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Sample records for cape province south

  1. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  2. Erosion-land use change-climate change nexus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many parts of the world where land recovery has been realised as a response to less dependence on land for a livelihood, soil erosion - mainly on abandoned cultivated and overgrazed communal lands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - has intensified. Land abandonment is attributed by most elderly land users to drought that hit the area in the 1960s. The interaction among land-degradation drivers - ranging from soil properties, topography, land-use changes and vegetation to local climate - has given rise to a self-amplifying land degradation feedback loop that has perpetuated severe forms of soil erosion. This has rendered the degraded areas particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts on water. The perpetual degradation calls for developing a dedicated policy on the management and rehabilitation of eroded lands. Restoration approaches should entail promoting disconnectivity on eroded hillslopes. Communal farmers also have to be sensitised and empowered to take ownership of the land-restoration process.

  3. Investigating 19th and early 20th century Earthquakes in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albini, Paola; Strasser, Fleur O.; Flint, Nicolette S.

    2014-05-01

    The seismicity for the years between 1820 and 1936 of Grahamstown, a settlement located in the heart of the current Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is investigated with recourse to contemporaneous documentary sources. This investigation led to the development of a seismic history incorporating consideration of the broader geo-political context of the Eastern Cape colonial territory at that time. Individual studies of five regional events, ranging from Mw 6 to 4, that were felt in Grahamstown during that period are presented. An additional earthquake that was not felt at Grahamstown was included to present the exhaustive approach adopted in the study of the seismicity of the area. Each earthquake study includes the development of a full set of intensity data points (IDPs), which are used to determine reappraised epicentral locations and magnitudes, some of which differ significantly from previously listed parameters. The results thus obtained highlight the value of seeking out additional contemporary sources from a variety of sources in different languages when revisiting the source parameters of earthquakes for which no or only very limited instrumental information is available.

  4. Deaths Rates in Public Hospitals of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Buso, DL; Longo-Mbenza, B; Bovet, P; van den Borne, B; Okwe, A Nge; Mzingelwa, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: South Africa (SA) is experiencing a rapid epidemiologic transition as a consequence of political, economic and social changes. In this study we described, based on hospital data, the mortality patterns of Non communicable Diseases (NCD), Communicable Diseases (CD), the NCD/CD ratios, and the trends of deaths. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all deaths occurring in several public hospitals in the Eastern Cape Province of SA between 2002 and 2006. Causes of deaths were coded according to the ICD 10 Edition. Results: A total of 107380 admissions responded to the inclusion criteria between 2002 and 2006. The crude death rate was 4.3% (n=4566) with a mean age of 46±21 years and a sex ratio of 3.1 men (n=3453): 1 woman (n=1113). Out of all deaths, there were 62.9% NCD (n=2872) vs. 37.1% CD (n=1694) with NCD/CD ratio of 1.7. The ratio NCD/CD deaths in men was 1.3 (n=1951/1502) vs. NCD/CD deaths in women of 1.9 (n=735/378). The peak of deaths was observed in winter season. The majority of NCD deaths were at age of 30–64 years, whereas the highest rate of CD deaths was at age< 30 years. The trend of deaths including the majority of NCD, increased from 2002 to 2006. There was a tendency of increase in tuberculosis deaths, but a tendency of decrease in HIV/AIDS deaths was from 2002 to 2006. Conclusion: Non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of deaths in rural Eastern Cape province of SA facing Post-epidemiologic transition stages. We recommend overarching priority actions for the response to the Non-communicable Diseases: policy change, prevention, treatment, international cooperation, research, monitoring, accountability, and re-orientation of health systems. PMID:23641386

  5. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Barriers to Care in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Topper, Kegan; van Rooyen, Kempie; Grobler, Christoffel; van Rooyen, Dalena; Andersson, Lena M C

    2015-08-01

    A range of barriers to seeking mental health care in low- and middle-income countries has been investigated. Little, however, is known of the barriers to care and help-seeking behavior among people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low- and middle-income countries. This was a population-based study including 977 people aged 18-40 years from the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Current PTSD was assessed by using a diagnostic questionnaire (Mini International Psychiatric Interview). An additional questionnaire captured socioeconomic and health-related data. The prevalence of current PTSD was 10.8%. Only 48.1% of people with current PTSD accessed health care services. Younger people aged 18 to 29 years were less likely to seek health care, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.15, 0.85]. People earning a salary or wage, OR = 2.91, 95% CI [1.26, 6.71]; and those with tuberculosis, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [1.42, 95.56], were more likely to seek health care. A range of barriers to seeking care were identified, the most striking being stigma and a lack of knowledge regarding the nature and treatment of mental illness. People with current PTSD may seek help for other health concerns and brief screening means those affected may be readily identified. PMID:26271019

  7. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  8. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013)

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Aim Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Setting Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Results Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’). 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Conclusion Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research. PMID:27247157

  9. Establishing a Computerized Substance Abuse Surveillance System for District Social Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Methods, Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan; Parry, Charles; Carelse, Jermaine

    2011-01-01

    The provision of accurate, in-depth data on substance abuse trends and service needs has become increasingly important in light of the growing wave of substance abuse in South Africa and particularly in the Western Cape Province. This article describes the design and implementation of an electronic substance abuse surveillance system (SASS)…

  10. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  11. Duinefontein 2: an Acheulean site in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klein, R G; Avery, G; Cruz-Uribe, K; Halkett, D; Hart, T; Milo, R G; Volman, T P

    1999-08-01

    Excavations at Duinefontein (DFT) 2 near Cape Town, South Africa have recovered numerous stone artefacts and animal bones on an ancient surface sealed within iron-stained eolian sands. U-series analysis of an overlying calcrete places the sands before 150 ka ago, while the large mammal taxa imply an age between 400 and 200 ka ago. The artefacts include a classic Acheulean handaxe and probable biface shaping flakes that support this age estimate. The principal mammalian species are long-horned buffalo, black wildebeest, greater kudu, Cape zebra, and grysbok/steenbok, which imply a grass-and-bush mosaic instead of the historic small-leafed shrubland. Hippopotamus and reedbuck indicate that water stood nearby, probably in dune swales. The large mammal bones are mostly vertebrae and other axial elements, often in near-anatomical order. Both proximal and distal appendicular elements are rare. Bones with carnivore damage are common, but ones with stone tool marks are scarce. The sum suggests a water-edge attritional death site where people played a minimal role and carcasses were disarticulated mainly by carnivore feeding and by trampling. Stone tool marks tend to be equally rare at other Acheulean attritional death sites, and the implication may be that Acheulean people rarely obtained large mammals, whether by hunting or scavenging. Human scavengers at DFT2 would not have encountered a disproportionate number of distal (versus proximal) limb elements, and it follows that the tendency for distal elements to dominate many archeological assemblages need not reflect scavenging versus hunting. Even if DFT2 was not itself a locus of intense human activity, it provides a useful baseline for evaluating bone damage, skeletal part representation, and other variables at sites where people were deeply involved. PMID:10444350

  12. Duinefontein 2: an Acheulean site in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klein, R G; Avery, G; Cruz-Uribe, K; Halkett, D; Hart, T; Milo, R G; Volman, T P

    1999-08-01

    Excavations at Duinefontein (DFT) 2 near Cape Town, South Africa have recovered numerous stone artefacts and animal bones on an ancient surface sealed within iron-stained eolian sands. U-series analysis of an overlying calcrete places the sands before 150 ka ago, while the large mammal taxa imply an age between 400 and 200 ka ago. The artefacts include a classic Acheulean handaxe and probable biface shaping flakes that support this age estimate. The principal mammalian species are long-horned buffalo, black wildebeest, greater kudu, Cape zebra, and grysbok/steenbok, which imply a grass-and-bush mosaic instead of the historic small-leafed shrubland. Hippopotamus and reedbuck indicate that water stood nearby, probably in dune swales. The large mammal bones are mostly vertebrae and other axial elements, often in near-anatomical order. Both proximal and distal appendicular elements are rare. Bones with carnivore damage are common, but ones with stone tool marks are scarce. The sum suggests a water-edge attritional death site where people played a minimal role and carcasses were disarticulated mainly by carnivore feeding and by trampling. Stone tool marks tend to be equally rare at other Acheulean attritional death sites, and the implication may be that Acheulean people rarely obtained large mammals, whether by hunting or scavenging. Human scavengers at DFT2 would not have encountered a disproportionate number of distal (versus proximal) limb elements, and it follows that the tendency for distal elements to dominate many archeological assemblages need not reflect scavenging versus hunting. Even if DFT2 was not itself a locus of intense human activity, it provides a useful baseline for evaluating bone damage, skeletal part representation, and other variables at sites where people were deeply involved.

  13. Phytotherapeutic Information on Plants Used for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, I. O.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The current rate of deforestation in Africa constitutes a serious danger to the future of medicinal plants on this continent. Conservation of these medicinal plants in the field and the scientific documentation of our knowledge about them are therefore crucial. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) was carried out in selected areas of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. These areas were Hala, Ncera, Sheshegu, and Gquamashe, all within the Nkonkobe Municipality. One hundred informants were interviewed. The survey included the identification of scientific and vernacular names of the plants used for treatment of TB as well as the methods of preparation and administration, the part used, dosage, and duration of treatment. The survey revealed 30 plants belonging to 21 families which are commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of TB and associated diseases. Of these plants Clausena anisata, Haemanthus albiflos, and Artemisia afra were the most cited. The leaves were the most common part used in the medicinal preparations. Our findings are discussed in relation to the importance of the documentation of medicinal plants. PMID:24864158

  14. Social reintegration of paraplegics and tetraplegics in the Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Key, A G; Hurford, S M

    1982-04-01

    Rehabilitation of the disabled is a dynamic process which should start from the first day post-injury. Total rehabilitation should include, not only attaining maximum function, but also, satisfaction with life in one's own environment. The obstacles created by able-bodied society, are problems that face the disabled person. The right to participate in, and contribute to, all aspects of economic, social and political life is theirs too, as is the right to make decisions about the future. This should not be overlooked, as decision making sows the seeds of motivation. This in turn dictates the measure of success of social reintegration. Assistance is provided in South Africa by various organisations of central government, provincial and local authorities and private welfare organisations. The Cripple Care Association is a private welfare organisation which provides assistance and acts as a link with other relevant organisations. In the Western Cape the number of successfully rehabilitated persons increases and their presence in the community creates an awareness of their needs. This in turn initiates the process of positive change and action.

  15. Environmental, ecological, and paleoanthropological implications of the late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Equus Cave, northern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard G.; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Beaumont, Peter B.

    1991-07-01

    The late Pleistocene deposits of Equus Cave, northern Cape Province, South Africa, have provided more than 30,000 taxonomically identifiable mammal bones from 48 species. Context, associations, and features of the bone assemblage implicate brown hyenas as the main accumulators. The fauna is significant mainly because (1) it supplements previous evidence that regional climate was cooler and possibly also somewhat moister during part(s) of the late Pleistocene, but deviated less from the historic norm than in areas farther south; (2) it shows that Bond's springbok, which became extinct in the early Holocene, differed from the surviving common springbok not only in important morphological respects but also in reproductive pattern; and (3) it sustains earlier suggestions that an abundance of carnivores, a paucity of small hard bones, and increase in the cranial/postcranial ratio with species size, and exclusively attritional mortality profiles are features that tend to differentiate assemblages accumulated by brown hyenas from those accumulated by people. In addition, pending firmer dating, the fragmentary human fossils from Equus Cave may support an exclusively African origin for anatomically modern humans.

  16. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  17. Comparative molecular phylogeography of two Xenopus species, X. gilli and X. laevis, in the south-western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Evans, B J; Morales, J C; Picker, M D; Kelley, D B; Melnick, D J

    1997-04-01

    Xenopus gilli is a vulnerable anuran with a patchy distribution along the south-western coast of the Cape Province, South Africa. This species is sympatric with Xenopus laevis laevis, a widespread relative found over much of southern Africa. We examined the molecular phylogeography and population structure of the contact zone between these species to obtain information about historical biogeography and conservation management of this region. Analyses of the distribution, frequency, and cladistic and phenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA haplotypes indicate that population subdivision is present in both taxa but that long-term isolation of sets of populations has occurred in X. gilli only. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity are also considerably higher within and among X. gilli ponds than X. l. laevis ponds in this region. We attribute the genetic segregation of X. gilli populations to ancient habitat fragmentation by ocean transgression into X. gilli habitat and to continued habitat alteration by human activity. The lower level of genetic diversity in X. L. laevis in this region is likely a result of a recent arrival of this taxon to the south-western Cape region relative to X. gilli. Population structure in X. l. laevis may be a result of isolation by distance. Clear evidence exists for at least two management units within X. gilli and strongly supports the establishment of protective measures east of False Bay in order to conserve a substantial portion of this species' extant genetic diversity.

  18. 'Secrets' that kill: crisis, custodianship and responsibility in ritual male circumcision in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kepe, Thembela

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyses a tension between traditional leaders and the post-apartheid government in South Africa, concerning the crisis in ritual male circumcision. Over the last two decades, following ritual male circumcision, thousands of youth have been admitted to hospitals, hundreds have undergone penile amputations and hundreds have died. Following the government's intervention through legislation and other health measures, traditional leaders allege that this is a violation of cultural rights enshrined in the Constitution. Drawing on newspaper and journal articles, books, policy documents, and legislation, as well as informal interviews with initiates and their parents and field observations in the Eastern Cape Province (2002-2009), this paper explores the validity of the traditional leaders' challenge, arguing that the crisis in the ritual should be seen in a broader context than the tension between traditional leaders and the state. Finally, the paper argues the tension between traditional leaders and government, and the sensational reporting of this by the media, unfortunately takes away focus from the health crisis in the ritual.

  19. New geological estimates of Pliocene sea levels from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces, Republic of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, P. J.; O'Leary, M.; Raymo, M. E.; Rovere, A.; Inglis, J.; Roberts, D.; Bergh, E.

    2012-12-01

    The mid-late Pliocene warm period (MPWP) is the most recent geologic interval when global atmospheric CO2 reached ~400 ppmv. The MPWP is of great interest to paleoclimatologists and modelers because accurate geological data would help to explain the behavior of sea level (SL) and ice sheets in a past warmer climates. Our modern industrial Earth is rapidly approaching this ominous benchmark (395.77 ppmv 6/2012). The trailing continental margin and far-field sites of western and southern Republic of South Africa (RSA) yield abundant coastal imprints of Miocene to Pleistocene seastands. Existing literature identifies zone fossils, and a few unpublished Sr-isotope ages that correlate these shoreline deposits with Pliocene highstands. Younger Pleistocene SL benchmarks provide indications of the regional tectonic stability, with MIS 5e (125 ka) deposits widely correlated along RSA coasts at about +3 m asl. Precise elevations of geomorphic, sedimentary, and biological SL indicators were measured in Western and Northern Cape Provinces of RSA with decimeter accuracy using an OmniStar differential GPS. High-resolution SL indicators (within 0.5 m of paleo-SL) include abrasion platforms (Fig 1), marine terraces, sub-, inter-, and supratidal sedimentary structures, and in situ marine invertebrates such as shallow water oysters and intertidal barnacles. The coastal geomorphic expression of the MPWP is profound. For more than 0.5 Ma, we hypothesize that high frequency (20-40 ka), low amplitude oscillations of Pliocene SL acted as a shoreline "buzz saw", laterally incising older bedrock, forming extensive planation surfaces along the coastline. We propose these broad geomorphic features are diagnostic of this prolonged interval of low amplitude but consistent SL along relatively stable, non-sediment-dominated coastlines of the world. Although currently uncorrected for post-depositional effects including GIA and dynamic topography, our PLIOMAX team (www.pliomax.org) has documented

  20. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  1. The mammalian fauna associated with an archaic hominin skullcap and later Acheulean artifacts at Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klein, Richard G; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Steele, Teresa E

    2007-02-01

    The Elandsfontein site, Western Cape Province, South Africa, is well known for an archaic hominin skullcap associated with later Acheulean artifacts. The site has also provided nearly 13,000 mammalian bones that can be identified to skeletal part and taxon. The assemblage derives from 49 species, 15 of which have no historic descendants. Comparisons to radiometrically dated faunas in eastern Africa indicate an age between 1 million and 600 thousand years ago. Unique features of the fauna, including the late occurrence of a dirk-toothed cat and a sivathere, may reflect its geographic origin in a region that was notable historically for its distinctive climate and high degree of biotic endemism. Together, taxonomic composition, geomorphic setting, and pollen extracted from coprolites indicate the proximity of a large marsh or pond, maintained by a higher water table. The small average size of the black-backed jackals implies relatively mild temperatures. The sum of the evidence places bone accumulation during one of the mid-Pleistocene interglacials that were longer and cooler than later ones, including the Holocene. The geomorphic context of the fauna presents no evidence for catastrophe, and most deaths probably resulted from attritional factors that disproportionately killed the young and old. However, only the dental-age profile of long-horned buffalo supports this directly. Field collection methods biased skeletal-part representation, but originally, it probably resembled the pattern in the younger, marsh-edge Acheulean occurrence at Duinefontein 2, 45 km to the south. Excavation there exposed multiple vertebral spreads, which probably mark carcasses from which hominins or large carnivores removed the meatier elements. Bone damage at both sites suggests that, despite abundant artifacts, hominins were much less important than carnivores in the bone accumulation. Together with limited observations from other sites, Elandsfontein and Duinefontein provisionally

  2. The mammalian fauna associated with an archaic hominin skullcap and later Acheulean artifacts at Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klein, Richard G; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Steele, Teresa E

    2007-02-01

    The Elandsfontein site, Western Cape Province, South Africa, is well known for an archaic hominin skullcap associated with later Acheulean artifacts. The site has also provided nearly 13,000 mammalian bones that can be identified to skeletal part and taxon. The assemblage derives from 49 species, 15 of which have no historic descendants. Comparisons to radiometrically dated faunas in eastern Africa indicate an age between 1 million and 600 thousand years ago. Unique features of the fauna, including the late occurrence of a dirk-toothed cat and a sivathere, may reflect its geographic origin in a region that was notable historically for its distinctive climate and high degree of biotic endemism. Together, taxonomic composition, geomorphic setting, and pollen extracted from coprolites indicate the proximity of a large marsh or pond, maintained by a higher water table. The small average size of the black-backed jackals implies relatively mild temperatures. The sum of the evidence places bone accumulation during one of the mid-Pleistocene interglacials that were longer and cooler than later ones, including the Holocene. The geomorphic context of the fauna presents no evidence for catastrophe, and most deaths probably resulted from attritional factors that disproportionately killed the young and old. However, only the dental-age profile of long-horned buffalo supports this directly. Field collection methods biased skeletal-part representation, but originally, it probably resembled the pattern in the younger, marsh-edge Acheulean occurrence at Duinefontein 2, 45 km to the south. Excavation there exposed multiple vertebral spreads, which probably mark carcasses from which hominins or large carnivores removed the meatier elements. Bone damage at both sites suggests that, despite abundant artifacts, hominins were much less important than carnivores in the bone accumulation. Together with limited observations from other sites, Elandsfontein and Duinefontein provisionally

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: a survey of two isolated communities in the Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, W; Harris, A

    1987-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) among Cape Coloured communities, and whether a family connection could be traced. Two isolated communities near Cape Town were selected and it was attempted to examine as many population members as possible. After it was established that one community had a comparatively high prevalence of FEH, a second visit was undertaken to determine whether a familial distribution existed. Six hundred and fifty-six people and 130 households were examined in the above community and 486 people in the second. The median ages of the two communities were 18.6 and 18.4 yr respectively. Both age and sex distributions of the two populations did not differ significantly. A significant difference in the prevalence of FEH was found between the two communities. Ninety-seven cases (14.8%) were diagnosed in the first and 21 cases (4.3%) in the second community (P less than 0.05). FEH occurred in all age groups and both sexes. Lesions occurred mostly on the mucosae of the lower and upper lips and in the gingiva. No definite familial distribution could be established.

  4. Quantitative detection and characterization of human adenoviruses in the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-12-01

    Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Over a 1-year period (August 2010-July 2011), we assessed the prevalence of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) at a total of 6 sites on the river and three dams along its course. HAdVs were detected by real-time quantitative PCR in about 35 % of the samples with concentrations ranging from 1.2 × 10(1) genome copies (GC)/l to 4.71 × 10(3) GC/l. HAdVs were detected at 5 of the 6 sampling sites with the detection rate ranging from 8.3 % at Rooikrantz Dam to 92 % at Parkside. The HAdV concentrations across the sampling sites were as follows: Parkside (3.25 × 10(2)-4.71 × 10(3) GC/); King William's Town (1.02 × 10(2)-4.56 × 10(3) GC/l); and Eluxolzweni (1.17 × 10(2)-3.97 × 10(2) GC/l). Significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations were detected at the non-dam sites compared to the dam sites. A very low mean concentration of 1.86 × 10(1) HAdV GC/l was observed at Bridle Drift Dam. While HAdVs were detected only once at Rooikrantz Dam (1.74 × 10(1) GC/l), no HAdV was detected at Maden Dam. Epidemiologically important serotypes, Ad40/41, constituted 83.3 %, while Ad21 made up 16.7 % of the all HAdVs detected and were characterized by qualitative PCR. The Buffalo River presents a public health risk heightened by the presence of Ad 40/41 and Ad21. Our results make imperative the need for assessing water sources for viral contamination in the interest of public health. This work is a significant contribution to the molecular epidemiology of adenoviruses and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report on detection of enteric virus from surface waters in the Eastern Cape.

  5. Sulfur isotope characteristics of metamorphosed Zn-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfides in the Areachap Group, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailie, Russell; Gutzmer, Jens; Strauss, Harald; Stüeken, Eva; McClung, Craig

    2010-06-01

    Zn- and Cu-rich massive sulfide ores of volcanogenic origin [volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits] occur as stratiform/stratabound lenses of variable size hosted by gneisses, amphibolites, and schists of the Areachap Group, in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The Areachap Group represents the highly deformed and metamorphosed remnants of a Mesoproterozoic volcanic arc that was accreted onto the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton during the ˜1.0-1.2 Ga Namaquan Orogeny. Sulfur isotope data (δ34S) are presented for 57 sulfide separates and one barite sample from five massive sulfide occurrences in the Areachap Group. Although sulfides from each site have distinct sulfur isotope values, all δ34S values fall within a very limited range (3.0‰ to 8.5‰). Barite has a δ34S value of 18.5‰, very different from that of associated sulfides. At one of the studied sites (Kantienpan), a distinct increase in δ34S of sulfides is observed from the massive sulfide lens into the disseminated sulfides associated with a distinct footwall alteration zone. Sulfide-sulfide and sulfide-barite mineral pairs which recrystallized together during amphibolite- and lower granulite facies metamorphism are not in isotopic equilibrium. Sulfur isotope characteristics of sulfides and sulfates of the Zn-Cu ores in the Areachap Group are, however, very similar to base metal sulfide accumulations associated with modern volcanic arcs and unsedimented mid-ocean ridges. It is thus concluded that profound recrystallization and textural reconstitution associated with high-grade regional metamorphism of the massive sulfide ores of the Areachap Group did not result in extensive sulfur isotopic homogenization. This is similar to observations in other metamorphosed VMS deposit districts and confirms that massive sulfide ores remain effectively a closed system for sulfur isotopes for both sulfides and sulfates during metamorphism.

  6. Lithic technology and behavioural modernity: new results from the Still Bay site, Hollow Rock Shelter, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Anders; Larsson, Lars

    2011-08-01

    The Hollow Rock Shelter site in Western Cape Province, South Africa, was excavated in 1993 and 2008. This study presents new results from a technological analysis of Still Bay points and bifacial flakes from the site. The results show that Still Bay points from the site are standardized tools. The points in the assemblage consist of a complex mixture of whole and fragmented points in all phases of production. The fragmentation degree is high; approximately 80% of the points are broken. A high proportion of bending fractures shows that several of the points were discarded due to production failures, and points with impact damage or hafting traces show that used points were left in the cave. This illustrates that the production of points as well as replacement of used points took place at the site. The result also shows that worked but not finished preforms and points were left at the site, suggestive of future preparation. The points were produced within the framework of three different chaînes opératoires, all ending up in a typologically uniform tool. This shows that the manufacture of Still Bay points should be regarded as a special bifacial technology, only partly comparable with other bifacial technologies. A raw material analysis shows that locally available quartz and quartzite were used in the production, and that points made of silcrete were brought to the site. Based on the technological analysis, a discussion of behavioural modernity, focusing on hypotheses about social interaction, experimentation, different strategies for learning to knap, and landscape memories, results in an interpretation that behavioural modernity was established at Hollow Rock Shelter in the Still Bay phase of the southern African Middle Stone Age.

  7. Poverty and Disability in Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya

    2008-01-01

    The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…

  8. Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population.

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Isolates from Swine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Basson, Albertus Kotze; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-07-01

    The exposure of farm animals to antimicrobials for treatment, prophylaxis, or growth promotion can select for resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to humans, and Salmonella as an important zoonotic pathogen can act as a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. We assessed the antibiogram profiles of Salmonella species isolated from pig herds in two commercial farms in South Africa. Two hundred fifty-eight presumptive Salmonella isolates were recovered from the fecal samples of 500 adult pigs. Specific primers targeting Salmonella serogroups A, B, C1, C2, and D were used to determine the prevalence of different serogroups. Only serogroup A (n = 48) was detected, while others were not. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the confirmed Salmonella serogroup A isolates was performed by using the disk diffusion method against a panel of 18 antibiotics. All the 48 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and oxytetracycline, while 75% were resistant to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin. All the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the predominant phenotype being against 11 antibiotics, and multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged between 0.3 and 0.6. The incidence of genes encoding resistance against ampicillin (ampC), tetracycline (tetA), and streptomycin (strA) were 54, 61, and 44%, respectively. We conclude that healthy pigs are potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant Salmonella that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain and, hence, a significant public health threat.

  10. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Isolates from Swine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Basson, Albertus Kotze; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-07-01

    The exposure of farm animals to antimicrobials for treatment, prophylaxis, or growth promotion can select for resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to humans, and Salmonella as an important zoonotic pathogen can act as a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. We assessed the antibiogram profiles of Salmonella species isolated from pig herds in two commercial farms in South Africa. Two hundred fifty-eight presumptive Salmonella isolates were recovered from the fecal samples of 500 adult pigs. Specific primers targeting Salmonella serogroups A, B, C1, C2, and D were used to determine the prevalence of different serogroups. Only serogroup A (n = 48) was detected, while others were not. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the confirmed Salmonella serogroup A isolates was performed by using the disk diffusion method against a panel of 18 antibiotics. All the 48 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and oxytetracycline, while 75% were resistant to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin. All the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the predominant phenotype being against 11 antibiotics, and multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged between 0.3 and 0.6. The incidence of genes encoding resistance against ampicillin (ampC), tetracycline (tetA), and streptomycin (strA) were 54, 61, and 44%, respectively. We conclude that healthy pigs are potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant Salmonella that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain and, hence, a significant public health threat. PMID:27357044

  11. Variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated using standard methods. The assessment was carried out with total of 72 water samples collected from six sites over a 12-month period, from August 2010 to July 2011. Water temperature ranged from 11 to 28 °C, while pH varied from 6.6 to 10.7 and turbidity from 1.7 to 133 NTU. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity showed drastic variations (42.3-46,693 μS/cm, 20.3-23,350 mg/l and 0.02-33.8 PSU, respectively) and the significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean values of these parameters recorded at Parkside reflect the influence of seawater at the Buffalo River estuary. The concentrations of other parameters ranged as follows: chloride (3.7-168 mg/l), DO (6.9-11.1), BOD (0.6-9.4), COD (3.7-45.9), nitrite-nitrogen (0.02-0.21), nitrate-nitrogen (1-4.47) and orthophosphate (0.01-1.72). There was a significant positive correlation between water temperature and DO (r = 0.200; P < 0.01). Significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations also existed between TDS and salinity (r = 0.921), COD and each of salinity (r = 0.398), TDS (r = 0.375) and chloride (r = 0.330), nitrate and phosphate (r = 0.323) and BOD and turbidity (r = 0.290). Significant (p < 0.01) inverse relationships existed between DO and each of phosphate (r = -0.295) and nitrate (r = -0.168). We conclude that the Buffalo River water quality deteriorated in the plains, compared with the upper reaches. Urgent measures are needed to safeguard the river in view of the potential health concerns as many households rely solely on the untreated river water.

  12. Variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated using standard methods. The assessment was carried out with total of 72 water samples collected from six sites over a 12-month period, from August 2010 to July 2011. Water temperature ranged from 11 to 28 °C, while pH varied from 6.6 to 10.7 and turbidity from 1.7 to 133 NTU. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity showed drastic variations (42.3-46,693 μS/cm, 20.3-23,350 mg/l and 0.02-33.8 PSU, respectively) and the significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean values of these parameters recorded at Parkside reflect the influence of seawater at the Buffalo River estuary. The concentrations of other parameters ranged as follows: chloride (3.7-168 mg/l), DO (6.9-11.1), BOD (0.6-9.4), COD (3.7-45.9), nitrite-nitrogen (0.02-0.21), nitrate-nitrogen (1-4.47) and orthophosphate (0.01-1.72). There was a significant positive correlation between water temperature and DO (r = 0.200; P < 0.01). Significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations also existed between TDS and salinity (r = 0.921), COD and each of salinity (r = 0.398), TDS (r = 0.375) and chloride (r = 0.330), nitrate and phosphate (r = 0.323) and BOD and turbidity (r = 0.290). Significant (p < 0.01) inverse relationships existed between DO and each of phosphate (r = -0.295) and nitrate (r = -0.168). We conclude that the Buffalo River water quality deteriorated in the plains, compared with the upper reaches. Urgent measures are needed to safeguard the river in view of the potential health concerns as many households rely solely on the untreated river water. PMID:23636499

  13. Realist evaluation of the antiretroviral treatment adherence club programme in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of Western Cape Province, South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; Van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suboptimal retention in care and poor treatment adherence are key challenges to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based approaches to HIV service delivery are recommended to improve patient retention in care and ART adherence. The implementation of the adherence clubs in the Western Cape province of South Africa was with variable success in terms of implementation and outcomes. The need for operational guidelines for its implementation has been identified. Therefore, understanding the contexts and mechanisms for successful implementation of the adherence clubs is crucial to inform the roll-out to the rest of South Africa. The protocol outlines an evaluation of adherence club intervention in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province, using the realist approach. Methods and analysis In the first phase, an exploratory study design will be used. Document review and key informant interviews will be used to elicit the programme theory. In phase two, a multiple case study design will be used to describe the adherence clubs in five contrastive sites. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposively selected programme implementers and members of the clubs to assess the context and mechanisms of the adherence clubs. For the programme's primary outcomes, a longitudinal retrospective cohort analysis will be conducted using routine patient data. Data analysis will involve classifying emerging themes using the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, and refining the primary CMO configurations to conjectured CMO configurations. Finally, we will compare the conjectured CMO configurations from the cases with the initial programme theory. The final CMOs obtained will be translated into middle range theories. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki (1964). Ethics clearance was obtained from the

  14. Occurrence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in two commercial swine farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most significant causes of food-borne infections capable of causing serious health complications in humans. Even though ruminants are known to be the major reservoirs of STEC, other non-ruminant food producing animals may also harbour pathogenic E. coli strains. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli serogroups O26, O111, O121, O145, and O157 and their associated virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) in swine faecal samples obtained from the two major commercial farms located in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The proportions of serogroups detected were O26; 35 (7%), O145; 14 (2.8%), and O157:H7; 43 (8.6%) of the total animals sampled. Out of the 500 animals sampled, 22 isolates of E. coli (1.4%) tested positive for the stx2 gene, and 7 of these isolates belonged to E. coli O26 serogroup, while the remaining 15 most likely belonged to serogroups untargeted in this study. Other virulence genes (stx1, eae, and ehxA) that we screened for were not detected. These findings reveal that pigs within the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa can harbour Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

  15. Occurrence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in two commercial swine farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most significant causes of food-borne infections capable of causing serious health complications in humans. Even though ruminants are known to be the major reservoirs of STEC, other non-ruminant food producing animals may also harbour pathogenic E. coli strains. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli serogroups O26, O111, O121, O145, and O157 and their associated virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) in swine faecal samples obtained from the two major commercial farms located in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The proportions of serogroups detected were O26; 35 (7%), O145; 14 (2.8%), and O157:H7; 43 (8.6%) of the total animals sampled. Out of the 500 animals sampled, 22 isolates of E. coli (1.4%) tested positive for the stx2 gene, and 7 of these isolates belonged to E. coli O26 serogroup, while the remaining 15 most likely belonged to serogroups untargeted in this study. Other virulence genes (stx1, eae, and ehxA) that we screened for were not detected. These findings reveal that pigs within the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa can harbour Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. PMID:26851595

  16. Protozoan Fauna and Abundance in Aeration Tanks of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibewu, M.; Momba, M. N. B.; Okoh, A. L.

    This study focuses on the assessment of the protozoan fauna and abundance in the mixed liquors of aeration tanks of the three municipal wastewater treatment plants located in Fort Beaufort, Dimbaza and East London in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and their implication to the production of effluents of good quality. The samples were collected between September and December 2005 and protozoa species were identified by direct microscopic observations at x400 magnification by comparison with existing protozoa gallery collections. A total of 68 protozoan genera made up of 44 ciliates, 16 flagellates and 8 others were identified in wastewater treatment plants. Although in all aerobic zones the average density of ciliates was 104 cells mL-1, which indicated that these plants were able to produce clear effluent of good quality, a better performance was found in Dimbaza and East London, which had total protozoan genera of 27 and 26, respectively.

  17. Correlates of consistent condom use among recently initiated and traditionally circumcised men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Consistent use of condoms is the most effective method of preventing STIs including HIV. However, recent evidence suggests that limited knowledge about HIV prevention benefits from male circumcision leads to inconsistent condom use among traditionally circumcised men. The aim of this paper is to report on the prevalence of consistent condom use and identify its psychosocial correlates to inform future HIV prevention strategies among traditionally circumcised men in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study using interviewer administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 1656 men who had undergone initiation and traditional male circumcision in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Logistic regression was used to evaluate univariate and multivariate relationships of psychosocial correlates with consistent condom use. Results The mean age of the participants was 21.4 years. About 45% belonged to the amaXhosa ethnic group, followed by 15.1% of the amaMpondo, 11.6% of the amaHlubi, and 27.9% from other ethnic groups. A total of 72.3% reported having a main sexual partner and of those 44.8% indicated having other sexual partners as well. About 49% reported consistent condom use and 80% used free government issued condoms, varies among ethnic groups. A total of 35.1% indicated having tested for HIV. Of those who tested for HIV, 46% reported inconsistent condom use when having sex with their sexual partners. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a positive association between consistent condom use and the general knowledge of condom use, attitude towards condom use with main and casual sexual partners, subjective norm towards condom use with the main sexual partner, perceived self-efficacy towards condom use, positive self-esteem, beliefs about traditional male circumcision and STI protection, attitude towards gender based violence, and cultural alienation. Conclusions

  18. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  19. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  20. Understanding pathways to breast cancer diagnosis among women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Jennifer; Cairncross, Lydia; Naiker, Thurandrie; Momberg, Mariette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore and understand women's pathways to breast cancer diagnosis and factors influencing this journey. Design and setting Indepth interviews were conducted with clients at a tertiary level breast cancer clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. A thematic analysis was performed underpinned by the theoretical concepts of the Model of Pathways to Treatment framework. Participants 20 women were interviewed within 1 week of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Results The average time between discovery of bodily changes to breast cancer diagnosis was 8.5 months. Deficits in breast self-awareness and knowledge of breast cancer symptoms delayed women's interpretation of bodily changes as being abnormal. All women first noticed breast lumps; however, many did not perceive it as abnormal until additional symptoms were present. General good health, attribution of symptoms to ageing, and past benign breast disease resulted in women being complacent about bodily changes. Disclosure to family members served as a trigger to seek healthcare. The initial type of primary level care services women accessed was influenced by perceptions of care each service provided, finances, structural factors, and personal safety related to the physical location of services. Conclusions Symptom appraisal and interpretation contributed significantly to delayed presentation. To improve timely diagnosis of breast cancer, interventions that increase women's confidence in detecting breast changes, improve knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, address myths, and encourage prompt help-seeking behaviour are required. PMID:26729392

  1. Paleoenvironmental and Human Behavioral Implications of the Boegoeberg 1 Late Pleistocene Hyena Den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard G.; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Hart, Tim; Parkington, John E.

    1999-11-01

    Boegoeberg 1 (BOG1) is located on the Atlantic coast of South Africa, 850 km north of Cape Town. The site is a shallow rock shelter in the side of a sand-choked gully that was emptied by diamond miners. Abundant coprolites, chewed bones, and partially digested bones implicate hyenas as the bone accumulators. The location of the site, quantity of bones, and composition of the fauna imply it was a brown hyena nursery den. The abundance of Cape fur seal bones shows that the hyenas had ready access to the coast. Radiocarbon dates place the site before 37,000 14C yr ago, while the large average size of the black-backed jackals and the presence of extralimital ungulates imply cool, moist conditions, probably during the early part of the last glaciation (isotope stage 4 or stage 3 before 37,000 14C yr ago) or perhaps during one of the cooler phases (isotope substages 5d or 5b) within the last interglaciation. Comparisons of the BOG1 seal bones to those from regional Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archeological sites suggest (1) that hyena and human seal accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for vertebrae to be much more common in a hyena accumulation and (2) that hyena and LSA accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for hyena-accumulated seals to represent a much wider range of individual seal ages. Differences in the way hyenas and people dismember, transport, and consume seal carcasses probably explain the contrast in skeletal part representation, while differences in season of occupation explain the contrast in seal age representation. Like modern brown hyenas, the BOG1 hyenas probably occupied the coast year-round, while the LSA people focused their coastal visits on the August-October interval when nine-to-eleven-month-old seals were abundant. The MSA sample from Klasies River Mouth Cave 1 resembles BOG1 in seal age composition, suggesting that unlike LSA people, MSA people obtained seals more or less throughout the year.

  2. Heavy metals in the irrigation water, soils and vegetables in the Philippi horticultural area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malan, M; Müller, F; Cyster, L; Raitt, L; Aalbers, J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the extent of heavy metal contamination in the Philippi horticultural area in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in the irrigation water, soils and vegetables in both winter and summer cropping seasons with an ICP-AES and tested against certified standards. Differences were found in heavy metal concentrations between the winter and summer cropping seasons in the irrigation water, soils and vegetables. Certain heavy metals exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations in the irrigation water, soils and vegetables produced in South Africa. These toxic concentrations were predominantly found in the summer cropping season for the soils and in the crops produced in winter. It is thus suggested that further studies are carried out in the Philippi horticultural area to determine the sources of the heavy metals to try and mitigate the inputs thereof and therefore reduce the amount of heavy metals entering the human food chain.

  3. Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cegielski, J. Peter; van der Walt, Martie L.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed data for a retrospective cohort of patients treated for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in 2 provinces in South Africa and compared predictors of treatment outcome in HIV-positive patients who received or had not received antiretroviral drugs with those for HIV-negative patients. Overall, 220 (62.0%) of 355 patients were HIV positive. After 2 years, 34 (10.3%) of 330 patients with a known HIV status and known outcome had a favorable outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that predictors of favorable outcome were negative results for acid-fast bacilli by sputum microscopy at start of treatment and weight >50 kg. HIV-positive patients were more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. The strongest predictor of unfavorable outcome was weight <50 kg. Overall outcomes were poor. HIV status was not a predictor of favorable outcome, but HIV-positive patients were more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. These results underscore the need for timely and adequate treatment for tuberculosis and HIV infection. PMID:27538119

  4. Pyrosequencing analysis of roof-harvested rainwater and river water used for domestic purposes in Luthengele village in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2015-02-01

    Pyrosequencing targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable of the 16S rDNA was used to investigate the bacterial diversity in river and roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) used for potable purposes by rural households in Luthengele village in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The phylum Proteobacteria dominated the data set (80.5 % of all reads), while 4.2 % of the reads could not be classified to any of the known phyla at a probability of 0.8 or higher (unclassified bacteria). At class level, the classes; Betaproteobacteria (50.4 % of all reads), Alphaproteobacteria (16.2 %), Verrucomicrobiae (6.6 %), Planctomycetacia (5.7 %), and Sphingobacteria (3 %) dominated the data set in all the samples. Although the class Verrucomicrobiae constituted 6.6 % of all sequences, 88.6 % of the sequences were from the river sample where the class represented 43.7 % of the observed sequences in the sample. The bacteria community structure clearly showed significant similarities between RHRW and differences with the river water control sample, suggesting different levels of contamination and environmental factors affecting the various water sources. Moreover, signatures of potential pathogens including Legionella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Clostridia, Chromobacterium, Yersinia, and Serratia were detected, and the proportions of Legionella were relatively higher suggesting a potential health risk to households using RHRW. This work provides guidance for prioritizing subsequent culturable and quantitative analysis to ensure that potentially significant pathogens are not left out of risk estimations. PMID:25637385

  5. Tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers and the effect of ticks on cattle in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moyo, B; Masika, P J

    2009-04-01

    A survey to document tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers in the control of cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa was conducted by interviewing 59 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires and general conversation. Information collected was on external parasites of cattle, their effects and their control methods. Ticks were reported to be a major problem causing diseases like anaplasmosis (89.8%), babesiosis (55.9%) and ehrlichiosis (16.9%), as well as wounds that predispose to screwworm infestation, tick worry and teat damage to cows troubling farmers in their farming enterprises. The main tick control methods were; acaricides provided by government, however 94.9% of the farmers interviewed were of the opinion that the dip wash is not effective in killing the ticks. As a result, farmers complement the government dipping service with their own initiatives like spraying with conventional acaricides (22%), household disinfectants such as Jeyes fluid (18.6%), used engine oil (10.2%), chickens (5.1%), manual removal (5.1%), and pouricides (1.7%). In addition, some farmers also use plants (6.8%), mainly the leaf of Aloe ferox and the bark of Ptaeroxylon obliquum. The study revealed ticks to be a major problem in the study area.

