Davies, Shireen-A; Cabrero, Pablo; Povsic, Manca; Johnston, Natalie R; Terhzaz, Selim; Dow, Julian A T
The capa peptide family, originally identified in the tobacco hawk moth, Manduca sexta, is now known to be present in many insect families, with increasing publications on capa neuropeptides each year. The physiological actions of capa peptides vary depending on the insect species but capa peptides have key myomodulatory and osmoregulatory functions, depending on insect lifestyle, and life stage. Capa peptide signaling is thus critical for fluid homeostasis and survival, making study of this neuropeptide family attractive for novel routes for insect control. In Dipteran species, including the genetically tractable Drosophila melanogaster, capa peptide action is diuretic; via elevation of nitric oxide, cGMP and calcium in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules. The identification of the capa receptor (capaR) in several insect species has shown this to be a canonical GPCR. In D. melanogaster, ligand-activated capaR activity occurs in a dose-dependent manner between 10(-6) and 10(-12)M. Lower concentrations of capa peptide do not activate capaR, either in adult or larval Malpighian tubules. Use of transgenic flies in which capaR is knocked-down in only Malpighian tubule principal cells demonstrates that capaR modulates tubule fluid secretion rates and in doing so, sets the organismal response to desiccation. Thus, capa regulates a desiccation-responsive pathway in D. melanogaster, linking its role in osmoregulation and fluid homeostasis to environmental response and survival. The conservation of capa action between some Dipteran species suggests that capa's role in desiccation tolerance may not be confined to D. melanogaster.
Predel, R; Wegener, C
CAPA peptides have been isolated from a broad range of insect species as well as an arachnid, and can be grouped into the periviscerokinin and pyrokinin peptide families. In insects, CAPA peptides are the characteristic and most abundant neuropeptides in the abdominal neurohemal system. In many species, CAPA peptides exert potent myotropic effects on different muscles such as the heart. In others, including blood-sucking insects able to transmit serious diseases, CAPA peptides have strong diuretic or anti-diuretic effects and thus are potentially of medical importance. CAPA peptides undergo cell-type-specific sorting and packaging, and are the first insect neuropeptides shown to be differentially processed. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the structure, distribution, receptors and physiological actions of the CAPA peptides.
Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.
Career assessment has advanced on several fronts, enabling a CAPA integrative online system for exploring college majors with unprecedented precision and utility. The key inventories in the system are the CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI), with its 6 general and 27 specific scales, and the CAPA Interest Inventory, with its 6 general and 35 specific…
Koehler, Rene; Predel, Reinhard
Dictyoptera which consist of cockroaches, termites, and praying mantids are among the oldest pterygote insects known. Whereas the localization and sequences of neuropeptides from a number of cockroaches are very well known, nearly nothing is known about the neuropeptides typical of praying mantids. In this study, the neuroanatomy of the median neuroendocrine system in the abdominal ventral nerve cord and the sequences of the CAPA-peptides which are expressed in the respective neuroendocrine cells were analyzed. Altogether, 40 species belonging to different families of Mantodea were included. In contrast to cockroaches, the mantids mostly express two CAPA-periviscerokinins (PVKs), only in Mantis religiosa a third PVK was identified. These PVKs are sequence-related to the PVKs of basal cockroaches (Polyphagidae). In a group of closely related Mantodea (Paramantinae), extended forms of PVK-2 were observed. As shown, these forms are possibly the result of substitutions in the N-terminal cleavage sites of the respective PVKs. No trace of a CAPA-pyrokinin was found in any of the praying mantids.
It is often cumbersome to reuse or share web-based materials developed for a particular course. The LON-CAPA project based at Michigan State University is being supported by an Information Technology Research grant from the National Science Foundation (as well as other means) to investigate means of improving resource sharing and reuseability. The LON-CAPA (Learning Online Network with Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach) combines the CAPA assessment engine (homework, quizzes, exams) with a full course delivery system. The system is being piloted at Michigan State and several other institutions. The Ohio University Department of Physics and Astronomy will begin using the system beginning Winter 2002. I will discuss the basic concepts and capabilities of the LON-CAPA system. Background information on the system can be found at the URL: http://www.lon-capa.org.
Terhzaz, Selim; Teets, Nicholas M.; Cabrero, Pablo; Henderson, Louise; Ritchie, Michael G.; Nachman, Ronald J.; Dow, Julian A. T.; Denlinger, David L.; Davies, Shireen-A.
The success of insects is linked to their impressive tolerance to environmental stress, but little is known about how such responses are mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Here we show that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene is a desiccation- and cold stress-responsive gene in diverse dipteran species. Using targeted in vivo gene silencing, physiological manipulations, stress-tolerance assays, and rationally designed neuropeptide analogs, we demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster capa neuropeptide gene and its encoded peptides alter desiccation and cold tolerance. Knockdown of the capa gene increases desiccation tolerance but lengthens chill coma recovery time, and injection of capa peptide analogs can reverse both phenotypes. Immunohistochemical staining suggests that capa accumulates in the capa-expressing Va neurons during desiccation and nonlethal cold stress but is not released until recovery from each stress. Our results also suggest that regulation of cellular ion and water homeostasis mediated by capa peptide signaling in the insect Malpighian (renal) tubules is a key physiological mechanism during recovery from desiccation and cold stress. This work augments our understanding of how stress tolerance is mediated by neuroendocrine signaling and illustrates the use of rationally designed peptide analogs as agents for disrupting protective stress tolerance. PMID:25730885
Terhzaz, Selim; Teets, Nicholas M; Cabrero, Pablo; Henderson, Louise; Ritchie, Michael G; Nachman, Ronald J; Dow, Julian A T; Denlinger, David L; Davies, Shireen-A
The success of insects is linked to their impressive tolerance to environmental stress, but little is known about how such responses are mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Here we show that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene is a desiccation- and cold stress-responsive gene in diverse dipteran species. Using targeted in vivo gene silencing, physiological manipulations, stress-tolerance assays, and rationally designed neuropeptide analogs, we demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster capa neuropeptide gene and its encoded peptides alter desiccation and cold tolerance. Knockdown of the capa gene increases desiccation tolerance but lengthens chill coma recovery time, and injection of capa peptide analogs can reverse both phenotypes. Immunohistochemical staining suggests that capa accumulates in the capa-expressing Va neurons during desiccation and nonlethal cold stress but is not released until recovery from each stress. Our results also suggest that regulation of cellular ion and water homeostasis mediated by capa peptide signaling in the insect Malpighian (renal) tubules is a key physiological mechanism during recovery from desiccation and cold stress. This work augments our understanding of how stress tolerance is mediated by neuroendocrine signaling and illustrates the use of rationally designed peptide analogs as agents for disrupting protective stress tolerance.
Yang, John; Kerwin, Sean M; Bowman, Phillip D; Stavchansky, Salomon
A validated C₁₈ reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection at 320 nm was developed and used for the stability evaluation of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in rat plasma. CAPA is the amide derivative of CAPE, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound that has been found to be active in a variety of biological pathways. CAPA has been shown to protect endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress to a similar degree to CAPE. CAPE has been reported to be rapidly hydrolyzed in rat plasma via esterase enzymes. CAPA is expected to display a longer half-life than CAPE by avoiding hydrolysis via plasma esterases. The stability of CAPA and CAPE in rat plasma was investigated at three temperatures. The half-lives for CAPA were found to be 41.5, 10 and 0.82 h at 25, 37 and 60 °C, respectively. The half-lives for CAPE were found to be 1.95, 0.35 and 0.13 h at 4, 25 and 37 °C, respectively. The energy of activation was found to be 22.1 kcal/mol for CAPA and 14.1 kcal/mol for CAPE. A more stable compound could potentially extend the beneficial effects of CAPE.
Choi, Man-Yeon; Köhler, Rene; Vander Meer, Robert K; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard
Recent genome analyses suggested the absence of a number of neuropeptide genes in ants. One of the apparently missing genes was the capa gene. Capa gene expression in insects is typically associated with the neuroendocrine system of abdominal ganglia; mature CAPA peptides are known to regulate diuresis and visceral muscle contraction. The apparent absence of the capa gene raised questions about possible compensation of these functions. In this study, we re-examined this controversial issue and searched for a potentially unrecognized capa gene in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We employed a combination of data mining and a traditional PCR-based strategy using degenerate primers designed from conserved amino acid sequences of insect capa genes. Our findings demonstrate that ants possess and express a capa gene. As shown by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, processed products of the S. invicta capa gene include three CAPA periviscerokinins and low amounts of a pyrokinin which does not have the C-terminal WFGPRLa motif typical of CAPA pyrokinins in other insects. The capa gene was found with two alternative transcripts in the CNS. Within the ventral nerve cord, two capa neurons were immunostained in abdominal neuromeres 2-5, respectively, and projected into ventrally located abdominal perisympathetic organs (PSOs), which are the major hormone release sites of abdominal ganglia. The ventral location of these PSOs is a characteristic feature and was also found in another ant, Atta sexdens.
Background: Insects are so successful because of great resistance to environmental stress, yet little is known about how such responses may be mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Results: We provide evidence that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene and peptide are critical mediators of desic...
Neupert, Susanne; Russell, William K; Russell, David H; Predel, Reinhard
CAPA-peptides have been isolated from a broad range of insect species and are typical of the neurosecretory system of the abdominal ventral nerve cord. In Rhodnius prolixus, which is known to transmit Chagas' disease, CAPA-peptides have potent antidiuretic effects. Recently, two capa-genes were isolated from this hemipteran insect; it was the first description of the occurrence of multiple capa-genes from a single insect species. The expression of peptides from one of these capa-genes was confirmed by mass spectrometry Paluzzi (2008) . In this study, the abdominal neuroendocrine system of R. prolixus was screened for the occurrence of products of the second annotated capa-gene. Single nerve preparations of abdominal segmental nerves 1-3 of R. prolixus were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and the products of both capa-genes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The co-occurrence of the different CAPA-peptides, including CAPA-precursor peptides, in all spectra from abdominal segmental nerves 1 to 3 suggests a common expression of both capa-genes in the same neuroendocrine cells. A comparison of mass spectra obtained from abdominal segmental nerves with those of the subesophageal ganglion (SEG) revealed an obvious differential processing of the CAPA-precursors within the CNS.
Terhzaz, Selim; Overend, Gayle; Sebastian, Sujith; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A
The capa peptide family exists in a very wide range of insects including species of medical, veterinary and agricultural importance. Capa peptides act via a cognate G-protein coupled receptor (capaR) and have a diuretic action on the Malpighian tubules of Dipteran and Lepidopteran species. Capa signaling is critical for fluid homeostasis and has been associated with desiccation tolerance in the fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The mode of capa signaling is highly complex, affecting calcium, nitric oxide and cyclic GMP pathways. Such complex physiological regulation by cell signaling pathways may occur ultimately for optimal organismal stress tolerance to multiple stressors. Here we show that D. melanogaster capa-1 (Drome-capa-1) acts via the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB) stress signaling network. Human PCR gene arrays of capaR-transfected Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293 cells showed that Drome-capa-1 increases expression of NF-kB, NF-kB regulated genes including IL8, TNF and PTGS2, and NF-kB pathway-associated transcription factors i.e. EGR1, FOS, cJUN. Furthermore, desiccated HEK293 cells show increased EGR1, EGR3 and PTGS2 - but not IL8, expression. CapaR-transfected NF-kB reporter cells showed that Drome-capa-1 increased NF-kB promoter activity via increased calcium. In Malpighian tubules, both Drome-capa-1 stimulation and desiccation result in increased gene expression of the D. melanogaster NF-kB orthologue, Relish; as well as EGR-like stripe and klumpfuss. Drome-capa-1 also induces Relish translocation in tubule principal cells. Targeted knockdown of Relish in only tubule principal cells reduces desiccation stress tolerance of adult flies. Together, these data suggest that Drome-capa-1 acts in desiccation stress tolerance, by activating NF-kB signaling.
Kashy, E.; Sherrill, B. M.; Tsai, Y.; Thaler, D.; Weinshank, D.; Engelmann, M.; Morrissey, D. J.
A new integrated computer-assisted personalized assignment (CAPA) system that creates individual assignments for each student has been developed and found to be a powerful motivator. The CAPA system allows students to enter their answers to personalized assignments directly via networked terminals, gives immediate feedback and hints (allowing challenging questions), while providing the instructor with on-line performance information. The students are encouraged to study together which is known to be an effective learning strategy, but each must still obtain his/her own correct answers. Students are allowed to re-enter solutions to the problems before the due date without penalty, thus providing students with different skills levels the opportunity and incentive to understand the material without being judged during the learning process. The features and operation of the system are described, observations on its use in an introductory general physics class are reported, and some of the highly favorable student reactions are included.
Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Russell, William K; Hauser, Frank; Russell, David H; Li, Andrew; Nachman, Ronald J
Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly inventory of neuropeptides, including those that regulate diuretic processes, is completely unknown. Direct MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric analysis of dissected ganglia of Phlebotomus papatasi, combined with a data-mining of sandfly genome 'contigs', was used to identify native CAPA-peptides, a peptide class associated with the regulation of diuresis in other hematophagous insects. The CAPA-peptides identified in this study include two CAPA-PVKs, differentially processed CAPA-PK, and an additional CAPA precursor peptide. The mass spectrometric analysis of different parts of the neuroendocrine system of the sandfly indicate that it represents the first insect which accumulates CAPA-PVKs exclusively in hormone release sites of abdominal ganglia and CAPA-PK (nearly) exclusively in the corpora cardiaca. Additionally, sandflies feature the smallest abdominal ganglia (~35 μm) where CAPA-peptides could be detected so far. The small size of the abdominal ganglia does not appear to affect the development of the median neurosecretory system as it obviously does in another comparably small insect species, Nasonia vitripennis, in which no capa-gene expression was found. Rather, immunocytochemical analyses confirm that the general architecture in sandflies appears identical to that of much larger mosquitoes.
Pollock, Valerie P; McGettigan, James; Cabrero, Pablo; Maudlin, Ian M; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A
In D. melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules, the capa peptides stimulate production of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased fluid transport. The roles of NO synthase (NOS), NO and cGMP in capa peptide signalling were tested in several other insect species of medical relevance within the Diptera (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Glossina morsitans) and in one orthopteran out-group, Schistocerca gregaria. NOS immunoreactivity was detectable by immunocytochemistry in tubules from all species studied. D. melanogaster, A. aegypti and A. stephensi express NOS in only principal cells, whereas G. morsitans and S. gregaria show more general NOS expression in the tubule. Measurement of associated NOS activity (NADPH diaphorase) shows that both D. melanogaster capa-1 and the two capa peptides encoded in the A. gambiae genome, QGLVPFPRVamide (AngCAPA-QGL) and GPTVGLFAFPRVamide (AngCAPA-GPT), all stimulate NOS activity in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but not in S. gregaria. Furthermore, capa-stimulated NOS activity in all the Diptera was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME. All capa peptides stimulate an increase in cGMP content across the dipteran species, but not in the orthopteran S. gregaria. Similarly, all capa peptides tested stimulate fluid secretion in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but are either without effect or are inhibitory on S. gregaria. Consistent with these results, the Drosophila capa receptor was shown to be expressed in Drosophila tubules, and its closest Anopheles homologue was shown to be expressed in Anopheles tubules. Thus, we provide the first demonstration of physiological roles for two putative A. gambiae neuropeptides. We also demonstrate neuropeptide modulation of fluid secretion in tsetse tubule for the first time. Finally, we show the generality of capa peptide action, to stimulate NO/cGMP signalling and
Recent genome analyses suggested the absence of a number of neuropeptide genes and corresponding receptor genes in ants. That absence raised questions about compensation of functions of these peptides in hymenopteran insects. One of the missing genes is the capa-gene. CAPA-peptides are known to regu...
Pascarella, Andrea M.
A systematic study of the online homework system CAPA (Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignments) was carried out in the calculus-based introductory physics course at the University of Colorado, Boulder during the fall 2001 semester (N ≈ 500). This study looked at the effects CAPA had on student learning and attitudes. The students in this class were split into two groups. One group was initially assigned to CAPA; the other group was assigned to traditional homework. At mid-semester the groups switched identities (the students who began the course using CAPA had to complete traditional homework). Exam scores and Force and Motion Concept Evaluation gains showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Written quizzes and exams were collected from a smaller sample of students and analyzed using a problem-solving rubric. No statistically significant differences in the problem solving abilities of the groups were seen. Student opinions about the effect each homework type had on their learning were elicited. Students with non-expert-like epistemologies felt that CAPA was a better learning tool while students with expert-like epistemologies believed that traditional homework was a better learning tool. Problem solving interviews were conducted weekly with 9 students. From the analysis of this data a problem solving characterization of students using CAPA and traditional homework was inferred. Four types of problems solvers emerged---the CAPA Thinker, Traditional Thinker, CAPA Guesser, and Traditional Guesser. Thinkers tend to have expert-like epistemological beliefs. Guessers generally have non-expert-like epistemologies. On quantitative problems traditional homework promoted metacognitive processes in the Traditional Thinker and CAPA hindered self-evaluation among CAPA Thinkers. On qualitative problems, the opposite was observed to occur. When the students switched homework types at mid-semester it was expected that CAPA Thinkers would become
Robertson, T. H.
Qualitative questions in astronomy have been developed to operate under the CAPA web-based homework system. Multiple versions of similar questions and software randomization are used to create different homework sets for each student. The questions are grouped by concept and subject to create more challenging activities from relatively simple questions. These questions have been used for three semesters in five sections of ASTRO 100 which enrolled a total of 500 students over the past two years. Student surveys consistently indicate that they like the system and believe that it helps them to learn. Cognitive measures in the form of exam and course grades do not demonstrate statistically significant improvement in sections which have used the new homework system. This is due in part to a conscious effort to create exam questions which focus on content understanding and not memorization and the persistent student habit of studying for exams by memorizing homework. Differences have been identified between female and male students in terms of completion rates and performance on homework, quiz and exam scores. This work was supported in part by funding from the George and Frances Ball Fund for Academic Excellence and the 21st Century Fund for Faculty Development.
Choi, Man-Yeon; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Kim, A Young; Koh, Youngho
The family of FXPRLamide peptides serves as a major insect hormone. It is characterized by a core active amino acid sequence conserved at the C-terminal ends, and provides various physiological roles across the Insecta. In this study we identified and characterized pyrokinin (PK) and CAPA cDNAs encoding two FXPRLamide peptides, pyrokinin and CAPA-DH (diapause hormone), and two corresponding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii. Expressions of PK and CAPA mRNAs were differentially observed during all life stages except the embryo, and the detection of CAPA transcription was relatively strong compared with the PK gene in SWD. Both D. suzukii pyrokinin receptor (DrosuPKr) and CAPA-DH receptor (DrosuCAPA-DHr) were functionally expressed and confirmed through binding to PK and DH peptides. Differential expression of two GPCRs occurred during all life stages; a strong transcription of DrosuPKr was observed in the 3rd instar. DrosuCAPA-DHr was clearly expressed from the embryo to the larva, but not detected in the adult. Gene regulation during the life stages was not synchronized between ligand and receptor. For example, SWD CAPA mRNA has been up-regulated in the adult while CAPA-DHr was down-regulated. The difference could be from the CAPA mRNA translating multiple peptides including CAPA-DH and two CAPA-PVK (periviscerokinin) peptides to act on different receptors. Comparing the genes of SWD PK, CAPA, PKr and CAPA-DHr to four corresponding genes of D. melanogaster, SWD CAPA and the receptor are more similar to D. melanogaster than PK and the receptor. These data suggest that the CAPA gene could be evolutionally more conserved to have a common biological role in insects. In addition, the effect of Kozak sequences was investigated by the expression of the GPCRs with or without Kozak sequences in Sf9 insect cells. The Kozak sequenced PK receptor was significantly less active than the original (= no Kozak sequenced
Olsen, Stine S; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank
We cloned the cDNA of three evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and functionally expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One receptor, Ang-Capa-R, was only activated by the two Anopheles capa neuropeptides Ang-capa-1 (GPTVGLFAFPRVamide) and Ang-capa-2 (pQGLVPFPRVamide) with EC(50) values of 8.6x10(-9)M and 3.3x10(-9)M, respectively, but not by any other known mosquito neuropeptide. The second receptor, Ang-PK-1-R, was selectively activated by the Anopheles pyrokinin-1 peptides Ang-PK-1-1 (AGGTGANSAMWFGPRLamide) and Ang-PK-1-2 (AAAMWFGPRLamide) with EC(50) values of 3.3x10(-8)M and 2.5x10(-8)M, respectively, but not by mosquito capa or pyrokinin-2 peptides. For the third receptor, Ang-PK-2-R, the most potent ligands were the pyrokinin-2 peptides Ang-PK-2-1 (DSVGENHQRPPFAPRLamide) and Ang-PK-2-2 (NLPFSPRLamide) with EC(50) values of 5.2x10(-9)M and 6.4x10(-9)M, respectively. However, this receptor could also be activated by the two pyrokinins-1, albeit with lower potency (EC(50): 2-5x10(-8)M). Because Ang-capa-1 and -2 and Ang-PK-1-1 are located on one preprohormone and the other peptides on another prohormone, these results imply a considerable crosstalk between the capa, pyrokinin-1 and pyrokinin-2 systems. Gene structure and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that Ang-Capa-R was the orthologue of the Drosophila capa receptor CG14575, Ang-PK-1-R the orthologue of the Drosophila pyrokinin-1 receptor CG9918, and Ang-PK-2-R the orthologue of the Drosophila pyrokinin-2 receptors CG8784 and CG8795. This is the first report on the functional characterization and crosstalk properties of capa and pyrokinin receptors in mosquitoes.
Terhzaz, Selim; Cabrero, Pablo; Robben, Joris H.; Radford, Jonathan C.; Hudson, Brian D.; Milligan, Graeme; Dow, Julian A. T.; Davies, Shireen-A.
The capa peptide receptor, capaR (CG14575), is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for the D. melanogaster capa neuropeptides, Drm-capa-1 and -2 (capa-1 and -2). To date, the capa peptide family constitutes the only known nitridergic peptides in insects, so the mechanisms and physiological function of ligand-receptor signalling of this peptide family are of interest. Capa peptide induces calcium signaling via capaR with EC50 values for capa-1 = 3.06 nM and capa-2 = 4.32 nM. capaR undergoes rapid desensitization, with internalization via a b-arrestin-2 mediated mechanism but is rapidly re-sensitized in the absence of capa-1. Drosophila capa peptides have a C-terminal -FPRXamide motif and insect-PRXamide peptides are evolutionarily related to vertebrate peptide neuromedinU (NMU). Potential agonist effects of human NMU-25 and the insect -PRLamides [Drosophila pyrokinins Drm-PK-1 (capa-3), Drm-PK-2 and hugin-gamma [hugg
Terhzaz, Selim; Cabrero, Pablo; Robben, Joris H; Radford, Jonathan C; Hudson, Brian D; Milligan, Graeme; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A
The capa peptide receptor, capaR (CG14575), is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for the D. melanogaster capa neuropeptides, Drm-capa-1 and -2 (capa-1 and -2). To date, the capa peptide family constitutes the only known nitridergic peptides in insects, so the mechanisms and physiological function of ligand-receptor signalling of this peptide family are of interest. Capa peptide induces calcium signaling via capaR with EC₅₀ values for capa-1 = 3.06 nM and capa-2 = 4.32 nM. capaR undergoes rapid desensitization, with internalization via a b-arrestin-2 mediated mechanism but is rapidly re-sensitized in the absence of capa-1. Drosophila capa peptides have a C-terminal -FPRXamide motif and insect-PRXamide peptides are evolutionarily related to vertebrate peptide neuromedinU (NMU). Potential agonist effects of human NMU-25 and the insect -PRLamides [Drosophila pyrokinins Drm-PK-1 (capa-3), Drm-PK-2 and hugin-gamma [hugg
Seabra, Ana C; Malina, Robert M; Parker, Melissa; Seabra, André; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M
The Children's Attraction to Physical Activity (CAPA) scale assesses interest in and attraction to the physical activity (PA) of children of elementary school age. The original (25 items) and shorter versions (15 items) of the scale were developed and validated with American children. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the shorter version of the CAPA scale for use with Portuguese schoolchildren and to examine the invariance of the multidimensional factor structure of the scale in two samples. The sample comprised 683 children (7-10 years) from public primary schools. The sample was divided into calibration and cross-validation samples. The scale was translated into Portuguese and underwent forward translation, synthesis of the translation and backward translation and was then subjected to expert committee review, pretest and reliability assessment. Internal consistency for each of the five subscales within the a priori 5-factor structure of the CAPA scale was evaluated through Cronbach's alpha, followed by a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) for both the calibration and cross-validation samples. The maximum likelihood robust estimation method was used. The CFA demonstrated that a 5-factor structural model of the Portuguese translation of the CAPA scale was invariant. The construct analysed had the same basic meaning and structural and item differences within the two samples. The results indicated that the CAPA scale is appropriate for use with Portuguese schoolchildren. The availability of a valid and reliable scale should enhance opportunities for further understanding of children's involvement in PA.
Iversen, Annette; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P
The Drosophila Genome Project website contains an annotated gene (CG14575) for a G protein-coupled receptor. We cloned this receptor and found that the cloned cDNA did not correspond to the annotated gene; it partly contained different exons and additional exons located at the 5(')-end of the annotated gene. We expressed the coding part of the cloned cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells and found that the receptor was activated by two neuropeptides, capa-1 and -2, encoded by the Drosophila capability gene. Database searches led to the identification of a similar receptor in the genome from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (58% amino acid residue identities; 76% conserved residues; and 5 introns at identical positions within the two insect genes). Because capa-1 and -2 and related insect neuropeptides stimulate fluid secretion in insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, the identification of this first insect capa receptor will advance our knowledge on insect renal function.
Niebuhr, B S; Muenzen, P
The CPAN and CAPA nursing certification programs, sponsored by ABPANC, are designed to promote and enhance the quality of care delivered to patients who have received anesthesia. This article describes ABPANC's most recent Role Delineation Study (RDS), also called the Study of Practice. The work of a think tank that convened to reconceptualize the organizing framework for the certification examination programs is described, including the results of an environmental analysis. A variety of methods were used to conduct the study. As a result of study findings, the CPAN and CAPA programs have been redesigned to focus on the physiological, behavioral and cognitive, safety, and advocacy needs of perianesthesia patients. Those needs and the knowledge base that is required of perianesthesia nurses to meet those needs are defined. The first CPAN and CAPA examinations using the new framework will be given November 3, 2001.
Vigneron, Nathalie; Abi Habib, Joanna; Van den Eynde, Benoît J
We recently developed a new assay to measure proteasome activity in vitro (CAPA for capture proteasome assay) , based on proteasome capture on an antibody-coated plate. When used with lysates originating from cells expressing either standard proteasome, immunoproteasome or intermediate proteasomes β5i or β1i-β5i, this assay allows the individual monitoring of the chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like and caspase-like activities of the corresponding proteasome subtypes. The efficiency and specificity of four proteasome inhibitors were studied using the CAPA assay, demonstrating the potential of this assay for the development of subtype-specific proteasome inhibitors.
Predel, Reinhard; Russell, William K; Neupert, Susanne; Russell, David H; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nachman, Ronald J
A direct mass spectrometric investigation of nerve homologs of the abdominal perisympathetic organs was employed to reveal the first and complete sequences of CAPA peptides from a hemipteran species, the southern green stinkbug Nezara viridula. Side-chain fragmentations allowed the assignment of internal Leu/Ile; on-plate acetylation was used to distinguish between the mass-related Lys and Gln. The following sequences were obtained: DQLFPFPRV-NH(2) (CAPA-PVK-1), EQLIPFPRV-NH(2) (CAPA-PVK-2), and NGSAGNGGLWFGPRL/I-NH(2) (CAPA-PK). CAPA-PVKs are associated with the regulation of diuresis in insects, and identification of those native to a hemipteran will provide the experimental basis to better understand regulation of water balance in this family of insects.
Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard
In insects, posttranslational modifications of neuropeptides are largely restricted to C- and N-terminal amino acids. The most common modifications, N-terminal pyroglutamate formation and C-terminal α-amidation, may prevent a fast degradation of these messenger molecules. This is particularly important for peptide hormones. Other common posttranslational modifications of proteins such as glycosylation and phosphorylation seem to be very rare in insect neuropeptides. To check this assumption, we used a computer algorithm to search an extensive data set of MALDI-TOF mass spectra from cockroach tissues for ion signal patterns indicating peptide phosphorylation. The results verify that phosphorylation is indeed very rare. However, a candidate was found and experimentally verified as phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin (GGGGpSGETSGMWFGPRL-NH2) in the cockroach Lamproblatta albipalpus (Blattidae, Lamproblattinae). Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation site as Ser(5). Phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin was then also detected in most other cockroach lineages (e.g. Blaberidae, Polyphagidae) but not in closely related blattid species such as Periplaneta americana. This is remarkable since the sequence of CAPA pyrokinin is identical in Lamproblatta and Periplaneta. A consensus sequence of CAPA pyrokinins of cockroaches revealed a conserved motif that suggests phosphorylation by a Four-jointed/FAM20C related kinase.
