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Sample records for cap vert peninsula

  1. Changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the Mauritanian-Cap Vert upwelling region between 2005 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Dávila, Melchor; Magdalena Santana Casiano, J.; Machín, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Coastal upwellings along the eastern margins of major ocean basins represent regions of large ecological and economic importance due to the high biological productivity. The role of these regions for the global carbon cycle makes them essential in addressing climate change. The physical forcing of upwelling processes that favor production in these areas are already being affected by global warming, which will modify the intensity of upwelling and, consequently, the carbon dioxide cycle. Here, we present monthly high-resolution surface experimental data for temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in one of the four most important upwelling regions of the planet, the Mauritanian-Cap Vert upwelling region, from 2005 to 2012. This data set provides direct evidence of seasonal and interannual changes in the physical and biochemical processes. Specifically, we show an upwelling intensification and an increase of 0.6 Tg yr-1 in CO2 outgassing due to increased wind speed, despite increased primary productivity. This increase in CO2 outgassing together with the observed decrease in sea surface temperature at the location of the Mauritanian Cap Blanc, 21° N, produced a pH rate decrease of -0.003 ± 0.001 yr-1.

  2. Geochronology of the Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Humber and Dunnage Zones of the Appalachian Orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmeyer, R.D.; Hibbard, J.

    1984-09-01

    U-Pb analyses of zircon from the Burlington Granodiorite suggest intrusion at c. 460-465 Ma. Hornblende and biotite from central portions of the pluton record markedly younger /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar plateau dates (410-420 Ma) which are interpreted to date contact metamorphic effects associated with the widespread emplacement of Silurian-Devonian igneous suites. Northern portions of the Burlington Granodiorite are polydeformed and regionally metamorphosed. Hornblende and biotite from this terrane yield /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar plateau ages of 345-350 Ma. U-Pb analyses of zircon from the Dunamagon Granite indicate emplacement at c. 440-460 Ma, thereby providing an upper limit for tectonic juxtapositioning of the Humber and Dunnage Zones along the Baie Verte Line. Similar ages are also recorded by hornblende and biotite throughout northerly portions of the Mings Bight (Humber Zone) and Pacquet Harbour (Dunnage Zone) Groups. These results indicate that the tectonic evolution of the Baie Verte Line as polygenetic, and involved: (1) regionally significant tectonothermal activity prior to the Middle Ordovician and (2) Middle to Late Paleozoic tectonothermal activity centered along easterly segments of the Baie Verte Line. The regional metamorphism associated with this orogenic activity altered primary U-Pb and Rb-Sr isotopic systems within various igneous suites exposed in northeastern portions of the Burlington Peninsula, which may explain some inconsistent geochronological results previously obtained. 54 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Structure of the Rambler Rhyolite, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland: Inversions using UBC-GIF Grav3D and Mag3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, B.; Morris, B.; Ugalde, H.

    2011-09-01

    Hosted within the Pacquet Harbour Group (PHG) on the Baie Verte Peninsula of north-central Newfoundland, the Rambler rhyolite is a 487 Ma unit of felsic tuffs, flows and subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The PHG has been affected by multiple phases of deformation with the youngest D4 deformation event producing broad northeast plunging upright cross folds in the Rambler rhyolite. Fold culminations on the upper bounding surface of the rhyolite host Cu +/- Au volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (e.g. Rambler and Ming mines). Geophysical inversions of recently acquired high resolution gravity and magnetic data have been implemented to determine the extent of the fold axis (dome) at depth. To direct the outcome of the inversion process towards a more geologically reasonable solution this study outlines a procedure which permits the inclusion of known geological and geophysical constraints into the input (reference) model for inversion using the MAG3D and GRAV3D algorithms provided by the University of British Columbia Geophysical Inversion Facility. Reference model constraints included surficial geological contacts as defined by aeromagnetic data, and subsurface distribution of physical property variations from a series of drill-hole logs. The output (computed) model images the surface of the rhyolite dome as dipping roughly 40° to the northeast as a series of voxels with density values ranging from 2.71 to 2.75 g/cm3. While previously published ore deposit models parallel this structure in the near surface, results from these inversions suggest deeper exploration may be favorable. Magnetic inversion modeling has not provided any insight into dome morphology however it outlines the distribution of gabbroic dykes surrounding the dome.

  4. Operations planning with VERT.

    PubMed

    Moeller, G L; Digman, L A

    1981-01-01

    The Venture Evaluation and Review Technique (VERT) is a computerized, mathematically oriented network-based simulation technique designed to analyze risk existing in three parameters of most concern to managers in new projects or ventures--time, cost, and performance. As such, the VERT technique is more powerful than techniques such as GERT, which are basically time and cost oriented. VERT has been successfully utilized to assess the risks involved in new ventures and projects, in the estimation of future capital requirements, in control monitoring, and in the overall evaluation of ongoing projects, programs, and systems. It has been helpful to management in cases where there is a requirement to make decisions with incomplete or inadequate information about the alternatives. An example describing the application of VERT to an operational planning problem--the evaluation of electric power generating methods--is illustrated.

  5. A moderate resolution inventory of small glaciers and ice caps surrounding Greenland and the Antarctic peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Box, J. E.; Hock, R. M.; Cogley, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Current estimates of global Mountain Glacier and Ice Caps (MG&IC) mass changes are subject to large uncertainties due to incomplete inventories and uncertainties in land surface classification. This presentation features mitigative efforts through the creation of a MODIS dependent land ice classification system and its application for glacier inventory. Estimates of total area of mountain glaciers [IPCC, 2007] and ice caps (including those in Greenland and Antarctica) vary 15%, that is, 680 - 785 10e3 sq. km. To date only an estimated 40% of glaciers (by area) is inventoried in the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) and made available through the World Glacier Monitoring System (WGMS) and the National Snow and Ice Data Center [NSIDC, 1999]. Cogley [2009] recently compiled a more complete version of WGI, called WGI-XF, containing records for just over 131,000 glaciers, covering approximately half of the estimated global MG&IC area. The glaciers isolated from the conterminous Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets remain incompletely inventoried in WGI-XF but have been estimated to contribute 35% to the MG&IC sea-level equivalent during 1961-2004 [Hock et al., 2009]. Together with Arctic Canada and Alaska these regions alone make up almost 90% of the area that is missing in the global WGI-XF inventory. Global mass balance projections tend to exclude ice masses in Greenland and Antarctica due to the paucity of data with respect to basic inventory base data such as area, number of glaciers or size distributions. We address the need for an accurate Greenland and Antarctic peninsula land surface classification with a novel glacier surface classification and inventory based on NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data gridded at 250 m pixel resolution. The presentation includes a sensitivity analysis for surface mass balance as it depends on the land surface classification. Works Cited +Cogley, J. G. (2009), A more complete version of the World Glacier

  6. Seismic sequence stratigraphy of Miocene deposits related to eustatic, tectonic and climatic events, Cap Bon Peninsula, northeastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharsalli, Ramzi; Zouaghi, Taher; Soussi, Mohamed; Chebbi, Riadh; Khomsi, Sami; Bédir, Mourad

    2013-09-01

    The Cap Bon Peninsula, belonging to northeastern Tunisia, is located in the Maghrebian Alpine foreland and in the North of the Pelagian block. By its paleoposition, during the Cenozoic, in the edge of the southern Tethyan margin, this peninsula constitutes a geological entity that fossilized the eustatic, tectonic and climatic interactions. Surface and subsurface study carried out in the Cap Bon onshore area and surrounding offshore of Hammamet interests the Miocene deposits from the Langhian-to-Messinian interval time. Related to the basin and the platform positions, sequence and seismic stratigraphy studies have been conducted to identify seven third-order seismic sequences in subsurface (SM1-SM7), six depositional sequences on the Zinnia-1 petroleum well (SDM1-SDM6), and five depositional sequences on the El Oudiane section of the Jebel Abderrahmane (SDM1-SDM5). Each sequence shows a succession of high-frequency systems tract and parasequences. These sequences are separated by remarkable sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces (SB and MFS) that have been correlated to the eustatic cycles and supercycles of the Global Sea Level Chart of Haq et al. (1987). The sequences have been also correlated with Sequence Chronostratigraphic Chart of Hardenbol et al. (1998), related to European basins, allows us to arise some major differences in number and in size. The major discontinuities, which limit the sequences resulted from the interplay between tectonic and climatic phenomena. It thus appears very judicious to bring back these chronological surfaces to eustatic and/or local tectonic activity and global eustatic and climatic controls.

  7. A Possible Tohoku-Magnitude Tsunami Along The Alaska Peninsula, The 1946 Scotch Cap Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. J.; von Huene, R.

    2013-12-01

    At Unimak Pass, Alaska, a tsunami in 1946 destroyed the lighthouse at Scotch Cap, Unimak Island, took 159 lives on the Hawaiian Islands, damaged island coastal facilities across the south Pacific, and destroyed a hut in Antarctica. The tsunami magnitude of 9.3 is comparable to the magnitude 9.1 tsunami that devastated the Tohoku coast of Japan in 2011. Both causative earthquake epicenters occurred in shallow reaches of the subduction zone. Contractile tectonism along the Alaska margin presumably generated the far field tsunami by producing a seafloor elevation change. However, the Scotch Cap lighthouse was destroyed by a near field tsunami that was probably generated by a coeval large undersea landslide, yet bathymetric surveys showed no fresh large landslide scar. We investigated this problem by reprocessing 5 seismic lines. One line, processed through prestack depth migration, crosses a 10 x 15 km and 800 m high hill presumed previously to be basement, but instead is comprised of stratified rock superimposed on the slope sediment. This image and multibeam bathymetry illustrate a slide block that could have sourced the 1946 near field tsunami because it is positioned within a distance determined by the time between earthquake shaking and the tsunami arrival at Scotch Cap and is consistent with the local extent of high runup of 42 m along the adjacent Alaskan coast. The Unimak/Scotch Cap margin is structurally similar to the 2011 Tohoku tsunamigenic margin where a large landslide at the trench, coeval with the Tohoku earthquake, has been documented. Further study can improve our understanding of tsunami sources along Alaska's erosional margins.

  8. A Menu Technique for Utilizing VERT Interactively

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    FORM 3 . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHORf»J Kenneth L. Kearley 8...VERT Input Data File (Tektronix 4027 Color Graphics Terminal) Appendix H - Sample Session Number 3 : Create a VERT Input Data File, Debug, and...required to the Tektronix Plot-10 CALCOMP 3 / 4/ Preview Routine and the ISSCO TELLAGRAF Computer Graphics System. The menu technique may still be

  9. NUMERICAL RESULTS ON BEST UNIFORM RATIONAL APPROXIMATION OF \\vert x\\vert ON \\lbrack-1,\\,+1\\rbrack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Richard S.; Ruttan, A.; Karpenter, A. D.

    1993-02-01

    With E_{n,n}(\\vert x\\vert;\\, \\lbrack-1,\\,+1\\rbrack) denoting the error of best uniform rational approximation from \\pi_{n,n} to \\vert x\\vert on \\lbrack-1,\\,+1\\rbrack, we determine the numbers \\{E_{2n,2n}(\\vert x\\vert;\\, \\lbrack-1,\\,+1\\rbrack)\\}_{n=1}^{40}, where each of these numbers was calculated with a precision of at least 200 significant digits. With these numbers, the Richardson extrapolation method was applied to the products \\{e^{\\pi\\sqrt{2n}}E_{2n,2n}(\\vert x\\vert;\\, \\lbrack-1,\\,+1\\rbrack)\\}_{n=1}^{40}, and it appears, to at least 10 significant digits, that \\displaystyle 8\\stackrel{?}{=}\\lim_{n\\to\\infty}e^{\\pi\\sqrt{2n}}E_{2n,2n}(\\vert x\\vert;\\, \\lbrack-1,\\,+1\\rbrack),which gives rise to an interesting new conjecture in the theory of rational approximation.

  10. Laser filamentation in (E\\vert \\vert B) standing EM waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alouani Bibi, Fathallah; Matte, Jean-Pierre; Brabec, Thomas; Corkum, Paul

    2004-11-01

    Theoretical analyses [1] and experiment [2] have shown that standing wave solutions to Maxwell's equations with E\\vert \\vert B can be generated with two counter-propagating beams. We analyze the effects of such a wave on laser heating of under-dense plasmas, and filamentation. In ordinary beams, ponderomotive effects dominate at high intensity and thermal ones at low intensity [3]. If the intensity of this E\\vert \\vert B field can be modulated in the direction perpendicular to the propagation axis and to the fields, filamentation, should then be dominated by thermal effects, even at high intensity, because the ponderomotive force would then nearly cancel. This would allow the study of the effect of high intensity radiation on thermal transport, which was predicted to be important [4]. [1] C. Chu and T. Okhawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 837 (1982); N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, ibid., 92, 013002 (2004). [2] F. Bretenaker and A.Le. Floch, Phys. Rev. A 43, 3704 (1991). [3] P.E. Young, Phys. Plasmas 2, 2815 (1995). [4] F. Alouani Bibi and J.-P. Matte, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 066414..

  11. Laser A Krypton Et Laser Monochromatique Vert En Ophtalmologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscas, G.; Soubrane, G.; Koenig, F.

    1984-03-01

    Si 1' utilisation du laser a argon en ophtalmologie remonte a 1968, depuis quelques annees, nous disposons de laser monochromatiques : le laser a krypton rouge et le laser a argon vert. Des etudes en microscopie optique et electronique ont ete ef fectuees sur des singes. Le maximum d'alterations se situe au niveau de la choroide avec le laser a krypton et au niveau de 1' epithelium pigmentaire avec le laser vert a argon. Ces etudes nous ont permis de preciser les indications des laser monochromatiques. Ainsi, en clinique, les neovaisseaux sous retiniens constituent une de leurs indications essentielles en particulier dans la region du pigment luteal. Par ailleurs, le laser a krypton a une bonne transmission a travers des milieux oculaires troubles, et it nest pas absorbe par le sang. Le laser a argon vert au contraire, permet la destruction d'a-nomalies microvasculaires retiniennes.

  12. Peninsula Academies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Marilyn E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Peninsula Academies program developed by the Sequoia (California) Union High School District and 27 local high technology companies to help educationally disadvantaged students break the pattern of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. (FL)

  13. [Pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical advertising of Annales vertes in 1927].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2007-10-01

    The journal Les Annales, under the direction of Adolphe Brisson, was deeply modified by Pierre (Adolphe's son) who decided to publish in 1927 the first issue of Les Annales with a green cover, so called Les Annales vertes. This journal contained a lot of pharmaceutical as well as parapharmaceutical advertising. It is the useful to make an analysis of it at a period which is just preceding the 1929 financial krasch and which is characterized by large advertising budgets in the pharmaceutical industry. Directed toward the general population, advertising was mainly targeting women and patients suffering from anaemia, intestinal transit diseases, or corn. It is also an opportunity to observe the dynamism of some pharmaceutical companies, most of which have disappeared since then. This very large amount of advertising, indeed in excess, will drive ultimately to change the law a few years later in order to control more and more tightly this activity of advertising that targeted the general population as well as medical doctors and pharmacists.

  14. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

  15. Residual Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-10

    This MOC image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions

  16. Cradle Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hair follicles. Another factor may be a yeast (fungus) called malassezia (mal-uh-SEE-zhuh) that ... ketoconazole, are often effective, supporting the idea that yeast is a contributing factor. Cradle cap isn't ...

  17. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staff The cervical cap is a birth control (contraceptive) device that prevents sperm from entering the uterus. ... more times a week, you've had previous contraceptive failure with vaginal barrier methods or you're ...

  18. Cusp Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A brightening at one or other of the tips—cusps—of the crescent phase of Venus, as seen from Earth. Cusp caps were first reported by the German amateur astronomer Baron Franz Paula von Gruithuisen in 1813, and have been recorded by telescopic observers ever since. They were named by analogy with the Earth's polar caps; early observers fancied they were seeing glimpses of a possibly Earth-like sur...

  19. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  20. Cradle cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... known. Doctors think the condition is due to oil glands in the baby's scalp producing too much oil. Cradle cap is not spread from person to ... each day to remove any scales and scalp oil. If scales do not easily loosen and wash ...

  1. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    This anaglyph of Mexico Yucatan Peninsula was generated from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  2. Apical cap

    SciTech Connect

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-08-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices.

  3. Osp(1{vert_bar}2) Chern-Simons gauge theory as 2D N=1 induced supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ezawa, K.; Ishikawa, A.

    1997-08-01

    We demonstrate the close relationship between Chern-Simons gauge theory with the gauge group Osp(1{vert_bar}2) and N=1 induced supergravity in two dimensions. More precisely, the inner product of the physical states in the former yields the partition function of the latter evaluated in the Wess-Zumino supergauge. It is also shown that the moduli space of flat Osp(1{vert_bar}2) connections naturally includes a super Teichm{umlt u}ller space of super Riemann surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin.

    PubMed

    Hubberstey, A; Yu, G; Loewith, R; Lakusta, C; Young, D

    1996-06-01

    We previously identified human CAP, a homolog of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein. Previous studies suggest that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of CAP have distinct functions. We have explored the interactions of human CAP with various proteins. First, by performing yeast two-hybrid screens, we have identified peptides from several proteins that interact with the C-terminal and/or the N-terminal domains of human CAP. These peptides include regions derived from CAP and BAT3, a protein with unknown function. We have further shown that MBP fusions with these peptides can associate in vitro with the N-terminal or C-terminal domains of CAP fused to GST. Our observations indicate that CAP contains regions in both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains that are capable of interacting with each other or with themselves. Furthermore, we found that myc-epitope-tagged CAP coimmunoprecipitates with HA-epitope-tagged CAP from either yeast or mammalian cell extracts. Similar results demonstrate that human CAP can also interact with human CAP2. We also show that human CAP interacts with actin, both by the yeast two-hybrid test and by coimmunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged CAP from yeast or mammalian cell extracts. This interaction requires the C-terminal domain of CAP, but not the N-terminal domain. Thus CAP appears to be capable of interacting in vivo with other CAP molecules, CAP2, and actin. We also show that actin co-immunoprecipitates with HA-CAP2 from mammalian cell extracts.

  7. Waning Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the outer edge of the south polar residual cap of Mars. During summer, the scarps that delineate the sides of the mesas, retreat (on average) by about 3 meters (10 feet) owing to the sublimation of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.6oS, 349.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  8. Waning Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the outer edge of the south polar residual cap of Mars. During summer, the scarps that delineate the sides of the mesas, retreat (on average) by about 3 meters (10 feet) owing to the sublimation of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.6oS, 349.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  9. Peninsula Academies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequoia Union High School District, Redwood City, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Peninsula Academies program helps educationally disadvantaged youth overcome the handicaps of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. This is accomplished by providing a high school curriculum that is clearly related to work, training in specific job skills, emphasis…

  10. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  11. The Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, M.L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Nelson, Steven W.; Hamilton, Thomas D.

    1989-01-01

    The Resurrection Peninsula forms the east side of Resurrection Bay (fig. 3). Relief ranges from 437 m (1,434 ft) at the southern end of the peninsula to more than 1,463 m (4,800 ft) opposite the head of the bay. All rock units composing the informally named Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite of Nelson and others (1987) are visible or accessible by boat."Ophiolite" has been a geologic term since 1827 (Coleman, 1977). The term "ophiolite" initially referred to the rock serpentinite; the Greek root "ophi" (meaning snake or serpent) alluded to the greenish, mottled, and shiny appearance of serpentinites. In 1927, Steinmann described a rock association in the Alps, sometimes known as the "Steinmann Trinity', consisting of serpentine, diabase and spilitic lavas, and chert. Recognition of this suite led to the idea that ophiolites represent submarine magmatism that took place early in the development of a eugeosyncline. In the early 1970s the Steinmann Trinity was reconsidered in light of the plate tectonic theory, new petrologic studies, and the recognition of abducted oceanic lithosphere in orogenic belts of the world. In 1972 at a Geological Society of America Penrose Conference (Anonymous, 1972) the term "ophiolite" was defined as a distinctive assemblage of mafic to ultramafic rocks, with no emphasis on their origin. A complete ophiolite should contain, from bottom to top:1) Tectonized ultramafic rocks (more or less serpentinized)2) Gabbro complex containing cumulus textures and commonly cumulus peridotites3) Mafic sheeted-dike complex, grading upward into;4) Submarine pillow lavas of basaltic composition. Common associated rock types include plagiogranite (Na-rich) and an overlying sedimentary section typically dominated by chert.

  12. Merida, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This rare cloud free view of the city of Merida (21.0N, 90.0W) on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico was taken as an experiment with color infrared film to determine the best applications of this unique film. Color film presents an image as it appears to the eye but color infrared film eliminates haze and better defines vegetation and its vitality by the shade of red or pink. Note that much of the native forests have been cut down for farm lands.

  13. Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Gulf of Aqaba separates the Sinai peninsula from Saudi Arabia in this scene of the Middle East (29.0N, 34.5E) showing the geomorphology and geology of this region including portions of Egypt, Israel, Jordon and Saudi Arabia. A small portion of the Gulf of Suez can be seen on the opposite side of the Sinai peninsula.

  14. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  15. Energy Fluctuation of Ideal Fermi Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential U=\\sum_{i=1}^{d} c_i\\vert x_{i}/a_{i}\\vert^{n_{i} } in d Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Muktadir Rahman, Md.; Debnath, Dwaipayan; Sakhawat Hossain Himel, Md.

    2016-04-01

    Energy fluctuation of ideal Fermi gas trapped under generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1d ci \\vertxi/ai \\vert n_i has been calculated in arbitrary dimensions. Energy fluctuation is scrutinized further in the degenerate limit μ ≫ KBT with the help of Sommerfeld expansion. The dependence of energy fluctuation on dimensionality and power law potential is studied in detail. Most importantly our general result can not only exactly reproduce the recently published result regarding free and harmonically trapped ideal Fermi gas in d = 3 but also can describe the outcome for any power law potential in arbitrary dimension.

  16. The timing of epigenetic gold mineralization on the Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada: new evidence from Re-Os pyrite geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Andrew; Selby, David

    2012-03-01

    The absolute timing of epigenetic mineralization, including most types of gold deposits, is difficult to resolve due to the absence of suitable minerals in veins and replacement zones. However, gold is commonly closely associated with pyrite and arsenopyrite, which may be amenable to Re-Os geochronology, providing sufficient Re and Os are present within them. This short paper outlines the use of this method to date two gold deposits in Newfoundland using pyrite. Although the Os contents of the pyrites are extremely low (≪0.1 ppb), the Os is almost exclusively radiogenic 187Os, and data are amenable to model age calculations, as used in Re-Os molybdenite dating. The pyrites from these deposits correspond to low-level highly radiogenic sulphides, as defined by other studies. The Stog'er Tight and Pine Cove gold deposits yield mean Re-Os model ages of 411 ± 7 Ma ( n = 4) and 420 ± 7 Ma ( n = 5), respectively, which agree with isochron regression of 187Os against 187Re. The Re-Os age for Stog'er Tight is within uncertainty of a previous U-Pb age from `hydrothermal' zircon (420 ± 5 Ma) in spatially related alteration. A latest Silurian-earliest Devonian age for the mineralization is consistent with indirect age constraints from some other gold deposits in central Newfoundland and suggests a broad temporal link to the mid-Silurian Salinic Orogeny. However, the gold mineralization appears to be younger than most plutonic activity associated with this event. The results illustrate the potential value of Re-Os pyrite geochronology in understanding the temporal framework of epigenetic mineralization, especially if future improvements in analytical precision and reductions in procedural blanks allow wider application to material with similarly low Re and Os concentrations.

  17. The cervical cap (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  18. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  19. The cervical cap.

    PubMed

    1988-10-07

    The US Food and Drug Administration has approved marketing of the Prentif cavity-rim cervical cap. This contraceptive device is being distributed in the US and Canada by Cervical Cap Ltd, Los Gatos, California. The Prentif cap is available in 4 sizes: 22, 25, 28, and 31 mm inside diameter, with a length of 1 1/4-1 1/2 inches. In a multicenter trial involving 522 diaphragm users and 581 cap users followed for 2 years, the cap was 82.6% effective and the diaphragm was 83.3% effective in preventing pregnancy. When pregnancies attributable to user failure were excluded, these rates were increased to 93.6% for the cap and 95.4% for the diaphragm. 4% of cap users compared with only 1.7% of diaphragm users in this study developed abnormal Pap smears after 3 months of use; in addition, a higher proportion of cap users became infected with Gardnerella vaginalis and Monilia. Theoretical hazards include toxic shock syndrome and endometriosis due to backflow of menstrual fluids. Cap users are advised to undergo a Pap test after 3 months of use and discontinue cap use if the results are abnormal. The cap should not be used during menstruation. Although the cap can be left in place for up to 48 hours, its position should be checked before and after each episode of intercourse. The cervical cap requires less spermicide than the diaphragm and is not as messy. In addition, it can be left in the vagina twice as long as the diaphragm, without additional spermicide. Since the cap is smaller than the diaphragm and does not cover the vaginal wall, some women find intercourse more pleasurable with this device.

  20. On representations of U{sub q}osp(1{vert_bar}2) when q is a root of unity

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, W.; Suzuki, T.

    1997-06-01

    The infinite dimensional highest weight representations of U{sub q}osp(1{vert_bar}2) for the deformation parameter q being a root of unity are investigated. As in the cases of q-deformed nongraded Lie algebras, we find that every irreducible representation is isomorphic to the tensor product of a highest weight representation of sl{sub 2}(R) and a finite dimensional one of U{sub q}osp(1{vert_bar}2). The structure is investigated in detail. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  2. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  3. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  4. Claymax landfill cap

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.L.

    1989-12-15

    A commercial product called Claymax'' consisting of one-quarter inch of bentonite clay between two geotextile sheets is a candidate landfill cap to replace kaolin caps. A permeability apparatus incorporating a 20 foot water head was operated for 56 days to estimate a Claymax permeability of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec compared with 10{sup {minus}8}, the EPA max for a burial site cap. 1 fig.

  5. Health-care cap.

    PubMed

    1996-05-03

    Dallas Avionics agreed to discontinue its cap on HIV-related medical expenses. The Texas company offered employees $1 million worth of lifetime medical benefits, with the exception of HIV-related expenses. Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund intervened, demanding that the cap be removed and the company pay an employee's $82,000 outstanding HIV-related medical bills. According to Lambda, the cap violates the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  6. Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous icebergs are breaking out of the sea ice in the Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula. This true-color MODIS image from November 13, 2001, shows several icebergs drifting out of the Weddell Sea. The Antarctic Peninsula (left) reaches out into the Drake Passage, which separates the southern tip of South America from Antarctica. Warmer temperatures have cleared a tiny patch of bare ground at the Peninsula's tip. The predominant ocean current in the area is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current ('circum' meaning 'around'), which is also the 'West Wind Drift.' The current is the largest permanent current in the world, and water is moved eastward by westerly winds. Icebergs leaving the Weddell Sea are likely to be moved north and east by the current. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-05

    This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, shows the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  8. Synthesis of Leishmania cap-4 intermediates, cap-2 and cap-3.

    PubMed

    Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Stepinski, Janusz; Kierzek, Ryszard; Jemielity, Jacek; Zuberek, Joanna; Yoffe, Yael; Shapira, Michal; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of Leishmania mRNA 5'-cap analogs, m(7)Gpppm(2)(6)AmpAm (cap-2), and m(7)Gpppm(2)(6)AmpAmpCm (cap-3) is reported. Binding affinities of those cap analogs for LeishIF4E proteins were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. Cap-3 showed similar affinity to LeishIF4Es compared to the mature trypanosomatids cap structure (cap-4).

  9. Panoramic Sinai Peninsula, Red Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    An excellent panoramic view of the entire Sinai Peninsula (29.0N, 34.0E) and the nearby Nile River Delta and eastern Mediterranean coastal region. The Suez Canal, at the top of the scene just to the right of the Delta, connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez on the west side of the Sinai Peninsula and the Gulf of Aqaba is on the west where they both flow into the Red Sea. At upper right, is the Dead Sea, Jordan River and Lake Tiberius.

  10. The importance of digitized biocollections as a source of trait data and a new VertNet resource

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Robert P.; Zermoglio, Paula F.; Wieczorek, John; LaFrance, Raphael; Bloom, David; Russell, Laura

    2016-01-01

    For vast areas of the globe and large parts of the tree of life, data needed to inform trait diversity is incomplete. Such trait data, when fully assembled, however, form the link between the evolutionary history of organisms, their assembly into communities, and the nature and functioning of ecosystems. Recent efforts to close data gaps have focused on collating trait-by-species databases, which only provide species-level, aggregated value ranges for traits of interest and often lack the direct observations on which those ranges are based. Perhaps under-appreciated is that digitized biocollection records collectively contain a vast trove of trait data measured directly from individuals, but this content remains hidden and highly heterogeneous, impeding discoverability and use. We developed and deployed a suite of openly accessible software tools in order to collate a full set of trait descriptions and extract two key traits, body length and mass, from >18 million specimen records in VertNet, a global biodiversity data publisher and aggregator. We tested success rate of these tools against hand-checked validation data sets and characterized quality and quantity. A post-processing toolkit was developed to standardize and harmonize data sets, and to integrate this improved content into VertNet for broadest reuse. The result of this work was to add more than 1.5 million harmonized measurements on vertebrate body mass and length directly to specimen records. Rates of false positives and negatives for extracted data were extremely low. We also created new tools for filtering, querying, and assembling this research-ready vertebrate trait content for view and download. Our work has yielded a novel database and platform for harmonized trait content that will grow as tools introduced here become part of publication workflows. We close by noting how this effort extends to new communities already developing similar digitized content. Database URL: http

  11. Mars ice caps.

    PubMed

    Leovy, C

    1966-12-02

    Minimum atmospheric temperatures required to prevent CO(2) condensatio in the Mars polar caps are higher than those obtained in a computer experiment to simulate the general circulation of the Mars atmosphere. This observation supports the view that the polar caps are predominantly solid CO(2). However, thin clouds of H(2)0 ice could substantially reduce the surface condensation rate.

  12. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  13. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  14. CCiCap: Boeing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with The Boeing Company for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the initia...

  15. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  16. ROTOR END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1959-02-01

    An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

  17. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  18. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Sunglint and Florida Peninsula, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Gulf coast and the Florida peninsula (30.0N, 81.5W) seen in sunglint. The lakes of central Florida are highlighted in reflected light in this scene. The view extends up along the Georgia and South Carolina Coast and clouds cast shadows in the sunglint. The sunglint off the east coast also highlights shears in the Atlantic related to the Gulf Stream. To the south, Andros Island and the Grand Bahama Bank are visible.

  1. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  2. QUANTITATIVE PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS FROM THE MELVILLE PENINSULA, NUNAVUT, CANADA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. K.; Finkelstein, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Arctic regions have heightened sensitivity to climatic changes, however regional scale differences exist in the magnitude and timing of response to climatic changes. Modern and paleoclimate data indicate spatial variability in Arctic climates due to local variations in topography, sea ice persistence, or proximity to the coast. Melville Peninsula in the east-central Canadian Arctic is in a modern transitional climate area, with a relatively continental climate to the west and a more maritime climate to the east. Thus, shifting climates may particularly influence the region, and may have affected Thule migration during the past millennium. The presence of Thule archaeological sites and a transitional climate make the Melville Peninsula an area of high importance for paleoclimate reconstructions. Lake sediment cores from two adjacent lakes in the Sarcpa Lake region in the interior Melville Peninsula (68°33’N and 88°17’W, 220 m a.s.l.) were analyzed for diatom assemblages. Diatoms (microscopic algae) were well preserved in these cores and thus, could be used to track paleoclimatic changes. Unofficially named SP02 and SP04, the lakes are 3 and 2.5 ha, respectively. Chronologies were constructed using 210Pb activity and AMS radiocarbon dates. All dates are presented as calendar years before AD 1950. Diatoms appear in SP02 5,900 yrs BP; coupled with high magnetic susceptibility and lower LOI550 in sediment older than 5,900 yrs BP, the appearance of diatoms at this time confirms earlier suggestions of a persistent ice cap on the Peninsula until 6,500 yrs BP. Diatom assemblages are dominated by Fragilarioid species, particularly Staurosira construens var. venter and Staurosirella pinnata. Peak diatom concentration and LOI550 between 4,200 yrs BP and 2,900 yrs BP may indicate the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) on Melville Peninsula. Timing of the HTM on the Peninsula is similar to that from the Baffin Island region to the east. High ratios of Staurosirella pinnata

  3. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.4 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of a typical martian north polar ice cap texture. The surface is pitted and rough at the scale of several meters. The north polar residual cap of Mars consists mainly of water ice, while the south polar residual cap is mostly carbon dioxide. This picture is located near 85.2oN, 283.2oW. The image covers an area approximately 1 km wide by 1.4 km high (0.62 by 0.87 miles). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  4. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.4 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of a typical martian north polar ice cap texture. The surface is pitted and rough at the scale of several meters. The north polar residual cap of Mars consists mainly of water ice, while the south polar residual cap is mostly carbon dioxide. This picture is located near 85.2oN, 283.2oW. The image covers an area approximately 1 km wide by 1.4 km high (0.62 by 0.87 miles). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  5. Magnetospheric polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.; Kan, J. R.

    Mount Denali (McKinley), the Alaska Range, and countless glaciers welcomed all 86 participants of the Chapman Conference on the Magnetospheric Polar Cap, which was held on the University of Alaska, Fairbanks campus (UAF), on August 6-9, 1984. The magnetospheric polar cap is the highest latitude region of the earth which is surrounded by the ring of auroras (the auroral oval). This particular region of the earth has become a focus of magnetospheric physicists during the last several years. This is because a number of upper atmospheric phenomena in the polar cap are found to be crucial in understanding the solar wind—magnetosphere interaction. The conference was opened by J. G. Roederer, who was followed by the UAF Chancellor, P. J. O'Rourke, who officially welcomed the participants.

  6. [Capping strategies in RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-04-01

    Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  7. Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-05-01

    Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin has involved a series of ridge (Aluk Ridge)-trench collisions between the Pacific and Antarctic plates. Subduction occurred episodically between segments of the Pacific plate that are bounded by major fracture zones. The age of ridge-trench collisions decreases from south to north along the margin. The very northern part of the margin, between the Hero and Shackleton fracture zones, has the last surviving Aluk-Antarctic spreading ridge segments and the only remaining trench topography. The sedimentary cover on the northern margin is relatively thin generally less than 1.5 km, thus providing a unique setting in which to examine margin evolution using high resolution seismic methods. Over 5,000 km of high resolution (water gun) seismic profiles were acquired from the Antarctic Peninsula margin during four cruises to the region. The margin is divided into discrete fracture-zone-bounded segments; each segment displays different styles of development. Highly tectonized active margin sequences have been buried beneath a seaward-thickening sediment wedge that represents the passive stage of margin development Ice caps, which have existed in the Antarctic Peninsula region since at least the late Oligocene, have advanced onto the continental shelf on numerous occasions, eroding hundreds of meters into the shelf and depositing a thick sequence of deposits characterized by till tongues and glacial troughs. Glacial erosion has been the main factor responsible for overdeepening of the shelf; isostasy is of secondary importance. As the shelf was lowered by glacial erosion, it was able to accommodate thicker and more unstable marine ice sheets. The shelf also became a vast reservoir for cold, saline shelf water, one of the key ingredients of Antarctic bottom water.