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Felicia muricata thunb. An underutilized medicinal plant in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ashafa, A O T; Grierson, D S; Afolayan, A J

    2010-01-01

    Felicia muricata is a medicinal plant used for the management of different human and livestock diseases in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The antioxidant potential of the leaves from this herb was investigated using its water, methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts. All the extracts were rich in phenols, proanthocyanidins and flavonols but low in flavonoids. The water extract exhibited low DPPH scavenging activity while the methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher activities. Again all the extracts showed high ABTS scavenging activity with a correlation between total phenolic content (R2 = 0.9965), DPPH (R2 = 0.982) and ABTS (R2 = 0.927). Traditionally, however, plant extracts are prepared with water as infusions, decoction and poultice. Our results have shown that both the water and ethanol extracts from Felicia muricata displayed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, it would seem likely that both solvents were able to extract those compounds which are responsible for the antioxidant activity of F. muricata. PMID:21731160

  7. Tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers and the effect of ticks on cattle in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moyo, B; Masika, P J

    2009-04-01

    A survey to document tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers in the control of cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa was conducted by interviewing 59 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires and general conversation. Information collected was on external parasites of cattle, their effects and their control methods. Ticks were reported to be a major problem causing diseases like anaplasmosis (89.8%), babesiosis (55.9%) and ehrlichiosis (16.9%), as well as wounds that predispose to screwworm infestation, tick worry and teat damage to cows troubling farmers in their farming enterprises. The main tick control methods were; acaricides provided by government, however 94.9% of the farmers interviewed were of the opinion that the dip wash is not effective in killing the ticks. As a result, farmers complement the government dipping service with their own initiatives like spraying with conventional acaricides (22%), household disinfectants such as Jeyes fluid (18.6%), used engine oil (10.2%), chickens (5.1%), manual removal (5.1%), and pouricides (1.7%). In addition, some farmers also use plants (6.8%), mainly the leaf of Aloe ferox and the bark of Ptaeroxylon obliquum. The study revealed ticks to be a major problem in the study area. PMID:18704741

  8. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54) and diabetes with retinopathy (44). Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03), P = 0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy. PMID:27433285

  9. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    PubMed

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans.

  10. A Survey of Music Education in the Primary Schools of South Africa's Cape Peninsula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Anri; Wet, Jacques de; Rijsdijk, Susan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the state of music education in government primary schools in the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape Province, South Africa) as perceived by the general class teacher. Since the first democratic elections in South Africa (1994), the entire primary and secondary school education system has changed drastically in terms of content, and…

  11. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  12. Two new water beetles from the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2016-07-13

    Pterosthetops nitidus sp. nov. and Oomtelecopon namaqum sp. nov. are described from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa respectively. Diagnostic notes are provided for each species, together with details of occupied microhabitats.

  13. Two new water beetles from the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Pterosthetops nitidus sp. nov. and Oomtelecopon namaqum sp. nov. are described from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa respectively. Diagnostic notes are provided for each species, together with details of occupied microhabitats. PMID:27470748

  14. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  15. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-08-31

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  16. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities. PMID:27609458

  17. Studies on the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-06-01

    The Buffalo River and its dams are major surface water sources used for fresh produce irrigation, raw water abstraction and recreation in parts of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Over a 12-month period (August 2010 to July 2011), we assessed the bacteriological qualities of water from the river and 3 source water dams along its course. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC) and enterococci (ENT) counts, were high and ranged as follows: 1.9 × 10(2)-3.8 × 10(7), 0-3.0 × 10(5) and 0-5.3 × 10(5) cfu/100 ml for TC, FC and ENT, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher concentrations of FC and ENT were observed at the sampling sites located at the lower reaches of the river compared to the upper reaches, and at Bridle Drift Dam compared to the other two dams. FIB counts mostly exceeded the recommended maximum values suggested by national and international guidelines for safe fresh produce irrigation, domestic applications, full-contact recreation and livestock watering. These results show that the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and dams were poor, and suggest that sewage was dumped into the Buffalo River during the study period. Urban runoffs and effluents of wastewater treatment plants appear to be important sources of faecal contamination in the river. We conclude that these water bodies represent significant public health hazards. Provision of adequate sanitary infrastructure will help prevent source water contamination, and public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is imperative.

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Gaqavu, Sisipho; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP) in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus posing a health hazard

  19. Diffuse Pleural Mesothelioma and Asbestos Exposure in the North Western Cape Province

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J. C.; Sleggs, C. A.; Marchand, Paul

    1960-01-01

    Primary malignant tumours of the pleura are uncommon. Thirty-three cases (22 males, 11 females, ages 31 to 68) of diffuse pleural mesothelioma are described; all but one have a probable exposure to crocidolite asbestos (Cape blue). In a majority this exposure was in the Asbestos Hills which lie to the west of Kimberley in the north west of Cape Province. The tumour is rarely seen elsewhere in South Africa. Images PMID:13782506

  20. 75 FR 34479 - Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory... Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on July...

  1. 75 FR 5622 - Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission AGENCY.... App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on March 22, 2010 at 1...

  2. 75 FR 48990 - Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission AGENCY.... App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on September 13, 2010, at 1...

  3. 75 FR 63854 - Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

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    2010-10-18

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory... Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on...

  4. 76 FR 44606 - Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

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    2011-07-26

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory.... 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on September...

  5. 76 FR 66082 - Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

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    2011-10-25

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory... Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on...

  6. 77 FR 9699 - Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA

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    2012-02-17

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South... Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on March...

  7. 75 FR 20380 - Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, Massachusetts; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, Massachusetts; Cape Cod National... (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission...

  8. 75 FR 77900 - Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory... Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on...

  9. 76 FR 81965 - Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South... Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on...

  10. 76 FR 8768 - Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... National Park Service Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory... Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, Section 10) of a meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission will be held on March...

  11. The Teaching of English as a Second Language in Primary Schools in the Cape Province.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMagh, P.

    This paper reports on results of a questionnaire survey of 84 schools representing 25,928 Afrikaans-speaking pupils in the Cape Province of South Africa. The survey revealed that only 13 of the teachers were English-speaking; the rest were Afrikaans-speaking. Most of the children never hear English out of school, or hear it under conditions…

  12. Magnetic and Electromagnetic Signatures around Polile Tshisa Hot Spring in the Northern Neotectonic Belt in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madi, Kakaba; Nyabeze, Peter K.; Gwavava, Oswald; Sekiba, Matome; Zhao, Baojin

    2016-08-01

    Finding productive boreholes in the Karoo fractured aquifers has never been an easy task. Fractured Karoo aquifers in the neotectonic zones in the Eastern Cape Province can be targeted for groundwater exploration. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is located in a seismo-tectonic region beset by neotectonics. Hot springs are indicative of circulation of groundwater at great depths along fault zones, and accordingly of neotectonics. The characterisation of hot springs by means of magnetic and electromagnetic methods can help infer the occurrence of structures which are favourable for groundwater potential. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is characterised by faults, fractures, and dolerite dykes. All these structures make the hot spring a good case study for groundwater exploration.

  13. Teacher Unionism and School Management: A Study of (Eastern Cape) Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msila, Vuyisile

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was conducted in 10 urban schools, situated in the city of Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The research explored the perceptions of school stakeholders with regard to the effects of power relations between teacher unions and school managers. It is assumed, within the context of this…

  14. Disempowerment and Psychological Distress in the Lives of Young People in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nduna, Mzikazi; Jewkes, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted in Butterworth, in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, to explore sources of distress for young people. Semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 men and 24 women aged 16-22 years. The findings revealed interconnections between structural factors such as death, poverty,…

  15. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo

    2015-02-01

    Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a

  16. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently

  17. The cape triage score: a new triage system South Africa. Proposal from the cape triage group

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, S B; Wood, D; DeVries, S; Wallis, L A; Bruijns, S

    2006-01-01

    The Cape Triage Group (CTG) convened with the intention of producing a triage system for the Western Cape, and eventually South Africa. The group includes in-hospital and prehospital staff from varied backgrounds. The CTG triage protocol is termed the Cape Triage Score (CTG), and has been developed by a multi-disciplinary panel, through best available evidence and expert opinion. The CTS has been validated in several studies, and was launched across the Western Cape on 1 January 2006. The CTG would value feedback from readers of this journal, as part of the ongoing monitoring and evaluation process. PMID:16439753

  18. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  19. Farmyard manures: the major agronomic sources of heavy metals in the Philippi Horticultural Area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malan, Marÿke; Müller, Francuois; Raitt, Lincoln; Aalbers, Johannes; Cyster, Lilburne; Brendonck, Luc

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal toxicity in agro-ecosystems is a global problem. Recently, it has been indicated that the soils used for agriculture and the fresh produce grown on these soils in the Philippi Horticultural Area (PHA) contains heavy metals exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations thereof in South Africa. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils and vegetables produced in the PHA, as well as to determine the major agronomic sources of these metals in this area. Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the soils exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 6.6, 6.6, and 46 mg/kg, respectively. Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the vegetables also exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. The biggest agronomic contributors of these heavy metals to the soils in the PHA were found to be the farmyard manures. Knowing what the major sources of these heavy metals are, it is important to determine ways to mitigate the inputs thereof, as well as to remove existing concentrations from the soils without contaminating the groundwater resources in the area.

  20. Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance

    PubMed Central

    Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.O.; Obi, Larry C.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes. PMID:20623030

  1. Farmyard manures: the major agronomic sources of heavy metals in the Philippi Horticultural Area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malan, Marÿke; Müller, Francuois; Raitt, Lincoln; Aalbers, Johannes; Cyster, Lilburne; Brendonck, Luc

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal toxicity in agro-ecosystems is a global problem. Recently, it has been indicated that the soils used for agriculture and the fresh produce grown on these soils in the Philippi Horticultural Area (PHA) contains heavy metals exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations thereof in South Africa. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils and vegetables produced in the PHA, as well as to determine the major agronomic sources of these metals in this area. Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the soils exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 6.6, 6.6, and 46 mg/kg, respectively. Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the vegetables also exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. The biggest agronomic contributors of these heavy metals to the soils in the PHA were found to be the farmyard manures. Knowing what the major sources of these heavy metals are, it is important to determine ways to mitigate the inputs thereof, as well as to remove existing concentrations from the soils without contaminating the groundwater resources in the area. PMID:26508018

  2. Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Odjadjare, Collins E.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections. PMID:23066386

  3. Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape Province, South Africa): the 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons.

    PubMed

    Marean, C W; Goldberg, P; Avery, G; Grine, F E; Klein, R G

    2000-01-01

    Die Kelders Cave 1, first excavated under the direction of Franz Schweitzer in 1969-1973, was re-excavated between 1992 and 1995 by a combined team from the South African Museum, SUNY at Stony Brook, and Stanford University. These renewed excavations enlarged the artefactual and faunal samples from the inadequately sampled and less intensively excavated lower Middle Stone Age (MSA) layers, increased our understanding of the complex site formation processes within the cave, enlarged the hominid sample from the MSA deposits, and generated ESR, TL, and OSL dates for the MSA layers. Importantly, these new excavations dramatically improved our comprehension of the vertical and lateral characteristics of the MSA stratigraphy. Surface plotting of the MSA layers has led to the identification of at least two major zones of subsidence that significantly warped the layers, draping some along the eroding surface contours of major blocks of fallen limestone roof rock. A third zone of subsidence is probably present in the older excavations. Dramatic roof falls of very large limestone blocks occurred at least twice-once in the middle of Layer 4/5 where the roof blocks were only slightly weathered after collapse, and at the top of Layer 6 where the blocks weathered heavily after collapse, producing a zone of decomposed rock around the blocks. Many of the sandy strata are cut by small and localized faults and slippages. All of the strata documented by Schweitzer's excavations are present throughout the exposed area to the west of his excavated area, where many of them thicken and become more complex. Layer 6, the thickest MSA layer, becomes less diagenetically altered and compressed to the west.

  4. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots.

  5. Cape Town, South Africa, Anaglyph, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear on the left (west) of this anaglyph view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located between Table Bay (upper left) and Table Mountain (just to the south), a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark.

    Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there (visible in this anaglyph when viewed at full resolution). Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen well inland (upper right) at the Theewaterskloof Dam.

    False Bay is the large bay to the southeast (lower right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (lower right) of this scene.

    This anaglyph was created by draping a Landsat visible light image over an SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard

  6. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Gossage, J. Phillip; Snell, Cudore L.; Parry, Charles D. H.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Barnard, Ronel; de Vries, Marlene; Blankenship, Jason; Seedat, Soraya; Hasken, Julie M.; May, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591) describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033); farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004). Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086); farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001). The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use. PMID:25050650

  7. E-Powering the People: South Africa's Smart Cape Access Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This document examines the launch of the Smart Cape Access Project in Cape Town, South Africa. In a city where more than 80 percent of the citizens do not have access to computers and fewer still can access the Internet, public officials set out to build a "smart city," where "informed people could connect to the world and to each other by the…

  8. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     ... and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence among Adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2013-01-01

    GOAL To describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. METHOD Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in 9 public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. RESULTS The majority of students (78.5%) had had a partner in the past three months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10% of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39% of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI =.966; RMSEA=.051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p<.001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p<.001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z=3.16; p<.001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls. PMID:23743796

  10. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  11. HIV testing of construction workers in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter; Cattell, Keith

    2015-01-01

    With an infection rate estimated at 14%, the South African construction industry is one of the economic sectors most adversely affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Construction workers are considered a high-risk group. The provision and uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is critical to reducing transmission rates. This study examined the testing behaviour of site-based construction workers in terms of demographic and lifestyle risk behaviour characteristics to help inform better strategies for work-based interventions by construction firms. A total of 512 workers drawn from six firms operating on 18 construction sites in the Western Cape province participated in the study. Twenty-seven per cent of the participants reported never having been tested for HIV. Results indicate that females (aOR = 4.45, 95% CI, 1.25-15.82), older workers (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI, 1.08-1.81), permanent workers (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI, 1.11-2.50) and workers whom had previously used a condom (aOR = 1.93, 95% CI, 1.02-3.65) were significantly more likely to have been tested. Ethnicity was not significantly related to prior testing. Identification of these subgroups within the industry has implications for the development of targeted work-based intervention programmes to promote greater HIV testing among construction workers in South Africa.

  12. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment. PMID:25941448

  13. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  14. Barriers to accessing and receiving mental health care in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Isabell; Johansson, Peter; Andersson, Lena; van Rooyen, Dalena

    2013-01-01

    The right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health is enshrined in many international human rights treaties. However, studies have shown that people with mental disabilities are often marginalized and discriminated against in the fulfillment of their right to health. The aim of this study is to identify and reach a broader understanding of barriers to the right to mental health in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with health professionals and administrators. The researchers used the Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Quality (AAAQ) framework from the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to structure and analyze the material. The framework recognizes these four interrelated and partly overlapping elements as necessary for implementation of the right to health. The study identifies eleven barriers to the enjoyment of the right to health for people with mental disabilities. Three categories of barriers relate to availability: lack of staff, lack of facilities, and lack of community services and preventive care. Four barriers relate to accessibility: lack of transport, lack of information, stigmatization, and traditional cultural beliefs of the community. Two barriers relate to acceptability: lack of cross-cultural understanding among staff and traditional cultural beliefs of staff. Finally, two barriers relate to quality: lack of properly trained staff and lack of organizational capacity. The results, in line with earlier research, indicate that the implementation of the right to health for people with mental disabilities is far from achieved in South Africa. The findings contribute to monitoring the right to mental health in South Africa through the identification of barriers to the right to health and by indicating the importance of building monitoring procedures based on the experiences and knowledge of staff involved in mental health

  15. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  16. Kalkkop crater, Eastern Cape: A new impact crater in South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimold, W. U.; Leroux, F. G.; Koeberl, C.; Shirey, S. B.

    1993-01-01

    Reimold et al. suggested that the 640 m diameter Kalkkop crater, at 32 deg 43 min S/24 deg 34 min E in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa), could possibly be of impact origin. This idea was based on the circularity of this structure, its regional uniqueness, lack of recent igneous activity in the region, and descriptions of drillcore indicating that the crater is not underlain by a salt dome and is partially filled with a breccia layer of a thickness which would agree with the dimensions expected for an impact structure of this size. Unfortunately the old drillcore was no longer available for detailed study, and in the absence of sufficient surface exposure only drilling could provide the evidence needed to solve the problem of the origin of Kalkkop. For this reason and to study the crater fill from a paleoenvironmental point of view, the S. African Geological Survey decided to sponsor a new research drilling project at the Kalkkop site. First petrographic and isotopic results from Kalkkop drill core studies confirming, without doubt, that this crater is of impact origin are presented.

  17. The Effects of Community Violence on Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to community violence (neighborhood, school, police, and gang violence) and psychological distress in a sample of children living in the Cape Town, South Africa area. Another objective was to identify variables that moderate and mediate the…

  18. University Multilingualism: A Critical Narrative from the University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antia, Bassey E.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a narrative of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa, from the prism of the duality of language as a co-modality (with people, protest, policy and practices) for constituting the institution in whole or in part and as a reflection of its co-modalities. For its framing, the narrative eclectically draws on language…

  19. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  20. Phylogeography of the Cape velvet worm (Onychophora: Peripatopsis capensis) reveals the impact of Pliocene/Pleistocene climatic oscillations on Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McDonald, D E; Daniels, S R

    2012-05-01

    Habitat specialists such as soft-bodied invertebrates characterized by low dispersal capability and sensitivity to dehydration can be employed to examine biome histories. In this study, the Cape velvet worm (Peripatopsis capensis) was used to examine the impacts of climatic oscillations on historical Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa. Divergence time estimates suggest that the P. capensis species complex diverged during the Pliocene epoch. This period was characterized by dramatic climatic and topographical change. Subsequently, forest expansion and contraction cycles led to diversification within P. capensis. Increased levels of genetic differentiation were observed along a west-to-south-easterly trajectory because the south-eastern parts of the Cape Fold Mountain chain harbour larger, more stable fragments of forest patches, have more pronounced habitat heterogeneity and have historically received higher levels of rainfall. These results suggest the presence of three putative species within P. capensis, which are geographically discreet and genetically distinct. PMID:22409213

  1. Phylogeography of the Cape velvet worm (Onychophora: Peripatopsis capensis) reveals the impact of Pliocene/Pleistocene climatic oscillations on Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McDonald, D E; Daniels, S R

    2012-05-01

    Habitat specialists such as soft-bodied invertebrates characterized by low dispersal capability and sensitivity to dehydration can be employed to examine biome histories. In this study, the Cape velvet worm (Peripatopsis capensis) was used to examine the impacts of climatic oscillations on historical Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa. Divergence time estimates suggest that the P. capensis species complex diverged during the Pliocene epoch. This period was characterized by dramatic climatic and topographical change. Subsequently, forest expansion and contraction cycles led to diversification within P. capensis. Increased levels of genetic differentiation were observed along a west-to-south-easterly trajectory because the south-eastern parts of the Cape Fold Mountain chain harbour larger, more stable fragments of forest patches, have more pronounced habitat heterogeneity and have historically received higher levels of rainfall. These results suggest the presence of three putative species within P. capensis, which are geographically discreet and genetically distinct.

  2. Food partitioning by coastal predatory teleosts in south-eastern Cape waters of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, M. J.

    1987-02-01

    The results of complementary classification and multi-dimensional scaling analyses performed on the diets of eleven coastal predatory teleosts in the south-eastern Cape, South Africa, show that there is considerable overlap in prey use by most of the fishes. The predators belong to six families: Sparidae, Serranidae, Pomatomidae, Carangidae, Scombridae and Sciaenidae. Ontogenetic differences in prey taken are often as great as those between species. Although predators may be grouped according to habitat (pelagic, reef, soft substrates), the analyses indicate that groupings are not rigid. Not only does habitat vary during the life histories of the predators, but prey availability appears to have a pronounced influence on food choice. The mobility of both predators and prey between contiguous habitats allows interaction between species which are typical of a particular habitat. The highest degree of specialization to a habitat is seen in the tunas which feed almost exclusively on pelagic prey. Several predators share the relatively low number of prey species available and this explains the high degree of similarity between many of them.

  3. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time. PMID:24001677

  4. The Influence of Older Classmates on Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David; Marteleto, Letícia; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of exposure to older peers on sexual debut in urban South Africa. The study analyzes data from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), a longitudinal survey of young adults in metropolitan Cape Town. The combination of early sexual debut, high rates of school enrollment into the late teens, and high rates of grade repetition create an environment in which young people who progress through school ahead of their cohorts interact with classmates who may be several years older. We construct a measure of cumulative exposure to classmates at least two years older, and show that this measure has a statistically significant positive effect on sexual debut of adolescent girls. It also increases the age difference of the first sexual partner for those girls, and helps explain a significant fraction of the earlier sexual debut of African girls compared to coloured and white girls in Cape Town. PMID:23720000

  5. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  6. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  7. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  8. The pigments from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Watts, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Earth pigments from the three excavations at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa), spanning the terminal middle Pleistocene and earlier late Pleistocene, are described and analyzed. Qualitative geological categorization primarily rested on textural, fabric, and iron enrichment attributes. Comprehensive recovery allowed identification of non-anthropic pigmentaceous materials, questionable pigments, and 380 pigments (1.08 kg). Less chemically altered pigments were typically fine-grained sedimentary (FGS) rocks, tending to be soft, highly micaceous, prone to laminar fragmentation, and with reddish-brown streaks of intermediate nuance. More iron-enriched forms tended to be harder, denser, poorly micaceous, and with redder streaks of more saturated nuance. Some still qualified as FGS forms, but a large number were categorized as sandstone or iron oxide. Despite some temporal change in raw material profiles, circumstantial evidence suggests primarily local procurement from one outcrop throughout the sequence. Definitely utilized pieces (12.7%) were overwhelmingly ground. Unusual forms of modification include several notched pieces and a deliberately scraped 'chevron.' Controlling for fragmentation, streak properties of utilized versus unutilized pieces were used to investigate selective criteria. There was robust evidence for preferential grinding of the reddest materials, strongly suggestive evidence for saturation and darkness being subordinate selective criteria, and some indication of more intensive grinding of materials with the reddest, most saturated, and darkest streaks, and for some deliberate heating of pigments. These findings challenge the initial stages of color lexicalization predicted by the various versions of the basic color term (BCT) hypothesis, they provide grounds for rejecting hafting as a general explanatory hypothesis, and they cannot be accounted for by incidental heating. The results are more consistent with agreed upon

  9. The pigments from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Watts, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Earth pigments from the three excavations at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa), spanning the terminal middle Pleistocene and earlier late Pleistocene, are described and analyzed. Qualitative geological categorization primarily rested on textural, fabric, and iron enrichment attributes. Comprehensive recovery allowed identification of non-anthropic pigmentaceous materials, questionable pigments, and 380 pigments (1.08 kg). Less chemically altered pigments were typically fine-grained sedimentary (FGS) rocks, tending to be soft, highly micaceous, prone to laminar fragmentation, and with reddish-brown streaks of intermediate nuance. More iron-enriched forms tended to be harder, denser, poorly micaceous, and with redder streaks of more saturated nuance. Some still qualified as FGS forms, but a large number were categorized as sandstone or iron oxide. Despite some temporal change in raw material profiles, circumstantial evidence suggests primarily local procurement from one outcrop throughout the sequence. Definitely utilized pieces (12.7%) were overwhelmingly ground. Unusual forms of modification include several notched pieces and a deliberately scraped 'chevron.' Controlling for fragmentation, streak properties of utilized versus unutilized pieces were used to investigate selective criteria. There was robust evidence for preferential grinding of the reddest materials, strongly suggestive evidence for saturation and darkness being subordinate selective criteria, and some indication of more intensive grinding of materials with the reddest, most saturated, and darkest streaks, and for some deliberate heating of pigments. These findings challenge the initial stages of color lexicalization predicted by the various versions of the basic color term (BCT) hypothesis, they provide grounds for rejecting hafting as a general explanatory hypothesis, and they cannot be accounted for by incidental heating. The results are more consistent with agreed upon

  10. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  11. Indicators of substance abuse treatment demand in Cape Town, South Africa (1997-2001).

    PubMed

    Myers, B; Parry, C D H; Plüddemann, M A

    2004-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the demand for substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This article uses data collected from specialist substance abuse treatment centres to describe substance abuse treatment demand and patterns of service utilisation in Cape Town for the period January 1997 to December 2001. Findings suggest that although treatment demand for alcohol-related problems remains high, treatment demand for substances other than alcohol has increased over time. Patterns of treatment service utilisation suggest that women and black South Africans remain underserved. The need for comprehensive and accessible substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town is highlighted and recommendations are made for improving access to treatment services, and undertaking comprehensive evaluations of existing treatment facilities.

  12. Cape Town, South Africa, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear in the foreground of this perspective view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located at Table Bay (at the lower left), adjacent to Table Mountain, a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark.

    Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there. Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen here far inland (mid-distance left) at the Theewaterskloof Dam.

    False Bay is the large bay to the south (right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (upper right) of this scene.

    This Landsat and SRTM perspective view uses a 2-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The back edges of the data sets form a false horizon and a false sky was added. Colors of the scene were enhanced by image processing but are the natural color band combination from the Landsat satellite.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  13. Substance Use and Psychosocial Predictors of High School Dropout in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flisher, Alan J.; Townsend, Loraine; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Lombard, Carl F.; King, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs predicts dropout among secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa. A self-report instrument was administered to 1,470 Grade 8 students. The proportion of students that dropped out of school between the onset of the study and 4 years later was 54.9%.…

  14. Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background South Africa’s antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the country’s quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented. Methods The paper is a comparative case study of the early management of ART scale up in three South African provincial governments – Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State – focusing on both operational and strategic dimensions. Drawing on surveys of models of ART care and analyses of the policy process conducted in the three provinces between 2005 and 2007, as well as a considerable body of grey and indexed literature on ART scale up in South Africa, it draws links between implementation processes and variations in provincial ART coverage (low, medium and high) achieved in the three provinces. Results While they adopted similar chronic disease care approaches, the provinces differed with respect to political and managerial leadership of the programme, programme design, the balance between central standardisation and local flexibility, the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation systems, and the nature and extent of external support and programme partnerships. Conclusions This case study points to the importance of sub-national programme processes and the influence of factors other than financing or human resource capacity, in understanding intervention scale up. PMID:20594370

  15. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa1

    PubMed Central

    Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children. PMID:26052156

  16. Attitudes toward couples-based HIV counseling and testing among MSM in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Sullivan, Patrick; McAdams-Mahmoud, Ayesha; Jobson, Geoff; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

    2012-01-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) allows couples to receive their HIV test results together and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing HIV transmission, increasing and sustaining condom use, and reducing sexual risk-taking among at-risk heterosexual couples. However, the acceptability of CVCT among MSM has yet to be evaluated in an African setting. The results from seven focus group discussions and twenty-nine in-depth interviews conducted in Cape Town, South Africa exhibit overwhelmingly high acceptance of CVCT. Participants were attracted to the counseling components of the service, stating that these would allow for the couple to increase their commitment and to explore methods of how to effectively reduce their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV in the presence of a trained counselor. These results suggest CVCT would be highly welcomed and could work to fill the significant lack of services available and accessible to MSM couples in Cape Town. PMID:22961498

  17. Attitudes toward couples-based HIV counseling and testing among MSM in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Sullivan, Patrick; McAdams-Mahmoud, Ayesha; Jobson, Geoff; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

    2013-05-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) allows couples to receive their HIV test results together and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing HIV transmission, increasing and sustaining condom use, and reducing sexual risk-taking among at-risk heterosexual couples. However, the acceptability of CVCT among MSM has yet to be evaluated in an African setting. The results from seven focus group discussions and 29 in-depth interviews conducted in Cape Town, South Africa exhibit overwhelmingly high acceptance of CVCT. Participants were attracted to the counseling components of the service, stating that these would allow for the couple to increase their commitment and to explore methods of how to effectively reduce their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV in the presence of a trained counselor. These results suggest CVCT would be highly welcomed and could work to fill the significant lack of services available and accessible to MSM couples in Cape Town.

  18. Stress, Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Primary Care Patients in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Ward, Catherine L.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bresick, Graham F.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between stress, substance use and sexual risk behaviors in a primary care population in Cape Town, South Africa. A random sample of participants (and over-sampled 18–24 year olds) from 14 of the 49 clinics in Cape Town's public health sector using stratified random sampling (N=2,618), was selected. We evaluated current hazardous drug and alcohol use and three domains of stressors (Personal Threats, Lacking Basic Needs, and Interpersonal Problems). Several personal threat stressors and an interpersonal problem stressor were related to sexual risk behaviors. With stressors included in the model, hazardous alcohol use, but not hazardous drug use, was related to higher rates of sexual risk behaviors. Our findings suggest a positive screening for hazardous alcohol use should alert providers about possible sexual risk behaviors and vice versa. Additionally, it is important to address a broad scope of social problems and incorporate stress and substance use in HIV prevention campaigns. PMID:19205865

  19. Identification and antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains from treated wastewater effluents in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adefisoye, Martins A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem impeding the effective prevention/treatment of an ever-growing array of infections caused by pathogens; a huge challenge threatening the achievements of modern medicine. In this paper, we report the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from discharged final effluents of two wastewater treatment facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Standard disk diffusion method was employed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of 223 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed E. coli isolates against 17 common antibiotics in human therapy and veterinary medicine. Seven virulence associated and fourteen antibiotic resistance genes were also evaluated by molecular methods. Molecular characterization revealed five pathotypes of E. coli in the following proportions: enterotoxigenic ETEC (1.4%), enteropathogenic EPEC (7.6%), enteroaggregative EAEC (7.6%), neonatal meningitis (NMEC) (14.8%), uropathogenic (41.7%), and others (26.9%). Isolates showed varying (1.7-70.6%) degrees of resistance to 15 of the test antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was exhibited by 32.7% of the isolates, with the commonest multiple antibiotic-resistant phenotype (MARP) being AP-T-CFX (12 isolates), while multiple antibiotic-resistant indices (MARI) estimated are 0.23 (Site 1) and 0.24 (Site 2). Associated antibiotic resistance genes detected in the isolates include: strA (88.2%), aadA (52.9%), cat I (15%), cmlA1 (4.6%), blaTEM (56.4%), tetA (30.4%), tetB (28.4%), tetC (42.2%), tetD (50%), tetK (11.8%), and tetM (68.6%). We conclude that municipal wastewater effluents are important reservoirs for the dissemination of potentially pathogenic E. coli (and possibly other pathogens) and antibiotic resistance genes in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape and a risk to public health.

  20. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  1. Predictors of Alcohol Use Prior to Pregnancy Recognition among Township Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Tomlinson, Mark; LeRoux, Ingrid M.; Stewart, Jacqueline; Greco, Erin; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    South Africa has the highest prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in the world. The purpose of this study was to identify high risk factors associated with drinking alcohol prior to pregnancy recognition in 24 neighborhoods in the Cape Flats outside Cape Town, South Africa. An interviewer assessed risk among 619 pregnant Black/African women between the ages of 18 and 41 years. Logistic regression analyses explored factors associated with drinking alcohol post conception but prior to pregnancy recognition. Forced multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that drinking prior to pregnancy recognition was associated with being younger, single, having better living conditions, smoking, having a longer gestation prior to pregnancy recognition, having a greater number of sexual partners, and a higher incidence of intimate partner violence. Depressive symptoms tended to be higher among alcohol users. These risk factors were consistent with other research on the characteristics of South African women having children with a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and/or of non pregnant women at high risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy. These findings highlight the need for women of child-bearing age to be routinely screened for alcohol use and its associated risk factors. Intervention efforts could be integrated into health initiatives already present in South Africa including the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malnutrition. Preconception care is particularly important since pregnancy recognition often occurs several weeks to months following conception and could be implemented by South African community health workers. These endeavors should facilitate national goals of healthier pregnancies and the elimination of FASDs in South Africa. PMID:21084142

  2. The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hammond-Aryee, Kenneth; Van Helden, Lesley S; Van Helden, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 292 merino sheep farmed in a semi-intensive manner in the Overberg region of the Western Cape, South Africa, was investigated. Antibody seroprevalence was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the total sample, 23 sheep tested positive for T. gondii antibodies (8%; 95% CI: 4.7688-10.9846). There was no statistically significant relationship between seroprevalence and age of the sheep. The highest seroprevalence was found in sheep between 28 and 40 months old; a total of 19 sheep were seropositive by 40 months. No seropositive sheep were found in the age group between 16 and 28 months. The seroprevalence reported in this study is higher than what has previously been reported for the Western Cape (6%) and across South Africa on average (4.7%). As sheep farming is economically significant in South Africa, the presence of T. gondii amongst sheep may pose a production threat to the small-stock industry as well as to public health and food security. We therefore recommend further surveillance to identify high-risk animal populations so that local control measures can be put in place. PMID:26842365

  3. Mid-Pleistocene Hominin occupation at Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, David R.; Levin, Naomi E.; Stynder, Deano; Herries, Andy I. R.; Archer, Will; Forrest, Frances; Roberts, David L.; Bishop, Laura C.; Matthews, Thalassa; Lehmann, Sophie B.; Pickering, Robyn; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.

    2013-12-01

    The current understanding of landscape scale variation in mid-Pleistocene hominin behavior is limited. Most of our understanding derives from a few localities in eastern Africa. Consequently, we know very little about hominin landscape use outside this region, despite the fact that mid-Pleistocene hominins occupied other climatic zones including temperate, and mid-latitude ecosystems. The winter rainfall zone in South Africa represents one of the world's most diverse ecosystems. Although mammal diversity is relatively low in these habitats this is compensated by the tremendous floral diversity. Buried Pleistocene land surfaces in the region provide an opportunity to understand how humans adapted to this unique, mid-latitude environment prior to the Last Interglacial. The dunefield locality of Elandsfontein in the Western Cape of South Africa is one of the richest known paleontological and archeological sites in southern Africa. It records details of landscape formation history, enabling detailed reconstruction of the ancient environments in this winter rainfall-dominated region. This dunefield archive allows us to posit the taphonomic history of newly excavated archaeological material and previously collected specimens. Here we provide initial results from the excavation and geological analysis of the Elandsfontein dunefield and provide new insights into the formation history of the archaeological and paleontological deposits. This includes indications of multiple pedogenic intervals and groundwater table fluctuations. The combination of geological, paleontological and archaeological data provides a framework for evaluating how hominins interacted with the unique ecosystems of the Cape Floral Region of South Africa during the mid-Pleistocene.

  4. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

    PubMed

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  5. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

    PubMed

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  6. Causes of plant diversification in the Cape biodiversity hotspot of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Jan; Barraclough, Timothy G; Boatwright, James S; Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C; Powell, Martyn P; Rebelo, Tony; Savolainen, Vincent

    2011-05-01

    The Cape region of South Africa is one of the most remarkable hotspots of biodiversity with a flora comprising more than 9000 plant species, almost 70% of which are endemic, within an area of only ± 90,000 km2. Much of the diversity is due to an exceptionally large contribution of just a few clades that radiated substantially within this region, but little is known about the causes of these radiations. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of plant diversification, using near complete species-level phylogenies of four major Cape clades (more than 470 species): the genus Protea, a tribe of legumes (Podalyrieae) and two speciose genera within the iris family (Babiana and Moraea), representing three of the seven largest plant families in this biodiversity hotspot. Combining these molecular phylogenetic data with ecological and biogeographical information, we tested key hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the radiation of the Cape flora. Our results show that the radiations started throughout the Oligocene and Miocene and that net diversification rates have remained constant through time at globally moderate rates. Furthermore, using sister-species comparisons to assess the impact of different factors on speciation, we identified soil type shifts as the most important cause of speciation in Babiana, Moraea, and Protea, whereas shifts in fire-survival strategy is the most important factor for Podalyrieae. Contrary to previous findings in other groups, such as orchids, pollination syndromes show a high degree of phylogenetic conservatism, including groups with a large number of specialized pollination syndromes like Moraea. We conclude that the combination of complex environmental conditions together with relative climatic stability promoted high speciation and/or low extinction rates as the most likely scenario leading to present-day patterns of hyperdiversity in the Cape.

  7. Applications of ichnology to hydrogeology, with examples from the Cape Fear Formation (Cretaceous), South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A.J. . Geosciences Program); Simones, G.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Ichnology, the study of modern and ancient traces left by organisms, has provided supplemental information to geologic subdisciplines such as sedimentology and stratigraphy. The major objective of the authors paper is to emphasize the valuable information that can be conveyed by trace fossils in the investigation of hydrogeologic units. Bioturbation has a net effect of mixing different types and layers of sediments, such as introducing clays into sands and vice versa. This mixing can decrease porosity and permeability of sandy units, thus changing potential aquifers into confining units. For example, a sandy fluvial deposit will contain distinctive nonmarine trace fossils, thus defining channel sands that may serve as permeable conduits for ground-water flow. In contrast, a sandy shelf deposit will contain marine trace fossils in a sand body geometry that will be markedly different from aquifers produced in nonmarine environments. Bioturbation also causes geochemical and diagenetic changes in sediments, causing irrigation of previously anoxic sediments and precipitation of ion oxides. The Cretaceous Cape Fear Formation of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, in the subsurface of South Carolina, is presented as an example of a hydrogeologic unit that has been reinterpreted using ichnologic data. Extensive bioturbation caused mixing of clays and sands in Cape Fear sediments, which resulted in the Cape Fear becoming a regional confining system. Trace fossil assemblages indicate a brackish water environment, perhaps estuarine, for the Cape Fear, as opposed to previous interpretations of fluvial and deltaic environments. Bioturbated zones also have significantly more oxidized iron than unbioturbated zones, highlighting potential effects on ground-water quality.

  8. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Exploring the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Open Source Software in Western Cape Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kevin; Begg, Shameemah; Tanner, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) presents many benefits to both the private and the public sectors, and has proven to be a viable solution in schools. Although a policy mandating the use of OSS exists in the Western Cape province of South Africa, very few schools in the province have adopted OSS. The education system in South Africa is currently facing…

  10. Facing the Challenges of the 1990s. Organising for Democracy in the Western Cape. Conference Proceedings (Bellville, South Africa, November 17-19, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Liz, Ed.

    This document contains selected papers and findings of a conference that was held at South Africa's University of the Western Cape to discuss strategies to organize for democracy in the Western Cape. Presented in section 1 are the opening remarks of Bulelani Ncguka, Jakes Gerwel, Shirley Walters and the following papers: "South Africa from the…

  11. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  12. Topographic thresholds in gully development on the hillslopes of communal areas in Ngqushwa Local Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, V.; Xanga, W. W.; Rowntree, K.

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between the spatial distribution of gully erosion and topographic thresholds in the form of slope angle, position and configuration, as well as land use change in the form of abandoned lands were examined in several affected catchments of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Land use and permanent gullies were mapped, digitized from orthophoto maps in Arc/info 3.5.2 GIS and converted to shapefiles using ArcView 3.2 GIS. Relationships between the mapped phenomena and topographic variables were sought using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS. A comparison between areas with a high potential for gullying and actual gully erosion was made using the Stream Power Index ( SPI) as a surrogate for critical flow shear stress. Field surveys were also conducted to assess the present condition of the gullied sites as well as to validate DEM derivations. Seventy five percent of the gullied area was noted to lie on abandoned lands. A predominance of gullying in concave bottom lands was also identified. The SPI values highlighted a distinct preferential topographic zone for gully location. A conceptual model depicting the interaction between land use and topographic parameters to induce gully erosion was developed. This should assist local authorities to develop a policy regarding management of abandoned lands.

  13. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  14. Racism and medical science in South Africa's Cape Colony in the mid- to late nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Deacon, H

    2000-01-01

    Racism has been a particular focus of the history of Western medicine in colonial South Africa. Much of the research to date has paradoxically interpreted Western medicine as both a handmaiden of colonialism and as a racist gatekeeper to the benefits of Western medical science. This essay suggests that while these conclusions have some validity, the framework in which they have been devised is problematic. Not only is that framework contradictory in nature, it underplays differences within Western medicine, privileges the history of explicit and intentional racial discrimination in medicine, and encourages a separate analysis of racism in law, in the medical profession, and in medical theory and practice. Using the example of the Cape Colony in South Africa, this paper shows how legislation, class, institutional setting, and popular stereotypes could influence the form, timing, and degree of racism in the medical professional, and in medical theory and practice. It also argues for an analytical distinction between 'racist medicine' and 'medical racism.'

  15. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    PubMed

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N

    2014-11-12

    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  16. Factors affecting treatment outcomes in drug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the Northern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E; Draper, H R; Baitsiwe, P; Claassens, M M

    2014-09-21

    The Northern Cape Province has low cure rates (21%) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We audited the programme to identify factors affecting treatment outcomes. Cases admitted to two drug-resistant TB units from 2007 to 2009 had data extracted from clinical folders. Unfavourable treatment outcomes were found in 58% of the 272 cases. A multivariable regression analysis found that male sex was associated with unfavourable outcome (P = 0.009). Weight at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and oral drug adherence (P < 0.001) were also associated with an unfavourable outcome; however, injectable drug adherence was not (P = 0.395). Positive baseline smear and human immunodeficiency virus positive status were not associated with unfavourable outcome. Shorter, more patient-friendly regimens may go a long way to improving adherence and outcomes.

  17. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Richard M.; Potts, Alastair J.; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa’s Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul–Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species’ availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan–Apr); the early winter (May–Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate “crunch,” 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape

  18. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vynck, Jan C; Cowling, Richard M; Potts, Alastair J; Marean, Curtis W

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa's Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul-Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species' availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan-Apr); the early winter (May-Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate "crunch," 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape will require

  19. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vynck, Jan C; Cowling, Richard M; Potts, Alastair J; Marean, Curtis W

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa's Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul-Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species' availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan-Apr); the early winter (May-Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate "crunch," 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape will require

  20. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Businge, Charles Bitamazire; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mathews, Verona

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol. PMID:26800877

  1. Diversity and Contested Social Identities in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Felix; Peck, Amiena

    2016-01-01

    We draw on Rampton's "Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents" (2014. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge) notion of "crossing" to explore contestations in ethnolinguistic, cultural and racial affiliations at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), a university built for "Coloureds" in apartheid South Africa, but…

  2. From Digital Divide to Digital Equity: Learners' ICT Competence in Four Primary Schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors influencing the digital divide in four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Three of the schools are for disadvantaged learners whereas the fourth was previously for whites only. All the schools use ICT in their curriculum delivery and thereby support the emphasis of provincial educational authorities on ICT access for…

  3. "Learning Service" in International Contexts: Partnership-Based Service-Learning and Research in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Janice; Stanton, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore an approach to developing and implementing service-learning and community-based research in a study-abroad program in Cape Town, South Africa. Drawing on a notion of partnerships reflecting the values of accompaniment and transparency, and influenced by the importance of learning service, we outline an intentional, engaged…

  4. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  5. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  6. Mobile HIV Screening in Cape Town, South Africa: Clinical Impact, Cost and Cost-Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Govindasamy, Darshini; Erlwanger, Alison S.; Hyle, Emily P.; Kranzer, Katharina; van Schaik, Nienke; Noubary, Farzad; Paltiel, A. David; Wood, Robin; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Losina, Elena; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile HIV screening may facilitate early HIV diagnosis. Our objective was to examine the cost-effectiveness of adding a mobile screening unit to current medical facility-based HIV testing in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods and Findings We used the Cost Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications International (CEPAC-I) computer simulation model to evaluate two HIV screening strategies in Cape Town: 1) medical facility-based testing (the current standard of care) and 2) addition of a mobile HIV-testing unit intervention in the same community. Baseline input parameters were derived from a Cape Town-based mobile unit that tested 18,870 individuals over 2 years: prevalence of previously undiagnosed HIV (6.6%), mean CD4 count at diagnosis (males 423/µL, females 516/µL), CD4 count-dependent linkage to care rates (males 31%–58%, females 49%–58%), mobile unit intervention cost (includes acquisition, operation and HIV test costs, $29.30 per negative result and $31.30 per positive result). We conducted extensive sensitivity analyses to evaluate input uncertainty. Model outcomes included site of HIV diagnosis, life expectancy, medical costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the intervention compared to medical facility-based testing. We considered the intervention to be “very cost-effective” when the ICER was less than South Africa's annual per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ($8,200 in 2012). We projected that, with medical facility-based testing, the discounted (undiscounted) HIV-infected population life expectancy was 132.2 (197.7) months; this increased to 140.7 (211.7) months with the addition of the mobile unit. The ICER for the mobile unit was $2,400/year of life saved (YLS). Results were most sensitive to the previously undiagnosed HIV prevalence, linkage to care rates, and frequency of HIV testing at medical facilities. Conclusion The addition of mobile HIV screening to current testing programs can improve survival

  7. Experiences of Violence and Association with Decreased Drug Abstinence Among Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P.; Browne, Felicia A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women’s HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4–0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4–0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women’s drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting. PMID:24934652

  8. Experiences of violence and association with decreased drug abstinence among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women's HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women's drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting.