Evans, Andrea; Rasmussen, Peter; Fortin, Vincent
CaPA (Canadian Precipitation Analysis) is a data assimilation system which employs statistical interpolation to combine observed precipitation with gridded precipitation fields produced by Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) climate model into a final gridded precipitation analysis. Precipitation is important in many fields and applications, including agricultural water management projects, flood control programs, and hydroelectric power generation planning. Precipitation is a key input to hydrological models, and there is a desire to have access to the best available information about precipitation in time and space. The principal goal of CaPA is to produce this type of information. In order to perform the necessary statistical interpolation, CaPA requires the estimation of a semi-variogram. This semi-variogram is used to describe the spatial correlations between precipitation innovations, defined as the observed precipitation amounts minus the GEM forecasted amounts predicted at the observation locations. Currently, CaPA uses a single isotropic variogram across the entire analysis domain. The present project investigates the implications of this choice by first conducting a basic variographic analysis of precipitation innovation data across the Canadian prairies, with specific interest in identifying and quantifying potential anisotropy within the domain. This focus is further expanded by identifying the effect of storm type on the variogram. The ultimate goal of the variographic analysis is to develop improved semi-variograms for CaPA that better capture the spatial complexities of precipitation over the Canadian prairies. CaPA presently applies a Box-Cox data transformation to both the observations and the GEM data, prior to the calculation of the innovations. The data transformation is necessary to satisfy the normal distribution assumption, but introduces a significant bias. The second part of the investigation aims at devising a bias
Martin-Garcia, Jose M; Hansen, Debra T; Zook, James; Loskutov, Andrey V; Robida, Mark D; Craciunescu, Felicia M; Sykes, Kathryn F; Wachter, Rebekka M; Fromme, Petra; Allen, James P
The capA gene (FTT0807) from Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis SCHU S4 encodes a 44.4 kDa integral membrane protein composed of 403 amino acid residues that is part of an apparent operon that encodes at least two other membrane proteins, CapB, and CapC, which together play a critical role in the virulence and pathogenesis of this bacterium. The capA gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminal His6-tagged fusion with a folding reporter green fluorescent protein (frGFP). Purification procedures using several detergents were developed for the fluorescing and membrane-bound product, yielding approximately 30 mg of pure protein per liter of bacterial culture. Dynamic light scattering indicated that CapA-frGFP was highly monodisperse, with a size that was dependent upon both the concentration and choice of detergent. Circular dichroism showed that CapA-frGFP was stable over the range of 3-9 for the pH, with approximately half of the protein having well-defined α-helical and β-sheet secondary structure. The addition of either sodium chloride or calcium chloride at concentrations producing ionic strengths above 0.1 M resulted in a small increase of the α-helical content and a corresponding decrease in the random-coil content. Secondary-structure predictions on the basis of the analysis of the sequence indicate that the CapA membrane protein has two transmembrane helices with a substantial hydrophilic domain. The hydrophilic domain is predicted to contain a long disordered region of 50-60 residues, suggesting that the increase of α-helical content at high ionic strength could arise because of electrostatic interactions involving the disordered region. CapA is shown to be an inner-membrane protein and is predicted to play a key cellular role in the assembly of polysaccharides.
Please cite this article in press as: Predel R, et al. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) – vector for...the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) – vector for leishmaniasis disease 1 2 Reinhard Predela,e,∗, Susanne Neuperta,e...neuropeptides24 Periviscerokinins25 Corazonin26 Phlebotomus papatasi27 Psychodidae28 Differential processing29 a b s t r a c t Sandflies
The capA gene (FTT0807) from Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis SCHU S4 encodes a 44.4 kDa integral membrane protein composed of 403 amino acid residues that is part of an apparent operon that encodes at least two other membrane proteins, CapB, and CapC, which together play a critical role in the virulence and pathogenesis of this bacterium. The capA gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminal His6-tagged fusion with a folding reporter green fluorescent protein (frGFP). Purification procedures using several detergents were developed for the fluorescing and membrane-bound product, yielding approximately 30 mg of pure protein per liter of bacterial culture. Dynamic light scattering indicated that CapA-frGFP was highly monodisperse, with a size that was dependent upon both the concentration and choice of detergent. Circular dichroism showed that CapA-frGFP was stable over the range of 3–9 for the pH, with approximately half of the protein having well-defined α-helical and β-sheet secondary structure. The addition of either sodium chloride or calcium chloride at concentrations producing ionic strengths above 0.1 M resulted in a small increase of the α-helical content and a corresponding decrease in the random-coil content. Secondary-structure predictions on the basis of the analysis of the sequence indicate that the CapA membrane protein has two transmembrane helices with a substantial hydrophilic domain. The hydrophilic domain is predicted to contain a long disordered region of 50–60 residues, suggesting that the increase of α-helical content at high ionic strength could arise because of electrostatic interactions involving the disordered region. CapA is shown to be an inner-membrane protein and is predicted to play a key cellular role in the assembly of polysaccharides. PMID:24593131
Loi, Poh Kheng; Tublitz, Nathan J
The gene coding for cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP2b; pELYAFPRV) has been isolated and sequenced from the moth Manduca sexta (GenBank accession #AY649544). Because of its significant homology to the CAPA gene in Drosophila melanogaster, this gene is called the Manduca CAPA gene. The Manduca CAPA gene is 958 nucleotides long with 29 untranslated nucleotides from the beginning of the sequence to the putative start initiation site. The CAPA gene has a single open reading frame, 441 nucleotides long, that codes for a predicted precursor protein of 147 amino acids. The predicted prepropeptide encodes a single copy of each of three deduced propeptides, a CAP2b propeptide, with a Q substituted for an E at the N-terminus (QLYAFPRVa), and two novel CAP2b-related propeptides (DGVLNLYPFPRVa and TEGPGMWFGPRLa). To reduce confusion and to adopt a more standardized nomenclature, we rename pELYAFPRVa as Mas-CAPA-1 and assign the names of Mas-CAPA-2 to DGVLNLYPFPRVa and Mas-PK-1 (Pyrokinin-1) to TEGPGMWFGPRLa. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of the CAPA gene in the Manduca central nervous system (CNS) was determined in all major post-embryonic stages using in situ hybridization techniques. The CAPA gene is expressed in a total of 27 pairs of neurons in the post-embryonic Manduca CNS. A total of 16 pairs of cells is observed in the brain, two pairs in the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG), one pair in the third thoracic ganglion (T3), one pair in each unfused abdominal ganglion (A1-A6) and two pairs in the fused terminal ganglion. The mRNA from the CAPA gene is present in nearly every ganglion in each post-embryonic stage. The number of cells expressing the CAPA gene varies during post-embryonic life, starting at 54 cells in first-instar larvae and declining to a minimum of 14 cells midway through adult development.
Yang, John; Marriner, Gwendolyn A; Wang, Xinyu; Bowman, Phillip D; Kerwin, Sean M; Stavchansky, Salomon
A series of catechol ring-fluorinated derivatives of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) were synthesized and screened for cytoprotective activity against H2O2 induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). CAPA and three fluorinated analogs were found to be significantly cytoprotective when compared to control, with no significant difference in cytoprotection between caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and CAPA.
Predel, Reinhard; Russell, William K; Tichy, Shane E; Russell, David H; Nachman, Ronald J
Neuropeptides of the capa-gene are typical of the abdominal neurosecretory system of insects. In this study, we investigated these peptides in two widely distributed and large pest flies, namely Musca domestica and Neobellieria bullata. Using a combination of MALDI-TOF and ESI-QTOF mass spectrometry, periviscerokinins and a pyrokinin were analyzed from single perisympathetic organ preparations. The species-specific peptide sequences differ remarkably between the related dipteran species. These differences could make it possible to develop peptide-analogs with group- or species-specific efficacy.
Fortin, Vincent; Roy, Guy; Donaldson, Norman; Mahidjiba, Ahmed
The Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA) is a data analysis system used operationally at the Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC) since April 2011 to produce gridded 6-h and 24-h precipitation accumulations in near real-time on a regular grid covering all of North America. The current resolution of the product is 10-km. Due to the low density of the observational network in most of Canada, the system relies on a background field provided by the Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS) of Environment Canada, which is a short-term weather forecasting system for North America. For this reason, the North American configuration of CaPA is known as the Regional Deterministic Precipitation Analysis (RDPA). Early in the development of the CaPA system, weather radar reflectivity was identified as a very promising additional data source for the precipitation analysis, but necessary quality control procedures and bias-correction algorithms were lacking for the radar data. After three years of development and testing, a new version of CaPA-RDPA system was implemented in November 2014 at CMC. This version is able to assimilate radar quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) from all 31 operational Canadian weather radars. The radar QPE is used as an observation source and not as a background field, and is subject to a strict quality control procedure, like any other observation source. The November 2014 upgrade to CaPA-RDPA was implemented at the same time as an upgrade to the RDPS system, which brought minor changes to the skill and bias of CaPA-RDPA. This paper uses the frequency bias indicator (FBI), the equitable threat score (ETS) and the departure from the partial mean (DPM) in order to assess the improvements to CaPA-RDPA brought by the assimilation of radar QPE. Verification focuses on the 6-h accumulations, and is done against a network of 65 synoptic stations (approximately two stations per radar) that were withheld from the station data assimilated by Ca
Kortemeyer, Gerd; Kashy, Edwin; Benenson, Walter; Bauer, Wolfgang
We discuss the development and functionality of the LON-CAPA system with a particular focus on its homework and examination functionality. We also describe its more general approach to course management and its infrastructure for course content sharing and reuse. We then focus on measures of student learning and the effectiveness of different content types.
Paluzzi, Jean-Paul V
Insects have adapted to live in a wide variety of habitats and utilize an array of feeding strategies that present challenges to their ability to maintain osmotic balance. Regardless of the feeding strategy, water and ion levels within the haemolymph (insect blood) are maintained within a narrow range. This homeostasis involves the action of a variety of tissues, but is often chiefly regulated by the excretory system. Until recently, most research on the hormonal control of the excretory tissues has focused on factors known to have diuretic activities. In this mini-review, the current state of knowledge on anti-diuretic factors in insects will be discussed with a particular emphasis on the CAPA peptides in the blood-feeding Chagas' disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus.
Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.; Gardner, J.V.; McCulloch, D.S.; Masson, D.
Long-range side scan (GLORIA) sonographs and seismic reflection data acquired during a survey of the western US Exclusive Economic Zone in 1984, coupled with information from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites, provide new insights into the growth and evolution of the Delgada Fan. Construction of the fan commenced in the latest Miocene (~6 Ma) following the filling of the Neogene Point Arena Basin. The large size of the fan is incompatible with the small present-day supply of sediment to the canyon system. The GLORIA data show the Delgada Fan to be a hybrid-type fan, exhibiting characteristics of both elongate and radial fans. The morphology and volume of the fan, along with evidence for a decline in accumulation rates on the lower fan during the Quaternary period, suggest that the fan experienced an early growth phase (latest Miocene and Pliocene) characterized by relatively rapid progradation of elongate fan lobes followed by a period (Quaternary) of slower growth that has featured a shift of depocenters to sites closer to the canyons and a transition to distributary channels bordered by less prominent levees and overbank deposits. We examine the growth of Delgada Fan in relation to the Neogene evolution of the North American-Pacific plate boundary using a series of paleogeographic reconstructions based on recently published time displacement histories of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ), the San Andreas fault (SAF), and the Pacific plate, upon which the fan rests. The time displacement curves for the SAF and the MTJ suggest that the MTJ and Mendocino Fracture Zone overtook and passed Point Arena Basin at about 10 Ma when the basin lay immediately southwest of the present San Francisco Bay area. We suggest that the MTJ joined the SAF at approximately that time and location, thus making the SAF the master fault in the transform system. -from Authors
of the amino acid sequence of Ixori-PVK (PALIPFPRV-NH2), a periviscerokinin which had previously been identified from two other ticks, Ixodes ricinus...mass spectrometric single cell analysis. De novo sequencing yielded an amino acid sequence identical with the CAPA-PVK of Ixodes ricinus and Boophilus... manufacturer as: ‘none’, ‘medium’ and ‘high’. The fragmentation patterns from these three different settings were used to determine the sequence of the
Fuggle, Peter; McHugh, Annie; Gore, Lucy; Dixon, Emily; Curran, Daniel; Cutinha, Darren
Health-care systems are under increasing pressure to deliver more care with similar or even less resources and there is concern that this may be achieved at the cost of reduced clinical effectiveness. In Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), the Choice and Partnership Approach (CAPA) has been widely adopted as a way of increasing the efficient use of limited service resources. Some evaluations have reported increased patient flow and reduced waiting times, but it remains unknown whether such changes have been achieved at a cost of clinical effectiveness. This article describes a pragmatic multi-method evaluation of a CAMHS service reporting service outcomes (client satisfaction, waiting times, and patient flow) and clinical outcomes (clinician-rated clinical outcomes and goals achieved by families). Results showed improved service outcomes (high levels of client satisfaction and reduced waiting times) and an increase in patient flow (49 cases increased to 72 cases over an equivalent time period). Clinical outcomes showed no reduction in effectiveness and a significant improvement against the agreed goals of the intervention. The evaluation suggested that a well-structured goal-focused patient flow system may improve services by increasing patient flow while maintaining high satisfaction levels, without negatively impacting clinical effectiveness.
Pollák, Edit; Eckert, Manfred; Molnár, László; Predel, Reinhard
A unique costorage of neuropeptides was recently found in the abdominal perisympathetic organs (PSOs) of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Having specific antisera directed against all peptides belonging to this neurosecretory system, we examined the sorting of PSO-peptides in the soma of the median neurosecretory cells of abdominal ganglia by using immunoelectron microscopic double stainings. The data indicate that all six abundant neuropeptides of this neurohormonal system, which includes three capa-gene related products, are primarily incorporated into separate vesicles. These vesicles fuse with each other in the cytoplasm and become translucent on their way to the axon hillock. By means of light microscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, an identical population of neuropeptides was found in interneurons of the brain. As revealed by subsequent immunoelectron microscopic analysis, the peptides of these cells are separately packed into dense core vesicles but do not fuse with each other. Thus, hitherto unknown cell-type-specific sorting mechanisms occur in neurosecretory cells and interneurons, respectively.
Rose, Elizabeth; Larkin, Dawne; Hands, Beth; Howard, Barbara; Parker, Helen
Attraction to physical activity is important to an individual's intrinsic motivation to engage in play, games and sports. While there are instruments designed to measure attraction to physical activity in middle childhood years, the lack of authentic measures in young children has impeded research in this area. In this study we sought to address the validity of a scale to tap young children's attraction to physical activity. Evidence for validity was based on internal consistency, content analysis, and factor structure. Australian school children (180 boys and 154 girls) from school year two, aged 6-8 years, were individually administered a modified version of the Children's Attraction to Physical Activity Scale (CAPA) [Brustad RJ. Who will go out to play? Parental and psychological influences on children's attraction to physical activity. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1993;5:210-23; Brustad RJ. Attraction to physical activity in urban school children: parental socialization and gender influences. Res Q Exerc Sport 1996;67:316-23]. The results indicated that internal consistency was acceptable for most of the subscales when negative statements were excluded from the analyses. Factor analysis revealed that the liking of games and sports, liking of physical exertion and exercise, and the importance of exercise subscales were more robust. Second order factor analysis indicated that the overall construct of attraction to physical activity was viable in this age group. With some modifications, the scale appears to provide a valid approach to the measurement of attraction to physical activity in young children.
Kim, H. T.; Kim, Y. B.; Jeon, J. W.; Jang, I. H.; Kapustin, G. A.; Kim, H. S.
The anisotropic NdFeB magnets were prepared from the melt-spun isotropic powders by CAPA process. The precursor isotropic magnet shows the uniform magnetic properties according to the overall position in the magnet. In the case of the anisotropic magnet, the outer position shows higher remanence and energy product compared to the center position. The magnetic properties of the anisotropic magnet obtained from Nd 14Fe 80B 6 powders are B=15 kG, iH=4.1 kOe and BH=36 MG Oe. In the case of addition of Zn to Nd 14Fe 80B 6 powders, the energy product increased because of the improved coercivity. The magnetic properties of the Zn-added magnet are B=14.5 kG, iH=9.7 kOe and BH=52 MG Oe. The Zn addition is effective to depress Nd 2Fe 14B grain growth of the interparticle regions during plastic deformation.
Ashgar, Sami S A; Oldfield, Neil J; Wooldridge, Karl G; Jones, Michael A; Irving, Greg J; Turner, David P J; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A A
Two putative autotransporter proteins, CapA and CapB, were identified in silico from the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168. The genes encoding each protein contain homopolymeric tracts, suggestive of phase variation mediated by a slipped-strand mispairing mechanism; in each case the gene sequence contained frameshifts at these positions. The C-terminal two-thirds of the two genes, as well as a portion of the predicted signal peptides, were identical; the remaining N-terminal portions were gene specific. Both genes were cloned and expressed; recombinant polypeptides were purified and used to raise rabbit polyclonal monospecific antisera. Using immunoblotting, expression of the ca.116-kDa CapA protein was demonstrated for in vitro-grown cells of strain NCTC11168, for 4 out of 11 recent human fecal isolates, and for 2 out of 8 sequence-typed strains examined. Expression of CapB was not detected for any of the strains tested. Surface localization of CapA was demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and immunogold electron microscopy. Export of CapA was inhibited by globomycin, reinforcing the bioinformatic prediction that the protein is a lipoprotein. A capA insertion mutant had a significantly reduced capacity for association with and invasion of Caco-2 cells and failed to colonize and persist in chickens, indicating that CapA plays a role in host association and colonization by Campylobacter. In view of this demonstrated role, we propose that CapA stands for Campylobacter adhesion protein A.
Berger, F; Normand, P; Potier, P
By use of Arthrobacter globiformis SI55, a psychrotrophic bacterium capable of growth between -5 and +32 degrees C, we cloned and sequenced capA, a gene homologous to cspA encoding the major cold shock protein in Escherichia coli. The deduced protein sequence has a high level of identity with the sequences of other CspA-related proteins from various sources, and no particular residue or domain that could be specific to cold-adapted microorganisms emerged. We show that CapA was produced very rapidly following cold shock, but unlike its mesophilic counterparts, it was still expressed during prolonged growth at low temperature. Its synthesis is regulated at the translational level, and we showed that growth resumption following a temperature downshift correlated with CapA expression. Transient inhibitions in protein synthesis during the first stages of the cold shock response severely impaired the subsequent acclimation of A. globiformis SI55 to low temperature and delayed CapA expression. The cold shock response in A. globiformis SI55 is an adaptative process in which CapA may play a crucial role. We suggest that low-temperature acclimation is conditioned mainly by the ability of cells to restore an active translational machinery after cold shock in a process that may be different from that present in mesophiles.
Paluzzi, Jean-Paul V; Naikkhwah, Wida; O'Donnell, Michael J
Insects contain an array of hormones that coordinate the actions of the excretory system to achieve osmotic and ionic balance. In the hematophagous insect, Rhodnius prolixus, two diuretic hormones have been identified, serotonin (5HT) and a corticotropin releasing factor-related peptide (RhoprDH), and both lead to an increase in fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules (MTs). However, only 5HT activates reabsorption by the lower MTs to recover K(+) and Cl(-). An anti-diuretic hormone (RhoprCAPA-α2) is believed to coordinate the cessation of the rapid diuresis following blood meal engorgement. However, the role of RhoprCAPA-α2 on fluid secretion by MTs stimulated by RhoprDH was previously unknown. Here we demonstrate that, unlike the inhibitory effect on 5HT-stimulated secretion by MTs, RhoprCAPA-α2 does not inhibit secretion stimulated by RhoprDH although it does abolish the synergism that occurs between the two diuretic hormones. In addition, we show that the natriuresis elicited by either diuretic hormone is reduced by RhoprCAPA-α2. Using electrophysiological tools, we investigate the possible mechanism by which this complex regulatory pathway is achieved. Analysis of the pH of secreted fluid as well as the triphasic response in transepithelial potential in MTs treated with diuretic hormones, suggests that RhoprCAPA-α2 does not inhibit the V-type H(+) ATPase. Taken together, these results indicate that RhoprCAPA-α2 functions to reduce the rapid diuresis following blood feeding, and in addition, it inhibits the natriuresis associated with diuretic hormone stimulated MTs. This may reflect an important regulatory mechanism related to the slow diuresis that occurs as the K(+)-rich blood cells are digested.
Ianowski, Juan P; Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Te Brugge, Victoria A; Orchard, Ian
Osmotic balance in insects is regulated by the excretory system, consisting of Malpighian tubules and the gut under the control of diuretic and antidiuretic factors. Terrestrial insects must conserve water, and antidiuresis is the norm, only interrupted by brief diuretic periods. Surprisingly, little is known about antidiuresis in insects. Two antidiuretic strategies have been described. The first antidiuretic mechanism involves the reabsorption of fluid from the primary urine in the hindgut. More recently, a second antidiuretic strategy was reported, consisting of inhibition of primary urine formation by the Malpighian tubules. Recently, we isolated, characterized, and cloned the gene encoding for the antidiuretic neurohormone (the neuropeptide RhoprCAPA-2) acting on the Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus. Here we describe a third, novel mechanism central to the antidiuretic strategy of R. prolixus, the inhibition of ion and fluid transport across the anterior midgut by RhoprCAPA-2. Our results show that RhoprCAPA-2 (1 micromol/l) reduces serotonin-stimulated fluid transport from 83 +/- 11 to 12 +/- 12 nl/min and equivalent short-circuit current from 20 +/- 4 to 5 +/- 0.7 microA/cm(2) in diuretic hormone-stimulated anterior midgut. RhoprCAPA-2 appears to function independently of intracellular cGMP or Ca(2+) in the midgut. Thus, the antidiuretic neurohormone RhoprCAPA-2 has multiple target tissues, and we hypothesize that RhoprCAPA-2 functions to coordinate the transport activity of the anterior midgut and Malpighian tubules so that the rate of fluid transport into the haemolymph by the anterior midgut matches the transport rate of Malpighian tubules to maintain the volume and ion composition of haemolymph.
Boluwade, A.; Rasmussen, P. F.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Fortin, V.; Guy, R.
The importance of precipitation measurement using estimates from satellite products cannot be over emphasized. Observations from space using sensors mounted on satellites cover wider areas and provide high spatial and temporal resolution. The estimates derived from this process are very useful in integrated hydrologic modeling, weather forecasting and monitoring landslides, droughts and floods, etc. Example of a satellite precipitation product is the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). TRMM was primarily designed to measure heavy-to-moderate rainfall over tropical and subtropical regions. GPM was designed to extend, enhance, and improve TRMM precipitation data. The primary objective of this study is the assimilation GPM satellite based precipitation estimates into the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). CaPA combines the Global Environmental Multi-Scale model (GEM) dataset and observed precipitation from monitoring stations to provide precipitation estimates at 6hr and 24hr time steps and spatial resolution of 10km covering North America. In the result, we used the Equitable Threat Score (ETS) as performance evaluation. GPM assimilation provides higher skill (ETS) at precipitation values below 3mm while being used as additional data source. GPM has better skill as background field at precipitation value above 3mm.
Roth, Steffen; Fromm, Bastian; Gäde, Gerd; Predel, Reinhard
Background Neuropeptide ligands have to fit exactly into their respective receptors and thus the evolution of the coding regions of their genes is constrained and may be strongly conserved. As such, they may be suitable for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within higher taxa. CAPA peptides of major lineages of cockroaches (Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Blattidae, Polyphagidae, Cryptocercidae) and of the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis were chosen to test the above hypothesis. The phylogenetic relationships within various groups of the taxon Dictyoptera (praying mantids, termites and cockroaches) are still highly disputed. Results Tandem mass spectrometry of neuropeptides from perisympathetic organs was used to obtain sequence data of CAPA peptides from single specimens; the data were analysed by Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Interference. The resulting cladograms, taking 61 species into account, show a topology which is in general agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, including the recent phylogenetic arrangement placing termites within the cockroaches. When sequence data sets from other neuropeptides, viz. adipokinetic hormones and sulfakinins, were included, the general topology of the cladogram did not change but bootstrap values increased considerably. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of neuropeptides of insects for solely phylogenetic purposes and concludes that sequences of short neuropeptides are suitable to complement molecular biological and morphological data for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. PMID:19257902
Nielsen, H; Persson, S; Olsen, K E P; Ejlertsen, T; Kristensen, B; Schønheyder, H C
The role of bacterial genes in the determination of the clinical spectrum of Campylobacter jejuni infection is unclear. We compared clinical isolates from invasive blood-stream infection with stool isolates from gastroenteritis and found no association of the putative virulence genes iam, capA, virB and cdtB with clinical presentation.
Los silicatos laminares son unos minerales de gran extensión en la corteza de nuestro y otros planetas, y se ha detectado su presencia en masas de partículas de polvo interplanatario. Están formados por láminas estructuradas en una capa tetraedros de sílice y una de octaédros de oxihidroxido de aluminio. Según el número de capas y la disposición aparecen distintos minerales. Además, también pueden aparecer distintos minerales como consecuencia de la substitución isomórfica de cationes en la capas, en particular, Al(III) por Si en la capa tetraédrica y Fe(III) y/o Mg(II) por Al(III) en la octaédrica. Cuando el catión substituyente presenta un estado de oxidación más bajo que al que substituye genera carga negativa que tiene que neutralizarse con cationes que se disponen en el espacio interlaminar. En este trabajo vamos a estudiar, mediante distintos métodos computacionales, las distribuciones de dichos cationes de substitución en la capa octaédrica de silicatos laminares 2:1 (dos capas tetraédricas y en medio una octaédrica), en particular, en los minerales esmectitas e ilitas. En primer lugar, estudiaremos la distribución de dichos cationes en la capa octaédrica en un modelo de gas reticular por el método de Monte Carlo, minimizando el número de pares de cationes Al, Fe y Mg de nuestro modelo con respecto a los procedentes de resultados espectroscópicos de muestras de minerales. Posteriormente, y mediante un modelo de potenciales empíricos, estudiamos la energética de las distribuciones binarias en dichos minerales, generando unos potenciales de interacción intercambio a dos y tres cationes (extrapolables a cualquier filosilicato) que son la base para una investigación Monte Carlo-"simulated-annealing" en la que se encuentran las transiciones de fase y las estructuras ordenadas, dependiendo dichas estructuras y la temperatura de cambio de fase de la de la naturaleza y concentración de los cationes de substitución. También se han
Yoshizawa, Takashi; Satoh, Hiroharu; Ohsawa, Hideki
The complementary allocated pit address (CAPA) signal in a digital versatile rewritable disc (DVD-RAM) is susceptible to an objective lens radial shift; the reduction of its signal amplitude occurs and the S/N ratio decreases. To alleviate this situation, we propose a new readout signal processing scheme, the center separate detection method (CSD) of discarding a large amount of the 0-th diffracted light beam from the disc. We confirmed the expected results by numerical simulation.
Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Russell, William K; Nachman, Ronald J; Orchard, Ian
After a blood meal, Rhodnius prolixus undergoes a rapid diuresis to eliminate excess water and salts. During the voiding of this primary urine, R. prolixus acts as a vector of Chagas' disease, with the causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, infecting the human host via the urine. Diuresis in R. prolixus is under the neurohormonal control of serotonin and peptidergic diuretic hormones, and thus, diuretic hormones play an important role in the transmission of Chagas' disease. Although diuretic hormones may be degraded or excreted, resulting in the termination of diuresis, it would also seem appropriate, given the high rates of secretion, that a potent antidiuretic factor could be present and act to prevent excessive loss of water and salts after the postgorging diuresis. Despite the medical importance of R. prolixus, no genes for any neuropeptides have been cloned, including obviously, those that control diuresis. Here, using molecular biology in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the sequence of the CAPA gene and CAPA-related peptides in R. prolixus, which includes a peptide with anti-diuretic activity. We have characterized the expression of mRNA encoding these peptides in various developmental stage and also examined the tissue-specific distribution in fifth-instars. The expression is localized to numerous bilaterally paired cell bodies within the central nervous system. In addition, our results show that RhoprCAPA gene expression is also associated with the testes, suggesting a novel role for this family of peptides in reproduction.
9th GCC closed forum: CAPA in regulated bioanalysis; method robustness, biosimilars, preclinical method validation, endogenous biomarkers, whole blood stability, regulatory audit experiences and electronic laboratory notebooks.
Hayes, Roger; LeLacheur, Richard; Dumont, Isabelle; Couerbe, Philippe; Safavi, Afshin; Islam, Rafiq; Pattison, Colin; Cape, Stephanie; Rocci, Mario; Briscoe, Chad; Cojocaru, Laura; Groeber, Elizabeth; Silvestro, Luigi; Bravo, Jennifer; Shoup, Ron; Verville, Manon; Zimmer, Jennifer; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Khadang, Ardeshir; Bourdage, James; Hughes, Nicola; Fatmi, Saadya; Di Donato, Lorella; Sheldon, Curtis; Keyhani, Anahita; Satterwhite, Christina; Yu, Mathilde; Fiscella, Michele; Hulse, James; Lin, Zhongping John; Garofolo, Wei; Savoie, Natasha; Xiao, Yi Qun; Kurylak, Kai; Harris, Sarah; Saxena, Manju; Buonarati, Mike; Lévesque, Ann; Boudreau, Nadine; Lin, Jenny; Khan, Masood U; Ray, Gene; Liu, Yansheng; Xu, Allan; Soni, Gunjan; Ward, Ian; Kingsley, Clare; Ritzén, Hanna; Tabler, Edward; Nicholson, Bob; Bennett, Patrick; van de Merbel, Nico; Karnik, Shane; Bouhajib, Mohammed; Wieling, Jaap; Mulvana, Daniel; Ingelse, Benno; Allen, Mike; Malone, Michele; Fang, Xinping
The 9th GCCClosed Forum was held just prior to the 2015 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) in Miami, FL, USA on 13 April 2015. In attendance were 58 senior-level participants, from eight countries, representing 38 CRO companies offering bioanalytical services. The objective of this meeting was for CRO bioanalytical representatives to meet and discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The issues selected at this year's closed forum include CAPA, biosimilars, preclinical method validation, endogenous biomarkers, whole blood stability, and ELNs. A summary of the industry's best practices and the conclusions from the discussion of these topics is included in this meeting report.
Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities, serum trace elements (Se, Cu, Zn) and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects from the city of Ponta Delgada, Island of San Miguel, The Azores Archipelago, Portugal.
