reductions in natural biobarrier reactivity and for the potential breakthrough of groundwater contaminants. PMID:17822095

  4. Shrinking ice caps in the spotlight.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-10-01

    From the disappearing sea ice of the Arctic to the thriving microbial communities in subglacial lakes of Antarctica, the Earth's ice caps have often made the news in recent months and years, and polar science has emerged as being crucial to our understanding of our planet's biology and climate. Michael Gross reports.

  5. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... yearly average GDP-CPI is determined, the Wireline Competition Bureau shall publish a public notice in... category one services, the Administrator, at the direction of the Wireline Competition Bureau, shall direct... notwithstanding the annual cap. The Chief, Wireline Competition Bureau, is delegated authority to determine...

  6. Science CAP: Curriculum Assistance Program. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEMCO, Inc., Madison, WI.

    Science Curriculum Assistance Program (Science CAP(TM)) is a multimedia package developed to create a model for preserving classroom science activities that can be shared and customized by teachers. This program is designed to assist teachers in preparing classroom science activities for grades five through eight, and to foster an environment of…

  7. Natural attenuation processes during in situ capping.

    PubMed

    Himmelheber, David W; Pennell, Kurt D; Hughes, Joseph B

    2007-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents are common groundwater contaminants that threaten surface water quality and benthic health when present in groundwater seeps. Aquatic sediments can act as natural biobarriers to detoxify chlorinated solvent plumes via reductive dechlorination. In situ sediment capping, a remedial technique in which clean material is placed at the sediment-water interface, may alter sedimentary natural attenuation processes. This research explores the potential of Anacostia River sediment to naturally attenuate chlorinated solvents under simulated capping conditions. Results of microcosm studies demonstrated that intrinsic dechlorination of dissolved-phase PCE to ethene was possible, with electron donor availability controlling microbial activity. A diverse microbial community was present in the sediment, including multiple Dehalococcoides strains indicated by the amplification of the reductive dehalogenases tceA, vcrA, and bvcA. An upflow column simulating a capped sediment bed subject to PCE-contaminated groundwater seepage lost dechlorination activity with time and only achieved complete dechlorination when microorganisms present in the sediment were provided electron donor. Increases in effluent chloroethene concentrations during the period of biostimulation were attributed to biologically enhanced desorption and the formation of less sorptive dechlorination products. These findings suggest that in situ caps should be designed to account for reductions in natural biobarrier reactivity and for the potential breakthrough of groundwater contaminants.

  8. Cassini CAPS-ELS observations of carbon-based anions and aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ravindra; Coates, Andrew; Wellbrock, Anne; Kataria, Dhiren; Jones, Geraint; Lewis, Gethyn; Waite, J.

    2016-06-01

    Cassini observations of Titans ionosphere revealed an atmosphere rich in positively charged ions with masses up to > 350 amu and negatively charged ions and aerosols with mass over charge ratios as high as 13,800 amu/q. The detection of negatively charged molecules by the Cassini CAPS Electron Spectrometer (CAPS-ELS) was particularly surprising and showed how the synthesis of large aerosol-size particles takes place at altitudes much greater than previously thought. Here, we present further analysis into this CAPS-ELS dataset, through an enhanced understanding of the instrument's response function. In previous studies the intrinsic E/E energy resolution of the instrument did not allow specific species to be identified and the detections were classified into broad mass ranges. In this study we use an updated fitting procedure to show how the ELS mass spectrum can be resolved into specific peaks at multiples of carbon-based anions up to > 100 amu/q. The negatively charged ions and aerosols in Titans ionosphere increase in mass with decreasing altitude, the lightest species being observed close to Titan's exobase of ˜1,450km and heaviest species observed at altitudes < 950km. We identify key stages in this apparent growth process and report on key intermediaries which appear to trigger the rapid growth of the larger aerosol-size particles.

  9. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions

  10. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup

  11. High-pressure jet cutters improve capping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.; Campbell, P.J.; Bowden, J.R. Sr.

    1995-05-08

    Advances in abrasive cutting technology have improved the methods for removing damaged equipment and preparing wellheads for capping. This technology, much of which was refined during well control operations in Kuwait in 1991, can improve the safety and efficiency of capping jobs by cutting wellheads or casing quickly and cleanly. The majority of well control jobs involve one of three types of capping operations: capping to a flange, capping by installing a wellhead, or capping to a casing stub. Capping operations are often the first major step in regaining control of the well during blowout intervention. Proper planning of a capping operation must take into account the mass flow rate, combustible nature of the flow, well bore geometry, and operations in the post-capping phase of the project. The paper discusses capping vehicles, tree removal, jet cutters, capping to a flange, capping to a stub, swallowing the stub, spin-on technique, capping on fire, stinging, offshore blowouts, firefighting, pollution control, intervention equipment, and rig removal.