  9. Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2014-11-26

    Mesoceration hantam sp. nov. and Parhydraena faeni sp. nov., are described from the Hantamsberg plateau, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The new species are so far known only from temporary waters on the Hantamsberg summit, where they were both abundant. Sampling in these mountains also revealed an interesting accompanying water beetle fauna, including the northernmost known record of Hydropeplus montanus Omer-Cooper, a species characteristic of mountain fynbos further south in the region.

  10. Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2014-01-01

    Mesoceration hantam sp. nov. and Parhydraena faeni sp. nov., are described from the Hantamsberg plateau, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The new species are so far known only from temporary waters on the Hantamsberg summit, where they were both abundant. Sampling in these mountains also revealed an interesting accompanying water beetle fauna, including the northernmost known record of Hydropeplus montanus Omer-Cooper, a species characteristic of mountain fynbos further south in the region. PMID:25543944

  11. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Key, Mary E.; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group. PMID:27087804

  12. New species and new records of Pterosthetops: eumadicolous water beetles of the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2014-06-05

    Pterosthetops is one of a number of hydraenid genera endemic to the Cape of South Africa, whose minute moss beetle fauna is amongst the most diverse on earth. Here seven species are described as new: Pterosthetops baini sp. nov., Pterosthetops coriaceus sp. nov., Pterosthetops indwei sp. nov., Ptersothetops pulcherrimus sp. nov., Pterosthetops swartbergensis sp. nov., Pterosthetops tuberculatus sp. nov. and Pterosthetops uitkyki sp. nov., all from mountains in the Western Cape region. New collection records are also provided for all five previously described members of the genus, together with a revised key. Pterosthetops appear to be specialist inhabitants of seepages over rock faces (hygropetric/madicolous habitats), rarely being found outside such situations.

  13. Mercury in the atmosphere and in rainwater at Cape Point, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Walters, Chavon; Mkololo, Thumeka; Martin, Lynwill; Labuschagne, Casper; Silwana, Bongiwe; Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-01-01

    Mercury measurements were concurrently made in air (Gaseous Elemental Mercury, i.e. GEM) as well as in precipitation samples (Total mercury, i.e. TotHg) over a seven year period (2007-2013) at Cape Point, South Africa, during the rainy seasons (May-October). Eighty-five rain events, almost exclusively associated with cold fronts, have been identified of which 75% reached the Cape Point observatory directly across the Atlantic Ocean from the south, while 19% moved in to the measuring site via the Cape Town metropolitan region. In statistic terms the GEM, TotHg, CO and 222Rn levels within the urban-marine events do not differ from those seen in the marine rain episodes. Over the 2007-2013 period, the May till Oct averages for GEM ranged from 0.913 ng m-3 to 1.108 ng m-3, while TotHg concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 52.5 ng L-1 (overall average: 9.91 ng L-1). A positive correlation (R2 = 0.49, n = 7) has been found between the average annual (May till October) GEM concentrations in air and TotHg concentration in rainwater suggesting a close relationship between the two species. The wetter years are normally associated with higher GEM and TotHg levels. Both GEM and TotHg annual means correlate positively with total annual (May till October) rain depths. If one or two outlier years are removed from the data set, the R2 values increase from 0.23 to 0.10 for GEM and TotHg to 0.97 (n = 5) and 0.89 (n = 5), respectively. The relationship between annual mean GEM and annual precipitation depth also holds for the period 1996-2004 (R2 = 0.6, n = 8) when GEM was measured manually (low resolution data). A positive correlation was also seen between annual average GEM concentrations and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Index (SOI), for the 1996-2004 period (R2 = 0.7, n = 8). For the 2007-2013 periods this relationship was also positive but less pronounced. The relationship between annual precipitation depth and annual SOI suggests that the inter-annual variations of GEM

  14. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2015-03-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women.

  15. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hobkirk, Andréa L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Green, Kimberly T.; Beckham, Jean C.; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women. PMID:25479528

  16. New constraints on historical dipole field decay: Four centuries of archaeointensity from Cape Town, South Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, V. J.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current global geomagnetic field models suffer from strong bias towards Northern Hemisphere data. Absolute intensity measurements from the Southern Hemisphere are key to understanding the evolution of the field over the historical era, especially recent strengthening of non-dipole contributions, and the appearance of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). I present the first archaeointensity data for locally-fired historical bricks from several well-dated sites (1660-2009 AD) in Cape Town, South Africa. These data constitute the first archaeomagnetic intensity variation curve for southern Africa for the past few centuries. The ages of the sites are tightly constrained by historical and archaeological considerations. Archaeointensity data obtained by the Thellier and Thellier method (modified by Coe), are corrected for both TRM anisotropy and cooling rate dependence of TRM acquisition. Analysis of magnetic mineralogy was performed to aid selection of fragments. Reliable archaeointensity determinations were obtained for 48 of 80 specimens, and 45 were retained in the final analysis. Intensity results vary from 24.3 ± 0.6 μT (modern brick) to 40.7 ± 0.8 μT (1660 AD), corresponding to Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADMs) between 6.1 ± 0.2 and 10.2 ± 0.2 נ1022 Am2. Results are generally not in agreement with current field models, but are coherent with other archaeomagnetic datasets from the Southern Hemisphere. The possible reasons for this are discussed, as well as implications for the historical evolution of the field.

  17. HIV Risk Behavior Among Methamphetamine Users Entering Substance Abuse Treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meade, Christina S; Lion, Ryan R; Cordero, Daniella M; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A; Gouse, Hetta; Burnhams, Warren

    2016-10-01

    South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.

  18. Changing land- and seascape environments at Cape Sable, a coastal wetland complex in south florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaswinkel, B.; Wanless, H.; Rankey, E.

    2003-04-01

    Cape Sable, a large coastal wetland complex at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula (U.S.), is currently undergoing dramatic changes in land- and seascape in response to historical sea level rise. The rise in sea level is progressively inundating a low marl ridge that has separated interior freshwater marshes of the Everglades from marine waters, leading to rapid widening of both natural tidal creeks and constructed canals. The linear rate of widening (0.7 to 1.2 meter per year since 1922) reflects a system out of equilibrium, in which the channels are seeking to accommodate the volume of water in the tidal prism. Rising sea level has enlarged the tidal prism by expanding the intertidal zone into former low-lying uplands. Opening of the channels has resulted in the creation and erosive widening of secondary channels into adjacent wetlands, further enlarging the tidal prism and tendency to widening. In the vicinity of some tidal inlets, the shoreline has eroded over 310 meters (since 1922; an overall rate of 4.6 m/yr), although erosion occur in steps in response to hurricanes (category 5 hurricanes in 1935, 1960 and 1992). In addition to changing channel morphology and beach erosion, rising sea level has shifted the mangrove/ freshwater marsh ecotone boundary inland significantly. Continued sea-level rise will inundate the marl ridge and accelerate erosion and breakup of the Cape Sable beach shoreline. The coastal red mangrove wetland could possibly keep pace with accelerated sea level rise, but hurricane setbacks negate this effect in south Florida. Category 4 and 5 hurricanes devastate the red mangrove forests and set into motion a phase of root-peat substrate decay and subsidence which has caused stepwise loss of both coastal and interior forests during the past 70 years of rapidly rising sea level. Changes in the coastal wetland environments of south Florida, in which critical habitats are imminently threatened, are driven by nonlinear processes that

  19. Are elderly pedestrians allowed enough time at pedestrian crossings in Cape Town, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Amosun, S L; Burgess, T; Groeneveldt, L; Hodgson, T

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional analytical study was conducted to determine whether the recommended walking speed of 1.2 ms(-1) would allow elderly pedestrians to safely clear pedestrian crossings in Cape Town, South Africa. Male and female volunteers (n = 47), aged 65-93 years and resident in four homes for older persons, were recruited. Pedestrian clearance intervals at 40 traffic lights within 5-km radius of the selected homes were measured. The mean walking speed required at these traffic lights was 0.86 +/- 0.32 ms(1). The maximal walking speed over 12 m was measured without carrying any load and when carrying a predetermined weight of an average shopping bag. Participants' emotions associated with pedestrian road safety were also assessed through an interview. The mean maximal unloaded and loaded walking speeds were 1.36 +/- 0.31 ms(-1) (0.73-2.03 ms(-1)), and 1.36 +/- 0.33 ms(-1) (0.58-2.12 ms(-1)), respectively. Over 30% of the participants walked slower than the recommended walking speed of 1.2 ms(-1). Participants felt that traffic lights did not allow for sufficient time to cross roads (51.1%) and reported emotions of apprehension (44.7%), anxiety (17.0%), and fear (10.6%) when crossing. A review of traffic planning and public policy is recommended to ensure older pedestrians safely clear pedestrian crossings.

  20. Hearing assessment data in HIV-infected and uninfected children of Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Torre, Peter; Cook, Alyssa; Elliott, Haley; Dawood, Gouwa; Laughton, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are showing that the rate of hearing loss in children with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) is higher than in HIV-unexposed, uninfected children. These data, however, have been collected mostly in the USA; extensive hearing data from low- and middle-income countries are lacking. The purpose of this study was to collect audiometric data in PHIV and HIV-uninfected children living in Cape Town, South Africa. Questionnaire data along with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and pure-tone testing were completed. Hearing loss was determined using the pure-tone thresholds defined as a pure-tone average (PTA) of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz of >15 dB HL in the poorer ear. All data were compared between PHIV and HIV-uninfected children. Sixty-one (37 PHIV and 24 HIV-uninfected) children had hearing data. HIV status was not significantly associated with DPOAEs. The rate of conductive hearing loss was 11.5%; five PHIV and two HIV-uninfected children. The rate of any hearing loss was higher in PHIV children, but this difference was not statistically significant. PHIV children had a significantly higher mean PTA in the poorer ear than HIV-uninfected children. Conductive type of hearing loss was more common than sensorineural hearing loss. The underlying cause of hearing loss in the present study therefore remains unclear. Future research should include an examination of auditory neural function in an effort to determine the possible reason for differences in hearing. PMID:25760238

  1. A new tetrahymena (ciliophora, oligohymenophorea) from groundwater of cape town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Quintela-Alonso, Pablo; Nitsche, Frank; Wylezich, Claudia; Arndt, Hartmut; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The identification of species within the genus Tetrahymena is known to be difficult due to their essentially identical morphology, the occurrence of cryptic and sibling species and the phenotypic plasticity associated with the polymorphic life cycle of some species. We have combined morphology and molecular biology to describe Tetrahymena aquasubterranea n. sp. from groundwater of Cape Town, Republic of South Africa. The phylogenetic analysis compares the cox1 gene sequence of T. aquasubterranea with the cox1 gene sequences of other Tetrahymena species and uses the interior-branch test to improve the resolution of the evolutionary relationships. This showed a considerable genetic divergence of T. aquasubterranea to its next relative, T. farlyi, of 9.2% (the average cox1 divergence among bona fide species of Tetrahymena is ~ 10%). Moreover, the analysis also suggested a sister relationship between T. aquasubterranea and a big clade comprising T. farleyi, T. tropicalis, T. furgasoni and T. mobilis. The morphological data available for these species show that they share with T. aquasubterranea a pyriformis-like life style and at least two of them, T. farleyi and T. mobilis, a similar type II silverline pattern consisting of primary and secondary meridians. Tetrahymena aquasubterranea exhibits a biphasic life cycle with trophonts and theronts, is amicronucleate, and feeds on bacteria.

  2. Holocene geoarchaeology of the Sixteen Mile Beach barrier dunes in the Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, John S.; Franceschini, Giuliana

    2005-01-01

    Holocene evolution and human occupation of the Sixteen Mile Beach barrier dunes on the southwest coast of South Africa between Yzerfontein and Saldanha Bay are inferred from the radiocarbon ages of calcareous dune sand, limpet shell ( Patella spp.) manuports and gull-dropped white mussel shells ( Donax serra). A series of coast-parallel dunes have prograded seaward in response to an overall marine regression since the mid-Holocene with dated shell from relict foredunes indicating periods of shoreline progradation that correspond to drops in sea level at around 5900, 4500 and 2400 calibrated years before the present (cal yr B.P.). However, the active foredune, extensively covered by a layer of gull-dropped shell, has migrated 500 m inland by the recycling of eroded dune sand in response to an approximate 1 m sea level rise over the last 700 yr. Manuported limpet shells from relict blowouts on landward vegetated dunes indicate human occupation of coastal dune sites at 6200 and 6000 cal yr B.P. and help to fill the mid-Holocene gap in the regional archaeological record. Coastal midden shells associated with small hearth sites exposed in blowouts on the active foredune are contemporaneous (1600-500 cal yr B.P.) with large midden sites on the western margin of Langebaan Lagoon and suggest an increase in marine resource utilisation associated with the arrival of pastoralism in the Western Cape.

  3. Ritual and the organisation of care in primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Simon; Green, Judith

    2009-04-01

    Few sociological studies have examined care organisation in primary health settings in low- and middle-income countries. This paper explores the organisation of health care work in primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa, by analysing two elements of clinic organisation as rituals. The first is a formal, policy-driven element of care: directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients. The second is an informal ritual, seemingly separate from the clinical work of the team: morning prayers in the clinic. We draw on data from an ethnography in which seven clinics providing care to people with tuberculosis were theoretically sampled for study. These data include participant observation of clinic sessions, and interviews and group discussions with providers and patients, which were analysed using approaches drawn from grounded theory. Our findings suggest that rather than seeing the ritualised aspects of clinic activities as merely traditional elements of care that potentially interfere with the application of good practice, it is essential to understand their symbolic values if their contribution to health care organisation is to be recognised. While both staff and patients participate in these rituals, these performances do not demonstrate or facilitate cohesion across these groups but rather embody the conflicting values of patients and staff in these clinics. As such, rituals act to reinforce asymmetrical relations of power between different constituencies, and to strengthen conventional modes of provider-patient interaction.

  4. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill. PMID:21696939

  5. The psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Background An estimated 2 million children are parentally bereaved by AIDS in South Africa. Little is known about mental health outcomes for this group. Methods This study aimed to investigate mental health outcomes for urban children living in deprived settlements in Cape Town. 30 orphaned children and 30 matched controls were compared using standardised questionnaires (SDQ) on emotional and behavioural problems, peer and attention difficulties, and prosocial behaviour. The orphan group completed a modified version of a standardised questionnaire (IES-8), measuring Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Group differences were tested using t-tests and Pearson's chi-square. Results Both groups scored highly for peer problems, emotional problems and total scores. However, orphans were more likely to view themselves as having no good friends (p = .002), to have marked concentration difficulties (p = .03), and to report frequent somatic symptoms (p = .05), but were less likely to display anger through loss of temper (p = .03). Orphans were more likely to have constant nightmares (p = .01), and 73% scored above the cut-off for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Conclusion Findings suggest important areas for larger-scale research for parentally-bereaved children. PMID:16848910

  6. Social and cultural contexts of concurrency in a township in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mah, Timothy L; Maughan-Brown, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the social and cultural context in which concurrent sexual partnerships exist is important, given recent interventions to reduce their prevalence. This qualitative study seeks to improve the understanding of concurrent partnerships and perceptions of the link between concurrency and HIV risk in a South African township in Cape Town. Small-group discussion and focus-group participants reported that concurrency was a common phenomenon in their township. The most commonly cited reasons for participating in concurrent partnerships were material and financial exchange or gain and sexual dissatisfaction with partners. Although participants believed that being in a concurrent relationship increases the risk of acquiring HIV, they did not believe this discourages many people from engaging in these behaviours. This study highlights that concurrency in this context may be a social norm that is resistant to change. The efficacy of current programmes aimed at reducing concurrency needs to be examined in this context. Our findings suggest that improving economic independence at the individual level and improving sexual satisfaction within partnerships may have some leverage for concurrency reduction. An alternative approach to strengthen combination HIV-prevention strategies could be to increase condom use with the additional/side partners, whose predominant role is often perceived in terms of sex, with messages centred on the notion that sex with additional partner(s) should not endanger the main partner. PMID:23181362

  7. Analysis of seventeen Y-chromosome STR loci in the Cape Muslim population of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Kevin; Ehrenreich, Liezle; D'Amato, María Eugenia; Leat, Neil; Davison, Sean; Benjeddou, Mongi

    2010-01-01

    Two Y-STR genotyping systems were evaluated for usefulness in forensic casework in the Cape Muslim population of South Africa. Samples were collected from 105 males, and genotyped for 17 loci amplified in two multiplexes. Allele and haplotype frequencies were determined for nine Y-STR loci used to define the minimal haplotype (DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and the duplicated locus DYS385) amplified in one multiplex, as well as for eight widely used loci amplified in a second multiplex and consisting of DYS449, DYS481, DYS518, DYS557, DYS570, DYS607, DYS612 and DYS614. When analysing the samples for all the loci, 104 unique haplotypes were obtained, and the discrimination capacity was 0.990. When considering only the nine Y-STRs included in the minimal haplotype, 91 unique haplotypes were obtained, and the discrimination capacity was 0.866. In the case of the remaining eight Y-STR loci, values of 97 and 0.924 were obtained, respectively. PMID:19962930

  8. Estimating the age of fire in the Cape flora of South Africa from an orchid phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Bytebier, Benny; Antonelli, Alexandre; Bellstedt, Dirk U.; Linder, H. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fire may have been a crucial component in the evolution of the Cape flora of South Africa, a region characterized by outstanding levels of species richness and endemism. However, there is, to date, no critical assessment of the age of the modern fire regime in this biome. Here, we exploit the presence of two obligate post-fire flowering clades in the orchid genus Disa, in conjunction with a robust, well-sampled and dated molecular phylogeny, to estimate the age by which fire must have been present. Our results indicate that summer drought (winter rainfall), the fire regime and the fynbos vegetation are several million years older than currently suggested. Summer drought and the fynbos vegetation are estimated to date back to at least the Early Miocene (ca 19.5 Ma). The current fire regime may have been established during a period of global cooling that followed the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (ca 15 Ma), which led to the expansion of open habitats and increased aridification. The first appearance of Disa species in the grassland biome, as well as in the subalpine habitat, is in striking agreement with reliable geological and palaeontological evidence of the age of these ecosystems, thus corroborating the efficacy of our methods. These results change our understanding of the historical mechanisms underlying botanical evolution in southern Africa, and confirm the potential of using molecular phylogenies to date events for which other information is lacking or inconclusive. PMID:20685712

  9. Nuclear microanalysis of tooth enamel from a community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Naidoo, S.; Eisa, M. E. M.

    2007-07-01

    Extracted teeth collected from a Black African community living in the Gugulethu suburb of Cape Town, South Africa were studied by nuclear microscopy. Analysis by PIXE (with 3.0 MeV protons) of permanent extracted incisor and molar teeth from males and females of different ages showed a homogeneous elemental profile distribution for iron, zinc and strontium, irrespective of gender and/or age. Fluorine content as determined simultaneously from the 110 keV gamma-ray yield from proton bombardment had a similar mean value (females: 1.8% by mass and males: 1.6% by mass) for both genders. However, the mean content of strontium for females (97 μg g -1) was about 40% lower than that for males (69 μg g -1). In addition, a sub-group of children showed a smaller standard deviation on the distribution of zinc and fluorine. Previous results on the trace elemental concentration of the enamel of molar teeth, showed a depletion of up to 50% by mass for strontium after 20 h of exposure in acidic solution. Although the strontium level for the African female group fits this profile it is not certain what the demineralization observed was due too.

  10. Family Ties and Young Fathers’ Engagement in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shelley; Cotton, Cassandra; Marteleto, Leticia J.

    2015-01-01

    Young South African fathers are often engaged in their children’s lives even if they do not live together. Using longitudinal data on children (n = 1,209) from the Cape Town area, the authors show that although only 26% of young fathers live with their children, 66% of nonresidential fathers maintain regular contact, and 61% provide financial support. The father–child relationship, however, is embedded in broader family ties. The type of father–mother relationship is strongly associated with whether fathers coreside with their children, but not with fathers’ contact with nonresidential children. Close mother and maternal grandmother bonds reduce the likelihood that fathers live with their children, whereas close ties between fathers and paternal grandmothers increase the chance that fathers visit nonresidential children. Family ties do not affect fathers’ financial contributions, which are driven by men’s current economic situation. These findings illustrate that father–child relationships are best understood in the context of interacting family systems. PMID:25774066

  11. Host Specificity And Co-Speciation In Avian Haemosporidia In The Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Okanga, Sharon; Cumming, Graeme S.; Hockey, Philip A. R.; Nupen, Lisa; Peters, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Host and pathogen ecology are often closely linked, with evolutionary processes often leading to the development of host specificity traits in some pathogens. Host specificity may range from ‘generalist’, where pathogens infect any available competent host; to ‘specialist’, where pathogens repeatedly infect specific host species or families. Avian malaria ecology in the region remains largely unexplored, despite the presence of vulnerable endemic avian species. We analysed the expression of host specificity in avian haemosporidia, by applying a previously developed host specificity index to lineages isolated from wetland passerines in the Western Cape, South Africa. Parasite lineages were isolated using PCR and identified when possible using matching lineages deposited in GenBank and in MalAvi. Parasitic clades were constructed from phylogenetic trees consisting of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages. Isolated lineages matched some strains of Plasmodium relictum, P. elongatum, Haemoproteus sylvae and H. lanii. Plasmodium lineages infected a wide range of hosts from several avian families in a generalist pattern of infection. Plasmodium spp. also exhibited an infection trend according to host abundance rather than host species. By contrast, Haemoproteus lineages were typically restricted to one or two host species or families, and displayed higher host fidelity than Plasmodium spp. The findings confirm that a range of host specificity traits are exhibited by avian haemosporidia in the region. The traits show the potential to not only impact infection prevalence within specific host species, but also to affect patterns of infection at the community level. PMID:24498273

  12. Hearing assessment data in HIV-infected and uninfected children of Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Torre, Peter; Cook, Alyssa; Elliott, Haley; Dawood, Gouwa; Laughton, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are showing that the rate of hearing loss in children with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) is higher than in HIV-unexposed, uninfected children. These data, however, have been collected mostly in the USA; extensive hearing data from low- and middle-income countries are lacking. The purpose of this study was to collect audiometric data in PHIV and HIV-uninfected children living in Cape Town, South Africa. Questionnaire data along with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and pure-tone testing were completed. Hearing loss was determined using the pure-tone thresholds defined as a pure-tone average (PTA) of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz of >15 dB HL in the poorer ear. All data were compared between PHIV and HIV-uninfected children. Sixty-one (37 PHIV and 24 HIV-uninfected) children had hearing data. HIV status was not significantly associated with DPOAEs. The rate of conductive hearing loss was 11.5%; five PHIV and two HIV-uninfected children. The rate of any hearing loss was higher in PHIV children, but this difference was not statistically significant. PHIV children had a significantly higher mean PTA in the poorer ear than HIV-uninfected children. Conductive type of hearing loss was more common than sensorineural hearing loss. The underlying cause of hearing loss in the present study therefore remains unclear. Future research should include an examination of auditory neural function in an effort to determine the possible reason for differences in hearing.

  13. Intentional injury and violence in Cape Town, South Africa: an epidemiological analysis of trauma admissions data

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Nadine; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Walker, Blake Byron; Fawcett, Vanessa; Nicol, Andrew; Hameed, Syed Morad; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Injury is a truly global health issue that has enormous societal and economic consequences in all countries. Interpersonal violence is now widely recognized as important global public health issues that can be addressed through evidence-based interventions. In South Africa, as in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a lack of ongoing, systematic injury surveillance has limited the ability to characterize the burden of violence-related injury and to develop prevention programmes. Objective To describe the profile of trauma presenting to the trauma centre of Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa – relating to interpersonal violence, using data collected from a newly implemented surveillance system. Particular emphasis was placed on temporal aspects of injury epidemiology, as well as age and sex differentiation. Design Data were collected prospectively using a standardized trauma admissions form for all patients presenting to the trauma centre. An epidemiological analysis was conducted on 16 months of data collected from June 2010 to October 2011. Results A total of 8445 patients were included in the analysis, in which the majority were violence-related. Specifically, 35% of records included violent trauma and, of those, 75% of victims were male. There was a clear temporal pattern: a greater proportion of intentional injuries occur during the night, while unintentional injury peaks late in the afternoon. In total, two-third of all intentional trauma is inflicted on the weekends, as is 60% of unintentional trauma. Where alcohol was recorded in the record, 72% of cases involved intentional injury. Sex was again a key factor as over 80% of all records involving alcohol or substance abuse were associated with males. The findings highlighted the association between violence, young males, substance use, and weekends. Conclusions This study provides the basis for evidence-based interventions to reduce the burden of intentional injury

  14. The aetiology of adult burns in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maritz, David; Wallis, Lee; Van Der Merwe, Elbie; Nel, Daan

    2012-02-01

    Rural to urban migration to major cities in South Africa continues to lead to the proliferation of informal settlements. There is little recent published data on the epidemiology of adult burns in the Western Cape, South Africa. A retrospective review of patients on the Burn Unit database was undertaken, looking at patients admitted to the Burn Unit between January 2003 and December 2008. This study discusses the characteristics and outcome of patients who were treated at the Tygerburg Burn unit. A total of 1908 patients were admitted to the burn unit during the 6 year period under review. Most fatal injuries occurred in the 20-40 year age group. Injuries due to shack fires and fuel stoves comprised 21% (399) of all admissions. Mortality due to these injuries comprised 28% (137) of total mortality. Gas stoves accounted for 24% with kerosene stoves accounting for 71% of injuries. The burn death rate in this study (25%) was found to have increased dramatically from the last audit done from 1986 to 1995 in which a burn death rate of 7.5% was observed. Reasons for this are explored. It is likely that those with HIV/AIDS have poorer outcomes. Shack fires and injuries due to fuel stoves are a common reason for admission to the burn unit and mostly involve young male individuals. Other research from the Southern African region does not mention shack fires as a separate entity making it difficult to obtain an accurate idea of the scale of the problem. Their injuries are severe with a high mortality. The use of kerosene stoves are a major contributing factor. Recommendations include enforceable legislation to promote safer stove design, research into safer bio fuels and materials for building shacks as well promoting fire safety among schoolchildren in the community. Further research is needed to determine the impact of HIV/AIDS on the outcome of acute burns within the Southern African region.

  15. Developing a Strategic Approach to Social Responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favish, Judith; McMillan, Janice; Ngcelwane, Sonwabo V.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a "social responsiveness" initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town…

  16. Nitrogen deposition in a southern hemisphere biodiversity hotspot within and surrounding Cape Town, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Hall, S.; February, E.; West, A. G.; Allsopp, N.; Bond, W.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions have increased dramatically since the agricultural and industrial revolutions leading to N deposition in the northern hemisphere that is estimated to be an order of magnitude greater than preindustrial fluxes. N deposition rates of 5-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in Europe and N. America decrease plant species diversity, increase invasive species, and lead to eutrophication of surface waters. The southern hemisphere is home to over 50% of the world's biodiversity hotspots, including the 90,000 km2 Cape Floristic Region which houses 9,030 vascular plant species, 69% of which are endemic. However, to date, N deposition rates in the southern hemisphere are highly uncertain, with global models of N deposition based upon sparse datasets at best. Many terrestrial systems, such as fynbos shrublands, are adapted to low N availability and exhibit high species diversity and endemism, rendering them susceptible to ecological changes from N deposition. In this research, we quantified the spatial and temporal distribution of wet and dry N deposition across 30 protected fynbos ecosystems within the urban airshed of Cape Town, South Africa. We predicted that 1) total inorganic N deposition varies predictably along the urban-rural gradient (highest near the city centre), 2) N deposition varies seasonally, with higher fluxes in the winter months when atmospheric stability causes a build-up of N gases in and around the city, and 3) total inorganic N deposition will exceed the critical load of 10-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for Mediterranean shrublands, past which negative ecosystem effects have been shown to occur. Estimates of N deposition based on NO2 concentrations within the city suggest that total N deposition ranges from 8-13 kg N ha-1 yr-1 . However, we show that N deposition measured by ion-exchange resin collectors is far less than expected, averaging less than 2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.5 - 5.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 ), and is is dominated by NO3-, suggesting

  17. Interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and synoptic type association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Christien J.; Landman, Willem A.

    2016-07-01

    The link between interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and different synoptic types as well as selected teleconnections is explored. Synoptic circulation over the region is classified into different synoptic types by employing a clustering technique, the self-organizing map (SOM), on daily circulation data for the 33-year period from 1979 to 2011. Daily rainfall data are used to investigate interannual variability of seasonal rainfall within the context of the identified synoptic types. The anomalous frequency of occurrence of the different synoptic types for wet and for dry seasons differs significantly within the SOM space, except for austral spring. The main rainfall-producing synoptic types are to a large extent consistent for wet and dry seasons. The main rainfall-producing synoptic types have a notable larger contribution to seasonal rainfall totals during wet seasons than during dry seasons, consistent with a higher frequency of occurrence of the main rainfall-producing synoptic types during wet seasons compared to dry seasons. Dry seasons are characterized by a smaller contribution to seasonal rainfall totals by all the different synoptic types, but with the largest negative anomalies associated with low frequencies of the main rainfall-producing synoptic types. The frequencies of occurrence of specific configurations of ridging high pressure systems, cut-off lows and tropical-temperate troughs associated with rainfall are positively linked to interannual variability of seasonal rainfall. It is also shown that the distribution of synoptic types within the SOM space is linked to the Southern Annular Mode and El Niño Southern Oscillation, implying some predictability of intraseasonal variability at the seasonal time scale.

  18. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Khethiwe; Khumalo, Zth; Nakao, Ryo; Grab, Dennis J; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Thekisoe, Omm

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected.

  19. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    MTSHALI, Khethiwe; KHUMALO, Zamantungwa T. H.; NAKAO, Ryo; GRAB, Dennis J.; SUGIMOTO, Chihiro; THEKISOE, Oriel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected. PMID:26227797

  20. Dated rock engravings from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, A.I.; Thackeray, J.F.; Beaumont, P.B.; Vogel, J.C.

    1981-10-02

    Radiocarbon dates associated with engraved stones from sealed archeological deposits at Wonderwerk Cave in the northern Cape Province indicate that rock engraving in South Africa is at least 10,000 years old.

  1. Professional nurses' perception of the implementation of quality circle programme in a public hospital in the Eastern Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Mbovane, M M; Mavundla, T R; Roos, J H

    2007-03-01

    A qualitative research design that is explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature was employed in order to understand and describe the professional nurses' perception of the implementation of a quality circle programme in a public hospital in the Eastern Cape Province. The data-collection techniques were individual semi-structured interviews and field notes. The sample was drawn from a population of 425 Xhosa-speaking professional nurses employed in this institution. The sample comprised eight (8) professional nurses all of whom volunteered for in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. All the respondents answered one question: How do you perceive the implementation of the quality circle programme in your hospital? During data collection and analysis only one theme emerged, namely the perception of quality circle as a forum for discussing patient care problems and future plans. There were four broad categories in this theme, namely. Staff empowerment. Teambuilding in the nursing discipline. Maintenance of standards by nurses. Challenges to the momentum of a quality circle programme. It is recommended that all three tiers of nursing management be involved in the quality circle programme to improve interpersonal, interdepartmental and intradepartmental communication and concomitantly the nursing care.

  2. Complications of traditional circumcision amongst young Xhosa males seen at St Lucy's Hospital, Tsolo, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Anike, Ugochukwu; Ndimande, John V.; Tumbo, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditional circumcision of males is common amongst many societies in sub-Saharan Africa. Circumcision amongst the Xhosa people of South Africa represents a rite of passage to manhood. Traditional male circumcision has an increased risk for complications that include sepsis, genital mutilation, gangrenous penis, excessive bleeding, dehydration, renal failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the complications of traditional circumcisions amongst Xhosa men as seen at St. Lucy's Hospital in the Eastern Cape Province. Method A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was conducted in 2008. Records of 105 males admitted to St. Lucy's Hospital with complications following traditional circumcision were reviewed. Data collected included age, education level, race, reasons for circumcision, complications, the period of circumcision, duration of hospital stay and the outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was performed using statistical software SPSS 17.0. Results The ages ranged from 15–35 years with 68 (64.8%) between 15–19 years. 83 (79%) had a secondary level of education, 16 (15.2%) primary, 5 (4.8%) tertiary and 1% had no education. 60 (57%) were circumcised as initiation to manhood, 21 (20.0%) due to peer pressure, 20 (19.0%) for cultural reasons, and 1 (1.0%) was forced. The complications were sepsis (59 [56.2%]), genital mutilation (28 [26.7%]), dehydration (12 [11.4%]) and amputation of genitalia (6 [5.7%]).Fifty-nine (56.2%) patients were circumcised in winter. 79 (75.2%) were circumcised in the forest, and 25 (23.8%) in initiation centres. Fifty-eight (55.2%) were circumcised by traditionalists, and 47 (44.8%) by tribal elders (initiators). Hospital stays ranged from 8 to 28 days. 66% were healed and discharged, and 29 (27.6%) were referred to higher centres of care. Conclusion Genital sepsis was the most common complication of traditional male circumcision. Complications were related to the circumciser, advanced age of

  3. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Naledi, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS) of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, non-communicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes. Evaluation de l'impact des médecins de famille dans le système de santé du district du Western Cape, en Afrique du Sud. Contexte: En 2007, l'Afrique du Sud a institué une nouvelle spécialité, la médecine de famille. Les médecins de famille qui se sont sp

  4. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Naledi, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS) of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, non-communicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes. Evaluation de l'impact des médecins de famille dans le système de santé du district du Western Cape, en Afrique du Sud. Contexte: En 2007, l'Afrique du Sud a institué une nouvelle spécialité, la médecine de famille. Les médecins de famille qui se sont sp

  5. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam M; Latimer, Andrew M; Silander, John A

    2015-07-21

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080-2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally.

  6. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  7. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Adam M.; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080–2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  8. Attitudes, knowledge and treatment of low back pain amongst nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maart, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the high-risk professions for the development of musculoskeletal problems is nursing. Studies have reported that there is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) amongst South African nurses, but very little is known regarding the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP in this group. Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP amongst nursing staff in Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, Eastern Cape. Methods The study population consisted of all qualified nurses employed at the hospital. A cross-sectional survey with a purposive convenience sampling method was used. A questionnaire was designed using literature from established sources. The questionnaire was distributed manually and data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO4. Results The study found that the majority of the participants experienced LBP on a regular basis. The participants could identify the most important physical risk factors associated with the development of LBP, but neglected the psychological risk factors. Action taken after the development of LBP included professional consultations as well as medication and bed rest. The participants identified the different components of a preventative exercise programme but only focused on the physical and not psychological components associated with LBP. Conclusions LBP is a serious problem amongst the nurses at the hospital, but no proactive approach is taken in order to address this problem. Policy guidelines and a comprehensive prevention and treatment programme need to be designed and implemented to address this issue.

  9. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam M; Latimer, Andrew M; Silander, John A

    2015-07-21

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080-2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  10. Computer Applications in Information Systems. Proceedings of a Workshop (Cape Town, South Africa, November 26-27, 1985). Continuing Education Series Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimschein, Sue, Ed.

    Sixteen papers from a workshop on computer applications sponsored by the University of Cape Town (South Africa) School of Librarianship are presented in this volume: (1) "Introduction to the Use of Information Technology" (Sue Bleimschein); (2) "Searching Remote Databases" (Steve Rossouw); (3) "SABINET [South African Bibliographic and Information…

  11. The association between healed skeletal fractures indicative of interpersonal violence and alcoholic liver disease in a cadaver cohort from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie H; Alblas, Amanda; Greyling, Linda M; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) and heavy alcohol consumption are major problems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Cranio-maxillofacial fractures, particularly nasal and zygomatic bone fractures, as well as isolated radial fractures (Colles fractures) and ulnar shaft fractures (parry fractures), are indicative of IPV, while alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the consequence of chronic alcohol abuse. We therefore aim to investigate whether a significant association exists between the prevalence of cranio-maxillofacial fractures and parry fractures and ALD in a Western Cape population. Embalmed cadavers (n = 124) used for medical students' anatomy training at the Division of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University were studied. The cadavers were dissected according to departmental protocol. The liver of each cadaver was investigated for macroscopic pathology lesions. Tissue samples were removed, processed to wax, and sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). All soft tissue was removed from the skulls, radii, and ulnae, which were then investigated for healed skeletal trauma. The results showed 37/124 (29.8%) cadavers had healed cranio-maxillofacial fractures and 24/124 (19.4%) cadavers had morphologic features of ALD. A total of 12/124 (9.7%) cadavers showed signs of both ALD and healed cranio-maxillofacial trauma. More males were affected than females, and left-sided facial fractures were statistically more common compared to the right side. This study illustrated a significant trend between alcohol abuse and cranio-maxillofacial fractures in individuals from communities with a low socio-economic status (SES) where IPV is a major problem.

  12. Endometriosis in the north Italian province of South Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Steinkasserer, Martin; Engl, Bruno

    2009-11-01

    Here, we report regarding the health status and medical support for patients suffering from endometrioisis in South Tyrol, which is a politically autonomous province in the north of Italy containing three different ethnic groups. The health service is administered largely by the autonomous regional government. Because of the establishment of a centre for reproductive medicine and the introduction of laparoscopy as a prime surgery method, the gynaecological department of the hospital in Bruneck developed into a reference centre for diagnosis and surgical treatment for endometriosis. The planned future social, health care and insurance developments on local and national level regarding this illness will be discussed.

  13. Multichannel seismic profiles collected by the Teledyne Exploration Company in 1977 south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Lewis E.; Dillon, William P.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) collected approximately 3,700 km of multichannel-seismic reflection profiles (lines TD-1 – TD-6) south of Cape Hatteras on the continental margin (fig. 1). Those profiles were collected between August 15 and October 30, 1977, under U.S.G.S. contract number 14-08-0001-16209 by the Teledyne Exploration Company. The released data include copies of the original records, velocity scans, track charts, and field tapes.

  14. Minority stress in the lives of men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McAdams-Mahmoud, Ayesha; Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Cooper, Hannah; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Jobson, Geoffrey; de Swardt, Glenn; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

    2014-01-01

    The mental health outcomes of men who have sex with men (MSM) living in sub-Saharan Africa are understudied, despite evidence that discrimination and stigma are widespread. This article examines the occurrence and mental health effects of minority stress in a sample of diverse South African MSM. Twenty-two MSM living in Cape Town took part in exploratory qualitative in-depth interviews and completed mental health questionnaires. Results indicate that the majority of participants experienced minority stress, which affected their sexual relationships and coping strategies. Concealment behaviors and perceived discrimination levels were high and were associated with race, religion, SES, and geographical location.

  15. Neotectonic provinces and joint orientations of northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidegger, A. E.; Schubert, C.

    The data on the stress field in northern South America are reviewed and complemented by new measurements. These data are based on the interpretation of orientations of joints, earthquake fault planes, and stylolites. The maximum tectonic pressure direction is constant throughout the mountain regions from the Colombia/Ecuador border to the Cordillera de la Costa in Venezuela. Its orientation is 130° to 151°, which is roughly normal to the strike of the eastern front of the Andes. This whole area ust therefore be considered as a single geotectonic province. In the anterior — i.e., from the Colombian Llanos to the Guayana Shield in Venezuela, again a consistent tectonic stress direction of 161° to 166°E is found; this, threfore, is a second tectonic province. Possibly, this direction represents the regular intraplate stress direction which is gradually rotated toward the Andes so as to become normal to its front. Finally, the maximum tectonic stress north directions north eof the Oca and ther Morón-El Pilar fault zones are quite varied, which may be an indication of the perturbations causedby the presence of the bondary between the South American and Caribbean tectonic plates.