  8. Ice caps on venus?

    PubMed

    Libby, W F

    1968-03-08

    The data on Venus obtained by Mariner V and Venera 4 are interpreted as evidence of giant polar ice caps holding the water that must have come out of the volcanoes with the observed carbon dioxide, on the assumption that Earth and Venus are of similar composition and volcanic history. The measurements by Venera 4 of the equatorial surface temperature indicate that the microwave readings were high, so that the polar ice caps may be allowed to exist in the face of the 10-centimeter readings of polar temperature. Life seems to be distinctly possible at the edges of the ice sheets.

  9. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  10. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  11. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  12. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  13. Zoonoses in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. PMID:25491209

  14. 4. CAP; SHOWS TRANSITIONAL FRAMING OF CAP ROOF WITH THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CAP; SHOWS TRANSITIONAL FRAMING OF CAP ROOF WITH THREE PAIR OF RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; BRAKE WHEEL AND WINDSHAFT - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  15. 3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; ALSO SEEN ARE THE BRAKE WHEEL, WINDSHAFT AND TOP BEARING OF THE UPRIGHT SHAFT - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  16. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cap will have skin that is a little red or itchy, and some might even have hair loss, though the hair usually grows back after ... parts of the body the rash is causing hair loss or becomes itchy the affected skin becomes firm and red, starts to drain fluid, or feels warm, which ...

  17. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  18. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  19. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  20. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  1. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  2. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  3. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  4. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  5. Klyuchevskaya, Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, CIS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-77-010 (28 April 1991) --- The Kamchatka Peninsula, USSR. This oblique view of the eastern margin of the Kamchatka Peninsula shows pack-ice along the coast, which is drifting along with local currents and delineates the circulation patterns. Also visible are the Kamchatka River (left of center), and the volcanic complex with the active volcano Klyuchevskaya (Kloo-chevs'-ska-ya), 15,584 feet in elevation. The last reported eruption of the volcano was on April 8, but an ash and steam plume extending to the south can be seen in this photograph, taken almost three weeks later (April 28). On April 29, the crew observed and photographed the volcano again, and it was no longer visibly active. However, the flanks of the mountain are dirty from the ash fall. Just north of the Kamchatka River (to the left, just off frame) is Shiveluch, a volcano which was active in early April. There are more than 100 volcanic edifices recognized on Kamchatka, with 15 classified as active.

  6. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  7. Summer South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 April 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each summer, a little bit of this carbon dioxide sublimes away. Pits grow larger, and mesas get smaller, as this process continues from year to year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of a small portion of the south polar cap as it appeared in mid-summer in January 2004. The dark areas may be places where the frozen carbon dioxide contains impurities, such as dust, or places where sublimation of ice has roughened the surface so that it appears darker because of small shadows cast by irregularities in the roughened surface. The image is located near 86.9oS, 7.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  8. Polar Cap Patch Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    illustrate the concept with a sample model -run incorporating representative data. Title 12: Space weather challenges of the polar cap ionosphere ...located at Oslo and Ny-Ålesund. The primary objective has been to obtain a better understanding solar wind impacts on the polar ionosphere which are of...made no inventions, and Section 8 lists the core UiO personnel during this project. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, ionosphere (polar

  9. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  10. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows mesas and pits formed by sublimation of carbon dioxide of the south polar cap.

    Location near: 85.8oS, 351.5oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Schaefer's "family cap".

    PubMed

    1994-02-14

    Criticism was directed to Maryland Governor William Donald Shaefer's proposal to put family caps on welfare payments to recipients. The idea was to stop automatic increases in welfare payments if a recipient has an additional child. The objection was that 77%, or the bulk of welfare recipients, have only one or two children, and there is little, if any, evidence that welfare caps influence childbearing. The consequences of such reform would be the penalization of children. The political reality is that symbolism has become more important than facts. Putting a cap on welfare may make people feel better about welfare, and may show fairness to working people who don't get raises when their family size increases, but there are other implications. The messages to welfare recipients to stop having children, but not providing the means to do so, is hypocritical. Medicaid abortions were restricted in 1978 by politicians, but provision for better access to contraceptives was never promoted or achieved. Circumstances limit opportunities. The quality of care in public health clinics is abysmal: long lines and overcrowding, and inadequate proximity to welfare recipients' housing. Transportation, particularly in rural areas, is an impediment to access. It is estimated that only 60% of women eligible for government-funded contraception have access. A sign of serious welfare reform will be budget appropriations for day care, job training, and other reform programs.

  12. North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    North polar ice cap of Mars, as seen during mid summer in the northern hemisphere. The reddish areas consist of eolian dust, bright white areas consist of a mixture of water ice and dust, and the dark blue areas consist of sand dunes forming a huge 'collar' around the polar ice cap. (The colors have been enhanced with a decorrelation stretch to better show the color variability.) Shown here is an oblique view of the polar region, as seen with the Viking 1 spacecraft orbiting Mars over latitude 39 degrees north. The spiral bands consist of valleys which form by a combination of the Coriolis forces, wind erosion, and differential sublimation and condensation. In high-resolution images the polar caps are seen to consist of thick sequences of layered deposits, suggesting that cyclical climate changes have occurred on Mars. Cyclical climate changes are readily explained by quasi-periodic changes in the amount and distribution of solar heating resulting from perturbations in orbital and axial elements. Variations in the Earth's orbit have also been linked to the terrestrial climate changes during the ice ages.

  13. Arabian peninsula: zone of ferment

    SciTech Connect

    Stookey, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is an area which must be approached in terms of its own values and traditions. The different states, however, present difficulties for even the most well-informed policymaker because the region is not homogeneous. Some of the states are tenuous congeries of tribal and sectarian communities that do not necessarily share the aims of the ruling group. The authors of these six essays consider (1) the economic position of the states, (2) how oil exports affect the economies of the exporting states, (3) how traditional tribal and religious societies react to change, (4) whether their social values are conducive to modernization, and (5) what factors lead to the development of dissent, and how they affect the expression of dissent. Separate abstracts were prepared for two of the essays selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 23 tables.

  14. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  15. Seabirds of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konyukhov, N.B.; Bogoslovskaya, L.S.; Zvonov, B.M.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted seabird surveys along the entire coast of the Chukotka Peninsula (northwestern Siberia, Russia) from 1983 to 1991. We present the first comprehensive descriptions of the distribution and size of Chukotkan seabird colonies. Thirteen species of seabirds were recorded breeding on the peninsula, with an additional 13 migrant or vagrant species. Our estimate that at least 3 300 000 seabirds breed on the Chukotka Peninsula demonstrates the importance of this region to arctic seabird populations. Colony size and species composition may be determined by availability of adequate breeding sites, access to foraging areas, and variable ice conditions.

  16. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-16

    This shaded relief topographic acquired by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM image from data collected on February 12, 2000 shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.

  17. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-23

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM.

  18. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-16

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia as seen by the instrument onboard NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  19. Tropical Depression Alex hits Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Depression Alex on June 27, 2010 at 2214 UTC (6:14 PM EST). Tropical depression Alex was near the western coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. ...

  20. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyimide resins having improved thermo-oxidative stability are provided having aromatic vinyl end-caps. The polyimides are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a diamine, (2) an ester of tetracarboxylic acid and (3) an aromatic vinyl compound in a molar ratio of 1:2:3 of n: (n + 1):2 when the aromatic vinyl compound contains nitrogen and in a ratio of (n + 1):n:2 when the aromatic vinyl compound does not contain nitrogen, wherein n ranges from about 5 to about 20.

  1. Polar Cap Retreat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 August 2004 This red wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of the retreating seasonal south polar cap in the most recent spring in late 2003. Bright areas are covered with frost, dark areas are those from which the solid carbon dioxide has sublimed away. The center of this image is located near 76.5oS, 28.2oW. The scene is large; it covers an area about 250 km (155 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  2. Watershed-scale reconstruction of middle and late Holocene paleoenvironmental changes on Melville Peninsula, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jennifer K.; Finkelstein, Sarah A.

    2010-08-01

    Arctic regions have heightened sensitivity to climatic changes, however regional scale differences exist in the magnitude and timing of biotic responses. Melville Peninsula in the east-central Canadian Arctic is a transitional area with respect to modern climate, with a continental climate to the west, and more maritime influences to the east. This, and the presence of Thule archaeological sites, make the Peninsula an area of high importance for paleoclimate reconstructions. Lake sediment cores from two adjacent ultra-oligotrophic and very dilute lakes (SP02 and SP04) from interior Melville Peninsula (68°33'N and 83°17'W, 220 m a.s.l.) were analyzed for diatom assemblages (microscopic algae) to track paleoclimatic changes. High magnetic susceptibility, coarse-grained sediments, low organic matter, and lack of diatoms in sediments older than 6000 years BP confirm earlier suggestions of a persistent ice cap on the Peninsula. Peak diatom concentration and biogenic silica, and maximum values for sediment organic matter, between 4400 and 2900 years BP may indicate the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). The timing of the HTM is similar to that of the Baffin region to the east. Decreases in these proxies, as well as small shifts in diatom assemblages following 2900 years BP indicate the advancement of Neoglacial cooling. The changes of the pre-industrial portion of the last millennium were of smaller magnitude than those of the HTM, but subtle changes in diatom assemblages after 750 years BP may be indicative of the Little Ice Age, the timing of which agrees well with that of Boothia Peninsula to the west. The Anthropocene is well marked in these records, with increases in diatom species richness from a pre-industrial maximum of 28-51 diatom species in the modern assemblage at Lake SP02. Planktonic diatoms appear in the 20th century, signalling profound ecological changes associated with longer ice-free seasons.

  3. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  4. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  5. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  6. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  7. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  8. Pits in Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This full-frame image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows faults and pits in Mars' north polar residual cap that have not been previously recognized.

    The faults and depressions between them are similar to features seen on Earth where the crust is being pulled apart. Such tectonic extension must have occurred very recently because the north polar residual cap is very young, as indicated by the paucity of impact craters on its surface. Alternatively, the faults and pits may be caused by collapse due to removal of material beneath the surface. The pits are aligned along the faults, either because material has drained into the subsurface along the faults or because gas has escaped from the subsurface through them.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  9. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-03

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold "cloud" streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the "Ring of Fire," a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas. The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03514

  10. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  11. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  12. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  14. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  15. Development of Gasless Pyrotechnic Cap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    beam cathode ray oscillo- scope. The caps were ignited by removing the safety pin . This also triggered the oscilloscope. The change in pressure inside...sensitivity. STRIKER SAFETY PIN PERCUSSION CAP FIXED VOLUME / ;PRESSURE TRANSDUCER TO C.R.O. FIG. 8 - Device used to determine pressure time

  16. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  17. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  18. The Drangajökull ice cap, northwest Iceland, persisted into the early-mid Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, Anders; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Andreassen, Julie M.; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther Ruth; Olsen, Jesper; Odgaard, Bent V.; Håkansson, Lena; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Larsen, Nicolaj K.

    2016-09-01

    Most glaciers and ice caps in Iceland experienced rapid deglaciation in the early Holocene, reaching a minimum extent during the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Here we present evidence of the Holocene glacial history from lake sediment cores retrieved from seven threshold lakes around the Drangajökull ice cap in the Vestfirðir peninsula, NW Iceland. The sediment cores show on/off signals of glacial meltwater activity, as minerogenic material deposited from glacial meltwater alternates with organic-rich material (gyttja) deposited without glacial meltwater. We base the chronology of the sediment cores on 14C ages and geochemical identification of key tephra layers with known ages. A 25-cm thick layer of the Saksunarvatn tephra in Lake Skorarvatn indicates that the northern part of the ice cap had reached a similar size as today or was smaller already by 10.2 cal kyr BP. However, 14C ages of lake sediment cores from the highlands southeast of Drangajökull suggest that this part of the ice cap was larger than today until 7.8-7.2 cal kyr BP. Even today, the Drangajökull ice cap has a different behavior than the main ice caps in Iceland, characterized by a very low glaciation limit. Because palaeoclimatic proxies show an early-mid Holocene temperature optimum in this part of Iceland, we suggest that the persistence of Drangajökull into the early Holocene and, possibly, also the entire Holocene was due to high winter precipitation.

  19. The history of Antarctic Peninsula glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    As Co-Chief Scientist on DSDP Leg 35 in 1974, Cam Craddock (1930-2006) produced the first useful information on Cenozoic Antarctic Peninsula glaciation - an early middle Miocene (15-17 Ma) apparent glacial onset. Subsequent work, onshore and offshore, has greatly extended our knowledge but that early conclusion stands today. Cenozoic Antarctic Peninsula palaeoclimate as presently known is broadly consistent with global palaeoclimate proxies. Initial glacial onset was within the Eocene-Oligocene boundary interval (although earlier, short-lived glaciations have been proposed, from indirect measurements) and the peninsula probably became deglaciated in the earliest Miocene (ca. 24 Ma). The renewed middle Miocene glaciation probably continued to the present and, for the last 9 Myr at least, has persisted through glacial (orbital) cycles, with grounded ice advance to the shelf edge during maxima. Although orbital cyclicity affected earlier AP palaeoclimate also, the level of glaciation through a complete cycle is uncertain.

  20. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 8 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected March 5, 2002 during the southern summer season. Layering in the South polar cap interior is readily visible and may indicate yearly ice/dust deposition.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.6, Longitude 156.8 East (203.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  1. Apport de la tomodensitométrie dans le diagnostic de la tuberculose vertébrale à propos de 496 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Ouattara, Baly; Diomandé, Mohamed; Sessou, Viva; Kaboré, Fulgence; Djoko, Kouadio Flore; Traoré, Moriba; Eti, Edmond; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus fréquente des tuberculoses ostéo articulaires, le diagnostic de certitude reste difficile. L'imagerie tient une place indéniable dans le diagnostic. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence de la tuberculose vertébrale et l'apport de la TDM dans le diagnostic. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective sur dossiers de tuberculose vertébrale dans le service de Rhumatologie du CHU de Cocody de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2013. N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude, tous les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Resultats La prévalence hospitalière de la tuberculose vertébrale était de 10,95%, elle représentait 90,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Elle concernait les 2 sexes, l’âge moyen était de 43,27 ans (4-88ans). L'atteinte dorsolombaire était la localisation la plus fréquente (95,13%). L'atteinte du rachis cervical était rare. La spondylodiscite était fréquente (92,14%). La spondylite (6%) et l'atteinte de l'arc postérieur (0,86%) étaient rares. La spondylodiscite était unique le plus souvent (70,05%), les formes multiétagées ont été notées dans 28,65% des cas, les atteintes mutifocales ont été notées dans14, 63% des cas. Les localisations inhabituelles étaient: atteinte sous occipitale (n=3), atteinte concomitante des 3 segments rachidiens (n=3), atteinte du sacrum (n=1), abcès isolés du psoas (n=4). La prévalence des abcès était de 85,91%, celle des épidurites était de 80,17%. La ponction scannoguidée des abcès a été réalisée dans 20 cas, la recherche de BAAR était positive dans 15 cas. Il existait une tuberculose viscérale évolutive dans 20% des cas. Conclusion La TDM est indéniable dans le diagnostic positif et lésionnel de la tuberculose vertébrale. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions. PMID:26113932

  2. [Historical meanings of Santiago Ramón y Cajal's Rétine des vertébrés. Summary of his first scientific].

    PubMed

    Baratas Díaz, L A

    1994-01-01

    The retina was one of the main objects of study in the first stage of the scientific work of Ramón y Cajal. As culmination of his previous works Cajal published in 1893 in the journal La Cellule an article titled "La rétine des Vertébrés". This article on the retina is a perfect example of Cajal's ability for the systematic study of the cellular types of the nervous centers, its morphological description and its intercellular contacts, as well as for the formulation of physiological interpretations and hypothesis on the development of the neuronal prolongations. Finally some comments are made on the influence of the evolutionary thinking of Haeckel and Herbert Spencer on the work of Ramón y Cajal.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546) and complete mtDNA (7) sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV)1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the proposed southern coastal

  4. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M; González, Ana M

    2008-02-12

    Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546) and complete mtDNA (7) sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV)1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the proposed southern coastal route.

  5. Antarctic Peninsula Tidewater Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, E. C.; Scambos, T. A.; Haran, T. M.; Wellner, J. S.; Domack, E. W.; Vernet, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula (nAP, north of 66°S) is a north-south trending mountain range extending transverse across the prevailing westerly winds of the Southern Ocean resulting in an extreme west-to-east precipitation gradient. Snowfall on the west side of the AP is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the east side. This gradient drives short, steep, fast-flowing glaciers into narrow fjords on the west side, while longer lower-sloping glaciers flow down the east side into broader fjord valleys. This pattern in ice dynamics affects ice-ocean interaction on timescales of decades to centuries, and shapes the subglacial topography and submarine bathymetry on timescales of glacial cycles. In our study, we calculate ice flux for the western and eastern nAP using a drainage model that incorporates the modern ice surface topography, the RACMO-2 precipitation estimate, and recent estimates of ice thinning. Our results, coupled with observed rates of ice velocity from InSAR (I. Joughin, personal communication) and Landsat 8 -derived flow rates (this study), provide an estimate of ice thickness and fjord depth in grounded-ice areas for the largest outlet glaciers. East-side glaciers either still terminate in or have recently terminated in ice shelves. Sedimentary evidence from the inner fjords of the western glaciers indicates they had ice shelves during LIA time, and may still have transient floating ice tongues (tabular berg calvings are observed). Although direct oceanographic evidence is limited, the high accumulation rate and rapid ice flux implies cold basal ice for the western nAP glaciers and therefore weak subglacial discharge relative to eastern nAP glaciers and or other tidewater fjord systems such as in Alaska. Finally, despite lower accumulation rates on the east side, the large elongate drainage basins result in a greater ice flux funneled through fewer deeper glaciers. Due to the relation between ice flux and erosion, these east-side glaciers

  6. Refilin holds the cap.

    PubMed

    Gay, Olivia; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Baudier, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are a novel family of short-lived actin regulatory proteins that are expressed during changes in cellular phenotype such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Refilins promote to the formation of actin- and myosin-rich perinuclear bundles that are characteristic of cellular phenotypic switches. In epithelial cells, RefilinB is up-regulated in response to TGF-β stimulation and function in organization of apical perinuclear actin fibers during early stage of the EMT process1. In fibroblasts, RefilinB stabilizes perinuclear parallel actin bundles which resemble actin cap 2. Refilins bind and modulate the function of Filamin A (FLNA). Upon binding to Refilins, FLNA is capable of assembling actin filaments into parallel bundles, possibly by undergoing conformational changes at the C-terminal. Perinuclear actin structures determine nuclear shape, cell morphology, cell adhesion and possibly cell proliferation and gene regulation. Identifying the role of Refilins in organizing perinuclear actin networks provides additional insight in the process of intracellular mechanotransduction that regulate changes in cellular phenotype such as those observed during EMT.

  7. Refilin holds the cap

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Olivia; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2011-01-01

    The Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are a novel family of short-lived actin regulatory proteins that are expressed during changes in cellular phenotype such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Refilins promote to the formation of actin- and myosin-rich perinuclear bundles that are characteristic of cellular phenotypic switches. In epithelial cells, RefilinB is up-regulated in response to TGF-β stimulation and function in organization of apical perinuclear actin fibers during early stage of the EMT process1. In fibroblasts, RefilinB stabilizes perinuclear parallel actin bundles which resemble actin cap 2. Refilins bind and modulate the function of Filamin A (FLNA). Upon binding to Refilins, FLNA is capable of assembling actin filaments into parallel bundles, possibly by undergoing conformational changes at the C-terminal. Perinuclear actin structures determine nuclear shape, cell morphology, cell adhesion and possibly cell proliferation and gene regulation. Identifying the role of Refilins in organizing perinuclear actin networks provides additional insight in the process of intracellular mechanotransduction that regulate changes in cellular phenotype such as those observed during EMT. PMID:22446558

  8. Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie, Pennsylvania. Volume I. Main Report. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA, ERIE , PENNSYLVANIA . Memorandum includimg~nviron- 1.6... Pennsylvania THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY 1. I submit for transmission to Congress my report on Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie , Pennsylvania . It is...advanced engineering and design of the project for beach erosion control for Presque Isle Peninsula at Erie , Pennsylvania . 2. The District and

  9. Cradle Cap: Symptoms and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp Oily or dry skin covered with flaky white or yellow scales Skin flakes Possibly mild redness Similar scales may also be present on the ears, eyelids, nose and groin. Cradle cap is common in newborns. ...

  10. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  11. Northern Ice Cap of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-26

    This image, combining data from two instruments aboard NASA Mars Global Surveyor, depicts an orbital view of the north polar region of Mars. To the right of center, a large canyon, Chasma Boreale, almost bisects the white ice cap.

  12. 27 CFR 9.40 - Leelanau Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leelanau Peninsula. 9.40 Section 9.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  13. 27 CFR 9.40 - Leelanau Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leelanau Peninsula. 9.40 Section 9.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  14. The Peninsula Academies. Third Yearly Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Dorothy F.

    The performance of the Peninsula Academies of Electronics and Computer Technology was assessed for the program's third year of operation in two host schools in the Sequoia Union High School District. Data were collected for approximately 190 Academy students and for a comparison group of non-Academy students. Academies students missed fewer days…

  15. Orthobunyavirus antibodies in humans, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Saiyasombat, Rungrat; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria A

    2012-10-01

    We performed a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 146 (18%) of 823 persons tested. Further studies are needed to determine health risks for humans from this potentially deadly group of viruses.

  16. Earth - Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula was taken from an altitude of about 500,000 kilometers 300,000 miles by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft on December 9, 1992, as it left Earth en route to Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00127

  17. A paleomagnetic study of the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.

    2009-05-01

    In the Paleozoic, South America, South Africa and Antarctica were part of Gondwana. The Weddell Sea began to form at about 146 Ma, after rifting between the Antarctic Peninsula and southernmost South America. Much uncertainty still exists about the geometrical fit and subsequent drift history between Patagonia and Antarctica. Geophysical and geological data which describe the tectonic history are sparsely distributed and often of poor quality. During the last two years we have collected more than 1000 paleomagnetic samples from 70 sites at several localities (King George Island, Robert Island, Yankee Bay, Half Moon Island, Byers Peninsula and Snow Island) from the South Shetland Islands and Anderson Island in the northern tip of Antarctic Peninsula. Our main objective was to provide first-order constraints on latitudinal displacements and the amount of tectonic rotations as an essential test of published tectonic models. Paleomagnetic results were obtained from 50 sites. All samples from sites in volcanic and intrusive rocks have well-defined univectorial magnetizations. Unfortunately, all sites in late Paleozoic sediments have been remagnetized and the magnetizations are often unstable upon thermal demagnetization. Cretaceous and Cenozoic units display very little apparent polar wander. Results from intrusive rocks of expected Jurassic age do not confirm the expected relative rotation betwen the Antarctic Peninsula and East Antarctica. Further radiometric dating are needed to confirm the age of these units.

  18. Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Swiston, J; Young, D

    1994-06-01

    We previously reported the identification of human CAP, a protein that is related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP proteins. The two yeast CAP proteins have similar functions: the N-terminal domains are required for the normal function of adenylyl cyclase, while loss of the C-terminal domains result in morphological and nutritional defects that are unrelated to the cAMP pathways. We have amplified and cloned cDNAs from a human glioblastoma library that encode a second CAP-related protein, CAP2. The human CAP and CAP2 proteins are 64% identical. Expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. cerevisiae cap- strains suppresses phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP, but does not restore hyper-activation of adenylyl cyclase by RAS2val19. Similarly, expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. pombe cap- strains suppresses the morphological and temperature-sensitive phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP in this yeast. In addition, expression of human CAP, but not CAP2, suppresses the propensity to sporulate due to deletion of the N-terminal domain of CAP in S. pombe. This latter observation suggests that human CAP restores normal adenylyl cyclase activity in S. pombe cap- cells. Thus, functional properties of both N-terminal and C-terminal domains are conserved between the human and S. pombe CAP proteins.

  19. 47 CFR 54.623 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cap. 54.623 Section 54.623 Telecommunication... Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.623 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall be $400 million per funding...

  20. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  1. Creation of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polar cap patches, which are islands of enhanced plasma density drifting anti-sunward, are one of the outstanding phenomena in the polar cap F region ionosphere. In the last decade, data from all-sky airglow imagers have been extensively used for better understanding the propagation of patches in the central polar cap region. But still, it has been rather difficult to capture the birth of patches in their generation region near the dayside cusp, because, in most places, the dayside part of the polar cap ionosphere is sunlit even in winter. In Longyearbyen (78.1N, 15.5E), Norway, however, optical observations are possible near the dayside cusp region in a limited period around the winter solstice. This enables us to directly image how polar cap patches are born in the cusp. In this paper, we present a few intervals of daytime optical observations, during which polar cap patches were generated within the field-of-view of an all-sky imager in Longyearbyen. During all the intervals studied here, we identified several signatures of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAF) in the equatorward half of the field-of-view, which are known as ionospheric manifestations of dayside reconnection. Interestingly, patches were directly produced from such poleward moving auroral signatures and propagated poleward along the anti-sunward convection near the cusp. In the literature, Lorentzen et al. (2012) first reported such a direct production of patches from PMAFs. During the current observations, however, we succeeded in tracking the propagation of patches until they reached the poleward edge of the field-of-view of the imager. This confirms that the faint airglow structures produced from PMAFs were actually transported for a long distance towards the central polar cap area; thus, polar cap patches were produced. From this set of observations, we suggest that polar cap patches during moderately disturbed conditions (i.e, non-storm time conditions) can be directly produced by the

  2. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-10-13

    The ultimate goal of studies of cold cap behavior in glass melters is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Regrettably, mathematical models, which are ideal tools for assessing the responses of melters to process parameters, have not paid adequate attention to the cold cap. In this study, we consider a cold cap resting on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady heat flux while temperature, velocity, and extent of conversion are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate. A one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model simulates this process by solving the differential equations for mass and energy balances with appropriate boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for material properties. The sensitivity analyses on the effects of incoming heat fluxes to the cold cap through its lower and upper boundaries show that the cold cap thickness increases as the heat flux from above increases, and decreases as the total heat flux increases. We also discuss the effects of foam, originating from batch reactions and from redox reactions in molten glass and argue that models must represent the foam layer to achieve a reliable prediction of the melting rate as a function of feed properties and melter conditions.

  3. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  4. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  5. Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Iberian Peninsula Megaliths Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. C.

    2009-08-01

    Megalithic monuments have been intensively surveyed and studied from the archaeoastronomical point of view in the past decades. We have orientation measurements for over one thousand megalithic burial monuments in the Iberian Peninsula, from several different periods. These data, however, lack a sound understanding. A way to classify and start to understand such orientations is by means of statistical analysis of the data. A first attempt is done with simple statistical variables and a mere comparison between the different areas. In order to minimise the subjectivity in the process a further more complicated analysis is performed. Some interesting results linking the orientation and the geographical location will be presented. Finally I will present some models comparing the orientation of the megaliths in the Iberian Peninsula with the rising of the sun and the moon at several times of the year.

  7. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-389 (22 June 1973) --- This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  9. Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.

    1972-01-01

    This tectonic map of the Arabian peninsula, prepared for the Audi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resource, is the first of a series of peninsular maps that attempt to show regional features. Much recent information resulting from detailed geologic mapping notably within the Arabian craton, from geophysical surveys, both airborne and oceanographic in adjacent seas, from deep exploratory drilling, and from photography from the Gemini and Apollo space programs, has been used in the tectonic evaluation.

  10. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers.

  11. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  12. Kuwait Oil Fires, Persian Gulf, Qatar Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view up the Persian Gulf from the Qatar Peninsula into southern Iraq (25.5N, 51.0E) shows an excursion of the smoke plumes from the Kuwait oil fires set during the short Persian Gulf War. Smoke from the fires north of Kuwait City, extends across the Persian Gulf while a larger smoke plume from the southern fires heads into southern Saudi Arabia before beginning to spread out and become more diffuse.

  13. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  14. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  15. Patchy particles using colloidal caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Christine; Pine, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a method for making patchy particles functionalized with single stranded sticky end DNA only on their patches. This is done by adding ``spherical cap'' particles as patches to spherical colloids using the depletion interaction. The caps are then functionalized with single stranded DNA using copper-free click chemistry. Due to being attached only by depletion, the patches diffuse on the surface of the particle. The patchy particles can then interact with each other in a specific, directional way through the mobile, DNA functionalized patches.

  16. Stratigraphic features of firn as proxy climate signals at the summit ice cap of Ushkovsky volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Muravyev, Y.D.

    1997-11-01

    Field observations were conducted at the summit ice cap of the Ushkovsky volcano, central Kamchatka, in the summer of 1996, in order to evaluate the potential of the ice cap for reconstruction of the past climate over Kamchatka. A 27-m-long firn-core contains an approximate 27-yr record of net balance with an average accumulation rate of 0.57 m a{sup -1} water equivalent. The temperature of the firn is -16.5{degrees}C at 10-m depth. Average annual accumulation rates are calculated by reference to dated ash layers and amount to between 0.38 and 0.88 m a{sup -1} during six fixed periods. Depth and age of pore close-off are calculated as 58 m and 66 yr at this site by empirical formulas. Comparisons of the accumulation rates with winter precipitation at lowland stations indicate that there is a positive relationship with winter precipitation on the eastern and western coasts of the peninsula. We cannot find a clear relation between the rates and annual average sea-ice extent in the Sea of Okhotsk, which implies the vapor source to the ice cap could have been the North Pacific. Melt feature percentage in the firn core displays a clear positive relationship with summer air temperature at 700 hPa over Kamchatka. The result obtained suggests that the ice cap has potential for the reconstruction of paleoclimate over the Kamchatka Peninsula. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  17. First Dinosaur Tracks from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula is virtually unknown. Despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. Here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near Madar village, 47 km north of Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. This represents the first dinosaur tracksite from the Arabian Peninsula, and the only multi-taxon dinosaur ichnosite in the Middle East. Methodology/Findings Measurements were taken directly from trackway impressions, following standard ichnological conventions. The presence of bipedal trackmakers is evidenced by a long series of pes imprints preserving smoothly rounded posterior margins, no evidence of a hallux, bluntly rounded digit tips and digital divarication angles characteristic of ornithopod dinosaurs. Nearby, eleven parallel quadrupedal trackways document a sauropod herd that included large and small individuals traveling together. Based on the morphology of manus impressions along with a narrow-gauged stance, the quadrupedal trackways were made by non-titanosauriform neosauropods. Additional isolated tracks and trackways of sauropod and ornithopod dinosaurs are preserved nearby. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these discoveries present the most evocative window to date into the evolutionary history of dinosaurs of the Arabian Peninsula. Given the limited Mesozoic terrestrial record from the region, this discovery is of both temporal and geographic significance, and massive exposures of similarly-aged outcrops nearby offer great promise for future discoveries. PMID:18493306

  18. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  19. CAP Self-Inventory Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet of Self-Inventory Cards is one of the 14 components of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program (see note), a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  20. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  1. 1. AT PENINSULA, THE CUYAHOGA RIVER MAKES A HAIRPIN TURN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AT PENINSULA, THE CUYAHOGA RIVER MAKES A HAIRPIN TURN, CARVING OUT A 'PENINSULA' AND THEREBY GIVING THE VILLAGE ITS NAME. hERE, THE REMAINS OF A DAM AND OF THE THOMAS & MOODY FLOUR MILL CAN BE SEEN. THE OHIO AND ERIE CANAL CROSSED THE CUYAHOGA RIVER AT THE PENINSULA AQUEDUCT, WHICH WAS LOCATED A SHORT DISTANCE TO THE NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD THE MAIN STREET BRIDGE. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Links Lake Erie at Cleveland & Ohio River at Portsmouth, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  2. New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, climate and relative sea-level changes at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina; Tatur, Andrej

    2010-05-01

    New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, climate and relative sea-level changes at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica) Verkulich S. R. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Pushina Z.V. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Tatur A. (Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland) During the 2008-2009 austral summer, co-operative Russian - Polish paleogeographical investigations allowed to refine the understanding of the past environmental events at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. Old marine deposits (ca. 30000 yrs BP) with shells, whale bones and marine algae in situ were found in the western coastal and northern inland territories at the altitudes of 20-40 m a.s.l. that evidences the covering of considerable part of the peninsula by relatively warm sea waters before the Last Glacial Maximum. Quite good preservation of these deposits supposes relatively small thickness and weak erosional potential of ice masses overlying the area during the LGM. The early Holocene phase of the peninsula deglaciation was caused by both climate warming and marine transgression, which left the deposits with fossil flora and fauna at heights up to 15 m a.s.l. (maximum rise of the relative sea-level 7000-8000 yrs BP). During the middle Holocene, glacier contraction in the area continued (on the whole) due to mainly favorable climatic conditions. The presence of marine and terrestrial deposit blocks (with shells, algae, mosses) in moraine ridges on the surface of Collins Ice Cap signifies that this glacier could vanish from the peninsula during climate optimum (ca. 4000-3000 yrs BP). The processes of new formation and growth of the ice cap started probably ca. 2000 yrs BP; within the last 1000 years the limited advance of the glacier occurred (likely corresponding to the Little Ice Age), and was replaced then by modern process of its decay.

  3. Reconstructing the late Holocene expansion of mountain ice caps in west-central Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briner, J. P.; Schweinsberg, A.; Miller, G. H.; Bennike, O.; Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The retreat of glaciers is one of the most profound visual manifestations of global warming. Yet without the longer-term context of glacier history, the magnitude of retreat observed today is less meaningful. We are reconstructing the late Holocene history of mountain ice caps in west-central Greenland to determine: 1) the precedence of their current size, 2) the pattern of Neoglaciation across the northwestern North Atlantic, and 3) how their record of Neoglaciation compares with that of the adjacent Greenland Ice Sheet. Our chronology is built on radiocarbon ages from in situ surface moss emerging from receding ice cap margins. We assert that the moss died during ice cap expansion across tundra surfaces, and has since been entombed beneath non-erosive ice cap sectors that we strategically target. Although this project is in its beginning stages, two initial radiocarbon ages from in situ moss that recently were exposed in front of Lyngmarksbræen, a plateau ice cap on southern Disko island, are 3580-3700 and 3450-3570 cal yr BP. The moss became ice free sometime during the summer in which they were collected, and historical imagery shows the sites are tens of meters behind the ice margin in August 23, 2004. The radiocarbon ages indicate that Lyngmarksbræen has not been as small as it is today since ~3500 yr ago. Other age constraints on Neoglaciation from the Disko Bugt region are similar to the ages we obtained here: reworked marine fauna in Greenland Ice Sheet moraines indicate ice sheet growth at this time, and relative sea level records indicate that landscape submergence (due to ice sheet growth) initiated around this time. Furthermore, ice cap melt records demonstrate that ice caps in this sector of the Arctic are melting more today than they have in the past 4000 years. Additional ages from multiple ice cap margins on Disko island, the Nuussuaq peninsula and various locations in the Uummannaq region will be presented. This dataset of ice cap expansion in

  4. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): update from the 'CAPS Registry'.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R

    2010-04-01

    Although less than 1% of patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) develop the catastrophic variant, its potentially lethal outcome emphasizes its importance in clinical medicine today. However, the rarity of this variant makes it extraordinarily difficult to study in any systematic way. In order to put together all of the published case reports as well as the new diagnosed cases from all over the world, an international registry of patients with catastrophic APS (CAPS Registry) was created in 2000 by the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (see http://www.med.ub.es/MIMMUN/FORUM/CAPS.HTM). Currently, it documents the entire clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data of more than 300 patients whose data has been fully registered.