Pavão, M L; Figueiredo, T; Santos, V; Lopes, P A; Ferin, R; Santos, M C; Nève, J; Viegas-Crespo, A M
Activities of whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and serum levels of selenium (Se), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were measured in 118 apparently healthy subjects aged 20-60 years from the city of Ponta Delgada, Island of San Miguel, The Azores Archipelago, Portugal. Data were analysed by age/gender, lipid profile and blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factors searching for their relevance when assessing reference values for antioxidant biomarkers. GSH-Px was in the same range, but SOD was significantly lower than in other Portuguese populations. Neither activity differed with gender. GSH-Px activity increased with age, namely in normolipidemic men versus the hyperlipidemic group in which a decrease was observed. This suggests a progressive impairment of GSH-Px with age caused by an enhanced production of oxidant species in hyperlipidemia. GSH-Px was 30% lower in male hypertensives versus normotensives. SOD activity did not relate to age or blood pressure but was 17% higher in the hyperlipidemic men versus the normolipidemic group, suggesting a better antioxidant protection by SOD than by GSH-Px in hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Se was higher in men versus women, particularly in the older subjects, and partly related to hyperlipidemia. Zn levels showed a similar dependency on gender, not related to age or lipid profile. Cu levels were much higher in women than in men in all age or lipid profile classes and decreased in hyperlipidemia. They were lowered with age in both genders, particularly in normolipidemic women. The present research therefore suggests that hyperlipidemia and hypertension do affect antioxidant status and should be considered when assessing antioxidant biomarkers in blood.
Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.
The present study compared the effectiveness of two online career exploration systems in increasing the career decision self-efficacy and decidedness of 960 students enrolled in a program for undecided freshmen students at a large public university. Results indicated that both systems led to significant increases in career decision self-efficacy…
Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...
Brown, Robert D.; Wolfe, Edward W.
This strip map is one of a series of maps showing recently active fault breaks along the San Andreas and other active faults in California. It is designed to inform persons who are concerned with land use near the fault of the location of those fault breaks that have moved recently. The lines on the map are lines of rupture and creep that can be identified by field evidence and that clearly affect the present surface of the land. Map users should keep in mind that these lines are intended primarily as guides to help locate the fault; the mapped lines are not necessarily shown with the precision demanded by some engineering or land utilization needs.
McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Morton, J.L.; Theodore, T.G.; Meyer, C.E.; Delevaux, M.H.
The mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of sulphide veins along cross faults in the San Andreas fault system are described and cited for a natural history of local plate tectonics and for 'a detailed understanding of the role of major strike-slip faults in the formation and tectonic translation of hydrothermal ore deposits'. -G.J.N.
Panei, J. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.
Existen dos mecanismos posibles de producir en las estrellas, los pulsos térmicos. Uno de ellos ocurre cuando en el interior estelar hay más de una capa, las cuales son fuente de energía nuclear, con diferentes composiciones. Cuando se aproximan entre sí, y si estas tienen un rango muy diferente de temperatura para la quema de los núcleos, pueden disparar un flash de liberación de energía. Este es el caso de los pulsos térmicos en la rama gigante asintótica (AGB). El otro mecanismo ocurre cuando en el interior estelar hay una capa lo suficientemente delgada, la cual se vuelve térmicamente inestable y es capaz de disparar una corrida térmica, este es el caso de los micropulsos en la rama gigante (GB). Se muestran los resultados durante los micropulsos, para el rango de masas en el cual estos ocurren (alrededor de las 3 M⊙).
To date, some biological activities have been confirmed as different named peptides, however, most FXPRLamide peptides are still poorly understood although these peptides are found in all insects. So, the study of receptors for these peptides is particularly important. Receptors of FXPRLamide peptid...
Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Kim, Yoon-Bae
The inhomogeneity in microstructure and magnetic properties of a ring magnet prepared by backward extrusion with a current-applied pressure-assisted process has been investigated. The initial part (top part) of a ring magnet prepared by back extrusion shows a high coercivity which is comparable to the raw powder. It exhibits isotropic characteristics along the three orthogonal directions probably due to small deformation. The last part (bottom part) of the ring magnet has a a low coercivity with large grains because high current flows through the pressurized punches during the whole deformation process as to increase the temperature and grain growth. The middle part is under an appropriate deformation with short time exposure at high temperature, therefore it maintains a relatively high remanent polarization with high coercivity.
Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.
RESUMEN. Se ha conjeturado que una partlecula de dieciocho quarks, sin Carga, sin espi'n y sin colar (quark-alfa) podri'a ser estable a ba5as tern peraturas y presiones aiTh COfl respecto a materia extrafla. Presentamos en este trabajo la estmctura de estrellas extraflas incluyendo los efectos y apariencia de parti'culas uark-alfa en las capas exteriores. La estruc tura interna ya no es hoinogenea del centro a la superficie, sino que muestra un centro de materia extrafla, capas s6lidas y una costra delgada de materia normal en la superficie. La superficie de materia nonnal permite la fornaci6n de una magnetosfera, la que se piensa sea el sitlo en donde ocurre la emisi6n del pulsar. La superficie de superflui'do ayuda a explicar el fen6rneno de `glitch', el cual ba sido observado en muchos pulsares. Se discute la ecuaci6n de estado para rnateria quark-alfa relevante en este regimen. ABSTIZACT:It has been conjectured that an quark, uncharged, spinless and colorless particle Cquark-alpha) could be stable at low pressures and temperatures even with respect to strange matter. We present in work tlie structure of stars including the effects of the appearance of quark-alpi' particles ii their outer layers. The internal structure is no longer from tlie center to the surface, but show a strange matter core, a solid and superfluid layers and a thin crust of normal matter at the surface. The normal matter surface allows tlie fon tion of a magnetosphere, whicl is to be tl place where pulsar emission occurs. A superfluid layer helps to explain tlie glitch , wlflch has been observed in . equation of state for quark-alpha matter relevant in regime is also discussed. Keq LA)OtL : ARY S - OF STATF - ?.ACT
Recently, the peptidomic analysis of neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex and abdominal perisympathetic organs of polyphagous stinkbugs (Pentatomidae) revealed the group-specific sequences of pyrokinins, CAPA peptides (CAPA-periviscerokinins/PVKs and CAPA-pyrokinin), myosuppressin, corazonin...
cDivision of Medicinal Chemistry and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology , The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA a r t i c l e i n f o...centrated in honeybee propolis, has been found to be biologically active in a variety of pathways including cytoprotection against oxidative stress. CAPE
Following a blood meal, Rhodnius prolixus undergoes a rapid diuresis in order to eliminate excess water and salts. During the voiding of this primary urine, R. prolixus acts as a vector of Chagas’ disease, with the causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, infecting the human host via the urine. Diuresi...
Piacentini, R. D.; Micheletti, M. I.
We show results of measurements made during the Sun's eclipse of November 3, 1994, in Observatorio Astronómico de Rosario (32o 57' S, 60o 37' W, 25 m a.s.l.). The eclipse begin at 8:41 local hour, reached its maximum with 77% of the surface covered at 9:51 and finished at 11:04. The direct solar irradiance of 300 nm and 313 nm were able to be measured, due to the fact that during the whole period the sky remained completed uncovered (zero percent cloudiness). The measurements were made with the portable ozonometer developed by Tocho and co-workers. They show the characterictic decrease due to the occultation of the source, which is approximately proportional to the surface's diminution. When crossing the earth's atmosphere to arrive to the observation point, these irradiances are affected mainly by the ozone layer, specially the irradiance at lower wavelength, what let it to determine by comparison the thickness of this layer. The total ozone thickness distributed between the troposphere and the stratosphere shows an oscillation, whose amplitude, since the occurence of the maximum of occulation, has a mean value of 4%, and whose period is of approximately 2100 seconds, being both numbers considerably larger than the ones registred by Mims III y Mims (Geophysical Research Letters, 20, 367, 1993) during the eclipse of July 11, 1991 and by Tocho, Da Silva y Rivas (XVIII Quadriennial Ozone Symposiom, Italy, September, 1996) during the same eclipse analyzed in the present work, but observed in Salta. As complementary results, we measured the global irradiance and the ambient temperature during this astronomical event.
... Assessment (CAPA) or the Pre-School Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) to the parents of a sample of children... also be interviewed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Clinical...
Kortemeyer, Gerd; Cruz, Émerson
In this paper, we describe the development and functionality of the LearningOnline Network with CAPA (LON-CAPA; http://www.lon-capa.org/) system. We summarize published findings obtained over the years regarding its content sharing and online assessment features, and present some new findings on gender differences in the usage of online homework.
Mandrini, C. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Schmieder, B.; Bagalá, L. G.; Rovira, M. G.
Se han obtenido observaciones desde Tierra (Hα y magnetogramas) coordinadas con el Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), a bordo del satélite japonés Yohkoh, de una región activa bipolar en decaimiento. Estos datos constituyen la base para el estudio de un punto brillante en rayos X (PBX) y de la actividad relacionada con el mismo en distintas capas de la atmósfera solar. Las observaciones muestran que el PBX está relacionado con la aparición de un bipolo menor (~ 1020 Mx) y que su abrillantamiento continuo, así como sus aumentos de brillo esporádicos (``fulguraciones"), son el resultado de la reconexión entre el pequeño arco emergente (visto en Hα como un sistema de filamentos arqueados, SFA) y arcos mayores asociados al campo facular preexistente. Se ha extrapolado el campo magnético observado en la aproximación libre de fuerzas lineal y se ha seguido su evolución a lo largo de la vida del PBX. Se ha calculado la posición de las cuasiseparatrices (CSs) a partir del campo modelado. Las líneas de campo extrapoladas, cuyas bases fotosféricas se encuentran a ambos lados de las CSs, están de acuerdo con las estructuras cromosféricas y coronales observadas. Se ha calculado el espesor de la CD ubicada a lo largo de la polaridad negativa emergente, encontrándose que su variación está de acuerdo con la evolución de la intensidad del PBX; la CS es muy delgada durante la vida del PBX (~ 100 m), mientras que su espesor aumenta considerablemente (>= 10^4 m) cuando el PBX desaparece de las imágenes del SXT. Estos resultados señalan que el abrillantamiento y las ``fulguraciones" de este PBX se deben al proceso de reconexión en 3D que tiene lugar en las CSs.
... River Canyon, Blunts Reef, Mendocino Ridge, Delgada Canyon, Tolo Bank, Point Arena North, Point Arena... is 75-ft (23-m) or less LOA that harvests whiting and, in addition to heading and gutting, cuts...
... additional preparation is done. (A vessel that is 75-ft (23-m) or less LOA that harvests whiting and, in... following areas (defined at Sec. 660.79): Eel River Canyon, Blunts Reef, Mendocino Ridge, Delgada...
Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Park, Yoonseong; Nachman, Ronald J; Orchard, Ian
Diuresis following blood-gorging in Rhodnius prolixus is the major process leading to the transmission of Chagas' disease. We have cloned the cDNA of the first receptor known to be involved in an antidiuretic strategy in insects, a strategy that prevents diuresis. This receptor belongs to the insect CAPA receptor family known in other insects to be activated by peptides encoded within the capability gene. We characterize the expression profile in fifth-instars and find expression is localized to the alimentary canal. Highest transcript levels are found in Malpighian tubules and the anterior midgut, which are known targets of the antidiuretic hormone, RhoprCAPA-alpha2. Two transcripts were identified, capa-r1 and capa-r2; however, the latter encodes an atypical G protein-coupled receptor lacking a region ranging between the first and second transmembrane domain. Our heterologous expression assay revealed the expressed capa-r1 receptor is activated by RhoprCAPA-alpha2 (EC(50) = 385nM) but not by RhoprCAPA-alpha1. Structural analogs of the inactive RhoprCAPA-alpha1 were capable of activating the expressed capa-r1 receptor, confirming the importance of the C-terminal consensus sequence common to CAPA-related peptides. In addition, this receptor has some sensitivity to the pyrokinin-related peptide, RhoprCAPA-alphaPK1, but with an efficacy approximately 40-fold less than RhoprCAPA-alpha2. Other peptides belonging to the PRXamide superfamily were inactive on the capa-r1 receptor. Taken together, the neuroendocrinological relevance of this receptor in facilitating the antidiuretic strategy in R. prolixus may make this receptor a useful target for development of agonists or antagonists that could help influence the transmission of Chagas' disease that occurs during diuresis in this medically important insect-disease vector.
Yang, John; Bowman, Phillip D; Kerwin, Sean M; Stavchansky, Salomon
A validated LCMS method was developed for the quantitative determination of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) from rat plasma. Separation was achieved using a reverse-phase C12 HPLC column (150 × 2.00 mm, 4 µm) with gradient elution running water (A) and acetonitrile (B). Mass spectrometry was performed with electrospray ionization in negative mode. This method was used to determine the pharmacokinetic profiles of CAPA and CAPE in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intravenous bolus administration of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of CAPA and 20 mg/kg of CAPE. The pharmacokinetic analysis suggests the lack of dose proportionality in the dose range of 5-20 mg/kg of CAPA. Total clearance values for CAPA ranged from 45 to 156 mL/min and decreased with increasing dose of CAPA. The volume of distribution for CAPA ranged from 17,750 to 52,420 mL, decreasing with increasing dose. The elimination half-life for CAPA ranged from 243.1 to 295.8 min and no statistically significant differences were observed between dose groups in the range of 5-20 mg/kg (p > 0.05). The elimination half-life for CAPE was found to be 92.26 min.
The on-line tutoring system, LON-CAPA, was implemented in Introductory Calculus-Based Physics-II course at Colorado School of Mines in fall 2008 and spring 2009. In this paper, the features and the case study of the LON-CAPA implementation were described. The performance data obtained from the scores of students enrolled in the course represented…
Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Husson, Steven J; Meelkop, Ellen; Temmerman, Liesbet; Clynen, Elke; Mertens, Inge; Schoofs, Liliane
Neuromedin U (NMU) in vertebrates is a structurally highly conserved neuropeptide of which highest levels are found in the pituitary and gastrointestinal tract. In Drosophila, two neuropeptide genes encoding pyrokinins (PKs), capability (capa) and hugin, are possible insect homologs of vertebrate NMU. Here, the ligand for an orphan G protein-coupled receptor in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-PK-R) was found using a bioinformatics approach. After cloning and expressing Ce-PK-R in HEK293T cells, we found that it was activated by a neuropeptide from the C. elegans NLP-44 precursor (EC(50)=18nM). This neuropeptide precursor is reminiscent of insect CAPA precursors since it encodes a PK-like peptide and two periviscerokinin-like peptides (PVKs). Analogous to CAPA peptides in insects and NMUs in vertebrates, whole mount immunostaining in C. elegans revealed that the CAPA precursor is expressed in the nervous system. The present data also suggest that the ancestral CAPA precursor was already present in the common ancestor of Protostomians and Deuterostomians and that it might have been duplicated into CAPA and HUGIN in insects. In vertebrates, NMU is the putative homolog of a protostomian CAPA-PK.
Klein, M. J. K.; Kuemin, C.; Tamulevicius, T.; Manning, M.; Wolf, H.
We developed a microfluidic chip setup for capillarity-assisted particle assembly (CAPA). A capillary bridge is formed between the aperture of a silicon chip and the assembly template. The bridge is fed with particle suspension through a microfluidic channel on the chip top side. With this setup, we can control the particle assembly location and tune the suspension composition during particle assembly. In this note, we describe the chip setup, the CAPA process using the microfluidic chip, and results of complex particle assemblies, such as composite particle arrays and particle gradients, that could not be obtained using a conventional CAPA setup.
The Direcção de Serviços de Agricultura e Pecuária, Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal, began a collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Corvallis, Oregon, and The Ohio State University, Department...
The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...
Morrissey, D. J.; And Others
Describes the Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignment (CAPA) system which offers a way to apply computers to assist instructors and students in the framework of lectures and assigned problem sets without students being forced to use the computer system. (DDR)
Australia 15 142. Oslo, Norway 26 192. Ponta Delgada, Portugal 15 143. Port Louis, Mauritius 26 193. Puerto La Cruz , Venezuela 15 144. Berbera, Somalia 25...Island, Trust Pacific Islands 8 235. Apia, Western Samoa 10 285. Ancona , Italy 7 236. AI-Aqaba, Jordan 10 286. Bombay, India 7 237. Casablanca...301. Port Said, Egypt 7 351. Oostende, Belgium 302. Santa Cruz , Spain 7 352. Port Antonio, Jamaica 5 303. Stavanger, Norway 7 353. Port Colborne
Artus, Nancy N.; Nadler, Kenneth D.
We used Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach (CAPA), a networked teaching and learning tool that generates computer individualized homework problem sets, in our large-enrollment introductory plant physiology course. We saw significant improvement in student examination performance with regular homework assignments, with CAPA being an effective and efficient substitute for hand-graded homework. Using CAPA, each student received a printed set of similar but individualized problems of a conceptual (qualitative) and/or quantitative nature with quality graphics. Because each set of problems is unique, students were encouraged to work together to clarify concepts but were required to do their own work for credit. Students could enter answers multiple times without penalty, and they were able to obtain immediate feedback and hints until the due date. These features increased student time on task, allowing higher course standards and student achievement in a diverse student population. CAPA handles routine tasks such as grading, recording, summarizing, and posting grades. In anonymous surveys, students indicated an overwhelming preference for homework in CAPA format, citing several features such as immediate feedback, multiple tries, and on-line accessibility as reasons for their preference. We wrote and used more than 170 problems on 17 topics in introductory plant physiology, cataloging them in a computer library for general access. Representative problems are compared and discussed. PMID:10198076
Jumar, Agnes; Harazny, Joanna M; Ott, Christian; Kistner, Iris; Friedrich, Stefanie; Schmieder, Roland E
Decreased capillary density influences vascular resistance and perfusion. The authors aimed to investigate the influence of the renin-angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan on retinal capillary rarefaction in hypertensive patients. Retinal vascular parameters were measured noninvasively and in vivo by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry before and after 4 weeks of treatment with valsartan in 95 patients with hypertension stage 1 or 2 and compared with 55 healthy individuals. Retinal capillary rarefaction was determined with the parameters intercapillary distance (ICD) and capillary area (CapA). In hypertensive patients, ICD decreased (23.4±5.5 μm vs 21.5±5.6 μm, P<.001) and CapA increased (1564±621 vs 1776±795, P=.001) after valsartan treatment compared with baseline. Compared with healthy normotensive controls (ICD 20.2±4.2 μm, CapA 1821±652), untreated hypertensive patients showed greater ICD (P<.001) and smaller CapA (P=.019), whereas treated hypertensive patients showed no difference in ICD (P=.126) and CapA (P=.728). Therapy with valsartan for 4 weeks diminished capillary rarefaction in hypertensive patients.
Vigneron, Nathalie; Abi Habib, Joanna; Van den Eynde, Benoît J
Because of its crucial role in various cellular processes, the proteasome is the focus of intensive research for the development of proteasome inhibitors to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases. Here, we describe a new and easy assay to measure the different proteasome activities in vitro (chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like) based on proteasome capture on antibody-coated plates, namely the capture proteasome assay (CAPA). Applying the CAPA to lysates from cells expressing standard proteasome, immunoproteasome, or intermediate proteasomes β5i or β1i-β5i, we can monitor the activity of the four proteasome subtypes. The CAPA provided similar results as the standard whole-cell proteasome-Glo assay without the problem of contaminating proteases requiring inhibitors. However, the profile of trypsin-like activity differed between the two assays. This could be partly explained by the presence of MgSO4 in the proteasome-Glo buffer, which inhibits the trypsin-like activity of the proteasome. The CAPA does not need MgSO4 and, therefore, provides a more precise measurement of the trypsin-like activity. The CAPA provides a quick and accurate method to measure proteasome activity in vitro in a very specific manner and should be useful for the development of proteasome inhibitors.
Abbasnezhadi, K.; Rasmussen, P. F.; Stadnyk, T.
To gain a better understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of rainfall over the Churchill River basin, this study was undertaken. The research incorporates gridded precipitation data from the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA) system. CaPA has been developed by Environment Canada and provides near real-time precipitation estimates on a 10 km by 10 km grid over North America at a temporal resolution of 6 hours. The spatial fields are generated by combining forecasts from the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model with precipitation observations from the network of synoptic weather stations. CaPA's skill is highly influenced by the number of weather stations in the region of interest as well as by the quality of the observations. In an attempt to evaluate the performance of CaPA as a function of the density of the weather station network, a dual-stage design algorithm to simulate CaPA is proposed which incorporates generated weather fields. More specifically, we are adopting a controlled design algorithm which is generally known as Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE). The advantage of using the experiment is that one can define reference precipitation fields assumed to represent the true state of rainfall over the region of interest. In the first stage of the defined OSSE, a coupled stochastic model of precipitation and temperature gridded fields is calibrated and validated. The performance of the generator is then validated by comparing model statistics with observed statistics and by using the generated samples as input to the WATFLOOD™ hydrologic model. In the second stage of the experiment, in order to account for the systematic error of station observations and GEM fields, representative errors are to be added to the reference field using by-products of CaPA's variographic analysis. These by-products explain the variance of station observations and background errors.
Hindy-François, Clemence; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Le Bonniec, Bernard; Grelac, Francoise; Dizier, Blandine; Godier, Anne; Emmerich, Joseph; Gaussem, Pascale; Samama, Charles-Marc
Combined antiplatelet agents (cAPA), aspirin plus clopidogrel, increase the risk of bleeding. We hypothesised that recombinant activated FVIIa (rFVIIa), which normalises thrombin generation in platelet-rich plasma from patients treated with cAPA, could limit this bleeding risk. It was the objective of this study to investigate the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa compared to placebo, in a bleeding and thrombosis model in rabbits treated with aspirin and clopidogrel. New-Zealand rabbits, randomised into two groups (Placebo1, n=36 ; cAPA, n=34), were anaesthetised, ventilated and monitored for blood pressure, temperature and carotid blood flow. The Folts model was applied to a carotid artery. Cyclic flow reductions (CFR) were recorded over a first 20-min period (Obs1). Each rabbit was then randomly assigned into one of three subgroups (Placebo2, 40μg/kg rFVIIa, 160 μg/kg rFVIIa) and CFR were monitored for a second 20-min period (Obs2). Ear bleeding time (BT) was measured at the end of each period. Hepatosplenic (HS) section was performed at the end of the experiment and HS blood loss defines the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were thrombosis (CFR), prothrombin time, platelet aggregation, and thrombin generation. Non- parametric statistical tests were used (p<0.05). cAPA significantly increased HS blood loss, BT and suppressed CFR compared to Placebo1 (p<0.05). rFVIIa injection did not modify HS blood loss, BT or CFR rate in Placebo1 rabbits nor in cAPA animals. These effects were unaffected by either rFVIIa dose. rFVIIa accelerated thrombin generation but had no effect on platelet aggregation in citrated platelet-rich plasma. rFVIIa did not modify HS blood loss associated with cAPA in rabbits.
cranes with a load capa- city of up to 350 tons have been built, as well as gantry and’tower cranes , electrical tackle»gear with a load capa- city...Mechanization (cont’d) to the best foreign models. Overhead cranes , for example, are heavy and wear out rapidly. Speed and distance control is limited, and...in cabins of cranes used in the steel ind- ustry there is even no air-conditioning. ■ Customers are making serious demands for improved qual- ity
Hong, Yoon Jung; Chun, Jae-Sig; Lee, Woo-Kul
In this investigation, the effects of the association of the collagen (COLL) molecules with the calcium phosphate (CaP) film were examined with respect to both the physicochemical properties of the CaP films and the osteoblast responses, such as the adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. The COLL pre-adsorbed CaP film (CaPA) exhibited significant changes in the surface morphology compared to the COLL incorporated CaP film (CaPC). The adhesions of the osteoblast-like MG63 cells were similar on the CaPC or CaPA films. However, the proliferation of the MG63 cells on CaPC was comparable to CaP but considerably different than CaPA. The differentiation of the MG63 cells was greatly improved on CaPC and CaPA compared to CaP and more pronounced on CaPA. The presence of COLL within or on the CaP films significantly modulated the expression of the phenotypic genes, including osteopontin (OPN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). The expression patterns of these genes elucidated that COLL that was present within or on the CaP film supported the osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. These positive effects were stronger for CaPA than CaPC. The bone-like nodules formed on all of the specimens. However, the mineralization of CaPC and CaPA was significantly higher than CaP, indicating that the association of CaP with COLL promoted the mineral deposition. Therefore, the association of the COLL molecules with the CaP film induced positive effects on the biomineralization. Overall, the incorporation of COLL efficiently enhanced the osteoblast responses of CaP. This system can be utilized in a drug delivery system using calcium phosphate. Although the incorporation effects were slightly higher for the osteoblast responses of CaPA than CaPC, CaPC can be used when the longer drug release times are desirable.
La reducción de la capa de ozono disminuye la protección natural que ofrece nuestra atmósfera contra la radiación ultravioleta (UV) perjudicial del sol. Esta página web proporciona una descripción general de los principales problemas de salud relacionados
Estrogen is a steroid hormone playing critical roles in physiological processes such as sexual differentiation and development, female and male reproductive processes, and bone health. Numerous natural and synthetic environmental compounds have been shown capa...
OperaciÃ³n IceBridge es una misiÃ³n aÃ©rea de la NASA dedicada a estudiar cambios en la capa de hielo y el hielo marino en ambos polos del planeta. En la primavera de 2012, IceBridge llevÃ³ a cabo ...
Listeria monocytogenes is notorious for its capacity to colonize the environment and equipment of food processing facilities and to persist in the processing plant ecosystem, sometimes for decades. Such persistence is mediated by multiple attributes of L. monocytogenes, including the pathogen’s capa...
Sicat, Lolita V.; David, Ma. Elena D.
This analytical study analyzed the performance in Basic Mathematics of the indigenous students, the Aeta students (Grade 6) of Sta. Juliana Elementary School, Capas, Tarlac, and the APC students of Malaybalay City, Bukidnon. Results were compared with regular students in rural, urban, private, and public schools to analyze indigenous students'…
hypertension and migraine headaches. Beta - blockers cause a moderate decrease in blood pressure, a pro- nounced reduction in heart rate, and a slight...antihypertensive therapy with beta - blockers : submaximal exercise capa- city and metabolic effects during exercise. Int. J. Sport. Med. 8:342-347. 26
8217,ice will increase hr anl averaige of,? :1~ sanal overthe 1? -earforecast period. Inl 1999, the average, sest i or capa i tr. of an rr- 1",f t inl...period. Historically, the economic cycle of the general aviation industry has closely paralleled that of the national economy. The theories about the
Ramírez Zamora, R M; Durán Pilotzi, A; Domínguez Mora, R; Durán Moreno, A
The removal of detergents from clarified wastewaters by activated petroleum coke (CAPA) was assessed. These substances, owing to their foamy properties, constitute a problem for ammonia removal by the air stripping process that could be installed in a wastewater treatment train to produce reclaimed water. CAPA was evaluated as a more economical alternative than a commercial activated carbon. Experimental work was divided in three stages: 1) production and characterisation of materials; 2) pretreatment of raw wastewater through the Fenton's reagent or coagulation-flocculation process with Al2(SO4)3; and 3) adsorption and bio-adsorption tests of clarified effluents. These tests were carried out in the laboratory in discontinuous and continuous reactors, the former by the "point-by-point" technique, with and without a previous fixing of bacteria, and the latter by the Rapid Small Scale Column Test. Detergents content, color, COD and UV254nm were measured in raw and treated wastewaters. Results show that the best pretreatment for the adsorption process was coagulation-flocculation rather than Fenton's method. Oxidation by this process decreased the adsorptive properties of detergents. Biomass fixed on the CAPA particles significantly increased the UV254nm and COD removal efficiencies (20% and 170% respectively). The breakthrough curves showed that CAPA could attain the expected detergents removal efficiency (66%) for the alum effluent.
An existing 35kW laboratory-scale combustor located at the U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, has been modified for performing oxy-natural gas and oxy-coal experiments by adding O2 operation and flue gas recycling capa...
NTS Research Corp., Durham, NC.
This guide provides users of the Client Assessment Package (CAP)--a system of forms for recording the process of seeking and using information and assistance for educational improvement--with definitions, operational procedures, and instructions necessary to complete the forms accurately. The purposes of CAP are threefold: to help develop an…
Coast, Geoffrey M; TeBrugge, Victoria A; Nachman, Ronald J; Lopez, Juan; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Lange, Angela; Orchard, Ian
Plant sucking heteropteran bugs feed regularly on small amounts of K(+)-rich plant material, in contrast to their hematophagous relatives which imbibe large volumes of Na(+)-rich blood. It was anticipated that this would be reflected in the endocrine control of Malpighian tubule (MT) secretion. To explore this, neuroendocrine factors known to influence MT secretion were tested on MT of the pentatomid plant sucking stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare and Nezara viridula, and the results compared with previously published data from Rhodnius prolixus. Serotonin had no effect on N. viridula MT, although it stimulates secretion by R. prolixus MT >1000-fold, and initiates a rapid diuresis to remove excess salt and water from the blood meal. Kinins had no effect on stink bug MT, but secretion was increased by Zoone-DH, a CRF-like peptide, although the response was a modest 2-3-fold acceleration compared with 1000-fold in R. prolixus. Native CAPA peptides, which have diuretic activity in dipteran flies, had antidiuretic activity in MT of the stink bug (Acrhi/Nezvi-CAPA-1 and -2), as previously shown with Rhopr-CAPA-2 in R. prolixus. The antidiuretic activity of Rhopr-CAPA-2 has been linked with terminating the rapid diuresis, but results with stink bugs suggest it is a general feature of heteropteran MT.
Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane
Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…
Silva, Alexsandra; Gonzales, Robert; Brennan, Daniel P.
In the past, there were frequently complaints about the grading of laboratory reports in our laboratory chemistry courses. This article discussed the implementation of an online submission of laboratory acquired data using LON-CAPA (The Learning Online Network with Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach), which is an open source management and…
In 1988, the Commonwealth Association of Polytechnics in Africa (CAPA) in collaboration with the International Labour Organization established a pilot project to address the issue of underrepresentation of women in technical education and training. The Women in Technical Education and Training Project (WITED) was based on six key strategic…
Thoennessen, M.; Harrison, M. J.