  16. Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The close relationship between vector-borne diseases and their environment is well documented, especially for diseases with water-dependent vectors such as avian malaria. Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of avian malaria and also the definitive hosts in the disease life cycle. Factors pertinent to mosquito ecology are likely to be influential to observed infection patterns; such factors include rainfall, season, temperature, and water quality. Methods The influence of mosquito abundance and occurrence on the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in the Ploceidae family (weavers) was examined, taking into account factors with an indirect influence upon mosquito ecology. Mosquitoes and weaver blood samples were simultaneously collected in the Western Cape, South Africa over a two-year period, and patterns of vector abundance and infection prevalence were compared. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and salinity measurements were taken at 20 permanent waterbodies. Rainfall during this period was also quantified using remotely sensed data from up to 6 months prior to sampling months. Results Sixteen wetlands had weavers infected with avian malaria. More than half of the mosquitoes caught were trapped at one site; when this site was excluded, the number of mosquitoes trapped did not vary significantly between sites. The majority of mosquitoes collected belonged to the predominant vector species group for avian malaria (Culex culex species complex). Seasonal variation occurred in infection and mosquito prevalence, water pH and water temperature, with greater variability observed in summer than in winter. There was a significant correlation of infection prevalence with rainfall two months prior to sampling months. Mosquito prevalence patterns across the landscape also showed a close relationship to patterns of rainfall. Contrary to predictions, a pattern of asynchronous co-variation occurred between mosquito prevalence and infection prevalence. Conclusion Overall

  17. Expanding contraceptive options for PMTCT clients: a mixed methods implementation study in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clients of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services in South Africa who use contraception following childbirth rely primarily on short-acting methods like condoms, pills, and injectables, even when they desire no future pregnancies. Evidence is needed on strategies for expanding contraceptive options for postpartum PMTCT clients to include long-acting and permanent methods. Methods We examined the process of expanding contraceptive options in five health centers in Cape Town providing services to HIV-positive women. Maternal/child health service providers received training and coaching to strengthen contraceptive counseling for postpartum women, including PMTCT clients. Training and supplies were introduced to strengthen intrauterine device (IUD) services, and referral mechanisms for female sterilization were reinforced. We conducted interviews with separate samples of postpartum PMTCT clients (265 pre-intervention and 266 post-intervention) to assess knowledge and behaviors regarding postpartum contraception. The process of implementing the intervention was evaluated through systematic documentation and interpretation using an intervention tracking tool. In-depth interviews with providers who participated in study-sponsored training were conducted to assess their attitudes toward and experiences with promoting voluntary contraceptive services to HIV-positive clients. Results Following the intervention, 6% of interviewed PMTCT clients had the desired knowledge about the IUD and 23% had the desired knowledge about female sterilization. At both pre- and post-intervention, 7% of clients were sterilized and IUD use was negligible; by comparison, 75% of clients used injectables. Intervention tracking and in-depth interviews with providers revealed intervention shortcomings and health system constraints explaining the failure to produce intended effects. Conclusions The intervention failed to improve PMTCT clients’ knowledge about the IUD

  18. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  19. The impact of methamphetamine (“tik”) on a peri-urban community in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Meade, Christina S.; Kimani, Stephen; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Choi, Karmel W.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, South Africa’s Western Cape has experienced a dramatic increase in methamphetamine (“tik”) use. Our study explored local impressions of the impact of tik use in a peri-urban township community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 55 women and 37 men who were regular attendees of alcohol-serving venues. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A content analysis approach was used to identify themes related to the impact of tik use based on levels of the socio-ecological framework (individual, inter-personal and community). Results Tik use was reported to be a greater issue among Coloureds, compared to Blacks. At an individual level, respondents reported that tik use had adverse effects on mental, physical, and economic well-being, and limited future opportunities through school drop-out and incarceration. At an inter-personal level, respondents reported that tik use contributed to physical and sexual violence as well as increased rates of sexual risk behaviour, particularly through transactional sex relationships. Respondents described how tik use led to household conflict, and had negative impacts on children, including neglect and poor birth outcomes. At a community level, respondents linked tik use to increased rates of crime, violence and corruption, which undercut community cohesion. Conclusions Our results highlight the negative impact that tik is having on individuals, households and the overall community in a peri-urban setting in South Africa. There is a clear need for interventions to prevent tik use in South Africa and to mitigate and address the impact of tik on multiple levels. PMID:24246503

  20. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  1. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.5W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  2. Complainants With Learning Disabilities In Sexual Abuse Cases: A 10-Year Review Of A Psycho-Legal Project In Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Beverley Jo; Roux, Amanda Jane

    2005-01-01

    We describe a project established in 1990 to assist complainants with learning disabilities in sexual assault cases in Cape Town, South Africa. Complainants are prepared for court and psychologists advise investigating officers and prosecutors, and provide expert testimony. There has been an enormous increase in the utilization of the project by…

  3. Questioning the Pace and Pathway of E-Government Development in Africa: A Case Study of South Africa's Cape Gateway Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maumbe, Blessing Mukabeta; Owei, Vesper; Alexander, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines e-government development in Africa. This study is based on the Cape Gateway project in South Africa, a leading e-government initiative on the continent. We observe that African countries have jumped on the e-government band wagon by looking mostly at the benefits without a clear risk assessment. We argue that African countries…

  4. Alcohol and Other Drug Use during Pregnancy among Women Attending Midwife Obstetric Units in the Cape Metropole, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Petersen Williams, Petal; Jordaan, Esmé; Mathews, Catherine; Lombard, Carl; Parry, Charles D. H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, despite the very high levels of AOD use in this part of the country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs) in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used. In total, 5231 pregnant women were screened to assess self-reported prevalence estimates. Of these, 684 (13.1%) were intentionally subsampled and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a urine sample for biological screening. Urinalyses showed that 8.8% (95% CI: 6.7–10.9) of the subsample tested positive for at least one illicit drug. This is higher than the self-reported prevalence (3.6%). In addition, 19.6% (95% CI: 16.3–22.8) of the sub-sample tested positive for alcohol which is lower than the self-reported prevalence (36.9%). There are high levels of substance use among pregnant women attending public sector antenatal clinics. There is a need for routine screening for AOD use and appropriate responses depending on the women's level of risk. PMID:24639899

  5. Behaviour change counselling for ARV adherence support within primary health care facilities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewing, S; Mathews, C; Schaay, N; Cloete, A; Louw, J; Simbayi, L

    2012-07-01

    Health care systems have been described as ideal settings for behaviour change counselling interventions. There is little research evaluating the feasibility of implementing such interventions in routine practice in primary care facilities. We implemented an intervention called Options for Health within routine adherence counselling practice in 20 antiretroviral facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. Lay counsellors were trained to use Options to help clients to optimise ARV adherence and reduce sexual risk behaviour. Counsellors delivered the intervention to 9% of eligible patients over 12 months. Interviews with counsellors revealed barriers to implementation including a lack of counselling space, time pressure and patient resistance to counselling. Counsellors felt that Options was not appropriate for use with all patients and adherence problems, and used parts of the intervention as it suited their needs. Findings revealed weaknesses in the current adherence counselling system that have implications for the feasibility of behaviour change counselling within this context.

  6. "Taking care of business": alcohol as currency in transactional sexual relationships among players in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Loraine; Ragnarsson, Anders; Mathews, Catherine; Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Ekström, Anna Mia; Thorson, Anna; Chopra, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine the dynamics of social relationships in which alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors cooccur. As part of a larger biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey, 20 men who lived in an urban, informal settlement on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa participated in in-depth interviews. Interview transcripts were analyzed according to a latent content analysis. Findings highlight the latent association between alcohol and transactional sex, and enable an in-depth examination of the normative role that alcohol plays in the formation of casual sexual partnerships characterized by exchange. We build on an existing conceptual model that traces the potential pathways by which alcohol use and transactional sex are linked to sexual risk behaviors. The study findings point to the need for multilevel HIV risk-reduction interventions among men to reduce excessive alcohol use, risky sexual behaviors, and underlying perceptions of ideal masculinity. PMID:20671303

  7. Initial review and analysis of the direct environmental impacts of CSP in the northern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudman, Justine; Gauché, Paul; Esler, Karen J.

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) of 2010 and the IRP Update provide the most recent guidance to the electricity generation future of South Africa (SA) and both plans include an increased proportion of renewable energy generation capacity. Given that SA has abundant renewable energy resource potential, this inclusion is welcome. Only 600 MW of the capacity allocated to concentrating solar power (CSP) has been committed to projects in the Northern Cape and represents roughly a fifth of the capacity that has been included in the IRP. Although CSP is particularly new in the electricity generation system of the country, the abundant solar resources of the region with annual DNI values of above 2900 kWh/m2 across the arid Savannah and Nama-Karoo biomes offer a promising future for the development of CSP in South Africa. These areas have largely been left untouched by technological development activities and thus renewable energy projects present a variety of possible direct and indirect environmental, social and economic impacts. Environmental Impact Assessments do focus on local impacts, but given that ecological processes often extend to regional- and landscape scales, understanding this scaled context is important to the alignment of development- and conservation priorities. Given the capacities allocated to CSP for the future of SA's electricity generation system, impacts on land, air, water and biodiversity which are associated with CSP are expected to increase in distribution and the understanding thereof deems valuable already from this early point in CSP's future in SA. We provide a review of direct impacts of CSP on the natural environment and an overview of the anticipated specific significance thereof in the Northern Cape.

  8. Health Systems Readiness to Manage the Hypertension Epidemic in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Western Cape, South Africa: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yaya, Sanni; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). The study is currently in the data analysis phase and results are expected during the first half of 2016. Conclusions This investigation will highlight the detailed processes in place for the care of hypertensive patients in primary health care facilities, and thus also identify the challenges. It will also describe the drug supply chain management systems in place and identify their strengths and weaknesses. The findings, along with the estimates from modeling and simulation, will inform the health system minimum requirements to scale-up interventions to manage and control the hypertension epidemic in the Western Cape province of South Africa. PMID:26925539

  9. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  10. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  11. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  12. An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Arnot, Luke F; Duncan, Neil M; Coetzer, Heleen; Botha, Christo J

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (< 5 μg/kg) to 4946 μg/kg and six samples were submitted to determine the ratio of aflatoxins in the feed. It is estimated that well over 220 dogs died in the Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak.

  13. Transactional sex and economic exchange with partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence

    PubMed Central

    Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702

  14. Relationship between Urinary Pesticide Residue Levels and Neurotoxic Symptoms among Women on Farms in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Motsoeneng, Portia M.; Dalvie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between urinary pesticide residue levels and neurotoxic symptoms amongst women working on Western Cape farms in South Africa. Method: A total of 211 women were recruited from farms (n = 121) and neighbouring towns (n = 90). Participant assessment was via a Q16 questionnaire, reporting on pesticide exposures and measurement of urinary OP metabolite concentrations of dialkyl phosphates (DAP) and chlorpyriphos, 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCPY) and of pyrethroid (PYR) metabolite concentrations (3- phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4F3PBA), cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DBCA), and the cis- and trans isomers of 2,2-dichlorovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Results: Median urinary pesticide metabolites were slightly (6%–49%) elevated in the farm group compared to the town group, with 2 metabolites significantly higher and some lower in the farm group. The prevalence of all Q16 symptoms was higher amongst farm women compared to town women. Three Q16 symptoms (problems with buttoning, reading and notes) were significantly positively associated with three pyrethroid metabolites (cis- and trans-DCCA and DBCA), although associations may due to chance as multiple comparisons were made. The strongest association for a pyrethroid metabolite was between problems with buttoning and DBCA (odds ratio (OR) = 8.93, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.71–46.5. There was no association between Q16 symptoms and OP metabolites. Conclusions: Women farm residents and rural women from neighbouring towns in the Western Cape are exposed to OP and PYR pesticides. The study did not provide strong evidence that pesticides are associated with neurotoxic symptoms but associations found could be explored further. PMID:26042367

  15. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Mortality in Cape Town, South Africa: 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available on the strength of the association between ambient air pollution exposure and health effects in developing countries such as South Africa. The association between the 24-h average ambient PM10, SO2 and NO2 levels and daily respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD) and cerebrovascular (CBD) mortality in Cape Town (2001–2006) was investigated with a case-crossover design. For models that included entire year data, an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 (12 mg/m3) and NO2 (12 mg/m3) significantly increased CBD mortality by 4% and 8%, respectively. A significant increase of 3% in CVD mortality was observed per IQR increase in NO2 and SO2 (8 mg/m3). In the warm period, PM10 was significantly associated with RD and CVD mortality. NO2 had significant associations with CBD, RD and CVD mortality, whilst SO2 was associated with CVD mortality. None of the pollutants were associated with any of the three outcomes in the cold period. Susceptible groups depended on the cause-specific mortality and air pollutant. There is significant RD, CVD and CBD mortality risk associated with ambient air pollution exposure in South Africa, higher than reported in developed countries. PMID:23202828

  16. Afriflu2--second international workshop on influenza vaccination in the African continent--8 November 2012, Cape Town (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Schoub, Barry D; Gessner, Bradford D; Ampofo, William; Cohen, Adam L; Steffen, Christoph A

    2013-08-01

    The second meeting of the Afriflu conferences took place in Cape Town, South Africa, with over 60 participants from 15 countries in Africa and also outside the continent. Significant progress in surveillance has been made in better understanding the illness burden of influenza on the continent, which limited evidence suggests is greater than that in the developed world. In southern Africa HIV and TB coinfections play a major role in increasing hospitalisation and mortality, while elsewhere in Africa other cofactors still need to be determined. There is currently no indigenous vaccine production in sub-Saharan Africa and only one facility, based in South Africa, capable of filling imported bulk. Innovative vaccine strategies will need to be explored, such as maternal immunisation, and also the possibility of other influenza vaccine options, such as live attenuated influenza vaccine for young children. Sustained indigenous vaccine production is essential for the continent to have vaccine security in the event of a pandemic even though establishing local production faces considerable challenges especially ensuring adequate markets on the continent. There is an urgent need to develop effective communication messages for decision makers as well as healthcare workers addressing the importance of influenza even in the face of the major competing health burdens of the continent.

  17. Pressed flowers: notions of indigenous and alien vegetation in South Africa's Western Cape, c. 1902-1945.

    PubMed

    Pooley, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, botanists in South Africa's Western Cape sought urgently to popularise and protect the region's unique indigenous Fynbos flora. Plants imported from the 1840s, some of which proved invasive, became a physical and symbolic focus for their advocacy. The botanists' efforts resonated with political attempts to forge a common white South African national identity that drew on notions of landscape and the indigenous flora for symbolism and that consciously exploited the politically integrative potential of the new science of ecology. Introduced by overseas-trained experts, ecological theory was, however, inappropriate for the local flora, and had unfortunate consequences for the scientifically-informed research and management particularly of the fire-maintained Fynbos. While botanists and conservationists were united in defending the local flora against invasive introduced plants, they drew distinctions between what was 'indigenous' and what was 'natural' that further complicated their attitudes to the local flora. These historical debates illuminate agendas and policies on introduced ('alien') and indigenous flora in the region today.

  18. "Nothing Is Free": A Qualitative Study of Sex Trading Among Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Watt, Melissa H; Kimani, Stephen M; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2016-05-01

    South Africa is facing an established epidemic of methamphetamine, known locally as "tik." Globally, methamphetamine has been linked to high rates of sexual risk behaviors, including sex trading. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine the experiences of sex trading among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (17 men and 13 women) recruited from the community. Interviews were conducted in local languages using a semi-structured guide that included questions on sex trading experiences and perceptions of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using analytic memos and coding with constant comparison techniques. The data revealed that in a setting of high levels of addiction and poverty, sex was an important commodity for acquiring methamphetamine. Women were more likely to use sex to acquire methamphetamine, but men reported opportunistic cases of trading sex for methamphetamine. Four models of sex trading emerged: negotiated exchange, implicit exchange, relationships based on resources, and facilitating sex exchange for others. The expectation of sex trading created a context in which sexual violence against female methamphetamine users was common. Multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use in acts of sex trading put methamphetamine users at high risk of HIV. Interventions in this setting should address addiction, which is the primary driver of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Harm reduction interventions may include education about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, availability of condoms and HIV testing, and sexual violence prevention.

  19. The kick with the kite: an analysis of kite surfing related off shore rescue missions in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Exadaktylos, A; Sclabas, G; Blake, I; Swemmer, K; McCormick, G; Erasmus, P; Muhm, M; Curatolo, M

    2005-01-01

    Methods: The observation period for this study started on October 1, 2003 and ended on May 1, 2004 and included 30 air rescue missions. Data and information were collected prospectively. Results: The Air Mercy Service in Cape Town Province responded to 30 requests for help. Twenty five accidents were attributed to inability to detach the kite from the harness. Injuries occurred in five incidents and included fractures of the upper arm, ribs and ankle, and lacerations and contusions to the head and neck. Two patients suffered from hypothermia and one experienced severe exhaustion. All surfers were rescued successfully and there were no fatal accidents. Discussion: The risk potential of this new sport is unclear. Dangerous situations can occur despite proper training and safety precautions due to unpredictable conditions and difficulties with equipment. Safety should be stressed. Surfers should sailing with a fellow kiter and should wear a life vest. More efforts must be taken to make this booming new water sport safer. PMID:15849279

  20. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D

    2015-06-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen. PMID:25840967

  1. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D

    2015-06-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen.

  2. Contraceptive practices among women seeking termination of pregnancy in one public hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Ebenezer O.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is significantly high contraceptive knowledge in South Africa, but the uptake of contraceptives is average to low with resultant soaring of unplanned pregnancy and rising statistics of termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. This study aimed to establish the contraceptive practices among women in the South African population seeking TOP in one public hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among women seeking TOP in a women’s clinic. Self-administered questionnaires were used as data collection tool, and the data collected were entered into SPSS software for analysis, using descriptive statistics to calculate frequencies and percentages while chi-square test was used to determine the associations between the socio-demography and contraceptive practices of the participants. Results Majority of the women were aged between 20 and 29 years, had secondary education, unemployed, single and resided in townships. Contraceptive uptake prior to termination of pregnancy (CTOP) among them was 44.1%, but 85.8% had good contraceptives knowledge. Their contraceptive practices are determined by partner’s opinion, source and availability of contraceptives, previous CTOP, side effect of contraceptives and having children. Age group, educational level and employment status were found to be related to the contraceptive practices of the participants but were not statistically significant. Conclusion To reduce unplanned pregnancies and subsequent number of women seeking CTOP, the socio-economic factors associated with contraceptive practices as well as the programmes, policies and guidelines of contraceptives need to be improved on for any improvement on the factors determining contraceptive practices. PMID:27608676

  3. Gender-based Violence, Alcohol use, and Sexual Risk Among Female Patrons of Drinking Venues in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior. PMID:22526526

  4. Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gamundí, O. R.; Rossello, E. A.

    As integral parts of du Toit's (1927) ``Samfrau Geosyncline'', the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) share similar paleoclimatic, paleogeographic, and paleotectonic aspects related to the Late Paleozoic tectono-magmatic activity along the Panthalassan continental margin of Gondwanaland. Late Carboniferou-earliest Permian glacial deposits were deposited in the Sauce Grande (Sauce Grande Formation) and Karoo (Dwyka Formation) basins and Falkland-Malvinas Islands (Lafonia Formation) during an initial (sag) phase of extension. The pre-breakup position of the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands on the easternmost part of the Karoo basin (immediately east of the coast of South Africa) is supported by recent paleomagnetic data, lithofacies associations, paleoice flow directions and age similarities between the Dwyka and the Lafonia glacial sequences. The desintegration of the Gondwanan Ice Sheet (GIS) triggered widespread transgressions, reflected in the stratigraphic record by the presence of inter-basinally correlatable, open marine, fine-grained deposits (Piedra Azul Formation in the Sauce Grande basin, Prince Albert Formation in the Karoo basin and Port Sussex Formation in the Falkland Islands) capping glacial marine sediments. These early postglacial transgressive deposits, characterised by fossils of the Eurydesma fauna and Glossopteris flora, represent the maximum flooding of the basins. Cratonward foreland subsidence was triggered by the San Rafael orogeny (ca. 270 Ma) in Argentina and propogated along the Gondwanan margin. This subsidence phase generated sufficient space to accommodate thick synorogenic sequences derived from the orogenic flanks of the Sauce Grande and Karoo basins. Compositionally, the initial extensional phase of these basins was characterized by quartz-rich, craton-derived detritus and was followed by a compressional (foreland) phase characterized by a paleocurrent reversal and dominance of

  5. The MobiSan approach: informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, A; Castellano, D; Kraaijvanger, H; Meulman, B; Mels, A; Zeeman, G

    2010-01-01

    Pook se Bos informal settlement and the Cape Town Water & Sanitation Services Department are partnering on an urban sanitation project with a Dutch Consortium consisting of Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF), Landustrie Sneek and Vitens-Evides International. The aim of the project is to improve the basic sanitation services provided in informal settlements through the implementation of the MobiSan approach. The approach consists of a communal Urine-Diversion and Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) built in a former sea shipping container. The system is independent of water, electricity or sewerage connection and it is maintained by full-time community caretakers who also act as hygiene promoters. The project seeks to link sanitation services with hygiene promotion in informal settlements while enhancing user satisfaction and reducing costs in providing basic sanitation services. This paper describes the preliminary experiences and lessons learnt during the implementation and evaluation of the MobiSan prototype and discusses its potential for replication. The MobiSan has proved to be an appropriate option by means of dealing successfully with shallow groundwater table, land availability and high settlement densities. In addition it has been demonstrated to be cost-competitive in terms of operating cost compared to chemical toilets.

  6. Patients’ perceptions of the triage system in a primary healthcare facility, Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adeniji, Adeloye Amoo

    2016-01-01

    Background In public healthcare facilities, where the patient numbers and the available resources are often disproportionate, triage is used to prioritise when patients are seen. Patients may not understand the triage process and have strong views on how to improve their experience. Aim This study explored the views of patients who had undergone triage in the emergency centre of a primary care facility. Setting Gugulethu Community Health Centre, Cape Town. Methods A purposive sample consisted of five women (one coded green, three orange, one yellow) and four men (one coded green and three yellow). A semi-structured qualitative interview was conducted in either Xhosa or English and the transcripts analysed using the framework method. Results All of the respondents complained of a lack of information and poor understanding of the triage process. Those coded green experienced the process as biased and unfair and reported that the triage nurse was rude and unprofessional. By contrast, those coded yellow or orange found the triage nurse to be helpful and professional. Most patients turned to support staff (e.g. security staff or cleaners) for assistance in dealing with the triage system. Most patients waited longer than the guidelines recommend and the green-coded patients complained about this issue. Conclusion Patients did not have a good experience of the triage system. Managers of the triage system need to design better strategies to improve patient acceptance and share information. The important role of support staff needs to be recognised and strengthened. PMID:27380788

  7. Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

  8. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  9. Costs and process of in-patient tuberculosis management at a central academic hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marais, F.; Mehtar, S.; Baltussen, R. M. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Setting: South Africa reports more cases of tuberculosis (TB) than any other country, but an up-to-date, precise estimate of the costs associated with diagnosing, treating and preventing TB at the in-patient level is not available. Objective: To determine the costs associated with TB management among in-patients and to study the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) at a central academic hospital in Cape Town. Design: Retrospective and partly prospective cost analysis of TB cases diagnosed between May 2008 and October 2009. Results: The average daily in-patient costs were US$238; the average length of stay was 9.7 days. Mean laboratory and medication costs per stay were respectively US$26.82 and US$8.68. PPE use per day cost US$0.99. The average total TB management costs were US$2373 per patient. PPE was not always properly used. Discussion: The costs of in-patient TB management are high compared to community-based treatment; the main reason for the high costs is the high number of in-patient days. An efficiency assessment is needed to reduce costs. Cost reduction per TB case prevented was approximately US$2373 per case. PPE use accounted for the lowest costs. Training is needed to improve PPE use. PMID:26392953

  10. Functional Traits in Parallel Evolutionary Radiations and Trait-Environment Associations in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification.

  11. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Results Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24 - 5.36) when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade) were taken into account. Conclusions Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates. PMID:20964830

  12. Functional Traits in Parallel Evolutionary Radiations and Trait-Environment Associations in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification. PMID:25811086

  13. The 13 world congress on medical and health informatics, Cape Town, South Africa: Partnerships for effective e-Health solutions.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Andrew

    2011-01-24

    The 13(th) World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics (Medinfo) was held in 2010 between 12 and 15 September in Cape Town, South Africa. This triennial international gathering is the official conference of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and brings together leading health informatics leaders, scientists, clinicians, researchers, vendors, developers and government and health care planners from around the globe. The conference attracted 905 submissions and resulted in a program that included 260 oral presentations, 349 posters presentations and 21 scientific demonstrations representing contributions from 58 countries. The Medinfo program covered all aspects of health informatics from traditional areas, such as hospital information systems, patient registries, nursing informatics, data integration, standards, interoperability issues and decision support, to innovative topics, such as translational bioinformatics, text mining, intelligent data analysis, emerging technologies, quality, social networking, workflow and organizational issues. The outgoing President of the IMIA, Professor Reinhold Haux, presented on health informatics challenges into the future, reinforcing that today and in the future, health care has to be considered as part of a continuous and coordinated life-time journey and not just as episodes of disease. Medical informatics has a key role to play in this paradigm shift. The new IMIA President, Professor Antoine Geissbuhler, was announced at the closing ceremony. The next Medinfo congress will take place in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013.

  14. A framework for effective collaboration: a case study of collaboration in nursing education in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Felicity M; Khanyile, Thembisile D

    2013-09-01

    A fundamental purpose of mergers between higher education institutions (HEIs) in 2002 was to enable sharing of scarce resources between more advanced universities and those historically disadvantaged by the apartheid system of the South African Government. A common teaching platform for undergraduate nursing education in the Western Cape was established in 2005, in line with the transformation of the higher education system, as a collaborative initiative between three universities. In order to evaluate the common teaching platform, Stuffelbeam's context, input, process, product (CIPP) research model was employed. A sample of 108 participants was selected through stratified purposive sampling, and included three deputy vice-chancellors, three deans, three heads of department, 18 lecturers and 81 students. Semi-structured interviews were held with the staff members, whilst the students participated in focus group interviews. Open-ended questions informed by literature and the CIPP evaluation model were developed and used to guide the interviews. This enabled the researcher to obtain a rich description of the participants' experiences. The data were analysed inductively. The results revealed that the main purpose of collaboration was not achieved due to the lack of a common understanding of the concept of collaboration and its purpose; a lack of readiness to collaborate and a lack of sharing of resources. A framework for effective collaboration was developed based on the results.

  15. A framework for effective collaboration: a case study of collaboration in nursing education in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Felicity M; Khanyile, Thembisile D

    2013-09-01

    A fundamental purpose of mergers between higher education institutions (HEIs) in 2002 was to enable sharing of scarce resources between more advanced universities and those historically disadvantaged by the apartheid system of the South African Government. A common teaching platform for undergraduate nursing education in the Western Cape was established in 2005, in line with the transformation of the higher education system, as a collaborative initiative between three universities. In order to evaluate the common teaching platform, Stuffelbeam's context, input, process, product (CIPP) research model was employed. A sample of 108 participants was selected through stratified purposive sampling, and included three deputy vice-chancellors, three deans, three heads of department, 18 lecturers and 81 students. Semi-structured interviews were held with the staff members, whilst the students participated in focus group interviews. Open-ended questions informed by literature and the CIPP evaluation model were developed and used to guide the interviews. This enabled the researcher to obtain a rich description of the participants' experiences. The data were analysed inductively. The results revealed that the main purpose of collaboration was not achieved due to the lack of a common understanding of the concept of collaboration and its purpose; a lack of readiness to collaborate and a lack of sharing of resources. A framework for effective collaboration was developed based on the results. PMID:23196002

  16. Mediators of behavior change resulting from a sexual risk reduction intervention for STI patients, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Garcia, Randi L; Cain, Demetria; Eaton, Lisa A; Simbayi, Leickness C

    2015-04-01

    Theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions are often demonstrated effective, but few studies have examined the mechanisms that mediate their behavior changes. In addition, critical contextual factors, such as alcohol use, are often not accounted for by social cognitive theories and may add to the explanatory value of intervention effects. The purpose of this study is to examine the underlying mechanisms driving condom use following a brief sexual risk reduction intervention grounded in the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model of behavior change. We examined IMB theoretical constructs and alcohol-related contextual factors as potential mediators in separate models. Patients (n = 617) from an STI clinic in Cape Town, South Africa were randomly assigned to either a brief risk reduction intervention or an education-only control condition. We assessed IMB, and alcohol-related variables at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and modeled IMB constructs and alcohol-related factors as mediators of behavior change. Results of growth-curve mediational modeling showed that 1 year after counseling, the intervention indirectly affected sexual risk behavior through alcohol-related constructs, but not IMB constructs. Alcohol use and related factors play critical roles in explaining HIV and STI risk reduction intervention effects. Interventions that directly address alcohol use as a factor in sexual risk behavior and behavior change should be the focus of future research.

  17. Towards Multilingual Higher Education in South Africa: The University of Cape Town's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madiba, Mbulungeni

    2010-01-01

    South African universities are required by the Language Policy for Higher Education adopted by the government on 6 November 2002 to implement multilingualism in their learning and teaching programmes. Multilingualism is recommended in this policy as a means to ensure equity of access and success in higher education, in contrast to past colonial…

  18. The Prevalence of Motor Delay among HIV Infected Children Living in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Children living with HIV often display delayed motor performance owing to HIV infection of the central nervous system, the effects of opportunistic infections and, indirectly, owing to their social environments. Although these problems have been well documented, the impact of the virus on the development of South African children is less well…

  19. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  20. Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001–2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers’ practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  1. Linkage to HIV, TB and Non-Communicable Disease Care from a Mobile Testing Unit in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Govindasamy, Darshini; Kranzer, Katharina; van Schaik, Nienke; Noubary, Farzad; Wood, Robin; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV counseling and testing may serve as an entry point for non-communicable disease screening. Objectives To determine the yield of newly-diagnosed HIV, tuberculosis (TB) symptoms, diabetes and hypertension, and to assess CD4 count testing, linkage to care as well as correlates of linkage and barriers to care from a mobile testing unit. Methods A mobile unit provided screening for HIV, TB symptoms, diabetes and hypertension in Cape Town, South Africa between March 2010 and September 2011. The yield of newly-diagnosed cases of these conditions was measured and clients were followed-up between January and November 2011 to assess linkage. Linkage to care was defined as accessing care within one, three or six months post-HIV diagnosis (dependent on CD4 count) and one month post-diagnosis for other conditions. Clinical and socio-demographic correlates of linkage to care were evaluated using Poisson regression and barriers to care were determined. Results Of 9,806 clients screened, the yield of new diagnoses was: HIV (5.5%), TB suspects (10.1%), diabetes (0.8%) and hypertension (58.1%). Linkage to care for HIV-infected clients, TB suspects, diabetics and hypertensives was: 51.3%, 56.7%, 74.1% and 50.0%. Only disclosure of HIV-positive status to family members or partners (RR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.04-6.3, p=0.04) was independently associated with linkage to HIV care. The main barrier to care reported by all groups was lack of time to access a clinic. Conclusion Screening for HIV, TB symptoms and hypertension at mobile units in South Africa has a high yield but inadequate linkage. After-hours and weekend clinics may overcome a major barrier to accessing care. PMID:24236170

  2. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalvie, Mohamed A; Cairncross, Eugene; Solomon, Abdullah; London, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 μg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 μg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 μg/L (n = 21) and 3.16 ± 3.5 μg/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa. PMID:12689341

  3. The Association between Childhood Environmental Exposures and the Subsequent Development of Crohn's Disease in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Basson, Abigail; Swart, Rina; Jordaan, Esme; Mazinu, Mikateko; Watermeyer, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD). However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown. Methods A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0–5, 6–10 and 11–18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire. An agreement analysis was performed to determine the reliability of questionnaire data for all the relevant variables. Results This study included 194 CD patients and 213 controls. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a number of childhood environmental exposures during the 3 age interval were significantly associated with the risk of developing CD. During the age interval 6–10 years, never having had consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 2.73–13.53) and never having a donkey, horse, sheep or cow on the property (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.09–5.98) significantly increased the risk of developing future CD. During the age interval 11–18 years, an independent risk-association was identified for; never having consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.17–6.10) and second-hand cigarette smoke exposure (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13–3.35). Conclusion This study demonstrates that both limited microbial exposures and exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is associated with future development of CD. PMID:25514591

  4. Opportunities for technology-based HIV prevention programming among high school students in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mwaba, Kelvin; Prescott, Tonya L; Roman, Nicolette V; Rooi, Bronwyn; Bull, Sheana

    2014-01-01

    One in three new cases of HIV in South Africa is among adolescents. Given that adolescents are particularly affected, scalable, and cost-effective prevention programs are urgently needed. This study aims to identify opportunities to integrate technology into youth HIV prevention efforts. In 2012, 1107 8th-11th graders completed a paper-and-pencil survey. Respondents were enrolled in one of three public high schools in Langa, a lower income community in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty-nine percent of respondents have used text messaging (SMS) and 86% have gone online. If an HIV prevention program was offered online, 66% of youth would be somewhat or extremely likely to access it; slightly fewer (55%) felt the same about SMS-based programming. In comparison, 85% said they would be somewhat or extremely likely to access a school-based HIV prevention program. Interest in Internet- (60%) and SMS-based (54%) HIV prevention programming was similar for youth who had a self-appraised risk of HIV compared to youth who appraised their risk to be lower, as it was for youth who were tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention. Technology use is common - even among high school students who live in lower income communities. At the same time, these data reveal that it is not uncommon for youth to be tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention, and many of the typical topics key to HIV prevention have low interest levels among youth. HIV prevention researchers need to be mindful of the extent of existing programming that youth are exposed to. Technology-based programming may be especially amenable to meeting these requirements because of its novelty especially in developing countries, and because interactive functionality can be easily integrated into the program design. Given the preference for school- and Internet-based programming, it seems that a hybrid approach is likely feasible and acceptable.

  5. The 1992 M=7 Cape Mendocino, California, earthquake: Coseismic deformation at the south end of the Cascadia megathrust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, M.H.; Marshall, G.A.; Lisowski, M.; Stein, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    We invert geodetic measurements of coseismic surface displacements to determine a dislocation model for the April 25, 1992, M=7 Cape Mendocino, California, earthquake. The orientation of the model slip vector, which nearly parallels North America-Juan de Fuca relative plate convergence, and the location and orientation of the model fault relative to the offshore Cascadia megathrust, suggest that the 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquake is the first well-recorded event to relieve strain associated with the Cascadia subduction zone. We use data from three geodetic techniques: (1) the horizontal and vertical displacements of 13 monuments surveyed with the Global Positioning System, corrected for observed horizontal interseismic strain accumulation, (2) 88 section-elevation differences between leveling monuments, and (3) the uplift of 12 coastal sites observed from the die-off of intertidal marine organisms. Maximum observed displacements are 0.4 m of horizontal movement and 1.5 m of uplift along the coast. We use Monte Carlo techniques to estimate an optimal uniform slip rectangular fault geometry and its uncertainties. The optimal model using all the data resolves 4.9 m of slip on a 14 by 15 km fault that dips 28?? SE. The fault extends from 1.5 to 8.7 km in depth and the main-shock hypocenter is close to the downdip projection of the fault. The shallowly dipping fault plane is consistent with the observed aftershock locations, and the estimated geodetic moment is 3.1??1019 N m, 70% of the seismic moment. Other models that exclude leveling data collected in 1935 and 1942 are more consistent with seismological estimates of the fault geometry. If the earthquake is characteristic for this segment, the estimated horizontal slip vector compared with plate convergence rates suggests a recurrence interval of 140 years, with a 95% confidence range of 100-670 years. The coseismic uplift occurred in a region that also has high Quaternary uplift rates determined from marine terrace

  6. Structural interpretation of the Steenkampskraal monazite deposit, Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, I. J.; Muntingh, J. A.; Jellicoe, B. C.; Anthonissen, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    The Steenkampskraal Monazite Mine was first established in 1952, to extract monazite ore for the production of thorium and rare earth element (REE) concentrate. Refurbishment of the mine in recent years has required the re-inspection and re-evaluation of the mineralized monazite zone (MMZ). This contribution presents a structural review of the MMZ and its emplacement, based on recent data and its setting at the southern extent of the Bushmanland Sub-province of the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Belt. New surface and underground mapping confirm that the MMZ is a moderately-dipping body within gneissic host rocks on the southern limb of a broad F3 antiform. Thickness variations, both down-dip and along-strike, are the result of D2 and D3 deformation. The MMZ has been locally transected and steepened by subsequent late-D3, "steep-structures", which are typical of the Okiep copper district, ∼150 km north of Steenkampskraal. Geochronological data suggest that the MMZ was intruded, emplaced or formed at 1046 ± 7.5 Ma, at the start of the D3 Klondikean Episode (1040-1020 Ma). Unlike the analogous copper-bearing Koperberg Suite in the Okiep Copper district, the MMZ was not intruded into Klondikean-aged steep structures, but was rather transected and steepened by these. Local steepening of the otherwise moderately-dipping to flat-lying MMZ makes it locally amenable to detection by soil sampling and radiometric surveys.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  8. An incentivized HIV counseling and testing program targeting hard-to-reach unemployed men in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nglazi, Mweete D.; van Schaik, Nienke; Kranzer, Katharina; Lawn, Stephen D.; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background In Southern Africa, men access HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services less than women. Innovative strategies are needed to increase uptake of testing among men. This study assessed the effectiveness of incentivized mobile HCT in reaching unemployed men in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A retrospective analysis of HCT data collected between August 2008 and August 2010 from adult men accessing clinic-based stationary and non-incentivized and incentivized mobile services. Data from these three services were analyzed using descriptive statistics and log-binomial regression models. Results A total of 9416 first time testers were included in the analysis: 708 were clinic-based, 4985 were non-incentivized and 3723 incentivized mobile service testers. A higher HIV prevalence was observed among men accessing incentivized mobile testing 16.6% (617/3723) compared to those attending non-incentivized mobile 5.5% (277/4985)] and clinic-based services 10.2% (72/708)]. Among men testing at the mobile service, greater proportions of men receiving incentives were self-reported first-time testers (60.1% vs. 42.0%) and had advanced disease (14.9% vs. 7.5%) compared to men testing at non-incentivized mobile services. Furthermore, compared to the non-incentivized mobile service, the incentivized service was associated with a 3-fold greater yield of newly diagnosed HIV infections. This strong association persisted in analyses adjusted for age and first-time versus repeat testing (RR 2.33 95% CI 2.03–2.57]; p<0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that incentivized mobile testing services may reach more previously untested men and significantly increase detection of HIV infection in men. PMID:22173039

  9. Coastal lake sediments from the southern Cape, South Africa - Implications for sea level and climate variations during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündsch, M.; Haberzettl, T.; Kirsten, K. L.; Meschner, S.; Frenzel, P.; Baade, J.; Daut, G.; Mäusbacher, R.; Kasper, T.; Quick, L. J.; Meadows, M. E.; Zabel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Within the RAIN project (Regional Archives for Integrated iNvestigations) interdisciplinary investigations on climate evolution and environmental change in southern Africa during the Late Quaternary are being conducted. For this purpose, spatial and temporal variations of the three major rainfall zones covering South Africa (winter-, summer- and year-round rainfall zone) are studied using both marine and terrestrial archives. Here we present results inferred from sediment records from lakes Groenvlei and Eilandvlei located on the southern Cape coast within the year-round rainfall zone. From Eilandvlei, a brackish lake that is connected to the Indian Ocean via an estuary, a 30.5 m sediment core was recovered. Reservoir-corrected radiocarbon ages reveal a continuous sedimentation and a maximum age of about 8,900 cal BP. This ultra-high-resolution record of environmental change during the Holocene represents a unique discovery for entire southern Africa. Geochemical data reveal different phases of marine and terrestrial sediment deposition throughout the covered time span. Hence, this record reflects changes in sea level, but also variations in terrestrial sediment transport and thus changing climatic conditions. The sediment core from Groenvlei, which today is isolated from the Indian Ocean, covers the past 4,200 cal BP. Sediments from this lake are predominantly composed of autochthonous carbonates. Mineralogical investigations reveal alternating deposition of calcite and aragonite/dolomite, pointing to variable Mg/Ca ratios and thus variations in lake water salinity. These changes can be linked to sea level variations as well as to changes in the precipitation/evaporation balance, and hence climate. Based on these results, the Groenvlei record reveals a decreasing marine influence and a trend from generally drier to wetter conditions within the last 4,200 yrs. Moreover, several layers of enhanced allochtonous input were detected in this record, which can be

  10. Costs of measures to control tuberculosis/HIV in public primary care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Hausler, Harry Peter; Sinanovic, Edina; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Naidoo, Pren; Schoeman, Hennie; Karpakis, Barbara; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the costs and estimate the cost-effectiveness of the ProTEST package of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) interventions in primary health care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We collected annual cost data retrospectively using ingredients-based costing in three primary care facilities and estimated the cost per HIV infection averted and the cost per TB case prevented. FINDINGS: The range of costs per person for the ProTEST interventions in the three facilities were: US$ 7-11 for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), US$ 81-166 for detecting a TB case, US$ 92-183 for completing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and US$ 20-44 for completing six months of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy. The estimated cost per HIV infection averted by VCT was US$ 67-112. The cost per TB case prevented by VCT (through preventing HIV) was US$ 129-215, by intensified case finding was US$ 323-664 and by IPT was US$ 486-962. Sensitivity analysis showed that the use of chest X-rays for IPT screening decreases the cost-effectiveness of IPT in preventing TB cases by 36%. IPT screening with or without tuberculin purified protein derivative screening was almost equally cost-effective. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the ProTEST package is cost saving. Despite moderate adherence, linking prevention and care interventions for TB and HIV resulted in the estimated costs of preventing TB being less than previous estimates of costs of treating it. VCT was less expensive than previously reported in Africa. PMID:16878226

  11. Filling the gap: a learning network for health an human rights in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Fick, Nicole; Tram, Khai Hoan; Stuttaford, Maria

    2012-06-15

    We draw on the experience of a Learning Network for Health and Human Rights (LN) involving collaboration between academic institutions and civil society organizations in the Western Cape, South Africa, aimed at identifying and disseminating best practice related to the right to health. The LN's work in materials development, participatory research, training and capacity-building for action, and advocacy for intervention illustrates important lessons for human rights practice. These include (i) the importance of active translation of knowledge and awareness into action for rights to be made real; (ii) the potential tension arising from civil society action, which might relieve the state of its obligations by delivering services that should be the state's responsibility-and hence the importance of emphasizing civil society's role in holding services accountable in terms of the right to health; (iii) the role of civil society organizations in filling a gap related to obligations to promote rights; (iv) the critical importance of networking and solidarity for building civil society capacity to act for health rights. Evidence from evaluation of the LN is presented to support the argument that civil society can play a key role in bridging a gap between formal state commitment to creating a human rights culture and realizing services and policies that enable the most vulnerable members of society to advance their health. Through access to information and the creation of spaces, both for participation and as a safe environment in which learning can be turned into practice, the agency of those most affected by rights violations can be redressed. We argue that civil society agency is critical to such action.

  12. Caregivers’ Experiences of Pathways to Care for Seriously Ill Children in Cape Town, South Africa: A Qualitative Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Caroline H. D.; Ward, Alison; Hodkinson, Peter W.; Reid, Stephen J.; Wallis, Lee A.; Harrison, Sian; Argent, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding caregivers’ experiences of care can identify barriers to timely and good quality care, and support the improvement of services. We aimed to explore caregivers’ experiences and perceptions of pathways to care, from first access through various levels of health service, for seriously ill and injured children in Cape Town, South Africa, in order to identify areas for improvement. Methods Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of children who were admitted to paediatric intensive care or died in the health system prior to intensive care admission. Interviews explored caregivers’ experiences from when their child first became ill, through each level of health care to paediatric intensive care or death. A maximum variation sample of transcripts was purposively sampled from a larger cohort study based on demographic characteristics, child diagnosis, and outcome at 30 days; and analysed using the method of constant comparison. Results Of the 282 caregivers who were interviewed in the larger cohort study, 45 interviews were included in this qualitative analysis. Some caregivers employed ‘tactics’ to gain quicker access to care, including bypassing lower levels of care, and negotiating or demanding to see a healthcare professional ahead of other patients. It was sometimes unclear how to access emergency care within facilities; and non-medical personnel informally judged illness severity and helped or hindered quicker access. Caregivers commonly misconceived ambulances to be slow to arrive, and were concerned when ambulance transfers were seemingly not prioritised by illness severity. Communication was often good, but some caregivers experienced language difficulties and/or criticism. Conclusions Interventions to improve child health care could be based on: reorganising the reception of seriously ill children and making the emergency route within healthcare facilities clear; promoting caregivers’ use of

  13. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (χ(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (χ(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that

  14. Adult Education in the Limpopo Province of South Africa: Challenges for Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, J.; Rampedi, M.; de Jong, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report and reflect on a study about the problems encountered in the implementation of adult education policies in the Limpopo province of South Africa. We used the model of intergovernmental policy implementation of Van Horn and Van Meter as a theoretical framework. We reflect on this study and link the findings with more recent…

  15. Characterisation of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kullin, B; Brock, T; Rajabally, N; Anwar, F; Vedantam, G; Reid, S; Abratt, V

    2016-10-01

    The C. difficile infection rate in South Africa is concerning. Many strains previously isolated from diarrhetic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital were ribotype 017. This study further characterised these strains with respect to their clonal relationships, antibiotic susceptibility, toxin production and various attributes impacting on pathogen colonisation. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was used to characterise all C. difficile isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test and PCR-based analysis of the ermB, gyrA and gyrB genes. Auto-aggregation of cells was measured in broth, and biofilm formation observed in 24-well plates. Toxins were measured using the Wampole C DIFF TOX A/B II kit. Most isolates belonged to the ribotype 017 group. Identical MLVA types occurred in different wards over time, and several patients were infected with identical strains. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, but some ribotype 017 isolates showed reduced metronidazole susceptibility (≥2 mg l(-1)). Sixty-nine percent of ribotype 017 isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin, and 94 % to erythromycin, compared to 0 % and 17 % resistance, respectively, in non-ribotype 017 isolates. The ermB gene and mutations in the gyrA and/or gyrB genes were linked to erythromycin and moxifloxacin resistance, respectively. Ribotype 017 isolates auto-aggregated more strongly than other isolates and produced lower levels of the TcdB toxin than a reference strain. Certain strains produced strong biofilms. Patient-to-patient transfer and unique infection events could cause the predominance of ribotype 017 strains in the cohort. Multi-drug resistant strains are a potential reservoir for future infections.