  5. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  6. Mammalian CARMIL Inhibits Actin Filament Capping by Capping Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Changsong; Pring, Martin; Wear, Martin A.; Huang, Minzhou; Cooper, John A.; Svitkina, Tatyana M.; Zigmond, Sally H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Actin polymerization in cells occurs via filament elongation at the barbed end. Proteins that cap the barbed end terminate this elongation. Heterodimeric capping protein (CP) is an abundant and ubiquitous protein that caps the barbed end. We find that the mouse homolog of the adaptor protein CARMIL (mCARMIL) binds CP with high affinity and decreases its affinity for the barbed end. Addition of mCARMIL to cell extracts increases the rate and extent of Arp2/3 or spectrin-actin seed-induced polymerization. In cells, GFP-mCARMIL concentrates in lamellipodia and increases the fraction of cells with large lamellipodia. Decreasing mCARMIL levels by siRNA transfection lowers theF-actin level and slows cell migration through a mechanism that includes decreased lamellipodia protrusion. This phenotype is reversed by full-length mCARMIL but not mCARMIL lacking the domain that binds CP. Thus, mCARMIL is a key regulator of CP and has profound effects on cell behavior. PMID:16054028

  7. 47 CFR 54.675 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers General Provisions § 54.675 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The aggregate annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall...

  8. 47 CFR 54.675 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers General Provisions § 54.675 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The aggregate annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  14. Dynamic Modeling of an Evapotranspiration Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven Piet; Rafael Soto; Gerald Sehlke; Harold Heydt; John Visser

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is scheduled to design and install hundreds of landfill caps/barriers over the next several decades and these caps will have a design life expectancy of up to 1,000 years. Other landfill caps with 30 year design lifetimes are reaching the end of their original design life; the changes to these caps need to be understood to provide a basis for lifetime extension. Defining the attributes that make a successful cap (one that isolates the waste from the environment) is crucial to these efforts. Because cap systems such as landfill caps are dynamic in nature, it is impossible to understand, monitor, and update lifetime predictions without understanding the dynamics of cap degradation, which is most often due to multiple interdependent factors rather than isolated independent events. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of cap degradation, a computer model using system dynamics is being developed to capture the complex behavior of an evapotranspiration cap. The specific objectives of this project are to capture the dynamic, nonlinear feedback loop structures underlying an evapotranspiration cap and, through computer simulation, gain a better understanding of long-term behavior, influencing factors, and, ultimately, long-term cap performance.

  15. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual funding cap on federal universal service support for schools and libraries shall be $2.25 billion per... into subsequent funding years for use in the schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance...

  16. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the west Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2007-01-29

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2 degrees C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6 degrees C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6 degrees C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in icedependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate

  17. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the West Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2006-01-01

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2°C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6°C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6°C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in ice-dependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate/ecological gradients

  18. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  19. Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approach to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.

  20. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  1. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TAIMYR PENINSULA, SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula, primarily because of the remoteness of this area. W...

  2. Investigation of Breakwater Stability at Presque Isle Peninsula Erie, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA AD-A208 528 ERIE , PENNSYLVANIA by Peter J. Grace...STABILITY AT PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA, ERIE . PENNSYLVANIA PART I: INTRODUCTION The Prototype 1. Harbor facilities at Erie , Pennsylvania , are protected...at Presque Isle Beaches, Erie , Pennsylvania ," Technical Report HL-83-15, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Stevens, J.

  3. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TAIMYR PENINSULA, SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula, primarily because of the remoteness of this area. W...

  4. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal") that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel to the

  5. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk and brought home with the flight crewmembers for processing. ESC was developed by the JSC Man-Systems Division and this mission's application of it is part of a continuing evolutionary development le

  6. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. For example, the small hills in the foreground and behind the central volcano are cinder cones, approximately only 200 meters high. Note the sharp triangular shadow from the conical volcano at right. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk

  7. Contribution of mountain glaciers and ice caps to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. M.; de Woul, M.; Radic, V.; Dyurgerov, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps (MG&IC) have been identified as primary source of eustatic sea level rise, ahead of the ice sheets, during recent decades. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the sum of all contributions to sea-level rise for the period 1961-2004 was 1.1± 0.5 mm a-1, leaving 0.7±0.7 of the 1.8±0.5 mm a-1 observed sea-level rise unexplained. Here, we compute the global surface mass balance of all mountain glaciers and ice caps and find that part of this much-discussed gap can be attributed to a larger contribution than previously assumed from mass loss of MG&IC, especially those around the Antarctic Peninsula. We find a global surface mass loss of all MG&IC of 0.79±0.34 mm a-1 sea-level equivalent compared to IPCC’s 0.50±0.18 mm a-1. The Antarctic MG&IC contributed 28% of the global estimate due to exceptional warming around the Antarctic Peninsula and high mass-balance sensitivities to temperature similar to those we find in maritime Iceland, Patagonia and Alaska. Our results highlight the role of the MG&IC around the Antarctic Peninsula where climate is distinctly different from the cold conditions of the ice sheet, and large mass balance sensitivities to temperature, exceptional warming and large area combine to yield large potential for glacier mass loss. We emphasize an urgent need for improved glacier inventory and in-situ mass balance data from this region especially in light of recently accelerated mass loss from MG&IC.

  8. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  9. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.

    Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  10. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  11. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On March 29, 2007, the Shiveluch Volcano on the Russian Federation's Kamchatka Peninsula erupted. According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory the volcano underwent an explosive eruption between 01:50 and 2:30 UTC, sending an ash cloud skyward roughly 9,750 meters (32,000 feet), based on visual estimates. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA's Aqua satellite took this picture at 02:00 UTC on March 29. The top image shows the volcano and its surroundings. The bottom image shows a close-up view of the volcano at 250 meters per pixel. Satellites often capture images of volcanic ash plumes, but usually as the plumes are blowing away. Plumes have been observed blowing away from Shiveluch before. This image, however, is different. At the time the Aqua satellite passed overhead, the eruption was recent enough (and the air was apparently still enough) that the ash cloud still hovered above the summit. In this image, the bulbous cloud casts its shadow northward over the icy landscape. Volcanic ash eruptions inject particles into Earth's atmosphere. Substantial eruptions of light-reflecting particles can reduce temperatures and even affect atmospheric circulation. Large eruptions impact climate patterns for years. A massive eruption of the Tambora Volcano in Indonesia in 1815, for instance, earned 1816 the nickname 'the year without a summer.' Shiveluch is a stratovolcano--a steep-sloped volcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. One of Kamchatka's largest volcanoes, it sports a summit reaching 3,283 meters (10,771 feet). Shiveluch is also one of the peninsula's most active volcanoes, with an estimated 60 substantial eruptions in the past 10,000 years.

  12. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, R.; Antón, M.; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    To study tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula (IP), NASA Langley TOR data have been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric ozone concentration over the entire IP was found in June (˜41 DU) and a minimum in December (˜29 DU). However the maximum tropospheric ozone concentration was found over West Atlantic Coast (WAC) (˜44 DU), followed by Mediterranean Coast (MC) (˜42 DU), North Atlantic Coast (NAC) (˜41 DU), Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) (˜40 DU) and Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) (˜39 DU) during June-July. The high concentration of tropospheric ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near IP is due to the presence of Azores anticyclone and related photochemistry and dynamics, and affects the observed higher tropospheric ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed with large variation over NAC (˜49%), followed by WAC (˜48%) and MC (˜41%) compared to CIP and PMR (˜38%) zones. When the data are compared over the IP for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR, zones. It has been observed that topography, climatology and population density distribution plays a crucial role in the variability of tropospheric ozone concentration over the IP.

  13. Active margin processes along the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriet, J. P.; Meissner, R.; Miller, H.; The Grape Team

    1992-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has a remarkable record of active margin processes, which include subduction with progressive ridge-trench collisions, margin segmentation by major fracture zones, rifting in a hybrid back-arc and sheared plate margin context, fore-arc basin development and glacial-marine controlled trench fill processes. Several facets of these active margin processes both of internal (crustal dynamic) and external origin (climate-controlled) have been documented by a geophysical survey during the Antarktis VI/2 cruise of R.V. Polarstem(October-December 1987). Reflection seismic profiles have been shot over the rift basin of Bransfield Strait, over an elongated sediment-filled trough interpreted as a fore-arc basin, over accretional and progradational slopes, over recent and ancient trench environments and over the facing oceanic domain. In this oceanic domain, different fracture zones have highly contrasting morphological and geophysical expressions. The subduction of a fracture zone like Hero F.Z., characterized by a significant relief possibly related to the presence of buoyant (serpentinite) ridges, may have been a factor of subduction termination for the last segment of the Aluk (Drake) plate; it may also have played a role in the separation of a blueschist-bearing fragment (Smith Island) from the base of the accretionary plate margin and in its lift to the surface. The magnetic anomaly pattern of the oceanic slabs facing the northwestern Peninsula margin shows evidence of an intriguing spreading acceleration, which apparently preceded ridge-trench collision. The same anomaly pattern provides a clue to the stratigraphie interpretation of the oceanic sediment cover and of the frontal part of the prograding, now passive margin south of the South Shetland Island Arc. An apparently broken and tilted oceanic plate fragment, squeezed between the South Shetland Trench and Shackleton Fracture Zone, may argue for the role of transpression associated with the

  14. Damages Caps in Medical Malpractice Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of damages caps and concludes that the better-designed studies show that damages caps reduce liability insurance premiums. The effects of damages caps on defensive medicine, physicians’ location decisions, and the cost of health care to consumers are less clear. The only study of whether consumers benefit from lower health insurance premiums as a result of damages caps found no impact. Some state courts have based decisions declaring damages caps legislation unconstitutional on the lack of evidence of their effectiveness, thereby ignoring the findings of conflicting research studies or discounting their relevance. Although courts should be cautious in rejecting empirical evidence that caps are effective, legislators should consider whether they benefit consumers enough to justify limiting tort recoveries for those most seriously injured by malpractice. PMID:17517115

  15. Population model for Alaska Peninsula sea otters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Siniff, D.B.

    1988-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide a basis for assessing risks of oil spills to sea otter populations along the Alaska Peninsula. The principal efforts were devoted to analyzing the available data on population dynamics. Curves characterizing survivorship and reproduction for sea otters were devised and fitted to several data sets. A detailed review was conducted of methods of assessing population dynamics data, and several new techniques (e.g., bootstrapping) were applied to available data. A simplified model for use with Alaska Peninsula sea otter populations was devised and implemented in a 'spreadsheet' format. Various aspects of model development and data on population size in Alaska Peninsula areas were reviewed.

  16. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  17. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  2. Late Holocene expansion of Istorvet ice cap, Liverpool Land, east Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, Thomas V.; Hall, Brenda L.; Kelly, Meredith A.; Bennike, Ole; Lusas, Amanda R.; Honsaker, William; Smith, Colby A.; Levy, Laura B.; Travis, Scott; Denton, George H.

    2013-03-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is undergoing dynamic changes that will have global implications if they continue into the future. In this regard, an understanding of how the ice sheet responded to past climate changes affords a baseline for anticipating future behavior. Small, independent ice caps adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet (hereinafter called "local ice caps") are sensitive indicators of the response of Greenland ice-marginal zones to climate change. Therefore, we reconstructed late Holocene ice-marginal fluctuations of the local Istorvet ice cap in east Greenland, using radiocarbon dates of subfossil plants, 10Be dates of surface boulders, and analyses of sediment cores from both threshold and control lakes. During the last termination, the Istorvet ice cap had retreated close to its maximum Holocene position by ˜11,730 cal yr BP. Radiocarbon dates of subfossil plants exposed by recent recession of the ice margin indicate that the Istorvet cap was smaller than at present from AD 200 to AD 1025. Sediments from a threshold lake show no glacial input until the ice cap advanced to within 365 m of its Holocene maximum position by ˜AD 1150. Thereafter the ice cap remained at or close to this position until at least AD 1660. The timing of this, the most extensive of the Holocene, expansion is similar to that recorded at some glaciers in the Alps and in southern Alaska. However, in contrast to these other regions, the expansion in east Greenland at AD 1150 appears to have been very close to, if not at, a maximum Holocene value. Comparison of the Istorvet ice-cap fluctuations with Holocene glacier extents in Southern Hemisphere middle-to-high latitude locations on the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Andes and the Southern Alps suggests an out-of-phase relationship. If correct, this pattern supports the hypothesis that a bipolar see-saw of oceanic and/or atmospheric circulation during the Holocene produced asynchronous glacier response at some localities in the two

  3. A TPM3 mutation causing cap myopathy.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Andre Maues; Franques, Jerome; Fernandez, Carla; Monnier, Nicole; Lunardi, Joel; Pellissier, Jean-François; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Pouget, Jean

    2009-10-01

    Cap disease is a rare congenital myopathy associated with skeletal malformations and respiratory involvement. Abnormally arranged myofibrils taking the appearance of a "cap" are the morphological hallmark of this entity. We report a case of cap disease concerning a 42-year-old man, without any family history and presenting a p.Arg168His mutation on the TPM3 gene. His first biopsy at 7years had only shown selective type I hypotrophy. Mutations of TPM3 gene have been found in nemaline myopathy, congenital fiber type disproportion, but never before in cap disease.

  4. Synthetic Capped mRNAs for Cap-Specific Photo-Cross-Linking Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Joanna; Martin, Franck; Jemielity, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The 7-methylguanosine triphosphate cap present at the 5' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs plays numerous roles in mRNA expression and metabolism. The identification and studies on cap-binding partners can be significantly advanced using tailored chemical tools such as synthetic cap analogues or RNAs carrying modified cap structures. Here we provide protocols for the production of mRNAs specifically labeled within the 5' cap with a nucleoside capable of being photo-activated, either 6-thioguanosine or 7-methyl-6-thioguanosine, which can be used in photo-cross-linking experiments to identify or characterize cap-binding biomolecules. We also describe a protocol for the cross-linking experiments with capped RNAs to map histone H4 cap-binding pocket.

  5. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the Elk...

  6. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    PubMed

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  7. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the...

  8. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the...

  9. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the...

  10. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the...

  11. A net volume equation for Michigan's Upper and Lower Peninsulas.

    Treesearch

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith; Carol A. Weist

    1982-01-01

    Describes a volume equation for Michigan's Upper and Lower Peninsulas developed as part of the 1981 Michigan Forest Inventory. Equation coefficients are presented by species groupings for both cubic-foot and board-foot volumes for three tree categories.

  12. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  13. Preliminary timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean; Janet L. Ohmann; Patricia M. Bassett

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1989 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula region of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  14. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    This shaded relief image of Mexico Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction.

  15. Assured information flow capping architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, M. D.; Carvin, N. A.

    1985-05-01

    The Tactical Air Control System (TACS) is that set of Tactical Air Force assets used to assess the air and ground situation, and to plan, allocate, commit, and control assigned resources. Previous studies noted that the TACS elements should be more highly distributed to improve survivability in the battlefield of the future. This document reports on the results of the Assured Information Flow Capping Architecture study, which developed governing concepts for communications architectures that can support the information flow requirements of a future, distributed TACS. Architecture comprising existing and planned communications equipment were postulated and compared with a set of goals to identify deficiencies. Architectures using new equipment that resolve many of the deficiencies were then postulated, and areas needing further investigation were identified.

  16. Joint Vision for the Korean Peninsula -- Can We Get There?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-11

    for the Alliance of the United States and the Republic of Korea . The joint statement laid out a shared vision for the Korean Peninsula and the...setting the stage for peaceful reunification, elimination of North Korean nuclear weapons programs and promoting human rights in North Korea . North...Korea’s unpredictability not only poses a threat on the Korean Peninsula but to the entire Northeast Asia region. North Korea is a multifaceted

  17. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is

  18. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  19. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  20. Neotectonics Of The Hengchun Peninsula, southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Chen, Y.; Liu, C.; Song, K.

    2006-12-01

    The southern tip of Taiwan, the Hengchun Peninsula, has recently emerged as situated in between the collisional accretionary prism and the predecessor of the submarine forearc rise. The east-dipping Hengchun Fault (HCF), located in the middle part of the Hengchun Peninsula and oriented in the direction of NNW, can be clearly identified by the landform contrast between the mountain and the valley in the east and west respectively. This contrast confirms the thrust component of the HCF. In the hanging wall of the HCF, the raised marine terraces are widely distributed in the Hikou area, whose linear scarps coincidentally strike in the NNW, identical to the HCF. The ages of the terraces has been previously presented as 6 ka implying that the marine terraces have been uplifted by the activity of HCF during the past 6 kyr. To the south, we also discover a series of continuous and discrete scarps in the Maanshan area, which are also distributed sub-parallel or parallel to the HCF. We suggest that the scarps are formed by a series of faults, which are ramified from the northern segment of the HCF. Based on the recent GPS measurements, we divide the displacement vector field into parallel and normal to the HCF and suppose that the HCF has recently acted as a left-lateral strike- slip fault. It is obvious that there is a fault bend (from NNW to WNW) located in the immediate south of the Maanshan, which may be the cause to explain the wider fault zone composed a series of faults mentioned above. An active anticline is discovered in the offshore area of Western Hengchun Tableland (WHT) to the west, which is tentatively named as Western Hengchun Tablelend Anticline (WHTA). Within and around the WHT, marine terraces are also widely distributed according to the previous studies. The eastward (range-ward) tilting surface of the tableland itself implies its tectonic origin. Since the WHT is located on the eastern limb of the anticline, the eastward tilting of the WHT may be

  1. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  2. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is

  3. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  4. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  5. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  6. Sunward convection in both polar caps

    SciTech Connect

    Reiff, P.H.

    1982-08-01

    The geomagnetic storm of July 29, 1977 has been the object of concentrated study. The latter part of the day (1800--2300 UT) is particularly interesting because it is a period of extremely strong, almost directly northward interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF). Such northward IMF's have been related to periods of reversed (i.e., sunward) convection in the polar cap, and this day is no exception. Zanetti et al. (1981), using Triad magnetometer data, show magnetic perturbations implying reversed convection in the northern polar cap, while the Birkeland currents in the southern polar cap are very weak. They give two possible interpretations: (1) merging occurs preferentially in the northern cusp region, and therefore reversed convection is restricted to the northern polar cap or (2) the currents flow predominantly in the sunlit northern polar cap because its conductivity is higher. This paper shows convection data from both the northern polar cap (S3-3) and the southern polar cap (AE-C). In both cases, regions of reversed convection are seen. Therefore the asymmetry of the Birkeland currents is more likely caused by a conductivity asymmetry than a convection asymmetry. It is likely that the low-energy ions seen deep in the polar cap may be traped on closed field lines after merging on both tail lobe boundaries.

  7. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  8. Durability of Capped Wood Plastic Composites

    Treesearch

    Mark Mankowski; Mark J. Manning; Damien P. Slowik

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of wood plastic composites (WPCs) have recently introduced capped decking to their product lines. These new materials have begun to take market share from the previous generation of uncapped products that possessed a homogenous composition throughout the thickness of their cross-section. These capped offerings have been introduced with claims that the...

  9. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2)...

  10. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In funding... support for schools and libraries shall be automatically increased annually to take into account increases... schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding...

  11. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In funding... support for schools and libraries shall be automatically increased annually to take into account increases... schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance with the public interest and notwithstanding...

  12. "Move the cap" technique for ambiguous or impenetrable proximal cap of coronary total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Vo, Minh N; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-03-01

    Antegrade crossing remains the most commonly employed crossing strategy for coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) but can be challenging to perform in cases of ambiguous or impenetrable proximal cap. To successfully treat such cases, we describe a technique named "move the cap," in which the subintimal space is entered proximal to the proximal cap using a stiff coronary guidewire or facilitated by inflating a slightly oversized balloon. Subintimal guidewire entry is followed by standard antegrade dissection and re-entry. The "move the cap" technique can facilitate crossing of CTOs with ambiguous or impenetrable cap, while minimizing the risk of perforation. This technique is also useful for treating balloon uncrossable lesions.

  13. 'Unlocking the archive': Using photogrammetry of historic aerial photographs to extend the record of glacier change on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Lucy; Fox, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    associated errors using an example glacier from the Antarctic Peninsula to highlight the suitability of this technique and demonstrate the data that can be obtained. The photogrammetric technique that is being employed for this research allows accurate measurements of surface elevation change on glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula over a 50 year-time span, enabling both spatial and temporal patterns of change and improving understanding of glacier response in this area. The use of this technique opens up possibilities for 'unlocking the archive' in other remote glacial areas where historic aerial photography exists but the collection of ground control points is limited. References: Fox, A. J. and Cziferszky, A. 2008. Unlocking the time capsule of historic aerial photography to measure changes in Antarctic Peninsula glaciers. Photogrammetric Record, 23 (121): 51-68. Hock, R., de Woul, M., Radic, V. and Dyurgerov, M. 2009. Mountain glaciers and ice caps around Antarctica make a large sea-level rise contribution. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L07501.

  14. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zamora, M J; Alvarez, M; Olmedo, J; Blanco, M C; Pozio, E

    2015-06-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites circulating in most continents, including Europe. In Spain, Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are highly prevalent in wildlife but seldom in domestic pigs. In Portugal, only T. britovi was documented in wild carnivores. In the period 2006-2013 in Spain, 384 (0.0001%) pigs and 1399 (0.20%) wild boars (Sus scrofa) were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae, which were identified as T. spiralis or T. britovi. In 2014, Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae were isolated from a wild boar hunted in the Gerona province, Cataluña region, North-East of Spain, near the border to France. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula, which suggests a broad distribution area of this zoonotic nematode in Europe. Since larvae of this Trichinella species do not encapsulate in the host muscles, they can be detected only by artificial digestion of muscle samples. T. pseudospiralis is the only Trichinella species infecting both mammals and birds. Birds can spread this pathogen over great distances including islands triggering new foci of infections in areas previously considered at low risk for this pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel route for preparing 5' cap mimics and capped RNAs: phosphate-modified cap analogues obtained via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Sylwia; Nowicka, Anna; Kubacka, Dorota; Fac, Kaja; Wanat, Przemyslaw; Mroczek, Seweryn; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The significant biological role of the mRNA 5' cap in translation initiation makes it an interesting subject for chemical modifications aimed at producing useful tools for the selective modulation of intercellular processes and development of novel therapeutic interventions. However, traditional approaches to the chemical synthesis of cap analogues are time-consuming and labour-intensive, which impedes the development of novel compounds and their applications. Here, we explore a different approach for synthesizing 5' cap mimics, making use of click chemistry (CuAAC) to combine two mononucleotide units and yield a novel class of dinucleotide cap analogues containing a triazole ring within the oligophosphate chain. As a result, we synthesized a library of 36 mRNA cap analogues differing in the location of the triazole ring, the polyphosphate chain length, and the type of linkers joining the phosphate and the triazole moieties. After biochemical evaluation, we identified two analogues that, when incorporated into mRNA, produced transcripts translated with efficiency similar to compounds unmodified in the oligophosphate bridge obtained by traditional synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrated that the triazole-modified cap structures can be generated at the RNA 5' end using two alternative capping strategies: either the typical co-transcriptional approach, or a new post-transcriptional approach based on CuAAC. Our findings open new possibilities for developing chemically modified mRNAs for research and therapeutic applications, including RNA-based vaccinations.

  17. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    The surface and shallow subsurface sediments of the lower Delmarva Peninsula include beds ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene. The oldest beds appear to be typical shelf deposits of the Chesapeake Group (Calvert-Choptank age). These marine units are overlain by deltaic deposits, which range from fluviatile facies in the north (Pensauken Formation) to marginal marine and marine beds in the south ('Yorktown(?) and Cohansey(?)' Formations as used by Rasmussen and Slaughter in 1955). This large deltaic mass underlies most of the Delmarva Peninsula. Fossil age determinations supplemented by some radiometric dates indicate the delta to be largely late Miocene in age. The nonmarine facies of the delta, the Pensauken Formation, previously was considered to be Pleistocene in age. The late Miocene delta and possibly the Yorktown Formation (lower to middle Pliocene) are overlain by a feldspathic sand, the Beaverdam, which is at least in part marginal marine. Microflora recovered from this formation include species no longer indigenous to the Delmarva region ('exotics'). On the basis of existing information, microfloral assemblages containing 'exotics' are pre-Pleistocene in age. The Beaverdam therefore is pre-Pleistocene in age, probably late Pliocene. A highly dissected and weathered unit, the Walston Silt, caps the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, where it overlies the Beaverdam. The Walston has a microflora containing 'exotics' and therefore is considered to be the youngest Tertiary unit (uppermost Pliocene) in this area. Sediments forming a barrier-back-barrier sequence fringe most of the southern Maryland-Delaware part of the Delmarva Peninsula and are found at altitudes of as much as 15 m (50 ft) above sea level. This sequence, the Omar Formation, is Sangamon in age and has been dated radiometrically as 60,000 to about 100,000 years old. The microflora in these beds contains no 'exotics,' and the assemblage suggests a warm-temperate environment. The Omar

  18. Cenozoic epeirogeny of the Arabian Peninsula from drainage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W. P.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.; White, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    is generally accepted that the Arabian Peninsula has been uplifted by subcrustal processes. Positive residual depth anomalies from oceanic crust in the Red Sea and in the Gulf of Aden suggest that a region surrounding this peninsula is dynamically supported. Admittance calculations, surface wave tomography studies, and receiver function analyses all imply that regional topography is generated and maintained by some combination of mantle convective circulation and lithospheric thickness changes. Despite these significant advances, the spatial and temporal uplift rate history of the Arabian Peninsula is not well known. Here we show that a regional uplift rate history can be obtained by jointly inverting 225 longitudinal river profiles that drain this peninsula. Our strategy assumes that shapes of individual river profiles are controlled by uplift rate history and moderated by erosional processes. We used local measurements of incision rate to calibrate the relevant erosional parameters. In our inverse algorithm, uplift rate is permitted to vary smoothly as a function of space and time but upstream drainage area remains invariant. We also assume that knickzone migration is not lithologically controlled. Implications of these important assumptions have been investigated. Our results suggest that the Arabian Peninsula underwent two phases of asymmetric uplift during the last 20-30 Ma at rates of 0.05-0.1 mm a-1. The southwestern flank of the peninsula has been uplifted by 1.5-2.5 km. Regional stratigraphic constraints, the age and composition of volcanism, paleosol formation, incised peneplains, emergent marine terraces, and thermochronometric measurements corroborate our calculated patterns of uplift. Progressive development of three domal swells along the western margin of the peninsula is consistent with localized upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle.

  19. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  20. Why is the north polar cap on Mars different than the south polar cap?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    One of the most puzzling mysteries about the planet Mars is the hemispherical asymmetry in the polar caps. Every spring the seasonal polar cap of CO2 recedes until the end of summer, when only a small part, the residual polar cap, remains. During the year that Viking observed Mars, the residual polar cap was composed of water ice in the northern hemisphere but was primarily carbon dioxide ice in the southern hemisphere. Scientists have sought to explain this asymmetry by modeling observations of the latitudinal recession of the polar cap and seasonal variations in atmospheric pressure (since the seasonal polar caps are primarily frozen atmosphere, they are directly related to changes in atmospheric mass). These models reproduce most aspects of the observed annual variation in atmospheric pressure fairly accurately. Furthermore, the predicted latitudinal recession of the northern polar cap in the spring agrees well with observations, including the fact that the CO2 ice is predicted to completely sublime away. However, these models all predict that the carbon dioxide ice will also sublime away during the summer in the southern hemisphere, unlike what is observed. This paper will show how the radiative effects of ozone, clouds, airborne dust, light penetration into and through the polar cap, and the dependence of albedo on solar zenith angle affect CO2 ice formation and sublimation, and how they help explain the hemispherical asymmetry in the residual polar caps. These effects have not been studied with prior polar cap models.

  1. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  2. Extreme rainfall events in the Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marina; Amin, Doaa; Zayed, Islam Sabry Al; Dalu, Giovanni A.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper Authors discuss results from the first phase of a project carried out in the framework of the Agreement on Scientific Cooperation between the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology of Egypt (ASRT) and the National Research Council of Italy (CNR). As in ancient times, today heavy rainfall, often resulting in flash floods, affects Egypt, not only in the coastal areas along the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, but also in arid and semi-arid areas such as Upper Egypt (Luxor, Aswan, and Assiut) and in the Sinai Peninsula, and their distribution has been modified due to the current climate variability. These episodes, although rare, can be catastrophic in regions characterized by a very low annual total amount of precipitation, with large impacts on lives, infrastructures, properties and last but not least, to the great cultural heritage of the Country. Flash flood episodes in the Sinai Peninsula result from heavy, sudden, and short duration rainfall, influenced also by the peculiar orography and soil conditions of the Region, and represent a risk for the population, infrastructures, properties, and sectors like industry and agriculture. On the other hand, flash floods in Sinai and southern/southeastern Egypt represent a potential source for non-conventional fresh water resources. In particular flash flood water, which usually drains into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba, can fulfill a non-negligible amount of water demand, and/or recharge shallow groundwater aquifers, and the harvested rainfall can represent a source of water for rain-fed agriculture in the region. A general overview of the Sinai current climate is presented, including a climatology of extreme rainfalls events in the last decades. In addition, few selected heavy rainfall episodes which occurred in the Sinai in recent years have been analyzed and their characteristics and links to larger scale circulation will be discussed. Results of the study provide a better

  3. Ground-water availability on the Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Bolke, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits on the Kitsap Peninsula, Wash., are of glacial and interglacial origin. These deposits were divided into three units based on lithology and hydraulic properties. Two of the three units are composed of layers of sand and gravel , and silt and clay. The third unit consists of silt and clay and in most places separates the other two units. Water-bearing strata in the upper unit are fairly continuous and average 15 feet in thickness. The lower water-bearing strata are not believed to be as continuous as those in the upper unit, but yield larger quantities of water to wells. The silt-and-clay unit averages 70 feet in thickness, occurs generally near sea level, and is not known to contain major water-bearing deposits. The average annual ground-water recharge to streams on the Kitsap Peninsula was estimated to be 17 times the 1975 annual ground-water pumpage for the peninsula. Some, but an unknown amount, of this water is available for increased withdrawal by wells. Increased withdrawals cause decreased streamflow, declining water levels, and increased seawater contamination. There appears to be no widespread seawater contamination of wells in the study area. Local areas where chloride concentrations from wells exceed 25 milligrams per liter are near the southern part of the Longbranch Peninsula, Horsehead Bay, Point Evans, Sinclair Inlet, Eagle Harbor, Fletcher Bay, the northern end of Bainbridge Island, and the northern tip of the Kitsap Peninsula. (USGS)

  4. Mountain glaciers and ice caps around Antarctica make a large sea-level rise contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Regine; de Woul, Mattias; Radić, Valentina; Dyurgerov, Mark

    2009-04-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the sum of all contributions to sea-level rise for the period 1961-2004 was 1.1 ± 0.5 mm a-1, leaving 0.7 ± 0.7 of the 1.8 ± 0.5 mm a-1 observed sea-level rise unexplained. Here, we compute the global surface mass balance of all mountain glaciers and ice caps (MG&IC), and find that part of this much-discussed gap can be attributed to a larger contribution than previously assumed from mass loss of MG&IC, especially those around the Antarctic Peninsula. We estimate global surface mass loss of all MG&IC as 0.79 ± 0.34 mm a-1 sea-level equivalent (SLE) compared to IPCC's 0.50 ± 0.18 mm a-1. The Antarctic MG&IC contributed 28% of the global estimate due to exceptional warming around the Antarctic Peninsula and high sensitivities to temperature similar to those we find in Iceland, Patagonia and Alaska.

  5. Volcanic Facies of the Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation, Iniskin Peninsula to Tuxedni Bay, Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation (Jtk), a >1,000-km-long belt of vol­canic facies within the accreted intra-oceanic Talkeetna Arc has been characterized within the Talkeetna Mountains, but on the Alaska Peninsula Jtk facies have not previously been described in detail. Here we describe facies of the Jtk stretching from the Iniskin Peninsula to Tuxedni Bay. On the Iniskin Peninsula, a high concentration and great thickness of mafic to intermediate lavas, associated autobreccias and hyaloclastites, fluidal-clast breccias and possible pillows are suggestive of one or more submarine effusive eruption centers. Also volumetrically significant are non-stratified polymictic volcaniclastic breccia facies. Minor facies include thinly bedded volcaniclastic sandstone to pebble breccia-conglomerate facies, some of which are shard- and pumice-bearing pyroclastic deposits preserved in thinly bedded deposits, indicative of episodes of explosive volcanism and the eruption-fed nature of some of the deposits. North of Chinitna Bay, coherent facies tend to be thin and relatively small in volume. Volcaniclastic facies provide evidence of subaerial-fluvial deposition, and pyroclastic activity. Thinly bedded, laterally continuous beds locally exhibit cross-laminations, channel fills, normal grading and lenticular beds, and contain plant fossils. Within this sequence is a 10-m-thick pumice breccia containing fossilized logs, underlain by a thin, weakly laminated, pumice- and lithic-bearing volcaniclastic siltstone to sandstone. The log-bearing pumice breccia and the lithic-bearing laminated basal unit represent pyroclastic density current (PDC) facies deposited in a subaerial or possibly shallow aqueous environment. Underlying the PDC deposit are several 30-cm-thick maroon and olive green volcaniclastic fine-grained sandstone and siltstone beds containing channel fills, cross-beds and lenticular beds. Marbles exposed in the contact zone between the intrusions of Alaska

  6. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  7. At the Edge of a Polar Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-22

    The deep chasm that formed on the polar cap edge is identified as an area of strong down-slope winds and has a clear connection to Mars largest dune field, Olympia Undae as observed by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  8. CCiCap: Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the...

  9. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  10. Regulation of Flavivirus RNA Synthesis and Capping

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Bejan J.; Geiss, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    RNA viruses, such as flaviviruses, are able to efficiently replicate and cap their RNA genomes in vertebrate and invertebrate cells. Flaviviruses use several specialized proteins to first make an uncapped negative strand copy of the viral genome that is used as a template for the synthesis of large numbers of capped genomic RNAs. Despite using relatively simple mechanisms to replicate their RNA genomes, there are significant gaps in our understanding of how flaviviruses switch between negative and positive strand RNA synthesis and how RNA capping is regulated. Recent work has begun to provide a conceptual framework for flavivirus RNA replication and capping and shown some surprising roles for genomic RNA during replication and pathogenesis. PMID:23929625

  11. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  12. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  13. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  14. The Casimir Energy for the Riemann Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palesheva, E. V.; Pecheritsyn, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The Casimir energy of a massive scalar field on a Riemann cap with the Dirichlet boundary conditions is calculated. The problem is considered in the quasi-stationary approximation. Formulas are derived which are suitable for numerical calculations.

  15. The Casimir Energy for the Riemann Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palesheva, E. V.; Pecheritsyn, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The Casimir energy of a massive scalar field on a Riemann cap with the Dirichlet boundary conditions is calculated. The problem is considered in the quasi-stationary approximation. Formulas are derived which are suitable for numerical calculations.

  16. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  17. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  18. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  19. Chemical synthesis of dinucleotide cap analogs.