Describes CAPA, a software tool to implement a computer-assisted personalized approach for homework assignments and examinations in a large introductory physics class at Michigan State University. Highlights include increased individual attention for students; correlation between homework performance and results of the final exam; feedback for…
Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…
Borgen, Fred H.; Betz, Nancy E.
This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has…
McGroarty, Estelle; Parker, Joyce; Heidemann, Merle; Lim, Heejun; Olson, Mark; Long, Tammy; Merrill, John; Riffell, Samuel; Smith, James; Batzli, Janet; Kirschtel, David
We developed web-based modules addressing fundamental concepts of introductory biology delivered through the LON-CAPA course management system. These modules were designed and used to supplement large, lecture-based introductory biology classes. Incorporating educational principles and the strength of web-based instructional technology, choices…
McLaughlin, R.J.; Lajoie, K.R.; Sorg, D.H.; Morrison, S.D.; Wolfe, J.A.
An uplifted wave-cut marine platform eroded across bedrock of the Franciscan Complex at Point Delgada, northern California, is overlain by 0.5 to 5 m of wave-worked pea gravel, which is in turn directly overlain by fluvial gravel and silt deposited as alluvial fans. Fossil wood debris from this horizon yields a 14C date of 44 800 yr. We tentatively correlate this terrace with the middle Wisconsin high sea-level stand at -37m, and if so, the tectonic uplift since middle Wisconsin time has been 44m, and the average rate of uplift has been at least 1.0m/1000 yr. -from Author
Kearney, "El uso de las pelfculas delgadas en la optica de rayos - x ," Proc. Symposium on the Physics of Superlattices, May 1991, in press. 6. J.M...Bolling Air Force Base ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO Washin ton, D.C. 20332- //( ~ ~ C 11. TITLE (Incluft Security Claw ffation) [ TLaboratory for X ...three years under contract AFOSR-90-O 140, "Laboratory for X -Ray O.ptics. Duig thspro we concenrae our effrt in two areas: 1) grwth of epitaxial
Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Seaton, Daniel T.; Cardamone, Caroline N.; Rayyan, Saif; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Barrantes, Analia; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.
We investigate student-chosen, multi-level homework in our Integrated Learning Environment for Mechanics  built using the LON-CAPA  open-source learning system. Multi-level refers to problems categorized as easy, medium, and hard. Problem levels were determined a priori based on the knowledge needed to solve them . We analyze these problems using three measures: time-per-problem, LON-CAPA difficulty, and item difficulty measured by item response theory. Our analysis of student behavior in this environment suggests that time-per-problem is strongly dependent on problem category, unlike either score-based measures. We also found trends in student choice of problems, overall effort, and efficiency across the student population. Allowing students choice in problem solving seems to improve their motivation; 70% of students worked additional problems for which no credit was given.
actions would fully energize the con- federation of experience catalysts and noticeably influence performance gains. As Oscar Wilde said over a...operations throughout the world. In short , “our national security and public safety, global economic competitiveness, and scientific capa- bilities are...systems, which may adversely impact our national security. Among those issues is concern for the space industrial base. In short , various surveys
clear that our community is continually challenged in our efforts to support the decision makers charged with keeping our nation safe . It’s critical...acquisition – will examine the current process used by the Department to identify material capa- bility gaps. The WG will also look at the processes used to...fill materials gaps, such as: increasing the stock of exist- ing equipment, modification of existing equipment, purchasing already available
simulation were used to select a viable *electric vehicle system to compete economically with conventional USAF passenger cars . This system was then...It is, however, also used by the Environment Pro- tection Agency for new car urban fuel economy tests. This 23-minute cycle is the recorded...batteries that could be conveniently installed within the body of the car while retaining four passenger capa- bility was twelve. Based on the
enhancing aircraft survivability is to utilize a fuel w::ich is less susceptible to fire and explosion. The selection of candidate fcels is limited to...for experimental purposes as viscosity restrictions limited its production. The avail- ability problems posed by JP-l and JP-2 resulted in the adoption...with the 140OF minimum flash point requirement, are severe limitations in the production capa- bility of this fuel. FY 75 projected consumption of jP
experience and tech- nological development in passive microwave remote sens- ing of atmospheric temperatures from space, beginning with the Nimbus E...satellite point. The first instrument with this scanning capa- bility was the Scanning Microwave Spectrometer (SCAMS) on Nimbus 6, which performed...adopt a simplified model of microwave radiative transfer in the (X, Y,Z) plane that ignores noise, cloud scattering and surface effects, and invokes the
and PK in different ganglia, differential posttranslational pro- cessing of CAPA-PVK-2 in Ae. aegypti tissues was observed. The N-terminally blocked...secretory cells (X cells) is separate and posterior to the CC, and axons from these cells extend to the CC. In female An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti , these...Expression of a gene encoding AKH-2 was characterized in Ae. aegypti .19 Native AKH-2 was resolved by HPLC from head extracts of female An. gambiae in
aegypti (XP_001662936), which we classify as a pyrokinin receptor based on sequence analysis, also has high bootstrapping support. All other...difference in expression is relative to capa-r1 expression in the hindgut. CNS, central nervous system; SG, salivary glands; Male Repro, male reproductive...tissue; Female Repro, female re- productive tissue; Post. Midgut, Posterior midgut; Ant. Midgut, Anterior midgut; Tr, trachea; DV, dorsal vessel; ABN
system is installed using a 20/30 kva generator . This system also has the capability of providing a variable voltage in accordance with icing...Deicing System, Electrotherms.1 (includes generator ) Cost Summary - Aircraft Type and Production Quantities .. . . ... .. .. .. 189 30 Maintenance Man...overall aircraft performance with unnecessary penalties due to the ice protection system. Future- generation Army aircraft must possess adequate capa- * I
Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 40 Market Research Faster, Smarter and Predictive Kenyata Wesley n Farhad Chowdhury 41 Defense AT&L: July–August...Par-ticipation, Including Through More Effective Use of Market Research” Better Buying Power (BBP) 2.0 initiative, several ac- tions were completed to...support improving market research capa- bility within the Department of Defense (DoD). Although acquisition professionals perform market research
upgrade is the ASU/FBM. The first part, ASU, uses the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System ( JTIDS ) datalink to digitally link with...unlocks the full functionality of JTIDS for the aircraft by enabling the use of all 6016C J-series message sets. This not only brings JSTARS into...providing the capa- bility to amplify or extend the datalink network. FBM will enable JSTARS to transmit and receive im- agery from other JTIDS
weather, frost, drought, and low subsoil moisture can decrease product ion. C. Feedst ticks_ (Avai 1able Crop land) Increasing national and world needs...the water storage; (7) low moisture -holding capa- city; and (8) low fertility not easily corrected. -122- When cultivated, many of the wet, slowly...percent. The Green River’s shipments to the lower Mississippi grew the fastest of any ORS river, fol- lowed by the growth of the Tennessee. Relatively
Lerch, Reinhard; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Landes, Hermann; Simkovics, Reinhard
In this paper, the finite-element/boundary-element program CAPA is presented, which has been developed by the authors during the last decade. With this software environment we are able to model quite different types of transducers which mostly ask for the numerical solution of a multifield problem, such as coupled electric-mechanical fields or magnetic- mechanical fields. Practical applications in the area of smart structures will demonstrate the applicability of the developed software.
capa bility at temperatures above 2000°C1 with adequate mechani cal properties and oxidation resistance. Refractory metal borides based on HfB2 and ZrB2...increase in the oxidation resistance was accomplished by the addition of the Group IV VI transition metal borides , which was the result of phase...metal borides for use as materials for ultra high temper ature (UHT) applications. However, for instance, yttrium tet raboride, YB4, appears promising as
The Trident II system will substantially increase the capa- bility of the U.S. strategic submarine forces to destroy nuclear -hardened targets...accommodate the D-5 missile or the Department of Energy’s costs for the nuclear warheads. Our analysis of Trident II EARS, beginning with the first report...Tests 16 Ship Installat.ion and Test Program 18 Some Guidance System Difficulties 21 Status of the Nuclear Warhead Program 22 Appendix III 23 Base
Japanese might also expect the South Koreans to submit to such practical safeguards as low Inventories of nuclear fuel , rigorous site Inspection and...program during the 1980s by closing the fuel cycle and stock- piling plutonlum, by developing or acquiring delivery systems that would be capa- ble...well as political design—design of guidelines for nuclear export policies of the "supplier1’ nations, acceptance of safer fuel cycles, and the
Examples include a fighter maneuvering to its opponent’s six o’clock position for a gun kill , a bomber using terrain masking while inbound to the...forced into serial operations in which all avail- able assets mustbe dedicated to winning air superiority before any offen- sive operations other than...achieve results faster, and are less costly than symmetric or serial operations. ’Ibday, precision engagement and increased intelligence capa- bilities
portable robots to operate autonomously within the challenging conditions of urban environments. Previously, SSC-PAC has demonstrated robotic capa... robot to detect stairs/stairwells, maintain localization across multiple environments (e.g. in a 3D world, on stairs, with/without GPS), visualize data...perceptions and behaviors used to produce these capabilities, as well as an example demonstration scenario. Keywords: robotics , urban environment
tube computers began to appear. Some filled entire rooms, weighing up to 30 tons, and broke 0down often from their own heat. The transistor was... transistors linked together into a circuit, usually no larger than a quarter of an inch square. The Silicon Chip is capa- ble of storing, switching and...thou- sand individual transistor elements. Today’s microcomputers ’ -~,consist of five separate units, linked together: the input device, arithmetic
Planning and Execution Capa- bilities Within the Joint Expeditionary Movement System, Robert S. Tripp , Kristin F. Lynch, Charles Robert Roll, Jr., John G...Drew, and Patrick Mills (MG-377-AF). Strategic Analysis of Air National Guard Combat Support and Reachback Functions, Robert S. Tripp , Kristin F...to-End Support Considerations, John G. Drew, Russell D . Shaver, Kristin F. Lynch, Mahyar A. Amouzegar, and Don Snyder (MG-350-AF). Supporting Air
Jumar, Agnes; Harazny, Joanna M.; Ott, Christian; Friedrich, Stefanie; Kistner, Iris; Striepe, Kristina
Purpose In diabetes mellitus type 2, capillary rarefaction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of end-organ damage. We investigated retinal capillary density in patients with early disease. Methods This cross-sectional study compares retinal capillary rarefaction determined by intercapillary distance (ICD) and capillary area (CapA), measured non-invasively and in vivo by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry, in 73 patients with type 2 diabetes, 55 healthy controls and 134 individuals with hypertension stage 1 or 2. Results In diabetic patients, ICD was greater (23.2±5.5 vs 20.2±4.2, p = 0.013) and CapA smaller (1592±595 vs 1821±652, p = 0.019) than in healthy controls after adjustment for differences in cardiovascular risk factors between the groups. Compared to hypertensive patients, diabetic individuals showed no difference in ICD (23.1±5.8, p = 0.781) and CapA (1556±649, p = 0.768). Conclusion In the early stage of diabetes type 2, patients showed capillary rarefaction compared to healthy individuals. PMID:27935938
Redeker, Jana; Bläser, Marcel; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard
A recent analysis of the genome of Locusta migratoria indicated the presence of four novel insect neuropeptide genes encoding for multiple tryptopyrokinin peptides (tryptoPKs); hitherto only known from pyrokinin or capa genes. In our study, mature products of tryptoPK genes 1 and 2 were identified by mass spectrometry; precursor sequences assigned to the tryptoPK genes 3 and 4 are likely partial sequences of a single precursor. The expression of tryptoPK genes 1 and 2 is restricted to two cells in the subesophageal ganglion, exhibiting not only a unique neuropeptidome but also a very distinctive axonal projection. Comparative neuroendocrinology revealed that homologous cells in other insects also produce tryptoPKs but use other genes to generate this pattern. Since capa and pyrokinin genes are discussed as ancestors of the tryptoPK genes, we completed the hitherto only partially known precursor sequences of these genes by means of transcriptome analyses. The distribution of mature products of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the CNS is compared with that of tryptoPKs. In addition, a novel pyrokinin-like precursor is described.
Kim, H. T.; Kim, Y. B.; Kim, H. S.
The current-applied-pressure-assisted (CAPA) process has been applied to obtain full dense isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets from melt spun NdFeB alloy (MQP-A). The energy product of isotropic magnets obtained by this process was 120-135 kJ/m 3(15-17 MGOe) and the remanence was 0.8-0.9 T(8-9 kG). These isotropic magnets were deformed with different thickness reduction ratio by CAPA process. The energy product obtained by this procedure was in excess of 320 kJ/m 3(40 MGOe), and the best magnetic properties obtained were B r=1.36 T(13.6 kG) , iH c=868 kA/m(10.9 kOe) and (BH) max=352 kJ/m 3(44.2 MGOe) . The effect of deformation by CAPA process on texture was examined using pole figures. The (1 0 5) texture was dominant up to the thickness reduction ratio of 74%, whereas the (0 0 6) texture was dominant at the thickness reduction ratio of 81%.
Nuñez, A.; Martin, M.
The geodetic network in the Canary Islands (REGCAN95) is made up of 296 point, 92 of them were observed by GPS. These belong to the REGENTE network of the Iberian Peninsula. The link between the Peninsula and the Islands was made with only a point, the EUREF station Maspalomas (MAS1), so it is possible that a error in the direction, and therefore a rotation in REGCAN95 network. We try to check this aspect, we have taken observations GPS of 12 hours in three points of REGCAN95, one of them Maspalomas, and we have given coordinates and calculated the degree of accuracy of them from stations (Rabat, San Fernando and Ponta Delgada) of the ITRF network. In this way we can control the existence of some deformation in the nowadays position of the local network. The REGCAN95 coordinates are ITRF93.
Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Kutiel, Haim; Valente, Maria A.; Sigró, Javier
Within the scope of the two major international projects of long-term reanalysis for the 20th century coordinated by NOAA (Compo et al. 2011) and ECMWF (Hersbach et al. 2013) the IDL Institute from the University of Lisbon has digitized a large number of long-term stations records from Portugal and former Portuguese Colonies (Stickler et al. 2014). Recently we have finished the digitization of all precipitation values from Ponta Delgada (capital of the Azores archipelago) obtaining an uninterrupted precipitation monthly time series since 1864 and additionally an almost complete corresponding daily precipitation series, with the exception of some years (1864/1872; 1878/1879; 1888/1905; 1931; 1936 and 1938) for which only monthly values are available. Here, we present an annually, seasonally and daily resolution study of the rainfall regime in Ponta Delgada for the last 150 years and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influence over this precipitation regime. The distribution of precipitation presents an evident seasonal pattern, with a strong difference between the 'rainy season' (November/March) and the 'dry season' (June/August) with very little rainfall. April/May and September/October correspond to the transitional seasons. The mean annual rainfall in Ponta Delgada is approximately 910 mm and is accumulated (on average) in about 120 rainy days. The precipitation regime in Azores archipelago reveals large inter-annual and intra-annual variability and both have increased considerably in the last decades. The entire studied period (1865-2012) shows an increase in the rainfall conditions between a drier earlier period (1865-1938) and a wetter recent period (1939-2012). At daily resolution, we have used an approach based on different characteristics of rain spells (consecutive days with rainfall accumulation) that has been proved to be satisfactory for the analysis of the different parameters related to the rainfall regime (Kutiel and Trigo, 2014). This approach
Cordeiro, S; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V
High fluoride contents in the water supply of the city of Ponta Delgada, located in the volcanic island of São Miguel (Azores, Portugal) have been reported. Dental fluorosis in São Miguel has been identified and described in several medical surveys. The water supply in Ponta Delgada consists entirely of groundwater. A study was carried out in order to characterize the natural F-pollution of a group of springs (30) and wells (3), that are associated to active central volcanoes of a trachytic nature. Two springs known for their high content in fluoride were sampled, both located in the central volcano of Furnas. The sampled waters are cold, ranging from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (pH range 6.53-7.60), exhibiting a low electrical conductivity (springs range 87-502 μS/cm; wells range 237-1761 μS/cm), and are mainly from the Na-HCO(3), Na-HCO(3)-Cl and Na-Cl-HCO(3) water types. Results suggest two main trends of geochemical evolution: silicate weathering, enhanced by CO(2) dilution, and seawater spraying. Fluoride contents range between 0.17 mg/L and 2 mg/L, and no seasonal variations were detected. Results in the sources of the water supply system are lower than those of the Furnas volcano, which reach 5.09 mgF/L, demonstrating the effect of F-rich gaseous emanations in this area. Instead, the higher fluoride contents in the water supply are mainly due to silicate weathering in aquifers made of more evolved volcanic rocks.
McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.
Minor manganese resources occur adjacent to the southeast corner of the King Range Instant Study Area near Queen Peak. The manganese forms small stratabound deposits associated with radiolarian chert and pillow basalt. The known deposits are too small and the manganese too low in concentration for further economic exploitation. Similar manganese mineralization may be within the belt of melange in the southeast corner of the King Range area and within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area, but economic deposits are unlikely. Although there has been historical base- and precious-metal exploration activity north of the King Range in the Mattole River drainage, our geologic and geochemical field data indicate almost no gold potential and low potentials for lead, zinc, copper, and silver. During this investigation, one high-grade vein and several minor veins containing lead, zinc, copper, and silver were discovered at Point Delgada immediately south of the King Range Instant Study Area. The vein mineralization is Miocene and cuts Cretaceous basalt flows, dikes, flow breccia, and younger overlying sedimentary rocks of the King Range. The vein mineralization at Point Delgada could be remobilized from more extensive unexposed stratabound base-metal mineralization at depth. Traces of lead and zinc detected within the King Range Instant Study Area may have similar stratabound or vein origins, but no resource potential is indicated. Minor copper mineralization with associated lead, zinc, and manganese anomalies within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area is of low economic potential because of the shearing, isolation, and lenticularity of the basaltic and cherty rocks within the melange mineralization.
Fan, Li; Levey, Andrew S; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Andresdottir, Margret B; Gudmundsdottir, Hrefna; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur; Mitchell, Gary; Inker, Lesley A
Current guidelines recommend reporting eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations unless other equations are more accurate, and recommend the combination of creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) as more accurate than either eGFRcr or eGFRcys alone. However, preferred equations and filtration markers in elderly individuals are debated. In 805 adults enrolled in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, we measured GFR (mGFR) using plasma clearance of iohexol, standardized creatinine and cystatin C, and eGFR using the CKD-EPI, Japanese, Berlin Initiative Study (BIS), and Caucasian and Asian pediatric and adult subjects (CAPA) equations. We evaluated equation performance using bias, precision, and two measures of accuracy. We first compared the Japanese, BIS, and CAPA equations with the CKD-EPI equations to determine the preferred equations, and then compared eGFRcr and eGFRcys with eGFRcr-cys using the preferred equations. Mean (SD) age was 80.3 (4.0) years. Median (25th, 75th) mGFR was 64 (52, 73) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and the prevalence of decreased GFR was 39% (95% confidence interval, 35.8 to 42.5). Among 24 comparisons with the other equations, CKD-EPI equations performed better in 9, similar in 13, and worse in 2. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr in four metrics, better than eGFRcys in two metrics, and similar to eGFRcys in two metrics. In conclusion, neither the Japanese, BIS, nor CAPA equations were superior to the CKD-EPI equations in this cohort of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr or eGFRcys.
Pham, Thanh-Nhat; Bordage, Simon; Pudlo, Marc; Demougeot, Céline; Thai, Khac-Minh; Girard-Thernier, Corine
Arginases are enzymes that are involved in many human diseases and have been targeted for new treatments. Here a series of cinnamides was designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in silico for their inhibitory activity against mammalian arginase. Using a microassay on purified liver bovine arginase (b-ARG I), (E)-N-(2-phenylethyl)-3,4-dihydroxycinnamide, also named caffeic acid phenylamide (CAPA), was shown to be slightly more active than our natural reference inhibitor, chlorogenic acid (IC50 = 6.9 ± 1.3 and 10.6 ± 1.6 µM, respectively) but it remained less active that the synthetic reference inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine nor-NOHA (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 µM). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that CAPA was a competitive inhibitor of arginase with Ki = 5.5 ± 1 µM. Whereas the activity of nor-NOHA was retained (IC50 = 5.7 ± 0.6 µM) using a human recombinant arginase I (h-ARG I), CAPA showed poorer activity (IC50 = 60.3 ± 7.8 µM). However, our study revealed that the cinnamoyl moiety and catechol function were important for inhibitory activity. Docking results on h-ARG I demonstrated that the caffeoyl moiety could penetrate into the active-site pocket of the enzyme, and the catechol function might interact with the cofactor Mn2+ and several crucial amino acid residues involved in the hydrolysis mechanism of arginase. The results of this study suggest that 3,4-dihydroxycinnamides are worth being considered as potential mammalian arginase inhibitors, and could be useful for further research on the development of new arginase inhibitors. PMID:27690022
Gondalia, Kinsi; Qudrat, Anam; Bruno, Brigida; Fleites Medina, Janet; Paluzzi, Jean-Paul V
Pyrokinin-related peptides are pleiotropic factors that are defined by their conserved C-terminal sequence FXPRL-NH2. The pyrokinin nomenclature derives from their originally identified myotropic actions and, as seen in some family members, a blocked amino terminus with pyroglutamate. The black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is well known as a vector of Lyme disease and various other illnesses; however, in comparison to blood-feeding insects, knowledge on its physiology (along with other Ixodid ticks) is rather limited. In this study, we have isolated, examined the expression profile, and functionally deorphanized the pyrokinin peptide receptor in the medically important tick, I. scapularis. Phylogenetic analysis supports that the cloned receptor is indeed a bona fide member of the pyrokinin-related peptide receptor family. The tick pyrokinin receptor transcript expression is most abundant in the central nervous system (i.e. synganglion), but is also detected in trachea, female reproductive tissues, and in a pooled sample comprised of Malpighian (renal) tubules and the hindgut. Finally, functional characterization of the identified receptor confirmed it as a pyrokinin peptide receptor as it was activated equally by four endogenous pyrokinin-related peptides. The receptor was slightly promiscuous as it was also activated by a peptide sharing some structural similarity, namely the CAPA-periviserokinin (CAPA-PVK) peptide. Nonetheless, the I. scapularis pyrokinin receptor required a CAPA-PVK peptide concentration of well over three orders of magnitude to achieve a comparable receptor activation response, which indicates it is quite selective for its native pyrokinin peptide ligands. This study sets the stage for future research to examine the prospective tissue targets identified in order to resolve the physiological roles of this family of peptides in Ixodid ticks.
Dardashti, Alain; Nozohoor, Shahab; Grubb, Anders; Bjursten, Henrik
Abstract Shrunken Pore Syndrome was recently suggested for the pathophysiologic state in patients characterized by an estimation of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based upon cystatin C, which is lower or equal to 60% of their estimated GFR based upon creatinine, i.e. when eGFRcystatin C ≤ 60% of eGFRcreatinine. Not only the cystatin C level, but also the levels of other low molecular mass proteins are increased in this condition. The preoperative plasma levels of cystatin C and creatinine were measured in 1638 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. eGFRcystatin C and eGFRcreatinine were calculated using two pairs of estimating equations, CAPA and LMrev, and CKD-EPIcystatin C and CKD-EPIcreatinine, respectively. The Shrunken Pore Syndrome was present in 2.1% of the patients as defined by the CAPA and LMrev equations and in 5.7% of the patients as defined by the CKD-EPIcystatin C and CKD-EPIcreatinine equations. The patients were studied over a median follow-up time of 3.5 years (2.0–5.0 years) and the mortality determined. Shrunken Pore Syndrome defined by both pairs of equations was a strong, independent, predictor of long-term mortality as evaluated by Cox analysis and as illustrated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Increased mortality was observed also for the subgroups of patients with GFR above or below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Changing the cut-off level from 60 to 70% for the CAPA and LMrev equations increased the number of patients with Shrunken Pore Syndrome to 6.5%, still displaying increased mortality. PMID:26647957
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Baum, B; Perrimon, N
The actin cytoskeleton orders cellular space and transduces many of the forces required for morphogenesis. Here we combine genetics and cell biology to identify genes that control the polarized distribution of actin filaments within the Drosophila follicular epithelium. We find that profilin and cofilin regulate actin-filament formation throughout the cell cortex. In contrast, CAP-a Drosophila homologue of Adenylyl Cyclase Associated Proteins-functions specifically to limit actin-filament formation catalysed by Ena at apical cell junctions. The Abl tyrosine kinase also collaborates in this process. We therefore propose that CAP, Ena and Abl act in concert to modulate the subcellular distribution of actin filaments in Drosophila.
chips, CVD metallizing, edge con-- touring and a vacuum envelope that includes a high-- strength, high alumina ceramic insulator designed to hold-off...severely degrade the blocking voltage capa- bility of the junction. The three implanted levels of doping were 9 x 1013, 1 x 1014 and 2 x 1014 atoms/cc. Of...coating prevented corona at the high voltage insulator specifically at the base pin area. A -81- AD-A092 o179 OCA CORP LANCASTER PA SSD-ELECTRO-OPTICS
Orihuela, C. J.; Janssen, R.; Robb, C. W.; Watson, D. A.; Niesel, D. W.
We have examined the properties of Streptococcus pneumoniae cultured in the murine peritoneal cavity and compared its virulence-associated characteristics to those of cultures grown in vitro. Analysis of mRNA levels for specific virulence factors demonstrated a 2.8-fold increase in ply expression and a 2.2-fold increase in capA3 expression during murine peritoneal culture (MPC). Two-dimensional gels and immunoblots using convalescent-phase patient sera and murine sera revealed distinct differences in protein production in vivo (MPC). MPC-grown pneumococci adhered to A549 epithelial cell lines at levels 10-fold greater than those cultured in vitro.
members contaminated 10 restaurant salad bars in a town in Oregon with salmonella, a common bacterium that causes food poisoning. The attack sickened 751...i c a l a n d N u c l e a r R i s k s Sufaat fled; he was captured by authorities as he tried to sneak back into Malaysia . The cases of the... waste associated with the spent nuclear fuel—the number of states possessing the knowledge and capa- B i o l o g i c a l a n d N u c l e a r R i s k s
Stannarius, Ralf; Li, Jianjun; Weissflog, Wolfgang
We report electro-optic experiments in liquid crystalline freestanding films of achiral hockey stick shaped mesogens with a straight aromatic core. The material forms two smectic mesophases. In the higher temperature phase, a spontaneous polarization exists in the smectic layer plane and the films show polar switching in electric fields. It is the first example of a ferroelectric phase formed by nearly rodlike achiral mesogens. Mirror symmetry of the phase is spontaneously broken. We propose a molecular configuration similar to a synclinic ferroelectric (CSPF) high temperature phase and an anticlinic, probably antiferroelectric (CAPA) low temperature phase.
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Nakata, Michi; Chen, Dong; Shao, Renfan; Korblova, Eva; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Walba, David M.; Clark, Noel A.
We describe the unusual electro-optic response of a biaxial bent-core liquid crystal molecule that exhibits an anticlinic, antiferroelectric smectic phase (Sm-CAPA) with a molecular tilt angle close to 45°. In the ground state, the sample shows very low birefringence. A weak applied electric field distorts the antiferroelectric ground state, inducing a small azimuthal reorientation of the molecules on the tilt cone. This results in only a modest increase in the birefringence but an anomalously large (˜40°) analog rotation of the extinction direction. This unusual electro-optic response is shown to be a consequence of the molecular biaxiality.
Fei, Rong; Cui, Duwu; Zhang, Yikun; Wang, Chaoxue
In this paper, Dynamic Programming is used to solve K postmen Chinese postmen problem for the first time. And a novel model for decision- making of KPCPP and the computation models for solving the whole problem are proposed. The arcs of G are changed into the points of G' by CAPA, and the model is converted into another one, which applies to Multistep Decision Process, by MDPMCA. On the base of these two programs, Dynamic Programming algorithm KMPDPA can finally solve the NPC problem-KPCPP. An illustrative example is given to clarify concepts and methods. The accuracy of these algorithms and the relative theories are verified by mathematical language.
Ortega, J.; Folcia, C.; Etxebarria, J.; Gimeno, N.; Ros, M.
A liquid crystal material of bent-core molecules is investigated by means of optical texture observations, x-ray measurements, and miscibility studies. While the x-ray and miscibility data point towards a B2 phase, the texture is however unusual, showing optical isotropy and segregation in two domains with opposite gyrations. It is shown that the texture can be interpreted successfully in terms of a smectic-CAPA structure in small domains with random orientations. The optical activity data are also explained semiquantitatively.
Several mathematical models were investigated to determine the capa-bilities of the magneto-telluric method for determining the resistivity structure of the earth's crust. The model parameters were based on the crust model proposed by Keller (1963). The mathematical technique used was developed by Cagniard (1953). The investigations indicate that a three-layer model approximation of the crust and mantle is the most detailed model warranted in inter-preting the information provided by the magneto-telluric method about the lower crust. Only the thickness of the lower crust can be determined, and not the resistivity.
Mackay, G. I.; Iguchi, T.; Schiff, H. I.
A tropospheric air monitoring system (TAMS) was developed by UNISEARCH ASSOCIATES INC. under contract to the CRC CAPA-19-80 program. The TAMS uses the principle of infrared absorptions which can, in principle, be used for the majority of atmospheric trace gases. It combines the high selectivity of a tunable diode spectrometer with the sensitivity of long path absorption provided by a White cell. The system developed under this contract was for manual operation and data was retrieved from a strip chart recorder.
Tyryshkin, L G
Leaf rust resistance was studied in barley accessions from the worldwide collection of the All-Russia Institute of Plant Industry. Most accessions described as highly resistant in the literature proved susceptible. High resistance at the juvenile stage was observed only for the cultivars Henry, Cebada Capa, Forrajera Klein, and Scarlet. Hybrid analysis and phytopathological tests showed that the cultivar Scarlet had one dominant resistance gene, Rph7. Adult resistance was demonstrated for accession NB-3002 from Nepal, which proved to have one dominant gene on evidence of hybrid analysis.