  16. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-04-16

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likelymore » created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Furthermore, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times.« less

  17. Cape fearless.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the Ilita Labantu (IL) group in South Africa, that is working to reduce child abuse and violence against women. The group started in 1989, with the aim of reducing child rape and sexual assaults in five townships in Cape Town. Child rape is perpetuated by myths sustained by witch doctors and indigenous medicine that promote child rape as a cure-all for symptoms ranging from poverty to AIDS. IL has four satellite groups that educate rape and abuse victims and potential victims. It is assumed that girls are potential victims because of their early unawareness that gender is tied to some patterns of behavior. IL trained mass media groups to educate the general public. IL distributes public information materials on how to identify domestic violence and abuse and how to identify potential rapists within households. Materials are distributed to individuals in community programs and in training programs. Child survivors make presentations in playgroups in a nonthreatening way. IL interacts with courts of law, police stations, hospitals, and schools. The group refers 25-35 cases per day. The group is working on setting up private rooms in police stations where rape victims can make confidential complaints without public attention. IL also works to promote the use of alternative strategies for solving family conflicts.

  18. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-06-01

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likely created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Alternatively, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times. In this study, we assess ungulate movement patterns with inter- and intra-tooth enamel samples for strontium isotopes in fossil fauna from Pinnacle Point sites PP13B and PP30. To accomplish our goals we created a bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr isoscape for the region by collecting plants at 171 sampling sites and developing a geospatial model. The strontium isotope results indicate that ungulates spent most of their time on the Paleo-Agulhas Plain and avoided dissected plain, foothill, and mountain habitats located more than about 15 km north of the modern coastline. The results clearly exclude a north-south (coastal-interior) movement or migration pattern, and cannot falsify the east-west movements hypothesized in the south coast migration ecosystem hypothesis.

  19. Seasonality and Trend Forecasting of Tuberculosis Prevalence Data in Eastern Cape, South Africa, Using a Hybrid Model

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Adeboye; Obaromi, Davies; Odeyemi, Akinwumi; Ndege, James; Muntabayi, Ruffin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease caused by Mycobacteria tuberculosis. Tuberculosis as a chronic and highly infectious disease is prevalent in almost every part of the globe. More than 95% of TB mortality occurs in low/middle income countries. In 2014, approximately 10 million people were diagnosed with active TB and two million died from the disease. In this study, our aim is to compare the predictive powers of the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and neural network auto-regression (SARIMA-NNAR) models of TB incidence and analyse its seasonality in South Africa. Methods: TB incidence cases data from January 2010 to December 2015 were extracted from the Eastern Cape Health facility report of the electronic Tuberculosis Register (ERT.Net). A SARIMA model and a combined model of SARIMA model and a neural network auto-regression (SARIMA-NNAR) model were used in analysing and predicting the TB data from 2010 to 2015. Simulation performance parameters of mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean percent error (MPE), mean absolute scaled error (MASE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were applied to assess the better performance of prediction between the models. Results: Though practically, both models could predict TB incidence, the combined model displayed better performance. For the combined model, the Akaike information criterion (AIC), second-order AIC (AICc) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) are 288.56, 308.31 and 299.09 respectively, which were lower than the SARIMA model with corresponding values of 329.02, 327.20 and 341.99, respectively. The seasonality trend of TB incidence was forecast to have a slightly increased seasonal TB incidence trend from the SARIMA-NNAR model compared to the single model. Conclusions: The combined model indicated a better TB incidence forecasting with a lower AICc. The model also indicates the need for resolute

  20. Illegal yet developmentally normative: a descriptive analysis of young, urban adolescents’ dating and sexual behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Africa, it is illegal for adolescents under age 16 years to engage in any sexual behaviour whether kissing, petting, or penetrative sex, regardless of consent. This cross-sectional study investigated the extent to which young adolescents engage in various sexual behaviours and the associations between dating status and sexual behaviours. Method Grade 8 adolescents (N = 474, ages 12–15 years, mean = 14.14 years) recruited from Cape Town schools completed surveys providing information about their sociodemographic backgrounds, dating experience, sexual behaviour, and substance use. Results Lower hierarchy sexual behaviours, such as kissing (71.4% of girls; 88.4% of boys), were more common than oral (3.9% of girls; 13.8% of boys), vaginal (9.3% of girls; 30.0% of boys), or anal (1.4% of girls; 10.5% of boys) sex. Currently dating girls and boys were more likely to engage in sexual behaviours including several risk behaviours in comparison to their currently non-dating counterparts. These risk behaviours included penetrative sex (21.1% of dating vs. 4.5% of non-dating girls; 49.4% of dating vs. 20.2% of non-dating boys), sex with co-occurring substance use (22.2% of dating vs. 0 non-dating girls; 32.1% of dating vs. 40% of non-dating boys), and no contraceptive use (26.1% of sexually experienced girls; 44.4% of sexually experienced boys). Among girls, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and SES (OR = 2.592, p = 0.017) and never dating (OR = 0.330, p = 0.016). Among boys, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and never dating (OR = 0.162, p = 0.008). Although the currently dating group of young adolescents appear to be a precocious group in terms of risk behaviour relative to the currently non-dating group, teenagers in both groups had experience in the full range of sexual behaviours. Conclusions Many young adolescents are engaging in a variety

  1. Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    This summary background paper for the Cape Verde Islands, by the U.S. State Department, includes geography, people, history, government, politics, economy and foreign relations. Cape Verde, located 650 km west of Senegal, has 10 volcanic islands inhabited by 339,000 people of combined African and Portuguese descent. The annual growth rate is 1.4%, although numbers of Cape Verdeans emigrate or work abroad. Per capita income is about $350; resources include volcanic rock, fish, salt, ship repair and light industry, subsistence and tropical agricultural products, although there has been a drought since 1968. Cape Verde has been independent since 1975. There is one political party, and a constitutional government. The country is nonaligned, and is on good terms with many other nations, accepting foreign aid from several sources. A significant proportion of the GNP derives from Cape Verde nationals working abroad.

  2. Faunal assemblage composition and paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake, a Middle Stone Age locality in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; Brophy, Juliet K; Lewis, Patrick J; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2008-12-01

    Plovers Lake is a dolomitic cave infill located approximately 45km northwest of Johannesburg in the Bloubank Valley, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Excavations between 2002-2004 revealed a rich and diverse fauna, a moderate-sized stone tool assemblage of Middle Stone Age (MSA) character, and human skeletal remains. Two principal depositional units are recognized: 1) a disturbed ex situ component that was likely displaced from 2) an otherwise relatively undisturbed in situ component from which the human skeletal material was recovered. The in situ depositional unit is bracketed by 2 flowstone layers, with U-series dates of 62.9 (+/-1.3)ka for the capping flowstone and 88.7 (+/-1.6)ka for the underlying flowstone. A single isochron ESR date of 75.6 (+/-5.6)ka corroborates the U-series dates. This paper presents an analysis of the mammalian, bird, and reptile faunas recovered from these two units. The two faunal assemblages show close correspondence in taphonomic, taxonomic, and ecological composition, supporting a common origin for both the ex situ and in situ components. Although human skeletal material, cut-marked bone, and stone tools have been recovered, these indications are too rare to consider Plovers Lake a human occupation site. Instead, a high abundance of carnivores, coprolites, and carnivore damaged bones point to brown hyenas as the principal, though not exclusive, bone accumulating agent. In the absence of a significant taphonomic bias relating to accumulating agent, Plovers Lake allows us to document an environment occupied by MSA humans, even if the humans were not resident in the cave itself. We reconstruct the paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake as predominantly grassland, though it was colder, moister, and more wooded than at present. Paleoclimatic conditions appear to have been as different from historic norms as those seen in several fossil localities in the Western Cape, pointing to greater environmental heterogeneity than has previously been

  3. Promoting the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Primary Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Petra; Oswald, Marietjie; Forlin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The British "Index for Inclusion" was selected to be used in three primary schools in the Western Cape Province in South Africa in order to develop a South African model to assist in the development of inclusive schools. The "Index for Inclusion" process entails progression through a series of five developmental phases and this paper, written by…

  4. Alcohol, cannabis, and methamphetamine use and other risk behaviours among Black and Coloured South African women: A small randomized trial in the Western Cape

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Luseno, Winnie K.; Karg, Rhonda S.; Young, Siobhan; Rodman, Nat; Myers, Bronwyn; Parry, Charles D. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a pressing need for brief behavioural interventions to address the intersection of high HIV prevalence, increasing substance use, and high-risk sex practices among South African women. The primary aim of this pilot, randomized trial was to examine whether an adapted evidence-based intervention would be equally, more, or less effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours when delivered using an individual or group format. The secondary aim was to examine differences between Black and Coloured South African women across pre- and post-intervention measures of alcohol and illicit drug use and sex risk behaviours. Methods The Cape Town Women’s Health CoOp was adapted from an evidence-based intervention known as the Women’s CoOp._Study participants included Black (n=60) and Coloured (n=52) women living in the township communities of Cape Town, South Africa, who reported using illicit drugs and alcohol. Results Coloured women reported greater methamphetamine use (13 days in the past 30 days) and Black women reported mostly cannabis use (27days in the past 30 days). Although both groups reported having unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, Black women reported greater condom use and having one partner; Coloured women reported having more than one sex partner. One-month post-intervention assessments indicated significant reductions in substance use and sex risk behaviours. After controlling for baseline measures, there were no significant differences between the two intervention conditions. Conclusion Significant differences in risk behaviours were observed between Black and Coloured South African women. However, both ethnic groups were responsive to the adapted intervention and no differences were found by intervention assignment. These findings support the assertion that group interventions may be more cost-effective in reaching at-risk women in resource-scarce environments. Larger studies are needed to show efficacy and

  5. Correlation of Tectonic Provinces of South America and the Caribbean Region with MAGSAT Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Hinze, W. J.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Intensities of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data correlate with the main tectonic provinces of South America and the Caribbean region. Magnetic anomalies of the continents generally have higher amplitudes than oceanic anomalies. This is particularly evident in Central America and in the shield areas of South America. The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico are underlain by prominent magnetic minima. Within these oceanic areas, linear magnetic highs correlate with topographic ridges which separate the Gulf of Mexico, the Colombian Basin, and the Venezuelan Basin. The boundaries of the Caribbean plate occur along magnetic gradients which are particularly sharp along the northern and western margins of the plate, but gradational along the southern margin where they merge with the Andean Cordillera. The anomalies along the western margin of the South American plate are also distinct and appear to be separate from those of the adjacent ocean basin. Eastern South America is characterized by magnetic anomalies which commonly extend into the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of problematic alcohol use, risky sexual practices and other negative consequences associated with alcohol use among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Harmful alcohol use can compromise worker health and productivity. Persons employed in safety-sensitive occupations are particularly vulnerable to hazardous alcohol use and its associated risks. This study describes the patterns of harmful alcohol use, related HIV risks and risk factors for the harmful use of alcohol among a sample of employees in South Africa working in the safety and security sector. Methods A cross-sectional study that formed the baseline for a clustered randomized control trial was undertaken in 2011. A random sample of 325 employees employed within a safety and security sector of a local municipality in the Western Cape Province of South Africa participated in the study. Data were collected by means of an 18-page self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed using SAS/STAT software version 9.2. For all significance testing, the F-statistic and p-values are reported. Results Three hundred and twenty-five employees were surveyed. Findings suggest that more than half (76.1%) of the 78.9% of participants who consumed alcohol engaged in binge drinking, with close to a quarter reporting a CAGE score greater than the cut-off of 2, indicating potentially hazardous drinking patterns. The study further found that employees who use alcohol are more likely to engage in risky sexual practices when under the influence. A favorable drinking climate (p < 0.001) and poor levels of group cohesion (p = 0.009) were significantly correlated to binge drinking. Conclusion This study identifies alcohol-related behaviors and associated risks in the context of safety-sensitive occupations at the workplace. It suggests that persons employed within such positions are at high risk for developing alcohol-related disorders and for contracting HIV. This study highlights the need for testing a comprehensive package of services designed to prevent hazardous alcohol use among safety and security employees. PMID:24593946

  7. Ethnic differences in alcohol and drug use and related sexual risks for HIV among vulnerable women in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use among poor Black African and Coloured women in South Africa compounds their sexual risk for HIV. Given South Africa’s history of ethnic disparities, ethnic differences in sex risk profiles may exist that should be taken into account when planning HIV risk reduction interventions. This paper aims to describe ethnic differences in AOD use and AOD-related sexual risks for HIV among vulnerable women from Cape Town, South Africa. Method Cross-sectional data on 720 AOD-using women (324 Black African; 396 Coloured) recruited from poor communities in Cape Town were examined for ethnic differences in AOD use and AOD-related sexual risk behavior. Results Ethnic differences in patterns of AOD use were found; with self-reported drug problems, heavy episodic drinking and methamphetamine use being most prevalent among Coloured women and cannabis use being most likely among Black African women. However, more than half of Black African women reported drug-related problems and more than a third tested positive for recent methamphetamine use. More than a third of women reported being AOD-impaired and having unprotected sex during their last sexual encounter. Coloured women had four-fold greater odds of reporting that their last sexual episode was AOD-impaired and unprotected than Black African women. In addition, close to one in two women reported that their sexual partner was AOD-impaired at last sex, with Coloured women having three-fold greater odds of reporting that their partner was AOD-impaired at last sex than Black African women. Conclusions Findings support the need to develop and test AOD risk reduction interventions for women from both ethnic groups. In addition, findings point to the need for tailored interventions that target the distinct profiles of AOD use and AOD-related sex risks for HIV among Black African and Coloured women. PMID:23442318

  8. Post break-up tectonic inversion across the southwestern cape of South Africa: New insights from apatite and zircon fission track thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, Mark; Brown, Roderick; Watkins, Ron; Carter, Andrew; Gleadow, Andrew; Summerfield, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The south-west African margin is regarded as an example of a passive continental margin formed by continental rifting following a phase of lithospheric extension and thinning. Recent attention focused on this margin has included theoretical modelling studies of rift processes, plate kinematic studies of the opening geometry and timing, and empirical studies focused on documenting the crustal structure and offshore sedimentary record. Here, we examine the onshore geomorphic and tectonic response to rifting and breakup, with a specific focus on the SW Cape of South Africa. We present 75 new apatite and 8 new zircon fission track analyses from outcrop samples and onshore borehole profiles along the western margin of South Africa. The data are used to derive robust thermal histories that record two discrete phases of accelerated erosional cooling during the Early Cretaceous (150-130 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (100-80 Ma), respectively. Both periods of enhanced erosion are regional in extent, involved km-scale erosion, and extend well inland of the current escarpment zone, albeit with spatially variable intensity and style. The Late Cretaceous episode is also expressed more locally by tectonic reactivation and inversion of major faults causing km-scale differential displacement and erosion. The new AFT data do not exclude the possibility of modest surface uplift occurring during the Cenozoic, but they restrict the depth of regional Cenozoic erosion on the western margin to less than c. 1 km. The inferred pattern and chronology of erosion onshore is consistent with the key features and sediment accumulation patterns within the offshore Orange and Bredasdorp basins. It is suggested that the Late Cretaceous event was triggered by a combination of regional dynamic uplift augmented along the western margin and in the SW Cape by local tectonic forces arising from dextral displacement of the Falkland Plateau along the Falkland-Agulhas Fracture Zone.

  9. An Africanised Study of Astronomical History in the Northern Cape South Africa, for Purposes of Secondary and Higher Education Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beer, K. J.; Hoffman, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    Dr M.J. Hoffman, Head of the Department Physics, University of the Free State (UFS), presented a paper at the Duineveld Secondary School in Upington, to enhance the idea of a natural observatory centre in the Northern Cape. Quite aptly, the National Institute for Higher Education: Northern Cape (NIHE) also invited a renowned African astronomer, Dr T Medupe, to address their graduation ceremony in 2005. However, Dr Albert Strydom, Programme Head of Tourism Management at the Central University for Technology, Free State (CUT), is very much aware of the delicate nature of this type of high scientific profile in Tourism Management. It is foreseen by Dr Kallie de Beer, Director of Distance Education, that teaching and learning in this field will predominantly be conducted via Open and Distance e-Learning (ODeL). Consequently, it is also important to understand the philosophy of ODeL within global and Africanized perspectives. Astronomy, in this case, offers excellent examples of Africanised science in practice to add scientific value to tourist packages in the Northern Cape. (www.saao.ac.za/assa/aahs).

  10. The impact of political violence on health and health services in Cape Town, South Africa, 1986: methodological problems and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1988-07-01

    Cape Town, South Africa experienced an upsurge in the level of political violence from May to July of 1986. To determine the impact of the political violence on health and health services, selected routinely available information was analyzed, a community survey was conducted of 1,540 randomly selected households in high, medium, and low impact areas (defined using police and community reports), and a survey of 162 nurses (75 per cent response rate) working in clinic and maternity services in Cape Town's townships was undertaken. Methodological problems were encountered in relation to sampling, interviewer allocation to areas, and access to routinely available information. Nevertheless, a consistent picture emerged from the studies that: demonstrated the impact of political violence on attendance at routine health service facilities (for hypertension, tuberculosis, immunizations, antenatal and postnatal services); highlighted the disruptions caused to basic services in high impact areas (water, street lighting, sanitation and transport); documented the problems experienced by nurses in performing their usual services and by patients obtaining access to their services; showed that high impact areas had three times higher rates of gunshot wounds than low impact areas during the period.

  11. Environmental monitoring of pesticide residues from farms at a neighbouring primary and pre-school in the Western Cape in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dalvie, M A; Sosan, M B; Africa, A; Cairncross, E; London, L

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about pesticide drift from neighbouring vineyards affecting children attending school on a farm adjacent to an urban suburb of Cape Town, Western Cape in South Africa were investigated. The study involved a before-after design, measuring levels of environmental exposure before and during pesticide application activities on the neighbouring farms. Samples were collected in air, dust and grass cuttings at the preschool and primary school located on the farms during September-December in 2010 and tested for pesticides using multi-pesticide methods. Eleven different pesticides were detected in the various samples. Six of these chemicals (endosulfan, dimethomorph, penconazole, cyprodinil, boscalid and bromopropylate) were on the spraying schedules of the two farms neighbouring the schools and the timing and location of detection were generally consistent with farm application. Three pesticides detected (chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, permethrin) are agents commonly used in household applications and one (pyriproxifen) is used in pet treatment agents. Kresoxim-methyl, the other pesticide detected, is likely to come from drift from other farms in the area. The concentration of pesticides was all lower than 0.1 μg/m(3) in air and 0.1 μg/kg in dust and grass apart from permethrin and cypermethrin. The findings confirm the presence of drift onto the school premises and concentrations found in this study were generally low in comparison to that detected in other studies. Regular monitoring to track the effectiveness of containment and mitigation measures that reduce drift is recommended. PMID:23995259

  12. Contribution of Water Pollution From Inadequate Sanitation and Housing Quality to Diarrheal Disease in Low-Cost Housing Settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jo M.; Pieper, Clarissa H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the effects of failing sanitation, poor housing conditions, and fecal pollution in runoff water on the health—particularly the incidence of diarrheal disease—of residents of low-cost housing settlements in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods. In November 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with structured interviews in 4 communities (n = 336 dwellings; 1080 persons). We used Colilert defined-substrate technology to determine Escherichia coli levels in runoff water samples taken from the study communities. Results. Almost 15% of households disposed of soiled products in storm water drains and 6% disposed of soiled products in the street. In only 26% of the dwellings were toilets washed daily. Approximately 59% of dwellings lacked a tap near the toilet for hand washing, and 14% of respondents suffered 1 or more attacks of diarrhea in the 2 weeks preceding their interview. E.coli counts of runoff environmental water samples ranged from 750 to 1 580 000 000 per 100 milliliters. Conclusions. A holistic and integrated approach is needed to improve housing quality and sanitation among Cape Town's low-income citizens. PMID:21566018

  13. The Impact of Densification by Means of Informal Shacks in the Backyards of Low-Cost Houses on the Environment and Service Delivery in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Thashlin; Barnes, Jo M.; Pieper, Clarissa H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the state-sponsored low cost housing provided to previously disadvantaged communities in the City of Cape Town. The strain imposed on municipal services by informal densification of unofficial backyard shacks was found to create unintended public health risks. Four subsidized low-cost housing communities were selected within the City of Cape Town in this cross-sectional survey. Data was obtained from 1080 persons with a response rate of 100%. Illegal electrical connections to backyard shacks that are made of flimsy materials posed increased fire risks. A high proportion of main house owners did not pay for water but sold water to backyard dwellers. The design of state-subsidised houses and the unplanned housing in the backyard added enormous pressure on the existing municipal infrastructure and the environment. Municipal water and sewerage systems and solid waste disposal cannot cope with the increased population density and poor sanitation behaviour of the inhabitants of these settlements. The low-cost housing program in South Africa requires improved management and prudent policies to cope with the densification of state-funded low-cost housing settlements. PMID:21695092

  14. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sandham, Luke A. Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-05-15

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa.

  15. Relation of MAGSAT Anomalies to the Main Tectonic Provinces of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data to the main tectonic provinces and boundaries of South America reveals a number of geologic correlations. South America is divisible into a broad platform of Precambrian shields and cratons separated by Phanerozoic basins, grabens and aulacogens to the east, the Phanerozoic Patagonian Platform to the south, and the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Andean Fold Belt and Caribbean Mountain System to the west and north. The continental shields are mainly more magnetic then continental basins and orogenic belts. Cratons, mainly covered by younger sedimentary rocks, are generally associated with magnetic gradients. Most of the anomalies associated with the Patagonian Platform are positive and have higher amplitudes eastward away from the Andean Fold Belt. The northern Andes are coincident with positive magnetic anomalies, whereas the central and southern Andes are associated mainly with negative anomalies.

  16. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  17. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  18. The perceived benefit of the disability grant for persons living with HIV in an informal settlement community in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Woolgar, Helen Louise; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-01-01

    For persons living with HIV (PLWH) in limited socioeconomic circumstances in South Africa, social grants for disability have contributed significantly to alleviate poverty, yet there is a risk that recipients may lose these grants once they are clinically stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our qualitative research explored perceptions and experiences of PLWH on ART concerning the social grant for disability and its contribution to health. Three focus groups were conducted with 15 purposively selected participants who attended a primary care clinic in the Western Cape. A thematic data analysis approach revealed two themes: (a) disability grants as a means of survival and (b) disability grants and ART adherence. The disability grant was considered an essential source of income and, for some, the sole means of survival. Participants valued their health more than the income, however, and, despite the risk of losing the grant, remained adherent to ART. PMID:25305028

  19. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  20. The use of visual methods to explore how children construct and assign meaning to the “self” within two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, Elizabeth; Savahl, Shazly

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how children construct and assign meaning to the “self” within two urban communities of Cape Town in South Africa. Using a child participation methodological framework data were collected using Photovoice and community maps with 54 participants between the ages of 9 and 12. Feelings of safety, social connectedness, and children's spaces were found to be central to the ways in which the participants constructed and assigned meaning to the “self.” The study provides implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving children's well-being to be inclusive of activities aimed at improving children's self-concept, including the construction of safe spaces for children to play, learn, and form meaningful relationships. PMID:27291161

  1. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 – 90 Ka) Lithic Industries at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Douze, Katja; Wurz, Sarah; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Blombos Cave is well known as an important site for understanding the evolution of symbolically mediated behaviours among Homo sapiens during the Middle Stone Age, and during the Still Bay in particular. The lower part of the archaeological sequence (M3 phase) contains 12 layers dating to MIS 5 with ages ranging from 105 to 90 ka ago (MIS 5c to 5b) that provide new perspectives on the technological behaviour of these early humans. The new data obtained from our extensive technological analysis of the lithic material enriches our currently limited knowledge of this time period in the Cape region. By comparing our results with previously described lithic assemblages from sites south of the Orange River, we draw new insights on the extent of the techno-cultural ties between these sites and the M3 phase at Blombos Cave and highlight the importance of this phase within the Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphy. PMID:26580219

  2. The use of visual methods to explore how children construct and assign meaning to the "self" within two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Elizabeth; Savahl, Shazly

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how children construct and assign meaning to the "self" within two urban communities of Cape Town in South Africa. Using a child participation methodological framework data were collected using Photovoice and community maps with 54 participants between the ages of 9 and 12. Feelings of safety, social connectedness, and children's spaces were found to be central to the ways in which the participants constructed and assigned meaning to the "self." The study provides implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving children's well-being to be inclusive of activities aimed at improving children's self-concept, including the construction of safe spaces for children to play, learn, and form meaningful relationships. PMID:27291161

  3. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 - 90 Ka) Lithic Industries at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Douze, Katja; Wurz, Sarah; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Blombos Cave is well known as an important site for understanding the evolution of symbolically mediated behaviours among Homo sapiens during the Middle Stone Age, and during the Still Bay in particular. The lower part of the archaeological sequence (M3 phase) contains 12 layers dating to MIS 5 with ages ranging from 105 to 90 ka ago (MIS 5c to 5b) that provide new perspectives on the technological behaviour of these early humans. The new data obtained from our extensive technological analysis of the lithic material enriches our currently limited knowledge of this time period in the Cape region. By comparing our results with previously described lithic assemblages from sites south of the Orange River, we draw new insights on the extent of the techno-cultural ties between these sites and the M3 phase at Blombos Cave and highlight the importance of this phase within the Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphy. PMID:26580219

  4. The Early Triassic magmatism of the Alto Paraguay Province, Central South America: Paleomagnetic and ASM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, Marcia; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso de Barros

    2015-10-01

    A paleomagnetic studystudywork was carried out on the Alto Paraguay Province (APP), a belt of alkaline complexes that parallel the Paraguay river for more than 40 km at the border of Brazil and Paraguay. The province is well dated by 40Ar/39Ar method giving ages in the range 240-250 Ma with a preferred age of 241 Ma. Intrusive rocks are predominant but the stocks may be topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic work on stocks, dikes and flows of the APP identified normal and reversed magnetic components which are carried mainly by titanomagnetites. The calculated paleomagnetic pole located at 319ºE 78ºS (α95 = 6º; k = 23) is in agreement with other South American poles of Permo-Triassic age. Most of the sampling sites showed large variations in rock magnetization, but similar patterns in the variation of the within-site magnetizations, mainly in dikes, suggest geomagnetic polarity transition records. The magnetization data along with the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility determinations suggested that the South and North areas of the province have different evolution characteristics.

  5. South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia; the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    Oil and gas are produced from the onshore South Sumatra Basin Province. The province consists of Tertiary half-graben basins infilled with carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks unconformably overlying pre-Tertiary metamorphic and igneous rocks. Eocene through lower Oligocene lacustrine shales and Oligocene through lower Miocene lacustrine and deltaic coaly shales are the mature source rocks. Reserves of 4.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent have been discovered in reservoirs that range from pre-Tertiary basement through upper Miocene sandstones and carbonates deposited as synrift strata and as marine shoreline, deltaic-fluvial, and deep-water strata. Carbonate and sandstone reservoirs produce oil and gas primarily from anticlinal traps of Plio-Pleistocene age. Stratigraphic trapping and faulting are important locally. Production is compartmentalized due to numerous intraformational seals. The regional marine shale seal, deposited by a maximum sea level highstand in early middle Miocene time, was faulted during post-depositional folding allowing migration of hydrocarbons to reservoirs above the seal. The province contains the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system with one assessment unit, South Sumatra.

  6. Prospects for biological control of Cape-ivy with the Cape-ivy fly and the cape-ivy moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata, Asteraceae), native to coastal floodplains and mountain riparian zones in eastern South Africa, is an invasive vine in coastal riparian, woodland and scrub habitats in California and southern Oregon. Cape-ivy smothers native vegetation and may impair water flow in coastal...

  7. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  8. Lead Exposure in Adult Males in Urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the Apartheid Era

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Catherine A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Smith, Martin J.; Trueman, Clive N.; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country’s late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g−1), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g−1) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead. PMID:23505462

  9. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province, South Africa. Objectives To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate) contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand-delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms of frequency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9%) than satisfied (37.8%) with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%), availability of workplace resources (83.7%), salaries (78.8%), workplace safety (73.7%), career development opportunities (64.5%) and hours of work (47.6%). Conclusion Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retention of nurses is to be achieved.

  10. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  11. Cape Cod

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Image Cape Cod extends over 50 miles into the Atlantic Ocean. Its rugged coastline, dangerous sand bars and rip tides, and ever ... over the land and "puffy" cumulus clouds are over the ocean. The effects of the warm ocean water are evident in the lack of snow near ...

  12. Cape Verde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Pancam 'super resolution' mosaic of the approximately 6 m (20 foot) high cliff face of the Cape Verde promontory was taken by the rover from inside Victoria Crater, during the rover's descent into Duck Bay. Super-resolution is an imaging technique which utilizes information from multiple pictures of the same target in order to generate an image with a higher resolution than any of the individual images. Cape Verde is a geologically rich outcrop and is teaching scientists about how rocks at Victoria crater were modified since they were deposited long ago. This image complements super resolution mosaics obtained at Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent and is consistent with the hypothesis that Victoria crater is located in the middle of what used to be an ancient sand dune field. Many rover team scientists are hoping to be able to eventually drive the rover closer to these layered rocks in the hopes of measuring their chemistry and mineralogy.

    This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image mosaic acquired on sols 1342 and 1356 (November 2 and 17, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 64 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  13. Cape Cod, Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  14. Knowledge and perceptions of risk for cardiovascular disease: Findings of a qualitative investigation from a low-income peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Krisela; Everett-Murphy, Katherine; Gaziano, Thomas A.; Levitt, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease. Although referred to clinics after community screening initiatives, few individuals who are identified to be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease attend. Low health literacy and risk perception have been identified as possible causes. We investigated the knowledge and perceptions about risk for cardiovascular disease in a community. Method We conducted a series of focus group discussions with individuals from a low-income peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa. Different methods of presenting risk were explored. The data were organised into themes and analysed to find associations between themes to provide explanations for our findings. Results Respondents’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors varied, but most were familiar with the terms used to describe cardiovascular disease. In contrast, understanding of the concept of risk was poor. Risk was perceived as a binary concept and evaluation of different narrative and visual methods of presenting risk was not possible. Conclusion Understanding cardiovascular disease and its risk factors requires a different set of skills from that needed to understand uncertainty and risk. The former requires knowledge of facts, whereas understanding of risk requires numerical and computational skills. Without a better understanding of risk, risk assessments for cardiovascular disease may fail in this community. PMID:26842511

  15. 'One Man Can': shifts in fatherhood beliefs and parenting practices following a gender-transformative programme in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Wessel; Hendricks, Lynn; Hatcher, Abigail; Peacock, Dean; Godana, Patrick; Dworkin, Shari

    2013-02-01

    'One Man Can' (OMC) is a rights-based gender equality and health programme implemented by Sonke Gender Justice in South Africa. It has been featured as an example of best practice by the World Health Organization, UNAIDS, and the UN Population Fund, and translated into nearly a dozen languages and implemented all across Africa. South Africa has strong gender and HIV-related policies, but the highest documented level of men's violence against women in the world, and the largest number of people living with HIV. In this context, OMC seeks to improve men's relationships with their partners, children, and families, reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS, and reduce violence against women, men, and children. To understand whether and how OMC workshops brought about changes in men's attitudes and practices related to parenting, an academic-non-government organisation partnership was carried out with the University of California at San Francisco, the University of Cape Town, and Sonke. The workshops appear to have contributed powerfully to improved parenting and more involved and responsible fathering. This article shares our findings in more detail and discusses the promises and challenges of gender-transformative work with men, underscoring the implications of this work for the health and well-being of women, children, and men.

  16. The Prevalence and Spectrum of α-Thalassemia in Guizhou Province of South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Yin; Liu, Xing-Mei; Zhou, Man; Li, Gui-Fang; An, Bang-Quan; Su, Li; Wu, Xian; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases in the world and is especially frequent in tropical and subtropical regions, including South China. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and spectrum of α-thal in Guizhou Province as this information was unknown. A total of 40 α-thal carriers were determined in 1219 newborn umbilical cord blood samples by hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis combined with DNA analysis, which revealed that the carrier rate of α-thal in Guizhou Province was 3.28%. One thousand and forty-five individuals referred to our hospital were tested for α-thal mutations. Two hundred and twenty-four cases were determined as α-thal carriers or patients. A total of 11 genotypes and five different α-thal mutations were identified in these 224 cases. Of these mutations, more than 96.0% were deletions, including - -(SEA) (65.89%), -α(3.7) (rightward) (22.87%) and -α(4.2) (leftward) (7.74%). The other two nondeletional mutations, Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α(CS)α, HBA2: c.427T > C) and Hb Quong Sze [Hb QS, α(QS)α, HBA2: c.377T > C (or HBA1)] account for 2.71% and 0.78%, respectively. The results of this study will be useful in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND) of α-thal in Guizhou Province.

  17. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Age Comparison Between the South Carolina Dykes and Morocco Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youbi, N.; Nomade, S.; Breutel, E.; Knight, K.

    2003-12-01

    Believed to be the largest volcanic province on Earth at more than 6000 km long and 2000 km wide, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) stretches from Eastern Canada to Brazil and from Western Spain to the Ivory Coast. Due to the massive erosion and subsequent in filling of these areas since the 200 Ma rifting event, dikes and sills constitute the majority of the exposed CAMP volcanics. However, well preserved lava flows have been found in the Triassic basins of the Northeastern United States and Morocco. Despite numerous 40Ar/39Ar dating attempts, very few of the exposed CAMP volcanics have been successfully dated due to a variety of factors including; excess argon and alteration. Especially no age is available in the well-mapped but structurally complex South and North Carolina dykes swarm as well as only few scattered ages in the Moroccan Trias-Liassic basins. Our goal is to better constrain the emplacement timing of the dykes swarm but also to compare age of both intrusive and effusive rocks from the same magmatic event but separated from more than 1000 km, 200 Mys ago. Several questions continue to surround the CAMP volcanic province including its cause and emplacement mechanism. Toward that end we have collected and dated dyke samples from the Carolinas and flows in Morocco, 1000 km away and across the rift. We anticipate that a comparison of these dates will enable us to understand more about the timing between the emplacement of the flows and dykes. We have collected in South Carolina and High Atlas in Morocco 7 and 9 hand samples respectively. Specimens from South Carolina correspond to the three distinct dykes' direction NE-SW, NW-SE and NS. In Morocco, samples were collected in four sections (100 to 300 m thick) located in the High Atlas between Marrakech and Ouarzazate. From each hand sample two different transparent plagioclase fractions, 250-180 and 180 to 100 microns, were separated. We have performed step heating experiments at the Berkeley

  18. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tonetti, N; Berggoetz, M; Rühle, C; Pretorius, A M; Gern, L

    2009-04-01

    Eight ixodid tick species, associated with 59 free-ranging mammals belonging to 10 species, were collected at five different localities in the Free State Province, South Africa. Four of the study areas were nature reserves (Willem Pretorius, Sandveld, Tussen-die-Riviere, and Soetdoring), and one site was a private farm located in Senekal district. The collection was performed from March 2006 until June 2006. Ticks (n=569) and tissues from animals (n=52) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, reverse line blot, and sequencing for various tick-borne pathogens belonging to the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the known vector of Babesia bovis responsible for Asiatic redwater in South Africa, was found for the first time in the Free State Province. Rhipicephalus warburtoni [corrected] also was collected in areas in the Free State where it has not been previously described. Anaplasma marginale was detected for the first time in a gemsbok (Oryx gazella gazella). Gene sequences recovered in this study were 98-100% homologous with GenBank sequences for Anaplasma bovis, Theileria separata, and Theileria sp. Malelane sable antelope. PMID:19395753

  19. Evaluation of the CAPE and CORE Programs for Sensory-Impaired Multi-Handicapped Children in the Province of Alberta. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland Consulting Group Ltd.

    The report presents summaries of evaluations of the Coordinated Assessment and Program Planning for Education (CAPE) Program and the Coordinated Rehabilitation and Education (CORE) program for multi-handicapped sensory impaired and/or communication and behavior disordered children and their families in Alberta, Canada. Each program is evaluated…

  20. Analysis of Occupational Infections among Health Care Workers in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Malangu, Ntambwe; Legothoane, Adelaide

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Occupational infections particularly hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a serious problem in the healthcare industry worldwide. This study purported to investigate their prevalence and risk factors among healthcare workers from Limpopo province of South Africa. Methods: Cases about occupational infectious diseases of healthcare workers from Limpopo province that were submitted to the Compensation Commissioner from January 2006 to December 2009 were reviewed. Results: The total number of cases of infectious diseases reported during the study period was 56; of these, 83.9% (47) of cases were for tuberculosis, 10.7% (6) for cholera, and 5.4% (3) for chickenpox. Nurses were the most affected. Risk factors associated with the acquisition of infection diseases were as follows. The majority of those infected were female (67.9%), aged over 40 years (57.1%), and who had worked for over 10 years (59.2%). With regard to length of time it took for one to be infected, overall it took 13.6±9.7 years from the year of employment to being infected. This duration was just 5.7±4.2 years in HCWs younger than 40 years versus 18.4±9.0 years in those 40 years and over (p=0.001); and 11.4±10.3 years in nurses versus 17.1±7.8 years in non-professional staff members (p=0.046). Mopani district, situated in a rural setting was the most affected as 24 of the 47 cases of tuberculosis occurred there. Conclusion: In conclusion, the most common occupational infection or hospital acquired infection among healthcare workers in Limpopo province of South Africa was tuberculosis. It infected mainly nurses from the rural health district of Mopani. Younger age and being a nurse were significant risk factors associated with being infected early. PMID:23283035

  1. Traditional remedies used for the treatment of cattle wounds and myiasis in Amatola Basin, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Soyelu, O T; Masika, P J

    2009-12-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out to document traditional remedies used in the treatment of cattle wounds and myiasis in Amatola Basin. Eighty-three cattle farmers from nine villages were interviewed. The majority of respondents (67.9%) use traditional remedies for treatment of these conditions. However, 25.9% of them use a combination of traditional remedies with conventional medicines. The survey revealed that 13 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families were used. Aloe ferox, Prunus persica and Phytolacca heptandra were, however, the most commonly used. Leaves are the most frequently used plant part, often prepared as an infusion. Other non-plant remedies used include disinfectants, antiseptics as well as diesel and petrol. Manual removal of maggots from wounds was also practise and treatment is usually continued until the wound heals. PMID:21344789

  2. How Teachers Perceive the New Curriculum Reform: Lessons from a School District in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantwini, Bongani D.

    2010-01-01

    The meanings that a teacher attaches to the new curriculum reforms act as his or her map on the curriculum implementation journey, and these usually determine the success of the education reforms. This research article explores the meanings attached to the new Science curriculum reforms by primary school teachers in a school district in South…

  3. The palaeoecology of the micromammals from the late middle Pleistocene site of Hoedjiespunt 1 (Cape Province, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Matthews, T; Denys, C; Parkington, J E

    2005-10-01

    The palaeontological site of Hoedjiespunt 1 (HDP1) represents a fossilized hyaena lair. A rich mammalian fauna, including four hominid teeth, has been recovered from the site. Micromammals were recovered from the same sediments as the larger fauna. Taphonomic analysis suggests that the micromammal assemblages from HDP1 were accumulated by a barn owl. The barn owl produces micromammal assemblages that provide a broad sample of micromammals, within a certain size range, living in the hunting area of the owl. There are size-related and other biases inherent in the prey selection of this predator, and owls may roost in one area and hunt in another however, the barn owl has frequently been found to provide a better indication of micromammals living within an area than trapping. The micromammals from HDP1 were used to reconstruct the microhabitats in the vicinity of the site. Two taxonomic habitat indexes were used to assess the environment and dominant habitat types at Hoedjiespunt 1. The variability and adaptability of many of the southern African micromammals complicates interpretation of the results, however, it appears that the micromammals from the HDP1 fossil assemblages utilized habitats of open, scrub vegetation, and rocky and sandy areas. It is suggested that the environment was not markedly different from today, but it may have been relatively more arid. A comparison between HDP1 and other fossil sites in the area dating from the terminal Pleistocene to the Holocene indicates that HDP1 is lacking certain species that are common to all the other west coast fossil sites. There is some discrepancy in the environment indicated by the large mammals as compared that indicated by to the micromammals at the site. It is suggested that this discrepancy may reflect the fact that an owl is likely to have hunted in the vicinity of the hyaena den, probably in the more open areas around the roost site, whereas the macrofauna, accumulated by the further-ranging brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea), represents environments from further afield. PMID:16045969

  4. The Riviera Deposit: Endo-skarn and Vein-hosted W-MO-REE Mineralization in I-type Granites of the Cape Granite Suite, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, A.; Moyen, J.