    PubMed

    Kore, Anilkumar R; Shanmugasundaram, Muthian

    2014-12-19

    This unit describes a reliable, efficient and general method for the synthesis of standard cap analog (mCAP), m(7)G[5']ppp[5']G, and anti-reverse cap analog (ARCA), m(7,3')(O)G[5']ppp[5']G. The synthesis of required intermediate m(7)GDP or m(2)(7,3'O)GDP has been achieved through regioselective methylation of the corresponding diphosphate using dimethyl sulfate under aqueous conditions. Then, the coupling reaction of m(7)GDP or m(2)(7,3'O)GDP with ImGMP using ZnCl(2)/DMF system affords the corresponding cap analog in good yields. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  1. The deglaciation of the Tröllaskagi Peninsula, Northern Iceland, based on cosmogenic datings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, David; Andres, Nuria; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Brynjólfsson, Skafti

    2015-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi Peninsula is a mountainous area in central northern Iceland. Deep valleys have dissected the Tertiary plateau basalts which form the peninsula, ranging in altitude from sea level to 1500 m. The aim of this work is to provide an initial approach to the deglaciation process in some valleys in the Tröllaskagi Peninsula, mainly by dating polished thresholds and some moraine boulders using cosmic radiation exposure and production of isotope 36Cl. The results obtained lead to the following conclusions: a) In the outermost coastal areas, i.e. the peninsular capes and the mouths of the great fjords, the dating of polished thresholds situated at present around 100-150 m a.s.l obtains ages immediately after Heinrich Event 1: thus two thresholds located at the end point of the Skagi Peninsula give ages of 16.9 ± 1.5 ka and 17.1 ± 1.6 ka. At the entrance to the Eyjafjördur, fjord near the town of Dalvik, another polished threshold has been dated to 16.3 ± 1.4 ka. b) In the intermediate areas of the fiords, deglaciation occurred just at the end of the Oldest Dryas: two thresholds, one on each side of the Skagafjördur fjord at around 150 m a.s.l. obtain minimum ages of 12.6 ± 1.2 ka on the edge of the Skagi Peninsula and 13.8 ± 1.3 ka on the island of Þórđarhöfđi, at a similar altitude. c) The bottoms of the great valleys which originate in the central highlands of the island and which currently drain the proglacial waters from the inland ice caps were deglaciated very early in the Holocene. Dates ranging from 11.5 to 10.00 ka were obtained from 7 polished thresholds at altitudes of between 120 and 700 m a.s.l. in the valley of the Eystri and Vestrari Jökulrsár Rivers which flows into the Skagafjördur fjord, with no clear altitude-related differences observed in the chronology. Taking into account the margin of error, these results may in fact show that the deglaciation of these thresholds was practically simultaneous. A similar date of 11.6 ±1

  2. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Hou, Lei; Wei, Jingfa; Wu, Jianfeng

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1 σ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  3. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  4. Secondary capping beams for offshore drilling platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E. K.

    1985-08-13

    A pair of I-shaped elongated girders secured to, and extending outwardly from, the capping beams of a four pile platform, to form cantilever secondary capping beams which support modified self-contained drilling rigs of a size and weight normally installed on eight pile platforms. Rig modifications comprise separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe rack extension, and a novel skidding system.

  5. Lost caps in histological counting methods.

    PubMed

    Hedreen, J C

    1998-03-01

    In methods with the goal of counting objects in a sectioned tissue volume by examining their profiles or segments in the sections, lost caps, i.e., small object fragments unnoticed or missing at the section surfaces, are an unavoidable issue. The problem of lost caps is examined as it applies to four methods for counting in histological sections, the method usually referred to as the Abercrombie correction, the empirical method, the optical disector, and the physical disector. Lost caps are an insoluble problem in the Abercrombie method; the lost caps error correction factor should be incorporated into the Abercrombie equation. Lost caps cancel out in the optical disector. The empirical method logically requires, to avoid lost caps error, either a preliminary blind identification of object segments in the serial sections or identification of segments with reference to adjacent sections in the counting sections. Similarly, the physical disector method requires either a preliminary blind identification of object segments in both look-up and sampling sections, or use of three sections rather than two.

  6. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  7. Nephron induction revisited: from caps to condensates.

    PubMed

    Sariola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of mesenchyme to epithelium in the metanephric kidney is clearly a multimolecular, multistep and partly redundant process. The present short review focuses on a neglected morphological aspect of kidney differentiation: the development of two transitory mesenchymal condensations that precede epithelial differentiation of nephrons. The first appearing condensate covers the tips of the collecting ducts and is termed a cap condensate. In the early kidney rudiment this structure has been referred to as a primary or early condensate. A few cells of the cap condensate (maybe only four to six cells), situated at the lateral edge of the cap, start proliferating rapidly and form a pretubular aggregate (or pretubular condensate), which converts to secretory nephron epithelia and finally segregates to different tubule segments. Throughout nephrogenesis, the cap condensates and pretubular aggregates are clearly distinguishable structures that show only partly overlapping gene expression profiles. Apart from being the source for the pretubular aggregates, the role of the cap condensate is unknown. It is now proposed that the cap regulates ureteric branching morphogenesis.

  8. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabian Gulf Cooperation Continues Defense Forces (Peninsula Shield Force)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabian Gulf Cooperation Continues Defense Forces (Peninsula Shield Force) A Monograph by...... Arabian Gulf Security Studies; Peninsula Shield Force; GCC Joint Military Command; GCC Security, GCC Geopolitics; Gulf Cooperation Council Threats

  9. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  10. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  11. Interactions Between Islamic and Christian Traditions in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Pre-Romanesque churches in the Iberian Peninsula include a number of constructions from the fourth-fifth to the eleventh century when the first Romanesque churches appeared in the north of Spain. This period of time coincided with the Muslim invasion of the Peninsula. An important number of churches and mosques were built with prescriptions for the orientation, which possibly included astronomical observations. Investigations show that both groups of monuments reacted by avoiding the areas of theoretical influence of the other religion while trying to obey their own orientation rules.

  12. Paleomagnetism of early Tertiary Alaska Peninsula rocks and implications for docking of peninsular terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, J.W.; Levinson, R.A.; Van Alstine, D.R.

    1985-04-01

    In order to refine the tectonic history of the peninsular terrane, Alaska, 22 sites (averaging 10 samples/site) in Paleogene Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations were sampled in the vicinity of Chignik, on the Pacific side of the Alaska Peninsula. Ten of the sites were drilled in the early Oligocene Meshik volcanics, ranging from andesite to basalt, and the other twelve sites were drilled in the late Eocene Tolstoi Formation sediments. Nine of the volcanic sites yielded stable R and/or N characteristic magnetization. Virtually no fine-grained, interbedded sediments occur with the Meshik volcanics at the sample sites, thus making reliable paleohorizontal determinations difficult. Although flow attitudes were tentatively used, it became rapidly apparent that problems of initial dip were insurmountable. As a result, all volcanic sites were considered unreliable for determining a meaningful paleomagnetic inclination. Upon thermal demagnetization, five of the sedimentary sites were judged stable. The mode of the paleomagnetic direction was calculated, D/I = 349.8/75.3(..beta..95 = 8.5), indicating no significant rotation. Uncertainties in structural corrections, however, may render only the inclination meaningful, which, from McFadden statistics yields, I = 75.9, ..cap alpha..95 = 7.9, corresponding to a paleolatitude of 63.3/sup 0/. This paleolatitude agrees with the expected value for the North American craton at 40 m.y. B.P., implying that the peninsular terrane had docked at at least that time.

  13. The Parsonsburg Sand in the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Charles Storrow; Owens, J.P.; Sirkin, L.A.; Rubin, Meyer

    1979-01-01

    The Parsonsburg Sand, a surface sand largely of Wisconsin age, caps terraces east of some of the major streams and mantles broad areas on the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. The main body of the formation east and south of Salisbury, Md., ranges from 1.25 to 6.00 m (4-20 ft) in thickness and is a medium-grained moderately feldspathic sand containing a relatively mature heavy-mineral suite. The sand is either stratified or massive, and in some areas contains peaty sand and silt-clay, typically at or near the base of the formation. The organic matter ranges in radiocarbon age from about 30,000 to about 13,000 years B.P. and contains microfloral assemblages suggesting that at the time the sand was deposited the climate was cooler and drier that it is at present. The region may have been a pine-birch barrens in which were small ponds, spruce bogs, and abundant shrubs. The distribution of the sand at or near the position of high stands of the Sangamon sea suggests that the Parsonsburg Sand was derived from sandy shore and nearshore deposits of Sangamon age. Deposition was in part eolian and in part fluvial and lacustrine, probably in small streams and ponds between sand dunes.

  14. 47 CFR 61.43 - Annual price cap filings required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual price cap filings required. 61.43... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.43 Annual price cap filings required. Carriers subject to price cap regulation shall submit annual price cap tariff filings that propose rates for the...

  15. 49 CFR 230.41 - Flexible staybolts with caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flexible staybolts with caps. 230.41 Section 230... Appurtenances Staybolts § 230.41 Flexible staybolts with caps. (a) General. Flexible staybolts with caps shall have their caps removed during every 5th annual inspection for the purpose of inspecting the bolts for...

  16. Model-based cap thickness and peak cap stress prediction for carotid MRI.

    PubMed

    Kok, Annette M; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhagen, Hence J M; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2017-07-26

    A rupture-prone carotid plaque can potentially be identified by calculating the peak cap stress (PCS). For these calculations, plaque geometry from MRI is often used. Unfortunately, MRI is hampered by a low resolution, leading to an overestimation of cap thickness and an underestimation of PCS. We developed a model to reconstruct the cap based on plaque geometry to better predict cap thickness and PCS. We used histological stained plaques from 34 patients. These plaques were segmented and served as the ground truth. Sections of these plaques contained 93 necrotic cores with a cap thickness <0.62mm which were used to generate a geometry-based model. The histological data was used to simulate in vivo MRI images, which were manually delineated by three experienced MRI readers. Caps below the MRI resolution (n=31) were (digitally removed and) reconstructed according to the geometry-based model. Cap thickness and PCS were determined for the ground truth, readers, and reconstructed geometries. Cap thickness was 0.07mm for the ground truth, 0.23mm for the readers, and 0.12mm for the reconstructed geometries. The model predicts cap thickness significantly better than the readers. PCS was 464kPa for the ground truth, 262kPa for the readers and 384kPa for the reconstructed geometries. The model did not predict the PCS significantly better than the readers. The geometry-based model provided a significant improvement for cap thickness estimation and can potentially help in rupture-risk prediction, solely based on cap thickness. Estimation of PCS estimation did not improve, probably due to the complex shape of the plaques. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 16094 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of... 17, 2010, Upper Peninsula Power Company (transferor) and North American Hydro Holdings, LLC.... Jensky, Upper Peninsula Power Company, 700 N Adams Street, Green Bay, WI 54307, phone (920) 433-2900....

  18. O+ transport across the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Jahn, J.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    The plasma sheet, inner magnetosphere, and high latitude magnetosphere all contain significant amounts of O+ ions during active times. Singly charged oxygen ions unambiguously come from the ionosphere making them an excellent tracer species. As the solar wind dynamic pressure increases, the O+ density in the in the cleft, high altitude polar cap, and plasma sheet also increases. We test the "cleft ion fountain" model, which asserts that O+ ions escape from the cleft, cross the polar cap, and then enter the plasma sheet against a mo of outflows originating from the entire polar cap. We use observations of O+ transport across the polar cap from TIDE polar cap ion outflow measurements. The Tsyganenko magnetic field model, driven with ACE solar wind parameters is used to provide magnetic mapping and organization of the observations. We calculate the distance between the cleft and the foot-points of magnetic field lines mapped from the Polar spacecraft along the noon-midnight meridian. Using the observed outflow speed and magnetic field line length we calculate travel time for the ions. We then plot the distance from the cleft versus the travel time for an entire pass. For O+ this plot is quite linear, and the slope of the line is the average convection speed of the magnetic field lines across the polar cap. The convection speed we determined is consistent with the convection speed measured in the ionosphere. We conclude that O+ ions emanating principally from the cleft are transported across the polar cap, and these O+ ions have access to the ring current and plasma sheet.

  19. In vitro capping and transcription of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Tomoaki

    2013-02-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic nonsegmented negative strand (NNS) RNA virus classified into the Rhabdoviridae family, has been used to investigate the fundamental molecular mechanisms of NNS RNA viral mRNA synthesis and processing. In vitro studies on mRNA cap formation with the VSV L protein eventually led to the discovery of the unconventional mRNA capping pathway catalyzed by the guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and RNA:GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities. The PRNTase activity is a novel enzymatic activity, which transfers 5'-monophosphorylated (p-) RNA from 5'-triphosphorylated (ppp-) RNA to GDP to form 5'-capped RNA (GpppRNA) in a viral mRNA-start sequence-dependent manner. This unconventional capping (pRNA transfer) reaction with PRNTase can be experimentally distinguished from the conventional capping (GMP transfer) reaction with eukaryotic GTP:RNA guanylyltransferase (GTase) on the basis of the following differences in their substrate specificity for the cap formation: PRNTase uses GDP and pppRNA, but not ppRNA, whereas GTase employs GTP, but not GDP, and ppRNA. The pRNA transfer reaction with PRNTase proceeds through a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate with a phosphoamide bond. Hence, to prove the PRNTase activity, it is necessary to demonstrate the following consecutive steps separately: (1) the enzyme forms a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate, and (2) the intermediate transfers pRNA to GDP. This article describes the methods for in vitro transcription and capping with the recombinant VSV L protein, which permit detailed characterization of its enzymatic reactions and mapping of active sites of its enzymatic domains. It is expected that these systems are adaptable to rhabdoviruses and, by extension, other NNS RNA viruses belonging to different families.

  20. Actin capping proteins, CapZ (β-actinin) and tropomodulin in amphioxus striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yulong; Kake, Takei; Hanashima, Akira; Nomiya, Yui; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Sumiko

    2012-11-15

    CapZ (β-actinin) and tropomodulin (Tmod) are capping proteins involved in the maintenance of thin filaments in vertebrate skeletal muscles. In this study, we focused on amphioxus, the most primitive chordate. We searched for CapZ and Tmod genes in the amphioxus genome and determined their primary structures. Amphioxus possess one CapZα gene (CAPZA) and one CapZβ gene (CAPZB), and the transcripts of these genes were found to be 67%-85% identical to those of human CapZ genes. On the other hand, amphioxus contain one Tmod gene (TMOD), and the product of this gene has an identity of approximately 50% with human Tmod genes 1-4. However, helix 2 of amphioxus Tmod, which is involved in protein-binding to tropomyosin, was highly conserved with approximately 74% identity to human Tmod genes. Western blotting indicated the presence of CapZ and Tmod in the striated muscle of amphioxus. These results suggest that unlike most of vertebrates, such as fish, amphibian, bird, and mammal, CapZ from amphioxus striated muscle is derived from two genes CAPZA and CAPZB, and Tmod is derived from one TMOD gene.

  1. Polar cap precursor of nightside auroral oval intensifications using polar cap arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Lyons, Larry R.; Donovan, Eric F.; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; McWilliams, Kathryn A.; Nishitani, Nozomu

    2015-12-01

    Recent radar and optical observations suggested that localized fast flows in the polar cap precede disturbances within the nightside auroral oval. However, how commonly this connection occurs has been difficult to examine due to limited coverage of radar flow measurements and diffuse and dim nature of airglow patches. Polar cap arcs are also associated with fast flows in the polar cap and appear much brighter than patches, allowing evaluation of the interaction between polar cap structures and nightside aurora more definitively. We have surveyed data during six winter seasons and selected quasi-steady polar cap arcs lasting >1 h. Thirty-four arcs are found, and for the majority (~85%) of them, as they extend equatorward from high latitude, their contact with the nightside auroral poleward boundary is associated with new and substantial intensifications within the oval. These intensifications are localized (< ~1 h magnetic local time (MLT)) and statistically occur within 10 min and ±1 h MLT from the contact. They appear as poleward boundary intensifications in a thick auroral oval or an intensification of the only resolvable arc within a thin oval, and the latter can also exhibit substantial poleward expansion. When radar echoes are available, they corroborate the association of polar cap arcs with localized enhanced antisunward flows. That the observed oval intensifications are major disturbances that only occur after the impingement of polar cap arcs and near the contact longitude suggest that they are triggered by localized fast flows coming from deep in the polar cap.

  2. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Papoian, Garegin A.

    2011-09-01

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  3. The Prentif contraceptive cervical cap: acceptability aspects and their implications for future cap design.

    PubMed

    Koch, J P

    1982-02-01

    Patients in a private gynecological practice were offered the Prentif contraceptive cervical cap. The first 413 acceptors were sent a questionnaire covering in detail many of the aspects of their experience. The 371 responses contained a wealth of information concerned with safety, effectiveness and acceptability. Safety and effectiveness are dealt with in the companion article preceding, while the less serious risk factors that reduce the acceptability of the Prentif cap are presented and discussed herein. In order of descending frequency, these factors include: odor; difficulty removing; discomfort to partner; difficulty inserting; dislike of spermicide; discomfort to self; urinary discomforts; vaginal infections; vaginal discharge; and vaginal itching. The most attractive features of the cap, as compared with the diaphragm, were: increased convenience; greater safety; less interference with spontaneity; increased frequency of intercourse; and increased libido. Despite multiple problems with Prentif caps, 67.4% of the cap recipients were still using their caps after one year. However, this was among a select group of highly motivated women of above-average intelligence. The causes of cap acceptability problems are discussed along with probable future improvements in cap design that may solve them.

  4. Storage of cellular 5' mRNA caps in P bodies for viral cap-snatching.

    PubMed

    Mir, M A; Duran, W A; Hjelle, B L; Ye, C; Panganiban, A T

    2008-12-09

    The minus strand and ambisense segmented RNA viruses include multiple important human pathogens and are divided into three families, the Orthomyxoviridae, the Bunyaviridae, and the Arenaviridae. These viruses all initiate viral transcription through the process of "cap-snatching," which involves the acquisition of capped 5' oligonucleotides from cellular mRNA. Hantaviruses are emerging pathogenic viruses of the Bunyaviridae family that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Cellular mRNAs can be actively translated in polysomes or physically sequestered in cytoplasmic processing bodies (P bodies) where they are degraded or stored for subsequent translation. Here we show that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein binds with high affinity to the 5' cap of cellular mRNAs, protecting the 5' cap from degradation. We also show that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein accumulates in P bodies, where it sequesters protected 5' caps. P bodies then serve as a pool of primers during the initiation of viral mRNA synthesis by the viral polymerase. We propose that minus strand segmented viruses replicating in the cytoplasm have co-opted the normal degradation machinery of P bodies for storage of cellular caps. Our data also indicate that modification of the cap-snatching model is warranted to include a role for the nucleocapsid protein in cap acquisition and storage.

  5. 2-D Visualization of Global D-region and Polar Cap Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.-H.; Choi, S.; Lee, J.; Bong, S.-C.

    2015-09-01

    We have visualized global D-region and polar cap absorption in two dimensions. We use the empirical relationship between solar x-ray flux (0.1-0.8 nm) and highest affected frequency at sub-solar point to calculate global D-region absorption. We also use the relation between the integral proton fluxes above certain energy thresholds and polar cap absorption. The calculation code was developed by C++ and refers to the result of Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) code of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in C. We also consider the relation between the angles of the geomagnetic system and the geographical one. We calculate the attenuation at 8.83 MHz because it is used in High Frequency (HF) communications by airplanes. The code needs input data such as x-ray flux, proton flux, and Kp index of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The attenuation is displayed in a world map, the Korean peninsula, and polar route.

  6. CAP - JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CONTAMINATION ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Contamination Analysis Program (CAP) is a generalized transient executive analysis computer code which solves realistic mass transport problems in the free molecular flow environment. These transport problems involve mass flux from surface source emission and re-emission, venting, and engine emission. CAP solution capability allows for one-bounce mass reflections if required. CAP was developed to solve thin-film contamination problems in the free molecular flow environment, the intent being to provide a powerful analytic tool for evaluating spacecraft contamination problems. The solution procedure uses an enclosure method based on a lumped-parameter multinodal approach with mass exchange between nodes. Transient solutions are computed by the finite difference Euler method. First-order rate theory is used to represent surface emission and reemission (user care must be taken to insure the problem is appropriate for such behavior), and all surface emission and reflections are assumed diffuse. CAP does not include the effects of post-deposition chemistry or interaction with the ambient atmosphere. CAP reads in a model represented by a multiple-block data stream. CAP allows the user to edit the input data stream and stack sequential editing operations (or cases) in order to make complex changes in behavior (surface temperatures, engine start-up and shut-down, etc.) in a single run if desired. The eight data blocks which make up the input data stream consist of problem control parameters, nodal data (area, temperature, mass, etc.), engine or vent distribution factors (based upon plume definitions), geometric configuration factors (diffuse surface emission), surface capture coefficient tables, source emission rate constant tables, reemission rate constant tables, and partial node to body collapse capability (for deposition rates only). The user must generate this data stream, since neither the problem-specific geometric relationships, the

  7. Eddy intrustion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Gorney, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Under the simple postulate that multiple large scale detachable magnetospheric convection eddies can exist in the vicinity of the convection reversal boundary and in the polar cap, by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or otherwise, it is shown that a number of seemingly disconnected plasma and electric field observations in the polar cap can be organized into a theory of magnetosheath and plasmasheet plasma intrusion into the polar cap. Current theory of inverted V structures then predicts existence of similar, but weaker, structures at the eddy convection reversal boundaries in the polar cap. A possible consequence is that the polar cap auroras are natural offshoots from discrete oval arcs and evidently are formed by similar processes. The two arc systems can occassionally produce an optical image in the form of the theta aurora.

  8. O transport across the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Jahn, J.-M.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2007-09-01

    The plasma sheet, inner magnetosphere, and high-latitude magnetosphere all contain significant amounts of O ions during active times. Singly charged oxygen ions unambiguously come from the ionosphere, making them an excellent tracer species. We test the cleft ion fountain theory, which asserts that O ions escape from the cleft, cross the polar cap, and then enter the plasma sheet. Statistical studies of O density in the cleft, high-altitude polar cap, and plasma sheet all indicate that the O density increases with increasing solar wind dynamic pressure. In order to examine O transport more directly, we use polar cap ion outflow measurements and the 2001 Tsyganenko magnetic field model driven with advanced composition explorer (ACE) solar wind parameters. We calculate the distance between the cleft and the ionospheric footpoints of magnetic field lines mapped from the polar spacecraft along the noon midnight meridian. Using the observed outflow speed and the magnetic field line length we calculate the travel time for the ions. When we examine the distance from the cleft versus the O travel time for individual passes, the slope of the line is consistent with the measured ionospheric convection speed across the polar cap. We conclude that O ions emanating principally from the cleft are transported across the polar cap, and these O ions have access to the ring current and plasma sheet.

  9. Transmission Through Carbon Nanotubes with Polyhedral Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study electron transport between capped carbon nanotubes and a substrate, and relate this transport to the local density of states in the cap. Our results show that that the transmission probability mimics the behavior of the density of states at all energies except those that correspond to localized states. For a capped carbon nanotube that is not connected to a substrate, the localized states do not couple to the coexisting continuum states. However, close proximity of a substrate causes hybridization between these states. As a result, new transmission paths open from substrate states to nanotube continuum states via the localized states in the cap. We show that the interference between various paths gives rise to transmission antiresonances with the minimum equal to zero at the energy of the localized state. The presence of defects in the tube places close to the cap transforms antiresonances into resonances. Depending on the spatial position of defects, these resonant states are capable of carrying a large current. The results of this paper are of relevance to carbon nanotube based studies on molecular electronics and probe tip applications.

  10. Pluto Insolation and the South Polar Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    2009-05-01

    Pluto's south polar cap is a puzzle. The planet's southern cap may be brighter than the north, even though it was the south pole which faced the Sun on Pluto's recent approach to perihelion. One would think that the brighter pole would be the one which received less insolation: volatiles would be expected to sublimate from the sunny south and condense in the north, enlarging the north polar cap with fresh and bright frost. Thus the north pole should be brighter than the south. However, it may be the other way around, although the evidence is not entirely clear. One suggested explanation of the (possible) paradox is that the south polar cap has, over the last several million years, received less insolation than the north, accumulating a larger supply of volatiles. However, expressing the solar insolation in terms of Pluto's orbital elements clearly shows that both the north and south poles have received nearly the same amount of sunlight over the past several million years. Hence any difference between the polar caps cannot be ascribed to a difference in the amount of long-term insolation received at each pole. Thus any difference between the poles, if there is one, must invoke conditions peculiar to Pluto's climate system, rather than rely on insolation alone.

  11. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  12. Blueberry Trials on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula: First Year Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In June 2009, 9 plants each of three highbush and six half-high blueberry cultivars were planted at test plots on two commercial farms on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula. The purpose of the trials was to determine if domestic blueberry plants could survive and produce crops in Southcentral Alaska. In Octob...

  13. Phosphorus leaching from agricultural soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaching of phosphorus (P) mobilizes edaphic and applied sources of P and is a primary pathway of concern in agricultural soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, which defines the eastern boundary of the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. We evaluated P leaching before and after poultry litter application from inta...

  14. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, J. R.; Aguilar, E.; Ashcroft, L.

    2016-09-01

    Drought variability and change was assessed across the Iberian Peninsula over more than 100 years expanding through the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 Iberian time series were quality controlled and homogenized to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), driven only by precipitation, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), based on the difference between the precipitation and the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), were computed at annual and seasonal scale to describe the evolution of droughts across time. The results confirmed that a clear temperature increase has occurred over the entire Iberian Peninsula at the annual and seasonal scale, but no significant changes in precipitation accumulated amounts were found. Similar drought variability was provided by the SPI and SPEI, although the SPEI showed greater drought severity and larger surface area affected by drought than SPI from 1980s to 2010 due to the increase in atmospheric evaporative demand caused by increased temperatures. Moreover, a clear drying trend was found by the SPEI for most of the Iberian Peninsula at annual scale and also for spring and summer, although the SPI did not experience significant changes in drought conditions. From the drying trend identified for most of the Iberian Peninsula along the twentieth century, an increase in drought conditions can also be expected for this region in the twenty-first century according to future climate change projections and scenarios.

  15. 48. Photocopy of photograph (from Reflections, Peninsula Transportation District Commission, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph (from Reflections, Peninsula Transportation District Commission, 1985. Original three CRT buses in 1928. *FOR Photocopy of photograph (from the Charles H. Taylor Memorial Library), photographer unknown. Trolley car No. 315 shown April 25, 1929 at the Trolley Barn. SEE FIELD NOTES - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  16. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-02-01

    The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  17. Spruce reproduction dynamics on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, 1987-2000.

    Treesearch

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2005-01-01

    During the past 30 years, spruce forests of Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula have undergone dramatic changes resulting from widespread spruce bark beetle(Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) infestation. In 1987 and again in 2000, the Pacific Northwest Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted initial and remeasurement inventories...

  18. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    View southwestward across the Kamchatka Peninsula. The cluster of volcanoes in the middle distance are active, including Klutchevskaya whose summit reaches 15,580 feet. Changes in volcanic deposits, snow, and ice are being studied by Russian and American Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) investigators. Seasonal changes in sea ice are also of interest, for example, in Kamchatskiy Bay (upper left).

  19. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  20. 46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's Last Street Cars, Daily Press, January 15, 1956) photographer unknown. The first streetcar (with dignitaries) to make the run from Newport News to a new housing development named Hilton Village in September 1918. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  1. Timberland resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, 1987.

    Treesearch

    Willem W.S. van Hees; Frederic R. Larson

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 inventory of the forest resources of the Kenai Peninsula was designed to assess the impact of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) on the timberland component of the forest resource. Estimates of timberland area, volumes of timber, and growth and mortality of timber were developed. These estimates of timber resource...

  2. Terrestrial Birds and Conservation Priorities in Baja California Peninsula

    Treesearch

    Ricardo Rodriguez-Estrella

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula has been categorized as an Endemic Bird Area of the world and it is an important wintering area for a number of aquatic, wading and migratory landbird species. It is an important area for conservation of bird diversity in northwestern México. In spite of this importance, only few, scattered studies have been done on the ecology...

  3. Preliminary classification of forest vegetation of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    K.M. Reynolds

    1990-01-01

    A total of 5,597 photo points was systematically located on 1:60,000-scale high altitude photographs of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska; photo interpretation was used to classify the vegetation at each grid position. Of the total grid points, 12.3 percent were classified as timberland; 129 photo points within the timberland class were randomly selected for field survey....

  4. Hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: three cases from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge; Cárdenas-Marrufo, María; Vado-Solís, Ignacio; Cetina-Cámara, Marco; Cano-Tur, José; Laviada-Molina, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Three leptospirosis cases with lung involvement are reported from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. All three patients were admitted to the intensive care unit due to acute respiratory failure. Treatment with antibiotics resulted in favorable evolution despite the negative prognosis. Leptospirosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and lung involvement.

  5. Peninsula Academies Replications: 1985-86 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Charles; And Others

    The Peninsula Academies is a three-year high school program for at-risk students, designed to provide them with incentives both to graduate and to acquire labor market-relevant skills. An academy combines academic and technical training in a school-within-a-school setting, and is based on school-business partnerships. In the fall of 1985, 10…

  6. Spatial variability of Antarctic Peninsula net surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; Marshall, G. J.; Morris, E. M.; Mulvaney, R.; Winter, W.

    2002-07-01

    Measurements from ice cores and snow pits collected over the last 50 years are used to examine how net surface mass balance varies across the Antarctic Peninsula to give the first detailed map of mass balance for the region. A total of 211 reliable mass balance measurements were available for the preparation of the map, but some areas were found to be very data sparse. The analysis suggests that the largest values of mass balance are found along the spine of the northern part of the peninsula, where over 2.5 m yr-1 water equivalent (WE) has been measured. A secondary peak of more than 2.0 m yr-1 WE is determined along the mountains of eastern Alexander Island. Precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis project are compared with our analysis of in situ data. The model fields are found to have peak values of P-E of only half the amounts found from the measurements; the greatest model values are located on the western side of the peninsula. Areas where a high density of in situ data is available, including King George VI Sound and the high south central plateau part of the peninsula, show a high spatial variability of net surface mass balance, suggesting that local orographic features play a major part in dictating the mass balance.

  7. Forest statistics for Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    1993-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula forests reports 14,429.0 thousand acres of land, of which 3,053.7 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  8. Forest statistics for Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    1994-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula forests reports 11,345.1 thousand acres of land, of which 7,415.2 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  9. Forest statistics for Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    1993-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula forests reports 4,989.1 thousand acres of land, of which 3,973.1 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  10. Forest statistics for Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    1994-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula Unit reports 12,329.1 million acres of land, of which 4,836.5 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  11. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  12. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-05-01

    The 3-D subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a 3-D velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19 935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  13. The timber resources of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    C.L. Bolsinger

    1969-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resources of the Olympic Peninsula shows a total of 3,105,000 acres of commercial forest land and 81,464 million board feet (International 114-inch scale) of sawtimber volume. Total timber volume has remained about the same for the past 12 years, and cut and growth currently are nearly in balance.

  14. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): Descriptive analysis of 500 patients from the International CAPS Registry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Moitinho, Marta; Santacreu, Irene; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Erkan, Doruk; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of patients with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) from the "CAPS Registry". The demographic, clinical and serological features of 500 patients included in the website-based "CAPS Registry" were analyzed. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were used to describe the cohort. Comparison between groups regarding qualitative variables was undertaken by chi-square or Fisher exact test while T-test for independent variables was used to compare groups regarding continuous variables. 500 patients (female: 343 [69%]; mean age 38±17) accounting for 522 episodes of CAPS were included in the analysis. Forty percent of patients had an associated autoimmune disease, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (75%). The majority of CAPS episodes were triggered by a precipitating factor (65%), mostly infections (49%). Clinically, CAPS was characterized by several organ involvement affecting kidneys (73%), lungs (60%), brain (56%), heart (50%), and skin (47%). Lupus anticoagulant, IgG anticardiolipin and IgG anti-β2-glycprotein antibodies were the most often implicated antiphospholipid antibodies (83%, 81% and 78% respectively). Mortality accounted for 37% of episodes of CAPS. Several clinical differences could be observed based on the age of presentation and its association to SLE. Those cases triggered by a malignancy tended to occur in older patients, while CAPS episodes in young patients were associated with an infectious trigger and peripheral vessels involvement. Additionally, CAPS associated with SLE were more likely to have severe cardiac and brain involvement leading to a higher mortality (48%). Although the presentation of CAPS is characterized by multiorgan thrombosis and failure, clinical differences among patients exist based on age and underlying chronic diseases, e.g. malignancy and SLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cap inflammation leads to higher plaque cap strain and lower cap stress: An MRI-PET/CT-based FSI modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Huang, Sarayu; Mani, Venkatesh; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Robson, Philip; Teng, Zhongzhao; Dweck, Marc; Fayad, Zahi A

    2017-01-04

    Plaque rupture may be triggered by extreme stress/strain conditions. Inflammation is also implicated and can be imaged using novel imaging techniques. The impact of cap inflammation on plaque stress/strain and flow shear stress were investigated. A patient-specific MRI-PET/CT-based modeling approach was used to develop 3D fluid-structure interaction models and investigate the impact of inflammation on plaque stress/strain conditions for better plaque assessment. 18FDG-PET/CT and MRI data were acquired from 4 male patients (average age: 66) to assess plaque characteristics and inflammation. Material stiffness for the fibrous cap was adjusted lower to reflect cap weakening causing by inflammation. Setting stiffness ratio (SR) to be 1.0 (fibrous tissue) for baseline, results for SR=0.5, 0.25, and 0.1 were obtained. Thin cap and hypertension were also considered. Combining results from the 4 patients, mean cap stress from 729 cap nodes was lowered by 25.2% as SR went from 1.0 to 0.1. Mean cap strain value for SR=0.1 was 0.313, 114% higher than that from SR=1.0 model. The thin cap SR=0.1 model had 40% mean cap stress decrease and 81% cap strain increase compared with SR=1.0 model. The hypertension SR=0.1 model had 19.5% cap stress decrease and 98.6% cap strain increase compared with SR=1.0 model. Differences of flow shear stress with 4 different SR values were limited (<10%). Cap inflammation may lead to large cap strain conditions when combined with thin cap and hypertension. Inflammation also led to lower cap stress. This shows the influence of inflammation on stress/strain calculations which are closely related to plaque assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Joan Ramon; Aguilar, Enric

    2015-04-01

    Drought variability and change is assessed in this study across the Iberian Peninsula along the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century using state of the art drought indices: the Sc-PDSI, the SPI and the SPEI. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 time-series regularly spread over Iberian Peninsula are quality controlled and also homogenized in a monthly scale to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Sc-PDSI, the 12-month SPI and 12-month SPEI are computed on a monthly basis using the newly MITPS dataset to identify dry and wet conditions across time. Precipitation data is only required to compute SPI, but potential evapotranspiration (PET) is also needed to perform the Sc-PDSI and SPEI, which is estimated using the Tornthwaite's method. The analysis conducted in this study confirms that drought conditions are worsening for most of the Iberian Peninsula across time strongly induced by global warming especially during the last three decades. All drought indices have found a drying trend in the Pyrenees, Ebro basin, central Iberia and in the south and south-eastern area while a wetting trend is identified in the western and in the north-western region. Future projections also indicate a clear increase in hydrological drought conditions along the 21st century, thus, water saving and the application of effective water management strategies will be crucial to minimize the impact of hydrological droughts over the Iberian Peninsula into the near future. KEY WORDS: Drought, climate change, Iberian Peninsula, drought indices.