Gonzalez, Juan Bosco
En Nicaragua no hay un plan de forltificación de alimentos con ácido fólico. Las madres son muy jóvenes. En La Mascota operamos mas de cuarenta niños por año. Derivación tardía es un problema. La infección preoperatoria tiene que ser descartada. Vancomicina y Ceftriaxone estan indicadas. Estricta regla de asepsia operatoria. Suturamos la plaqueta para asemejar su forma al cilindro normal de la médula. No ceramos la capa de músculo. PMID:24791221
Makino, S I; Iinuma-Okada, Y; Maruyama, T; Ezaki, T; Sasakawa, C; Yoshikawa, M
Bacillus anthracis is a soil pathogen capable of causing anthrax. To establish a method for specifically detecting B. anthracis for practical applications, such as for the inspection of slaughterhouses, the cap region, which is essential for encapsulation in B. anthracis, was used in a DNA hybridization study by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 288-bp DNA fragment within the capA gene by PCR. The amplified DNA sequence specifically hybridized to the DNA of B. anthracis but not to that of other bacterial strains tested. Since this PCR-based method efficiently and specifically detected the capA sequence of bacteria in blood and spleen samples of mice within 8 h after the administration of live B. anthracis, this PCR system could be used for practical applications. By using lysis methods in preparing the samples for PCR, it was possible to amplify the 288-bp DNA segment from samples containing very few bacteria, as few as only 1 sporeforming unit, indicating that the PCR detection method developed in this study will permit the monitoring of B. anthracis contamination in the environment. Images PMID:8458949
Santos, Jonathan G; Pollák, Edit; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Molnár, László; Wegener, Christian
Metamorphosis is a fundamental developmental process and has been intensively studied for various neuron types of Drosophila melanogaster. However, detailed accounts of the fate of identified peptidergic neurons are rare. We have performed a detailed study of the larval morphology and pupal remodelling of identified peptidergic neurons, the CAPA-expressing Va neurons of D. melanogaster. In the larva, Va neurons innervate abdominal median and transverse nerves that are typically associated with perisympathetic organs (PSOs), major neurohaemal release sites in insects. Since median and transverse nerves are lacking in the adult, Va neurites have to undergo substantial remodelling during metamorphosis. We have examined the hitherto uncharacterised gross morphology of the thoracic PSOs and the abdominal median and transverse nerves by scanning electron microscopy and found that the complete reduction of these structures during metamorphosis starts around pupal stage P7 and is completed at P9. Concomitantly, neurite pruning of the Va neurons begins at P6 and is preceded by the high expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) subtype B1 in late L3 larvae and the first pupal stages. New neuritic outgrowth mainly occurs from P7-P9 and coincides with the expression of EcR-A, indicating that the remodelling of the Va neurons is under ecdysteroid control. Immunogold-labelling has located the CAPA peptides to large translucent vesicles, which are released from the transverse nerves, as suggested by fusion profiles. Hence, the transverse nerves may serve a neurohaemal function in D. melanogaster.
Dai, Chongshan; Li, Jichang; Lin, Wei; Li, Guangxing; Sun, Meicheng; Wang, Fengxia; Li, Jian
To investigate the neurotoxicity of colistin, female mice received colistin sulfate (7.5 mg/kg/12 h) intravenously for 7 days successively, the behavioral changes, and the neuropathological and electrophysiological characterizations of sciatic nerves were determined prior to administration and at 1, 3, 7 and 15 days thereafter. At 1, 3, and 7 days, the compound action potential durations (CAPDs), compound muscle action potential amplitudes (CAPAs), conduction velocities of sciatic-tibial nerve (NCVs) showed progressively abnormal changes with the time prolonged. Compared to the control, these changes were significant at day 7 (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), but at day 15, only CAPAs were significantly different (p < 0.05), other indexes presented a recovery tendency. These functional damages were confirmed by the synchronous ultrastructural observations which expressed axonal degeneration and demyelination in the sciatic nerves. These results indicated that peripheral neurotoxicity occurred in mice treated intravenously with colistin sulfate and the electrophysiological and ultrastructural changes of their sciatic nerves exerted in time-dependent fashion.
Dracatos, P M; Nansamba, M; Berlin, A; Park, R F; Niks, R E
Barley is a near-nonhost to numerous heterologous (nonadapted) rust pathogens because a small proportion of genotypes are somewhat susceptible. We assessed 66 barley accessions and three mapping populations (Vada × SusPtrit, Cebada Capa × SusPtrit, and SusPtrit × Golden Promise) for response to three Swedish oat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae) fungal isolates and determined that barley is a near-nonhost to P. graminis f. sp. avenae and that resistance was polygenically inherited. The parental genotypes Vada and Golden Promise were immune to all three isolates, whereas Cebada Capa was immune to two isolates and moderately resistant to the third. Phenotypic data from the Vada × SusPtrit mapping population and the barley accessions tested also demonstrated isolate-specific resistance. In particular, the SusPtrit parent and several other accessions allowed sporulation by isolate Ingeberga but were resistant to isolate Evertsholm. Nine chromosomal regions carried quantitative trait loci (QTL) (Rpgaq1 to Rpgaq9) of varying effect, most of which colocated to previously identified QTL for resistance to other heterologous rust pathogens. Rpgaq1 on chromosome 1H (Vada and Golden Promise) was effective toward all isolates tested. Microscopic examination indicated that resistance was prehaustorial in Vada whereas, in SusPtrit, both pre- and posthaustorial mechanisms play a role.
Ringeisen, Heather; Aldworth, Jeremy; Colpe, Lisa J; Pringle, Beverly; Simile, Catherine
This study investigates whether the six-item Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ (five symptoms and one impact item) included in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) can be used to construct models that accurately estimate the prevalence of any impairing mental disorder among children 4-17 years old as measured by a shortened Child/Adolescent or Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA or PAPA). A subsample of 217 NHIS respondents completed a follow-up CAPA or PAPA interview. Logistic regression models were developed to model presence of any child mental disorder with impairment (MDI) or with severe impairment (MDSI). Models containing only the SDQ impact item exhibited highly biased prevalence estimates. The best-performing model included information from both the five symptom SDQ items and the impact item, where absolute bias was reduced and sensitivity and concordance were increased. This study illustrates the importance of using all available information from the six-item SDQ to accurately estimate the prevalence of any impairing childhood mental disorder from the NHIS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hellmich, Erica; Nusawardani, Tyasning; Bartholomay, Lyric; Jurenka, Russell
The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family of peptides is characterized by a common C-terminal pentapeptide, FXPRLamide, which is required for diverse physiological functions in various insects. Polyclonal antisera against the C-terminus was utilized to determine the location of cell bodies and axons in the central nervous systems of larval and adult mosquitoes. Immunoreactive material was detected in three groups of neurons in the subesophageal ganglion of larvae and adults. The corpora cardiaca of both larvae and adults contained immunoreactivity indicating potential release into circulation. The adult and larval brains had at least one pair of immunoreactive neurons in the protocerebrum with the adult brain having additional immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal medial part of the protocerebrum. The ventral ganglia of both larvae and adults each contained one pair of neurons that sent their axons to a perisympathetic organ associated with each abdominal ganglion. These results indicate that the mosquito nervous system contains pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides and that these peptides could be released into the hemolymph. The peptides in insects and mosquitoes are produced by two genes, capa and pk/pban. Utilizing PCR protocols, we demonstrate that products of the capa gene could be produced in the abdominal ventral ganglia and the products of the pk/pban gene could be produced in the subesophageal ganglion. Two receptors for pyrokinin peptides were differentially localized to various tissues.
Gergen, Leslie Dickson; Ingersoll, Raymond V.
Sand and sandstone compositions from different types of basins reflect provenance terranes governed by plate tectonics. One hundred and one thin sections of Upper Miocene to Holocene sand-sized material were examined from DSDP/IPOD Sites in the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. The Gazzi-Dickinson point-counting method was used to establish compositional characteristics of sands from different tectonic settings. Continental margin forearc sands from the western North America continental margin arc system are clearly different from backarc/marginal-sea sands from the Aleutian intraoceanic arc system. The forearc sands have average QFL percentages of 29-42-29, LmLvLst percentages of 32-34-34, 3 Fmwk%M and 0.82 P/F. Aleutian backarc sands have average QFL percentages of 8-22-69. LmLvLst percentages of 9-85-6, 0.5 Fmwk%M and 0.96 P/F. A trend of increasing QFL%Q and decreasing LmLvLst%Lv westward in the backarc region of the Aleutian Ridge reflects the influence of the Asiatic continental margin. Aleutian backarc sands without continental influence have average QFL percentages of 1-20-79, LmLvLst percentages of 1-98-1, 0 Fmwk%M and 0.99 P/F. Of the continental margin forearc samples, sands on the Astoria Fan (west of the Oregon—Washington trench) contain the highest LmLvLst%Lv and lowest P/F; sands from mixed transform-fault and trench settings (Delgada Fan and Gulf of Alaska samples) have slightly higher Qp/Q (0.03); and sands from the Pacific-Juan de Fuca-North America triple junction have the highest Fmwk%M. Delgada Fan and Gulf of Alaska sands have average QFL percentages of 27-38-35, LmLvLst percentages of 37-26-37, 2 Fmwk%M and 0.86 P/F. Astoria Fan sands have average QFL percentages of 35-41-24, LmLvLst percentages of 30-47-23, 3 Fmwk%M and 0.74 P/F. The triple-junction sands have average QFL percentages of 28-59-13, LmLvLst percentages of 25-26-49, 9 Fmwk%M and 0.87 P/F. The petrologic data from the modern ocean basins examined in this study can provide
Viegas-Crespo, A M; Pavão, M L; Paulo, O; Santos, V; Santos, M C; Nève, J
Data on selenium, copper and zinc in serum of Portuguese inhabitants of the city of Ponta Delgada-Azores Archipelago are reported for the first time. The subjects are of both sexes, aged 20 to 60 years, and non-abusers of alcohol, tobacco or drugs. Serum concentrations of these elements are in the same range than those found for populations of Lisbon and of some other European countries. Differences between sexes are observed, with serum selenium and zinc levels being higher in males than in females, and the copper levels being higher in females as compared to males. These results can be explained by the hormonal status and/or oral contraceptive steroids intake, particularly for copper. Concerning lipid profile, the majority of individuals have serum lipid parameters within the normal range. In addition, no difference in trace element levels between normo and hyperlipidemic individuals is observed and no conclusive results about the relationship of all evaluated parameters to alcohol, tobacco and drug consumption are observed, in agreement with data obtained in the population of Lisbon.
Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.
The Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scanning sonar system was used to obtain data that were compiled as an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor from the edge of the continental shelf to 200 nmi offshore within the US Exclusive Economic Zone off California, Oregon, and Washington. The mosaic clearly displays the large-scale geomorphic and sedimentologic features of the sea floor, including spreading centers, seamounts, fracture zones, sediment fans, continental-slope canyons, and abyssal-plain channels. Hundreds of seamounts (some previously uncharted) dot the deep sea floor, and many have large summit craters and attendant volcanic flows. The major Nitinat, Astoria, Delgada, and Monterey sediment fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes that extend from morphologically diverse canyons on the adjacent continental slope. Areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the complexes. Some channels on the abyssal plain are straight whereas others are highly sinuous, suggesting that various channel-forming processes occur on the sea floor. The contrast between the transform tectonic regime south of Cape Mendocino and the convergent tectonic regime to the north is particularly apparent on the mosaic. The linear basement ridges that were generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers and were later moved apart by sea-floor spreading are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones that accommodate horizontal slip between adjacent lithospheric plates.
M. Bedoya-Hincapié, C.; H. Ortiz-Álvarez, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; J. Olaya-Flórez, J.; E. Alfonso, J.
The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the transversal (x-y) direction, and the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response. Project sponsored by the research departments of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIMA and DIB under Project 201010018227-“Crecimiento y caracterización eléctrica y estructural de películas delgadas de BixTiyOz producidas mediante Magnetrón Sputtering” and Project 12920-“Desarrollo teóricoexperimental de nanoestructuras basadas en Bismuto y materiales similares” and “Bisnano Project.”
Muzaffar, Shazia; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Zuber, Mohammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Shahid, Muhammad
A series of aqueous dispersions of polyurethane (PU) and low molecular weight chitosan (CS(LMW)) has been prepared in two steps synthetic process. In first step PU prepolymer, with NCO termini were prepared by reacting isophrone diisocyanate (IPDI), poly (caprolactone) diol (CAPA, Mn 1000), and 2,2-dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), followed by neutralization of PU prepolymer with triethylamine (TEA). In second step PU prepolymer chain was extended by low molecular weight chitosan followed by dispersion formation by adding calculated volume of water. Molecular characterization of CS(LMW)-PU finishes was done by FTIR and application on poly-cotton blended fabric samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antimicrobial and UV protective performance of treated fabrics was performed by AATCC 100 and AATCC TM183 methods respectively. Furthermore, it shows that the addition of chitosan remarkably increases antimicrobial and UV protective properties of PUs.
Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Barikani, Mehdi; Hussain, Rizwan; Jamil, Tahir; Anjum, Sohail
Chitin based polyurethane bio-nanocomposites (PUBNC) were prepared using chitin, Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay enriched in montmorillonite (MMT), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and polycaprolactone polyol CAPA 231 (3000 g/mol(-1)). The prepolymers having different concentration of Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay were extended with 2 moles of chitin. The structures of the resulted polymers were determined by FT-IR technique. The effect of nanoclay contents on mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility was investigated. The mechanical properties of the synthesized materials were improved with increase in the Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay contents. Optimum mechanical properties were obtained from the PU bio-nanocomposite samples having 4% Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay. The results revealed that the final PU bio-nanocomposite having 2% Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay contents is ideal contenders for surgical threads with on going investigations into their in vitro biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and mechanical properties.
Azcarate, I. N.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Colomb, F. R.
RESUMEN Se presentan resultados de un relevamiento de Ia emisi6n de la ifnea H 1 66a en el rango de longitudes galacticas 2700 < 1 <3000 y para tres latitudes galacticas b = 0.00, b = l0.50. De los mismos, resulta que hay evidencia de un alabeo de Ia capa de gas jonizado en el plano galactico, en las partes exteriores de Ia Galaxia. ABSTRACT Results from an H166a emission survey in the Galactic longitude range 2700 < 1 <3000 and for three Galactic latitudes (b = 0.00, b = 0.50), are presented. From these results, there is evidence for the presence of a warping of the ionized gas layer in the galactic plane, in the outer Galaxy. K words: GALAXY-SThUCTURE - RADIO HNES-
Reiman, Eric M; Langbaum, Jessica B; Tariot, Pierre N; Lopera, Francisco; Bateman, Randall J; Morris, John C; Sperling, Reisa A; Aisen, Paul S; Roses, Allen D; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Carrillo, Maria C; Weninger, Stacie
If we are to find treatments to postpone, reduce the risk of, or completely prevent the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), we need faster methods to evaluate promising preclinical AD treatments, new ways to work together in support of common goals, and a determination to expedite the initiation and performance of preclinical AD trials. In this article, we note some of the current challenges, opportunities and emerging strategies in preclinical AD treatment. We describe the Collaboration for Alzheimer's Prevention (CAP)-a convening, harmonizing and consensus-building initiative to help stakeholders advance AD prevention research with rigour, care and maximal impact-and we demonstrate the impact of CAP on the goals and design of new preclinical AD trials.
Jurenka, R; Nusawardani, T
The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family of G-protein-coupled receptors and their ligands have been identified in various insects. Physiological functions of pyrokinin peptides include muscle contraction, whereas PBAN regulates, among other functions, pheromone production in moths which indicates the pleiotropic nature of these peptides. Based on the alignment of annotated genomic sequences, the pyrokinin/PBAN family of receptors have similarity with the corresponding structures of the capa or periviscerokinin receptors of insects and the neuromedin U receptors of vertebrates. In our study, evolutionary trace (ET) analysis on the insect receptor sequences was conducted to predict the putative ligand recognition and binding sites. The ET analysis of four class-specific receptors indicated several amino acid residues that are conserved in the transmembrane domains. The receptor extracellular domains exhibit several class-specific amino acid residues, which could indicate putative domains for activation of these receptors by ligand recognition and binding.
Takanishi, Yoichi; Ohtsuka, Youko; Takahashi, Yumiko; Kang, Sungmin; Iida, Atsuo
We studied the details of a local layer structure in the B2 phase of bromo-containing bent-core liquid crystals mixed with a small amount of chiral molecules using microbeam resonant X-ray scattering. In this measurement, we detected the 1 ± 0.2 order satellite peaks, which suggest that the B2 phase of the mixture has a long-range periodic structure. Dielectric and electro-optic measurements indicate almost the same behavior as the antiferroelectric SmCAPA(B2) of pure bromo-containing bent-core liquid crystals, so that the B2 phase of the chiral mixture is also antiferroelectric, and it is concluded that the B2 phase of the chiral mixture forms a ten-layer periodic structure. Such a long-range periodic structure did not appear by mixing the racemate of the same compounds, which indicates the chiral effect on the long-range periodic structure.
Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Pawl, Andrew; Rayyan, Saif; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.
We are building in LON-CAPA an integrated learning environment that will enable the development, dissemination and evaluation of PER-based material. This environment features a collection of multi-level research-based homework sets organized by topic and cognitive complexity. These sets are associated with learning modules that contain very short exposition of the content supplemented by integrated open-access videos, worked examples, simulations, and tutorials (some from ANDES). To assess students' performance accurately with respect to a system-wide standard, we plan to implement Item Response Theory. Together with other PER assessments and purposeful solicitation of student feedback, this will allow us to measure and improve the efficacy of various research-based materials, while getting insights into teaching and learning.
Ponsinet, V.; Barois, P.; Pan, Lidong; Wang, Shun; Huang, C. C.; Wang, S. T.; Pindak, R.; Baumeister, U.; Weissflog, W.
The chiral antiferroelectric structure of an achiral bent-core liquid crystal is characterized by resonant x-ray scattering at chlorine K edge. The “forbidden” reflections resulting from the glide or screw symmetry elements are restored by the anisotropy of the tensor structure factor, which we calculate for two possible structural models. A careful analysis of the polarization states of the restored “forbidden” reflections enables an unambiguous identification of a chiral structure (i.e., the so-called anticlinic, antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-CAPA) coexisting with the achiral synclinic antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-CSPA. The method proves to be quite powerful as it identifies the chiral structure within coexisting phases despite an imperfect orientation of the sample. The volume fraction of the chiral phase and the distribution of alignment are extracted from the data.
Yamada, Shin-ichi; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ishida, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki
In the push-pull tracking error signal, which is generally used for rewritable discs, detection error occurs due to disc radial tilt. We have developed a track center detection method in which the center of a track is accurately detected using the complementary allocated pit address (CAPA) of a digital versatile rewritable disc (DVD-RAM). The track center servo corrects the tracking deviation caused by the detection error. We have also developed a method for detecting the disc radial tilt based on the fact that the level of the push-pull tracking error signal indicates the amount of disc radial tilt when the track center servo is in operation. The developed servo system was introduced in a 4.7-G byte DVD-RAM disc drive, and it has been confirmed that jitter deterioration during reproduction was reduced to 0.5% or lower in the range of ±0.5 degree of disc radial tilt.
Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah
Introductory calculus-based physics classes at the University of Colorado Boulder were significantly transformed beginning in 2004. They now regularly include: interactive engagement using clickers in large lecture settings, Tutorials in Introductory Physics with use of undergraduate Learning Assistants in recitation sections, and a staffed help-room setting where students work on personalized CAPA homework. We compile and summarize conceptual (FMCE and BEMA) pre- and post-data from over 9,000 unique students after 16 semesters of both Physics 1 and 2. Within a single institution with stable pre-test scores, we reproduce results of Hake's 1998 study that demonstrate the positive impacts of interactive engagement on student performance. We link the degree of faculty's use of interactive engagement techniques and their experience levels on student outcomes, and argue for the role of such systematic data collection in sustained course and institutional transformations.
Robertson, T. H.
Instructional materials are being developed in an open-source environment for introductory astronomy courses. These materials are being developed on, and will be available through, the LON-CAPA network accessed through the internet. Advantages of this system, which include materials sharing, free-software, search capabilities, context sensitive help and branching, metadata and on-line evaluation, will be discussed. Materials developed to date are limited primarily to personalized homework with a variety of question types for large (n = 100 student) classes at the Astronomy 101 and algebra-based astronomy levels. A progress report, as well as preliminary assessment data, will be provided on the scope of materials developed to date. Plans for future expansion will be presented. This work was funded in part by grants from Ball State University.
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Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan
Study of the Oweniidae specimens (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) stored at the Australian Museum, Sydney and newly collected in August 2013 revealed the presence of three species, namely Galathowenia quelis Capa et al., 2012 and two new species belonging to the genus Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844. Owenia dichotoma n. sp. is characterised by a very short branchial crown of about 1/3 of thoracic length which bears short, dichotomously-branched tentacles provided with the major division close to the base of the crown. Owenia picta n. sp. is characterised by a long branchial crown of about 4/5 of thoracic length provided with no major divisions, ventral pigmentation on thorax and the presence of deep ventro-lateral groove on the first thoracic chaetiger. A key of Owenia species hitherto described or reported in South East Asia and Australasia regions is provided based on characters of the branchial crown.
Makino, S; Uchida, I; Terakado, N; Sasakawa, C; Yoshikawa, M
By using genetic complementation tests with various in vitro-constructed mutants with mutations in the cap region (which is essential for encapsulation in Bacillus anthracis), we identified three cistrons, capB, capC, and capA, in this order of arrangement. Minicell analysis revealed that these cistrons produce proteins of 44, 16, and 46 kilodaltons, respectively. The complete nucleotide sequence of 3,244 base pairs covering the whole cap region was determined and revealed the existence of the three open reading frames of capB (397 amino acid residues; molecular weight, 44,872), capC (149 amino acid residues; molecular weight, 16,522), and capA (411 amino acid residues; molecular weight, 46,420) arranged in the order predicted by complementation tests. These three cistrons were all transcribed in the same direction from promoters unique to each cistron. Judging from the predicted amino acid sequence of the three proteins and from their localization and their sensitivity to various physicochemical treatments, they appeared to be membrane-associated enzymes mediating the polymerization of D-glutamic acid via the membrane. Capsular peptides immunologically identical to that of B. anthracis were found in B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. licheniformis, but no sequence homologous to the cap region was found in any of these bacilli other than B. anthracis. Using strains of B. anthracis with or without insertional inactivation of the cap region, we found that the capsule of B. anthracis conferred strong resistance to phagocytosis upon the bacterial host. Images PMID:2536679
Gimenez-Castejon, D; Gomez-Gallego, M; Martinez-Martinez, M L; Dudekova, M; Lajara-Blesa, J
Introduccion. La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) es la primera causa de demencia mundial. Cada vez son mas los esfuerzos para lograr una deteccion temprana del deterioro cognitivo y surgen en el panorama cientifico entidades diagnosticas como el deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL) y las quejas subjetivas de memoria (QSM). Debido a ello, aparecen numerosos biomarcadores estudiados para conseguir dicho objetivo, entre ellos la tomografia de coherencia optica. Sujetos y metodos. Se ha realizado un estudio que utiliza la tomografia de coherencia optica para medir el grosor macular y la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina en pacientes diagnosticados de EA (n = 36), pacientes con DCL (n = 33), en individuos con QSM (n = 24) y en sujetos control (n = 45). Resultados. Se han encontrado diferencias estadisticamente significativas en cuanto al grosor macular entre todos los grupos estudiados (QSM: 261,8 ± 25,88 µm; DCL: 259,19 ± 22,582 µm; EA leve: 258,53 ± 14,804 µm; EA moderada: 249,32 ± 18,467 µm) y sujetos control (271,96 ± 15,57 µm). Respecto a la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina, ocurre de igual manera, y la diferencia es estadisticamente significativa frente al grupo control (94,51 ± 9,203 µm) de todos los grupos (QSM: 90,44 ± 9,059 µm; DCL: 89,4 ± 10,421 µm; EA leve: 87,12 ± 10,279 µm; EA moderada: 82,25 ± 10,636 µm). Conclusion. La tomografia de coherencia optica podria situarse como un futuro biomarcador y una herramienta de apoyo para facilitar el diagnostico precoz del deterioro cognitivo y de la EA.
Instability of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ) results from non-colinearity of the San Andreas fault system (SAFS) and the Cascadia subduction zone. How this instability drives the evolution of the triple junction depends in part on how one depicts the MTJ. The "textbook" way represents the SAFS as a single fault with N40W strike, the average strike of the northern part SAFS. This geometry predicts the opening of a gap in the MTJ region, but this conflicts with observations of focused shortening and uplift in MTJ area instead of extension. An alternative uses current local MTJ geometry. This departs from the "textbook" because the San Andreas fault (SAF) bends right from about N40W to N5W in the offshore reach between Pt. Arena and Pt. Delgada. Because this strike is more northerly than that of Cascadia, this geometry predicts shortening in the MTJ area. The N40W-N5W bend in the SAF is a releasing bend, predicting transtension in the area south of the active shortening. The multiple strands of the SAFS, including the SAF and several strands to the east of it (I will call the latter the eastern faults) may also generate complexity in the MTJ area. San Andreas-age dextral faults are not present north of the MTJ. In the northern SAFS, 230-250 km of slip associated with the eastern faults, must transfer or have transferred westward to the MTJ, otherwise there would be slip incompatibilities along the eastern faults with zero displacement at their northern tips and a large displacements to the south. Transfer of slip from the eastern faults to the MTJ is a restraining (left) slip transfer or step-over, but the observed amount of exhumation and shortening MTJ area falls short of that predicted by any model that would transfer the slip of the eastern faults in one area. The eastern faults die out northward as well-defined faults. This may be because the northern tips of the eastern faults are propagating northward, while slip transfers to the MTJ that migrates at
Estanol-Vidal, B; Gutierrez-Manjarrez, F; Martinez-Memije, R; Senties-Madrid, H; Berenguer-Sanchez, M J; Magana-Zamora, L; Delgado-Garcia, G; Chiquete-Anaya, E
Introduccion. El reflejo venoarteriolar (RVA) lo provoca un incremento en la presion venosa transmural al colocar una parte del cuerpo en el sentido de la aceleracion gravitatoria por debajo del corazon. Objetivo. Evaluar el RVA en sujetos sanos al levantar una parte del cuerpo por encima del corazon. Sujetos y metodos. En 16 sujetos sanos (20-65 años) se estudio el RVA mediante cambios en el flujo sanguineo de la piel con un fotopletismografo digital infrarrojo colocado en el pulpejo en sujetos sanos durante las siguientes condiciones: brazo derecho a la altura del corazon, brazo derecho 40 cm por debajo del corazon y brazo derecho 40 cm por encima del corazon. Las variables medidas fueron: amplitud del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo a la altura del corazon (amplitud basal), porcentaje de disminucion del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por debajo del corazon y porcentaje de aumento del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por encima del corazon. Resultados. El porcentaje de vasoconstriccion con el brazo derecho por debajo del corazon fue del 35%, y el de vasodilatacion, del 50%. Conclusiones. La evaluacion del RVA con el brazo por debajo del corazon provoca vasoconstriccion, y la elevacion del brazo produce una importante vasodilatacion. La vasoconstriccion y la vasodilatacion se mantienen mientras la extremidad se mantenga por encima o por debajo del corazon. Este es un estudio potencialmente muy util y economico para estudiar la inervacion de la microcirculacion en diversas neuropatias perifericas de fibras delgadas y mixtas.
Gardner, J.V.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.
The long-range side-scan sonar system GLORIA was used to produce digitally enhanced mosaics of the sea floor of the entire US Exclusive Economic Zone. The data resolution, about 50 x 50 m, provides a mesoscale reconnaissance that reveals the continuity and extent of bottom features, some of which were previously unrecognized. The transform continental margin from the Mendocino Escarpment to the US-Mexican border is cut by numerous submarine canyons and gullies of varied size and complexity. The number, size, and extent of gullies appear directly related to the underlying bed-rock geology. Surprisingly, relatively few slumps and slump scarps are apparent. Submarine fans characterize the basins adjacent to the margin in this sector. The fans vary in size and complexity: relatively small, immature fans of the borderland basins, such as Redondo and Hueneme; fans intermediate in size and age, such as Arguello and Farallon; and large, relatively mature fans, such as Monterey and Delgada. Most fans have well-defined depositional lobes at the distal reach of a single channel. Distributary channels are not apparent on all fans, and on some (e.g., Monterey Fan), the single channel can be seen in seismic reflection profiles to have originated on or close to the basement, directly below its present position. The older depositional lobes that have been identified on the fan systems are adjacent to the present main channel, which implies that channel avulsion is not always a process that accompanies fan growth. Seamounts are prominent features in the region, ranging in number from hundreds in the Baja Seamount province to tens in the region west of San Francisco. The gradient of increasing numbers of exposed seamounts and volcanic ridges from north to south is a direct result of decreasing sediment supply from the continent to the south.
Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.
The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.
Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Sackmann-Sala, L.; Berryman, D.E.; Blome, D.W.; Argente, J.; Kopchick, y J.J.
Introducción El tejido adiposo blanco (TAB) subcutáneo (Sc) humano podría variar dependiendo de su localización anatómica, con diferencias en su perfil proteómico. Pacientes y métodos Se obtuvieron aspirados de TAB-Sc de seis mujeres con IMC >25 kg/m2, sometidas a liposucción. Dicho TAB-Sc se obtuvo de seis localizaciones anatómicas: abdominal superior e inferior, muslo, dorsal, flanco y cadera, analizándose su perfil proteómico mediante electroforesis bidimensional. En muslo y abdomen superior se compararon, además, las muestras obtenidas de las dos capas del TAB-Sc (profunda y superficial). Resultados Se detectaron 21 proteínas que mostraban una intensidad de expresión diferente entre las seis localizaciones anatómicas y 14 entre las capas superficial y profunda de una misma región. Entre las proteínas identificadas se incluyen: vimentina (proteína estructural); proteínas “heat-shock” (HSPs), superóxido-dismutasa, (estrés/chaperoninas); proteína fijadora de ácidos grasos 4 (FABP-4) y alfa-enolasa (metabolismo lipídico y de los hidratos de carbono, respectivamente) y ATP-sintetasa (producción de energía). Entre las regiones estudiadas, el TAB-Sc dorsal mostraba un perfil proteómico particular, con menor expresión de proteínas implicadas en la producción de energía y metabolismo (ATP-sintetasa, alfa-enolasa, HSPs y FABP-4) que el resto de regiones. Conclusiones Los niveles de expresión de diversas proteínas en el TAB-Sc humano no son homogéneos, difiriendo entre localizaciones anatómicas. Esto sugiere la existencia de diferencias funcionales en el TAB-Sc de acuerdo con su localización anatómica, lo que debe considerarse antes de asumir la extrapolación de los datos derivados del TAB-Sc de una determinada localización al de otras partes de la anatomía. PMID:23228439
Simkin, S. M.