    2009-05-01

    The blind Riviera deposit is located in the western Cape Province and was discovered by stream sediment sampling in the mid 1970's. Resources total 46 million metric tons assaying 0,216 per cent tungsten and 200 parts per million molybdenum, a marginal grade that has prohibited development into an open cast mine. Mineralization is mainly hosted by granitoids of the Riviera Pluton which intruded the regionally metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary Malmesbury Group. These granitoids form part of the Cape Granite Suite, a series of batholiths and plutons with S-, I- and A-type characteristics. The composite Riviera Pluton comprises a suite of metaluminous to slightly peraluminous granitoids. The rocks least affected by hydrothermal alteration are granodioritic to adamelitic in composition whereas the more altered host rocks include quartz-monzonite, granite and quartz syenite. As a whole the suite is subalkaline to K-calcalkaline and conforms to the characteristics of I-type granites. The pluton was emplaced into a dome-shaped interference structure, late in the Neoproterozoic Saldanian orogenic cycle. Alteration, particularly prevalent in the roof or cupola of the pluton, occurs as zones of pervasive sericitization, argillization, silicification and potassic alteration. Their spatial and temporal relationship is complex and indicates several superimposed alteration events. Wall rocks display limited alteration and have acted as an impermeable cap. The cross-cutting granitoid intrusions produced wall rock xenoliths of various dimensions consisting mainly of meta-carbonates displaying various stages of digestion. Economic concentrations of scheelite are spatially linked to these assimilations, particularly proximal to the wall rock contact. The occurrence of diagnostic minerals such as vesuvianite, hornblende, hedenbergite, grandite garnets define a typical endo-skarn association. Accessory minerals include pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and the LREE enriched

  5. Trends in vegetation degradation in relation to land tenure, rainfall, and population changes in Peddie district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kakembo, V

    2001-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in vegetation are examined in relation to land tenure, population increase, and rainfall variation in a part of Peddie district, Eastern Cape. Sequential aerial photographs between 1938 and 1988 are analyzed to determine trends in vegetation and population change in three different land-tenure units. The areal extent at each date of four distinct vegetation categories is determined using PC ARC/INFO GIS. Long-term annual rainfall trends for the area are analyzed and juxtaposed with vegetation changes. Extensive ground-truthing exercises are carried out to verify the present condition of vegetation condition in terms of cover and species composition. Differences in land-tenure systems are discerned as the dominant factor controlling variations in vegetation degradation. The study also reveals that neither population changes nor rainfall variations can explain the observed trends in vegetation degradation. Earlier injudicious land-use practices, sustained since the turn of the last century, may provide plausible explanations for the trends and present status of vegetation degradation in the area. PMID:11436999

  6. School Language Profiles: Valorizing Linguistic Resources in Heteroglossic Situations in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Brigitta

    2010-01-01

    Although South Africa is committed to a policy of linguistic diversity, the language-in-education policy is still plagued by the racialization of language issues under apartheid and, more recently, by new challenges posed by internal African migration. Drawing on the experience of a school in the Western Cape Province, this paper explores the role…

  7. Resilient or Resigned? Criminal Victimisation and Quality of Life in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    A victimisation study conducted among 3300 householders in South Africa's Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality (NMMM) in the Eastern Cape Province aimed to inform a crime prevention strategy for the metropolitan area. The study found that the variables "fear of crime' measured in terms of perceived likelihood of victimisation--and concern…

  8. Primary School Science Teachers' Perspectives regarding Their Professional Development: Implications for School Districts in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantwini, Bongani D.

    2012-01-01

    Perceptions play a significant role in an individual's decision-making. This paper reports on a study that investigated primary school science teachers' perceptions of their school district professional development and its basis and impact on the teacher development process in a large district in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. From the…

  9. Provenance and reconnaissance study of detrital zircons of the Palaeozoic Cape Supergroup in South Africa: revealing the interaction of the Kalahari and Río de la Plata cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourie, Pieter H.; Zimmermann, Udo; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Naidoo, Thanusha; Kobayashi, Katsuro; Kosler, Jan; Nakamura, Eizo; Tait, Jenny; Theron, Johannes N.

    2011-04-01

    In order to facilitate the understanding of the geological evolution of the Kalahari Craton and its relation to South America, the provenance of the first large-scale cratonic cover sequence of the craton, namely the Ordovician to Carboniferous Cape Supergroup was studied through geochemical analyses of the siliciclastics, and age determinations of detrital zircon. The Cape Supergroup comprises mainly quartz-arenites and a Hirnantian tillite in the basal Table Mountain Group, subgreywackes and mudrocks in the overlying Bokkeveld Group, while siltstones, interbedded shales and quartz-arenites are typical for the Witteberg Group at the top of the Cape Supergroup. Palaeocurrent analyses indicate transport of sediment mainly from northerly directions, off the interior of the Kalahari Craton with subordinate transport from a westerly source in the southwestern part of the basin near Cape Town. Geochemical provenance data suggest mainly sources from passive to active continental margin settings. The reconnaissance study of detrital zircons reveals a major contribution of Mesoproterozoic sources throughout the basin, reflecting the dominance of the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Belt, situated immediately north of the preserved strata of Cape Supergroup, as a source with Archaean-aged zircons being extremely rare. We interpret the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Belt to have been a large morphological divide at the time of deposition of the Cape Supergroup that prevented input of detrital zircons from the interior early Archaean Kaapvaal cratonic block of the Kalahari Craton. Neoproterozoic and Cambrian zircons are abundant and reflect the basement geology of the outcrops of Cape strata. Exposures close to Cape Town must have received sediment from a cratonic fragment that was situated off the Kalahari Craton to the west and that has subsequently drifted away. This cratonic fragment predominantly supplied Meso- to Neoproterozoic, and Cambrian-aged zircon grains in addition to minor

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  11. Student Perceptions of Agricultural Education Programme Processes at Selected High Schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidane, T. T.; Worth, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates student perceptions of different aspects of Agricultural Education and Training (AET) programme processes that have been offered in secondary schools by the formal educational sector in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study seeks to identify the existing shortcomings in the implementation of the…

  12. "It's important to take your medication everyday okay?" An evaluation of counselling by lay counsellors for ARV adherence support in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewing, S; Mathews, C; Schaay, N; Cloete, A; Louw, J; Simbayi, L

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in standard care programmes for antiretroviral (ARV) adherence support. In South Africa, individual counselling following ARV initiation is a main strategy for supporting adherence in the public sector. Egan's client-centred "Skilled Helper" counselling model is the predominant model used in HIV counselling in this context. This study evaluated counselling delivered by lay ARV adherence counsellors in Cape Town in terms of adherence to Egan's model. Thirty-eight transcripts of counselling sessions with non-adherent patients were analysed based on the methods of content analysis. These sessions were conducted by 30 counsellors. Generally counsellors' practice adhered neither to Egan's model nor a client-centred approach. Inconsistent with evidence-based approaches to counselling for ARV adherence support, counsellors mainly used information-giving and advice as strategies for addressing clients' non-adherence. Recommendations for improving practice are made. The question as to how appropriate strategies from developed countries are for this setting is also raised.

  13. Introduction: Highlights of HeartWeek 2013 at the Sixth World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery in Cape Town South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip

    2013-12-01

    This December issue of Cardiology in the Young represents the 11th annual publication generated from the two meetings that compose "HeartWeek in Florida". "HeartWeek in Florida", the joint collaborative project sponsored by the Cardiac Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, together with Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute of Saint Petersburg, Florida, averages over 1000 attendees every year and is now recognised as one of the major planks of continuing medical and nursing education for those working in the fields of diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease in the foetus, neonate, infant, child,and adult. "HeartWeek in Florida" combines the International Symposium on Congenital Heart Disease,organised by All Children's Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medicine and entering its 14th year, with the Annual Postgraduate Course in Pediatric Cardiovascular Disease, organised by The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and entering its 17th year.This December, 2013 issue of Cardiology in the Young highlights the sessions from HeartWeek 2013 that were held at The Sixth World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery in Cape Town, South Africa. We would like to acknowledge the tremendous contributions made to medicine by John Brown, and therefore we dedicate this HeartWeek 2013 issue of Cardiology in the Young to him.

  14. Palaeoecological aspects of some invertebrate trace fossils from the mid- to Upper Permian Middleton Formation (Adelaide Subgroup, Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup), Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Linkermann, Sean; Prevec, Rose

    2011-10-01

    Ichnological and sedimentological analyses in the Eastern Cape allowed the first description of a Cochlichnus-dominated ichnofossil site from the mid- to Upper Permian Middleton Formation (Karoo Supergroup) in South Africa. The locality is within the uppermost Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone, a biostratigraphic interval characterized by a low vertebrate biodiversity at the turn of the mid- to Late Permian. Our field data indicates that the surficial bioturbation of very fine to fine-grained sand layers resulted from life activities of shallow infaunal and epifaunal invertebrates (possibly annelids, aquatic oligochaetes, nematodes, insect larvae) and fish. The morphology of the trails, their relationship to the substrate and the behaviour inferred from them indicate that the tracemakers developed a strategy that facilitated the optimization of low food resources in a permanently submerged freshwater setting. Combined ichnological and sedimentological evidence suggests a low-energy, freshwater lacustrine depositional environment, where occasional higher energy currents brought nutrients. Data also imply that colonization of these erratic event beds by opportunistic sediment-feeders was short-lived and followed by longer intervals of lower energy deposition under possibly poorly oxygenated conditions. We propose that these event beds as well as the sporadic red mudstones of the Middleton Formation may have formed during short-term, higher storm-frequency and dryer periods, signalling changes in the otherwise humid climate in this part of the main Karoo Basin during the mid- to Late Permian.

  15. Sedimentology of granite boulder conglomerates and associated clastics in the onshore section of the late Mesozoic Pletmos Basin (Western Cape, South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordy, Emese M.; America, Travis

    2016-07-01

    Along the southern margin of South Africa, intermountain rift successions, which comprise unusually large, rounded granite boulders and other coarse clastics, reveal an important geological history about the mid-Mesozoic extensional tectonics that lead to the break-up of Gondwana. These strata, mapped as part of the Mid to Upper Jurassic Enon Formation, allow the assessment of the nature, intensity and mode of sediment transport in onshore section of the Pletmos Basin, which is one of the late Mesozoic basins in southern Africa. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, palaeocurrent measurements and semi-quantitative palaeohydraulic calculations, the results suggest that the abundant coarse sediment was deposited by debris-flows and stream-flow floods on a proximal alluvial fan with high gradient alluvial channels. The floods were intense with mean flow velocity of ∼6 m3/s and peak discharge of ∼450 m3/s. While the role of climate in the sedimentation dynamics remains unknown, syn-sedimentary rift tectonics were likely significant and caused, north of the major boundary fault, the unroofing and denudation of the uplifted mountainous source areas, including the Late Ediacaran-Cambrian Maalgaten Granite Suite and the Siluro-Ordovician Table Mountain Group (Cape Supergroup).

  16. The association between psychopathology and substance use: adolescent and young adult substance users in inpatient treatment in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan; Laubscher, Ria; London, Leslie; Morojele, Neo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that comorbid psychopathology can negatively affect treatment outcomes in substance users. In South Africa, limited information exists regarding the prevalence, nature and role of psychiatric comorbidity in substance users. This study examined psychiatric comorbidity and its association with specific substance use, and young adult substance users in treatment for substance use. Methods Male and female inpatient substance users (n=95; ages 17-30 years) were sampled consecutively in order of admission from three clinics in Cape Town. An interview schedule was administered to elicit patients’ sociodemographic and substance use history details. The computer-assisted Diagnostic Interview Schedule DSM IV (C-DIS IV) was administered to screen patients for current psychiatric disorders. Resuls The sample was largely male, Coloured, Muslim and single. Cannabis (51.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (17.9%) were the most common first substances of use. Heroin (53.7%) and crystal methamphetamine (33.7%) were the most common substances for which treatment was sought (primary substances). The most common comorbid psychopathologies were anti-social personality disorder (ASPD 87.4%) and conduct disorder (CD 67.4%). Regression analyses showed a marginally significant association between specific phobia and first use of cannabis, but indicated no statistically significant associations between psychopathology and substance use. Conclusion The results demonstrated a high proportion of previously unidentified comorbid psychopathology in inpatient substance users. Further research is needed to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in inpatient substance users. PMID:24643118

  17. Sedimentology of granite boulder conglomerates and associated clastics in the onshore section of the late Mesozoic Pletmos Basin (Western Cape, South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordy, Emese M.; America, Travis

    2016-07-01

    Along the southern margin of South Africa, intermountain rift successions, which comprise unusually large, rounded granite boulders and other coarse clastics, reveal an important geological history about the mid-Mesozoic extensional tectonics that lead to the break-up of Gondwana. These strata, mapped as part of the Mid to Upper Jurassic Enon Formation, allow the assessment of the nature, intensity and mode of sediment transport in onshore section of the Pletmos Basin, which is one of the late Mesozoic basins in southern Africa. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, palaeocurrent measurements and semi-quantitative palaeohydraulic calculations, the results suggest that the abundant coarse sediment was deposited by debris-flows and stream-flow floods on a proximal alluvial fan with high gradient alluvial channels. The floods were intense with mean flow velocity of ˜6 m3/s and peak discharge of ˜450 m3/s. While the role of climate in the sedimentation dynamics remains unknown, syn-sedimentary rift tectonics were likely significant and caused, north of the major boundary fault, the unroofing and denudation of the uplifted mountainous source areas, including the Late Ediacaran-Cambrian Maalgaten Granite Suite and the Siluro-Ordovician Table Mountain Group (Cape Supergroup).

  18. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Nelia P.; Jaffer, Nasreen; Nel, Johanna; Levitt, Naomi; Steyn, Krisela; Lombard, Carl; Peer, Nasheeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544), stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E)) and women (33.4%E) in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E) while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E) than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E) while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01) in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016), saturated fat (p = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002) and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046). Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001). Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR) as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers. PMID:27187459

  19. New Role of Special Schools: Empowering Mainstream Teachers to Enhance Inclusive Education in Western Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafthas, Joan A. A.

    2008-01-01

    In South Africa we had an education system that was content-based, inflexible, oppressive, and segregated in terms of disability and race. It was determined by time, calendar and by failing and passing at the end of the year. Learners had to "fit into" a particular kind of system or were integrated into an existing system. A shift is now taking…

  20. Radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants from Limpopo province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chauke, A M; Shai, L J; Mphahlele, P M; Mogale, M A

    2012-01-01

    Plants collected from Limpopo province of South Africa were investigated for their antioxidative potential using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Acetone extracts of Flueggea virosa had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC₅₀ value of 30 µg/ml, closely matching the ascorbic acid with an IC₅₀ value of 25 µg/ml. The lowest antioxidant readings were observed with extracts of Rhynchosia venulosa (root extract) and Ficus ingens (leaf extract). Acetone extract of Bridelia virosa leaves had the highest phenolic content (156 mg GAE/g extract), while the lowest content was recorded for R. venulosa root extract and leaf extract of F. ingens (8.3 and 17.7 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). There was a linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Extracts with high phenolic content had low IC₅₀ values, while extracts with low phenolic concentrations had high IC₅₀ values.

  1. Lamniform shark teeth from the late cretaceous of southernmost South America (Santa Cruz province, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Elena R; Egerton, Victoria M; Ibiricu, Lucio M; Lacovara, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage.

  2. Socioeconomic, health and management aspects of working donkeys in Moretele 1, North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wells, D; Krecek, R C

    2001-03-01

    Structured interviews using a questionnaire were conducted to gather information on socioeconomic aspects, health, nutrition, breeding and management of working equids in 3 study areas of Moretele 1 near Hammanskraal, North West Province, South Africa. The questionnaire addressed questions about the role of animals with a focus on donkeys used for work in these areas. Extension and animal health officers and donkey owners participated. The analysis highlights the use of donkeys for transport of water, wood and people; that ticks, wounds and harness sores are the conditions reported most frequently by owners; and that the range for the body condition score index of 2.7-4.0 suggests that an overall adequate level of nutrition and management is maintained in the donkeys in these villages.

  3. Lamniform Shark Teeth from the Late Cretaceous of Southernmost South America (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Schroeter, Elena R.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.; Lacovara, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage. PMID:25141301

  4. An evaluation of dog rabies control in Limpopo province (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Sabeta, C T; Mkhize, G C; Ngoepe, E C

    2011-10-01

    Rabies is a prevalent and re-emerging disease in South Africa particularly in rural areas with high human densities. Outbreaks are frequently reported in the north and eastern parts of this country, probably an indication of inadequacy in the control of the disease. Following the 2005/2006 outbreak in Limpopo, we undertook an analysis of case surveillance data and genetically characterized 18 rabies viruses, all recovered from domestic dogs. Although rabies prevalence gradually declined annually from 2007, dog rabies still remains a public and veterinary health hazard in this region. Sylvatic rabies cycles are maintained by the black-backed jackal species in specific ecological conditions in the northwest of the province (Waterberg area), unlike in the north and east (Vhembe and Mopani districts, respectively), where spillover of infection between dogs and jackals is likely to predominate. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the rabies virus strain currently circulating within dog populations in Limpopo province is the same variant responsible for the 2005/2006 rabies outbreak. However, residual foci probably exist hence the observed sporadic outbreaks. These data further underline the value of continuous and sustainable dog immunization in controlling rabies. PMID:21733270

  5. An evaluation of dog rabies control in Limpopo province (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Sabeta, C T; Mkhize, G C; Ngoepe, E C

    2011-10-01

    Rabies is a prevalent and re-emerging disease in South Africa particularly in rural areas with high human densities. Outbreaks are frequently reported in the north and eastern parts of this country, probably an indication of inadequacy in the control of the disease. Following the 2005/2006 outbreak in Limpopo, we undertook an analysis of case surveillance data and genetically characterized 18 rabies viruses, all recovered from domestic dogs. Although rabies prevalence gradually declined annually from 2007, dog rabies still remains a public and veterinary health hazard in this region. Sylvatic rabies cycles are maintained by the black-backed jackal species in specific ecological conditions in the northwest of the province (Waterberg area), unlike in the north and east (Vhembe and Mopani districts, respectively), where spillover of infection between dogs and jackals is likely to predominate. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the rabies virus strain currently circulating within dog populations in Limpopo province is the same variant responsible for the 2005/2006 rabies outbreak. However, residual foci probably exist hence the observed sporadic outbreaks. These data further underline the value of continuous and sustainable dog immunization in controlling rabies.

  6. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  7. Nutrition, modernity and the archaeological record: coastal resources and nutrition among Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers on the Western Cape coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, Katharine; Parkington, John E; Marais, Adrian D; Braun, David R

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the nutritional value of some marine and terrestrial food resources available to Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers in the Western Cape of South Africa with respect to an important macronutrient (protein) and an essential micronutrient (iron) and introduce a framework for assessing the relative utility of marine and terrestrial resources. Whilst the ability to extract nutrients from the environment has always been a lynchpin in archaeologists' reconstructions of human evolution, a recent paradigm shift has recognized the role of marine resources in encephalization. Nutritional research indicates that marine ecosystems are the best source for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for proper brain development, and excavations at securely dated archaeological sites in South Africa provide firm evidence for the exploitation of marine resources by Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers from at least Marine Isotope Stage 5 (130 ka), and possibly even earlier. Because marine molluscs are abundant, predictably located and easily harvested, they would have been readily available to all members of the community, in contrast to terrestrial resources. The improving archaeological record gives important clues to resource choice, but many more nutritional observations are needed to determine the extent to which marine resources could have met the nutrient requirements of prehistoric people. Our observations indicate that marine and terrestrial fauna are both excellent sources of protein, and that marine molluscs have higher iron concentrations than we expected for invertebrate fauna. We calculate the number of individual food items from a selection of marine and terrestrial species needed to provide the protein and iron requirements of a hypothetical group of hunter-gatherers, identify contrasts in peoples' requirements for and access to nutrients and resources, and discuss the implications for prehistoric subsistence strategies and human evolution.

  8. The Relationship of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Typologies to Sex Risk Behaviors among Vulnerable Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Myers, Bronwyn; Kline, Tracy L; Carney, Tara; Browne, Felicia A; Novak, Scott P

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use remains an important contributing factor to the spread of HIV in South Africa, mainly because of the strong associations found between AOD use and sex risk behaviors. Specifically, AOD use can lead to disinhibition and impaired judgment that may result in inconsistent condom use and other risky sex behaviors among vulnerable and disempowered women. Methods Latent Class Analysis was used to identify AOD use typologies among 720 vulnerable women from a randomized trial baseline assessment in Cape Town, South Africa and to examine whether these AOD use classes predict sex risk for HIV. Results Three classes emerged with distinct differences in AOD use: the Marijuana and Alcohol class (34.6%) mainly comprised participants who used marijuana and drank alcohol frequently; the High AOD Risk class (26.1%) mainly comprised participants who used methamphetamine and marijuana, reported heavy drinking, and moderate probabilities of Mandrax use; and the Polydrug use class (39.3%) predominately comprised participants who used methamphetamine, marijuana, and Mandrax. Participants in the Marijuana and Alcohol class were less likely to report past-month unprotected sex with their main sex partner compared with participants in the Polydrug Use class. When examining the adjusted model, Black African women were significantly less likely to report past-month unprotected sex with their main sex partner compared with Coloured women. Women who were HIV negative were more likely to report unprotected sex with their main sex partner than women who were HIV positive. Conclusion The fewer substances that women used seemed to serve as protective factors against engaging in AOD-impaired sex. This study provides an important contribution to understand the intersection of AOD use and sexual risk for HIV by measuring polydrug use among vulnerable women and its association with sexual risk taking. PMID:23403403

  9. Addiction and treatment experiences among active methamphetamine users recruited from a township community in Cape Town, South Africa: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Towe, Sheri L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Lion, Ryan R.; Myers, Bronwyn; Skinner, Donald; Kimani, Stephen; Pieterse, Desiree

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2000, there has been a dramatic increase in methamphetamine use in South Africa, but little is known about the experiences of out-of-treatment users. This mixed-methods study describes the substance use histories, addiction symptoms, and treatment experiences of a community-recruited sample of methamphetamine users in Cape Town. Methods Using respondent driven sampling, 360 methamphetamine users (44% female) completed structured clinical interviews to assess substance abuse and treatment history and computerized surveys to assess drug-related risks. A sub-sample of 30 participants completed in-depth interviews to qualitatively explore experiences with methamphetamine use and drug treatment. Results Participants had used methamphetamine for an average of 7.06 years (SD=3.64). They reported using methamphetamine on an average of 23.49 of the past 30 days (SD=8.90); 60% used daily. The majority (90%) met ICD-10 criteria for dependence, and many reported severe social, financial, and legal consequences. While only 10% had ever received drug treatment, 90% reported that they wanted treatment. In the qualitative interviews, participants reported multiple barriers to treatment, including beliefs that treatment is ineffective and relapse is inevitable in their social context. They also identified important motivators, including desires to be drug free and improve family functioning. Conclusion This study yields valuable information to more effectively respond to emerging methamphetamine epidemics in South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. Interventions to increase uptake of evidence-based services must actively seek out drug users and build motivation for treatment, and offer continuing care services to prevent relapse. Community education campaigns are also needed. PMID:25977205

  10. An Economic Valuation Of The Water Footprint: A Case Study Of The Citrus Sector In The Lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, S. A.; Fraser, G. C. G.; Snowball, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    With the implementation of the South African National Water Act (NWA) currently underway, water intensive sectors, such as the irrigated agriculture sector, can expect reduced water allocations and an increase in water prices. Water footprints (WFs) are increasingly being recognised as a meaningful way by which to represent human appropriation of water resources. This study examines the green and blue WFs of a variety of citrus cultivars in the lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa. WFs were calculated across dry, humid and long-term average climates and comparisons were made to available global average benchmark WFs. An number of indicators were also explored including; water productivity (ton/m3), economic land productivity (R/ha) and economic water productivity (R/m3) across all three climatic years. Most applications of WF sustainability assessments have focused on examining physical water scarcity as a measure for determining environmental hotspots. This study, therefore, also calculates the marginal product value for the irrigation water using a non-parametric linear programming approach. Marginal product value of irrigation water is not only useful in assisting with water-allocation decision making, but also useful in demonstrating the effects of resource depletion and degradation, and is therefore a useful measure for determining economic water scarcity. The study highlights that both farmers and governments could reduce blue WF's through adopting measures to increase water efficiency and considering economic water and land productivity. It also demonstrates the importance of including both environmental and economic scarcity indicators into water management and planning strategies, and the importance of conducting WF assessments using more accurate, site specific data.

  11. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H; van Dyk, E; Nel, P J; Lane, E; Van Wilpe, E; Bengis, R G; de Klerk-Lorist, L M; van Heerden, J

    2011-06-01

    Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a

  12. Geocemical provinces of magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Belyatsky, Boris; Teterin, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of geochemical signatures of island magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean and tholeiites of the Bransfield and Powell rift zones revealed the similar character of the enrichment which reflects the melting of a close mantle source. But alkaline magmatism of the islands in the west of Antarctic and Marie Byrd Land differs from the enriched basalts of the northern province (Bransfield, Powell, BTJ) by showing more radiogenic Sr values and non-radiogenic Nd. The tectonic development of the South Ocean is characterized by its formation under stationary conditions of Antarctic continent. As a result of this, for the volcanic islands distributed at the western part of the Antarctic we observe no long mountain ridges typical for their development under conditions of the moving plate. Intraplate magmatism evolution was coincided with the extinction of the old subduction zones, formation of the new rift zones and separation of South America from Antarctic [Udintsev, Schenke, 2007; Teterin, 2008]. Such complicated geodynamics caused the possibility of formation of rupture cracks reaching the underlying metasomatizated mantle and decompression melting with further island formation. In Oligocene due to migration of asthenospheric flow from the west to east in the result of destruction of previously united continental blocks there was formed the Scotia Sea, South Sandwich island arc as well as Drake Passage. This caused the mechanical weakening of South Atlantic lithosphere and the starting at the end of Oligocene - beginning Miocene of the new plate border formation - American-Antarctic ridge, which propagated in the eastern direction till the Bouvet triple junction [Dubinin et al., 1999]. The close geochemical signatures of mantle source for islands basalts including the Bouvet Island and the enriched tholeiites of the western extremity of the SW Indian Ridge proves the development of a specific geochemical province enveloping the southeastern

  13. The cultural and community-level acceptance of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among traditional healers in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Justin M; Sterk, Claire E; Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has profoundly impacted South Africa's healthcare system, greatly hampering its ability to scale-up the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART). While one way to provide comprehensive care and prevention in sub-Saharan African countries has been through collaboration with traditional healers, long-term support specifically for ART has been low within this population. An exploratory, qualitative research project was conducted among 25 self-identified traditional healers between June and August of 2006 in the Lukhanji District of South Africa. By obtaining the opinions of traditional healers currently interested in biomedical approaches to HIV/AIDS care and prevention, this formative investigation identified a range of motivational factors that were believed to promote a deeper acceptance of and support for ART. These factors included cultural consistencies between traditional and biomedical medicine, education, as well as legal and financial incentives to collaborate. Through an incorporation of these factors into future HIV/AIDS treatment programs, South Africa and other sub-Saharan countries may dramatically strengthen their ability to provide ART in resource-poor settings.

  14. The Petrogenesis of the S-Type Cape Granite Suite, South Africa: Enlightenment From Xenocrysts and Initial Melt Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Scheepers, R.; Moyen, J.

    2004-05-01

    Panafrican S-type granites from the Cape Granite suite (CGS) intrude the low grade metasediments of the Malmesbury supergroup. They are strongly peraluminous (1 < A/CNK < 2), K-rich granites with total FeO + MgO values ranging between 0.8 and 9 wt%. Strongly peraluminous granites are typically interpreted to be the result of incongruent, granulite facies partial melting of aluminous metasediments, and the Peninsular and Darling plutons contain generations of cordierite and garnet that appear to confirm this. Experimental melts compositions from a variety of sources and PT conditions (750 to 1000 oC and 0.3 to 1.0 GPa) have been compared with 212 CGS analyses. While all the experimental melts are strinkingly similar and correspond to peraluminous leucogranites, only one third of the CGS samples plot in the experimental field. In addition, about half the experimental melts plot in a field that coincides with no natural granite compositions. Typically, experimental glasses are more leucocratic and aluminous than the natural granites. The major element compositions of most of the natural granites can be successfully modelled as mixtures of the experimental glass compositions and up to 15 wt% cordierite and/or garnet, common phases produced in equilibrium with the melts in the incongruent melting experiments. This appears to be a more effective mechanism for accounting for compositional variation within the CGS than any combination of AFC processes, which all require a balancing population of contaminant material of composition unknown either in the CGS magmas or in the surrounding country rocks. Garnet from the CGS is generally Fe-rich (10 < Mg/# < 25) with narrow (20-30 m) rims that are Mn and Fe-enriched. Their major element and REE core to rim zonation patterns are flat, The garnet crystals are very strongly enriched in HREE and display strong negative Eu anomalies. HREE concentrations are several times higher than would be predicted from REE concentrations of the

  15. Trends in Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use: Findings from Three Sentinel Sites in South Africa (1997-2001)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Myers, Bronwyn; Morojele, Neo K.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Donson, Hilton; Pluddemann, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to provide surveillance information about the extent and consequences of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use by adolescents for three sentinel sites in South Africa (Cape Town, Durban and Gauteng province). From 1997 to 2001, data were gathered from multiple sources, including specialist treatment centres, trauma units, school…

  16. South African Teachers Caught between Nation Building and Global Demands: Is There a Way Out/Forward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantwini, Bongani D.; Letseka, Moeketsi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the impact of the nation-building and global demands on teachers' work and how they survive the pressure of, and reconcile, these various demands that impact their work. We draw on two separate data sets that emerged from studies undertaken in the Eastern Cape Province (EC), South Africa. Findings reveal a rift between…

  17. Protosclerogibba australis gen. et sp. nov., new genus and species of sclerogibbid wasps (Hymenoptera: Sclerogibbidae) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olmi, Massimo; Marletta, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Adalgisa; Speranza, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Protosclerogibba australis Olmi, Marletta, Guglielmino & Speranza, gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens collected in Kimberley (Northern Cape Province, South Africa). The female of the new taxon is the first micropterous sclerogibbid. Females of other extant Sclerogibbidae are always apterous, whereas fossil females can be apterous or macropterous. PMID:27394292

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, South Asia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna–Godavari Provinces, South Asia. The estimated mean volumes are as follows: (1) Assam Province, 273 million barrels of crude oil, 1,559 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 43 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (2) Bombay Province, 1,854 million barrels of crude oil, 15,417 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 498 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (3) Cauvery Province, 941 million barrels of crude oil, 25,208 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 654 million barrels of natural gas liquids; and (4) Krishna–Godavari Province, 466 million barrels of crude oil, 37,168 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 484 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The totals for the four provinces are 3,534 million barrels of crude oil, 79,352 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,679 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  19. Regional generalisations about the relationships between the environment and foraminifera along the SW Cape coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Toefy, R; Gibbons, M J

    2014-03-15

    Factors influencing the composition of shallow water benthic foraminifera along the SW coast of South Africa at two locations (Table Bay, TB; St Helena Bay, SHB) ∼200km from each other were examined. Small taxa dominated in both locations; living assemblages from SHB (28 species, Ammonia parkinsoniana dominant) differed from TB (34 species, Elphidium articulatum dominant). Environmental parameters were similar in both areas. Patchiness in assemblage structure was pronounced, differences between pipeline and non-pipeline sites within locations were evident in environmental parameters. Diversity was significantly correlated with grain size, the nitrogen and heavy metal content (especially Cd). These data represent the first for extant benthic Foraminifera from the southern Benguela upwelling area and is the first attempt at using foraminifera as indicators of pollution in this region. The data stressed the need for more than one sampling location to better understand the factors influencing foraminiferal assemblages in any regional context. PMID:24393379

  20. Generation, migration, and entrapment of Precambrian oils in the Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province, south Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Konert, G.; Van Den Brink, H.A. ); Visser, W. )

    1991-08-01

    The prolific Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province east of the South Oman Salt basin is unique because of the widespread occurrence of Precambrian source rocks from which the hydrocarbons originated. Fission-track analysis and burial studies suggest that most of these source rocks became mature and generated hydrocarbons in the Ordovician; subsequently, the source beds were uplifted and did not re-enter the oil window. Its uniqueness is also based on the all-important role played by Precambrian salt. The traps in Palaeozoic clastics were initially structured by halokinesis, and subsequently by salt dissolution. The latter process gradually removed the salt from the area is largely responsible for the present-day structure with palaeo-withdrawal basins inverted in present-day turtles. Present-day traps are mainly post-Late Jurassic in age, significantly post-dating the time of oil generation. Detailed field studies indicate that charge phases appear to correlate with periods of increased salt dissolution in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and Tertiary. Oil was probably stored in intermediate traps below and within the salt. It was gradually released upon progressive tilting of the basin flank; it migrated updip toward the basinward retreating salt edge, and subsequently (back) spilled into the stratigraphically younger traps. Also, removal of the top seal of intra-salt and sub-salt traps by salt dissolution allowed upward remigration. It follows that charge concepts in the Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province depend on defining salt-edge-related hydrocarbon release areas, rather than on kitchen modeling.

  1. Impact of climate change on children's health in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Adeboyejo Aina; Matamale, Lirvhuwani; Kharidza, Shonisani Danisa

    2012-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on children's health, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Twenty one years climatic data were collected to analyse climatic conditions in the province. The study also employs 12 years hospital records of clinically diagnosed climate-related ailments among children under 13 years to examine the incidence, spatio-temporal, age and sex variations of the diseases. Regression analysis was employed to examine the relationships between climatic parameters and incidence of diseases and also to predict distribution of disease by 2050. The results show that the most prevalent diseases were diarrhea (42.4%), followed by respiratory infection (31.3%), asthma (6.6%) and malaria (6.5%). The incidence varied within city, with the high density areas recording the highest proportion (76.7%), followed by the medium (9.4%) and low (2.5%) density residential areas. The most tropical location, Mussina, had the highest incidence of the most prevalent disease, diarrhea, with 59.4%. Mortality rate was higher for males (54.2%). Analysis of 21 years of climatic data show that maximum temperature is positively correlated with years in four cities with r coefficients of 0.50; 0.56, 0.48 and 0.02, thereby indicating local warming. Similarly rainfall decreased over time in all the cities, with r ranging from -0.02 for Bela Bela to r = 0.18 for Makhado. Results of the regression analysis show that 37.9% of disease incidence is accounted for by the combined influence of temperature and rainfall.

  2. Impact of Climate Change on Children’s Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Adeboyejo Aina; Matamale, Lirvhuwani; Kharidza, Shonisani Danisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on children’s health, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Twenty one years climatic data were collected to analyse climatic conditions in the province. The study also employs 12 years hospital records of clinically diagnosed climate-related ailments among children under 13 years to examine the incidence, spatio-temporal, age and sex variations of the diseases. Regression analysis was employed to examine the relationships between climatic parameters and incidence of diseases and also to predict distribution of disease by 2050. The results show that the most prevalent diseases were diarrhea (42.4%), followed by respiratory infection (31.3%), asthma (6.6%) and malaria (6.5%). The incidence varied within city, with the high density areas recording the highest proportion (76.7%), followed by the medium (9.4%) and low (2.5%) density residential areas. The most tropical location, Mussina, had the highest incidence of the most prevalent disease, diarrhea, with 59.4%. Mortality rate was higher for males (54.2%). Analysis of 21 years of climatic data show that maximum temperature is positively correlated with years in four cities with r coefficients of 0.50; 0.56, 0.48 and 0.02, thereby indicating local warming. Similarly rainfall decreased over time in all the cities, with r ranging from −0.02 for Bela Bela to r = 0.18 for Makhado. Results of the regression analysis show that 37.9% of disease incidence is accounted for by the combined influence of temperature and rainfall. PMID:22690167

  3. A case study of landholder attitudes and behaviour toward the conservation of renosterveld, a critically endangered vegetation type in Cape Floral Kingdom, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Winter, Susan J; Prozesky, Heidi; Esler, Karen J

    2007-07-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of private landholders toward the conservation of a highly transformed and critically endangered habitat, Overberg Coastal Renosterveld (OCR) (a grassy shrubland of the Cape Floral Region, South Africa) are described. Personal, semistructured interviews were conducted with landholders, representing 40 properties in the Overberg region, on topics such as management and utilisation of OCR, the depth of their knowledge of its conservation importance, what they perceive its value to be, and the extent of their willingness to conserve it. General attitudes toward conservation incentives and provincial conservation authorities were also investigated. Farmers more willing to conserve were younger, did not necessarily have a better education, and owned larger farms (>500 ha) with a greater amount of remnant renosterveld (>300 ha) than those less willing to conserve. Attitudes toward the OCR were largely negative, related to associated problem plants and animals and the fact that it is believed not to be economically advantageous to retain it. However, farmers are of the opinion that provision of incentives and increased extension support will provide practical positive inducements for conservation. Landholder education is paramount to prevent further transformation of critically endangered habitats. The success of private-conservation programs depends on the attitudes of landowners toward (1) the particular habitat or species to be conserved (which can vary depending on the type of land use practised and the associated benefits and disadvantages of that habitat type); (2) the conservation agency or extension officers responsible for that area; and (3) willingness of landowners to participate in a conservation program, which is influenced by landowner age, farm size, and the amount of natural habitat left to conserve.

  4. Luminescence- and Infrared-Radiofluorescence dating of the Acheulean- to Middle Stone Age sedimentary sequence at Montagu Cave, Western Cape Provence, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tobias; Archer, Will; Sumner, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Montagu Cave is an archaeological site located on the edge of the Langeberg mountain range, about 160 km NE of Cape Town, in South Africa. The archaeological and sedimentary units at Montagu Cave comprise two Acheulean sequences which are separated from one another by a substantial archaeological hiatus. There is an additional Middle Stone Age sequence which overlies the Acheulean horizons, and contains layers attributed to the Howiesons Poort, as well as multiple other Middle Stone Age sub-stages. Hence, Montagu Cave provides a unique opportunity to investigate quite complex population level questions concerning the behavioral differences between modern and pre-modern populations in southern Africa. However, thus far, the chronological context of the sediment-layers at the site remains unclear. It is therefore critical to provide a resilient chronological framework for the timing of human activity at the site. This study concerns the potential of luminescence dating for the sedimentary sequence preserved at Montagu cave. The collected samples are tested on their quartz- and feldspar luminescence signal properties. Various optical dating techniques (quartz OSL; pIRIR290) will be applied, and the results of each compared in order to obtain information on the suitability of the material for luminescence dating, and to establish a chronological framework for this important archaeological site. Furthermore, the infrared-radiofluorescence (IR-RF) signal behavior will be tested on potassium feldspars, as IR-RF is a method being able to date back up to > 600 ka. IR-RF therefore has the potential to cover the expected time-frame of the sediments at Montagu-cave.

  5. The association between timing of initiation of antenatal care and stillbirths: a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is renewed interest in stillbirth prevention for lower-middle income countries. Early initiation of and properly timed antenatal care (ANC) is thought to reduce the risk of many adverse birth outcomes. To this end we examined if timing of the first ANC visit influences the risk of stillbirth. Methods We conducted an analysis of a retrospective cohort of women (n = 34,671) with singleton births in a public perinatal service in Cape Town, South Africa. The main exposure was the gestational age at the first ANC visit. Bivariable analyses examining maternal characteristics by stillbirth status and gestational age at the first ANC visit, were conducted. Logistic regression, adjusting for maternal characteristics, was conducted to determine the risk of stillbirth. Results Of the 34,671 women who initiated ANC, 27,713 women (80%) were retained until delivery. The population stillbirth rate was 4.3 per 1000 births. The adjusted models indicated there was no effect of gestational age at first ANC visit on stillbirth outcomes when analyzed as a continuous variable (aOR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.99-1.04) or in trimesters (2nd Trimester aOR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.39-1.59; 3rd Trimester OR 1.03, 95% CI: 0.50-2.13, both with 1st Trimester as reference category). The findings were unchanged in sensitivity analyses of unobserved outcomes in non-retained women. Conclusion The timing of a woman’s first ANC visit may not be an important determinant of stillbirths in isolation. Further research is required to examine how quality of care, incorporating established, effective biomedical interventions, influences outcomes in this setting. PMID:24923284

  6. A Case Study of Landholder Attitudes and Behaviour Toward the Conservation of Renosterveld, a Critically Endangered Vegetation Type in Cape Floral Kingdom, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Susan J.; Prozesky, Heidi; Esler, Karen J.

    2007-07-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of private landholders toward the conservation of a highly transformed and critically endangered habitat, Overberg Coastal Renosterveld (OCR) (a grassy shrubland of the Cape Floral Region, South Africa) are described. Personal, semistructured interviews were conducted with landholders, representing 40 properties in the Overberg region, on topics such as management and utilisation of OCR, the depth of their knowledge of its conservation importance, what they perceive its value to be, and the extent of their willingness to conserve it. General attitudes toward conservation incentives and provincial conservation authorities were also investigated. Farmers more willing to conserve were younger, did not necessarily have a better education, and owned larger farms (>500 ha) with a greater amount of remnant renosterveld (>300 ha) than those less willing to conserve. Attitudes toward the OCR were largely negative, related to associated problem plants and animals and the fact that it is believed not to be economically advantageous to retain it. However, farmers are of the opinion that provision of incentives and increased extension support will provide practical positive inducements for conservation. Landholder education is paramount to prevent further transformation of critically endangered habitats. The success of private-conservation programs depends on the attitudes of landowners toward (1) the particular habitat or species to be conserved (which can vary depending on the type of land use practised and the associated benefits and disadvantages of that habitat type); (2) the conservation agency or extension officers responsible for that area; and (3) willingness of landowners to participate in a conservation program, which is influenced by landowner age, farm size, and the amount of natural habitat left to conserve.

  7. The fish community of a moderately exposed beach on the southwestern Cape coast of South Africa and an assessment of this habitat as a nursery for juvenile fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, B. A.

    1989-03-01

    The ichthyofauna of a moderately exposed surf-zone habitat on the southwestern Cape coast of South Africa was sampled by seine netting monthly for 13 months. Twenty species of fish, 40 306 individuals weighing a total of 211 kg were captured. The number of species and standing crop varied seasonally with higher values occurring during the summer (January-March). The average summer standing stock of 38·6 g m -2 was considerably higher than any previously recorded from a surf-zone habitat and the annual average (10·1 g m -2 was comparable with that in estuaries. Eighteen of the species sampled occurred almost exclusively as juveniles and only two as adults. Four species were present throughout the year, 11 of them seasonally and the remaining five sporadically. Small juveniles (20-35 mm) typically appeared in the surf-zone 2-4 months after they were spawned. These 0+ juveniles remained there for between three months and one year depending on species, before vacating the surf-zone for their adult habitats. A comparison of the abundance of juveniles in the surf-zone with other inshore marine habitats suggested that five species ( Amblyrhynchotes honckenii, Cheilodonichthys capensis, Diplodus sargus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Pomadasys olivaceum) may be entirely, and three species ( Lichia amia, Liza richardsoni and Rhabdosargus globiceps) largely, dependent on the surf-zone as a nursery area. It was concluded that the surf-zone of sandy beaches may be as important as estuaries as a nursery habitat for juvenile fish.

  8. Cape Canaveral, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This overhead view of the central eastern shore of Florida shows the Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center (28.5N, 80.5W), where all of the NASA manned space missions originate. Sprinkled along the jutting cape are a number of KSC launch pads and the nearby Space Shuttle Landing Facility. Merritt Island, just south of Kennedy Space Center is where the spacecraft liftoff tracking station is located. Orlando is on the left edge of photo.