  17. Black Carbon Measurement and Modeling in the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawad, Faisal Al; Khoder, Mamdouh; Almazroui, Mansour; Alghamdi, Mansour; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvarinen, Antti; Henriksson, Svante

    2017-04-01

    Black carbon is an important atmospheric aerosol as an effective factor in public health, changing the global and regional climate, and reducing visibility. Black carbon absorbs light, warms the atmosphere, and modifies cloud droplets and the amount of precipitation. In spite of this significance, knowledge of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula is hard to find in literature until recently. The total mass of black carbon and wind direction and speeds were measured continuously at Hada Al-Sham, Saudi Arabia for the year 2013. In addition, a state of the art global aerosol - climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) was used to determine black carbon climatology over the Arabian Peninsula. Simulation of the model was carried out for the years eight years (2004 - 2011). The daily mean values of the concentrations of black carbon had a minimum of 15.0 ng/m3 and a maximum of 6372 ng/m3 with a mean of at 1899 ng/m3. The diurnal pattern of black carbon showed higher values overnight, and steady low values during daytimes caused by sea and land breezes. Seasons of black carbon vary over the Arabian Peninsula, and the longest is in the Northern Region where it lasts from July to October. High concentrations of black carbon at Hada Al-Sham was observed with a mean of 1.9 µm/m3, and seasons of black carbon vary widely across the Arabian Peninsula. Assessment of the effects of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula on the global radiation balance. Initiating a black carbon monitoring network is highly recommended to assess its impacts on health, environment, and climate.

  18. Geology of Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    Seward Peninsula (Fig. 1) may be divided into two geologic terranes (Fig. 2) on the basis of stratigraphy, structure, and metamorphic history. The Seward terrane, an area 150 by 150 km in the central and eastern peninsula, is dominated by Precambrian(?) and early Paleozoic blueschist-, greenschist-, and amphibolite-facies schist and marble, and intruded by three suites of granitic rocks. The York terrane, roughly 100 by 75 km, occupies western Seward Peninsula and the Bering Straits region; it is composed of Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, and possibly older limestone, argillaceous limestone, dolostone, and phyllite, which are cut by a suite of Late Cretaceous tin-bearing granites. The boundary between the Seward and York terranes is poorly exposed but is thought to be a major thrust fault because of its sinuous map trace, a discontinuity in metamorphic grade, and differences in stratigraphy across the boundary (Travis Hudson, oral communication, 1984). The boundary between the Seward terrane and the Yukon-Koyukuk province to the east is complicated by vertical faults (the Kugruk fault Zone of Sainsbury, 1974) and obscured by Cretaceous and Tertiary cover.The Seward Peninsula heretofore was thought to consist largely of rocks of Precambrian age (Sainsbury, 1972, 1974, 1975; Hudson, 1977), Microfossil data, however, indicate that many of the rocks considered to be Precambrian are early Paleozoic in age (Till and others, 1986; Dumoulin and Harris, 1984; Dumoulin and Till, 1985; Till and others, 1983; Wandervoort, 1985). It is likely that Precambrian rocks are a minor part of the stratigraphy of the Seward Peninsula.

  19. Intermediate filaments in. cap alpha. -keratins

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, R.D.B.; MacRae, T.P.; Parry, D.A.D.; Suzuki, E.

    1986-03-01

    Previous x-ray diffraction studies on the ..cap alpha..-keratins of hair and wool have revealed that the intermediate filaments (IF) have a helical structure rendered imperfect by a precisely defined dislocation. It has also been possible to deduce a surface lattice for the IF and to determine the number of IF molecules associated with each lattice point. In this work this information is combined with data on the ionic interactions between the coiled-coil rope segments of the IF molecules to provide a plausible model for the pattern of interactions that stabilize the framework of the IF in the hard ..cap alpha..-keratins. Similar interaction studies of the proteins from the IF in the so-called soft ..cap alpha..-keratin from the stratum corneum layer of the skin suggest that they are likely to have an essentially similar pattern.

  20. Compact bearing cap for overhead camshaft

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, E.A.M.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine of the type having a cylinder head assembly with at least one rotatable camshaft with end journal portions mounted in semi-cylindrical bearings of the cylinder head, an improved camshaft retention arrangement for the end portion. It comprises a bearing cap with a semi-cylindrical portion at an opposite side of the camshaft journal as the cylinder head bearing portion, first fastener means extending through the the portion into the cylinder head to secure the bearing cap to the cylinder head; the semi-cylindrical portion of the bearing cap extending from the side portion about the camshaft journal and terminating just short of a second side of the camshaft so that an area of the cylinder head immediately adjacent the second side of the camshaft is available for placement of a second fastener means for securing the cylinder head to the engine.

  1. Biocompatibility of a new pulp capping cement

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new pulp capping material (Biodentine, Septodont) compared with reference pulp capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) and MTA-Angelus (Angelus) by using murine odontoblast cell line and Alamar blue and MTT cytotoxicity tests. Methods The citocompatibility of murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) were evaluated at different times using a 24 Transwell culture plate by Alamar blue test and MTT assay. Results The results were significantly different among the pulp capping materials tested. Biocompatibility was significant different among materials with different composition. Conclusions Biodentine and MTA-based products show lower cytotoxicity varying from calcium hydroxide-based material which present higher citotoxicity. PMID:25002921

  2. Deformation of Polar Cap Patches During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Ridley, A. J.; Nicolls, M. J.; Coster, A. J.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Hampton, D.

    2015-12-01

    Polar cap patches refer to the islands of high F-region plasma density within the polar cap. Their formation on the dayside and deformation on the nightside are not well understood. The F-layer ionosphere density is strongly influenced by electric field, thermospheric wind as well as soft particle precipitation. This study combines observations from multiple instruments, including Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar, GPS TEC and optical instruments, as well as the Global Ionosphere and Thermosphere Model (GITM), to investigate the effects of highly structured electric fields and winds on the deformation of polar cap patches during substorms. We will also discuss variations of the auroral emissions associated with the patch evolution.

  3. Electronic States in Capped Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaguchi, Tatsuya; Ando, Tsuneya

    2001-05-01

    Scattering of an electron wave at various caps closing an armchair nanotube is studied. The reflection coefficients can be understood as an effective shift in boundary position and phase shift at the boundary. The phase shift is approximately given by π for states with parity + and 0 for states with parity -, respectively. The effective position is approximated by (1/4)P, where P is the height of an equilateral triangle having a base line determined by neighboring five-membered rings located at the boundary between the tube and the cap. The electronic structure of a finite-length armchair nanotube closed by a cap can be calculated with the use of the phase shifts.

  4. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  5. Lymphocyte activation and capping of hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, L Y; Jy, W; Majercik, M H; Bourguignon, G J

    1988-06-01

    In this study both a ligand-dependent treatment [concanavalin A (Con A)] and a ligand-independent treatment [high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation (HVPGS)] have been used to initiate lymphocyte activation via a transmembrane signaling process. Our results show that both treatments cause the exposure of two different hormone [insulin and interleukin-2 (IL-2)] receptors within the first 5 min of stimulation. When either insulin or IL-2 is present in the culture medium, the stimulated lymphocytes undergo the following responses: (1) increased free intracellular Ca2+ activity; (2) aggregation of insulin or IL-2 receptors into patch/cap structures; (3) tyrosine-kinase-specific phosphorylation of a 32-kd membrane protein; and finally (4) induction of DNA synthesis. Further analysis indicates that hormone receptor capping is inhibited by (1) cytochalasin D, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments; (2) sodium azide, indicating a requirement for ATP production; and (3) W-5, W-7, and W-12 drugs, implying a need for Ca2+/calmodulin activity. Treatment with these metabolic or cytoskeletal inhibitors also prevents both the tyrosine-kinase-specific protein phosphorylation and DNA synthesis which normally follow hormone receptor capping. Double immunofluorescence staining shows that actomyosin, Ca2+/calmodulin, and myosin light-chain kinase are all closely associated with the insulin and IL-2 receptor cap structures. These findings strongly suggest that an actomyosin-mediated contractile system (regulated by Ca2+, calmodulin, and myosin light-chain kinase in an energy-dependent manner) is required not only for the collection of insulin and IL-2 receptors into patch and cap structures but also for the subsequent activation of tyrosine kinase and the initiation of DNA synthesis. We, therefore, propose that the exposure and subsequent patching/capping of at least one hormone receptor are required for the activation of mouse splenic T-lymphocytes.

  6. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-10-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is "are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?" To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls = 120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for regions closer to the pole, and later for regions close to the periphery of the cap. The observations and calculations presented herein estimate that on average a water ice layer ∼70 microns thick is deposited during the Ls = 135-164 period. This is far larger than the results of deposition on the south pole during summer, where an average layer 0.6-6 microns deep has been estimated by Brown et al. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 406, 102-109.

  7. Toward the identification of viral cap-methyltransferase inhibitors by fluorescence screening assay.

    PubMed

    Aouadi, Wahiba; Eydoux, Cécilia; Coutard, Bruno; Martin, Baptiste; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean Jacques; Contreras, Jean Marie; Morice, Christophe; Quérat, Gilles; Jung, Marie-Louise; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Decroly, Etienne

    2017-08-01

    Two highly pathogenic human coronaviruses associated with severe respiratory syndromes emerged since the beginning of the century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-coronavirus (CoV) spread first in southern China in 2003 with about 8000 infected cases in few months. Then in 2012, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) emerged from the Arabian Peninsula giving a still on-going epidemic associated to a high fatality rate. CoVs are thus considered a major health threat. This is especially true as no vaccine nor specific therapeutic are available against either SARS- or MERS-CoV. Therefore, new drugs need to be identified in order to develop antiviral treatments limiting CoV replication. In this study, we focus on the nsp14 protein, which plays a key role in virus replication as it methylates the RNA cap structure at the N7 position of the guanine. We developed a high-throughput N7-MTase assay based on Homogenous Time Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF(®)) and screened chemical libraries (2000 compounds) on the SARS-CoV nsp14. 20 compounds inhibiting the SARS-CoV nsp14 were further evaluated by IC50 determination and their specificity was assessed toward flavivirus- and human cap N7-MTases. Our results reveal three classes of compounds: 1) molecules inhibiting several MTases as well as the dengue virus polymerase activity unspecifically, 2) pan MTases inhibitors targeting both viral and cellular MTases, and 3) inhibitors targeting one viral MTase more specifically showing however activity against the human cap N7-MTase. These compounds provide a first basis towards the development of more specific inhibitors of viral methyltransferases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The size of the EB cap determines instantaneous microtubule stability.

    PubMed

    Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas I; Holmes, David; Surrey, Thomas

    2016-04-06

    The function of microtubules relies on their ability to switch between phases of growth and shrinkage. A nucleotide-dependent stabilising cap at microtubule ends is thought to be lost before this switch can occur; however, the nature and size of this protective cap are unknown. Using a microfluidics-assisted multi-colour TIRF microscopy assay with close-to-nm and sub-second precision, we measured the sizes of the stabilizing cap of individual microtubules. We find that the protective caps are formed by the extended binding regions of EB proteins. Cap lengths vary considerably and longer caps are more stable. Nevertheless, the trigger of instability lies in a short region at the end of the cap, as a quantitative model of cap stability demonstrates. Our study establishes the spatial and kinetic characteristics of the protective cap and provides an insight into the molecular mechanism by which its loss leads to the switch from microtubule growth to shrinkage.

  9. Valve Cap For An Electric Storage Cell

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof; Genton, Alain

    2000-04-18

    The valve cap for an electric storage cell includes a central annular valve seat (23) and a membrane (5) fixed by its peripheral edge and urged against the seat by a piston (10) bearing thereagainst by means of a spring (12), the rear end of said spring (12) bearing on the endwall (8) of a chamber (20) formed in the cap and containing the piston (10) and the spring. A vent (19) puts the chamber (20) into communication with the atmosphere. A central orifice (26, 28) through the piston (10) and the membrane (5), enables gas from within the cell to escape via the top vent (19) when the valve opens.

  10. Possible Composition of Martian Polar Caps and Controls on Ice-Cap Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    David Fisher asked "if martian polar caps flow." Are martian polar caps akin to Earth's polar glacial ice sheets, or are they immobile? Though certain dynamical differences are obvious, it is unknown whether similarities in ice tectonics may also exist. The question bears not only on modem martian polar processes, but perhaps on hypothesized glacial processes elsewhere on Mars in the geologic past. The rheological properties and tectonics of martian polar caps also pertain to the possibility that liquids may have existed beneath the polar caps in the past, or even now, and to prospects for life in possible lakes beneath the ice caps. The cold martian polar surface temperatures and the lower martian gravity suggest a reduced propensity of martian polar ice deposits to deform under their own weight. The greater accumulation timescales of the martian polar caps compared to Earth's also mean that more time has been available for accumulated deformation, possibly offsetting the effects of colder temperatures and lower gravity on Mars. Further complicating our understanding is that the martian polar caps may not be made purely of ordinary water ice - CO2 is another possible major constituent; the rheological and melting behavior may be very different from what we are accustomed to dealing with on Earth.

  11. Cap-assisted colonoscopy and detection of Adenomatous Polyps (CAP) study: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Heiko; Bensen, Steve P; Toor, Arifa; Gordon, Stuart R; Levy, L Campbell; Berk, Brian; Anderson, Peter B; Anderson, Joseph C; Rothstein, Richard I; MacKenzie, Todd A; Robertson, Douglas J

    2015-10-01

    Cap-assisted colonoscopy has improved adenoma detection in some but not other studies. Most previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes and few participating endoscopists. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether cap-assisted colonoscopy improves adenoma detection in a two-center, multi-endoscopist, randomized trial. Consecutive patients who presented for an elective colonoscopy were randomized to cap-assisted colonoscopy (4-mm cap) or standard colonoscopy performed by one of 10 experienced endoscopists. Primary outcome measures were mean number of adenomas per patient and adenoma detection rate (ADR). Secondary outcomes included procedural measures and endoscopist variation; a logistic regression model was employed to examine predictors of increased detection with cap use. A total of 1113 patients (64 % male, mean age 62 years) were randomized to cap-assisted (n = 561) or standard (n = 552) colonoscopy. The mean number of adenomas detected per patient in the cap-assisted and standard groups was similar (0.89 vs. 0.82; P = 0.432), as was the ADR (42 % vs. 40 %; P = 0.452). Cap-assisted colonoscopy achieved a faster cecal intubation time (4.9 vs. 5.8 minutes; P < 0.001), a similar cecal intubation rate (99 % vs. 98 %; P = 0.326), and a higher terminal ileum intubation rate (93 % vs. 89 %; P < 0.028). Cap-assisted colonoscopy resulted in a 20 % increase in ADR for some endoscopists and in a 15 % decrease for others. Individual preference for the cap was an independent predictor of increased adenoma detection in adjusted analysis (P < 0.001), whereas baseline low adenoma detection was not. Although the efficiency of cecal and terminal ileum intubation was slightly improved by cap-assisted colonoscopy, adenoma detection was not. Cap-assisted colonoscopy may be beneficial for selected endoscopists. clinicalTrials.gov (NCT01935180). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  13. Changes in ice dynamics along the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehaus, T.; Braun, M.; Cook, A.; Marinsek, S.

    2016-12-01

    The climatic conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula have undergone considerable changes during the last 50 years. Numerous ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula retreated, started to break-up or disintegrated. The loss of the buttressing effect caused tributary glaciers to accelerate with increasing ice discharge along the Antarctic Peninsula. The aim is to study the reaction of glaciers at the northern Antarctic Peninsula to the changing climatic conditions and the readjustments of tributary glaciers to ice shelf disintegration, as well as to better quantify the ice mass loss and its temporal changes.We analysed time series of various SAR satellite sensors to detect changes in ice flow speed and surface elevation. Intensity feature tracking techniques were applied on data stacks from different SAR satellites over the last 20 years to infer changes in glacier surface velocities. High resolution bi-static TanDEM-X data was used to derive digital elevation models by differential SAR interferometry. In combination with ASTER and SPOT stereo images, changes in surface elevations were determined. Altimeter data from ICESat, CryoSat-2 and NASA operation IceBridge ATM were used for vertical referencing and quality assessment of the digital elevation models. Along the west coast of the northern Antarctic Peninsula an increase in flow speeds by 40% between 1992 and 2014 was observed, whereas glaciers on the east side (north of former Prince-Gustav Ice Shelf) showed a strong deceleration. In total an ice discharge of 17.93±6.22 Gt/a was estimated for 74 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula north of 65°S. Most of the former ice shelf tributaries showed similar reactions to ice shelf disintegration. At the Sjögren-Inlet a total ice mass loss of -37.5±8.2 Gt and a contribution to sea level rise of 20.9±5.2 Gt were found in the period 1993-2014. The average surface lowering rate in the period 2012-2014 amounts to -2.2 m/a. At Dinsmoor-Bombardier-Edgeworth glacier

  14. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, D.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11-20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre-storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20-25 cm; the

  15. Changes in ice dynamics along the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehaus, Thorsten; Marinsek, Sebastian; Cook, Alison; Van Wessem, Jan-Melchior; Braun, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The climatic conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula have undergone considerable changes during the last 50 years. A period of pronounced air temperature rise, increasing ocean temperatures as well as changes in the precipitation pattern have been reported by various authors. Consequently, the glacial systems showed changes including widespread retreat, surface lowering as well as variations in flow speeds. During the last decades numerous ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula retreated, started to break-up or disintegrated completely. The loss of the buttressing effect caused tributary glaciers to accelerate with increasing ice discharge along the Antarctic Peninsula. Quantification of the mass changes is still subject to considerable errors although numbers derived from the different methods are converging. The aim is to study the reaction of glaciers at the northern Antarctic Peninsula to the changing climatic conditions and the readjustments of tributary glaciers to ice shelf disintegration, as well as to better quantify the ice mass loss and its temporal changes. We analysed time series of various satellite sensors (ERS-1/2 SAR, ENVISAT ASAR, RADARSAT-1, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X, ASTER, Landsat) to detect changes in ice dynamics of 74 glacier basins along the northern Antarctic Peninsula (<65°). Intensity feature tracking techniques were applied on data stacks from different SAR satellites over the last 20 years to infer temporal trends in glacier surface velocities. In combination with ice thickness reconstructions and modeled climatic mass balance fields regional imbalances were calculated. Variations in ice front position were mapped based on optical and SAR satellite data sets. Along the west coast of the northern Antarctic Peninsula an increase in flow speeds by 40% between 1992 and 2014 was observed, whereas glaciers on the east side (north of former Prince-Gustav Ice Shelf) showed a strong deceleration. Nearly all former ice shelf

  16. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  17. Mars South Polar Cap "Fingerprint" Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-24

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Some portions of the martian south polar residual cap have long, somewhat curved troughs instead of circular pits. These appear to form in a layer of material that may be different than that in which "swiss cheese" circles and pits form, and none of these features has any analog in the north polar cap or elsewhere on Mars. This picture shows the "fingerprint" terrain as a series of long, narrow depressions considered to have formed by collapse and widening by sublimation of ice. Unlike the north polar cap, the south polar region stays cold enough in summer to retain frozen carbon dioxide. Viking Orbiter observations during the late 1970s showed that very little water vapor comes off the south polar cap during summer, indicating that any frozen water that might be there remains solid throughout the year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was obtained in early southern spring on August 4, 1999. It shows an area 3 x 5 kilometers (1.9 x 3.1 miles) at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 ft) per pixel. Located near 86.0°S, 53.9°W. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02373

  18. Science CAP: Curriculum Assistance Program. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEMCO, Inc., Madison, WI.

    Science Curriculum Assistance Program (Science CAP(TM)) is a multimedia package developed to create a model for preserving classroom science activities that can be shared and customized by teachers. This program is designed to assist teachers in preparing classroom science activities for grades five through eight, and to foster an environment of…

  19. Capping blowouts from Iran's 8-year war

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, B. )

    1991-07-01

    Control well blown up by the Iraqi military were a 2 1/2 year legacy left the National Iranian Oil Co. at the end of this long conflict. This final installment of a 2-part series describes capping of the largest wind oil well.

  20. Shrinking ice caps in the spotlight.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-10-06

    From the disappearing sea ice of the Arctic to the thriving microbial communities in subglacial lakes of Antarctica, the Earth's ice caps have often made the news in recent months and years, and polar science has emerged as being crucial to our understanding of our planet's biology and climate. Michael Gross reports.

  1. Science CAP: Curriculum Assistance Program. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEMCO, Inc., Madison, WI.

    Science Curriculum Assistance Program (Science CAP(TM)) is a multimedia package developed to create a model for preserving classroom science activities that can be shared and customized by teachers. This program is designed to assist teachers in preparing classroom science activities for grades five through eight, and to foster an environment of…

  2. Maintaining and Repairing. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Booklet (Maintaining and Repairing) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations…

  3. 47 CFR 54.623 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cap. 54.623 Section 54.623 Telecommunication..., Administrator shall calculate the total demand for support submitted by all applicants during the filing window... calculate the amount of support requested by each applicant that has filed during the filing window....

  4. Natural attenuation processes during in situ capping.

    PubMed

    Himmelheber, David W; Pennell, Kurt D; Hughes, Joseph B

    2007-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents are common groundwater contaminants that threaten surface water quality and benthic health when present in groundwater seeps. Aquatic sediments can act as natural biobarriers to detoxify chlorinated solvent plumes via reductive dechlorination. In situ sediment capping, a remedial technique in which clean material is placed at the sediment-water interface, may alter sedimentary natural attenuation processes. This research explores the potential of Anacostia River sediment to naturally attenuate chlorinated solvents under simulated capping conditions. Results of microcosm studies demonstrated that intrinsic dechlorination of dissolved-phase PCE to ethene was possible, with electron donor availability controlling microbial activity. A diverse microbial community was present in the sediment, including multiple Dehalococcoides strains indicated by the amplification of the reductive dehalogenases tceA, vcrA, and bvcA. An upflow column simulating a capped sediment bed subject to PCE-contaminated groundwater seepage lost dechlorination activity with time and only achieved complete dechlorination when microorganisms present in the sediment were provided electron donor. Increases in effluent chloroethene concentrations during the period of biostimulation were attributed to biologically enhanced desorption and the formation of less sorptive dechlorination products. These findings suggest that in situ caps should be designed to account for reductions in natural biobarrier reactivity and for the potential breakthrough of groundwater contaminants.

  5. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions

  6. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup

  7. High-pressure jet cutters improve capping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.; Campbell, P.J.; Bowden, J.R. Sr.

    1995-05-08

    Advances in abrasive cutting technology have improved the methods for removing damaged equipment and preparing wellheads for capping. This technology, much of which was refined during well control operations in Kuwait in 1991, can improve the safety and efficiency of capping jobs by cutting wellheads or casing quickly and cleanly. The majority of well control jobs involve one of three types of capping operations: capping to a flange, capping by installing a wellhead, or capping to a casing stub. Capping operations are often the first major step in regaining control of the well during blowout intervention. Proper planning of a capping operation must take into account the mass flow rate, combustible nature of the flow, well bore geometry, and operations in the post-capping phase of the project. The paper discusses capping vehicles, tree removal, jet cutters, capping to a flange, capping to a stub, swallowing the stub, spin-on technique, capping on fire, stinging, offshore blowouts, firefighting, pollution control, intervention equipment, and rig removal.

  8. Model for capping derived from inhibition of surface receptor capping by free fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Klausner, R D; Bhalla, D K; Dragsten, P; Hoover, R L; Karnovsky, M J

    1980-01-01

    When low concentrations (2-5 mole %) of cis unsaturated free fatty acids (group A) are intercalated into lymphocyte plasma membrane, capping is inhibited. No effect is seen with trans unsaturated or saturated fatty acids (group B). The capping inhibition is reversible with increasing doses of extracellular calcium. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery has shown that the group A free fatty acids do not inhibit the receptor immobilization associated with patch formation, but inhibit the final energy-dependent movement of the patched receptors into a cap. We have also shown that the group A free fatty acids cause a shift in membrane-bound calcium to the lipid phase from probable protein-associated sites. We have incorporated these findings into a model for capping and membrane-cytoskeletal interactions. Images PMID:6928636

  9. CAPS-1 and CAPS-2 are essential synaptic vesicle priming proteins.

    PubMed

    Jockusch, Wolf J; Speidel, Dina; Sigler, Albrecht; Sørensen, Jakob B; Varoqueaux, Frederique; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Brose, Nils

    2007-11-16

    Before transmitter-filled synaptic vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane upon stimulation they have to be primed to fusion competence. The regulation of this priming process controls the strength and plasticity of synaptic transmission between neurons, which in turn determines many complex brain functions. We show that CAPS-1 and CAPS-2 are essential components of the synaptic vesicle priming machinery. CAPS-deficient neurons contain no or very few fusion competent synaptic vesicles, which causes a selective impairment of fast phasic transmitter release. Increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) levels can transiently revert this defect. Our findings demonstrate that CAPS proteins generate and maintain a highly fusion competent synaptic vesicle pool that supports phasic Ca(2+) triggered release of transmitters.

  10. The relative influence of ENSO and SAM on Antarctic Peninsula climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James; Fogt, Ryan L.

    2016-08-01

    Recent warming of the Antarctic Peninsula during austral autumn, winter, and spring has been linked to sea surface temperature (SST) trends in the tropical Pacific and tropical Atlantic, while warming of the northeast Peninsula during summer has been linked to a strengthening of westerly winds traversing the Peninsula associated with a positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Here we demonstrate that circulation changes associated with the SAM dominate interannual temperature variability across the entire Antarctic Peninsula during both summer and autumn, while relationships with tropical Pacific SST variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are strongest and statistically significant primarily during winter and spring only. We find the ENSO-Peninsula temperature relationship during autumn to be weak on interannual time scales and regional circulation anomalies associated with the SAM more important for interannual temperature variability across the Peninsula during autumn. Consistent with previous studies, western Peninsula temperatures during autumn, winter, and spring are closely tied to changes in the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) and associated meridional wind anomalies. The interannual variability of ASL depth is most strongly correlated with the SAM index during autumn, while the ENSO relationship is strongest during winter and spring. Investigation of western and northeast Peninsula temperatures separately reveals that interannual variability of northeast Peninsula temperatures is primarily sensitive to zonal wind anomalies crossing the Peninsula and resultant leeside adiabatic warming rather than to meridional wind anomalies, which is closely tied to variability in the zonal portion of the SAM pattern.

  11. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.; Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H.; Naghiyev, Jalal A.; Mehdiyeva, Afat A.

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  12. Helminths of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Kola Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Tirronen, K F; Panchenko, D V; Kopatz, A; Hagen, S B; Eiken, H G; Kuznetsova, A S

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1-3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

  13. Korean peninsula: A northeast Asian security concern. Individual study project

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, N.G.

    1993-03-22

    North and South Korea have not responded to the New World Order-that Communism is dead and the Cold War Era is over. When the Berlin Wall collapsed and Germany became one nation, Korea emerged as the only divided country remaining in the world. Today, the Korean Peninsula remains divided by ideology, mutual mistrust of national leadership, the 155-mile DMZ, US military presence, conflicting approaches to national reunification, and the North Korean nuclear issue. Thus, the traditional Cold War animosities and political, economic, military paradigms remain entrenched in a divided Korean peninsula. The US Intelligence Community has identified an extensive nuclear center at Yongbyon, 50 miles north of Pyongyang, North Korea's capital, which appears to be a nuclear reactor and reprocessing site. The threat of a nuclear-armed North Korea is a serious regional security concern that will not be taken lightly by such countries as Japan, China, Russia, South Korea, and the United States.

  14. Historic and instrumental earthquake records of Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Y.

    2012-12-01

    NIMR(National Institute of Meteorological Researches) published historic earthquake catalogs of Korean Peninsula recently. This catalog contains 2161 events recorded at historic documents such as annals of the Jo-seon dynasty and the chronicles of 3 countries. Among those events, 440 earthquakes classified as intensity greater than 5(Korea intensity scale) and 15 earthquakes having intensity between 8 to 10(Korea intensity scale) are interpreted as damaging earthquake. Kyung-Ju earthquake occurred at 779 was the greatest one with M 6.7 and killed 100 people written by historic records. Several records contained the information of damage and casualties from possible Tsunami event. The purpose of making earthquake catalog is to define potential earthquake hazard of Korean Peninsula. As a result of collecting earthquake records for last 2000 years, the Intensity population distribution of historic earthquake marked similar to that of present instrumental earthquake record of KMA bulletin.

  15. Karst features of a glaciated dolomite peninsula, Door County, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Scot B.; Stieglitz, Ronald D.

    1990-11-01

    A geologic investigation of the northern part of Door Peninsula, Wisconsin for a state funded water quality project revealed that karstification of the Silurian aquifer is more extensive than previously believed. Sinkholes and small insurgent features, solution modified crevices, pavements, caves and springs were inventories and mapped. These features are generally smaller and less densely developed than those in most limestone terranes; however, they are important to the geomorphology and water quality of the peninsula. Continental glaciation has strongly influenced both the distribution and the present surface morphology of the karst features. Ice scour has formed a stepped bedrock topography, contributed to pavement formation and may have removed some preglacial features. Deposition has plugged and masked features in places. In addition, subglacial water circulation, and ice loading and unloading may have influenced karst development.

  16. Specificity of recognition of mRNA 5' cap by human nuclear cap-binding complex.

    PubMed

    Worch, Remigiusz; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Stepinski, Janusz; Mazza, Catherine; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Cusack, Stephen; Stolarski, Ryszard

    2005-09-01

    The heterodimeric nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) binds to the mono-methylated 5' cap of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcripts such as mRNA and U snRNA. The binding is important for nuclear maturation of mRNAs and possibly in the first round of translation and nonsense-mediated decay. It is also essential for nuclear export of U snRNAs in metazoans. We report characterization by fluorescence spectroscopy of the recognition of 5' capped RNA by human CBC. The association constants (K(as)) for 17 mono- and dinucleotide cap analogs as well as for the oligomer m7GpppA(m2') pU(m2')pA(m2') cover the range from 1.8 x 10(6) M(-1) to 2.3 x 10(8) M(-1). Higher affinity for CBC is observed for the dinucleotide compared with mononucleotide analogs, especially for those containing a purine nucleoside next to m7G. The mRNA tetramer associates with CBC as tightly as the dinucleotide analogs. Replacement of Tyr138 by alanine in the CBP20 subunit of CBC reduces the cap affinity except for the mononucleotide analogs, consistent with the crystallographic observation of the second base stacking on this residue. Our spectroscopic studies showed that contrary to the other known cap-binding proteins, the first two nucleotides of a capped-RNA are indispensable for its specific recognition by CBC. Differences in the cap binding of CBC compared with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) are analyzed and discussed regarding replacement of CBC by eIF4E.

  17. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Martin G.

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  18. Development of an unbonded capping system for clay masonry prisms

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, L.K.; Henderson, R.C.; Sneed, W.A. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    To ascertain if an unbonded capping system was feasible for clay masonry prisms, the compressive strengths of thirty clay masonry prisms capped with an unbonded capping system modeled after ASTM C 1231 were compared with those of thirty masonry prisms capped with ASTM C 67 approved high-strength gypsum cement at the ages of 7 and 28 days. All prisms were constructed by a professional mason using Grade SW, Type FBS cored face brick from the same lot and ASTM C 270 Type S PC-lime mortar. There was no significant difference in mean compressive strength for the two capping methods at either age. In addition, capping with the unbonded capping system was faster and easier. Further, 28-day results obtained using the unbonded capping system had a lower coefficient of variation and higher mean compressive strength than those obtained with high-strength gypsum.

  19. ENSO-related PM10 variability on the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, Jieun; Moon, Byung-Kwon

    2017-10-01

    Particulate matter, defined as particles of less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), was analyzed over the Korean Peninsula from 2001 to 2015 to examine the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on subseasonal PM10 variability. The PM10 data were obtained from 151 air quality monitoring stations provided by the Korea Environment Corporation (KECO). Lead-lag correlation analysis, which was performed to investigate the connection between NDJF (November-February) NINO3 index and seasonal mean PM10 data, did not yield any statistically significant correlations. However, using five-pentad moving-averaged PM10 data, statistically significant correlations between NDJF NINO3 index and PM10 variability were found in four subseasonal periods, with alternating positive and negative correlations. In the periods during which PM10 levels on the Korean Peninsula were positively (negatively) correlated with the ENSO index, the positive PM10 anomalies are associated with El Niño (La Niña) years, which implies that the occurrence of high-PM10 events could be modulated by the ENSO phase. In addition, this ENSO-related PM10 variation is negatively correlated with ENSO-related precipitation in the Korean Peninsula, indicating that more (less) wet deposition leads to lower (higher) PM10 level. Therefore, we conclude that the ENSO-induced precipitation anomalies over the Korean Peninsula are mainly responsible for ENSO-related PM10 variations. This study will be helpful for further identifying detailed chemistry-climate processes that control PM10 concentrations.

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of periglaciation of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, M.; Serrano, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; González-Amuchastegui, M. J.; Nieuwendam, A.; Palacios, D.; Pérez-Alberti, A.; Pellitero-Ondicol, R.; Ruiz-Fernández, J.; Valcárcel, M.; Vieira, G.; Antoniades, D.

    2016-04-01

    Active periglacial processes are currently marginal in the Iberian Peninsula, spatially limited to the highest mountain ranges. However, a wide variety of periglacial deposits and landforms are distributed in low and mid-altitude environments, which shows evidence of past periods of enhanced periglacial activity. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge of past periglacial activity in the Iberian Peninsula. The chronological framework takes four main stages into account: the last glaciation, deglaciation, Holocene and present-day processes. This study focuses on the highest massifs (Pyrenees, Cantabrian Range, NW ranges, Central Range, Iberian Range, Sierra Nevada) as well as other lower elevation environments, namely the central Iberian Meseta. During the last glaciation the periglacial belt extended to much lower altitudes than today, reaching current sea level in the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. A wide range of geomorphological landforms and sedimentary records is indicative of very active periglacial processes during that phase, in some cases related to permafrost conditions (i.e., block streams, rock glaciers). Most of the inactive landforms and deposits in low and mid-elevations in Iberia are also related to this phase. The massive deglaciation of the Iberian massifs was caused by a gradual increase in temperatures. The deglaciation phase was only interrupted by a short period with colder conditions (the Younger Dryas) that reactivated periglacial processes in the formerly glaciated cirques of the highest lands, specifically with the widespread development of rock glaciers. During the Holocene, periglacial processes have been only active in the highest ranges, shifting in altitude according to temperature regimes and moisture conditions. The Little Ice Age saw the reactivation of periglacial activity in lower elevations than today. Currently, periglacial processes are only active in elevations exceeding 2500 m in the southern

  1. Fossils from bore holes on the Eastern Shore Peninsula, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Ruth; Gardner, Julia A.; Sohn, I.G.

    1955-01-01

    This report lists Foraminifera, Mollusca, and Ostracoda in five bore holes that penetrated a maximum of 445 feet of section in sediments of Pleistocene and Miocene age, and discusses the paleoecologic and stratigraphic significance of the fossils. It includes the contents of references 6, 16, and 18 of Virginia Division of Geology Mineral Resources Circular No. 2, dealing with the geology and groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore peninsula.

  2. Reconciling genotype with phenotype: Lessons learned on the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif O

    2017-01-01

    On the Arabian Peninsula, where consanguineous/endogamous marriages are customary, hereditary eye disease is often autosomal recessive and genotype-phenotype correlation is typically straightforward. However, this is not always the case. Lessons I have learned in the course of reconciling genotype with phenotype in the region include the following: (1) although autosomal recessive disease is common, autosomal dominant disease still occurs; (2) an individual or family can be affected by more than one genetic eye disease; and (3) phenotype trumps genotype.