Two spectroscopic ``mini-labs" or homework exercises suitable for an introductory level astronomy class have been developed using the public domain software of the MSU, LON-CAPA learning system (http://s10.lite.msu.edu/adm/about.html). These are accessible to registered students over the web and provide each student with a unique, personalized ``homework" set. One of these, titled ``Fingerprinting the Elements," employs a set of optical, color, emission line spectra (generated from published wavelength-intensity tables). Spectra of several different elements, with slit configurations which are not shaped like lines, are then randomly selected and presented to the student for identification. This exercise not only reinforces the idea that emission-line spectra are unique signatures for each element but also graphically illustrates the fact that ``line-spectra" are not really formed from lines but are actual sequences of colors (photons at fixed frequencies or wavelengths). The second homework module involves the more advanced concept of measuring Doppler shifts from absorption line spectra. In this exercise the student is provided with both an unshifted Balmer emission-line spectrum and an adjacent, unshifted Balmer absorption-line spectrum (each in true color), The student is then presented with randomly selected pairs of similarly plotted spectra in which the absorption line spectrum has been shifted (to the red or blue) by a known velocity. The goal is to determine the direction of motion (towards or away), measure the wavelength shift interactively, and calculate the velocity of the moving ``object." When initially presented as a homework set to 230 non-science major college students, this latter exercise revealed a surprising result. Very few of the students were able to determine the DIRECTION of motion by looking at the colored spectra and measuring the offsets between the absorption and emission lines, although most of them ``knew" that a redshifted spectrum
Monzon-Casanova, Elisa; Paletta, Daniel; Starick, Lisa; Müller, Ingrid; Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Pyz, Elwira; Herrmann, Thomas
iNKT cells are a particular lymphocyte population with potent immunomodulatory capa-city; by promoting or suppressing immune responses against infections, tumors, and autoimmunity, iNKT cells are a promising target for immunotherapy. The hallmark of iNKT cells is the expression of a semiinvariant TCR (with an invariant α-chain comprising AV14 and AJ18 gene segments), which recognizes glycolipids presented by CD1d. Here, we identified iNKT cells for the first time in the rat using rat CD1d-dimers and PLZF staining. Importantly, in terms of frequencies (1.05% ± 0.52 SD of all intrahepatic αβ T cells), coreceptor expression and in vitro expansion features, iNKT cells from F344 inbred rats more closely resemble human iNKT cells than their mouse counterparts. In contrast, in LEW inbred rats, which are often used as models for organ-specific autoimmune diseases, iNKT cell numbers are near or below the detection limit. Interestingly, the usage of members of the rat AV14 gene family differed between F344 and LEW inbred rats. In conclusion, the similarities between F344 rat and human iNKT cells and the nearly absent iNKT cells in LEW rats make the rat a promising animal model for the study of iNKT cell-based therapies and of iNKT-cell biology.
Muzaffar, Shazia; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Zuber, Mohammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Shahid, Muhammad
A series of polyurethane dispersions were synthesized through two step polymerization technique. A PU prepolymer with NCO termini was prepared using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), poly caprolactone diols (CAPA of mol. wt. 1000) and DMPA (3:1:1), and PU prepolymer chain was extended with different mole ratios of low molecular weight chitosan and finally aqueous emulsion was prepared by adding suitable volume of water. The proposed structure of chitosan based PU dispersions was confirmed through FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared aqueous CS(LMW)-CPUIs emulsions were applied onto the different quality plain weave poly-cotton dyed and printed fabric pieces using pad-dry-cure procedures. The physical properties such as air permeability, stiffness and crease recovery angle (CRA), pilling resistance, tear and tensile strength of the treated and untreated fabric samples were also evaluated. The results revealed that the incorporation of chitosan has pronounced effect on the properties of treated fabrics. This research could be extended in future for performance evaluation of pure cotton and woolen fabrics.
Hartmann, Torsten; Baronian, Grégory; Nippe, Nadine; Voss, Meike; Schulthess, Bettina; Wolz, Christiane; Eisenbeis, Janina; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Gaupp, Rosmarie; Sunderkötter, Cord; Beisswenger, Christoph; Bals, Robert; Somerville, Greg A.; Herrmann, Mathias; Molle, Virginie; Bischoff, Markus
Carbon metabolism and virulence determinant production are often linked in pathogenic bacteria, and several regulatory elements have been reported to mediate this linkage in Staphylococcus aureus. Previously, we described a novel protein, catabolite control protein E (CcpE) that functions as a regulator of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we demonstrate that CcpE also regulates virulence determinant biosynthesis and pathogenesis. Specifically, deletion of ccpE in S. aureus strain Newman revealed that CcpE affects transcription of virulence factors such as capA, the first gene in the capsule biosynthetic operon; hla, encoding α-toxin; and psmα, encoding the phenol-soluble modulin cluster α. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that CcpE binds to the hla promoter. Mice challenged with S. aureus strain Newman or its isogenic ΔccpE derivative revealed increased disease severity in the ΔccpE mutant using two animal models; an acute lung infection model and a skin infection model. Complementation of the mutant with the ccpE wild-type allele restored all phenotypes, demonstrating that CcpE is negative regulator of virulence in S. aureus. PMID:25193664
Baski, Alison; Hunnicutt, Sally
A new, interdisciplinary course entitled ``Energy!'' has been developed by faculty in the physics and chemistry departments to meet the university's science and technology general education requirement. This course now enrolls over 400 students each semester in a single lecture where faculty from both departments co-teach throughout the term. Topics include the fundamentals of energy, fossil fuels, global climate change, nuclear energy, and renewable energy sources. The students represent an impressive range of majors (science, engineering, business, humanities, etc.) and comprise freshmen to seniors. To effectively teach this diverse audience and increase classroom engagement, in-class ``clickers'' are used with guided questions to teach concepts, which are then explicitly reinforced with online LON-CAPAfootnotetextFree open-source distributed learning content management and assessment system (www.lon-capa.org) homework. This online system enables immediate feedback in a structured manner, where students can practice randomized versions of problems for homework, quizzes, and exams. The course is already in high demand after only two semesters, in part because it is particularly relevant to students given the challenging energy and climate issues facing the nation and world. )
Pietroniro, A.; Davison, B.; Fortin, V.
Over the last several years there has been some convergence in both atmospheric and hydrological sciences in the application of coupled atmospheric-hydrological modelling systems. In Canada the result of many years of research in academic and government facilities resulted in a prototype hydrology land-surface modelling system know as MESH. Following the devastating floods in Calgary which occurred July 2013, Environment Canada has re-evaluated it modelling systems to look at the ability provide guidance to our partner agencies at the national scale by building upon existing Numerical Weather Prediction technology (NWP) developed largely for weather forecasting applications. The development of these types of guidance systems will rely mainly on the Canadian Precipitation Analysis system (CaPA), the Canadian Land Data Assimilation system (CaLDAS) and the deterministic weather prediction system using the GEM atmospheric model and grund-based real-time flow observations. Preliminary results of our MESH land-surface hydrology scheme forced by GEM forecasted precipitation were evaluated for the specific flood event in and around the headwaters of the Eastern flowing tributaries of the Rocky Mountains. Discussion on model performance, calibration of important water balance and routing parameters along with the feasibility of operationalizing these systems with real-time observational networks is discussed.
Holstein, Josephin Marie; Stummer, Daniela; Rentmeister, Andrea
Trimethylguanosine synthase from Giardia lamblia (GlaTgs2) naturally catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the exocyclic N(2) atom of the 5'-cap--a hallmark of eukaryotic mRNAs. The wild-type enzyme shows substrate promiscuity and can also use the AdoMet-analog AdoPropen for allyl transfer. Here we report on engineering GlaTgs2 to enhance the activity on AdoPropen. A mutational analysis, involving an alanine scan of 10 residues located around the active site, was performed. Positions V34 and S38 were identified as mutational hot spots and analyzed in greater detail by testing NNK libraries. Kinetic analysis and thermostability measurements revealed V34A as the best variant of GlaTgs2, with a ∼10-fold improved specificity for AdoPropen. Double mutants did not yield additional improvements due to low catalytic efficiencies and thermal destabilization. Homologous Tgs enzymes from Homo sapiens and G. intestinalis were also investigated regarding their catalytic activity on AdoPropen. While neither the human wild-type (WT) enzyme nor any of its variants showed activity on AdoPropen, the homologue from G. intestinalis (GinTgs) was remarkably active on AdoPropen. Introducing the best substitution at the homologous position led to variant T34A with ∼40-fold higher specificity for AdoPropen than the original GlaTgs2 WT.
Calvo, Marta; de Miguel, Cristina; Pinel, Ana; Ortega, José M; Aladro, Yolanda
Introduccion. La siderosis superficial difusa del sistema nervioso central (SNC) es una rara condicion debida a depositos de hemosiderina en las capas subpiales del cerebro y la medula espinal. La fuente de sangrado cronico o recurrente en el espacio subaracnoideo se detecta solo en un 50% de los casos. Los sintomas mas caracteristicos son ataxia cerebelosa e hipoacusia neurosensorial. Las secuencias eco de gradiente potenciadas en T2 de resonancia magnetica constituyen el metodo diagnostico de eleccion. Casos clinicos. Presentamos cuatro pacientes con siderosis superficial difusa del SNC relacionada con angiopatia amiloide, anticoagulacion oral, schwannoma del VIII par craneal y sin fuente de sangrado conocida en un caso. Dos pacientes desarrollaron ataxia cerebelosa; tres de ellos, episodios recurrentes de alteracion focal neurologica; uno, demencia; y el cuarto es un hallazgo radiologico. No se objetivo progresion clinica durante el seguimiento (2-11 años) en tres de ellos. El paciente con angiopatia amiloide evoluciono a demencia. Conclusiones. Los episodios recurrentes de alteracion focal neurologica son los sintomas mas frecuentes en nuestros casos de siderosis superficial difusa del SNC. La evolucion natural de esta condicion no se conoce bien y puede constituir un hallazgo radiologico.
Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belen; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita
Climate variability is the main driver of changes in crops yield, especially for rainfed production systems. This is also the case of Iberian Peninsula (IP) (Capa-Morocho et al., 2014), where wheat yields are strongly dependent on seasonal rainfall amount and temporal distribution of rainfall during the growing season. Previous works have shown that large-scale oceanic patterns have a significant impact on precipitation over IP (Rodriguez-Fonseca and de Castro, 2002; Rodríguez-Fonseca et al., 2006). The existence of some predictability of precipitation has encouraged us to analyze the possible predictability of the wheat yield in the IP using sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies as predictor. For this purpose, a crop model site specific calibrated for the Northeast of IP and several reanalysis climate datasets have been used to obtain long time series of attainable wheat yield and relate their variability with SST anomalies. The results show that wheat yield anomalies are associated with changes in the Tropical Pacific (El Niño) and Atlantic (TNA) SST. For these events, the regional associated atmospheric pattern resembles the NAO, which also influences directly on the maximum temperatures and precipitation experienced by the crop during flowering and grain filling. Results from this study could have important implications for predictability issues in agricultural planning and management, such as insurance coverage, changes in sowing dates and choice of species and varieties.
Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Doug; Ziegler, Andrew C.
Over the last decade, use of a method for computing suspended-sediment concentration and loads using turbidity sensors—primarily nephelometry, but also optical backscatter—has proliferated. Because an in- itu turbidity sensor is capa le of measuring turbidity instantaneously, a turbidity time series can be recorded and related directly to time-varying suspended-sediment concentrations. Depending on the suspended-sediment characteristics of the measurement site, this method can be more reliable and, in many cases, a more accurate means for computing suspended-sediment concentrations and loads than traditional U.S. Geological Survey computational methods. Guidelines and procedures for estimating time s ries of suspended-sediment concentration and loading as a function of turbidity and streamflow data have been published in a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report, Book 3, Chapter C4. This paper is a summary of these guidelines and discusses some of the concepts, s atistical procedures, and techniques used to maintain a multiyear suspended sediment time series.
Bhatnagar, Nidhi M; Soni, Shital; Gajjar, Maitrey; Shah, Mamta; Shah, Sangita; Patel, Vaidehi
Background: Performance monitoring is an important tool which can be used for setting priorities for process improvement. At our centre, we have been monitoring every step in the processes, right from inventory of consumables (both critical and routine) to number of donors reactive for TTI. We conducted a study to measure the impact of monitoring Performance Indicators and how it could be used as a tool for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study where the performance indicator (PI) data of blood bank was analyzed for over four years. For certain parameters, benchmarks or thresholds were set that represented warning limits or action limits. The yearly data were collated from monthly data. Shifts or Trends, if any, were identified and Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA) taken accordingly. At the end, outcomes of the analysis were charted. Results: After the yearly data evaluation, outcomes obtained were used to plan, correct and amend processes and systems in the blood center. It was observed that the workload of the center showed an upward trend. This helped us to plan for the purchase of consumables and management of manpower. The monitoring of usage and discard of blood helped in the efficient management of blood stocks. The need for any new equipment could also be judged by the trends in workload. Conclusion: Performance indicators are indispensible tools which various stakeholders in the Blood Transfusion centres should implement to improve on quality performance. PMID:27011669
Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Wilkin, Aimee M; Clarke, Thomas L; Wooldredge, Rich; Brown, Monica; Davis, A Bernard
Health departments, community-based organizations (CBOs), and AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in the United States and abroad distribute large quantities of free condoms to sexually active individuals; however, little is known about where individuals who use condoms actually acquire them. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study was designed to identify factors associated with the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse among self-identifying gay and bisexual men who reported condom use. Data were collected using targeted intercept interviewing during North Carolina Pride Festival events in Fall 2006, using the North Carolina Condom Acquisition and Preferences Assessment (NC-CAPA). Of the 606 participants who completed the assessment, 285 met the inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 33 (+/-10.8) years. The sample was predominantly white (80%), 50% reported being single or not dating anyone special, and 38% reported the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse. In multivariable analysis, participants who reported using free condoms during most recent anal sex were more likely to report increased age; dating someone special or being partnered; and having multiple male sexual partners in the past 3 months. These participants were less likely to report ever having had a sexually transmitted disease. Despite being in the third decade of the HIV epidemic, little is known about condom acquisition among, and condom preferences of, gay and bisexual men who use condoms. Although more research is needed, our findings illustrate the importance of free condom distribution.
Schmitt, Franziska; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas; Kahnt, Jörg; Rössler, Wolfgang; Wegener, Christian
Ants show a rich behavioral repertoire and a highly complex organization, which have been attracting behavioral and sociobiological researchers for a long time. The neuronal underpinnings of ant behavior and social organization are, however, much less understood. Neuropeptides are key signals that orchestrate animal behavior and physiology, and it is thus feasible to assume that they play an important role also for the social constitution of ants. Despite the availability of different ant genomes and in silico prediction of ant neuropeptides, a comprehensive biochemical survey of the neuropeptidergic communication possibilities of ants is missing. We therefore combined different mass spectrometric methods to characterize the neuropeptidome of the adult carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. We also characterized the local neuropeptide complement in different parts of the nervous and neuroendocrine system, including the antennal and optic lobes. Our analysis identifies 39 neuropeptides encoded by different prepropeptide genes, and in silico predicts new prepropeptide genes encoding CAPA peptides, CNMamide as well as homologues of the honey bee IDLSRFYGHFNT- and ITGQGNRIF-containing peptides. Our data provides basic information about the identity and localization of neuropeptides that is required to anatomically and functionally address the role and significance of neuropeptides in ant behavior and physiology.
Sarangi, Laxmi Narayan; Priyadarshini, Adyasha; Kumar, Santosh; Thomas, Prasad; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Nagaleekar, Viswas Konasagara; Singh, Vijendra Pal
In this study, 108 P. multocida isolates recovered from various host animals such as cattle, buffalo, swine, poultry (chicken, duck, and emu) and rabbits were screened for carriage of 8 virulence associated genes. The results revealed some unique information on the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Indian isolates. With the exception of toxA gene, all other virulence associated genes were found to be regularly distributed among host species. Association study between capsule type and virulence genes suggested that pfhA, nanB, and nanH genes were regularly distributed among all serotypes with the exception of CapD, whereas toxA gene was found to be positively associated with CapD and CapA. The frequency of hgbA and nanH genes among swine isolates of Indian origin was found to be less in comparison to its equivalents around the globe. Interestingly, very high prevalence of tbpA gene was observed among poultry, swine, and rabbit isolates. Likewise, very high prevalence of pfhA gene (95.3%) was observed among Indian isolates, irrespective of host species origin.
Hill, Jason J; Caldwell, Blake A; Layton, Chris; Pelfrey, Daniel S; Nam, Hai Ah; Shipman, Galen M; Wells, Jack C; Skinner, David; Hick, Jason; Canon, Richard Shane; Dart, Eli; Zurawski, Jason
Abstract Computer centers such as NERSC and OLCF have traditionally focused on delivering computational capa- bility that enables breakthrough innovation in a wide range of science domains. Accessing that computational power has required services and tools to move the data from input and output to computation and storage. A pivot to data is occurring in HPC. Data transfer tools and services that were previously peripheral are becoming integral to scientific workflows. Emerging requirements from high-bandwidth de- tectors, high-throughput screening techniques, highly concur- rent simulations, increased focus on uncertainty quantification, and an emerging open-data policy posture toward published research are among the data-drivers shaping the networks, file systems, databases, and overall compute and data environment. In this paper we explain the pivot to data in HPC through user requirements and the changing resources provided by HPC with particular focus on data movement. For WAN data transfers we present the results of a study of network performance between centers.
Li, Renjie; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin
Conductive composite membrane-phytic acid (PA) doped polyaniline (PANI)/cellulose acetate (CA) (PANI-PA/CA) was prepared in a simple and environmental-friendly method, in which aniline was blended with CA/PA solution and polymerized before the phase conversion. The resultant composite membranes were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR-ATR, BET and electrical resistance measurements. When used as adsorbent for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) ions, the prepared composite membrane exhibits excellent adsorption capability. The adsorption of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and best fits the Langmuir isotherm model, with the maximum adsorption capacity reaching 280.11 and 94.34 mg g(-1), respectively. The heavy metal loaded composite membrane can be regenerated and reused after treatment with acid or alkali solution, making it a promising and practical adsorbent for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) removal. Tests with river water were also carried out, indicating good performance and application.
Gordon, Robert M; Wang, Xiubing; Tune, Jane
How do experts compare teaching, supervision, and treatment from a psychodynamic perceptive over the Internet with in-person work? Our methodology was based on the expert opinions of 176 teachers, supervisors, and therapists in the China American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) who use videoconferencing (VCON) with Chinese students. The results from our online survey indicate: (1), The longer teachers teach, the more effective they rate teaching over VCON; (2), Teaching, supervision, and treatment were all rated in the range of "slightly less effective" than in-person, with supervision rated significantly more effective than teaching and treatment over VCON; (3), When doing psychodynamic treatment over VCON the issues of symptom reduction, exploring mental life, working on transference, relational problems, resistance, privacy issues, countertransference, are all equally rated in the range of "slightly less effective" than in-person treatment; (4), The highest significantly rated indications for treatment over VCON are: "To offer high quality treatment to underserved or remote patients" and "When patient is house-bound or travel would be impractical"; and (5), The highest significantly rated contraindication for treatment over VCON is: "Patient needs close observation due to crisis or decompensation." Overall, this survey suggests that VCON teaching, supervision, and treatment from a psychodynamic perceptive is a worthwhile option when considering its unique contribution to extending services where needed.
Draper, D. S.
NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.
Pindak, Ronald; Barois, Philippe; Ponsinet, Virginie; Folcia, Cesar; Ortega, Josu; Pan, Lidong; Wang, Shun; Wang, Suntao; Huang, Cheng-Cher
Resonant X-ray scattering provides a direct probe of orientational structures in liquid crystals with periodicities that range from molecular dimensions (0.1 nm) to dimensions that can be observed with visible light (1.0 micron). We have recently applied this technique to study the orientational ordering of bent-core molecules in the smectic B2 phase and the columnar B1 phase. Using resonant scattering ``forbidden'' reflections due to glide or screw symmetry elements can be measured and an analysis of their polarization state enabled us to identify a chiral anticlinic antiferroelecrtic B2 phase (Smectic CAPA) coexisting with an achiral synclinic antiferroelectric B2 phase (Smectic CSPA) . We were also able to determine the structure of a columnar B1 phase and study the transition mechanism between the B1 and B2 phases . [4pt]  V. Ponsinet, et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 011706 (2011).[0pt]  C. Folcia, et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 010701R (2011).
Baski, A. A.; Hunnicutt, S.
We have developed a physical science content course for elementary education majors that is aligned with state standards. The course incorporates several hands-on activities related to the Virginia Standards of Learning that have already been implemented as one-hour lessons in elementary classrooms. Topics include measurement, properties of matter, motion & energy, electricity & magnetism, sound & light, chemical & physical processes, weather, and the solar system. In addition to the hands-on activities, course content is discussed in a small lecture format with questions posed throughout the material. The students discuss these questions in assigned groups and then answer them using remote answer devices (see www.einstruction.com). Lastly, conceptual ideas in class are reinforced using online LON-CAPA homework questions that are individually randomized for each student and provide immediate feedback (see loncapa.org). Those questions which indicate a high degree-of-difficulty are reassigned during following weeks to provide multiple opportunities for practice. All of these active learning approaches reinforce basic concepts necessary to teach physical science at the elementary level.
Jayaraman, Subash; Pellkofer, Dominik; Lucas, Ian; Bezdek, Michal; Tittmann, Bernhard
A variety of industrial and everyday non-destructive inspection applications exist where the target material/product is inaccessible or, contact with the material is prohibited. In such cases, air-coupled ultrasonic techniques play a major role but commonly significant transmission loss is known to occur. Therefore, it becomes imperative to know the amount of absolute wave mechanical strain achieved in materials embedded in gaseous medium, for certain applications. Thus, the overall objective of this work was to establish simulated results and specific experimental verifications of the numerical modeling, and develop guidelines in the use of matching layers to maximize the wave mechanical strain imparted to materials. A Laser Doppler Vibrometer was used to obtain the displacements/strains induced in the materials. Coupled Acoustic Piezoelectric Analysis (CAPA), coupled field finite element method software was used to perform the simulations. The applications considered in this work include metallic targets inside an enclosed container, food products and also elastomeric composites such as automotive tires.
Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis; Larruquert, Juan I.; Méndez, José A.; Aznárez, José A.; Fu, Liping
We address the design, fabrication, and characterization of transmittance filters for the Ionosphere Photometer instrument (IP), developed by the Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR). IP, a payload of Feng-Yun 3D meteorological satellite, to be launched on 2016, is aimed to perform photometry measurements of Earth's ionosphere by the analysis of the OI (135.6 nm) spectral line and N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH, 140-180 nm) band, both of them in the far ultraviolet (FUV) range. The most convenient procedure to isolate a spectral band is the use of tunable transmittance filters. In many applications the intensity of the ultraviolet, visible and infrared background is higher than the intensity of the target FUV lines; therefore one of the most important requirements for transmittance filters is to reject (by reflecting and/or by absorbing) as efficiently as possible the visible and close ranges. In the FUV range, (Al/MgF2)n transmittance filters are the most common, and they are suitable to reject the visible and adjacent ranges. These materials present unique properties in this range: MgF2 is transparent down to ˜115 nm and Al has a very low refractive index in the FUV that contrasts well with MgF2. Narrowband tunable filters with very low transmittance at long wavelengths are achievable. The main data on the preparation and characterization of IP filters by Grupo de Óptica de Láminas Delgadas (GOLD) is detailed. In this proceeding we present (Al/MgF2)3 filters peaked at either 135.6 nm or at the center of the LBH band (˜160 nm). Filters were characterized in the 125-800 nm range (143-800 nm range for the LBH filter). After some storage in a desiccator, both coatings kept a transmittance of ~0.14 at their target wavelengths, with visible-to-peak transmittance ratios of 1.2·10-4 (OI filter) and 1.3·10-4 (LBH filter). One filter tuned at each target wavelength was exposed to ~300 Gy 60Co gamma dose, with no significant transmittance change.
Beeson, J. W.; Goldfinger, C.; Johnson, S. Y.
We mapped a ~120 km offshore section of the northern San Andreas Fault (NSAF) between Pt. Arena and Pt. Delgada using closely spaced seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and marine magnetics data. This new dataset documents NSAF location and continuity, associated tectonic geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy and deformation. Variable deformation patterns in the generally narrow (~1-km-wide) fault zone are largely associated with fault trend and fault bends. We have described four regions (Pt. Arena, Basin, Shelter Cove, and Mendocino) along and adjacent to the NSAF based on fault trend, deformation styles, seismic stratigraphy, and seafloor bathymetry. The NSAF in the southern region (Pt. Arena) of the survey area is imaged as an arcuate fault trace that changes ~15° (327° to 342°) from south to north over a distance of about 50 km. The NSAF in the middle two regions (Basin and Shelter Cove) passes through two acute fault bends (~9° and ~8°), resulting in both an asymmetric "lazy z" sedimentary basin and an uplifted rocky shoal ("Tolo Bank"). The northwestern region of the survey area (Mendocino) lies west of the NSAF and Shelter Cove, and includes an east-trending fault zone related to the Mendocino transform fault that extends onshore near Punta Gorda. Using the densely spaced seismic-reflection profiles we have created an isopach map of Holocene sediment throughout the survey area. This isopach map has revealed thick sediment piles adjacent to coastal watersheds with high uplift rates. We infer from fault geometries, local bathymetry/topography and aero/marine magnetics that the NSAF zone transitions from a broadly distributed fault zone to a narrow fault zone over a short distance near Shelter Cove, Ca. At Shelter Cove the NSAF is characterized as a narrow, continuous fault. North of Shelter Cove the San Andreas likely terminates into a series of "horse tail" splay thrust faults known as the Kings Range Thrust. These
Sousa, Ana; Luís Gaspar, João
Geological Risks Assessment (CVARG) of the Azores University, OMIC (Microbian Observatory of the Furnas Lake), EDA (Electricity Company from the Azores) and Ponta Delgada City Hall. I believe that in the future some of my students will be learning and/or working in some of these organizations and will remember the two working years and the knowledge acquired in the Geography lessons. Even if they don't, I hope they grow up maturely and respectfully, apart from getting not only amazed by this stunning nature, but also aware of their role as active citizens. My goal, as a teacher and as a human being, will be, by that time, accomplished.
Magallares, Alejandro; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Santed, Miguel Angel
IntroducciÓn: Uno de los principales problemas de los pacientes con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria es la insatisfacciÓn corporal. Aunque estas personas por lo general no están satisfechos con sus cuerpos, no hay muchas investigaciones que se centran en cÓmo estos pacientes ven a la gente con problemas reales de peso. Por esta razÓn, en este estudio se analiza cÓmo las mujeres con trastornos alimentarios ven a las personas obesas. Métodos: Un total de 104 participantes (35 con anorexia nerviosa, 28 con bulimia nerviosa, 16 con trastornos alimentarios no especificados y 25 controles) fueron seleccionados para llevar a cabo el estudio. Para medir las actitudes anti-obesidad se utilizÓ la versiÓn española del Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire. Para medir si los participantes presentaban insatisfacciÓn corporal se utilizÓ la versiÓn española del Body Shape Questionnaire. Por último, se tomaron medidas antropométricas (peso y talla) a fin de calcular el índice de masa corporal (kg/m(2)), así como algunos datos socio-demográficos. Resultados: Se encontrÓ que los participantes con bulimia nerviosa mostraban puntuaciones más altas en las actitudes anti-obesidad que el resto de los participantes. Adicionalmente, se encontrÓ que este resultado estuvo influenciado por la insatisfacciÓn corporal de los participantes. DiscusiÓn: Estos resultados sugieren que las actitudes negativas hacia las personas obesas pueden influir en la imagen corporal de una persona. Una manera de mantener una imagen positiva del propio cuerpo (sobre todo, la dimensiÓn subjetiva, la satisfacciÓn corporal) es compararse con aquellos que son percibidos como físicamente inferiores (personas con problemas de peso), una estrategia que es especialmente relevante cuando los medios de comunicaciÓn insisten en representar mujeres extremadamente delgadas.
Milla Tobarra, Marta; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Lahoz García, Noelia; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Arias-Palencia, Natalia María; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio
Introducción: El consumo de bebidas está cobrando mayor importancia en las investigaciones actuales en relación a una posible asociación con la epidemia de obesidad infantil. La influencia de la actividad física en este consumo de fluidos ha sido escasamente estudiada y la resistencia cardiorespiratoria (RCR) puede resultar un marcador fiable para su valoración. Nuestro estudio analiza la ingesta de fluidos y su relación con el estatus ponderal ajustado por RCR en niños de 9-11 años. Métodos: Estudio transversal en el que participaron 373 niños de 9-11 años de colegios de la provincia de Cuenca (España). Para obtener la ingesta de bebidas, se realizó la media de dos recordatorios de 24 horas obtenidos mediante el programa YANA-C, validado para el estudio HELENA. La condición física cardiorrespiratoria fue evaluada a través del test de 20 metros ida y vuelta. Resultados: La ingesta media de líquidos fue de 1483,39 ml/día, y la energía proveniente de fluidos supone un 16% del aporte energético diario. Las bebidas suponen el 40% del aporte de azúcares ingeridos en la dieta. Las bebidas más consumidas en niños son los zumos naturales y las bebidas lácteas. Las niñas delgadas consumen más leches enteras y bebidas refrescantes “light” que sus homólogas con peso normal y sobrepeso-obesidad. Conclusiones: Los niños con exceso de peso consumen menos zumos naturales y bebidas lácteas, y las niñas consumen menos leches enteras y bebidas refrescantes “light” que sus compañeras en normopeso. Es de gran importancia revisar los hábitos de hidratación de los escolares para establecer conclusiones fiables sobre cuál es la mejor forma de hidratarse en diferentes situaciones para evitar ganancias ponderales.