  9. D Model of the Torres Syncline in the PARANÁ-ETENDEKA Province, South Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerram, D. A.; Waichel, B. L.; Lima, E. F. D.; Rossetti, L. D. M. M.; Bueno, G. V.; Viana, A. R.; Barreto, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province (PEVP) is Early Cretaceous in age and precedes the fragmentation of the south Gondwana. These volcanic rocks cover an area in excess of 1,200,000 km2 and can reach a maximum thickness of 1,700 m. The PEVP is composed mainly of tholeiitic basalts and subordinately by andesites and rhyolites/quartz-latites. Recently new models considering physical characteristics of the lava flow stratigraphy on both sides, Africa and South America, have been built providing a new vision of the volcanic stratigraphy and flow morphologies inside the province. This work presents a 3D model of the volcanic sequence at theTorres Syncline (Brazil). The 3D model was build using the PETREL E&P Software Platform. Geological sections based on field data and Log data from Paraná Basin (Gama-ray and soniclogs) were used to build the model. The Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil with the main orientation NW-SE. In Torres Syncline the basal portion is characterized by pahoehoe lava flows in a compound braided architecture, followed by rubbly lavas in a tabular classic architecture, and in the upper portions silicic units interbedded with basaltic lavas. The central portion of the volcanic pile is characterized by thick tabular lavas with rubbly tops (25-50 m thick). These flows have an internal structure divided in four parts: a smooth vesicular base, aphanitic massive cores with irregular joints, upper vesicular portion and a rubbly top. This unit is thicker along of the Torres Syncline and represents the main phase of the volcanism. Silicic units occur in the upper parts of the PEVP stratigraphy and include lava domes interbedded with rubbly flows and thick tabular flows. The Torres Syncline and Huab constituted one Basin features single active structure in the Early Cretaceous and during the main rifting phase. The onset of the volcanism was characterized by low effusion rate eruptions over the paleoerg, forming pahoehoe

  10. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  11. A mixed-method analysis of free-time involvement and motivation among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Gleeson, Sarah L.; Patrick, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    Using focus group (N = 114) and survey (N = 946) data, this study employed Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as an organizing framework to examine free-time use and motivation among predominantly mixed-race adolescents from one area in South Africa. Adolescents reported participating in a broad range of activities, with socializing, media use, sports, risk behaviour, and performing arts being most frequently mentioned. All of the motivation types proposed by SDT were spontaneously mentioned by focus group participants. Free time was most strongly characterized by intrinsic motivations, such as competence, relatedness, and positive affect. Activities were also seen as a way to achieve outside goals. With few exceptions, multiple motivations were identified for the same activities, and specific motivations were reported across multiple activity types. The findings suggest that positive motivational experiences were not limited to a specific subset of activities. However, future longitudinal research on participation, motivation, and outcomes is needed to determine the developmental implications of different forms of free-time motivation. PMID:23055820

  12. The diets of ungulates from the hominid fossil-bearing site of Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stynder, Deano D.

    2009-01-01

    The dietary regimes of 15 ungulate species from the middle Pleistocene levels of the hominid-bearing locality of Elandsfontein, South Africa, are investigated using the mesowear technique. Previous studies, using taxonomic analogy, classified twelve of the studied species as grazers ( Redunca arundinum, Hippotragus gigas, Hippotragus leucophaeus, Antidorcas recki, Homoiceras antiquus, Damaliscus aff. lunatus, Connochaetes gnou laticornutus, Rabaticerus arambourgi, Damaliscus niro, Damaliscus sp. nov., an unnamed "spiral horn" antelope and Equus capensis), one as a mixed feeder ( Taurotragus oryx) and two as browsers ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros and Raphicerus melanotis). Although results from mesowear analysis sustain previous dietary classifications in the majority of cases, five species were reclassified. Three species previously classified as grazers, were reclassified as mixed feeders ( H. gigas, D. aff. lunatus and R. arambourgi), one previously classified as a grazer, was reclassified as a browser (the "spiral horn" antelope), and one previously classified as a mixed feeder, was reclassified as a browser ( T. oryx). While current results broadly support previous reconstructions of the Elandsfontein middle Pleistocene environment as one which included a substantial C 3 grassy component, the reclassifications suggest that trees, broad-leaved bush and fynbos were probably more prominent than what was previously thought.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  14. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  15. Seasonal changes of macroinvertebrate communities in a Western cape river, South Africa, receiving nonpoint-source insecticide pollution.

    PubMed

    Bollmohr, Silke; Schulz, Ralf

    2009-04-01

    A field study was conducted at three different sites along the Lourens River (South Africa) to assess aquatic macroinvertebrate abundances and community structures in relation to seasonal changes in rainfall and particle-associated organophosphorous (OP) insecticide contamination. Redundancy analysis indicated OP insecticide contamination (azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos) as the only significant variable determining the community composition. Principal response curves indicated that the invertebrate community dynamics of the Lourens River at the most-contaminated site, Lourens River 3 (38 +/- 23.0 microg total OP/ kg suspended particles), differed significantly from the less-contaminated site, Lourens River 2 (8.0 +/- 4.9 microg total OP/kg in suspended particles) during the dry season (October-December; pesticide application period), whereas no difference was found during the wet season (July-September). Ephemeroptera abundances increased significantly (p = 0.0021) at the control site, Lourens River 1, from the wet to dry season, whereas abundances significantly decreased (p = 0.0011) at Lourens River 3. Two-by-three factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant interaction of site and season for the three most abundant mayfly taxa, Baetis sp., Demoreptus sp., and Castanophlebia sp., confirming a possible OP effect. Lourens River 3, however, differed significantly from the other two sites in flow, ortho-phosphate, and algae growth, which may partly explain the lower abundance of sensitive species. Apart from the OP contamination, only flow velocities showed significant differences between the wet and dry season at some sites. In conclusion, the present study suggests that particle-associated OPs affected community structure in the Lourens River at levels greater than 30 microg total OP/kg, whereas levels less then 10 microg total OP/kg yielded no significant effects.

  16. Does identity shape leadership and management practice? Experiences of PHC facility managers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daire, Judith; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere, Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities are managed by professional nurses. Little is known about the dimensions and challenges of their job, or what influences their managerial practice. Drawing on leadership and organizational theory, this study explored what the job of being a PHC manager entails, and what factors influence their managerial practice. We specifically considered whether the appointment of professional nurses as facility managers leads to an identity transition, from nurse to manager. The overall intention was to generate ideas about how to support leadership development among PHC facility managers. Adopting case study methodology, the primary researcher facilitated in-depth discussions (about their personal history and managerial experiences) with eight participating facility managers from one geographical area. Other data were collected through in-depth interviews with key informants, document review and researcher field notes/journaling. Analysis involved data triangulation, respondent and peer review and cross-case analysis. The experiences show that the PHC facility manager's job is dominated by a range of tasks and procedures focused on clinical service management, but is expected to encompass action to address the population and public health needs of the surrounding community. Managing with and through others, and in a complex system, requiring self-management, are critical aspects of the job. A range of personal, professional and contextual factors influence managerial practice, including professional identity. The current largely facility-focused management practice reflects the strong nursing identity of managers and broader organizational influences. However, three of the eight managers appear to self-identify an emerging leadership identity and demonstrate related managerial practices. Nonetheless, there is currently limited support for an identity transition towards leadership in this context. Better

  17. Does identity shape leadership and management practice? Experiences of PHC facility managers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daire, Judith; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere, Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities are managed by professional nurses. Little is known about the dimensions and challenges of their job, or what influences their managerial practice. Drawing on leadership and organizational theory, this study explored what the job of being a PHC manager entails, and what factors influence their managerial practice. We specifically considered whether the appointment of professional nurses as facility managers leads to an identity transition, from nurse to manager. The overall intention was to generate ideas about how to support leadership development among PHC facility managers. Adopting case study methodology, the primary researcher facilitated in-depth discussions (about their personal history and managerial experiences) with eight participating facility managers from one geographical area. Other data were collected through in-depth interviews with key informants, document review and researcher field notes/journaling. Analysis involved data triangulation, respondent and peer review and cross-case analysis. The experiences show that the PHC facility manager's job is dominated by a range of tasks and procedures focused on clinical service management, but is expected to encompass action to address the population and public health needs of the surrounding community. Managing with and through others, and in a complex system, requiring self-management, are critical aspects of the job. A range of personal, professional and contextual factors influence managerial practice, including professional identity. The current largely facility-focused management practice reflects the strong nursing identity of managers and broader organizational influences. However, three of the eight managers appear to self-identify an emerging leadership identity and demonstrate related managerial practices. Nonetheless, there is currently limited support for an identity transition towards leadership in this context. Better

  18. Does identity shape leadership and management practice? Experiences of PHC facility managers in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Daire, Judith; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere, Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities are managed by professional nurses. Little is known about the dimensions and challenges of their job, or what influences their managerial practice. Drawing on leadership and organizational theory, this study explored what the job of being a PHC manager entails, and what factors influence their managerial practice. We specifically considered whether the appointment of professional nurses as facility managers leads to an identity transition, from nurse to manager. The overall intention was to generate ideas about how to support leadership development among PHC facility managers. Adopting case study methodology, the primary researcher facilitated in-depth discussions (about their personal history and managerial experiences) with eight participating facility managers from one geographical area. Other data were collected through in-depth interviews with key informants, document review and researcher field notes/journaling. Analysis involved data triangulation, respondent and peer review and cross-case analysis. The experiences show that the PHC facility manager’s job is dominated by a range of tasks and procedures focused on clinical service management, but is expected to encompass action to address the population and public health needs of the surrounding community. Managing with and through others, and in a complex system, requiring self-management, are critical aspects of the job. A range of personal, professional and contextual factors influence managerial practice, including professional identity. The current largely facility-focused management practice reflects the strong nursing identity of managers and broader organizational influences. However, three of the eight managers appear to self-identify an emerging leadership identity and demonstrate related managerial practices. Nonetheless, there is currently limited support for an identity transition towards leadership in this context. Better

  19. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-07-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day.

  20. GOCE Gradient Tensor Characterization of the Coupled Parana (South America) and Etendeka (Africa) Magmatic Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla

    2015-03-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP) at the conjugate plate margins of South America and Africa is investigated with GOCE gradients. The LIP is associated to Gondwana breakup, and is asymmetric between the two margins. The study intends to investigate how the lithosphere is affected by continental breakup and what caused the asymmetry, considering that successive spreading is symmetric. The gradients at satellite and surface height are modelled with other geophysical data as seismic profiling, seismic tomography and bore-hole logs. Densities and velocities are modelled with a petrologic model. The residual gravity gradients, reduced of crustal thickness variations and sediments, are continuously high along the Angola and Namibia margin. Inversion shows the high is due to a density increase about 6 km thick with the top at about 23 km depth, placing it above the Moho. It is probable that the densification be due to magmatic intrusions, increasing the volume of the LIP at the African side, which remained trapped in the crust and produced only small volumes of surface basalts. This is true also for the margin of Angola, which in literature is claimed to be void of magmatism along its margin.

  1. Geochronology of Precambrian granites and associated U-Ti-Th mineralization, northern Olary province, South Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphic rocks in the Olary province of the Willyama block of South Australia host ore-grade amounts of U-Th-Ti and U-Fe-Ti-Th minerals. U-Pb-Th isotope analyses on zircons from all granitoids associated with the Crocker Well brannerite deposit indicate that these granitoids were intruded within a short time span, close to the 1579.2??1.5 m.y. age of the brannerite-bearing host-rock. Though the early Paleozoic Delamerian orogeny was intense in this region, the zircon isotopic systems remained unaffected; rather, the best-defined zircon chords on concordia plots show a welldefined lower intercept of 43.8??6.5 Ma, which can only be associated with early Tertiary block faulting. Pb-U-Th isotope analyses on brannerite from the Crocker Well deposit and davidite from the Mt. Victoria deposit and the Radium Hill deposit yield badly scattered and discordant apparent ages that suggest a primary age at least as old as the age of the Crocker Well granitoids, followed by a severe disturbance in the early Paleozoic. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Prevalence of Ochratoxin A in Human Milk in the Khorrambid Town, Fars Province, South of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Parvin; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rafiei, Hossein; Chadeganipour, Mostafa; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ochratoxins belong to a group of mycotoxins produced as the secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus and Penicillium. These toxins may be teratogenic, mutagenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and may have immunosuppressive effects and pose a serious health problems to exposed humans and animals. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the samples of mothers' milk in the Khorrambid Town, Fars Province, south of Iran. Materials and Methods: Between June and July 2011, samples of human milk were obtained from 87 mothers. The samples were diluted by absolute methanol at 1:4 ratio and after centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used to determine the level of OTA using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Among 87 human milk samples, 84 (96.6%) samples had positive results for OTA at a mean level of 24.57 ± 13.6 ng/L. According to the European Union Standard, 14 (16%) positive samples revealed more than the maximum limit of 40 ng/L for ochratoxin (range, 1.6-60 ng/L). Conclusions: Presence of OTA in the milk of mothers denotes a probable consumption of a contaminated foods. Therefore, regular monitoring of foods for presence of mycotoxins for lactating mothers seems necessary. PMID:25368794

  3. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of construction land expansion in a typical town of south Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Su, Hai-long; Wang, Jin-nian

    2011-03-01

    Choosing Xinzhuang Town in south Jiangsu Province as study area, and by using 1980, 1991, 2001, and 2009 high-resolution remote sensing images and GIS spatial analysis technology, an integrated expansion degree index model was established based on the existing indicators of construction land expansion, and the general and spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics of construction land expansion in the Town in three time periods of 1980-2009 were quantitatively analyzed. In 1980-2009, with the acceleration of rural urbanization and industrialization, the area of construction land in the Town increased significantly by 19.24 km2, and especially in 2001-2009, the expanded area, expanded contribution rate, and expansion intensity reached the maximum. The construction land expansion had an obvious spatial differentiation characteristic. In 1980-1991, the newly increased construction land mainly concentrated in town area. After 1991, the focus of construction land gradually spread to the villages with developed industries. Most of the increased construction lands were converted from paddy field and dry land, accounting for 88.1% of the total increased area, while the contribution from other land types was relatively small.

  4. Correlates of emotional and behavioural problems in children with perinatally acquired HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Louw, Kerry-Ann; Ipser, Jonathan; Phillips, Nicole; Hoare, Jacqueline

    2016-07-01

    In the antiretroviral era, youth perinatally infected with HIV (PHIV+) are surviving into adulthood and are at risk for emotional and behavioural problems. Few studies of these problems have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries and even fewer in sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to provide a quantitative description of emotional and behavioural problems in a group of PHIV+ youth (n = 78) in South Africa compared with a group of demographically matched HIV-negative controls (n = 30) and to identify correlates of emotional and behavioural problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted employing participants from community and hospital-based clinics. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Several measures were used to assess demographic, biological, cognitive and contextual correlates of problem behaviours. Youth were compared by HIV status on demographic, cognitive and contextual variables as well as the Total Problems and subscale scores of the CBCL. Multivariate comparisons of the influence of contextual and cognitive variables on CBCL Total Problems scores were performed using a stepwise linear regression analytic procedure. In this study, there were no significant differences in between-group comparisons for the prevalence of Internalizing, Externalizing and Total Problems in the PHIV+ youth and control group at the clinical and borderline cut-off ranges of the CBCL. Caregiver depression was the only significant predictor of greater Total Problems scores in the full model, after controlling for age and gender (F = 8.57, df = 5.102, P < .01). An interaction between HIV status and caregiver depression was observed (t = -2.20, P = .03), with follow-up within-group analyses confirming that caregiver depression predicted greater Total Problems scores both in HIV-negative youth (β = 0.61, P < .001), and to a lesser extent, in HIV-positive youth (

  5. Geometrical Sense Making: Findings of Analysis Based on the Characteristics of the van Hiele Theory among a Sample of South African Grade 10 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alex, Jogymol K.; Mammen, Kuttickattu J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on one part of a large study which attempted to identify the linguistic and hierarchical characteristics of van Hiele theory amongst grade 10 learners. The sample consisted of a total of 359 participants from five purposively selected schools from Mthatha District in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The performance of…

  6. The Effect of Brief Interventions on the Drinking Behaviour of Pregnant Women in a High-Risk Rural South African Community: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Sandra; Jordaan, Esme; Viljoen, Dennis; Olivier, Leana; de Waal, Johanna; Poole, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of a series of brief interventions (BIs) on anti-natal alcohol consumption of women from a disadvantaged and high-risk background attending state health clinics in a rural district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. A pragmatic cluster randomised trial design was followed. All pregnant women,…

  7. Irrigation Management Transfer and WUAs' dynamics: evidence from the South-Kazakhstan province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zinzani, andrea

    2014-05-01

    The importance of water resources management in the arid and semi-arid lands can not be overestimated being related with environmental, economical and socio-political issues. In Central Asia, due to the physical and climatic features, water control and irrigation have always played a strategic role in territorial and societal development. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan, as in the other Central Asian republics, significant changes in both the water and agricultural sector have emerged; water management shifted from a purely technical issue to a sociopolitical and economic one leading to several institutional and organizational changes. To address this transitional water management context and the related governance and technical issues, since the 1990s several development organizations and donor agencies (such as the World Bank, United Nations, USAID, and others), according to the international water community, have sought to streamline the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) and the establishment of the Water Users Associations (WUAs); this initiatives are sponsored and related to the IWRM framework, the water program globally supported by the Global Water Partnership and widely debated and questioned in the last years. This paper aims to discuss these transitional water management processes focusing on the meso-local level in the Arys valley, administratively included in the South-Kazakhstan province, ten years since the enactment of the law formalizing the WUAs. Three districts (Tyulkibas, Ordabasy and Otrar) were selected to analyse and understand the specific local transitional water institutional/organizational framework and to highlight the differences among them. The fieldwork was conducted in two different phases, April-May and November-December 2012. Within those periods, semi-structured interviews were carried out to the members of the state organizations (river basin agencies and district/province water departments) as well as the

  8. Improving the counselling skills of lay counsellors in antiretroviral adherence settings: a cluster randomised controlled trial in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewing, Sarah; Mathews, Cathy; Schaay, Nikki; Cloete, Allanise; Simbayi, Leickness; Louw, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Little research has investigated interventions to improve the delivery of counselling in health care settings. We determined the impact of training and supervision delivered as part of the Options: Western Cape project on lay antiretroviral adherence counsellors' practice. Four NGOs employing 39 adherence counsellors in the Western Cape were randomly allocated to receive 53 h of training and supervision in Options for Health, an intervention based on the approach of Motivational Interviewing. Five NGOs employing 52 adherence counsellors were randomly allocated to the standard care control condition. Counselling observations were analysed for 23 intervention and 32 control counsellors. Intervention counsellors' practice was more consistent with a client-centred approach than control counsellors', and significantly more intervention counsellors engaged in problem-solving barriers to adherence (91 vs. 41 %). The Options: Western Cape training and supervision package enabled lay counsellors to deliver counselling for behaviour change in a manner consistent with evidence-based approaches.

  9. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Andrea N; Myers, Bronwyn; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine qualitatively how women’s social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change) influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women’s Health CoOp) were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women’s CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women’s social action (eg, educating peers or family members) in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women’s descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women’s substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants) and social action (eg, engaging others in the community on issues relevant to substance use prevention or other health topics) promoted within the program, as well as outside social influences within women’s life contexts (eg, support from non-substance using family or male partners, leaving male partners or other peer relationships characterized by drug use, or finding employment) were key factors reported by women in terms of facilitating their substance use abstinence and in reducing women’s exposures to victimization. Conclusion Findings highlight the potential for group-delivered interventions that include mobilizing women to take social action in the larger community to be effective approaches for facilitating substance use abstinence, reductions

  10. The epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in the Western Cape, South Africa☆

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M.I.; Maponga, T.G.; Ijaz, S.; Barnes, J.; Theron, G.B.; Meredith, S.A.; Preiser, W.; Tedder, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV epidemic has the potential to affect its biology. Immunisation protocols established in the pre-HIV era are based upon data showing predominantly horizontal infant transmission. This study aimed to determine whether HIV co-infection will change the epidemiology of HBV both by increasing infectivity and by favouring the escape of viruses bearing phenotypically altered HBsAg. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study used antenatal samples from the 2008 Antenatal Sentinel HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Survey in the Western Cape, South Africa. All HIV-infected women were age and race-matched to HIV-uninfected women. Samples were tested for serological markers of HBV and HDV infection. HBV viral load, consensus sequencing and genotyping were performed. Luminex technology was used to determine HBsAg phenotype. All samples from HIV-infected women were tested for traces of antiretroviral drugs by mass spectrometry. Results This study showed a trend toward loss of immune control of HBV in HIV-infected women with 3.4% of samples containing HBsAg, 18.9% contained HBeAg. In contrast, 2.9% of samples from HIV-uninfected women contained HBsAg and 17.1% of these HBeAg. The median HBV load in the HIV-infected group was 9.72 × 107 IU/ml and in the HIV-uninfected group 1.19 × 106 IU/ml. Genotyping showed 63/68 samples belonged to genotype A and the remainder genotype D. Mutations in the precore region were found in 35% and 33% of samples from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected respectively. Although no major epitope ablation was found, marked variation in HBsAg profiles in HIV-infected group was demonstrated. No HDV infection was detected. Conclusion HIV-HBV co-infected women exhibit a degree of immune escape. One in six HBV-infected pregnant women, irrespective of HIV status is HBeAg seropositive. HBV immunization of newborns in sub

  11. Sexual risk behavior, alcohol use, and social media use among secondary school students in informal settlements in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Z A; Braunschweig, E N; Feeney, J; Dringus, S; Weiss, H; Delany-Moretlwe, S; Ross, D A

    2014-09-01

    South Africa's HIV prevalence among young people remains among the highest in the world. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012 to estimate prevalences of sexual risk behavior and hazardous alcohol use (HAU) (via the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) as well as to investigate potential associations between these outcomes and social media use. In all, 4485 students (mean age 15.66 years, SD 1.39) at 46 secondary schools in informal settlements in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth completed mobile-phone-assisted, self-administered baseline questionnaires within a cluster-randomized trial. In all, 312 females (12.5 %) and 468 males (23.5 %) screened positive for HAU (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI 1.69-2.34). 730 males (39.9 %) and 268 females (11.8 %) reported having had two or more partners in the last year (AOR = 3.46, 95 % CI 2.87-4.16). Among females, having a Facebook account was associated with reported multiple partnerships in the last year (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.19-2.74), age-disparate sex in the last year (AOR = 1.96, 95 % CI 1.16-3.32) and HAU (AOR = 1.97, 95 % CI 1.41-2.74). Using Mxit-a popular mobile instant messaging application-was associated with higher odds of reported multiple partnerships in the last year among both males (AOR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.35-2.14) and females (AOR = 1.45, 95 % CI 1.07-1.96) and with HAU among both males (AOR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.14-1.90) and females (AOR = 1.50, 95 % CI 1.18-1.90). Further longitudinal and qualitative research should explore in more depth the observed links between social media and risk behavior.

  12. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  13. Why HIV positive patients on antiretroviral treatment and/or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis use traditional medicine: perceptions of health workers, traditional healers and patients: a study in two provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Puoane, T R; Hughes, G D; Uwimana, J; Johnson, Q; Folk, W R

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of patients, health workers and traditional healers about the use of traditional medicine and Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART). The study explored the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of patients, health workers and traditional healers about the use of traditional medicine and Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART), using an exploratory qualitative design in two provinces of South Africa: an urban township health facility in the Western Cape, and a rural district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with antennal HIV rate of 32% and 28%'respectively. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 participants: six HIV patients on ART and using Traditional Medicine(TM), two doctors, two nurses and four traditional healers. Two focus group discussions -one at each site - were held with community health workers who work with HIV-positive patients (Western Cape [5] and in KZN [4]). Patient said to have used Traditional Healing Practices (THP) before they were diagnosed with HIV, and some who have been diagnosed with HIV continue using TM in conjunction with ART and/or Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Patients preferred not to disclose THP to health professionals because of lack of support and understanding. Patients utilize THP because of family expectations, privacy and confidentiality, especially when they have not disclosed their HIV status. Healthcare professionals had strong negative opinions about THP, especially for HIV-positive patients. Traditional healers supported the patient's rationale for THP use. This study revealed a need to better understand factors involved in patients' choosing to use THP concurrently with ART.

  14. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. δ13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). δ34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive δ13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ∑REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in δ13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of δ34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior

  15. Assessment of heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge: a case study of Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K; Gumbo, Jabulani R

    2014-03-03

    Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant.

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K.; Gumbo, Jabulani R.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant. PMID:24595211

  17. Early Triassic conodonts of Jiarong, Nanpanjiang Basin, southern Guizhou Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Lai, Xulong; Yan, Chunbo; Richoz, Sylvain; Liu, Xiaodan; Wang, Lina

    2015-06-01

    Jiarong (Huishui County, Guizhou Province, South China) is a key locality for the study of the Early Triassic recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction. The size reduction of conodonts at the Smithian/Spathian transition was first documented in Jiarong, and it is also a locality that contributes to the documentation of the Early Triassic paleo-seawater temperatures. In the Jiarong sections, thirteen conodont zones were identified for the Early Triassic; in ascending order, they are Hindeodus parvus Zone, Hindeodus sosioensis Zone, Clarkina krystyni Zone, Neoclarkina discreta Zone, Neospathodus cristagalli-Eurygnathodus costatus assemblage zone, Novispathodus waageni eowaageni Zone, Novispathodus waageni waageni Zone, Discretella discreta Zone, Pachycladina-Parachirognathus assemblage zone, Novispathodus pingdingshanensis Zone, Icriospathodus collinsoni Zone, Triassospathodus homeri Zone, Triassospathodus triangularis Zone. These conodont zones in the Jiarong sections improve the global correlation of Early Triassic sections and also provide better regional age constraints in an area that is important for studies of recovery from the extinction. Based on the first appearance of Nv. waageni eowaageni, the Induan/Olenekian boundary is recognized at 3.6 m above the base of the Jiarong III Section. The dominance of blade-shaped (segminate) conodonts was replaced by gondola-shaped (segminiplanate) conodonts twice; the first time was in the late Griesbachian, and the second time was in the early Spathian. The dominance of segminiplanate conodonts probably indicates that the deeper seawater environment became more oxygenated during the late Griesbachian and early Spathian for short time intervals, as it is believed that the Griesbachian segminiplanate conodonts favored deeper oxygenated water habitats. A new genus, Spathogondolella gen. nov., and a new species, Spathogondolella jiarongensis sp. nov., have been recognized.

  18. Barriers Associated with the Use of English in the Teaching of Technology in Grade 9 at Some Schools in Eastern Cape Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makgato, Moses

    2015-01-01

    English is the language of learning and teaching in most schools in South Africa. The ability of teachers and students to understand and communicate with each other in English contributes to better performance in Science and Technology subjects. This article explores the challenges posed by the use of English in the teaching and learning of…

  19. Assessment of learners’ exposure to health education and promotion at school in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tosin, Oni. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background School participation and educational attainment among adolescents have been rising rapidly in the developing world. Thus, to attain Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV and/or AIDs, malaria and other diseases), it is crucial to seize the opportunity to educate and encourage teenagers about healthy choices and proper social behaviours that will continue into adulthood. Aim This study aimed to assess the exposure of rural secondary school learners to health education and promotion at schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Setting This study was carried out at 10 secondary schools in Vhumbedzi educational circuit. Methodology The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative approach. Data were collected from 338 randomly selected learners from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhumbedzi circuit in the Limpopo province. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results The findings showed that, 102 (66.07%) male and 121 (67.60%) female learners reported that they were taught about physical changes that occur during adolescence. In the same vein, most of the participants (n = 128, 84.39%) and (n = 152, 85.39%) males and females respectively claimed to have been taught about sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion In this study the secondary schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are making efforts to uphold and expose their learners to health education and promotion at school. PMID:27380860

  20. MISR Looks at Cape Cod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Each year in late November the United States observes the Thanksgiving holiday, commemorating the harvest festival celebrated by the Plymouth colonists and the Native Americans who helped them survive the devastating winter of 1620. Plymouth, Massachusetts, where the Mayflower Pilgrims landed, is located on the west side of Cape Cod Bay, shown in this MISR vertical-viewing (nadir) camera image. This nearly cloud-free picture was acquired on April 13, 2000 during Terra orbit 1708.

    South of the distinctively-shaped Cape Cod are Nantucket Island and Martha's Vineyard. Further west is Block Island, south of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Montauk Point on the eastern tip of Long Island, New York, is visible at the lower left. On the mainland, Providence and Boston appear as gray patches. Jutting out from the Massachusetts coastline, northeast of Boston, is Cape Ann, location of the city of Gloucester, which was settled soon after the Pilgrim's arrival in Plymouth. Gloucester is the oldest fishing port in the eastern United States.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827).

    PubMed

    Kootker, Lisette M; Mbeki, Linda; Morris, Alan G; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world. PMID:27309532

  2. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Alan G.; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world. PMID:27309532

  3. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827).

    PubMed

    Kootker, Lisette M; Mbeki, Linda; Morris, Alan G; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world.

  4. Occurrence of Clinostomum complanatum in Aphanius dispar (Actinoptrygii: Cyprinodontidae) collected from Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province, South of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Z; Mobedi, I; Esmaeili, HR; Kia, EB

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility of Aphanius dispar (A.dispar) acting as intermediate host for Clinostomum complanatum (C. complanatum), from Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province of Iran. Methods During a biological study of A. dispar in Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province, South of Iran, a total of 97 fish specimens were collected in 24 January 2006. Results 4 specimens (4.12%) including 1 male and 3 female were found infected with C. complanatum metacercaria. These metacercaria were coiled in the epiderm on the body surface of infected fishes. The infection is known as yellow spot disease. The parasite abundance, intensity and prevalence were 0.05%, 1.25% and 4.12%, respectively. The infection was higher in females than males. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on occurrence of C. complanatum metacercaria in A. dispar in Iran. PMID:23569757

  5. What Are the Best and Worst Times in the Lives of South African Township Dwellers? A Content Analysis of the Self-Defined End-Anchors for Bernheim's ACSA Scale of Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, V.; Theuns, P.

    2013-01-01

    Bernheim's ACSA, a less conventional measure of subjective well-being originally developed for use in a clinical setting, was applied to a sample of black South African township dwellers (n = 1,020) in the Eastern Cape Province. The Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment is an experiential self-anchoring scale with concrete anchors (Bernheim in…

  6. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  7. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  8. Assessment of Groundwater Potential in Fractured Crystalline rocks of the North West Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessema, A.

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of groundwater potential in crystalline rocks of the North West Province was carried out. The area is located close to the boundary between South Africa and Botswana. The main objective of the study is to investigate groundwater potential using multi-data integration approach. Geologically, the area comprises of volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, carbonates, arenaceous and argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Transvaal Supergroup. The youngest rocks are the Karoo Supergroup and the Quaternary sedimentary cover. Multivariate statistical modelling was carried out to produce groundwater prospectivity map of the area. In addition, groundwater quality was assessed using hydrochemical and environmental isotopes. The statistical modelling includes data-driven and knowledge-based approaches. The data-driven approach includes artificial neural networks (ANNs), weights of evidence (WoE) and logistic regression (LG), while the knowledge-based approach involves the use of fuzzy logic. The two statistical modellings were applied to five evidential themes that include geology, structures, geomorphology, land-use and soil types. The data-driven approach provided nearly similar results showing lithologic units and fracture connectivity play a key role in controlling groundwater occurrence. The influence of lithology is significant in the southern part of the area, while fracture connectivity play important role in controlling groundwater occurrence within the crystalline rocks that are situated in the central and northern parts of the area. In general, the results of multivariate statistical modelling show number of groundwater potential zones varying from very good to very poo. The zone shown as very good and goodgroundwater potential covers ~17% and ~22% of the study area, respectively. These zones correspond to carbonate rocks located in the southern part of the area where percolating rainwater developed large cavities that can store and

  9. Prevalence of prenatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Jones, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depressed symptoms and associated factors in prenatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in rural South Africa. In a cross-sectional study, 663 HIV-positive prenatal women in 12 community health centres in Mpumalanga province, South Africa, were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient after HIV post-test counselling). Results indicate that overall, 48.7% [95% CI: 44.8, 52.6] of women during the prenatal period reported depressed mood (scores of ≥ 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 10). In multivariate analysis, not being employed, unplanned pregnancy, not having an HIV-positive child, poor antiretroviral therapy adherence, non-condom use at last sex, and intimate partner violence were associated with depressive symptoms. Potential risk factors among HIV-infected prenatal women were identified which could be utilized in interventions. Routine screening for depression may be integrated into prenatal care settings.

  10. Health Care Capacity and Allocations Among South Africa's Provinces: Infrastructure–Inequality Traps After the End of Apartheid

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the determinants of health care funding allocations among South Africa's provinces and their effects on health care from 1996 through 2007. Methods. We performed multivariate regression of funding allocation data against measures of disease burden and health system infrastructure by province. Results. Disease burden was increasingly negatively correlated with funding allocations and explained less than one quarter of the variation in allocations among provinces. Nearly three quarters of the variation in allocations was explained by preexisting hospital infrastructure and health care workers. The density of private hospitals in the preceding year was associated with greater government allocations (bprivate = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08, 0.15), but public hospital density in the preceding year was not (bpublic = 0.05; 95% CI = −0.02, 0.11). Greater allocations were associated with a higher number of doctors (b = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.75) but fewer nurses (b = −0.37; 95% CI = −0.72,−0.25) in the same year. Conclusions. Regions with a greater capacity to spend funds received more funding and created more infrastructure than those with greater health needs. Historical infrastructure inequalities may have created an infrastructure–inequality trap, in which the distribution of funds to those with greater “absorptive capacity” exacerbates inequalities. PMID:21148716

  11. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.

  12. Review of active faults in the Borborema Province, Intraplate South America — Integration of seismological and paleoseismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; do Nascimento, Aderson F.; Ferreira, Joaquim M.; Nogueira, Francisco C.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Neves, Benjamim B. Brito; Sousa, Maria O. L.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we provide a review of the properties and behavior of active faults in the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, using instrumental, historical and paleoseismological records. The Borborema Province is one of the most seismically active parts of the South American stable continental region (the South American Platform). The Province encompasses an area ~ 900 km long and ~ 600 km wide. It is composed of a branching system of Neoproterozoic orogens, encompassing Archean and Proterozoic inliers deformed during the Brasiliano orogeny at ~ 750-500 Ma. Active faults reactivate shear zones or regional foliation and quartz veins or cut across the preexisting fabric. Active faults are usually strike-slip and generate events ≤ 5.2 m b, which we interpret as the lower limit for maximum possible earthquakes. Seismicity is concentrated in the upper crust down to a depth of 12 km. Earthquake sequences illuminated naturally occurring faults up to 40 km long and segments in the order of 0.5-2.6 km in faults related to induced seismicity. Earthquakes have a recurrence interval of ~ 15 years for M s = 4. Paleoseismological data indicate that although earthquakes associated with surface ruptures have not occurred in the last 200 years, they struck the region in the last ~ 100 ka. Paleoearthquakes have a recurrence interval of ~ 15.8 ka for magnitudes of ~ 5.5 M w in individual faults. Moreover, earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation caused by events of at least 5.5-6.0 M s have occurred at least six times in the last 400-10 ka in one alluvial valley. Seismically defined faults are concentrated along the continental margin at the border of sedimentary basins as far as 250-300 km inland in areas of extended crust; faults in the paleoseismic record are also found in rift basins along this margin. Both records also reveal that active faults tend to be hydraulically conductive.

  13. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. Methods During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Conclusion Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic

  14. The effects of extreme seasonality of climate and day length on the activity budget and diet of semi-commensal chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, A C; O'Riain, M J; Swedell, L

    2010-02-01

    We examined the effects of extreme seasonality on the activity budget and diet of wild chacma baboons with access to a high-quality, human-derived food source. The Cape Peninsula of South Africa is unusual among nonhuman primate habitats due to its seasonal extremes in day length and climate. Winter days are markedly shorter and colder than summer days but have higher rainfall and higher primary production of annually flowering plants. This combination of fewer daylight hours but higher rainfall is substantially different from the ecological constraints faced by both equatorial baboon populations and those living in temperate climates with summer rainfall. We sought to understand how these seasonal differences affect time budgets of food-enhanced troops in comparison to both other food-enhanced troops and wild foraging troops at similar latitudes. Our results revealed significant seasonal differences in activity budget and diet, a finding that contrasts with other baboon populations with access to high-return anthropogenic foods. Similar to nonprovisioned troops at similar latitudes, troop members spent more time feeding, socializing, and traveling during the long summer days compared to the short winter days, and proportionately more time feeding and less time resting in summer compared to winter. Summer diets consisted mainly of fynbos and nonindigenous foods, whereas winter diets were dominated by annually flowering plants (mainly grasses) and ostrich pellets raided from a nearby ostrich farm. In this case, food enhancement may have effectively exaggerated seasonal differences in activity budgets by providing access to a high-return food (ostrich pellets) that was spatially and temporally coincident with abundant winter fallback foods (grasses). The frequent use of both alien vegetation and high-return, human-derived foods highlights the dietary flexibility of baboons as a key element of their overall success in rapidly transforming environments such as the

  15. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    Access to sustainable water and sanitation services is one of the biggest challenges the developing world faces as an increasing number of people inhabit those areas. Inadequate access to water and sanitation infrastructure often leads children to drink poor quality water which can result in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Repeated episodes of ECD can cause serious problems such as growth stunting, cognitive impairment, and even death. Although researchers have long studied the connection between poor access to water and hygiene facilities and ECD, most studies have relied on intervention-control methods to study the effects of singular interventions. Such studies are time-consuming, costly, and fail to acknowledge that the causes and prevention strategies for ECD are numerous and complex. An alternate approach is to think of a community as a complex system in which the engineered, natural and social environments interact in ways that are not easily predicted. Such complex systems have no central or coordinating mechanism and may exhibit emergent behavior which can be counterintuitive and lead to valuable insights. The goal of this research is to develop a robust, quantitative understanding of the complex pathogen transmission chain that leads to ECD. To realize this goal, we have developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) which simulates individual community member behavior. We have validated this transdisciplinary model with four years of field data from a community in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Our model incorporates data such as household water source preferences, collection habits, household- and source-water quality, water-source reliability and biological regrowth. Our outcome measures are household water quality, ECD incidences, and child growth stunting. This technique allows us to test hypotheses on the computer. Future researchers can implement promising interventions with our partner institution, the University of Venda, and the model can be refined as

  16. Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population.

  17. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.5W) is a detailed look at the national seashore recreation area with its many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago.

  18. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a detailed look at the national seashore recreation area with its many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago.

  19. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  20. The Heart in Haart: Quality of Life of Patients Enrolled in the Public Sector Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in the Free State Province of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booysen, F. Le R.; Van Rensburg, H. C. J.; Bachmann, M.; Louwagie, G.; Fairall, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the quality of life of patients enrolled in the public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State province of South Africa. Statistical analysis of cross-sectional data reveals that it is not access to treatment "per se" that enhances the quality of life of those who have come forward for ART. Rather, it is…

  1. Environmental determinants of asthma among school children aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maluleke, Kidi Rose; Worku, Zeleke

    2009-09-01

    Asthma has become a public health issue since the 1960's. Factors associated with asthma are environmental and genetic. This study is based on a random sample of 742 students aged 13-14 attending various schools at Polokwane, in the Province of Limpopo in South Africa. Survey logistic regression and multi-level analyses were used for data analysis. The study identifies three key determinants of asthma at the district, school and individual levels. The study shows that persistent cough (OR = 4.01), exposure to smoke at the household level (OR = 2.39) and lack of access to flush toileta at the household level (OR = 1.89) are key predictors of asthma in children. Variability at the level of districts accounts for 46% of total variance. Variability at the level of schools accounts for 33% of total variance.

  2. Indoor household residual spraying program performance in Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe: 2011 to 2012; a descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chimberengwa, Pugie Tawanda; Masuka, Nyasha; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Takundwa, Lucia; Bangure, Donewell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Matabeleland South launched the malaria pre-elimination campaign in 2012 but provincial spraying coverage has failed to attain 95% target, with some districts still encountering malaria outbreaks. A study was conducted to evaluate program performance against achieving malaria pre-elimination. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was done in 5 districts carrying out IRS using the logical framework involving inputs, process, outputs and outcome evaluation. Health workers recruited into the study included direct program implementers, district and provincial program managers. An interviewer administered questionnaire, checklists, key informant interviewer guide and desk review of records were used to collect data. Results We enrolled 37 primary respondents and 5 key informants. Pre-elimination, Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were absent in all districts. Shortages of inputs were reported by 97% of respondents, with districts receiving 80% of requested budget. Insecticides were procured centrally at national level. Spraying started late and districts failed to spray all targeted households by end of December. The province is using makeshift camps with inappropriate evaporation ponds where liquid DDT waste is not safely accounted for. The provincial IHRS coverage for 2011 was 84%. Challenges cited included; food shortages for spraymen, late delivery of inputs and poor state of IHRS equipment. Conclusion The province has failed to achieve Malaria pre-elimination IRS coverage targets for 2011/12 season. Financial and logistical challenges led to delays in supply of program inputs, recruitment and training of sprayers. The Province should establish camping infrastructure with standard evaporation ponds to minimise contamination of the environment. PMID:26015847

  3. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  4. Use of envelope domain III protein for detection and differentiation of flaviviruses in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mathengtheng, Lehlohonolo; Burt, Felicity J

    2014-04-01

    The presence of the mosquito-borne flavivirus species West Nile virus (WNV) and Wesselsbron virus (WESSV) in southern Africa is well established; however, their true prevalence remains unknown. To date, the presence of tick-borne flaviviruses has not been confirmed in this region. Serological assays using reagents that can be handled in a biosafety level 2 or lower facility were developed and evaluated for the detection and differentiation of tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 2393 serum samples from a variety of species including humans, cattle, and sheep were tested using Kunjin virus (KUNV) cell lysate antigen for the detection of anti-flavivirus antibodies in an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA). To further differentiate positive reactors on the KUNV assay for antibodies against tick- or mosquito-borne flaviviruses, recombinant envelope domain III (r-EDIII) proteins of Langat virus (LGTV), WNV, and WESSV were expressed in a bacterial expression system and used in ELISA. A total of 722 samples were positive using the KUNV assay, of which 71, 457, and 431 were positive using the r-LGTVEDIII, r-WNVEDIII, and r-WESSVEDIII assays, respectively. A total of 70 samples were reactive using the KUNV assay but not using any of the other assays, suggesting that there are possibly other flaviviruses circulating in the Free State province for which specific r-EDIII assays were not available. Collectively, the results suggest a strong presence of flaviviruses co-circulating in the Free State province with an abundance of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. There is evidence suggesting the presence of tick-borne flaviviruses, but it has yet to be confirmed. The EDIII protein is a useful tool that can be used in the detection and differentiation of flaviviruses in resource-limited laboratories, but virus neutralization assays are suggested for accurate confirmation of results. PMID

  5. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school) and (2) teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Conclusion Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. PMID:27380849

  6. Basaltic volcanism, mantle plumes, and the mechanics of rifting: The Paraná flood basalt province of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, Dennis L.; Sawyer, Dale S.