  12. Antioxidant activity of sesamol and omega-oryzanol towards fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural antioxidants, sesamol and omega-oryzanol, were examined for their antioxidant activity towards omega-3 oil. Sesamol and omega-oryzanol have been known to provide antioxidant effects at high temperatures such as those used for frying. In this study, the effects of 0.84 mM and 8.4 mM oryza...

  13. Estimating [omega][subscript h] for Structures Containing Two Group Factors: Perils and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah

    2007-01-01

    One of the most serious difficulties in the estimation of omega[subscript hierarchical] ([omega][subscript h]) has not been previously studied. Although it is true that one can impose a set of identifying constraints on one's solution to derive an estimate of [omega][subscript h] in the two-group factor case, there is the potential for introducing…

  14. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jason A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Battel, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Observations of newly ionized atoms that are picked up by the magnetic field in the expanding solar wind contain crucial information about the gas or dust compositions of their origins. The pickup ions (PUIs) are collected by plasma mass spectrometers and analyzed for their density, composition, and velocity distribution. In addition to measurements of PUIs from planetary sources, in situ measurements of interstellar gas have been made possible by spectrometers capable of differentiating between heavy ions of solar and interstellar origin. While important research has been done on these often singly charged ions, the instruments that have detected many of them were designed for the energy range and ionic charge states of the solar wind and energized particle populations, and not for pickup ions. An instrument optimized for the complete energy and time-of-flight characterization of pickup ions will unlock a wealth of data on these hitherto unobserved or unresolved PUI species. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer (PICSpec) is one such instrument and can enable the next generation of pickup ion and isotopic mass composition measurements. By combining a large-gap time-of-flight-energy sensor with a -100 kV high-voltage power supply for ion acceleration, PUIs will not only be above the detection threshold of traditional solid-state energy detectors but also be resolved sufficiently in time of flight that isotopic composition can be determined. This technology will lead to a new generation of space composition instruments, optimized for measurements of both heliospheric and planetary pickup ions.

  15. A picosecond beam-timing system for the OMEGA laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Donaldson, W. R.; Katz, J.; Huff, R.; Hill, E. M.; Kelly, J. H.; Kwaitkowski, J.; Brannon, R. B.; Boni, R.

    2016-05-27

    Here, a timing system is demonstrated for the OMEGA Laser System that guarantees all 60 beams will arrive on target simultaneously with a root mean square variability of 4 ps. The system relies on placing a scattering sphere at the target position to couple the UV light from each beam into a single photodetector.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids: a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, G; Franceschi, F; Bibbò, S; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-10-01

    The integrity of gastric barrier derives from the balance between defending and damaging factors. In particular, prostaglandins play a relevant role in the maintenance of gastric homeostasis and prevention of peptic disease, at different levels. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentanoic acid, are the precursors of the third series of prostaglandins (with anti-inflammatory properties), also reducing the formation of the second series of prostaglandins (pro-inflammatory ones). Such a pathophysiological rationale brought to the experimental application, both in animal models and, more recently, in humans, of omega-3 fatty acids against gastrointestinal damage. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown interesting results in preventing different types of gastric damage in mouse models. A large retrospective case-control study on patients taking both anti-thrombotic therapy and eicosapentanoic acid showed (although only at unadjusted analysis) an inverse correlation between consumption of eicosapentanoic acid and gastrointestinal injury. Prospective, well-designed, comparative studies are warranted to clarify if omega-3 fatty acids may represent, or not, a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

  18. Prevention of Sports Injuries by Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Bryhn, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sport injuries are common and costly for the professional athlete, the "weekend warrior," and the community. Acute injuries are treated according to current guidelines with the aim of bringing the athlete back into the arena. These guidelines have not taken into account new scientific results of the inflammatory process following a trauma. The 4 hallmarks of inflammation, namely, pain, swelling, redness, and heat, are results of an adequate inflammatory response with the aim of bringing the affected tissue back to restitution (Latin: restitutio ad integrum). Cooling of the affected limb and anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used but may deter healing. The healing process is governed by fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. In order to facilitate healing, these fatty acids have to be present in significant amounts in the affected tissues before the trauma occurs. This is particularly relevant for marine omega-3 fatty acids, which are often running low due to insignificant intake of seafood, common in individuals practicing sports. High-energy sports often lead to head and brain trauma. Continuous head traumata may even result in later mental defects. Saturation of brain cells with omega-3 fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may facilitate healing after brain trauma, thereby counteracting negative long-term results. The present understanding of a normal inflammatory process leading to restitution will be discussed along with data from recent scientific trials.

  19. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, Michel; Calzada, Catherine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Lagarde, Michel; Véricel, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance". PMID:25263947

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, Michel; Calzada, Catherine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Lagarde, Michel; Véricel, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".