Analyzing mobile applications for malicious behavior is an important area of re- search, and is made di cult, in part, by the increasingly large number of appli- cations available for the major operating systems. There are currently over 1.2 million apps available in both the Google Play and Apple App stores (the respec- tive o cial marketplaces for the Android and iOS operating systems)[1, 2]. Our research provides two large-scale analysis tools to aid in the detection and analysis of mobile malware. The rst tool we present, Andlantis, is a scalable dynamic analysis system capa- ble of processing over 3000 Android applications per hour. Traditionally, Android dynamic analysis techniques have been relatively limited in scale due to the compu- tational resources required to emulate the full Android system to achieve accurate execution. Andlantis is the most scalable Android dynamic analysis framework to date, and is able to collect valuable forensic data, which helps reverse-engineers and malware researchers identify and understand anomalous application behavior. We discuss the results of running 1261 malware samples through the system, and provide examples of malware analysis performed with the resulting data. While techniques exist to perform static analysis on a large number of appli- cations, large-scale analysis of iOS applications has been relatively small scale due to the closed nature of the iOS ecosystem, and the di culty of acquiring appli- cations for analysis. The second tool we present, iClone, addresses the challenges associated with iOS research in order to detect application clones within a dataset of over 20,000 iOS applications.
Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan
In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients.
Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra S.; Peak, K. Kealy; Reeves, Frank; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Veguilla, William; Heller, L.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Cannons, Andrew C.; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline
In order to cause the disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis requires two plasmids, pX01 and pX02, which carry toxin and capsule genes, respectively, that are used as genetic targets in the laboratory detection of the bacterium. Clinical, forensic, and environmental samples that test positive by PCR protocols established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for B. anthracis are considered to be potentially B. anthracis until confirmed by culture and a secondary battery of tests. We report the presence of 10 genes (acpA, capA, capB, capC, capR, capD, IS1627, ORF 48, ORF 61, and repA) and the sequence for the capsule promoter normally found on pX02 in Bacillus circulans and a Bacillus species closely related to Bacillus luciferensis. Tests revealed these sequences to be present on a large plasmid in each isolate. The 11 sequences consistently matched to B. anthracis plasmid pX02, GenBank accession numbers AF188935.1, AE011191.1, and AE017335.3. The percent nucleotide identities for capD and the capsule promoter were 99.9% and 99.7%, respectively, and for the remaining nine genes, the nucleotide identity was 100% for both isolates. The presence of these genes, which are usually associated with the pX02 plasmid, in two soil Bacillus species unrelated to B. anthracis alerts us to the necessity of identifying additional sequences that will signal the presence of B. anthracis in clinical, forensic, and environmental samples. PMID:16825351
Xue, Junhui; Jiang, Ye; Li, Weihong; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Gaohui; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang
The coordination structures formed by calcium complexes with nicotinamide (na), isonicotinamide (ina) and picolinamide (pa) and praseodymium bromide-na are reported. The structures of CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·2H2O (Ca-na), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·4H2O (Ca-ina), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·5H2O (Ca-pa) and PrBr3·(C6H6N2O)2·6H2O (PrBr-na) in the solid state have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Carbonyl oxygen of nicotinamide is coordinated to Ca(2+), but it is O-monodentate (carbonyl oxygen) and N,O-bidentate ligand (pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen) for Pr(3+) to form a chain structure in PrBr-na. For isonicotinamide, only carbonyl oxygen atom is coordinated to Ca(2+). Pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of picolinamide are coordinated to Ca(2+) to form a five-membered ring structure. The crystal structure and spectroscopic results indicate the differences of the coordination of Ca and Pr ions, the changes of hydrogen bonds and conformation of the ligands induced by complexation. Unlike transition metal ions, Sr(2+) or lanthanide ions, Ca(2+) is inclined to coordinate to carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligands.
Higgins, James A; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz; Karns, Jeffrey S; Shelton, Daniel R; Cooper, Mary; Gbakima, Aiah; Koopman, Ronald P
The handheld advanced nucleic acid analyzer (HANAA) is a portable real time thermal cycler unit that weighs under 1 kg and uses silicon and platinum-based thermalcycler units to conduct rapid heating and cooling of plastic reaction tubes. Two light emitting diodes (LED) provide greater than 1 mW of electrical power at wavelengths of 490 nm (blue) and 525 nm (green), allowing detection of the dyes FAM and JOE/TAMRA. Results are displayed in real time as bar graphs, and up to three, 4-sample assays can be run on the charge of the 12 V portable battery pack. The HANAA was evaluated for detection of defined Escherichia coli strains, and wild-type colonies isolated from stream water, using PCR for the lac Z and Tir genes. PCR reactions using SYBR Green dye allowed detection of E. coli ATCC 11775 and E. coli O157:H7 cells in under 30 min of assay time; however, background fluorescence associated with dye binding to nonspecific PCR products was present. DNA extracted from three isolates of Bacillus anthracis Ames, linked to a bioterrorism incident in Washington DC in October 2001, were also successfully tested on the HANAA using primers for the vrrA and capA genes. Positive results were observed at 32 and 22 min of assay time, respectively. A TaqMan probe specific to the aroQ gene of Erwinia herbicola was tested on the HANAA and when 500 cells were used as template, positive results were observed after only 7 min of assay time. Background fluorescence associated with the use of the probe was negligible. The HANAA is unique in offering real time PCR in a handheld format suitable for field use; a commercial version of the instrument, offering six reaction chambers, is available as of Fall 2002.
Palmer, Barton W.; Ryan, Kerry A.; Kim, H. Myra; Karlawish, Jason H.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Kim, Scott Y. H.
Objectives To explore the neuropsychological correlates of the capacity to consent to research and to appoint a research proxy among persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Design, Setting, and Participants Interview study of 77 persons with Alzheimer’s disease recruited through an Alzheimer’s disease research center and a memory disorder clinic. Measurements The capacity to consent to two research scenarios (a drug randomized clinical trial and a neurosurgical clinical trial) and the capacity to appoint a research proxy were determined by five experienced consultation psychiatrists who rendered categorical judgments based on videotaped interviews of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) and the Capacity to Appoint a Proxy Assessment (CAPA). Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) was used to assess neuropsychological functioning. Results The capacity to appoint a proxy and to consent to the drug randomized clinical trial, as determined by a majority or greater opinion of the 5-psychiatrist panel, were predicted by Conceptualization and Initiation/Perseveration subscales whereas the capacity to consent to a neurosurgical randomized clinical trial was predicted by the Memory subscale. Furthermore, the more lenient individual psychiatrists’ judgments were predicted by the Conceptualization subscale whereas the stricter psychiatrists’ judgments were predicted by the Memory subscale. Conclusions How experienced psychiatrists view Alzheimer’s patients’ capacity for consenting to research and for appointing a proxy may be related to the patients’ conceptualization and memory functioning. More explicit and standardized guidance on the role of short term memory in capacity determinations may be useful. PMID:23498384
Gumbau, Manuel Forner
Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centríÂfuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema
Xue, Junhui; Jiang, Ye; Li, Weihong; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Gaohui; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang
The coordination structures formed by calcium complexes with nicotinamide (na), isonicotinamide (ina) and picolinamide (pa) and praseodymium bromide-na are reported. The structures of CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·2H2O (Ca-na), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·4H2O (Ca-ina), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·5H2O (Ca-pa) and PrBr3·(C6H6N2O)2·6H2O (PrBr-na) in the solid state have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Carbonyl oxygen of nicotinamide is coordinated to Ca2+, but it is O-monodentate (carbonyl oxygen) and N,O-bidentate ligand (pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen) for Pr3+ to form a chain structure in PrBr-na. For isonicotinamide, only carbonyl oxygen atom is coordinated to Ca2+. Pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of picolinamide are coordinated to Ca2+ to form a five-membered ring structure. The crystal structure and spectroscopic results indicate the differences of the coordination of Ca and Pr ions, the changes of hydrogen bonds and conformation of the ligands induced by complexation. Unlike transition metal ions, Sr2+ or lanthanide ions, Ca2+ is inclined to coordinate to carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligands.
Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.
RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION
Christie, Andrew E
Transcriptome mining is a powerful method for crustacean peptide discovery, especially when large sequence datasets are available and an appropriate reference is extant. Recently, a 206,041-sequence transcriptome for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts, with ones for 17 families/subfamilies identified. Here, the deduced Calanus pre/preprohormones were used as templates for peptide discovery in the copepods Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis; large transcriptome shotgun assembly datasets are publicly accessible for both species. Sixty-five Tigriopus and 17 Lepeophtheirus transcripts, encompassing 22 and 13 distinct peptide families/subfamilies, respectively, were identified, with the structures of 161 and 70 unique mature peptides predicted from the deduced precursors. The identified peptides included members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, and tachykinin-related peptide families, most of which possess novel structures, though isoforms from other copepods are known. Of particular note was the discovery of novel isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatotropin, corazonin, eclosion hormone and intocin, peptide families previously unidentified in copepods. In addition, Tigriopus precursors for two previously unknown peptide groups were discovered, one encoding GSEFLamides and the other DXXRLamides; precursors for the novel FXGGXamide family were identified from both Tigriopus and Lepeophtheirus. These data not only greatly expand the catalog of known copepod peptides, but also provide strong foundations for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in members of this ecologically important crustacean subclass.
Caers, Jelle; Boonen, Kurt; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Schoofs, Liliane; Van Hiel, Matthias B.
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are essential signaling molecules that regulate nearly all physiological processes. The recent release of the tsetse fly genome allowed the construction of a detailed in silico neuropeptide database (International Glossina Genome Consortium, Science 344, 380-386 (2014)), as well as an in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of the most important neuropeptidergic tissues of this medically and economically important insect species. Mass spectrometric confirmation of predicted peptides is a vital step in the functional characterization of neuropeptides, as in vivo peptides can be modified, cleaved, or even mispredicted. Using a nanoscale reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we detected 51 putative bioactive neuropeptides encoded by 19 precursors: adipokinetic hormone (AKH) I and II, allatostatin A and B, capability/pyrokinin (capa/PK), corazonin, calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH), FMRFamide, hugin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, natalisin, neuropeptide-like precursor (NPLP) 1, orcokinin, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and tachykinin. In addition, propeptides, truncated and spacer peptides derived from seven additional precursors were found, and include the precursors of allatostatin C, crustacean cardioactive peptide, corticotropin releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (CRF/DH), ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), ion transport peptide (ITP), neuropeptide F, and proctolin, respectively. The majority of the identified neuropeptides are present in the central nervous system, with only a limited number of peptides in the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata and midgut. Owing to the large number of identified peptides, this study can be used as a reference for comparative studies in other insects.
Christie, Andrew E
The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon are arguably the most important commercially farmed crustaceans. While expansion of their aquaculture has classically relied on improvements to rearing facilities, these options have largely been exhausted, and today a shift in focus is occurring, with increased investment in manipulating the shrimp themselves. Hormonal control is one strategy for increasing aquaculture output. However, to use it, one must first understand an animal's native hormonal systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) data were used to expand the peptidomes for L. vannamei and P. monodon. Via an established bioinformatics workflow, 41 L. vannamei and 25 P. monodon pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 158 and 106 distinct peptide structures for these species, respectively. The identified peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, B and C, as well as members the bursicon, CAPA, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known L. vannamei and/or P. monodon isoforms (which vet the structures of many peptides identified previously via mass spectrometry and other means), most are described here for the first time. These data more than double the extant catalogs of L. vannamei and P. monodon peptides and provide platforms from which to launch future physiological studies of peptidergic signaling in these two commercially important species.
Jozefiak, Thomas; Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen; Rimehaug, Tormod; Wormdal, Anne Kristine; Brubakk, Ann Mari; Wichstrøm, Lars
Most adolescents are placed in residential youth care (RYC) because of severe psychosocial strains and child maltreatment, which represent risk factors for developing mental disorders. To plan RYC units and ensure that residents receive evidence-based psychiatric interventions, it is necessary to obtain reliable and valid prevalence estimates of mental disorders in this population. However, there is a lacuna of research on diagnoses derived from standardized clinical interviews. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders applying diagnostic interviews in an entire population of adolescents living in RYC in Norway. All young people in RYC were invited to participate in the study. Eighty-six RYC institutions with 601 eligible adolescents were included and 400 adolescents, 12-20 years old, participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 67 %. Anonymous Child Behaviour Checklist scores for 141 (70 %) of the declining residents were also available, allowing diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for 541 youths to be estimated. Diagnoses were assessed by trained interviewers with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment interview (CAPA). Seventy-six point two per cent (71.5-80.8 CI 95 %) of adolescents received at least one 3-month DSM-IV diagnosis. Prevalence rates for internalizing psychiatric disorders were higher than for behavioural disorders. Comorbidity was high between these two groups. Mental disorders were prevalent among children and youth in RYC. Our results create major concerns and challenge the existing organization of the RYC system.
van ´t Hoff, Jasmijn; Schröder, Tabea; Reicherter, Klaus; Held, Peter; Melles, Martin
In September 2014 and March 2015, a 25.66 m long sediment core (Co1313) was retrieved from the centre of Laguna de Medina, a small endorheic salt lake in Cádiz, SW Spain. This record covers the last 9.000 years, thus providing an unique archive for Holocene climatic and environmental changes with extraordinary high temporal resolution. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analysed on the sediment core, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and its catchment under known environmental conditions were investigated on a set of 46 lake sediment surface samples and 32 soil surface sediment samples from the lake and the close surroundings, respectively. These samples were analysed for bulk mineralogy (XRD), chemical composition (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN) and sulphur (TS) contents (elemental analyser). Based on the mineralogical, geochemical and granulometrical data, the lake can be divided into four zones. The northern shore is characterized by particularly high quartz contents and coarse grain sizes. This reflects input from ancient terraces of the Guadalete River that are exposed in that area. The southern shore is characterised by high calcite contents due to sediment supply from the Cretaceous ´Capas rojaś, a series of Subbetic deep-water marl- and limestones. The southeastern and to a lesser extend the northwestern shores show particularly high dolomite contents, reflecting the Triassic dolomites outcroping in the southeastern catchment. The southeastern shore furthermore is also influenced by strong terrestrial input of the Triassic Keuper facies from the most important inlet, Arroyo Fuente Bermeja, as reflected by high contents of Ti, K, Al, Fe, Rb in the lake sediments. The last zone comprises only a small part of the western shore and is characterized by a relatively high gypsum amount. This does not reflect the geology in the catchment
Higgins, James A.; Cooper, Mary; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda; Black, Scott; Miller, David; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Manthey, Erlynn; Breeze, Roger; Perdue, Michael L.
In response to a bioterrorism attack in the Washington, D.C., area in October 2001, a mobile laboratory (ML) was set up in the city to conduct rapid molecular tests on environmental samples for the presence of Bacillus anthracis spores and to route samples for further culture analysis. The ML contained class I laminar-flow hoods, a portable autoclave, two portable real-time PCR devices (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device [RAPID]), and miscellaneous supplies and equipment to process samples. Envelopes and swab and air samples collected from 30 locations in the metropolitan area once every three days were subjected to visual examination and DNA extraction, followed by real-time PCR using freeze-dried, fluorescent-probe-based reagents. Surface swabs and air samples were also cultured for B. anthracis at the National Veterinary Service Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa. From 24 October 2001 to 15 September 2002, 2,092 pieces of mail were examined, 405 real-time PCR assays were performed (comprising 4,639 samples), and at the NVSL 6,275 samples were subjected to over 18,000 platings. None of the PCR assays on DNA extracted from swab and air samples were positive, but viable spores were cultured from surface swabs taken from six locations in the metropolitan area in October, November, and December 2001 and February, March, and May 2002. DNA extracted from these suspected B. anthracis colonies was positive by real-time and conventional PCRs for the lethal factor, pXO1, and for capA and vrr genes; sequence analysis of the latter amplicons indicated >99% homology with the Ames, vollum, B6273-93, C93022281, and W-21 strains of B. anthracis, suggesting they arose from cross-contamination during the attack through the mail. The RAPID-based PCR analysis provided fast confirmation of suspect colonies from an overnight incubation on agar plates. PMID:12514046
Simkovics, Reinhard; Landes, Hermann; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Hoffelner, Johann; Lerch, Reinhard
The design of ultrasonic transducers for high power applications, e.g. in medical therapy or production engineering, asks for effective computer aided design tools to analyze the occurring nonlinear effects. In this paper the finite-element-boundary-element package CAPA is presented that allows to model different types of electromechanical sensors and actuators. These transducers are based on various physical coupling effects, such as piezoelectricity or magneto- mechanical interactions. Their computer modeling requires the numerical solution of a multifield problem, such as coupled electric-mechanical fields or magnetic-mechanical fields as well as coupled mechanical-acoustic fields. With the reported software environment we are able to compute the dynamic behavior of electromechanical sensors and actuators by taking into account geometric nonlinearities, nonlinear wave propagation and ferroelectric as well as magnetic material nonlinearities. After a short introduction to the basic theory of the numerical calculation schemes, two practical examples will demonstrate the applicability of the numerical simulation tool. As a first example an ultrasonic thickness mode transducer consisting of a piezoceramic material used for high power ultrasound production is examined. Due to ferroelectric hysteresis, higher order harmonics can be detected in the actuators input current. Also in case of electrical and mechanical prestressing a resonance frequency shift occurs, caused by ferroelectric hysteresis and nonlinear dependencies of the material coefficients on electric field and mechanical stresses. As a second example, a power ultrasound transducer used in HIFU-therapy (high intensity focused ultrasound) is presented. Due to the compressibility and losses in the propagating fluid a nonlinear shock wave generation can be observed. For both examples a good agreement between numerical simulation and experimental data has been achieved.
Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; Izquierdo-Rus, Tomás; Salas-Sánchez, Jesús; García-Pinillos, Felipe
Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario de disfrute por el ejercicio físico (PACES) en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad.Métodos: participaron 139 adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad: 91 niñas (edad = 13,85 ± 1,92 años; índice de masa corporal [IMC] = 26,83 ± 3,16 kg/m2) y 48 niños (edad = 14,29 ± 1,62 años; IMC = 28,31 ± 3,74 kg/m2). Para analizar el disfrute por la actividad física se empleó el cuestionario Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES).Resultados: los resultados del análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio han mostrado una estructura de dos factores; a su vez el PACES presenta una consistencia interna muy alta (alfa de Cronbach = 0,908). La fiabilidad test-retest indica una buena concordancia temporal (Spearman rho = 0,815, p < 0,001). Por último, el PACES en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad manifiesta una validez convergente adecuada con la intencionalidad de ser activo (MIFA), la atracción por la actividad física (CAPA), la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria y los pliegues suprailiacoy subescapular.Conclusión: los resultados confirman que el PACES es una medida válida y fiable del disfrute por la actividad física en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. El disfrute por la actividad física puede ser relevante en la participación de los adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad en estas actividades.
María Velasco Sanz, Ana
Desde que se formuló, en 1996, la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) , se han obtenido datos de calidad relativos a intensidades de bandas electrónicas que implican estados Rydberg para una gran variedad de sistemas moleculares . Animados por los buenos resultados obtenidos, recientemente hemos abordado el estudio de transiciones vibrónicas, es decir aquellas que ocurren entre estados vibracionales que pertenecen a distintos estados Rydberg electrónicos. Como prototipo adecuado para nuestros propósitos hemos elegido la molécula de NO, importante en la química de la atmósfera, y para la cual existen en la bibliografía datos experimentales de calidad suficiente para contrastar la validez de nuestros resultados. En concreto, hemos calculado las fuerzas de oscilador y coeficientes de Einstein para transiciones electrónicas y vibrónicas de las principales bandas del NO, al igual que vidas medias radiativas de niveles vibracionales de dicha molécula. Las propiedades estudiadas son esenciales para la comprensión de los aspectos teóricos de los procesos físicos básicos relativos a la dispersión electrónica en moléculas heteronucleares con capas abiertas. Además, valores fiables de probabilidades de transición moleculares tienen importantes aplicaciones en Astrofísica, en la modelización de procesos fotodinámicos moleculares, etc., al igual que para evaluar más profundamente la validez de nuestra metodología teórica.
Stamp, Jason E.; Eddy, John P.; Jensen, Richard P.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina
Microgrids are a focus of localized energy production that support resiliency, security, local con- trol, and increased access to renewable resources (among other potential benefits). The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capa- bility Technology Demonstration (JCTD) program between the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) resulted in the pre- liminary design and deployment of three microgrids at military installations. This paper is focused on the analysis process and supporting software used to determine optimal designs for energy surety microgrids (ESMs) in the SPIDERS project. There are two key pieces of software, an ex- isting software application developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) called Technology Management Optimization (TMO) and a new simulation developed for SPIDERS called the per- formance reliability model (PRM). TMO is a decision support tool that performs multi-objective optimization over a mixed discrete/continuous search space for which the performance measures are unrestricted in form. The PRM is able to statistically quantify the performance and reliability of a microgrid operating in islanded mode (disconnected from any utility power source). Together, these two software applications were used as part of the ESM process to generate the preliminary designs presented by SNL-led DOE team to the DOD. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military instal- lations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Tarek Abdallah, Melanie
Robertson, Thomas H.
A common problem frequently encountered in large introductory classes is the anonymity experienced by students. An effort is underway at Ball State University to explore the impact of technology on reducing this anonymity and improving student performance and success. In preparation for this study, performance and success measures for students in a previous class have been examined to provide background for construction of a model for formal testing and a control group for comparison of future results. Student performance measures obtained early in the course and final course grades were examined to identify potential early warning indicators that might be used to plan interventions much earlier than the traditional midterm course reports used to alert freshmen at academic risk. Class participation scores were based on data obtained with a personal response system (i>clicker). The scores were scaled to reflect about 80% comprehension and 20% attendance. Homework scores were obtained using the LON-CAPA Course Management System and instructional materials created by the author. Substantial linear correlations exist between 1) Exam 1 Scores after Four Weeks and 2) Raw Class Participation Scores for the First Six Weeks and the Final Course Score. A more modest linear correlation was found between 3) Homework Scores for First Six Weeks and Final Course Score. Of these three measures, only Class Participation Scores identified all students who ultimately received course grades lower than C. Several students scored in the danger zone according to Homework and Class Participation Scores but earned course grades of C or better. It appears that an early warning plan based on Class Participation Scores would permit effective identification of at-risk students early in the course.
Vergara, G E; Cervio, A; Farez, M; Mormandi, R; Condomi-Alcorta, S; Salvat, J
Introduccion. Las malformaciones cavernosas son lesiones vasculares del sistema nervioso central constituidas por endotelio sinusoidal que forma capilares agrupados o cavernas que carecen de los elementos tipicos de una pared arterial madura y ausencia de tejido neural interpuesto. El endotelio esta rodeado por una densa capa de fibras colagenas que dejan pequeñas hendiduras por las que se extravasa hemosiderina. Se comunican con el sistema vascular a muy baja presion y su tratamiento puede ser por microcirugia o radiocirugia. Objetivos. Analizar las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales tratadas quirurgicamente en nuestra institucion (FLENI), determinar la epidemiologia y las caracteristicas intrinsecas, estudiar la clinica de presentacion, determinar las indicaciones quirurgicas y complicaciones, y establecer el pronostico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo analitico de historias clinicas e imagenes de pacientes operados de malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales en la FLENI desde enero de 1996 hasta diciembre de 2013. Resultados. Evaluamos a 51 pacientes, de 34 años de media, seguidos durante una media de 30 meses. El 1,96% de los pacientes presento diagnostico incidental y el resto mostro sintomas. El 23,52% presento hemorragia en el momento del diagnostico. En todas las cirugias se logro una exeresis total de las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales. Se observo un caso de meningitis postoperatoria. Conclusiones. La tasa de sangrado de las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales en nuestro medio es del 1,38% por paciente por año. El tratamiento quirurgico es eficaz para erradicar o disminuir los sintomas y para evitar un posible resangrado. Presenta una tasa muy baja de complicaciones y un pronostico neurologico favorable.
Twenty-seven oil fields producing from the Mission Canyon Limestone and Charles Formation (Madison Group) were studied: 1) along the eastern basin margin (Bluell, Sherwood, Mohall, Glenburn, Haas, and Chola fields), 2) northeast of Nesson anticline (Foothills, North Black Slough, South Black Slough, Rival, Lignite, and Flaxton), 3) along Nesson anticline (North Tioga, Tioga, Beaver Lodge, Capa, Hoffland, Charlson, Hawkeye, Blue Buttes, Antelope, and Clear Creek), and 4) south of the basin center (Lone Butte, Little Knife, Big Stick, Fryburg, and Medora). Mission Canyon reservoirs along the eastern margin are in several shoaling-upward carbonate to anhydrite cycles of pisolitic packstone or grainstone buildups. South of the basin center, only a single shoaling-upward sequence is present, with dolomitized, mostly restructed-marine skeletal wackstone to pelletal wackstone or packstone reservoir facies. Nesson anticline, between these 2 areas, contains a single shoaling-upward sequence without an anhydrite cap. In northern Nesson anticline, Mission Canyon reservoir facies are oolitic-pisolitic, intraclastic wackestone or grainstone buildups or open-marine skeletal packstone or grainstone. Both limestones and dolostones are productive in southern Nesson anticline. Limestone reservoir facies are transitional, open to restricted-marine slightly intraclastic, skeletal wackestone or packstone facies. Dolostone reservoir facies are restricted-marine mudstone to skeletal mudstone and pelletal wackestone or packstone. Northeast of the Nesson anticline, production is from oolitic to pisolitic packstone or grainstone buildups in the Rival subinterval and from restricted-marine, dolomitized spiculitic mudstone in the Midale subinterval (base of Charles Formation). In the northern Nesson anticline, Rival reservoir facies are offshore open to restricted-marine, skeletal, intraclastic, pelletal wackestone and/or packstones.
Crosta, G. B.; dal Negro, P.; Frattini, P.
Shallow landslides as soil slip and soil slip-debris flows frequently occur as diffused instability phenomena. Pyroclastic soils show a great susceptibility to this kind of landslides. An example is represented by the severe landslide event that in 1998 struck the Pizzo d'Alvano slopes, in the Campania region (Southern Italy). Prolonged rainfall triggered hundreds of soil slips, most of which transforming into rapid debris flows. A previous study by deterministic modelling showed the relevance of different factors in determining landslides, namely, soil layering, vertical changing of soil properties, stratigraphical discontinuities and contributing areas upslope of the source areas. In this study a spatially distributed approach is implemented in order to model this type of events, taking into account the focused predisposing factors. Several hydrologic models have been coupled with the infinite slope stability approach to individuate areas most prone to failure. These models have been implemented in a GIS environ- ment by introducing topographic data, recorded hourly rainfall intensities, land use and physico-mechanical properties. Model calibration has been accomplished com- paring the obtained landslide pattern with that observed in 1998 and with past insta- bilities. The advantage of this approach is that landslide hazard evaluation is spatially distributed, differently from most of the traditional evaluation strategies. The main disadvantage is that slope stability is also used as an indirect estimator of the capa- bility of hydrological models to explain water infiltration process. The result is the introduction of additional sources of uncertainty. In practice, an absolute evaluation of the hydrological model is not always possible. Steady state models are usually the more pessimistic ones and are usually strongly influenced by the topographic factor (contributing area). This approach is then too conservative and it is difficult to choose the correct values
Chen, Chongxi; Pei, Shunping; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy
dans l'aquifère captif profond, puisque la recharge à partir des aquifères superficiels au travers de la couche de limon est la seule alimentation de l'aquifère profond. Une analyse des distributions spatiales de l'abaissement du niveau piézométrique et des tassements du sol montre que la région soumise à l'abaissement maximal de piézométrie n'est pas nécessairement celle des tassements maximaux du sol liés à la présence de la couche de limon non consolidé. Une simple révision des débits de pompage basée sur la distribution spatiale de la couche de limon épaisse peut réduire significativement les tassements du sol. Resumen. La ciudad de Suzhou, situada en el tramo inferior del Río Yangtze, al sudeste de la provincia de Jiangsu, es una de las pocas ciudades chinas que padece problemas serios de subsidencia. Esto ha motivado la realización de un proyecto de investigación en la zona. Estudios geológicos e hidrogeológicos apuntan a un modelo de acuífero multicapa, con tres niveles distintos de lodos blandos de orígenes marino y lacustre. Examinando los registros históricos de extracciones de agua subterránea, así como de nivel piezométrico y de subsidencia, se observa que ésta se halla asociada al bombeo cada vez mayor del acuífero confinado profundo. La hipótesis es que las capas de lodos blandos se van consolidando, si bien la que más contribuye a ello es la tercera, potente y próxima al acuífero más explotado. Se ha realizado un modelo numérico tridimensional en diferencias finitas que representa el sistema acuífero multicapa, con lo que se puede estudiar el efecto de la extracción de agua subterránea en la subsidencia. Calibrando el modelo con niveles piezométricos medidos y con datos de subsidencia, se ha podido estimar los parámetros del acuífero. Los resultados del modelo ajustan de forma razonable con los datos medidos, por lo que el modelo numérico es capaz de reproducir los procesos dinámicos de flujo de aguas
Bello Lujan, Luis M; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Gutiérrez García, Luisa Esther; García Hernández, José Angel; Serra Majem, Lluis
Introducción y objetivo: desde 1976, el término bajo peso al nacer (BPN) se aplica a todos los recién nacidos con un peso inferior a 2.500 g. y constituye el factor más importante que afecta a la mortalidad neonatal y a la morbilidad en la infancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las asociaciones entre los factores biológicos, socioeconómicos y sanitarios y el bajo peso en el recién nacido en las islas Canarias. Material y método: se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal, con los ficheros de las gestantes del 2011 y 2012 (n = 11,768) del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno de Gran Canaria, que representó el 66,3% de todos los partos de la provincia para esos años, excluyéndose del análisis los datos correspondientes a los embarazos múltiples (393) (3,3%). Se analizaron la distribución y la frecuencia del peso según características sociodemográficas; los porcentajes se compararon con el test de la 2, las medias con el t-test y las medianas con el test de Wilcoxon para datos independientes. Aquellas variables que mostraron asociación con el bajo peso en el análisis univariado fueron introducidas en un análisis logístico multidimensional. Resultados: en la distribución del peso al nacer se observó un exceso de niños con bajo peso (9,3%), de los cuales el 62,1% fueron pretérmino. Las madres de estos niños son más delgadas, de menor talla y tienen un IMC promedio de < 18,5 kg/m2, así como un promedio de edad de 31,5 años. Se observó igualmente que existe un incremento entre la edad de la madre y el bajo peso, aunque el efecto no es lineal; de hecho, los aumentos del riesgo de BPN se aceleran a medida que aumenta la edad. Cuando el IMC de la madre decrece, aproximadamente por debajo de 25, aumenta linealmente el riesgo de bajo peso. Las OR más elevadas corresponden al retraso fetal en el crecimiento intrauterino (CIR) (OR = 6,3; IC-95% = 5,3; 7,4), la hipertensión/eclampsia (OR = 3,2; IC-95% = 2
Underwood, M.B.; Shelton, K.L.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Laughland, M.M.; Solomon, R.M.