  3. Study on Tychini of Balkan Peninsula (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    PubMed

    Sabella, Giorgio; Šíma, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Tychus albanicus sp. n. from southern Albania is described and illustrated, and placed in the Tychus monilicornis group. The following new records of Tychus species are given for Balkan Peninsula: Tychus corsicus spissatus Rey, 1888 for Croatia; Tychus cordiger Besuchet, 1969, Tychus monilicornis Reitter, 1880, and Tychus niger Paykull, 1800 for Montenegro, and Tychus caudatus Reitter, 1884 for Albany. Tychus sbordonii Meggiolaro, 1967 is trasferred from the Tychus dalmatinus group to the Tychus monilicornis group.

  4. Biochemical interaction of an actin-capping protein, CapZ, with NAP-22.

    PubMed

    Odagaki, Sin-Ichi; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Nakamura, Shun; Maekawa, Shohei

    2009-07-01

    NAP-22 is a neuronal protein localized in the presynaptic membrane and synaptic vesicles and recovered in a Triton-insoluble low-density microdomain fraction after biochemical fractionation of the synaptic plasma membrane. NAP-22 organizes membrane microdomains through binding to membrane lipids such as cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. In this study, NAP-22-binding proteins were screened through the pull-down assay using brain-derived NAP-22 bound to Sepharose 4B. An actin-capping protein, CapZ, was identified in the precipitate through mass spectrometry and Western blotting. CapZ was then expressed in E. coli and the purified protein-bound NAP-22 directly. Because bacterially expressed NAP-22 bound CapZ, it was determined that the N-terminal myristoyl moiety of NAP-22 is not necessary for the binding. The binding of NAP-22 showed no effect on the actin nucleation activity of CapZ measured with centrifugation and viscometric assays. Hence, the CapZ-NAP-22 complex could work as the nucleation site of actin polymerization or as the actin filament-anchoring site on the membrane microdomain.

  5. A first secular variation curve for the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, J. I.; Osete, M. L.; Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Fabien, A.; Tarling, D. H.

    2003-04-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out at 22 archaeological sites in the Iberian Peninsula. These new results together with data from 4 sites previously studied in Iberia and data from neighbouring countries (southern of France and northern Morocco) have been compiled in order to obtain a first Secular Variation Curve for the Iberian Peninsula. Data from France and Morocco were selected from the Archaeomagnetic Database compiled by the Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Plymouth, UK (D. Tarling). The selection criteria adopted was the following: Dating errors <50 years, number of samples > 5 and α95 < 3^o. A total amount of 54 data points with ages ranging from 200 BC up to 1500 AD have been used to construct the Madrid Preliminary Secular Variation Curve for the Iberian Peninsula, albeit with a gap between the 7th and 10th centuries. Palaeomagnetic directions were corrected to Madrid, using the Via-Pole Conversion method (Noel and Batt, 1990, Geoph. J. Inter, 70, 201--204). A 100 year something window moving in 50 years increments was applied to the data.

  6. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Maps of the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Thomson, Janet W.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the Glacier Studies Project (GSP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre (MAGIC) of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) began a formal cooperative 3-year endeavor to prepare three maps of the Antarctic Peninsula region. The maps will be based on a large variety of cartographic, aerial photograph, satellite image, and ancillary historical datasets archived at each institution. The maps will document dynamic changes on the peninsula during the past 50 years. The three maps are part of a planned 24-map series (I-2600) being published by the USGS in both paper and digital format (see USGS Fact Sheet FS-050-98 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/factsheet/fs50-98/); the maps are of the Trinity Peninsula area (I-2600-A), the Larsen Ice Shelf area (I-2600-B), and the Palmer Land area (I-2600-C). The 1:1,000,000-scale maps will encompass an area 1,800 kilometers (km) long and with an average width of 400 km (range of 200 to 600 km wide); the area is between lats 60? and 76? S. and longs 52? and 80? W. Each of the three maps will include an interpretive booklet that analyzes documented historical changes in the fronts of the ice shelves and termini of the outlet glaciers.

  7. Preliminary assessment of aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Corte-Real, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Aridity is one of the key elements characterizing the climate of a region, having a severe impact on human activities. Aiming at assessing aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula, the spatial distribution of the UNEP aridity index is analyzed during the period 1901-2012. Gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets are used on a monthly basis. Results show that the southern half of Iberia is particularly vulnerable to water stress and hence to desertification processes. In particular, the UNEP aridity index reveals an increase and northward extension of the semi-arid regime in the Iberian Peninsula between 1901 and 2012. More than 50% of the north and western territory have experienced humid/sub-humid conditions, while the other regions underwent semi-arid settings. Results also reveal that climate was subjected to spatial and temporal variabilities with an overall statistically significant (at a 95% confidence level) trend to aridification in the south-easternmost and central regions. The remaining territory of the Iberian Peninsula does not reveal statistically significant trends.

  8. Severe dust storms over the Arabian Peninsula: Observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shalaby, ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Dust aerosols and dust storms have tremendous effects on human health and all development activities. Also atmospheric dust plays a major role in the Earth climate system by its interaction with radiation and clouds. Severe dust storms are considered the severest phenomena in the Arabian Peninsula, since they are occurring all the year round with maximum activity and frequency in Summer. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) has been used to simulate severe dust storms events in the Arabian Peninsula from 1998 up to 2011. This long period simulation shows a typical pattern and dynamical features of the large-scale severe dust storm in winter seasons and summer seasons. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the model outputs have been compared against ground--base observations of three AERONET stations (i.e., Kuwait, Mazeria and Solar-Village) and daily space--based observations of MISR, Deepblue and OMI. The dynamical analysis of the large—scale severe dust storms reveal the difference between winter time storms and summer time storm. Winter time storm occurs when the cold air front in the north is coupled with the extension of the Red Sea trough from the south. However, the summer time storm is associated with strong Shamal wind that extend from northern Kuwait to the southern Arabian Peninsula.

  9. Sinai peninsula taken by the STS-109 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-02

    STS109-708-024 (1-12 March 2002) --- The astronauts on board the Space Shuttle Columbia took this 70mm picture featuring the Sinai Peninsula and the Dead Sea Rift. The left side of the view is dominated by the great triangle of the Sinai peninsula, which is partly obscured by an unusual cloud mass on this day. The famous Monastery of St. Catherine lies in the very remote, rugged mountains in the southern third of the peninsula (foreground). The Gulf of Aqaba is a finger of the Red Sea bottom center, pointing north to the Dead Sea, the small body of water near the center of the view. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-109 photo collection, the gulf and the Dead Sea are northerly extensions of the same geological rift that resulted in the opening of the Red Sea . The Gulf of Suez appears in the lower left corner. Northwest Saudi Arabia occupies the lower right side of the view, Jordan and Syria the right and top right, and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea the top left. Thin white lines of cloud have formed along the coastal mountains of southern Turkey and stretch across the top of the view near the Earth's limb.

  10. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  11. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, Susan M.; Ford, Jesse; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Monetti, Matthew; Vlasova, Tamara; Landers, Dixon H.

    2003-01-01

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula. We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in lichen (Cetraria cucullata), moss (Hylocomium splendens), soils, lake sediment, freshwater fish (Salvelinus alpinus, Lota lota, and Coregonus spp.) and collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) from 13 sites between 30 and 300 km from Norilsk. Element concentrations were low in both C. cucullata and H. splendens, although concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, and Pb were significantly higher than those in Arctic Alaska, probably due to natural differences in the geochemical environments. Inorganic surface soils had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Mg than inorganic soils at depth, although a lake sediment core from the eastern Taimyr Peninsula indicated no recent enrichment by atmospherically transported elements. Tissue concentrations of heavy metals in fish and lemming were not elevated relative to other Arctic sites. Our results show that the impact of the Norilsk smelting complex is primarily localized rather than regional, and does not extend northward beyond 100 km.

  12. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ana I.; Dorda, Beatriz A.; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  13. The Marine Record of Holocene Deglaciation and Paleoclimate Change, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minzoni, R. L.; Anderson, J. B.; Kirshner, A. E.; Wellner, J. S.; Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula Ice Cap (APIC) has undergone significant retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Several recent studies, including those of Lallemand Fjord (Shevenell, et al., 1996), Palmer Deep (Domack, et al., 2001), Bransfield Basin (Heroy, et al., 2008), Firth of Tay (Michalchuck, et al., 2009), Maxwell Bay (Milliken, et al., 2009), and Neny Fjord (Allen, et al., 2010), have applied multiple proxies to reconstruct glacial history from sediment cores. The regional trend of post-LGM retreat from marine and onshore records (e.g. Hjort et al., 1997; Ingolfsson et al., 1998) is characterized by deglaciation of the outer and mid-shelf areas mainly before 12 ka, with significant landward steps at ~14 and 11 ka that were most likely caused by rapid sea-level rise (Heroy and Anderson, 2007). This was followed by highly diachronous retreat from the rugged inner-shelf and inland areas after ~10 ka. This marks the demise of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet. Subsequently, the glacial systems became more isolated, and factors such as latitudinal climate variability, orographic effects, oceanographic effects, the size and altitude of glacial drainage basins, as well as bathymetry of individual bays and fjords, became more influential on glacial dynamics. For example, Firth of Tay, the northern-most fjord on the eastern side of Antarctic Peninsula (AP), became ice-free ~9 ka, but Herbert Sound, just to the south, was not ice-free until ~7.4 ka. On the western side of AP, however, Maxwell Bay, located in the South Shetland Islands just north of the APIC, was free of grounded ice ~14 ka, whereas Marguerite Bay, on the southwestern-most edge of the APIC, experienced rapid grounding line and ice shelf retreat ~9 ka. These records suggest a north to south component in the timing of retreat. The lag in retreat from west to east APIC indicates that a strong orographic effect insulated the eastern AP, but also implies that other influencing factors such as oceanographic

  14. mRNA capping: biological functions and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Anand; Robb, G. Brett; Chan, Siu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The 5′ m7G cap is an evolutionarily conserved modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Decades of research have established that the m7G cap serves as a unique molecular module that recruits cellular proteins and mediates cap-related biological functions such as pre-mRNA processing, nuclear export and cap-dependent protein synthesis. Only recently has the role of the cap 2′O methylation as an identifier of self RNA in the innate immune system against foreign RNA has become clear. The discovery of the cytoplasmic capping machinery suggests a novel level of control network. These new findings underscore the importance of a proper cap structure in the synthesis of functional messenger RNA. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the biological roles of mRNA caps in eukaryotic cells. We will also discuss different means that viruses and their host cells use to cap their RNA and the application of these capping machineries to synthesize functional mRNA. Novel applications of RNA capping enzymes in the discovery of new RNA species and sequencing the microbiome transcriptome will also be discussed. We will end with a summary of novel findings in RNA capping and the questions these findings pose. PMID:27317694

  15. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... Medicare beneficiaries who elected to receive hospice care from that hospice during the cap period. For... election to receive hospice care, in accordance with § 418.24, from the hospice during the......

  16. An Historical Look at a Contemporary Question: The Cervical Cap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmet, Judy A.; Reagan, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    The history of the use of cervical caps as a birth control method is recounted in the areas of (1) revival of the cervical cap; (2) repopularization of the cervical cap; (3) empirical research; (4) nonbehavioral factors; (5) behavioral problems; and (6) health problems. (CB)

  17. 31 CFR 50.90 - Cap on annual liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap on annual liability. 50.90 Section 50.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.90 Cap on annual liability. Pursuant to Section 103 of the Act,...

  18. 31 CFR 50.90 - Cap on annual liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cap on annual liability. 50.90 Section 50.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.90 Cap on annual liability. Pursuant to Section 103 of the Act, if...

  19. 20 CFR 606.22 - Application for cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for cap. 606.22 Section 606.22... Reduction § 606.22 Application for cap. (a) Application. (1) The Governor of the State shall make... a State requests a cap on tax credit reduction. The Governor is required to notify the Department on...

  20. 49 CFR 230.41 - Flexible staybolts with caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flexible staybolts with caps. 230.41 Section 230... Appurtenances Staybolts § 230.41 Flexible staybolts with caps. (a) General. Flexible staybolts with caps shall... breakage, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Drilled flexible staybolts. For flexible...

  1. Volcano-ice-sea interaction in the Cerro Santa Marta area, northwest James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabozo, Fernando M.; Strelin, Jorge A.; Orihashi, Yuji; Sumino, Hirochika; Keller, Randall A.

    2015-05-01

    We present here the results of detailed mapping, lithofacies analysis and stratigraphy of the Neogene James Ross Island Volcanic Group (Antarctic Peninsula) in the Cerro Santa Marta area (northwest of James Ross Island), in order to give constraints on the evolution of a glaciated volcanic island. Our field results included recognition and interpretation of seventeen volcanic and glacial lithofacies, together with their vertical and lateral arrangements, supported by four new unspiked K-Ar ages. This allowed us to conclude that the construction of the volcanic pile in this area took place during two main eruptive stages (Eruptive Stages 1 and 2), separated from the Cretaceous bedrock and from each other by two major glacial unconformities (U1 and U2). The U1 unconformity is related to Antarctic Peninsula Ice sheet expansion during the late Miocene (before 6.2 Ma) and deposition of glacial lithofacies in a glaciomarine setting. Following this glacial advance, Eruptive Stage 1 (6.2-4.6 Ma) volcanism started with subaerial extrusion of lava flows from an unrecognized vent north of the study area, with eruptions later fed from vent/s centered at Cerro Santa Marta volcano, where cinder cone deposits and a volcanic conduit/lava lake are preserved. These lava flows fed an extensive (> 7 km long) hyaloclastite delta system that was probably emplaced in a shallow marine environment. A second unconformity (U2) was related to expansion of a local ice cap, centered on James Ross Island, which truncated all the eruptive units of Eruptive Stage 1. Concomitant with glacier advance, renewed volcanic activity (Eruptive Stage 2) started after 4.6 Ma and volcanic products were fed again by Cerro Santa Marta vents. We infer that glaciovolcanic eruptions occurred under a moderately thin (~ 300 m) glacier, in good agreement with previous estimates of paleo-ice thickness for the James Ross Island area during the Pliocene.

  2. A "Cap" on Medicaid: How Block Grants, Per Capita Caps, and Capped Allotments Might Fundamentally Change the Safety Net.

    PubMed

    Mager-Mardeusz, Haleigh; Lenz, Cosima; Kominski, Gerald F

    2017-04-01

    Changing the Medicaid program is a top priority for the Republican party. Common themes from GOP proposals include converting Medicaid from a jointly financed entitlement benefit to a form of capped federal financing. While proponents of this reform argue that it would provide greater flexibility and a more predictable budget for state governments, serious consequences would likely result for Medicaid enrollees and state governments. Under all three scenarios promoted by Republicans--block grants, capped allotments, and per capita caps—most states would face increased costs. For all three scenarios, the capped nature of the funding guarantees that the real value of funds would decrease in future years relative to what would be expected from growth under the current program. Although the federal government would undoubtedly realize savings from all three scenarios, the impact might lead states to reduce benefits and services, create waiting lists, impose cost-sharing on a traditionally low-income enrollee population, or impose other obstacles to coverage. Nationally, as many as 20.5 million Americans stand to lose coverage under the proposed Medicaid changes. In California, up to 6 million people could lose coverage if changes to the Medicaid program were coupled with the repeal of coverage for the expansion population.

  3. Surface energy balance measurements and modeling on the ice cap of King George Island, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Braun, M.; Sala, H.; Menz, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is amongst the fastest warming places on Earth and further temperature increase is to be expected. It has undergone rapid environmental changes in the past decades. Exceptional rates of surface air temperature increases (2.5K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, surface lowering and rapid retreat, break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The South Shetland Islands are located on the northern tip of the Peninsula and are especially vulnerable to climate change due to their maritime climate. For King George Island we have compiled a unique data set comprising direct measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux by eddy covariance on the Warszawa Icefield for the austral summers November 2010 to March 2011 and January to February 2012 in combination with a fully equipped automated weather station measuring long- and short-wave radiation components, profiles of temperature, humidity and wind velocities as well as glacier ice temperatures in profile. The combination with the eddy covariance data allows for analysis of variability and seasonality of surface energy balance components on a glacier for an entire year. Repeat measurements of surface lowering at different locations on King George Island are used for analysis of multi-sensor satellite data to identify melt patterns and bare ice areas during summer. In combination with long-term time series of weather data, these data give indication of the sensitivity of the inland ice cap to the ongoing changes. This research is part of the ESF project IMCOAST funded by BMBF. Field work was carried out at the Dallmann laboratory (Jubany, King George Island) in cooperation of the Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina) and the Alfred-Wegener Institute (German).

  4. Glacial Geomorphic Characteristics of the Antarctic Peninsula Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellner, J. S.; Munoz, Y. P.; Mead, K. A.; Hardin, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    A distinctive suite of subglacial geomorphic features, representing the grounding of an ice sheet and its subsequent retreat, has been well documented for many parts of the Antarctic continental shelf. Geomorphic features include meltwater channels, drumlins, mega-scale glacial lineations, and gullies cut into the upper slope. Many of these same features occur in more recently deglaciated fjords, but at different scales and in different combinations. We have surveyed twelve fjords on the Antarctic Peninsula, from the Graham Land Coast to Hope Bay as well as on Anvers Island and in the South Shetland Islands. Surveys include multibeam swath bathymetry, CHIRP 3.5 kHz seismic, and sediment cores. Recently, we have reprocessed much of the multibeam data using new software allowing higher-resolution imagery. Unlike on the outer continental shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula, where there is a relatively simple suite of geomorphic features and a uniform retreat history, the fjords on the inner shelf show a complex geomorphic pattern representing somewhat unique glacial retreat histories for each fjord. Several fjords have distinctive grounding zone wedge deposits, and some fjords have such wedges in multiple locations, representing multiple pauses in the retreat history, or a stepped retreat of the ice. Drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations are present in the fjords, but extend for kms rather than the tens of kms that are typical of the outer shelf. If drumlins are interpreted to indicate acceleration of grounded ice, as they are on the outer shelf, then there must have been multiple zones of acceleration across the flow path of the ice as drumlin sets occur in multiple zones in a single flow path. The inner parts of many fjords along the coast of the peninsula are characterized by features interpreted as erosional meltwater channels, although such features are not common in fjords in the islands off the peninsula, despite the similar scale of the fjords themselves

  5. Study of Tropospheric ozone (TOR) variability over Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan; Bortoli, Daniele; Salgado, Rui; Antón, Manuel; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria

    2010-05-01

    To study tropospheric ozone (O3) variability and the increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric O3 concentration over the Iberian Peninsula, NASA Langley Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) data has been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric O3 amount over the entire Iberian Peninsula was found in June (~41 DU) and a minimum in December (~29 DU). Over North Atlantic Coast (NAC) and Mediterranean Coast (MC) the maximum tropospheric O3 amount was found in July (~41 DU) and June (~42 DU) and the minimum was found in December (~28 DU and ~30 DU, respectively). The West Atlantic Coast (WAC), Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) and Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) have an extended period of maximum tropospheric O3 amount, during June and July over WAC (~44 DU) and PMR (~39 DU), and during May, June and July over CIP (~40 DU). Similarly, WAC, PMR and CIP have an extended period of minimum tropospheric O3 amount, during December and January over WAC (~30 DU) and CIP (~29 DU) and November and December over PMR (~28 DU). The high concentration of ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near Iberian Peninsula are due to the presence of Azores anticyclone, extending in ridge through the Cantabrian Sea to the British Isles and West and Central Europe, and related photochemistry and dynamics, has profound effect on the observed higher ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric O3 amount has been observed with large variation over NAC (~49%), followed by WAC (~48%) and MC (~41%) compared to CIP and PMR (~38%). When the data are compared over the Iberian Peninsula for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric O3 concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR. It has been observed that

  6. Wisconsinan and early Holocene glacial dynamics of Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margreth, Annina; Gosse, John C.; Dyke, Arthur S.

    2017-07-01

    Three glacier systems-an ice sheet with a large marine-based ice stream, an ice cap, and an alpine glacier complex-coalesced on Cumberland Peninsula during the Late Wisconsinan. We combine high-resolution mapping of glacial deposits with new cosmogenic nuclide and radiocarbon age determinations to constrain the history and dynamics of each system. During the Middle Wisconsinan (Oxygen Isotope Stage 3, OIS-3) the Cumberland Sound Ice Stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet retreated well back into Cumberland Sound and the alpine ice retreated at least to fiord-head positions, a more significant recession than previously documented. The advance to maximal OIS-2 ice positions beyond the mouth of Cumberland Sound and beyond most stretches of coastline remains undated. Partial preservation of an over-ridden OIS-3 glaciomarine delta in a fiord-side position suggests that even fiord ice was weakly erosive in places. Moraines formed during deglaciation represent stillstands and re-advances during three major cold events: H-1 (14.6 ka), Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka), and Cockburn (9.5 ka). Distinctly different responses of the three glacial systems are evident, with the alpine system responding most sensitively to Bølling-Allerød warming whereas the larger systems retreated mainly during Pre-Boreal warming. While the larger ice masses were mainly influenced by internal dynamics, the smaller alpine glacier system responded sensitively to local climate effects. Asymmetrical recession of the alpine glacier complex indicates topoclimatic control on deglaciation and perhaps migration of the accumulation area toward moisture source.

  7. Cold jets in the Martian polar caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Hugh H.

    2007-08-01

    Mars seasonal polar caps display dark ice, local darker spots, aligned elongate patches, and radially dendritic forms that reverse albedo contrast. The unexpected variety and sequence of these features are explained on the basis of processes involving CO2, dust, sand, and H2O. These processes are largely related to the atmosphere being near its saturation temperature, and they have few terrestrial analogies. In the simplest case the ~1 m thick seasonal cap, initially dusty, cleans itself and becomes translucent after sunrise and is impermeable over extensive regions except for local vents. The slab ice sublimates at the base and is levitated on high-pressure gas, causing humidity exchange with deeper layers; subslab gas converging toward the vents erodes channels in the soil and ejects this material in high-velocity jets. Recent spectral observations indicate great variety in the details.

  8. The polar cap environment of outflowing O(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Peterson, W. K.; Burch, J. L.; Winningham, J. D.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Persoon, A.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of the core (0-50 eV) and 'energetic' (0-1 keV) ions, plasma waves, and auroral images obtained from Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE-1) and those of electrons, obtained from DE-2, are examined in the context of the polar cap environment. Results indicate the presence of two populations: high-speed (10-30 eV, or higher, streaming energies) polar beams and low-speed (generally less than 10-eV streaming energies) streams. The high-speed polar beams show an auroral connection (i.e., they are observed on or near the field lines threading auroral arcs), while the low-speed streams are on or near the field lines threading the dark polar cap and may be converted from the cleft ion fountain. Compared to the high-speed streams, the low-speed streams are significantly more stable with respect to energy and flux.

  9. A model for polar cap electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1976-01-01

    A model is proposed relating polar cap ionospheric electric fields to the parameters of the solar wind near the orbit of the earth. The model ignores the notion of field line merging. An essential feature is the role played by velocity shear instabilities in regions of the outer magnetosphere, in which mapping of the magnetosheath electric field would produce sunward convection. The anomalous resistivity which arises from velocity shear turbulence, suffices to essentially disconnect the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath, at any place where that resistivity is large enough. The magnetosheath-magnetosphere system, as a consequence, acts as a kind of diode or rectifier for the magnetosheath electric fields. Predictions of the model are compared with several observations related to polar cap convection.

  10. The Phase Composition of Triton's Polar Caps.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, N S; Brown, R H

    1993-08-06

    Triton's polar caps are modeled as permanent nitrogen deposits hundreds of meters thick. Complex temperature variations on Triton's surface induce reversible transitions between the cubic and hexagonal phases of solid nitrogen, often with two coexisting propagating transition fronts. Subsurface temperature distributions are calculated using a two-dimensional thermal model with phase changes. The phase changes fracture the upper nitrogen layer, increasing its reflectivity and thus offering an explanation for the surprisingly high southern polar cap albedo (approximately 0.8) seen during the Voyager 2 flyby. The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them.

  11. The phase composition of Triton's polar caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Brown, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Triton's polar caps are modeled as permanent nitrogen deposits hundreds of meters thick. Complex temperature variations on Triton's surface induce reversible transitions between the cubic and hexagonal phases of solid nitrogen, often with two coexisting propagating transition fronts. Subsurface temperature distributions are calculated using a two-dimensional thermal model with phase changes. The phase changes fracture the upper nitrogen layer, increasing its reflectivity and thus offering an explanation for the surprisingly high southern polar cap albedo (approximately 0.8) seen during the Voyager 2 flyby. The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them.

  12. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  13. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  14. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  15. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  16. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  17. Is U.S. Forces Korea Still Needed on the Korean Peninsula?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT IS U.S. FORCES KOREA STILL NEEDED ON THE KOREAN PENINSULA? by Colonel Wayne Stevens United States Army Colonel Jiyul...1. REPORT DATE 15 MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Is U.S. Forces Korea Still Needed on the Korean Peninsula...Wayne Stevens TITLE: Is U.S. Forces Korea Still Needed on the Korean Peninsula? FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 15 March 2006 WORD COUNT

  18. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC Chicago, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for... Adjustment Assistance on June 24, 2010, applicable to workers of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot...

  19. Morphology of Mars North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Kouvaris, L.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Saba, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The northern ice cap of Mars consists of a parabolic dome centered within 13 km of the pole, plus an arm-like ridge extending from the dome between about 135 and 225 east. Chasma Boreale lies between the dome and the extended ridge. The base of the dome is approximately elliptical with a major axis of 1100 km along the 90 east to 270 east direction and minor axis of 700 km along zero east to 180 deg. The heights of the dome and the extended ridge are respectively 2900 inches and 1700 inches above the surrounding basin. Least-squares fitting of a parabola through height profiles of the dome along longitudes 90 deg to 270 deg and zero deg to 180 deg gives an elliptic-paraboloid equation for the dome: Z(m) = 2800 - [(X-x)(exp 2)/113.6] - [(Y-y)(exp 2)/50.3], where X is the 90 deg to 270 deg axis, x = 9.90 km, y = 13.32 km, and the slightly-different fitted heights for the two axes are averaged. The center of the dome is shifted 13.32 km from the pole along zero deg longitude and 9.90 km along 90 deg longitude. Typical mean surface slopes on the ice cap are the order of 1/100 (0.6 deg), A small central portion of the cap, about 100 km by 200 km, extends in elevation about 200 inches above the parabolic shape of the cap. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Guidance for Subaqueous Dredged Material Capping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    rjynC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 Prepared for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising...locally, as needed. Contents Preface xii Conversion Factors, Non-SI to SI Units of Measurement xiv 1—Introduction 1 Background 1 Purpose and Scope...material properties, and com- puter models for predicting mound development and spreading behavior are available. c. Long-term cap integrity

  1. Mars South Polar Cap 'Fingerprint' Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some portions of the martian south polar residual cap have long, somewhat curved troughs instead of circular pits. These appear to form in a layer of material that may be different than that in which 'swiss cheese' circles and pits form, and none of these features has any analog in the north polar cap or elsewhere on Mars. This picture shows the 'fingerprint' terrain as a series of long, narrow depressions considered to have formed by collapse and widening by sublimation of ice. Unlike the north polar cap, the south polar region stays cold enough in summer to retain frozen carbon dioxide. Viking Orbiter observations during the late 1970s showed that very little water vapor comes off the south polar cap during summer, indicating that any frozen water that might be there remains solid throughout the year.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was obtained in early southern spring on August 4, 1999. It shows an area 3 x 5 kilometers (1.9 x 3.1 miles) at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 ft) per pixel. Located near 86.0oS, 53.9oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. EAGLE CAP WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilsgaard, Thor H.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey of the Eagle Cap Wilderness and adjacent areas a probable mineral-resources potential was identified in five areas in the eastern part of the wilderness. Mineral resources are most likely to occur in tactite deposits in sedimentary rocks at or near contacts with intrusive granitic rocks that could contain copper and small amounts of other metals; however, there is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  3. Morphology of Mars North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Kouvaris, L.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Saba, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The northern ice cap of Mars consists of a parabolic dome centered within 13 km of the pole, plus an arm-like ridge extending from the dome between about 135 and 225 east. Chasma Boreale lies between the dome and the extended ridge. The base of the dome is approximately elliptical with a major axis of 1100 km along the 90 east to 270 east direction and minor axis of 700 km along zero east to 180 deg. The heights of the dome and the extended ridge are respectively 2900 inches and 1700 inches above the surrounding basin. Least-squares fitting of a parabola through height profiles of the dome along longitudes 90 deg to 270 deg and zero deg to 180 deg gives an elliptic-paraboloid equation for the dome: Z(m) = 2800 - [(X-x)(exp 2)/113.6] - [(Y-y)(exp 2)/50.3], where X is the 90 deg to 270 deg axis, x = 9.90 km, y = 13.32 km, and the slightly-different fitted heights for the two axes are averaged. The center of the dome is shifted 13.32 km from the pole along zero deg longitude and 9.90 km along 90 deg longitude. Typical mean surface slopes on the ice cap are the order of 1/100 (0.6 deg), A small central portion of the cap, about 100 km by 200 km, extends in elevation about 200 inches above the parabolic shape of the cap. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. South Polar Cap Erosion and Aprons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    While Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have shown that the north and south polar cap surfaces are very different from each other, one thing that the two have in common is that they both seem to have been eroded. Erosion in the north appears mostly to come in the form of pits from which ice probably sublimed to vapor and was transported away from the polar cap by wind. Erosion in the south takes on a wider range of possible processes that include collapse, slumping and mass-movement on slopes, and probably sublimation. Among the landforms created by these process on the south polar cap are the 'aprons' that surround mesas and buttes of remnant layers such as the two almost triangular features in the lower quarter of this image. The upper slopes of the two triangular features show a stair-stepped pattern that suggest these hills are layered.

    This image shows part of the south polar residual cap near 86.9oS, 78.5oW, and covers an area approximately 1.2 by 1.0 kilometers (0.7 x 0.6 miles) in size. The image has a resolution of 2.2 meters per pixel. The picture was taken on September 11, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  5. Mars South Polar Cap 'Fingerprint' Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some portions of the martian south polar residual cap have long, somewhat curved troughs instead of circular pits. These appear to form in a layer of material that may be different than that in which 'swiss cheese' circles and pits form, and none of these features has any analog in the north polar cap or elsewhere on Mars. This picture shows the 'fingerprint' terrain as a series of long, narrow depressions considered to have formed by collapse and widening by sublimation of ice. Unlike the north polar cap, the south polar region stays cold enough in summer to retain frozen carbon dioxide. Viking Orbiter observations during the late 1970s showed that very little water vapor comes off the south polar cap during summer, indicating that any frozen water that might be there remains solid throughout the year.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was obtained in early southern spring on August 4, 1999. It shows an area 3 x 5 kilometers (1.9 x 3.1 miles) at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 ft) per pixel. Located near 86.0oS, 53.9oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  6. Process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of transition metal oxides. The process comprises reacting a metal cupferron complex of the formula M Cup, wherein M is a transition metal, and Cup is a cupferron, with a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 250 to about 300 C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction.

  7. Protein synthesis in geostimulated root caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    A study is presented of the processes occurring in the root cap of corn which are requisite for the formation of root cap inhibitor and which can be triggered or modulated by both light and gravity. The results of this study indicate the importance of protein synthesis for light-induced gravitropic bending in roots. Root caps in which protein synthesis is prevented are unable to induce downward bending. This suggests that light acts by stimulating proteins which are necessary for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response (downward bending). The turnover of protein with time was also examined in order to determine whether light acts by stimulating the synthesis of unique proteins required for downward growth. It is found that auxin in combination with light allows for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response at least in part through the modification of protein synthesis. It is concluded that unique proteins are stimulated by light and are involved in promoting the downward growth in roots which are responding to gravity.

  8. Protein synthesis in geostimulated root caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    A study is presented of the processes occurring in the root cap of corn which are requisite for the formation of root cap inhibitor and which can be triggered or modulated by both light and gravity. The results of this study indicate the importance of protein synthesis for light-induced gravitropic bending in roots. Root caps in which protein synthesis is prevented are unable to induce downward bending. This suggests that light acts by stimulating proteins which are necessary for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response (downward bending). The turnover of protein with time was also examined in order to determine whether light acts by stimulating the synthesis of unique proteins required for downward growth. It is found that auxin in combination with light allows for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response at least in part through the modification of protein synthesis. It is concluded that unique proteins are stimulated by light and are involved in promoting the downward growth in roots which are responding to gravity.

  9. CAP protein superfamily members in Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Stroehlein, Andreas J; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Korhonen, Pasi K; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-06-24

    Proteins of the cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) superfamily are recognized or proposed to play roles in parasite development and reproduction, and in modulating host immune attack and infection processes. However, little is known about these proteins for most parasites. In the present study, we explored CAP proteins of Toxocara canis, a socioeconomically important zoonotic roundworm. To do this, we mined and curated transcriptomic and genomic data, predicted and curated full-length protein sequences (n = 28), conducted analyses of these data and studied the transcription of respective genes in different developmental stages of T. canis. In addition, based on information available for Caenorhabditis elegans, we inferred that selected genes (including lon-1, vap-1, vap-2, scl-1, scl-8 and scl-11 orthologs) of T. canis and their interaction partners likely play central roles in this parasite's development and/or reproduction via TGF-beta and/or insulin-like signaling pathways, or via host interactions. In conclusion, this study could provide a foundation to guide future studies of CAP proteins of T. canis and related parasites, and might assist in finding new interventions against diseases caused by these parasites.

  10. Comparison of Detector Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockum, Jana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, several different detectors are examined for use in a Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS), a conceptual study for a possible future space-based system. Each detector will be examined for its future (25 years or more in the future) ability to find and track near-Earth Objects (NEOs) from a space-based detection platform. Within the CAPS study are several teams of people who each focus on different aspects of the system concept. This study s focus is on detection devices. In particular, evaluations on the following devices have been made: charge-coupled devices (CCDs), charge-injected devices (CIDs), superconducting tunneling junctions (STJs), and transition edge sensors (TESs). These devices can be separated into two main categories; the first category includes detectors that are currently being widely utilized, such as CCDs and CIDs. The second category includes experimental detectors, such as STJs and TESs. After the discussion of the detectors themselves, there will be a section devoted to the explicit use of these detectors with CAPS.

  11. The nonuniform recession of the south polar cap of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Goguen, J.

    1973-01-01

    The nature of the irregular springtime recession of the Martian polar caps is investigated, with particular reference to the southern polar cap. Our current knowledge about the composition of the caps is outlined, and the historical record of their springtime recession is reviewed. An attempt is made to correlate the irregularities of the recession pattern of the southern polar cap with the features of the terrain revealed by Mariner 9 photography at a time when the southern cap was at its minimum extent. The results are interpreted in terms of the physical and meteorological processes active in the polar regions.

  12. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia.

    PubMed

    Korobushkin, Daniil I; Semenyuk, Irina I; Tuf, Ivan H

    2016-01-01

    The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences.

  13. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Irina I.; Tuf, Ivan H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. New information The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences. PMID:27346949

  14. Ciliary microtubule capping structures contain a mammalian kinetochore antigen

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Structures that cap the plus ends of microtubules may be involved in the regulation of their assembly and disassembly. Growing and disassembling microtubules in the mitotic apparatus are capped by kinetochores and ciliary and flagellar microtubules are capped by the central microtubule cap and distal filaments. To compare the ciliary caps with kinetochores, isolated Tetrahymena cilia were stained with CREST (Calcinosis/phenomenon esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia) antisera known to stain kinetochores. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that a CREST antiserum stained the distal tips of cilia that contained capping structures but did not stain axonemes that lacked capping structures. Both Coomassie blue- stained gels and Western blots probed with CREST antiserum revealed that a 97-kD antigen copurifies with the capping structures. Affinity- purified antibodies to the 97-kD ciliary protein stained the tips of cap-containing Tetrahymena cilia and the kinetochores in HeLa, Chinese hamster ovary, and Indian muntjak cells. These results suggest that at least one polypeptide found in the kinetochore is present in ciliary microtubule capping structures and that there may be a structural and/or functional homology between these structures that cap the plus ends of microtubules. PMID:2106524

  15. Experimental landfill caps for semi-arid and arid climates.

    PubMed

    Blight, Geoffrey E; Fourie, Andries B

    2005-04-01

    The United States EPA Subtitle D municipal solid waste landfill requirements specify that the permeability of a cap to a landfill be no greater than the permeability of the underliner. In recent years the concept of the evapotranspirative (ET) cap has been developed in which the cap is designed to store all rain infiltration and re-evapotranspire it during dry weather. Concern at the long period required for landfilled municipal solid waste to decompose and stabilize in arid and semi-arid climates has led to an extension of the concept of the ET cap. With the infiltrate-stabilize-evapotranspire (ISE) cap, rain infiltration during wet weather is permitted to enter the underlying waste, thus accelerating the decomposition and stabilization process. Excess infiltration is then removed from both waste and cap by evaporation during dry weather. The paper describes the construction and operation of two sets of experimental ISE caps, one in a winter rainfall semi-arid climate, and the other in a summer rainfall semi-arid climate. Observation of the rainfall, soil evaporation and amount of water stored in the caps has allowed water balances to be constructed for caps of various thicknesses. These observations show that the ISE concept is viable. In the limit, when there is insufficient rainfall to infiltrate the waste, an ISE cap operates as an ET cap.

  16. Cap buckling as a potential mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Abdelali, Maria; Reiter, Steven; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Michel; L'Allier, Philippe L; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2014-04-01

    Plaque rupture in atherosclerosis is the primary cause of potentially deadly coronary events, yet about 40% of ruptures occur away from the plaque cap shoulders and cannot be fully explained with the current biomechanical theories. Here, cap buckling is considered as a potential destabilizing factor which increases the propensity of the atherosclerotic plaque to rupture and which may also explain plaque failure away from the cap shoulders. To investigate this phenomenon, quasistatic 2D finite element simulations are performed, considering the salient geometrical and nonlinear material properties of diverse atherosclerotic plaques over the range of physiological loads. The numerical results indicate that buckling may displace the location of the peak von Mises stresses in the deflected caps. Plaque buckling, together with its deleterious effects is further observed experimentally in plaque caps using a physical model of deformable mock coronary arteries with fibroatheroma. Moreover, an analytical approach combining quasistatic equilibrium equations with the Navier-Bresse formulas is used to demonstrate the buckling potential of a simplified arched slender cap under intraluminal pressure and supported by foundations. This analysis shows that plaque caps - calcified, fibrotic or cellular - may buckle in specific undulated shapes once submitted to critical loads. Finally, a preliminary analysis of intravascular ultrasonography recordings of patients with atherosclerotic coronary arteries corroborates the numerical, experimental and theoretical findings and shows that various plaque caps buckle in vivo. By displacing the sites of high stresses in the plaque cap, buckling may explain the atherosclerotic plaque cap rupture at various locations, including cap shoulders.

  17. Pore Water PAH Transport in Amended Sediment Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidley, P. T.; Kwon, S.; Ghosh, U.

    2009-05-01

    Capping is a common remediation strategy for contaminated sediments that creates a physical barrier between contaminated sediments and the water column. Diffusive flux of contaminants through a sediment cap is small. However, under certain hydrodynamic conditions such as groundwater potential and tidal pumping, groundwater advection can accelerate contaminant transport. Hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be transported through the cap under advective conditions. To better understand PAH migration under these conditions, physical models of sediment caps were evaluated in the laboratory through direct measurement of pore water using solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Contaminated sediment and capping material was obtained from an existing Superfund site that was capped at Eagle Harbor, Washington. A PAH dissolution model linked to an advection-dispersion equation with retardation using published organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (Koc) was compared to measured PAHs in the sediment and cap porewater of the physical model.

  18. Conventional and unconventional mechanisms for capping viral mRNA.

    PubMed

    Decroly, Etienne; Ferron, François; Lescar, Julien; Canard, Bruno

    2011-12-05

    In the eukaryotic cell, capping of mRNA 5' ends is an essential structural modification that allows efficient mRNA translation, directs pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export from the nucleus, limits mRNA degradation by cellular 5'-3' exonucleases and allows recognition of foreign RNAs (including viral transcripts) as 'non-self'. However, viruses have evolved mechanisms to protect their RNA 5' ends with either a covalently attached peptide or a cap moiety (7-methyl-Gppp, in which p is a phosphate group) that is indistinguishable from cellular mRNA cap structures. Viral RNA caps can be stolen from cellular mRNAs or synthesized using either a host- or virus-encoded capping apparatus, and these capping assemblies exhibit a wide diversity in organization, structure and mechanism. Here, we review the strategies used by viruses of eukaryotic cells to produce functional mRNA 5'-caps and escape innate immunity.

  19. SNP2CAPS: a SNP and INDEL analysis tool for CAPS marker development.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Thomas; Kota, Raja; Grosse, Ivo; Stein, Nils; Graner, Andreas

    2004-01-02

    With the influx of various SNP genotyping assays in recent years, there has been a need for an assay that is robust, yet cost effective, and could be performed using standard gel-based procedures. In this context, CAPS markers have been shown to meet these criteria. However, converting SNPs to CAPS markers can be a difficult process if done manually. In order to address this problem, we describe a computer program, SNP2CAPS, that facilitates the computational conversion of SNP markers into CAPS markers. 413 multiple aligned sequences derived from barley ESTs were analysed for the presence of polymorphisms in 235 distinct restriction sites. 282 (90%) of 314 alignments that contain sequence variation due to SNPs and InDels revealed at least one polymorphic restriction site. After reducing the number of restriction enzymes from 235 to 10, 31% of the polymorphic sites could still be detected. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool for marker development, we experimentally validated some of the results predicted by SNP2CAPS.

  20. What Lies Below a Martian Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version

    This image (top) taken by the Shallow Radar instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveals the layers of ice, sand and dust that make up the north polar ice cap on Mars. It is the most detailed look to date at the insides of this ice cap. The colored map below the radar picture shows the topography of the corresponding Martian terrain (red and white represent higher ground, and green and yellow lower).

    The radar image reveals four never-before-seen thick layers of ice and dust separated by layers of nearly pure ice. According to scientists, these thick ice-free layers represent approximately one-million-year-long cycles of climate change on Mars caused by variations in the planet's tilted axis and its eccentric orbit around the sun. Adding up the entire stack of ice gives an estimated age for the north polar ice cap of about 4 million years a finding that agrees with previous theoretical estimates. The ice cap is about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) thick.

    The radar picture also shows that the boundary between the ice layers and the surface of Mars underneath is relatively flat (bottom white line on the right). This implies that the surface of Mars is not sagging, or bending, under the weight of the ice cap and this, in turn, suggests that the planet's lithosphere, a combination of the crust and the strong parts of the upper mantle, is thicker than previously thought.

    A thicker lithosphere on Mars means that temperatures increase more gradually with depth toward the interior. Temperatures warm enough for water to be liquid are therefore deeper than previously thought. Likewise, if liquid water does exist in aquifers below the surface of Mars, and if there are any organisms living in that water, they would have to be located deeper in the planet.

    The topography data are from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, which was flown on NASA's Mars Global

  1. What Lies Below a Martian Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version

    This image (top) taken by the Shallow Radar instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveals the layers of ice, sand and dust that make up the north polar ice cap on Mars. It is the most detailed look to date at the insides of this ice cap. The colored map below the radar picture shows the topography of the corresponding Martian terrain (red and white represent higher ground, and green and yellow lower).

    The radar image reveals four never-before-seen thick layers of ice and dust separated by layers of nearly pure ice. According to scientists, these thick ice-free layers represent approximately one-million-year-long cycles of climate change on Mars caused by variations in the planet's tilted axis and its eccentric orbit around the sun. Adding up the entire stack of ice gives an estimated age for the north polar ice cap of about 4 million years a finding that agrees with previous theoretical estimates. The ice cap is about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) thick.

    The radar picture also shows that the boundary between the ice layers and the surface of Mars underneath is relatively flat (bottom white line on the right). This implies that the surface of Mars is not sagging, or bending, under the weight of the ice cap and this, in turn, suggests that the planet's lithosphere, a combination of the crust and the strong parts of the upper mantle, is thicker than previously thought.

    A thicker lithosphere on Mars means that temperatures increase more gradually with depth toward the interior. Temperatures warm enough for water to be liquid are therefore deeper than previously thought. Likewise, if liquid water does exist in aquifers below the surface of Mars, and if there are any organisms living in that water, they would have to be located deeper in the planet.

    The topography data are from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, which was flown on NASA's Mars Global

  2. Novel design of N-dimensional CAP filters for 10  Gb/s CAP-PON system.

    PubMed

    He, Jiale; Shi, Lu; Deng, Lei; Cheng, Mengfan; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Zhang, Minming; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2015-05-15

    We propose a novel method to design N-dimensional carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) filters. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that by using the proposed method, the required iteration steps for filters design are significantly decreased, and the orthogonality between CAP filters could be maintained even with lower cutoff frequency compared with the existing methods. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrate a 10 Gb/s 4-dimensional CAP data transmission experiment over 25 km standard single mode fiber. The results show that the proposed N-dimensional CAP filter design method has potential applications in low-cost and high speed CAP-PON systems.

  3. Novel way of capping mRNA trimer and studies of its interaction with human nuclear cap-binding complex.

    PubMed

    Worch, Remigiusz; Stepinski, Janusz; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Mazza, Catherine; Cusack, Stephen; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Binding of mRNA 5' cap by the nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) is crucial for a wide variety of mRNA metabolic events. The interaction involving the CBP20 subunit of CBC is mediated by numerous hydrogen bonds and by stacking of the tyrosine sidechains with two first bases of the capped mRNA. To examine a possible role of a longer mRNA chain in the CBC-cap recognition, we have synthesized an mRNA tetramer using a novel way of capping an RNA trimer and determined its affinity for CBC by fluorescence titration.

  4. Sensitivity of glacier mass balance and equilibrium line altitude to climatic change on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Ulrike; Lopez, Damian; Silva-Busso, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula which is among the fastest warming regions on Earth. Surface air temperature increases (ca. 3 K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K/100 m), and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns especially during winter glacial mass accumulation periods. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the winter time in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain, and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. The impact on winter accumulation results in even more negative mass balance estimates. Six years of glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects are used with a glacier melt model to assess changes in melt water input to the coastal waters, glacier surface mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude. The average equilibrium line altitude (ELA) calculated from own glaciological observations for KGI over the time period 2010 - 2015 amounts to ELA=330±100 m. Published studies suggest rather stable condition slightly negative glacier mass balance until the mid 80's with an ELA of approx. 150 m. The calculated accumulation area ratio suggests rather dramatic changes in extension of the inland ice cap for the South Shetland Islands until an equilibrium with concurrent climate conditions is reached.

  5. Simulating the Permafrost Distribution on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Yoshikawa, K.; Liston, G. E.

    2005-12-01

    Permafrost extent has been estimated using an equivalent latitude / elevation model based upon good climate, terrain and soil property data. This research extends a previously developed model to a relatively data sparse region. We are applying the general equivalent attitude model developed for Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed over the much larger area of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. This region of sub-Arctic Alaska is a proxy for a warmer Arctic due to the broad expanses of tussock tundra, invading shrubs and fragile permafrost with average temperatures just below freezing. The equivalent latitude model combines elevation, slope, and aspect with snow cover, where the snow cover distribution was defined using MicroMet and SnowModel. Source data for the distributed snow model came from meteorological stations across the Seward Peninsula from the National Weather Service, SNOTEL, RAWS, and our own stations. Simulations of permafrost extent will enable us to compare the current distribution to that existing during past climates and estimate the future state of permafrost on the Seward Peninsula. The broadest impacts to the terrestrial arctic regions will result through consequent effects of changing permafrost structure and extent. As the climate differentially warms in summer and winter, the permafrost will become warmer, the active layer (the layer of soil above the permafrost that annually experiences freeze and thaw) will become thicker, the lower boundary of permafrost will become shallower and permafrost extent will decrease in area. These simple structural changes will affect every aspect of the surface water and energy balances. As permafrost extent decreases, there is more infiltration to groundwater. This has significant impacts on large and small scales.

  6. Changing structures and dynamics of western Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Holt, T. O.; Quincey, D. J.; Fricker, H.; Siegfried, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last three decades, Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves have shown a pattern of sustained retreat, often ending in catastrophic and rapid breakup. This study provides a detailed analysis of the structures and dynamics of three western Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves: Bach, Stange and George VI Ice Shelves. Spatial extent and glaciological surface features were mapped for each ice shelf from 1973 to 2010 using optical and radar satellite images to assess their structural evolution, historical dynamics and stability. InSAR and feature-tracking methods were used to assess the recent dynamic configurations of the ice shelves from 1989 to 2010. Repeat ICESat measurements were used to evaluate their vertical changes from 2003 to 2008. On Bach Ice Shelf, the formation of two large fractures near the ice front is linked to widespread thinning (~2 ma-1) and sustained retreat (~360 km2). It looks likely that iceberg calving along these fractures will alter the frontal geometry sufficiently to promote enhanced, irreversible retreat within the next decade. On George VI Ice Shelf, acceleration is observed at both ice fronts; linked to a release of back-stresses through continued ice loss (1995 km2 in total). The most significant changes are recorded at its southern ice front, with ice flow accelerating up to 360% between ca. 1989 and ca. 2010, coupled with widespread rifting and a mean thinning rate of 2.1 ma-1. On Stange Ice Shelf, shear-induced fracturing was observed between two flow units, also linked to widespread thinning (~4.2 ma-1). A semi-quantitative assessment reveals that the southern margin of George VI Ice Shelf is most susceptible to rapid retreat, whilst its northern ice front, Bach Ice Shelf and the northern front of Stange Ice Shelf are more vulnerable than those situated on the east Antarctic Peninsula.

  7. Forest Fire Danger Rating (FFDR) Prediction over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, B.; Won, M.; Jang, K.; Yoon, S.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Approximately five hundred forest fires occur and inflict the losses of both life and property each year in Korea during the forest fire seasons in the spring and autumn. Thus, an accurate prediction of forest fire is essential for effective forest fire prevention. The meteorology is one of important factors to predict and understand the fire occurrence as well as its behaviors and spread. In this study, we present the Forest Fire Danger Rating Systems (FFDRS) on the Korean Peninsula based on the Daily Weather Index (DWI) which represents the meteorological characteristics related to forest fire. The thematic maps including temperature, humidity, and wind speed produced from Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) were applied to the forest fire occurrence probability model by logistic regression to analyze the DWI over the Korean Peninsula. The regional data assimilation and prediction system (RDAPS) and the improved digital forecast model were used to verify the sensitivity of DWI. The result of verification test revealed that the improved digital forecast model dataset showed better agreements with the real-time weather data. The forest fire danger rating index (FFDRI) calculated by the improved digital forecast model dataset showed a good agreement with the real-time weather dataset at the 233 administrative districts (R2=0.854). In addition, FFDRI were compared with observation-based FFDRI at 76 national weather stations. The mean difference was 0.5 at the site-level. The results produced in this study indicate that the improved digital forecast model dataset can be useful to predict the FFDRI in the Korean Peninsula successfully.

  8. Scaling Tendency of Geothermal Waters Armutlu Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of scaling tendencies from geothermal waters is important for taking necessary precautions to prevent or control the scale formation. This study contains scaling tendency of geothermal outlets occurring through Armutlu Peninsula in Northwestern Turkey. The E-W trending region stretches into the Marmara Sea (ca. 117 km E-W by 45 km N-S) and is bounded to the north and the south by North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The two branches of NAFZ traversing the peninsula control not only active seismicity but also geothermal discharges of the region. Widespread basement rocks across the peninsula including metamorphic assemblage of granitic and volcanic rocks host geothermal fluids. The two distinctive geothermal discharges (Armutlu and Yalova) take place through lineaments appurtenant to the northern branch of NAFZ. Their discharge temperatures of 65 ° C (Yalova) and 70 ° C (Armutlu) are the highest of the region. According to their water chemical results, scaling tendency were computed by using WATCH for different temperature steps under the assumptions of single-stage adiabatic boiling and equilibrium degassing. To evaluate their scaling tendencies, mean geothermal reservoir temperatures were computed by using chemical geothermometers. Scaling tendencies were plotted for calcite, amorphous silica and quartz minerals for different temperature values including reservoir temperatures. Their scaling behavior reveals that oversaturation with calcite and quartz minerals are rapidly attained for the geothermal fluids (Yalova and Armutlu) at relatively lower temperatures. Regarding amorphous silica, they are completely undersaturated. Besides, Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) were calculated. Their results depict scale formation due to being positive LSI and less than 6.0 of RSI values.

  9. Spatially Explicit Assessment of Agricultural Water Equilibrium in Korea Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    In agriculture, balance between water retention and water use is an issue handled in most region and crops. This study suggested agricultural water equilibrium (AWE) it a new assessing concept for management of agricultural water in spatially explicit. This concept based on the principle of supply and demand, to the usage of agricultural water, it is possible to define virtual water content of crops (VWC) as the demand, and cropland water budget (CWB) as the supply. For the assessing AWE of the Korean Peninsula, quantified by estimating the CWB based on the natural hydrological cycle and the VWC of rice, a key crop in the Korean Peninsula. Among five factors used to assess AWE, four factors except annual precipitation were estimated by using the GEPIC model, and calculated CWB and VWC at past three decade. AWE results over the past 30 years were computed by deducting VWC showing demands in croplands from CWB meaning water supply that result showed highly vertical difference of South and North Korea. When sorting AWE data by major river basin in the Korean Peninsula, most river basins in North Korea also showed very low level. The cause of making latitudinal change in AWE is the differences of VWC and CWB in terms of latitudinal change. Which can be explained by decoupling of agricultural water demand and supply. Identifying relation with AWE, VWC and CWB in concept of elasticity, elasticity of AWE following VWC was appeared as very low relatively and absolutely. And the elasticity of AWE following CWB is very good relatively and good absolutely. When VWC is inelastic, the relative elasticity of CWB tended to become very high. AWE values presented in the study were not absolute, though these values appeared enough in explaining the latitudinal change, demand and supply of agricultural water, and have been meaningful in establishing the concept of AWE.

  10. Clusters of Earthquakes In The Southern of Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posadas, A. M.; Luzón, F.; Vidal, F.

    The southern part of the Iberian Peninsula forms part of the western border of Eurasia- Africa plate boundary. This area is characterized by the occurrence of earthquakes of moderate magnitude (the maximum magnitude ranging from 4.5 to 5.5). From the point of view of seismic activity, this region is the most active one in he Iberian Penin- sula. Until earlier 80, only the National Seismic Network belonging to the National Geographic Institute monitores the activity in the south of Iberian Peninsula. From 1983 to the actuality, the Andalusian Seismic Network belonging to the Andalusian Geophysics Institute and Seismic Disaster Prevention, records the microseismicity of the area. Nowadays, the earthquakes catalogue used belongs to the Andalusian Insti- tute of Geophysics and Seismic Disaster Prevention and it counts on more than 20000 events registered from 1985 to 2001. Today, after 20 years of recording seismic ac- tivity, statistics analysis of the catalogue have sense. In this paper we present a first approach to the clustering properties of the seismicity in the south of the Iberian Penin- sula. The analysis carried out starts with the study of clustering properties (temporal and spatial properties) in the Southern of Iberian Peninsula seismicity to demonstrate, by using the Fractal Dimension of the temporal earthquake distribution and the Mor- ishita Index of the spatial distribution of earthquakes, that this seismicity is charac- terized by a tendency to form earthquake clusters, both spatial and temporal clusters. As an example, five seismogenetic areas of the zone are analyzed (Adra-Berja, Agron, Alboran, Antequera and Loja). This particular study of the series find out the b param- eter from the Gutenberg-Richter's Law (which characterizes the energetic relaxation of events), the p parameter from Omori's Law (that characterizes the temporal relax- ation of aftershocks) and the Fractal Dimension of the spatial distribution of earth- quakes (to find the

  11. Using Coastal Ice Cap Records to Investigate Maritime Climate and Ice Sheet Processes in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. B.; Evans, M. J.; Frey, K. E.; Osman, M. B.; Smith, B. E.; Stevens, L. A.; Trusel, L. D.; York, A.; Bingham, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent changes, including outlet glacier retreat and speedup, and increased rates of surface melting, have dramatically increased the Greenland ice sheet contribution to sea-level rise over the past few decades. Increasingly studies point towards the influence of coupled ocean-ice processes in modulating Greenland ice sheet mass balance and glacier behavior in response to climate change, but many of these studies are limited to the past few years to decades, restricting our ability to understand these ocean-ice relationships over longer time periods. Ice core records have the potential to provide unique, high-resolution records of interest (e.g. accumulation and melt variability, as well as contemporaneous proxy records of regional air temperature and sea surface conditions), but suitable Greenland ice sheet coring regions are often located far inland (>200 km) from many maritime regions of interest. In this study we focus on new records from previously unstudied maritime ice caps (10-30 km from the coast) to reconstruct past environmental conditions in the Disko, Ummannaq and Baffin Bay regions. Here we present results from our recent 2014 field investigation of three high altitude ice caps (1300-2000 m) on Disko Island and the Nuussuaq Peninsula, as well as complementary results from two sites in the western ice sheet accumulation zone. Geophysical observations provide constraints on ice thickness, layering, and ice flow. Physical and chemical stratigraphic observations from snow pits and shallow firn cores are used to reconstruct recent accumulation rate and melt variability, as well as to develop and test environmental proxy relationships over the satellite era. Multi-century records from longer coastal ice cores, to be drilled in 2015, will contribute a key missing component to the existing observational record documenting ice, ocean and atmospheric changes in this region over a time period of dramatic change in Greenland ice sheet behavior (retreat and

  12. Permian Tethyan Fusulinina from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Davydov, V.I.; Bradley, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two samples from a large, allochthonous limestone block in the McHugh Complex of the Chugach terrane on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, contain species of 12 genera of Permian Fusulinina including Abadehella, Kahlerina, Pseudokahlerina?, Nankinella, Codonofusiella, Dunbarula, Parafusulina?, Chusenella, Verbeekina, Pseudodoliolina, Metadoliolina?, Sumatrina?, and Yabeina, as well as several other foraminiferans and one alga. The assemblage of fusulinids is characteristically Tethyan, belonging to the Yabeina archaica zone of early Midian (late Wordian) age. Similar faunas are known from the Pamirs, Transcaucasia, and Japan, as well as from allochthonous terranes in British Columbia, northwestern Washington, and Koryakia in eastern Siberia.

  13. Examining Holocene Stability ofAntarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Dominic; Bentley, Michael J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Smith, James A.; Sugden, David E.; Domack, Eugene W.

    2006-08-01

    Temperatures on the Antarctic Peninsulaare increasing at a rate of 3.4°C per century,more than five times the global mean. At thesame time, the region's ice shelves haveretreated and collapsed, with an area ofmore than 14,000 square kilometers disappearingwithin the past two decades. Ice shelf retreat has followed the southwardmigration of the -9°C mean annual isotherm,referred to as the `climatic limit of ice shelfstability' (Figure 1). Thus, present-day iceshelf retreats on the Antarctic Peninsula havebeen linked to increased atmospheric temperature[Vaughan et al., 2003].

  14. Sinai peninsula taken by the STS-112 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-08

    STS112-702-002 (7-18 October 2002) --- Egypt's triangular Sinai Peninsula lies in the center of this view, photographed from the Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the dark greens of the Nile delta lower right. In this southwesterly view, the Red Sea, with its characteristic parallel coastlines, stretches toward the top. At the bottom of the image, the Suez Canal appears as an irregular line joining the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea (lower left). The Dead Sea in central Israel, with its light blue salt ponds at the south end, appears on the left margin.

  15. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Thomson, J.W.; Schofield, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred eighty-two taxa of lichens including two lichen parasites are reported from Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Metasphaeria tartarina is new to North America; Scoliciosporum umbrinum is new to Alaska. Wide-ranging, arctic-alpine, and boreal species dominate the lichen flora; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. Epigeic lichen abundance is described along a lowland to alpine mesotopographic gradient selected to represent major landscape variation in the refuge. Of six major community types identified, three had significant lichen components.

  16. Metalliferous deposits near Granite Mountain, eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.; Elliott, R.L.

    1969-01-01

    New deposits of lead, zinc, and silver were found in a large altered zone 18 miles long and 2 to 5 miles wide near Quartz Creek west of Granite Mountain in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. New deposits of molybdenum, bismuth, and silver were found associated with a previously reported occurrence of uranium, copper, lead, and zinc minerals in the upper Peace River drainage northeast of Granite Mountain. Both groups of deposits are associated spatially with felsic plutonic rocks and occur near the western edge of a late Mesozoic province of volcanic plutonic rocks. Both groups of deposits warrant further investigation as possible exploration target areas.

  17. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    SciTech Connect

    Hasenstein, K.H. )

    1989-04-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing {sup 3}H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 {mu}1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 {mu}1 of sorbitol or the Ca{sup 2+} chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap.

  18. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsugeki, R.; Fedoroff, N. V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.

  19. Phosphogypsum capping depth affects revegetation and hydrology in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mallory E; Naeth, M Anne; Chanasyk, David S; Nichol, Connie K

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, is commonly stacked and capped with soil at decommissioning. Shallow (0, 8, 15, and 30 cm) and thick (46 and 91 cm) sandy loam caps on a PG stack near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada, were studied in relation to vegetation establishment and hydrologic properties. Plant response was evaluated over two growing seasons for redtop ( L.), slender wheatgrass ( (Link) Malte ex H.F. Lewis), tufted hairgrass ( (L.) P. Beauv.), and sheep fescue ( L.) and for a mix of these grasses with alsike clover ( L.). Water content below the soil-PG interface was monitored with time-domain reflectometry probes, and leachate water quantity and quality at a depth of 30 cm was measured using lysimeters. Vegetation responded positively to all cap depths relative to bare PG, with few significant differences among cap depths. Slender wheatgrass performed best, and tufted hairgrass performed poorly. Soil caps <1 m required by regulation were sufficient for early revegetation. Soil water fluctuated more in shallow than in thick caps, and water content was generally between field capacity and wilting point regardless of cap depth. Water quality was not affected by cap depths ≤30 cm. Leachate volumes at 30 cm from distinct rainfall events were independent of precipitation amount and cap depth. The study period had lower precipitation than normal, yet soil caps were hospitable for plant growth in the first 2 yr of establishment.

  20. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsugeki, R.; Fedoroff, N. V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.

  1. GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Chunlin; Shi, Huli; Hu, Chao

    2009-03-01

    The positioning of the GPS or Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) software receiver was developed on a software receiver platform. The structure of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver was put forward after analyzing the differences in the satellite identification, ranging code, spread spectrum, coordinate system, time system, carrier band, and navigation data between GPS and CAPS. Based on Matlab software on a personal computer, baseband signal processing and positioning procedures were completed using real GPS and CAPS radio frequency signals received by two antennas. Three kinds of experiments including GPS positioning, CAPS positioning, and GPS/CAPS positioning were carried out. Stability and precision of the results were analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the precision of CAPS is similar to that of GPS, while the positioning precision of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver is 1-2 m higher than that of CAPS or GPS. The smallest average variance of the positioning can be obtained by using the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver.

  2. cap alpha. -2 adrenergic receptor: a radiohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Unnerstall, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-2 adrenergic agents have been shown to influence blood pressure, heart rate and other physiological and behavioral functions through interactions with adrenergic pathways within the central nervous system. Pharmacologically relevant ..cap alpha..-1 adrenergic receptors were biochemically characterized and radiohistochemically analyzed in intact tissue sections of the rat and human central nervous system. The anatomical distribution of the ..cap alpha..-2 receptors, labeled with the agonist (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine, verified the concept that ..cap alpha..-2 receptors are closely associated with adrenergic nerve terminals and that ..cap alpha..-2 agents can influence autonomic and endocrine function through an action in the central nervous system. Since ..cap alpha..-2 agonists can influence sympathetic outflow, ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites were closely analyzed in the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. The transport of putative presynaptic ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites in the rat sciatic nerve was analyzed by light microscopic radiohistochemical techniques. Finally, in intact tissue section of the rat central nervous system, the biochemical characteristics of (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine binding were analyzed. Data were also shown which indicates that the synthetic ..cap alpha..-2 antagonist (/sup 3/H)RX781094 also binds to ..cap alpha..-2 receptors with high-affinity. Further, the distribution of (/sup 3/H)RX781094 binding sites in the rat central nervous system was identical to the distribution seen when using (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine.

  3. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects comparison of Chinese angelica polysaccharide(CAP)and selenizing CAP (sCAP) in CCl4 induced hepatic injury mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Chao; Tian, Weijun; Liu, Kuanhui; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Liu, Jiaguo; Hu, Yuanliang; Yang, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Chinese angelica polysaccharides (CAP) and selenizing CAP (sCAP) were prepared and identified through FTIR and SEM observation. Their antioxidant activities in vitro and hepatoprotective effects in vivo were compared by free radical-scavenging tests or with CCl4-induced hepatic injury model mice. The results showed that for DPPH radical, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical, the scavenging capabilities of sCAP were significantly stronger than those of CAP. In hepatic injury model mice, sCAP could significantly reduce ALT, AST and ALP contents and raised TP content in serum, significantly reduce MDA and ROS contents and raised SOD and T-AOC activities in liver homogenate in comparison with CAP; obviously relieve the pathological changes of liver and significantly inhibit the expressions of p-ERK, p-JNK and p-p38 protein as compared with those in model control group. These results indicate that selenylation modification can enhance the antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of Chinese angelica polysaccharide. A action mechanism of sCAP is suppressing the protein expression of MAPK signaling pathway.

  4. Underwater Christmas tree cap and lockdown apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Best, M.J.A.

    1983-09-20

    A cap is disclosed for an underwater Christmas tree having locking probes to lock down the operating rods of a connector connecting the Christmas tree to an underwater wellhead housing. The tops of the operating rods are housed within hollow canisters at the top of the Christmas tree. The cap includes a body having circumferentially disposed locking dogs housed therein for engagement with the top of the Christmas tree. The dogs are actuated by a cam ring which telescopically receive the body and has a tapered surface for sliding over a correlatively tapered surface on each of the dogs. The body includes a metal gasket seal for sealing engagement with the top of the Christmas tree, and seals are provided between the cam ring and body. The cap has downwardly extending locking probes which extend telescopically into the canisters above the operating rods. The locking probes each include a housing and a releasable tubular piston slidably disposed in the housing. The piston is biased in a downward direction, and is held in a cocked or loaded raised position prior to release by a trigger held in engagement with the piston and housing a pin on a running tool telescopically slidably disposed in the piston. The piston is released by removal of the pin, which cams the trigger out of engagement with the housing. Upon release the piston is biased into engagement with the rod. The piston is provided with locking dogs which engage the walls of the housing and prevent upward movement of the piston and rod after release of the piston.

  5. Quantifying Solar Wind-Polar Cap Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, K. D.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Huang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that the solar wind is a major driver of ultra-low frequency [ULF] power at ground locations from low to high latitudes. However, due to the scarcity of deep polar cap magnetometer sites, it is not clear when, where, or if this is true deep inside the polar cap on open field lines where interplanetary magnetic field [IMF] ULF waves could possibly be directly detected. Given recent observations of very large Joule heating estimates from DMSP data, together with the large heating reported by the CHAMP satellite, it is important to understand the degree to which ULF waves in the solar wind can directly cause such heating. Using a time series of lagged correlation sequences ("dynamic correlograms") between GSM Bz ULF power (computed via data obtained from NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer [ACE] ahead of Earth in the solar wind) and the horizontal ULF power (H^2=N^2+E^2) from ground-based magnetometers in Earth's southern polar cap, we investigate the direct penetration of ULF waves from the solar wind into the polar ionosphere during a gamut of space weather conditions at a distributed network of Automated Geophysical Observatories [AGOs] in Antarctica. To infer causation, a predicted lag correlation maximum at each time step is computed by simply dividing the associated distance of ACE from Earth by the concurrent bulk solar wind speed. This technique helps parse out direct penetration of solar wind ULF waves from other sources (e.g., via leakage from closed field line resonances due to the bulk solar wind plasma viscously interacting at dawn/dusk flanks inducing Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities [KHI] or compressional modes induced by impulses in solar wind dynamic pressure). The identified direct-penetrating ULF waves are related to the DMSP-derived Poynting fluxes by regression analysis, and conclusions are drawn for the importance of the ULF source for the measured heating.

  6. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/..sqrt..E was achieved.

  7. North Polar Cap Layers and Ledges

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-24

    At the edge of Mars' permanent North Polar cap, we see an exposure of the internal layers, each with a different mix of water ice, dust and dirt. These layers are believed to correspond to different climate conditions over the past tens of thousands of years. When we zoom in closer, we see that the distinct layers erode differently. Some are stronger and more resistant to erosion, others only weakly cemented. The strong layers form ledges. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21022

  8. More About V-CAP Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Malarik, Diane C.

    1994-01-01

    V-CAP polyimides are processible matrix resins extending continuous-use temperature of composite materials. Under contract to NASA, General Electric used VCAP to fabricate and successfully test hot section of forward exhaust fairing on their F110 engine. Also used in other components of jet engines and airframes, including vanes, fan frames, cowls, and wing panels. Nonaerospace applications include brake linings, bearings, grinding wheels and slip seals, commutators in electric motors, and parts of motors in refrigerator compressors. Future applications include printed-circuit boards and components of nacelles in jet engines.

  9. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T shield design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    MFTF-..cap alpha..+T is a DT upgrade option of the Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) to study better plasma performance, and test tritium breeding blankets in an actual fusion reactor environment. The central cell insert, designated DT axicell, has a 2-MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall loading at the first wall for blanket testing. This upgrade is completely shielded to protect the reactor components, the workers, and the general public from the radiation environment during operation and after shutdown. The shield design for this upgrade is the subject of this paper including the design criteria and the tradeoff studies to reduce the shield cost.

  10. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  11. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  12. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  13. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  14. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  15. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  16. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  17. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  18. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  19. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  20. Mission and modern citrus species diversity of Baja California Peninsula cases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spring-fed mission oases of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, hold several species, varieties and unique hybrids of heritage citrus, which may represent valuable genetic resources. Citrus species first arrived to the peninsula with the Jesuit missionaries (1697-1768), and new varieties were...

  1. 75 FR 20991 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment April 15, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal... environmental assessment (EA) regarding Upper Peninsula Power Company's plan to replace the spillway at the Bond...