This study documents three localities in the Franciscan accretionary complex of northern California, now adjacent to the San Andreas fault, that were overprinted thermally between 13.9 and 12.2 Ma: Point Delgada-Shelter Cove (King Range terrane); Bolinas Ridge (San Bruno Mountain terrane); and Mount San Bruno (San Bruno Mountain terrane). Vein assemblages of quartz, carbonate, sulfide minerals, and adularia were precipitated locally in highly fractured wall rock. Vitrinite reflectance (Rm) values and illite crystallinity decrease away from the zones of metalliferous veins, where peak wall-rock temperatures, as determined from Rm, were as high as 315??C. The ??18O values of quartz and calcite indicate that two separate types of fluid contributed to vein precipitation. Higher ??18O fluids produced widespread quartz and calcite veins that are typical of the regional paleothermal regime. The widespread veins are by-products of heat conduction and diffuse fluid flow during zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite-grade metamorphism, and we interpret their paleofluids to have evolved through dehydration reactions and/or extensive isotopic exchange with accreted Franciscan rocks. Lower ??18O fluids, in contrast, evolved from relatively high temperature exchange between seawater (or meteoric water) and basaltic and/or sedimentary host rocks; focused flow of those fluids resulted in local deposition of the metalliferous veins. Heat sources for the three paleothermal anomalies remain uncertain and may have been unrelated to one another. Higher temperature metalliferous fluids in the King Range terrane could have advected either from a site of ridge-trench interaction north of the Mendocino fracture zone or from a "slabless window" in the wake of the northward migrating Mendocino triple junction. A separate paradox involves the amount of Quaternary offset of Franciscan basement rocks near Shelter Cove by on-land faults that some regard as the main active trace of the San Andreas
Capa, Mirian; Ines, Amor; Baethgen, Walter; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Han, Eunjin; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita
Translating seasonal climate forecasts into agricultural production forecasts could help to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse conditions. In this study, we use seasonal rainfall forecasts and crop models to improve predictability of wheat yield in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Additionally, we estimate economic margins and production risks associated with extreme scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecast. This study evaluates two methods for disaggregating seasonal climate forecasts into daily weather data: 1) a stochastic weather generator (CondWG), and 2) a forecast tercile resampler (FResampler). Both methods were used to generate 100 (with FResampler) and 110 (with CondWG) weather series/sequences for three scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecasts. Simulated wheat yield is computed with the crop model CERES-wheat (Ritchie and Otter, 1985), which is included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at two locations in northeastern Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. Once simulated yields were obtained, an assessment of farmer's gross margin for different seasonal climate forecasts was accomplished to estimate production risks under different climate scenarios. This methodology allows farmers to assess the benefits and risks of a seasonal weather forecast in IP prior to the crop growing season. The results of this study may have important implications on both, public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance companies) sectors. Acknowledgements Research by M. Capa-Morocho has been partly supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UCM-UPM) and MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) References Hoogenboom, G. et al., 2010. The Decision
Soriano-Melgar, Lluvia de Abril Alexandra; Alcaraz-Meléndez, Lilia; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Puente, María Esther; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania
Introducción: La radiación ultravioleta tipo C (UV-C) presenta mayor energía y es menos estudiada que la radiación UV-B, debido a que se considera que es totalmente absorbida por la capa de ozono. Sin embargo, la radiación UV-C artificial es capaz de generar diversas modificaciones en las plantas. Dado que la exposición a UV-C por intervalos de tiempo cortos incrementa la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes, mejorando la apariencia y vida de anaquel de los productos, su potencial aplicación en tratamientos poscosecha para modificar el contenido antioxidante de plantas medicinales, como la damiana (Turnera diffusa), es novedoso y relevante. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la radiación UV-C sobre las defensas antioxidantes enzimáticas y no enzimáticas, así como en los niveles de daño oxidativo de damiana (Turnera diffusa) in vitro. Resultados: La radiación UV-C disminuyó la actividad de las enzimas superóxido dismutasa (SOD, EC 22.214.171.124) y peroxidasas totales (POX, CE 1.11.1), la concentración de clorofila (a y b), carotenos, vitamina C y la capacidad antioxidante total, e incrementó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en damiana. La disminución de las defensas antioxidantes fue mayor en plantas de damiana expuestas a dosis más altas de UV-C o por períodos más largos. Estos resultados sugieren que la radiación UV-C induce estrés oxidativo, evidenciado por el incremento del contenido de carbonilos proteicos y el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en damiana (T. diffusa). Conclusión: Dosis bajas y menor exposición a UV-C estimulan la síntesis de compuestos fenólicos en damiana. Por ello, tratamientos controlados con UV-C podrían emplearse como tratamientos poscosecha para incrementar el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en plantas de damiana.
Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel
Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.
Manjarrez-Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Hernández-Chávez, Victor; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Boyzo-Montes de Oca, Alfonso; Mondragón-Herrera, José Antonio; Hernández-Rodríguez, Jorge
Antecedentes: la miocardiopatía diabética ocurre en ambos tipos de diabetes mellitus y en su patogenia intervienen la hiperglucemia y los cambios metabólicos asociados. Objetivo: caracterizar los diferentes cambios patológicos que aparecen durante la evolución de la miocardiopatía diabética en la rata. Material y métodos: estudio transversal comparativo en dos grupos de ratas diabéticas por la administración de estreptozotocina. A los 14, 21 y 30 días de la administración del tóxico se obtuvieron los corazones, que se colocaron en p-formaldehído al 4%. Se efectuaron cortes de 5 μm y se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina, tricrómica de Masson e inmunocitoquímica con anticuerpos anti β-tubulina. Resultados: a los 14 días de la aplicación de la estreptozotocina se observaron en el miocardio sinusoides dilatadas y depósito de colágena entre las fibras de Purkinje e intersticio cardiaco. A los 21 días disminuyó la luz arteriolar por hiperplasia de la capa media. A los 30 días del estudio se hicieron más evidentes los sinusoides cardiacos y los depósitos de colágena y un importante desarreglo del sistema microtubular de los cardiomiocitos. Conclusiones: los sinusoides cardiacos, que representan un patrón vascular fetal y la fibrosis intersticial en el miocardio y el desarreglo microtubular de los cardiomiocitos, apoyan el hecho de que el mecanismo fisiopatológico de la miocardiopatía diabética se inicia en la microcirculación coronaria debido a cambios en el metabolismo cardiaco que contribuyen a la disfunción miocárdica durante el estado diabético.
Deepa, G. B.; Radhika, S.; Sadashiva, B. K.; Pratibha, R.
Electric-field-induced transitions into switchable dark conglomerate (DC) phases from two types of reverse columnar mesophases have been observed in the bent-core (BC) compound 2,7-naphthylene bis[4-(3-methyl-4-n-tetradecyloxybenzoyloxy)] benzoate. Optical and x-ray studies show that the higher temperature columnar phase corresponds to the orthogonal B1rev phase, whereas the lower temperature columnar phase is a variant of the B1revtilt phase. As the layer fragments in this phase are modulated in order to relieve the steric hindrance caused by an anticlinic tilting in adjacent blocks, it has been named B1revtiltM. The shape of the chiral domains are different in the DC phases viz. DC-B1rev and DC-B1revtiltM obtained by applying the electric field in the B1rev and B1revtiltM phases, respectively. While the chiral domains in the DC-B1rev phase appear similar to those observed in other DC phases, the shape of the domains in the DC-B1revtiltM phase appear to have some similarity to the domains in the banana leaf texture in the B1revtiltM phase implying that the detailed structure in this DC phase may be different. Optical observations, electro-optics, and dielectric studies show that the DC-B1rev and DC-B1revtiltM phases are both switchable and possess a local SmCSPF type of structure. As the temperature is decreased the switching behavior changes from ferroelectric to antiferroelectric. The temperature at which this changeover starts occurring coincides with the temperature at which the layer modulation occurs to overcome anticlinic tilt and the B1rev to B1revtiltM phase transition takes place without the application of the electric field. The change in switching behavior is attributed to a transformation into flat layers with the SmCAPA type of structure as also evidenced by the nucleation of bright regions alongside the chiral domains.
Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.
residuales. Las secciones geoeléctricas revelan la existencia de cuatro capas, que están formadas, de menor a mayor profundidad, por arcilla laterítica, arena arcillosa/arena, matriz rocosa meteorizada/fracturada, y roca sin alterar. Las dos capas más profundas constituyen el acuífero principal, que tiene un espesor comprendido entre 3,1-67,1 m. La caracterización química de las aguas residuales confirma que hay una conexión hidrológica entre las balsas de estabilización y las aguas subterráneas. Éstas muestran síntomas de contaminación, de acuerdo con el muestreo y la interpretación geofísica. Los datos evidencian la fiabilidad del método geofísico de la resistividad eléctrica por corriente directa para detectar y delimitar penachos contaminantes en un medio rocoso cristalino.
de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos
En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de
Lindsey, Emily L.; Lopez R., Eric X.
, geologic context, and sedimentology of Tanque Loma suggest that this site represents a bone bed assemblage in a heavily vegetated, low-energy riparian environment with secondary infiltration of asphalt that helped to preserve the bones. The predominance of Eremotherium fossils at this site indicate that it may have been an area where these animals congregated, suggesting possible gregarious behavior in this taxon. The radiocarbon dates so far obtained on extinct taxa at Tanque Loma are consistent with a model positing earlier extinctions of megafauna in tropical South America than of related taxa further south on the continent, although this pattern may be an artifact of low sampling in the region. xml:lang="es" Aunque más de 1.000 huesos de megafauna han sido identificados en los estratos del Pleistoceno en Tanque Loma, más del 85% de esos mismos pertenecen a una sola especie, el perezoso gigante Eremotherium laurillardi. Sin embargo, otros cinco taxones de megafauna han sido recuperados de este sitio, los cuales son: Glossotherium cf. G. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaelenae y un cérvido identificado tentativamente en base a tamaño y geografía como cf. Odocoileus salinae. Ningún carnívoro ha sido identificado aún en Tanque Loma, y los restos de microvertebrados son muy raros en los estratos del Pleistoceno, aunque las conchas de caracol terrestre y los restos fragmentados de invertebrados marinos son encontrados ocasionalmente dentro de esas capas. Los fechados de radiocarbono por espectrómetro de acelerador de masas (AMS) en huesos de Eremotherium y cf. Notiomastodon de la capa de asfalto y por encima de esta resultaron en ˜17,000-23,500 años radiocarbónicos AP. En conjunto, la tafonomía, la composición taxonómica, el contexto geológico, y la sedimentolgía del sitio Tanque Loma surgieren que esta localidad representa un yacimiento depositado en un ambiente ribereño con bajo flujo y vegetaci
Alaoui, Abdallah; Eugster, Werner
sensitivité ont montré que l'investigation de la couverture du sol est suffisante pour l'estimation locale de la RN du fait que l'eau traversant le plan du flux nul se trouverait sous la zone des racines et échapperait à l'évapotranspiration. La RN simulée sur les 0.70 m du sol sous les conditions d'équilibre était de 364 mm, ce qui est comparable aux mesures. Se propone un método sencillo para calibrar el modelo de doble porosidad "MACRO" mediante medidas in-situ obtenidas por TDR durante un breve ensayo de infiltración (2,8 horas), con el objetivo de estimar la recarga local al acuífero. Ésta ha sido modelada de dos formas: considerando los 3 m de suelo no saturado y empleando sólo desde la capa superior hasta el plano de flujo nulo (de 0 a 0,70 m). Se compara la recarga modelada con la recarga local medida en campo, la cual fue de 313 mm durante un ciclo anual (del 15 de octubre de 1990 al 15 de octubre de 1991). Las mejores simulaciones corresponden a la hipótesis de columna entera no saturada en condiciones de equilibrio, excluyendo el efecto de macroporos (valor de 330 mm), mientras que el resultado obtenido para condiciones de no equilibrio en la recarga local está sobreestimado (378 mm). Los análisis de sensibilidad muestran que la investigación del horizonte superior del suelo es suficiente para estimar la recarga local en este caso, ya que el agua almacenada por debajo de esta profundidad parece estar fuera del alcance típico de las raíces de la vegetación y no puede ser evapotranspirada. La recarga modelada en condiciones de equilibrio para la capa superior de 0,70 m de espesor es de 364 mm, valor aceptable respecto a las medidas.
Edgett, K. S.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Schaffner, J. A.; Malin, M. C.; Baker, J. M.; Dibiase, D. R.; Laramee, J.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.
and Onboard Processing. The DEA incorpo-rates the circuit elements required for data processing, compression, and buffering. It also includes all power conversion and regulation capabilities for both the DEA and the camera head. The DEA has an 8 GB non-volatile flash memory plus 128 MB volatile storage. Images can be commanded as full-frame or sub-frame and the camera has autofocus and autoexposure capa-bilities. MAHLI can also acquire 720p, ~7 Hz high definition video. Onboard processing includes options for Bayer pattern filter interpolation, JPEG-based compression, and focus stack merging (z-stacking). Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) built and will operate the MAHLI. Alliance Spacesystems, LLC, designed and built the lens mechanical assembly. MAHLI shares common electronics, detector, and software designs with the MSL Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) and the 2 MSL Mast Cameras (Mastcam). Pre-launch images of geologic materials imaged by MAHLI are online at: http://www.msss.com/msl/mahli/prelaunch_images/.
Capa Morocho, Mirian; Rodríguez Fonseca, Belén; Ruiz Ramos, Margarita
companies) sectors, to take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse conditions. Acknowledgements Research by M. Capa-Morocho has been partly supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UCM-UPM) and MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) References Aasa, A., Jaagus, J., Ahas, R. and Sepp, M. 2004. The influence of atmospheric circulation on plant phenological phases in central and eastern Europe. International Journal of Climatology 24, 1551-1564. Gabaldón, C. et al. 2013. Evaluation of local strategies to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of 21st century. European Geosciences Union - General Assembly2013 Vol. 15 (Vienna - Austria, 2013). Garnett, E. R. and Khandekar, M. L. 1992. The impact of large-scale atmospheric circulations and anomalies on Indian monsoon droughts and floods and on world grain yields-a statistical analysis. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 61, 113-128. Jones, C. and Kiniry, J. 1986. CERES-Maize: A Simulation Model of Maize Growth and Development. Texas A&M University Press, 194. Rozas, V. and Garcia-Gonzalez, I. 2012. Non-stationary influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation and winter temperature on oak latewood growth in NW Iberian Peninsula. Int J Biometeorol 56, 787-800.
Velasco, Francisco; Herrero, Jose Miguel; Yusta, Inaki; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Seebold, Ignacio; Leach, David
The Reoci??n Zn-Pb deposit, 30 km southwest of Santander, Spain, occurs within Lower Cretaceous dolomitized Urgonian limestones on the southern flank of the Santillana syncline. The Reoci??n deposit is one of the largest known strata-bound, carbonate-hosted, zinc-lead deposits in Europe. The total metal endowment of the deposit, including past production and remaining reserves, is 62 Mt of ore grading 8.7 percent Zn and 1.0 percent Pb. The epigenetic mineralization consists of sphalerite and galena, with lesser marcasite and trace pyrite with dolomite as gangue. Microprobe analyses of different generations of dolomite revealed nonstoichiometric compositions with various amounts of iron (up to 14 mol % of FeCO3). Replacement of host dolomite, open-space filling of fractures, and cementation of breccias derived from dissolution collapse are the principal types of ore occurrence. Detailed cross-section mapping indicates a stratigraphic and structural control on the deposit. A stratiform morphology is present in the western part of the orebody (Capa Sur), whereas mineralization in the eastern part is highly discordant but strata bound (Barrendera). Stratigraphic studies demonstrate that synsedimentary tectonic activity, related to the rifting of the North Atlantic (Bay of Biscay), was responsible for variation in sedimentation, presence of unconformities (including paleokarsts), local platform emergence and dolomitization along the N60 fault trend. In the Reoci??n area, two stages of dolomitization are recognized. The first stage is a pervasive dolomitization of the limestone country rocks that was controlled by faulting and locally affected the upper part of the Aptian and the complete Albian sequence. The second dolomitization event occurred after erosion and was controlled by karstic cavities. This later dolomitization was accompanied by ore deposition and, locally, filling of dolomite sands and clastic sediments in karstic cavities. The circulation of hydrothermal
Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene
Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato by use of ITS-PCR and grouped into 3 groups using PCR fingerprinting based on Escherichia coli phage-M13 primer (M13-PCR). As determined by panC gene sequencing, the isolates of B. cereus belonged to PanC types III and IV with potential for high cytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi revealed that the M13-PCR group 1 isolates were related to B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, while the M13-PCR group 2 isolates were identical to cereulide (emetic toxin) producing B. cereus strains. The M13-PCR group 1 isolates harboured poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule biosynthesis genes capA, capB and capC showing 99-100% identity with the environmental B. cereus isolate 03BB108. Presence of cesB of the cereulide synthetase gene cluster was confirmed by PCR in M13-PCR group 2 isolates. The B. cereus harbouring the cap genes were found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product
Renou, S; Hergueta, T; Flament, M; Mouren-Simeoni, M-C; Lecrubier, Y
Children and Adolescent (DICA), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) and the Interview Schedule for Children and Adolescents ISCA)] were retained according to the 3 first criteria. All can be administered by clinicians, and x out of 6 can also be administered by lay-interviewers. All include a child/adolescent version and a parent version. Two instruments evaluate the presence of DSM IV axe II disorders: The ISCA explores the criteria of the Antisocial Personality Disorder. The CAPA evaluates Borderline, Obsessional-compulsive, Histrionic and Schizotypic Personality Disorders. Regarding the psychometric quality criterion, the selection was much more difficult because of the lack of data and the weakness of the samples studied in reliability studies. Interrater reliability appeared to be good for the 6 instruments, with kappas ranging from 0.5 to 1. This is usual in such instruments. The test-retest reliability was found to vary from bad to excellent depending on the instruments, the "informant" status (child/adolescent or parent), and the disorder explored, kappas ranging from 0.32 to 1. The worst results concerned face-to-face reliability studies which showed weak concordances for the diagnoses, whatever the procedure implemented: Diagnostic interview vs. i) Another diagnostic interview, vs. ii) An expert diagnosis or vs. iii) Scales and questionnaires. Overall, the K-SADS-PL appeared to be the instrument that has the best test-retest reliability for Anxious Disorders and Affective Disorders (the value kappa showing good to excellent reliabilities). Several important methodological observations emerged from this review. Firstly, the metrological data corresponding to the diagnoses according to DSM IV or ICD-10 criteria's were lacking. The face validity was globally satisfactory, but the data concerning their face-to-face validities and their test-retest reliability, although better than in the former versions, were limited because they were tested on
Nolan, Bernard T.; Campbell, David L.; Senterfit, Robert M.
ées ont été krigées afin d'estimer la profondeur de la base de la formation aquifère dans la partie sud de Jackson Hole. Les cartes d'isovaleurs d'estimation krigées indiquent que la profondeur de la base de la formation aquifère de Jackson est faible dans la partie centrale de la zone d'étude à l'est et à l'ouest des monts Gros Ventre, plus grande dans le secteur ouest près de la zone faillée de Teton, et faible sur la bordure sud de Jackson Hole. Les profondeurs estimées vont de 30m au sud, près des confluences des rivières Spring et Flat avec la rivière Snake, à 210m à l'ouest près de la ville de Wilson (Wyoming). Resumen Se llevó a cabo una campaña geofísica para determinar la profundidad del basamento de un acuífero libre en la zona sur de Jackson Hole, Wyoming, EEUU. USA. Medidas audio-magnetotelúricas (ATM) en 77 lugares de la zona de estudio dieron lugar a registros de resistividad eléctrica del subsuelo, que se usaron para inferir los cambios litológicos con la profundidad. Los depósitos superficiales, saturados y no consolidados de edad cuaternaria, el acuífero de Jackson, forman una capa de resistencia geoeléctrica entre 100-600ohm-m. La profundidad media de la base del acuífero de Jackson se estima en unos 61m (200pies), a partir de 62 registros con medidas suficientes. Los valores ATM fueron krigeados para obtener una medida de la profundidad del basamento del acuífero en la zona sur de Jackson Hole. Los mapas de isoprofundidades obtenidos por krigeado indican que el acuífero es poco profundo en la parte central de la zona de estudio, cerca de los Gros Ventre Buttes orientales y occidentales, más profundo al oeste, cerca del sistema de fallas de Teton, y menos profundo en el borde sur de Jackson Hole. Las profundidades van desde 30m (100pies) en el sur, en la confluencia entre los desfiladeros Spring y Flat con el Río Snake, hasta 210m (700pies) al oeste, cerca de la ciudad de Wilson, Wyoming.
Al-Awadi, E.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Senafy, M. N.
différence de niveau piézométrique est observée entre la formation de Damman et le groupe de Koweit qui la recouvre en discordance; cette différence est due à la présence d'un niveau imperméable qui la maintient captive. Resumen La Formación Damman, del Eoceno Medio, es uno de los mayores acuíferos de agua salobre aprovechable en Kuwait. Además de una zona de paleokarst en la parte superior, la Formación Damman en Kuwait consiste en 150-200m de caliza dolomitizada, que se subdivide en tres zonas en función de la litología y la biofacies. La parte superior está formada por dolomicrita yesífera friable y dolomita. La parte central es básicamente biomicrita laminada y biodolomicrita. La inferior es caliza nummulítica, con intercalaciones de pizarra en la base. Los marcadores geofísicos reflejan claramente estas subdivisiones. Los análisis de testigos revelan que la parte superior es la más porosa y permeable de las tres unidades. Esto queda confirmado con la distribución de zonas de circulación perdidas. La calidad del agua en el acuífero se deteriora hacia el norte y el este. Sobre la Formación Damman, y de manera no conforme, suprayace otra formación, que se conoce como Grupo Kuwaití. Existe una diferencia de niveles piezométricos entre ambas formaciones, la cual se mantiene por la presencia de una capa semiconfinante.
Avisar, D.; Rosenthal, E.; Shulman, H.; Zilberbrand, M.; Flexer, A.; Kronfeld, J.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Fleischer, L.
'importance secondaire pour la salinisation de l'eau souterraine cet apport est comparable à celui de sels par les pluies. Durante décadas, las ``Saqiyebeds'' (rebautizadas como Formación Yafo) que se sitúan bajo el acuífero Costero (Grupo Kurkar) de Israel fueron consideradas como un acuicludo extremadamente potente, tectónicamente inalterado y totalmente impermeable. Como resultado de la explotación intensiva del Grupo Kurkar, se produjo la mezcla de aguas salobres y salinas en la zona inferior de dicho acuífero y siempre en el contacto con el acuicludo subyaciente de la Formación Yafo. Este estudio reveló que el acuicludo no es una unidad rocosa uniforme e impermeable, sino que consiste en una alternancia de estratos permeables e impermeables dentro de la Formación Yafo, que contiene fluidos a alta presión de salinidades diferentes pero generalmente elevadas. Las capas permeables se hallan en inconformidad angular y en contacto directo con el acuífero superior del Grupo Kurkar. La Formación Yafo y las unidades rocosas infra- y suprayacentes están dislocadas por numerosos sistemas de fallas, lo que facilita el acceso de las salmueras al acuífero del Grupo Kurkar. Los fluidos de los horizontes permeables del Miembro Petah Tiqva a través de las arcillas de la Formación Yafo o hacia el ascenso de los domos salinos en respuesta a la extracción intensiva en el acuífero del Llano Costero. Podría también haber sido causado por el movimiento a favor del buzamiento de las aguas salinas como resultado de la sobrepresión generada por una acumulación mayor de gas en los horizontes permeables. Otro posible mecanismo podría basarse en el contacto hidráulico con salmueras presurizadas, que fluyen hacia arriba a favor de zonas de falla desde los reservorios profundos del Jurásico o del Cretácico. La extracción de agua salina intersticial desde las arcillas de la Formación Yafo hacia el acuífero superior del Grupo Kurkar es de importancia secundaria para la salinizaci
Bragin, Victoria M.
made available over the computer network. Use of network-based applications will be greatly expanded in the immediate future with adoption of CAPA (Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignment), a software tool developed by Michigan State University for implementing a computer-assisted personalized approach to homework assignments, quizzes, and even examinations. The NEXTSTEP operating system used exclusively during this initial phase of the project is a UNIX-based software development environment that is extremely developer- and user-friendly and has excellent multitasking, multimedia, e-mail, and communications capabilities. It operates on a local area network consisting of six 486 and Pentium workstations, a printer, and a scanner. A recent grant from the Ralph M. Parsons Foundation will add 10 workstations and software to accommodate additional students and courses. The new workstations will have both Windows NT and the NEXTSTEP operating system installed, as applications developed under the latter are readily transported to the former through use of OPENSTEP objects. Acknowledgment. The author is grateful to the National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education for support of this project through Grant No. DUE9350851 from the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program and Grant No. DUE9354531 from the Course and Curriculum Development Program.
Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.
principales en el río, además de numerosos pozos distribuidos por la zona. El modelo simula el flujo de las aguas subterráneas en una superficie de 392 km2 por medio de 70 filas, 40 columnas y 2 capas. El modelo ha sido empleado en condiciones transitorias, por medio de la aproximación en diferencias finitas de las ecuaciones diferenciales parciales en tres dimensiones del flujo en el acuífero durante el período 1991-2001. Se ha calibrado el modelo en condiciones permanentes y transitorias. El ajuste entre los niveles calculados y medidos es razonable. A partir de los resultados de la modelación, se ha obtenido que el sistema acuífero es estable con la tasa de bombeo utilizada, exceptuando unos pocos emplazamientos a lo largo de la costa, donde se ha dado lugar a fenómenos de intrusión marina en una distancia de 50-100 m. El modelo transitorio ha sido ejecutado hasta el año 2010 para predecir el flujo dinámico bajo diversos escenarios de sobreexplotación y de reducción de la recarga. Se produce una disminución en los niveles piezométricos de 0.6 a 0.8 m en la zona oriental, donde el sistema acuífero está sometido a una extracción adicional de 2 millones de galones por día en la estación principal de bombeo. Incluso con las extracciones actuales, los niveles piezométricos se sitúan bajo el nivel del mar durante las épocas secas. El modelo predice el comportamiento de este sistema acuífero bajo varias condiciones de presión hidrológica.
Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio
eucaliptus en la década de 1950 y el uso más reciente de los acuíferos para riego y para abastecimiento de centros turísticos costeros han modificado el sistema de flujo del agua subterránea en esta zona. Este estudio se ha realizado en el sector occidental, llamado El Abalario. Se trata de una elevación suave situada entre el océano Atlántico y el arroyo de La Rocina. Debajo de un manto variable de arenas eólicas, que forma un alto cordón dunar costero, se encuentran sedimentos detríticos plio-cuaternarios formados por arenas silíceas finas, que hacia la base incluyen una capa de arenas gruesas y gravas de origen deltrico, los que a su vez yacen sobre margas. El flujo de agua subterránea está relacionado con niveles de gravas y gravillas semiconfinadas por las arenas fluvio-marinas que contienen el nivel freático. El nivel freático es somero excepto debajo del cordón dunar. Son frecuentes pequeñas lagunas temporales. Se ha simulado el flujo de agua subterránea en una sección para comprobar el modelo de flujo conceptual y la sensibilidad a variaciones de los parámetros. El modelo fue calibrado usando los valores de los parámetros hidráulicos obtenidos en ensayos de bombeo y datos piezométricos medidos a diferentes profundidades, y la descarga estimada al arroyo de La Rocina. La recarga de agua subterránea drena lateralmente, por un lado hacia la costa y por otro lado a través del arroyo de La Rocina, o directamente hacia las Marismas de Doñana situadas en el delta del río Guadalquivir. Con una lluvia media anual entre 550 y 600 mm, la recarga neta media estacionaria anual del acuífero, considerando periodos de tiempo largos, se estima entre 100 y 200 mm en las zonas de vegetación autóctona, y es notablemente menor en las zonas de plantación de eucaliptos. El modelo transitorio indica que la recarga varia espacialmente y no es claramente proporcional a la precipitación para periodos de un año. La evapotranspiración freática varia