  2. Digital data for the geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kondratyuk, Tamara; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    1999-01-01

    These digital databases are the result of the compilation and reinterpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000- and 1:63,360-scale mapping. The map area covers approximately 62,000 sq km (23,000 sq mi) in land area and encompasses much of 13 1:250,000-scale quadrangles on the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. The compilation was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment project (AMRAP), whose goal was create and assemble geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data in order to perform mineral resource assessments on a quadrangle, regional or statewide basis. The digital data here was created to assist in the completion of a regional mineral resource assessment of the Alaska Peninsula. Mapping on the Alaska Peninsula under AMRAP began in 1977 in the Chignik and Sutwik Island 1:250,000 quadrangles (Detterman and others, 1981). Continued mapping in the Ugashik, bristol bay, and northwestern Karluk quadrangles (Detterman and others, 1987) began in 1979, followed by the Mount Katmai, eastern Naknek, and northwestern Afognak quadrangles (Riehle and others, 1987; Riehle and others, 1993), the Port Moller, Stepovak bay, and Simeonof Island quadrangles (Wilson and others, 1995) beginning in 1983. Work in the Cold bay and False Pass quadrangles (Wilson and others, 1992 [Superceded by Wilson and others 1997, but not incorporated herein]) began in 1986. The reliability of the geologic mapping is variable, based, in part, on the field time spent in each area of the map, the available support, and the quality of the existing base maps. In addition, our developing understanding of the geology of the Alaska Peninsula required revision of earlier maps, such as the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles map (Detterman and others, 1981) to reflect this new knowledge. We have revised the stratigraphic nomenclature (Detterman and others, 1996) and our assignment of unit names to some rocks has been changed. All geologic maps on

  3. Modelling climate change impacts on tourism demand: A comparative study from Sardinia (Italy) and Cap Bon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Köberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Bird, David Neil

    2016-02-01

    Tourism represents an important source of income and employment in many Mediterranean regions, including the island of Sardinia (Italy) and the Cap Bon peninsula (Tunisia). Climate change may however impact tourism in both regions, for example, by altering the regions' climatic suitability for common tourism types or affecting water availability. This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on tourism in the case study regions of Sardinia and Cap Bon. Direct impacts are studied in a quantitative way by applying a range of climate scenario data on the empirically estimated relationship between climatic conditions and tourism demand, using two different approaches. Results indicate a potential for climate-induced tourism revenue gains especially in the shoulder seasons during spring and autumn, but also a threat of climate-induced revenue losses in the summer months due to increased heat stress. Annual direct net impacts are nevertheless suggested to be (slightly) positive in both case study regions. Significant climate-induced reductions in total available water may however somewhat counteract the positive direct impacts of climate change by putting additional water costs on the tourism industry.

  4. Radiological dose in Muria peninsula from SB-LOCA event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarko; Suud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Dose assessment for accident condition is performed for Muria Peninsula region using source-term from Three-Mile Island unit 2 SB-LOCA accident. Xe-133, Kr-88, 1-131 and Cs-137 isotopes are considered in the calculation. The effluent is assumed to be released from a 50 m stack. Lagrangian particle dispersion method (LPDM) employing non-Gaussian dispersion coefficient in 3-dimensional mass-consistent wind-field is employed to obtain periodic surface-level concentration which is then time-integrated to obtain spatial distribution of ground-level dose. In 1-hour simulation, segmented plumes with 60 seconds duration with a total of 18.000 particles involved. Simulations using 6-hour worst-case meteorological data from Muria peninsula results in a peak external dose of around 1.668 mSv for low scenario and 6.892 mSv for high scenario in dry condition. In wet condition with 5 mm/hour and 10 mm/hour rain for the whole duration of the simulation provides only minor effect to dose. The peak external dose is below the regulatory limit of 50 mSv for effective skin dose from external gamma exposure.

  5. New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Mercier, Norbert; Sistiaga, Ainara; Soler, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    The timing of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic and the disappearance of Neanderthals continue to be strongly debated. Current chronometric evidence from different European sites pushes the end of the Middle Palaeolithic throughout the continent back to around 42 thousand years ago (ka). This has called into question some of the dates from the Iberian Peninsula, previously considered as one of the last refuge zones of the Neanderthals. Evidence of Neanderthal occupation in Iberia after 42 ka is now very scarce and open to debate on chronological and technological grounds. Here we report thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from El Salt, a Middle Palaeolithic site in Alicante, Spain, the archaeological sequence of which shows a transition from recurrent to sporadic human occupation culminating in the abandonment of the site. The new dates place this sequence within MIS 3, between ca. 60 and 45 ka. An abrupt sedimentary change towards the top of the sequence suggests a strong aridification episode coinciding with the last Neanderthal occupation of the site. These results are in agreement with current chronometric data from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and point towards possible breakdown and disappearance of the Neanderthal local population around the time of the Heinrich 5 event. Iberian sites with recent dates (<40 ka) attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic should be revised in the light of these data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beryllium deposits of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sainsbury, C.L.

    1963-01-01

    Deposits of beryllium ore in the Lost River area of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, consist of replacement veins, pipes, and stringer lodes is limestone in a zone about 7 miles long and 2 to 3 miles wide which is faulted and intruded by dikes and stocks. The ores are remarkably alike and typically consist of the following minerals, in percent: fluorite, 45-65; diaspore, 5-10; tourmaline, 0-10; chrysoberyl, 3-10; white mica, 0-5; small amounts of hematite, sulfide minerals, manganese oxide, other beryllium minerals; and traces of minerals not yet identified. The ores generally are cut by late veinlets which are of the same mineralogy as the groundmass ore, or which consist of fluorite, white mica, and euclase. The ores are fine grained, and many of the individual mineral grains, except fluorite, are less than 1 mm in size. The beryllium content of bulk samples of ore ranges from 0.11 to 0.54 percent (0.31 to 1.50 percent BeO). High-grade nodules, composed principally of chrysoberyl, diaspore, fluorite, and mica, contain as much as 6 percent BeO. Geochemical reconnaissance has disclosed other areas of anomalous beryllium in stream sediments elsewhere on the Seward Peninsula, generally around biotite granites that have them associated with tin deposits; additional exploration probably will disclose other deposits.

  7. Indian Summer Monsoon influence on the Arabian Peninsula Summer Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attada, Raju; Prasad Dasari, Hari; Omar, Knio; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) is as an integral component of the atmospheric global circulation. During summer, the mid-latitude zone of baroclinic waves in the Middle East region are pushed northward under the influence of ISM. We investigate the impact of ISM on the atmospheric circulation over the Arabian Peninsula on interannual time scale. We analyze various atmospheric variables derived from ECMWF reanalysis. We apply a composite analysis to study the circulation variability over the Middle East during extreme monsoon years. The extreme (strong and weak) monsoon years are identified based on All India Precipitation Index during 1979-2015. Our analysis reveals that ISM is a fundamental driver of the summer circulation over the Middle East. More specifically, during extreme monsoons: (i) the lower tropospheric winds are enhanced and dominated by persistent northerlies along with intensified subsidence due to adiabatic warming, (ii) A prominent baroclinic structure in circulation anomalies are observed, (iii) a meridional shift of the upper tropospheric jet stream (subtropical jet) is noticeable during weak monsoon years; this shift favors a strong Rossby wave response and has a consequent impact on summer circulations over the Middle East, (iv) the upper tropospheric wind anomalies show a well organized train of Rossby waves during strong monsoon years, and (v) Intensification of thermal signal during strong monsoon over West Asia has been noticed. We will present these findings and further discuss the monsoon dynamics controlling the summer Arabian Peninsula circulation.

  8. Lateral variations of crustal structure beneath the Indochina Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youqiang; Hung, Tran D.; Yang, Ting; Xue, Mei; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.

    2017-08-01

    Crustal thickness (H) and Vp/Vs (κ) measurements obtained by stacking P-to-S receiver functions recorded at 32 broadband seismic stations covering the Indochina Peninsula reveal systematic spatial variations in crustal properties. Mafic bulk crustal composition as indicated by high κ (>1.81) observations is found to exist along major strike-slip faults and the southern part of the Peninsula, where pervasive basaltic magmatism is found and is believed to be the results of lithospheric thinning associated with the indentation of the Indian into the Eurasian plates. In contrast, crust beneath the Khorat Plateau, which occupies the core of the Indochina Block, has relatively large H values with a mean of 36.9 ± 3 km and small κ measurements with an average of 1.74 ± 0.04, which indicates an overall felsic bulk composition. Those observations for the Khorat Plateau are comparable to the undeformed part of the South China Block. The laterally heterogeneous distribution of crustal properties and its correspondence with indentation-related tectonic features suggest that the Indochina lithosphere is extruded as rigid blocks rather than as a viscous flow.

  9. Distribution and characteristic of PAHs in snow of Fildes Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Na, Guangshui; Liu, Chunyang; Wang, Zhen; Ge, Linke; Ma, Xindong; Yao, Ziwei

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) investigation in different matrices has been reported largely, whereas reports on snow samples were limited. Snow, as the main matrix in the polar region, has an important study meaning. PAHs in snow samples were analyzed to investigate the distribution and contamination status of them in the Antarctic, as well as to provide some references for global migration of PAHs. Snow samples collected in Fildes Peninsula were enriched and separated by solid-phase membrane disks and eluted by methylene dichloride, then quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All types of PAHs were detected except for Benzo(a)pyrene. Principal component analysis method was applied to characterize them. Three factors (Naphthalene, Fluorene and Phenanthrene) accounted for 60.57%, 21.61% and 9.80%, respectively. The results showed that the major PAHs sources maybe the atmospheric transportation, and the combustion of fuel in Fildes Peninsula. The comparison of concentration and types of PAHs between accumulated snow and fresh snow showed that the main compound concentrations in accumulated snow samples were higher than those in fresh ones. The risk assessment indicated that the amount of PAHs in the snow samples would not lead to ecological risk.

  10. The dilemma of development in the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Osama, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    With the current of Arab oil revenues it is appropriate to review the experience of the Arab oil producers in social, economic and political development over the last decade. This book, by one of Saudi Arabia's most distinguished academics, concentrates on the six oil producers of the Arabian Peninsula. (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain). The book suggests that in many respects the oil revenues have obstructed serious development because they have made the economies totally dependent on one expendable resource and this has made all the Arabian countries too vulnerable to external pressures and interests. Futhermore, the oil revenues have encouraged fantasy and wishful thinking which have skewed the development process and stimulated pseudo-development. The book makes clear that until the petro-bureaucracy adopts a realistic approach to development there can be no prospect of real development in the Arabian Peninsula. Contents: acknowledgment, preface, introduction, theoretical framework for development administration, development and planning, development of bureaucracy, the appropriate model for development administration, manpower development, the allocation of financial resources for development, conclusion. Bibliography. Index.

  11. Biophysical approach to studies of cap-eIF4E interaction by synthetic cap analogs.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecka, Anna; Stepinski, Janusz; Antosiewicz, Jan M; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Stolarski, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Specific recognition of mRNA 5' cap by eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E is a rate-limiting step in the translation initiation. Structural determination of the eIF4E-cap complexes, as well as complexes of eIF4E with other proteins regulating its activity, requires complementary experiments that allow for energetic and dynamic aspects of formation and stability of the complexes. Such a combined approach provides information on the binding mechanisms and, hence, may lead to mechanistic models of eIF4E functioning and regulation on the molecular level. This chapter summarizes in detail the method of experiments used to probe the cap-binding center of eIF4E, steady state and stopped-flow fluorescence, and microcalorimetry. The studies were performed with a wide class of synthetic, structurally modified cap analogs that resembles in some respect an application of site directed mutagenesis of the protein. The chapter presents a general recipe as to how to investigate protein-ligand interactions if the protein has no enzymatic activity and both the protein and the ligand absorb and emit UV/VIS radiation in the same spectral ranges.

  12. Effective polar cap area and multi-station basis for Polar Cap (PC) indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices are useful indices for Space Weather forecasts and analyses. The PC indices have been used to monitor the interplanetary geoeffective electric field and solar wind pressure pulses, to analyze cross polar cap voltages, polar cap diameter, and general polar cap dynamics. Furthermore, the PC indices have been used to monitor auroral electrojet intensities, ionospheric Joule heating, and global auroral power, and to predict ring current intensities. For specific Space Weather warning forecasts the PC indices can be used to predict substorm development and the associated risk of power line disturbances in the subauroral regions. The PC indices, PCN (North) and PCS (South), are derived from geomagnetic observations at Thule in Greenland and Vostok in Antarctica, respectively. In order to provide reliable forecast services based on PC indices, it would be advantageous to have available back-up suppliers of index values. The presentation provides an analysis of the effective area for useful PC index derivation and suggests observatories that could provide back-up data for PC index calculations should the primary sources fail due to instrument or communication problems.

  13. Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, J.; Salerno, E.; Bird, L.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2006-07-01

    Cap and trade programs are increasingly being used to reduce emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Cap and trade programs primarily target emitting generators, but programs have also included renewable generators, such as wind generators. States cite several reasons why they have considered the policy option of including renewable generators in cap and trade programs: to provide an incentive for lower-emitting generation, to achieve emissions reductions in non-capped pollutants, and to gain local economic benefits associated with renewable energy projects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency also notes these rationales for considering this policy alternative, and the National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) passed a resolution supporting the inclusion of renewable energy in cap and trade programs. This report explores why states consider this policy option, what participation could mean for wind generators, and how wind generation can most effectively be included in state, federal, and regional cap and trade programs.

  14. Isolation and differentiation of Xenopus animal cap cells.

    PubMed

    Ariizumi, Takashi; Takahashi, Shuji; Chan, Te-chuan; Ito, Yuzuru; Michiue, Tatsuo; Asashima, Makoto

    2009-04-01

    Xenopus is used as a model animal for investigating the inductive events and organogenesis that occur during early vertebrate development. Given that they are easy to obtain in high numbers and are relatively large in size, Xenopus embryos are excellent specimens for performing manipulations such as microinjection and microsurgery. The animal cap, which is the area around the animal pole of the blastula, is destined to form the ectoderm during normal development. However, these cells retain pluripotentiality and upon exposure to specific inducers, the animal cap can differentiate into neural, mesodermal, and endodermal tissues. In this sense, the cells of the animal cap are equivalent to mammalian embryonic stem cells. In this unit, the isolation and differentiation of animal cap cells, the so-called animal cap assay, is described. Useful methods for analyzing the mechanism of animal cap differentiation at the molecular level are also described.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of coronavirus RNA capping and methylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Deyin

    2016-02-01

    The 5'-cap structures of eukaryotic mRNAs are important for RNA stability, pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, and protein translation. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms for generating their own cap structures with methylation at the N7 position of the capped guanine and the ribose 2'-Oposition of the first nucleotide, which help viral RNAs escape recognition by the host innate immune system. The RNA genomes of coronavirus were identified to have 5'-caps in the early 1980s. However, for decades the RNA capping mechanisms of coronaviruses remained unknown. Since 2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has drawn increased attention and stimulated numerous studies on the molecular virology of coronaviruses. Here, we review the current understanding of the mechanisms adopted by coronaviruses to produce the 5'-cap structure and methylation modification of viral genomic RNAs.

  16. Procalcitonin and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children.

    PubMed

    Giulia, Bivona; Luisa, Agnello; Concetta, Scazzone; Bruna, Lo Sasso; Chiara, Bellia; Marcello, Ciaccio

    2015-12-07

    The role of procalcitonin (PCT) as a biomarker for sepsis in adults is well documented, while its role in infections affecting neonatal children remains controversial. Among these infections, Community-Acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been studied extensively, because it's the second cause of death in children in developing countries, and one of the most frequent causes of hospitalization in industrialized countries. The PubMed database and the Cochrane Library were used to search for the following keywords: CAP, procalcitonin, and children. Thirteen articles were studied to determine the role of PCT in CAP management, specifically its usefulness for distinguishing pneumococcal infections from viral and unknown infections, for predicting severity and the correct antibiotic treatment. This paper focuses on the studies performed to identify the best inflammatory biomarker for CAP management. Although there is an increase in studies confirming the usefulness of PCT in CAP management in children, further studies are needed to have better understanding of its role for pediatric CAP management.

  17. Simultaneous Two-Station Observation of Polar Cap Thermospheric Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Ward, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over the years, three different ground based stations inside the northern polar cap observed thermospheric winds, however, they did not overlap with each others. Consequently, the polar cap observations had only one station observation at a time. A single station observation is far from ideal to represent the thermospheric wind in the polar cap. In Nov 2014, for the first time, two Fabry-Perot interferometers started simultaneous observations in the polar cap. The Eureka (80N, 86W) and Resolute (75N, 95W) FPIs made near continuous observation during the winter season of the 2014. The observational results from these two instruments are compared. NCAR TIEGCM simulations with different polar cap ion convection drivers are used to examine the similarities and differences between the two stations. The results can provide more insight of the polar cap thermospheric dynamics and better interpretation of historical data for long-term trend studies.

  18. Morphotectonic segmentation along the Nicoya Peninsula seismic gap, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Morrish, S.; Butcher, A.; Ritzinger, B.; Wellington, K.; Lafromboise, E.; Protti, M.; Gardner, T.; Spotila, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica forms a prominent morphologic high along the outer forearc of the erosive southern Middle America convergent margin. This emergent coastal landmass overlies the seismogenic zone and occupies a seismic gap that last ruptured in 1950 with a M7.7 megathrust earthquake. The edges of both the Nicoya seismic gap and the peninsula’s abrupt shorelines correspond with the aftershock limits of the more recent 1992 M7.2 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake to the north, and the 1990 M7.0 Cobano seamount rupture to the south. The coincidence of emergent topography and recent earthquake rupture zones suggests persistence of the Nicoya segment through multiple seismic cycles. Along the Nicoya Peninsula's seaward-facing coastline, net Quaternary uplift is recorded by emergent strandlines, marine terraces, and incised valley-fill alluvium. Ongoing field mapping, surveying, and isotopic dating reveal uplift variations along the Nicoya segment that coincide with three contrasting domains of subducting seafloor offshore (EPR, CNS-1, CNS-2). Uplift rates vary between 0.1-0.2 m/k.y. inboard of older EPR crust along the northern Nicoya coast; 0.2-0.3 m/k.y. inboard of younger CNS-1 crust along the southern Nicoya coast; and 1.0-2.0 m/k.y. inboard of CNS-2 seamounts impacting the peninsula’s southern tip. These results are consistent with geophysical observations that indicate finer scale segmentation of the Nicoya seismogenic zone related to along-strike changes in the characteristics of the subducting plate. Variable upper-plate uplift along the Nicoya segment may reflect differences in subducting-plate roughness, thermal structure, fluid flow, and seismogenic-zone locking (up-dip/down-dip limits). Based on the rapid convergence rate (9 cm/yr) and the frequency of historic seismicity, the recurrence interval for large Nicoya earthquakes is estimated at ~50 years. The most recent event, in 1950, generated >1m of coseismic uplift along the central Nicoya

  19. Casimir Effect in Hemisphere Capped Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the vacuum densities for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling in background of a (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetime corresponding to a cylindrical tube with a hemispherical cap. A complete set of mode functions is constructed and the positive-frequency Wightman function is evaluated for both the cylindrical and hemispherical subspaces. On the base of this, the vacuum expectation values of the field squared and energy-momentum tensor are investigated. The mean field squared and the normal stress are finite on the boundary separating two subspaces, whereas the energy density and the parallel stress diverge as the inverse power of the distance from the boundary. For a conformally coupled field, the vacuum energy density is negative on the cylindrical part of the space. On the hemisphere, it is negative near the top and positive close to the boundary. In the case of minimal coupling the energy density on the cup is negative. On the tube it is positive near the boundary and negative at large distances. Though the geometries of the subspaces are different, the Casimir pressures on the separate sides of the boundary are equal and the net Casimir force vanishes. The results obtained may be applied to capped carbon nanotubes described by an effective field theory in the long-wavelength approximation.

  20. Martian South Polar Cap Close-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture, illuminated by sunlight coming from the upper left, shows some of the variety of surface textures observed on the south polar residual cap. Here, the upper surface is dotted with a combination of polygonal patterns created by shallow troughs and large, almost circular pits formed by collapse. No one knows exactly how the large arcuate and circular pits are formed, but they appear to result from collapse which means that something underneath these pits has been removed. Alternatively, the ice that makes up much of the polar material has somehow become compacted, allowing the surface to sag and create pits.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view of the south polar cap surface was obtained during southern spring on November 3, 1999. Located near 87.0oS, 5.9oW, this view covers 3 by 3 kilometers (1.9 x 1.9 miles) at 1.5 meters per pixel. The pits are only a few meters deep, at most, as determined by measuring shadows cast in them.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  1. Martian South Polar Cap Close-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture, illuminated by sunlight coming from the upper left, shows some of the variety of surface textures observed on the south polar residual cap. Here, the upper surface is dotted with a combination of polygonal patterns created by shallow troughs and large, almost circular pits formed by collapse. No one knows exactly how the large arcuate and circular pits are formed, but they appear to result from collapse which means that something underneath these pits has been removed. Alternatively, the ice that makes up much of the polar material has somehow become compacted, allowing the surface to sag and create pits.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view of the south polar cap surface was obtained during southern spring on November 3, 1999. Located near 87.0oS, 5.9oW, this view covers 3 by 3 kilometers (1.9 x 1.9 miles) at 1.5 meters per pixel. The pits are only a few meters deep, at most, as determined by measuring shadows cast in them.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.D.

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  3. A structural analysis model for clay caps

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tsu-te; Yau, Wen Foo

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents a structural analysis model for clay caps used in the landfill of low-level nuclear waste to minimize the migration of fluid through the soil. The clay cap resting on the soil foundation is treated as an axially symmetric elastic plate supported by an elastic foundation. A circular hole (concentric with the plate) in the elastic foundation represents an underlying cavity formed in the landfill due to waste decomposition and volume reduction. Unlike the models that commonly represent the soil foundation with equivalent springs, this model treats the foundation as a semi-infinite space and accounts for the work done by both compression and shear stresses in the foundation. The governing equation of the plate is based upon the classical theory of plate bending, whereas the governing equation derived by using Vlasov`s general variational method describes the soil foundation. The solutions are expressed in terms of Basset functions. A FORTRAN program was written to carry out the numerical calculations.

  4. Heat Transfer Analysis of the NAHBE Piston Cap,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    r~~~ U____________ ____s HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS :~ OF THE NAHBE PISTON CAP* Engineering and Wea pons Report EW-l1—77...transfer variations in thecap of a nodified piston engine (NN~BE) was made. The objective was to estimatethe regenerative heating effect d~e to the cap...ABSTRACT The piston modification for the NAHBE (Naval Academy Heat Bal ance Engine ) consists of a cap which extends above the standard piston used

  5. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Driver, Howard D.; van Breugel, Sjef; Jenkins, Thomas B.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Billen, Andrew J.; Riahi, Amir

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  6. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  7. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  8. Regulation of Sodium Channel Activity by Capping of Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Shumilina, Ekaterina V.; Negulyaev, Yuri A.; Morachevskaya, Elena A.; Hinssen, Horst; Khaitlina, Sofia Yu

    2003-01-01

    Ion transport in various tissues can be regulated by the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, involvement of actin dynamics in the regulation of nonvoltage-gated sodium channels has been shown. Herein, inside-out patch clamp experiments were performed to study the effect of the heterodimeric actin capping protein CapZ on sodium channel regulation in leukemia K562 cells. The channels were activated by cytochalasin-induced disruption of actin filaments and inactivated by G-actin under ionic conditions promoting rapid actin polymerization. CapZ had no direct effect on channel activity. However, being added together with G-actin, CapZ prevented actin-induced channel inactivation, and this effect occurred at CapZ/actin molar ratios from 1:5 to 1:100. When actin was allowed to polymerize at the plasma membrane to induce partial channel inactivation, subsequent addition of CapZ restored the channel activity. These results can be explained by CapZ-induced inhibition of further assembly of actin filaments at the plasma membrane due to the modification of actin dynamics by CapZ. No effect on the channel activity was observed in response to F-actin, confirming that the mechanism of channel inactivation does not involve interaction of the channel with preformed filaments. Our data show that actin-capping protein can participate in the cytoskeleton-associated regulation of sodium transport in nonexcitable cells. PMID:12686620

  9. Cap0037, a Novel Global Regulator of Clostridium acetobutylicum Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Phuong-Thao; Linder, Sonja; Flitsch, Stefanie K; Schiel-Bengelsdorf, Bettina; Dürre, Peter; Soucaille, Philippe

    2016-10-04

    An operon comprising two genes, CA_P0037 and CA_P0036, that encode proteins of unknown function that were previously shown to be highly expressed in acidogenic cells and repressed in solventogenic and alcohologenic cells is located on the pSOL1 megaplasmid of Clostridium acetobutylicum upstream of adhE2 A CA_P0037::int (189/190s) mutant in which an intron was inserted at position 189/190 in the sense strand of CA_P0037 was successfully generated by the Targetron technique. The resultant mutant showed significantly different metabolic flux patterns in acidogenic (producing mainly lactate, butyrate, and butanol) and alcohologenic (producing mainly butyrate, acetate, and lactate) chemostat cultures but not in solventogenic or batch cultures. Transcriptomic investigation of the CA_P0037::int (189/190s) mutant showed that inactivation of CA_P0037 significantly affected the expression of more than 258 genes under acidogenic conditions. Surprisingly, genes belonging to the Fur regulon, involved in iron transport (CA_C1029-CA_C1032), or coding for the main flavodoxin (CA_C0587) were the most significantly expressed genes under all conditions, whereas fur (coding for the ferric uptake regulator) gene expression remained unchanged. Furthermore, most of the genes of the Rex regulon, such as the adhE2 and ldhA genes, and of the PerR regulon, such as rbr3A-rbr3B and dfx, were overexpressed in the mutant. In addition, the whole CA_P0037-CA_P0036 operon was highly expressed under all conditions in the CA_P0037::int (189/190s) mutant, suggesting a self-regulated expression mechanism. Cap0037 was shown to bind to the CA_P0037-CA_P0036 operon, sol operon, and adc promoters, and the binding sites were determined by DNA footprinting. Finally, a putative Cap0037 regulon was generated using a bioinformatic approach. Clostridium acetobutylicum is well-known for its ability to produce solvents, especially n-butanol. Understanding the regulatory network of C. acetobutylicum will be

  10. Ozone depletion over the polar caps caused by solar protons

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J. )

    1992-12-24

    Energetic solar protons are a natural source of ozone depletion due to nitric oxides they produce in the earth's atmosphere. In March 1989, following a period of intense solar activity, the TOMS instrument aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite recorded very similar ozone losses over both polar caps for areas extending from 90[degrees] to 70[degrees]. Ozone depletions of 7.4 [times] 10[sup 9] kg for the south polar cap and 8.0 [times] 10[sup 9] kg for the north polar cap indicate the degree of symmetry over the polar caps. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Generalized method for constructing the atomic coordinates of nanotube caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M.; Suarez-Martinez, I.; Marks, N. A.

    2013-04-01

    A practical numerical method for the rapid construction of nanotube caps is proposed. Founded upon the notion of lattice duality, the algorithm considers the face dual representation of a given nanotube which is used to solve an energy minimization problem analogous to The Thomson Problem. Not only does this produce caps for nanotubes of arbitrary chirality, but the caps generated will be physically sensible and in most cases the lowest energy structure. To demonstrate the applicability of the technique, caps of the (5,5) and the (10,0) nanotubes are investigated by means of density-functional tight binding (DFTB). The calculation of cap energies highlights the ability of the algorithm to produce lowest energy caps. Due to the preferential construction of spherical caps, the technique is particularly well suited for the construction of capped multiwall nanotubes (MWNTs). To validate this proposal and the overall robustness of the algorithm, a MWNT is constructed containing the chiralities (9,2)@(15,6)@(16,16). The algorithm presented paves the way for future computational investigations into the physics and chemistry of capped nanotubes.

  13. The size of the EB cap determines instantaneous microtubule stability

    PubMed Central

    Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas I; Holmes, David; Surrey, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The function of microtubules relies on their ability to switch between phases of growth and shrinkage. A nucleotide-dependent stabilising cap at microtubule ends is thought to be lost before this switch can occur; however, the nature and size of this protective cap are unknown. Using a microfluidics-assisted multi-colour TIRF microscopy assay with close-to-nm and sub-second precision, we measured the sizes of the stabilizing cap of individual microtubules. We find that the protective caps are formed by the extended binding regions of EB proteins. Cap lengths vary considerably and longer caps are more stable. Nevertheless, the trigger of instability lies in a short region at the end of the cap, as a quantitative model of cap stability demonstrates. Our study establishes the spatial and kinetic characteristics of the protective cap and provides an insight into the molecular mechanism by which its loss leads to the switch from microtubule growth to shrinkage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13470.001 PMID:27050486

  14. 4. TOP OF EAST ELEVATION WALL SHOWING BUTTRESS CAPS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TOP OF EAST ELEVATION WALL SHOWING BUTTRESS CAPS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Original Airport Entrance Overpass, Spanning original Airport Entrance Road at National Airport, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  15. Biochemical principles and inhibitors to interfere with viral capping pathways.

    PubMed

    Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Messenger RNAs are decorated by a cap structure, which is essential for their translation into proteins. Many viruses have developed strategies in order to cap their mRNAs. The cap is either synthetized by a subset of viral or cellular enzymes, or stolen from capped cellular mRNAs by viral endonucleases ('cap-snatching'). Reverse genetic studies provide evidence that inhibition of viral enzymes belonging to the capping pathway leads to inhibition of virus replication. The replication defect results from reduced protein synthesis as well as from detection of incompletely capped RNAs by cellular innate immunity sensors. Thus, it is now admitted that capping enzymes are validated antiviral targets, as their inhibition will support an antiviral response in addition to the attenuation of viral mRNA translation. In this review, we describe the different viral enzymes involved in mRNA capping together with relevant inhibitors, and their biochemical features useful in inhibitor discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.

    1987-12-10

    The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.

  17. gCap39 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein.

    PubMed

    Onoda, K; Yu, F X; Yin, H L

    1993-01-01

    gCap39 is a newly identified member of the Ca(2+)- and polyphosphoinositide-modulated gelsolin family of actin binding proteins which is different from gelsolin in several important respects: it caps filament ends, it does not sever filaments, it binds reversibly to actin, it is phosphorylated in vivo, and it is also present in the nucleus. gCap39 and gelsolin coexist in a variety of cells. To better understand the roles of gCap39 and gelsolin, we have compared their relative amounts and intracellular distributions. We found that gCap39 is very abundant in macrophages (accounting for 0.6% of total macrophage proteins), and is present in 12-fold molar excess to gelsolin. Both proteins are highly induced during differentiation of the promyelocytic leukemia cell line into macrophages. gCap39 is less abundant in fibroblasts (0.04% total proteins) and is present in equal molar ratio to gelsolin. The two proteins are colocalized in the cytoplasm, but gCap39 is also found in the nucleus while gelsolin is not. Nuclear gCap39 redistributes throughout the cytoplasm during mitosis and is excluded from regions containing chromosomes. Our results demonstrate that gCap39 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein which has unique as well as common functions compared with gelsolin.

  18. Polar Cap Area and Boundary Motion During Substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittnacher, M.; Germany, G. A.; Fillingim, M. O.; Parks, G. K.; Spann, James F., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The area of the polar cap as a function of local time and substorm phase was measured using images from the Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations during three substorms in January 1997. We measured changes in the polar cap area and motion of the poleward and equatorward boundary of the auroral oval as determined by UVI images. It was found that the polar cap boundary is strongly influenced by thinning of the oval, decrease in polar cap structures, the poleward expansion of the substorm at midnight and the fading of luminosity below the instrument sensitivity threshold. Generally these effects dominate over the latitudinal motion of the auroral oval at its equatorward edge. A new feature is that the polar cap region clears of precipitation during the substorm growth phase, which expands the size of the polar cap but may not necessarily be related to an expansion of the open flux. We present a new finding that the increase in polar cap area prior to onset and the decrease in the area following it are independent of the strength of the southward IMF component. For one case the polar cap area increased while the southward component of the IMF was no less than -0.5 nT. These observations have strong implications for models that use the polar cap area to estimate the magnitude of energy storage in the lobe magnetic field and loss during substorms.

  19. Building A Glacier Database For The Peninsula MuÑoz Gamero, Patagonia: A Basis For Monitoring Historic and Future Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnirch, M.; Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is located in the southernmost part of the Patag- onian Andes at 53S. It is partly covered by the ice cap and several outlet glaciers of the Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) plus some minor glaciers and firn fields. All to- gether the ice covered areas sum up to 260 sqkm. The GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. The aim of this study, was to document the present extent of the glaciated area of the Peninsula Muñoz Gamero and to quantify the historic (last 60 years) glacier retreat. The work was conducted and supported as part of the in- ternational and interdisciplinary working group 'Gran Campo Nevado'. Since digital topographic data for the area was non-existent, it had to be created using aerial im- agery and topographic paper maps. Contour information of altitude from maps, terrain information derived from a Landsat TM satellite image and stereographic data from aerial photographs were combined in a kind of knowledge based scheme to obtain a high quality digital elevation model (DEM). Using standard software and hardware tools of the low-budget range a digital orthophoto map of 1998, several orthophotos of 1942 and 1984 could be produced from the DEM generated before. All of this in- formation was incorporated in a GIS together with satellite imagery. The GIS served to outline the extent of the present glaciation of the peninsula, as well as to compare the derived historic information. As a result, a spatial glacier database of the Peninsula Muñoz Gamero was produced which is currently being incorporated into the Global Land Ice Measurement from Space (GLIMS) database. The comparison of historic and present orthophotos showed a dramatic glacier retreat lasting for at least 60

  20. Glacial landscape evolution on Hall Peninsula, Baffin Island, since the Last Glacial Maximum: insights into switching glacial dynamics and thermo-mechanical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.; Ross, M.

    2012-12-01

    Ice cover in north central Hall Peninsula, Baffin Island has evolved from full Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) cover during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to a thin ice cap that now covers about 800 km2 in the northeast sector. The exposed subglacial landscape consists of contrasting geomorphological zones which allude to complex spatial and temporal changes in basal ice dynamics and thermal regime since LGM. We used satellite imagery, field observations, a large till geochemical database, and terrestrial cosmogenic isotopes to get new insights into subglacial erosion intensity, ice flow dynamics, and glacial history. Fields of streamlined bedrock-cored ridges (e.g. drumlins) have been mapped and their elongation ratios calculated. The density of bedrock-controlled lakes, which has traditionally been used as a proxy for subglacial erosion intensity on Baffin Island, has been re-examined using modern GIS techniques. This work has revealed a mosaic of glacial terrain zones each consisting of characteristics that are distinct from the other zones. Five glacial terrain zones (GTZ) have been recognized. One zone (GTZ 1) is characterized by a broad flowset of northeast trending streamlined hills and parallel paleo-flow indicators. It also has the highest streamlined hill density, longest elongation ratios, and the highest lake density of the study area. This northeast flowset is crosscut locally by ice flow indicators that converge into troughs that now form a series of fjords. Landforms and ice flow indicators of this younger system (GTZ 2) are traced inland showing propagation of the channelized system into this portion of the LIS. The central area of the peninsula contains a zone of thicker till and rolling topography (GTZ 3) as well as a zone consisting of southeast trending features and associated perpendicular moraines (GTZ 4). The modern ice cap and its past extension form the last zone (GTZ 5). The preservation of the northeast system (GTZ 1) outside of the