    1992-03-01

    Dynamic modeling of continental extension between South America and Africa shows that the mechanics of rifting played an important role in determining the pattern of volcanism within the Paraná and Etendeka flood-basalt provinces on the Brazilian and Namibian margins. The key feature of the model is the development of a horizontal pressure gradient in the lower crust during the early stages of extension, which provided a mechanism for transporting magma generated beneath the incipient sea-floor spreading axis into the Paraná province, 100-200 km distant. The horizontal pressure gradient developed as a consequence of the dynamic interaction of preexisting weaknesses in the middle crust and upper mantle during rifting. The model accounts for the large quantity of basalt, the asymmetric distribution of basalt on the conjugate margins, and the northward migration of the eruptive center with time. The rapidity of magma genesis is in agreement with models of decompression melting during rifting. The model indicates that although elevated asthenosphere temperatures associated with the Tristan plume account for the volume of melt generated, the mechanics of rifting control the location and style of emplacement. The model suggests that extension in the region began ca. 150-155 Ma, and lasted about 25 m.y.

  7. Occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Hubei province, South China.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Li-Xia; Tu, Pan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2012-05-25

    The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2.

  8. Predictability of Malaria Transmission Intensity in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, Using Land Surface Climatology and Autoregressive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grass, David; Jasinski, Michael F.; Govere, John

    2003-01-01

    There has been increasing effort in recent years to employ satellite remotely sensed data to identify and map vector habitat and malaria transmission risk in data sparse environments. In the current investigation, available satellite and other land surface climatology data products are employed in short-term forecasting of infection rates in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, using a multivariate autoregressive approach. The climatology variables include precipitation, air temperature and other land surface states computed by the Off-line Land-Surface Global Assimilation System (OLGA) including soil moisture and surface evaporation. Satellite data products include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and other forcing data used in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) model. Predictions are compared to long- term monthly records of clinical and microscopic diagnoses. The approach addresses the high degree of short-term autocorrelation in the disease and weather time series. The resulting model is able to predict 11 of the 13 months that were classified as high risk during the validation period, indicating the utility of applying antecedent climatic variables to the prediction of malaria incidence for the Mpumalanga Province.

  9. Climatic and tectonic controls on Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentation in northeastern Guangdong Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wen, Shu-Nv; Krapež, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    Stratigraphic analyses document climatic and tectonic controls on the filling of a Late Triassic to early Middle Jurassic (T3-J2) basin that developed on top of a young orogenic belt in southeastern South China. About 2700 m of Carnian to Bajocian sedimentary rocks is documented in the Meizhou region, Guangdong Province. The Carnian to Rhaetian sequence is characterized by deltaic facies that are succeeded by Hettangian fluvial, shallow marine and volcaniclastic facies, and by Sinemurian to early Toarcian interdistributary bay and floodplain facies. The late Toarcian to Bajocian sequence comprises proximal alluvial to lacustrine facies that changed upwards to fluvial facies. Fossil assemblages indicate that climatic conditions changed from tropical/subtropical warm humid, to temperate humid, and then to hot arid through the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic. Climatically induced changes (e.g., in precipitation, vegetation and erosion) exerted a strong influence on sediment supply, whereas tectonics played a dominant role in stratigraphic evolution, accommodation generation, sedimentation pattern and volcanism. Tectonostratigraphic analysis shows that the T3-J2 basin was initiated on an orogenic belt during late-stage orogeny, and evolved into shallow-marine and volcanic environments and then back to terrestrial facies during the post-orogenic stage. This was followed by regional uplift and the development of a basin-and-range province. The order of these events is similar to that of the central Rocky Mountains, western North America during the Palaeogene. The Mesozoic basin of South China and the Eocene basins of the central Rocky Mountains highlight the importance of subduction-related subsidence above young and broad orogens.

  10. The Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Central South America: Los Monos - Machareti(!) Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Monos - Machareti(!) total petroleum system is in the Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Province history is that of a Paleozoic, intracratonic, siliciclastic rift basin that evolved into a Miocene (Andean) foreland fold and thrust belt. Existing fields are typified by alternating reservoir and seal rocks in post-Ordovician sandstones and shales on anticlines. Thick Devonian and Silurian shale source rocks, depositionally and erosionally confined to this province, at a minimum have generated 4.1 BBOE known ultimate recoverable reserves (as of 1995, 77% gas, 15% condensate, 8% oil) into dominantly Carboniferous reservoirs with average 20% porosity and 156 md permeability. Major detachment surfaces within the source rocks contributed to the thin-skinned and laterally continuous nature of the deformation. Tertiary foreland burial adequate for significant source maturation coincided with the formation of compressional traps. Further hydrocarbon discovery in the fold and thrust belt is expected. In the foreland basin, higher thermal gradients and variable burial history - combined with the presence of unconformity and onlap wedges - create potential there for stratigraphic traps and pre-Andean, block-fault and forced-fold traps.

  11. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  12. Ain't no mountain high enough, ain't no valley low enough? Phylogeography of the rupicolous Cape girdled lizard (Cordylus cordylus) reveals a generalist pattern.

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Genevieve; Daniels, Savel R

    2014-02-01

    In the present study we examined the phylogeography of the rupicolous Cape girdled lizard, Cordylus cordylus. Samples were collected from 63 localities across the species distribution range in the Eastern and Western Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa, yielding a total sample size of 207 specimens. Four partial DNA loci, two mitochondrial (16S rRNA and ND2) and two nuclear (PRLR and PTPN12), were sequenced. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods were employed to test evolutionary relationships among populations, followed by population structure analyses, divergence time estimations and niche modelling. Our results confirm the species monophyly and revealed the presence of two distinct clades. Clade 1 comprised specimens from the western and southern portions of the Western Cape coast, while clade 2 comprised specimens from the southern and eastern Cape coast and adjacent interior of the Eastern and Western Cape and Free State provinces. An area of sympatry between the two clades was observed in the Breede river valley. The divergence time estimates revealed an Early Pliocene (4.31 Ma), Late Miocene (6.01 Ma) divergence for each of the two clades retrieved. Phylogeographic data suggest that clade 1 coalesced more recently (lower haplotypic and nucleotide diversity), when compared to clade 2. Furthermore, the niche modelling shows that C. cordylus occupies a wide range of unfavourable habitats, though slight niche differentiation was observed for each clade. The absence of marked phylogeographic patterning within clades is very uncharacteristic for a rupicolous vertebrate species. The ecological pliability and generalist nature of C. cordylus presumably contributed to the observed phylogeographic pattern and have facilitated the absence of within clade differentiation. Moreover, we suggest that microclimatic variables, rather than geographic barriers influence the genetic structuring of C. cordylus. PMID:24184337

  13. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) from the Cape region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Šípek, Petr; Ball, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767), requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833) as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775) and is, consequently, synonymised with this species. PMID:25161367

  14. Conference report from the International Congress on Infectious Diseases 2014: Part One. 16th International Congress on Infectious Diseases, Cape Town, South Africa 2-5 April 2014.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    The 16th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) was held in Cape Town this year, marking the return of the conference to Africa for the first time in 22 years. While infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV--all still prevalent in the African healthcare landscape--dominated the program, the conference featured several important sessions on fungal infection and a significant number of posters devoted to this critical medical area. Within the context of the rise of antimicrobial resistance, now identified by the WHO as one of the three greatest threats to human health, came the message that resistance is not limited to antimicrobials, but that antifungal resistance is also a significant and emerging threat worldwide. PMID:25437185

  15. Boryeong Thermal Power Complex, Boryeong-Si, Chungcheongnam-do Province, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, J.D.

    2008-10-15

    From tall skyscrapers and flashing neon signs to Buddhist temples and pagodas, South Korea is a mixture of the new and old Asia. Doing its part to help modernise this country, the Boryeong thermal power complex operates six coal-fired 500-MW units that provide electricity to power South Korea's economic growth. One of the important reasons for this facility's overall success is its operational reliability. An example of this is Boryeong Unit 3's outstanding achievement of 3,000 days of trouble-free operation. The Complex also has a dozen 150 MW combined cycle units burning imported liquefied natural gas for electrical system peaking. 4 photos.

  16. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  17. Mineralogy and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of supergene Mn-oxides in the Dongxiangqiao deposit, Hunan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei

    2016-09-01

    The Dongxiangqiao Mn deposit in Hunan Province is one of numerous supergene Mn-oxide deposits in central South China. This deposit is derived from chemical weathering of Permian Mn-rich shales and limestones. Mn-oxide samples from the Dongxiangqiao deposit consist mainly of pyrolusite, lithiophorite, and cryptomelane, with minor amounts of hollandite and nsutite. Cobalt and Ni are enriched in lithiophorite and cryptomelane-hollandite. Our studies suggest that Co occurs mainly in the structural and adsorption sites of lithiophorite. Cobalt in lithiophorite accounts for ~80 % of the bulk Mn-oxide ores, thus it can be comprehensively utilized when lithiophorite has been separated by a suitable physical beneficiation process. Four cryptomelane-dominated grains from the saprolite zone yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages ranging from 10.3 ± 0.3 to 4.19 ± 0.08 Ma (2σ). This indicates that intense enrichment of supergene Mn-oxides has prevailed at least in the late Miocene and persisted into the Pliocene at Dongxiangqiao. When combined sedimentalogical and thermochronoloical data, our dating results suggest that central South China has a relatively rapid surface uplift rate.

  18. Prevalence of prenatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Jones, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depressed symptoms and associated factors in prenatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in rural South Africa. In a cross-sectional study, 663 HIV-positive prenatal women in 12 community health centres in Mpumalanga province, South Africa, were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient after HIV post-test counselling). Results indicate that overall, 48.7% [95% CI: 44.8, 52.6] of women during the prenatal period reported depressed mood (scores of ≥ 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 10). In multivariate analysis, not being employed, unplanned pregnancy, not having an HIV-positive child, poor antiretroviral therapy adherence, non-condom use at last sex, and intimate partner violence were associated with depressive symptoms. Potential risk factors among HIV-infected prenatal women were identified which could be utilized in interventions. Routine screening for depression may be integrated into prenatal care settings. PMID:27250738

  19. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-08-07

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Théel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Théel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009.

  20. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC). Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15) were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level. PMID:25537937

  1. Panorama from 'Cape Verde'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006).

    The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers.

    The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast.

    This approximately true-color view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  2. Upper mantle anisotropy obtained from SKS analysis in Kerman province, South-Central Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirahmadi, S.; Sadidkhouy, A.; Rezaei Nayeh, A.; Javan Doloei, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, studying anisotropic properties has become a proper procedure to survey rate of tectonics phenomena in upper crust and mantle. Therefore, analyzing specific phases of the wave that an earthquake produces, which is intensely sensitive to both earthquake mechanism and any anisotropy along the path at upper crust, is worthwhile. Researchers consider anisotropy in the upper mantle mainly as a result of olivine crystals which have been aligned by mantle flow. Whenever a shear-wave reaches the anisotropic media; it splits into two directions called fast direction and slow direction. Parameters which describe splitting are the fast polarization direction (φ) and the lag time between fast and slow shear-waves (dt). We applied SKS phase and probe optimized results by using cluster analyzing method, which Teanby et al. (2004) established basis on splitting correction method of Silver and Chan (1991) .Unlike Silver and Chan (1991), Teanby et al. (2004) made the selections of analyzing windows automate. In sum the method is consist of three steps: First φ and δt are calculated for a range of start and end times, and 2D diagram of φ versus δt are plotted. Second stable region, where have tight clusters or have desired compaction are specialized by cluster analysis. Finally optimized clusters are applied and the window which has the least error in evaluation of φ and δt are determined. We select teleseismic data which the S waves which lie inside the so called shear wave window have to be considered as diagnostic for the inference of the anisotropic properties of the medium. This research is based on analyzing shear wave splitting by use of SKS phase to measure anisotropy at upper mantle in Kerman province. Teleseimic data is resulted by four stations in Kerman province of broad band seismic network, assembled by Iranian Seismological Center. We determined shear-wave anisotropy parameters in upper mantle in Kerman province that has been mainly surrounded by the

  3. Marine and terrestrial foods as a source of brain-selective nutrients for early modern humans in the southwestern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, K; Blackhurst, D M; Parkington, J E; Marais, A D

    2016-08-01

    Many attempts have been made to define and reconstruct the most plausible ecological and dietary niche of the earliest members of the human species. While earlier models emphasise big-game hunting in terrestrial, largely savannah environments, more recent scenarios consider the role of marine and aquatic foods as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other brain-selective nutrients. Along the coast of southern Africa, there appears to be an association between the emergence of anatomically modern humans and accumulation of some of the earliest shell middens during the Middle Stone Age (200-40 ka). Fragmentary fossil remains classified as those of anatomically modern humans, along with marine food residues and numerous material cultural indicators of increased social and behavioural complexity have been recovered from coastal sites. In this paper, new information on the nutrient content of marine and terrestrial foods available to early modern humans in the southwestern Cape is presented and compared with existing data on the nutritional value of some wild plant and animal foods in Africa. The results suggest that coastal foraging, particularly the collection of abundant and predictable marine molluscs, would have allowed early modern humans to exploit some of the richest and most accessible sources of protein, micronutrients and longer-chain omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Reliable and accessible sources of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid are considerably more restricted in terrestrial foods. PMID:27457547

  4. Marine and terrestrial foods as a source of brain-selective nutrients for early modern humans in the southwestern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, K; Blackhurst, D M; Parkington, J E; Marais, A D

    2016-08-01

    Many attempts have been made to define and reconstruct the most plausible ecological and dietary niche of the earliest members of the human species. While earlier models emphasise big-game hunting in terrestrial, largely savannah environments, more recent scenarios consider the role of marine and aquatic foods as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other brain-selective nutrients. Along the coast of southern Africa, there appears to be an association between the emergence of anatomically modern humans and accumulation of some of the earliest shell middens during the Middle Stone Age (200-40 ka). Fragmentary fossil remains classified as those of anatomically modern humans, along with marine food residues and numerous material cultural indicators of increased social and behavioural complexity have been recovered from coastal sites. In this paper, new information on the nutrient content of marine and terrestrial foods available to early modern humans in the southwestern Cape is presented and compared with existing data on the nutritional value of some wild plant and animal foods in Africa. The results suggest that coastal foraging, particularly the collection of abundant and predictable marine molluscs, would have allowed early modern humans to exploit some of the richest and most accessible sources of protein, micronutrients and longer-chain omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Reliable and accessible sources of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid are considerably more restricted in terrestrial foods.

  5. 'When you visit a man you should prepare yourself': male community care worker approaches to working with men living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gittings, Lesley

    2016-08-01

    Caring is typically constructed as a feminised practice, resulting in women shouldering the burden of care-related work. Health-seeking behaviours are also constructed as feminine and men have poorer health outcomes globally. Employing men as carers may not only improve the health of the men they assist but also be transformative with regards to gendered constructions of caring. Using semi-structured interviews and observational home visits, this study explored the techniques that community care workers employ when working with male clients. The empirical analysis draws on the perspectives of eight care workers and three of their male clients from the Cape Town area. Interviews reveal how care workers and clients perform and negotiate masculinities as they navigate hegemonic masculine norms that require men to act tough, suppress emotions and deny weakness and sickness. Both parties bump up against ideals of what it means to be a man as they strive to provide care and receive support. Community care workers avoid rupturing client performances of hegemonic masculinities which inhibit confession and support. To do this, they use techniques of indirectly broaching sensitive subjects, acting in a friendly way and being clear about the intention of their work.

  6. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  7. Prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among high school students in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madu, S N

    2001-10-01

    Based on self-reports the prevalence during childhood of psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among 559 high school students in Standards 7, 8, 9, and 10 of three high schools in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa was examined. The questionnaire asked for the demographic information and experiences of psychological, physical, and emotional abuse by their parents or adult caretakers as well as ritualistic abusive experiences before they were 17 years of age plus an estimate of self-perceived abuse during childhood and an overall rating of their own childhood. Analysis showed the self-reported prevalence rates to be as follows: 70.7% psychologically abused (but 14.4% for extreme cases), 27.0% physically abused, 35.3% emotionally abused, and 10.0% ritualistically abused. 13.4% of those who reported themselves as psychologically abused, 20.7% of the physically abused, 19.3% of the emotionally abused, and 35.8% of the ritualistically abused perceive themselves as not abused in any form during childhood. Yet, of the psychologically abused 23.4%, of the physically abused 18.2%, of the emotionally abused 22.0%, and of the ritualistically abused 28.3% rated their childhood as 'very unhappy'. It appears these various forms of abuse are experienced by the participants as widespread, suggesting that a much more serious problem may exist than has been recognised. More research into those forms of child abuse in this Province and elsewhere is needed for a clear appreciation of the problems and the effects of such abuse in children's behavior.

  8. The Epidemiology of Meningitis among Adults in a South African Province with a High HIV Prevalence, 2009-2012

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Erika; Perovic, Olga; von Mollendorf, Claire; von Gottberg, Anne; Iyaloo, Samantha; Quan, Vanessa; Chetty, Verushka; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Ismail, Nazir A.; Nanoo, Ananta; Musekiwa, Alfred; Reddy, Carl; Viljoen, Karien; Cohen, Cheryl; Govender, Nelesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012. We calculated cause-specific incidence rates in the general and HIV-infected populations and used Poisson regression to determine if trends were significant. Results We identified 11,891 (10.7%) incident cases of meningitis from 110,885 CSF specimens. Cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis accounted for 62.3% (n = 7,406), 24.6% (n = 2,928) and 10.1% (n = 1,197) of cases over the four-year period. The overall incidence (cases per 100,000 persons) of cryptococcal meningitis declined by 23% from 24.4 in 2009 to 18.7 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 19% among HIV-infected persons from 178.2 to 144.7 (p <0.001). Tuberculous meningitis decreased by 40% from 11.3 in 2009 to 6.8 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 36% among HIV-infected persons from 54.4 to 34.9 (p <0.001). Pneumococcal meningitis decreased by 41% from 4.2 in 2009 to 2.5 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 38% among HIV-infected persons from 28.0 to 17.5 (p <0.001). Among cases of other bacterial meningitis (248/11,891, 2.1%), Neisseria meningitidis (n = 93), Escherichia coli (n = 72) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 20) were the most common organisms identified. Conclusions In this high HIV-prevalence province, cryptococcal meningitis was the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed meningitis among adults. Over a 4-year period, there was a significant decrease in incidence of cryptococcal, tuberculous and pneumococcal meningitis. This coincided with expansion of the national

  9. Comparative analysis of plant use in peri-urban domestic gardens of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little has been researched or published on the importance of peri-urban domestic gardens as part of a household livelihood strategy in South Africa. Due to lack of comprehensive data on peri-urban domestic gardens, their potential value as luxury green space, provision of food, income and ecosystem services to the fast growing urban population in South Africa is not clearly known. The aim of this study was to document differences and similarities in plant use and diversity in domestic gardens of two peri-urban communities in the Limpopo Province that differ in proximity to an urban area. Methods Data on plant use categories of 62 domestic gardens in the peri-urban areas of the Limpopo Province were collected in Seshego and Lebowakgomo. Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 62 participants were employed between May and October 2012. Results A total of 126 plant species were recorded for both Seshego and Lebowakgomo. Domestic gardens in the more remote areas of Lebowakgomo were characterized by higher percentage of food plants (47 species, 83.8% of the total food plants recorded) and medicinal plants (31 species, 83.7%). Lebowakgomo domestic gardens were also characterized by higher numbers of indigenous plants (76.7%) showing similarities to the natural surrounding vegetation in terms of plant species. On the contrary, domestic gardens of Seshego on the periphery of the city centre were characterized by higher percentage of exotic species (81.8%) and ornamental plants (73%), with food plants playing a supplementary role. Comparison of the two areas demonstrated a remarkable difference in plant use and composition. Conclusions This study revealed that there are differences in utilization of plant resources between households on the edge of an urban centre and those in the more remote areas. Food and medicinal plants play an important role in remote areas; while ornamental plants play an important role in urban

  10. Occurrence of virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from raw cow's milk from two commercial dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Caine, Lesley-Anne; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I; Ndip, Roland N; Green, Ezekiel

    2014-11-18

    Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for the presence of fliCH7, eagR, ial, eagg, lt, and papC genes. In dairy farm A, 100 E. coli were identified based on culture, oxidase and Gram staining, while 88 isolates from dairy farm B were identified in the same manner. Gene detection showed fliCH7 27 (54%) to be the highest gene detected from farm A and lt 2 (4%) to be the lowest. The highest gene detected in dairy farm B was fliCH7 16 (43.2%) and papC 1 (2.7%) was the least. The amplification of pathogenic genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli from cows' raw milk demonstrates that potentially virulent E. coli strains are widely distributed in raw milk and may be a cause of concern for human health.

  11. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXI. Arthropod parasites of vaal ribbok, bontebok and scrub hares in the western Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Sheppey, K; Knight, M M; Beuthin, C L

    1986-12-01

    Vaal ribbok (Pelea capreolus), bontebok (Damaliscus dorcas dorcas) and scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis) were slaughtered in the Bontebok National Park at regular intervals and examined for arthropod parasites. Twelve species of ixodid ticks were recovered; the antelope each harboured 9 species and the hares 11. Rhipicephalus nitens was the most prevalent and most abundant tick. The vaal ribbok also harboured large numbers of Ixodes pilosus and the bontebok fairly large numbers of Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum. The vaal ribbok were infested with 2 lice species and the larvae of 3 oestrid fly species. The bontebok harboured 2 lice species and the larvae of 2 oestrid flies, and the scrub hares were infested with a louse species and a flea species. The host preference and seasonal abundance of some of the parasites were determined. PMID:3796942

  12. Quantitative RT-PCR detection of hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and source water dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2012-11-01

    Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 10(1)–1.9 × 10(5) genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 10(1)–2.1 × 10(3) genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 10(1)–8.6 × 10(1) genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments. PMID:23202829

  13. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts) were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine. PMID:26579202

  14. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts) were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine.

  15. Occurrence of Virulence Genes Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Raw Cow’s Milk from Two Commercial Dairy Farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Lesley-Anne; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Ndip, Roland N.; Green, Ezekiel

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for the presence of fliCH7, eagR, ial, eagg, lt, and papC genes. In dairy farm A, 100 E. coli were identified based on culture, oxidase and Gram staining, while 88 isolates from dairy farm B were identified in the same manner. Gene detection showed fliCH7 27 (54%) to be the highest gene detected from farm A and lt 2 (4%) to be the lowest. The highest gene detected in dairy farm B was fliCH7 16 (43.2%) and papC 1 (2.7%) was the least. The amplification of pathogenic genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli from cows’ raw milk demonstrates that potentially virulent E. coli strains are widely distributed in raw milk and may be a cause of concern for human health. PMID:25411727

  16. Quantitative RT-PCR detection of hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and source water dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2012-11-01

    Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 10(1)–1.9 × 10(5) genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 10(1)–2.1 × 10(3) genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 10(1)–8.6 × 10(1) genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments.

  17. Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) from the gills of a captive onefin electric ray, Narke capensis (Narkidae) at Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, David B; Chisholm, Leslie A; Hansen, Haakon

    2016-09-01

    Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the gills of a captive female onefin electric ray, Narke capensis, collected for exhibition at Two Oceans Aquarium in Cape Town, South Africa. Electrocotyle n. gen. is most similar to the heterocotyline genera Heterocotyle and Potamotrygonocotyle but could not be accommodated easily in either of these groups. The new genus is characterised by a haptor with one central and eight peripheral loculi, four unsclerotised structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor, a single unsclerotised non-sinous ridge on the ventral surface of the haptoral septa, large hamuli with a long handle and reduced guard, a vagina with sclerotised walls, and tetrahedral eggs. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 28S sequences strongly support the separate genus status of Electrocotyle n. gen and thus support our morphological conclusion. The Heterocotylinae is amended to accommodate the new genus, and the new species is fully described and illustrated herein. This is the first record of a monocotylid from the Narkidae. Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen. n. sp. is considered potentially pathogenic given its negative impact on the health of its captive host kept in the quarantine facility at Two Oceans Aquarium. PMID:27249963

  18. Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) from the gills of a captive onefin electric ray, Narke capensis (Narkidae) at Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, David B; Chisholm, Leslie A; Hansen, Haakon

    2016-09-01

    Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the gills of a captive female onefin electric ray, Narke capensis, collected for exhibition at Two Oceans Aquarium in Cape Town, South Africa. Electrocotyle n. gen. is most similar to the heterocotyline genera Heterocotyle and Potamotrygonocotyle but could not be accommodated easily in either of these groups. The new genus is characterised by a haptor with one central and eight peripheral loculi, four unsclerotised structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor, a single unsclerotised non-sinous ridge on the ventral surface of the haptoral septa, large hamuli with a long handle and reduced guard, a vagina with sclerotised walls, and tetrahedral eggs. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 28S sequences strongly support the separate genus status of Electrocotyle n. gen and thus support our morphological conclusion. The Heterocotylinae is amended to accommodate the new genus, and the new species is fully described and illustrated herein. This is the first record of a monocotylid from the Narkidae. Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen. n. sp. is considered potentially pathogenic given its negative impact on the health of its captive host kept in the quarantine facility at Two Oceans Aquarium.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in landfill leachate in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Odendaal, James P; Olujimi, Olanrewaju O

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the concentrations of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners as well as BB 153 in leachate samples collected from three landfill sites within the city of Cape Town was conducted. A liquid-liquid extraction technique was employed for the isolation of all the target compounds from the leachate samples. Extracts obtained were further subjected to multi-layer column chromatography employing different forms of silica gel. The prepared samples were analysed using a high capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-μECD). The overall mean concentrations of the total PBDEs, including BDE 209 ranged between 5.65 and 2,240, 0.28-20.5 and 1.66-1,170 ng/l for Bellville, Coastal Park, and Vissershok landfill sites, respectively. The mean concentrations of BB 153, which were generally low in most of the samples analysed, were 70.4, 7.14 and 8.16 ng/l for Bellville, Coastal Park and Vissershok sites, respectively. The influence of precipitation on the characteristics and quantity of leachate produced from the landfill sites investigated was most pronounced during the August/September sampling regime. Generally, the trend observed in this study clearly indicated a wide variation in the levels of these contaminants in all the landfill sites studied from one sampling period to the other. However, the principal component analysis revealed that the release of these contaminants might be associated with two or three possible sources. This study further confirmed the relevance of landfill leachate as an important source of PBDE contamination of the environment, especially the groundwater and surface water sources.

  20. Pregnancy Intent Among a Sample of Recently Diagnosed HIV-Positive Women and Men Practicing Unprotected Sex in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Theresa M.; Cooper, Diane; Bai, Dan; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Hoffman, Susie; Myer, Landon; Moodley, Jennifer; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Constant, Debbie; Jennings, Karen; Zweigenthal, Virginia; Stein, Zena A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for HIV-positive women and men often neglect their fertility desires. We examined factors associated with pregnancy intent among recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 106) and men (N = 91) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in an SRH intervention conducted in public sector HIV care clinics in Cape Town. Methods: Participants were recruited when receiving their first CD4+ results at the clinic. All reported unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Logistic regression identified predictors of pregnancy intent for the total sample and by gender. Results: About three fifths of men and one fifth of women reported intent to conceive in the next 6 months. In the full-sample multiple regression analysis, men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.62)] and those whose main partner shared intent to conceive (AOR = 3.80) had significantly higher odds of pregnancy intent; those with more years of education (AOR = 0.81) and more biological children (AOR = 0.62) had lower odds of intending pregnancy. In gender-specific analyses, partner sharing pregnancy intent was positively associated with intent among both men (AOR = 3.53) and women (AOR = 13.24). Among men, odds were lower among those having more biological children (AOR = 0.71) and those unemployed (AOR = 0.30). Among women, relying on hormonal contraception was negatively associated with intent (AOR = 0.08), and main partner knowing her HIV status (AOR = 5.80) was positively associated with intent to conceive. Conclusions: Findings underscore the importance of providing integrated SRH services, and we discuss implications for clinical practice and care. PMID:25436819

  1. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg

    2015-03-01

    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  2. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mbhatsani, Vanessa; Shilote, Kulani O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0%) of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0%) of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%]) of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme. PMID:27542291

  3. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea.

  4. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  5. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y.; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin

    2016-01-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

  7. Two new species and one newly recorded species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Hainan Province, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-qiu; Sha, Zhong-li

    2013-01-01

    A total of 5 species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda) are identified from Hainan Province, South China Sea. In those, one species, Kamaka excavata Ariyama, 2007, is recorded for the first time in Chinese waters. Two new species, Kamaka corophina sp. n. and Kamaka foliacea sp. n., are described. A key to the Chinese species is provided. They were collected from littoral zone, mud flat in seaweed of mangrove side, brackish water and seawater, sifted out with sieve.

  8. Cryptic diversity and morphological convergence in threatened species of fossorial skinks in the genus Scelotes (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Western Cape Coast of South Africa: implications for species boundaries, digit reduction and conservation.

    PubMed

    Heideman, Neil J L; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Sites, Jack W; Hendricks, Martin G J; Daniels, Savel R

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the evolutionary relationships among populations of two threatened Red Data Book fossorial skinks, Scelotes gronovii and Scelotes kasneri, along the Western Cape Coast of South Africa. The genus Scelotes shows considerable variation in limb and digit reduction. We sampled four localities purported to contain S. gronovii and seven of S. kasneri, encompassing all of each species' limited distribution. Each of these species lack forelimbs, and differ by the number of digits on the hind limbs, among other morphological characters; S. gronovii bears a single digit and S. kasneri bears two digits on the hind limbs. Sequence data obtained from three mtDNA (16S ribosomal RNA, cytochrome b, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 unit; 2035 bp ttl.) and two nuclear (dynein axonemal heavy chain 3 and the natural killer tumor recognition; 1848 bp ttl.) gene regions were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among the two focal species and several other co-distributed species (Scelotes bipes, Scelotes montispectus, and Scelotes sexlineatus). Phylogenetic results (Bayesian and parsimony) revealed that several populations previously considered S. kasneri actually belong to other species, and others are paraphyletic with respect to one another. Additionally, populations of S. gronovii were also found to be paraphyletic, with populations south of the Berg River supported as sister to S. bipes, and populations north of the Berg River sister the remaining sampled species. Our results require a redefinition of S. sexlineatus to encompass populations morphologically convergent with S. kasneri and restrict the ranges of the already threatened S. kasneri and S. gronovii even further. The paraphyly of S. gronovii and the placement of each clade as sister to clades of species bearing two digits on the hind limbs suggests that digit loss has occurred at least twice in this group. PMID:21907812

  9. Lagrangian circulation study near Cape Henry, Virginia. [Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the circulation near Cape Henry, Virginia, was made using surface and seabed drifters and radar tracked surface buoys coupled to subsurface drag plates. Drifter releases were conducted on a line normal to the beach just south of Cape Henry. Surface drifter recoveries were few; wind effects were strongly noted. Seabed drifter recoveries all exhibited onshore motion into Chesapeake Bay. Strong winds also affected seabed recoveries, tending to move them farther before recovery. Buoy trajectories in the vicinity of Cape Henry appeared to be of an irrotational nature, showing a clockwise rotary tide motion. Nearest the cape, the buoy motion elongated to almost parallel depth contours around the cape. Buoy motion under the action of strong winds showed that currents to at least the depth of the drag plates substantially are altered from those of low wind conditions near the Bay mouth. Only partial evidence could be found to support the presence of a clockwise nontidal eddy at Virginia Beach, south of Cape Henry.

  10. Co-endemicity of loiasis and onchocerciasis in the South West Province of Cameroon: implications for mass treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Esum, M; Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Enyong, P

    2001-01-01

    Encephalopathy has been reported in Cameroon in individuals heavily infected with Loa loa microfilariae who were treated with ivermectin against onchocerciasis. Prior to the initiation of the community-directed treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin (CDTI) in the South West Province of Cameroon, an epidemiological survey of loiasis was conducted (in July 1998-July 1999) to ascertain the intensity of the disease. Thick blood films were made from 1228 blood samples collected during the day. Rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis was conducted among 614 individuals in the Upper Bayang area. Sixteen percent of the population examined were carriers of L. loa microfilariae. More males (20.1%) than females (12.4%) were infected. The community mean microfilaraemias of the different villages were low (< 1100 mf/mL). However, 1 person was found harbouring 174,000 mf/mL of blood and 1% of the study population (12) had microfilaraemia > 8100 mf/mL. Results of the REA of onchocerciasis show that 31.3% of the population investigated in the Upper Bayang area have this disease. These findings show that loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic in the area, but the risk of developing encephalopathy after taking ivermectin is small. PMID:11816443

  11. Restudy of conodont biostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary section in Zhongzhai, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Shi, G. R.; He, Wei-Hong; Yuan, Dong-Xun; Yue, Ming-Liang; Yang, Ting-Lu

    2014-02-01

    New conodont samples have been systematically collected at high stratigraphic resolution from the upper part of the Longtan Formation through to the lower part of the Yelang Formation at the Zhongzhai section, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China, in an effort to verify the first local occurrence of Hindeodus parvus in relation to the Permian-Triassic boundary at this section. The resampled conodont fauna from the Permian-Triassic boundary interval comprises five identified species and two undetermined species in Hindeodus and Clarkina. Most importantly, the first local occurrence of Hindeodus parvus is found for the first time from the bottom of Bed 28a, 18 cm lower than the previously reported first local occurrence of this species at this section. Considering the previously accepted PTB at the Zhongzhai section, well calibrated by conodont biostratigraphy, geochronology and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, this lower (earlier) occurrence of H. parvus suggests that this critical species could occur below the Permian-Triassic boundary. As such, this paper provides evidence that (1) the first local occurrences of H. parvus are diachronous in different sections with respect to the PTB defined by the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of this species at its GSSP section in Meishan, China and that (2) the lower stratigraphic range of H. parvus should now be extended to latest Permian.

  12. PCBs and DDTs in light-vented bulbuls from Guangdong Province, South China: levels, geographical pattern and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Thirty-two light-vented bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) were collected from six sampling sites in Guangdong Province, South China to investigate the geographical variation on the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the pectoral muscle of light-vented bulbul ranged from 140 to 73,000 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 12 to 4600 ng/g lw, respectively. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in birds from e-waste site compared to other sampling sites (mean, 18,000 vs 290 ng/g lw, p<0.0001), implying that PCBs mainly came from e-waste recycling activities. No significant differences for DDT levels were observed among the sampling sites (p=0.092). Differences in PCB homologue profiles among the sampling sites were found and can be probably ascribed to different local contamination sources. p,p'-DDE (>80%) was the most abundant component of DDTs in birds. Compositional pattern of DDTs suggested that historical residue was the main source of DDT. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations had significant positive correlations with PCB concentrations, indicating that elevated PCB levels may have adverse effects on light-vented bulbuls.

  13. Metropolitan urban hotspots of chronic sleep deprivation: evidence from a community health survey in Gyeongbuk Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Um, Sun-Bi; Um, Jung-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The geographic concentration of chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) remains largely unexplored. This paper examined the community-specific spatial pattern of the prevalence of CSD and the presence of clustered spatial hotspots among the Korean elderly population in Gyeongbuk Province, South Korea, revealing CSD hotspots and underscoring the importance of geography-focused prevention strategies. The study analysed cross-sectional data collected from 9847 elderly individuals aged 60 years and older who participated in a Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 2012. To assess the level of spatial dependence, an exploratory spatial data analysis was conducted using Global Moran's I statistic and the local indicator of spatial association. The results revealed marked geographic variations in CSD prevalence ranging from 33.4 to 73.4%, with higher values in the metropolitan urban areas and lower in the rural areas. Almost half of the community residents [both men (44.1%) and women (53.5%)] slept 6 h or less per 24 h. The average CSD prevalence (53.6% men and 65.1% women) in the hotspots was about 13.0% higher than that in other areas (42.6% for men and 51.1% for women). To our knowledge, this is the first study to generate a CSD hotspot map that includes data on sleep deprivation across metropolitan district levels. This study demonstrates that not only is sleep deprivation distributed differentially across communities but these differences may be explained by urbanisation. PMID:26618323

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and anthelmintic resistance on small-scale farms in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tsotetsi, Ana Mbokeleng; Njiro, Stephen; Katsande, Tendai Charles; Moyo, Gugulethu; Baloyi, Faculty; Mpofu, Jaison

    2013-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths, to detect the presence of anthelmintic resistance in livestock from small-scale farms and to determine the level of helminthosis awareness among small-scale farmers in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Blood and faecal samples were collected from cattle (n = 314), sheep (n = 256) and goats (n = 311). Faecal egg counts and cultures were done, helminth genera identified and packed cell volume was assessed to detect anaemia. A faecal egg count reduction test was used to determine anthelmintic resistance against albendazole (7.5 mg/kg), levamisole (5 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) on five small ruminant farms. A high prevalence of both nematodes and trematodes was observed; however, only 1 % of cattle had high nematode egg counts compared to goats (30 %) and sheep (32 %). Only 5 % of the animals were anaemic. Haemonchus and Calicophoron were the most dominant helminth genera in the studied ruminants. Anthelmintic resistance was detected against the three tested drugs on all the screened farms, except against albendazole and levamisole in sheep from Hammanskraal and Nigel, respectively. About 88 % of interviewed farmers were aware of veterinary helminthosis, 67 % treated against helminths and 83 % provided their livestock with nutritional supplements. This study showed that a high prevalence of helminthosis and anthelmintic resistance does occur in the study area, thus relevant strategic interventions are recommended.

  15. An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785.3 ± 13.7, 43.9 ± 1.0 and 427.0 ± 13.1, respectively. On the other hand, the average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the control area were found to be 17.0.1 ± 0.4, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 496.8 ± 15.2, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters calculated from these activity concentrations were higher than recommended safe limits. In particular, calculated average values for the external hazard (Hex) and the internal hazard (Hin) from the mine tailings were found to be 2.4 and 4.5. Both these values were higher than unity, posing a significant health risk to the population in the area. PMID:26797624

  16. Deltamethrin impregnated bednets for the control of urban malaria in Kumba Town, South-West Province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Moyou-Somo, R; Lehman, L G; Awahmukalah, S; Ayuk Enyong, P

    1995-10-01

    This study was conducted from January to December 1992 in Kumba, a town situated in the rain forest region of the South-West Province of Cameroon, and consisted of a longitudinal survey including parasitological and clinical studies. Forty households were chosen for the study and randomly divided into two groups, each with approximately 240 inhabitants aged < or = 15 years. One group received deltamethrin impregnated bednets and the other group had no nets (control). For the months of April, June and August (rainy season), deltamethrin impregnated bednets did not reduce malaria prevalence significantly, but the overall malaria prevalence for all months of the study was significantly reduced (chi 2 MH = 9.17, P = 0.002). Enlarged spleen rates (chi 2 MH = 6.73, P = 0.009) and spleen sizes (P = 0.0002) were also significantly reduced by the nets. However, the reduction in the geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was not significant. Even though some of these reductions were statistically significant, they were relatively low in a global context compared with previous work done mainly in rural areas. In an urban environment, parents and children usually stay up late, and probably receive many mosquito bites before going to sleep. PMID:7563259

  17. An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg(-1) for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785.3 ± 13.7, 43.9 ± 1.0 and 427.0 ± 13.1, respectively. On the other hand, the average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg(-1) for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the control area were found to be 17.0.1 ± 0.4, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 496.8 ± 15.2, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters calculated from these activity concentrations were higher than recommended safe limits. In particular, calculated average values for the external hazard (Hex) and the internal hazard (Hin) from the mine tailings were found to be 2.4 and 4.5. Both these values were higher than unity, posing a significant health risk to the population in the area. PMID:26797624

  18. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi-Moghaddam, Sayyed Gholam Reza; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rezvani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran). The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6%) males and 155 (47.4%) females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%), 48 (14.7%), and 45 (13.8%) cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4%) of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2%) patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years) and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years) cases (P=0.16). The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE) occurring in young people. PMID:27365554

  19. Thermoactinospora rubra gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-Min; Tang, Shu-Kun; Sjøholm, Carsten; Song, Zhao-Qi; Yu, Tian-Tian; Yang, Ling-Ling; Ming, Hong; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Two novel Gram-positive, spore-forming, thermophilic actinomycetes, designated as strain YIM 77501(T) and YIM 77570, were isolated from a sandy soil sample collected at Tengchong National Volcanic Geological Park, Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that the two isolates fell within the family Streptosporangiaceae. The strains formed extensively branched substrate and aerial mycelia which carried masses of long, straight or irregular spore chains composed of warty ornamented spores. Cell walls of the two strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose were detected as whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(4)) and MK-9(H(6)). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipids and phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and 10-methyl C(17:0). The DNA G+C content was 74-76 mol%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis, these strains represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Streptosporangiaceae, for which the name Thermoactinospora rubra gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of T. rubra is YIM 77501(T) (=DSM 45614(T) = CCTCC AA 2011014(T)).

  20. Toxic heavy metals in sediments, seawater, and molluscs in the eastern and western coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Jingping; Jiang, Zhijian; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and distribution were studied in sediments, seawater, and molluscs, and the possible heavy metal sources in the coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China were discussed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr in sediments in eastern coastal waters were generally higher than those in the western coastal waters. However, concentrations of most metals in seawater and molluscs in western waters were higher than in the eastern waters, which was tightly related to the local economics and urbanization development, especially, the different industrial structure in two regions. The main heavy metal sources were attributed to the industrial and agricultural effluent, domestic sewage, and even waste gas. Furthermore, heavy metal contamination assessment indicated that high contamination levels of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred in sediments in local areas, especially in the bays and harbors. The metal accumulation levels by molluscs ranked following the order of Cd > Cu > As > Zn > Pb > Cr, and the ecological risks introduced by heavy metals in different areas were in the order of Zhanjiang > Yangmao > Shantou > Shanhui. PMID:27126438

  1. Spotted fever group rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia monacensis isolated from ticks in South Jeolla province, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Choi, Yeon-Joo; Shin, Sun-Hye; Choi, Min-Kyung; Song, Hyeon-Je; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Richards, Allen L; Park, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Won-Jong

    2013-07-01

    Rickettsia monacensis, a spotted fever group rickettsia, was isolated from Ixodes nipponensis ticks collected from live-captured small mammals in South Jeolla province, Korea in 2006. Homogenates of tick tissues were inoculated into L929 and Vero cell monolayers using shell vial assays. After several passages, Giemsa staining revealed rickettsia-like organisms in the inoculated Vero cells, but not the L929 cells. Sequencing analysis revealed that the ompA-small part (25-614 bp region), ompA-large part (2849-4455 bp region), nearly full-length ompB (58-4889 bp region) and gltA (196-1236 bp region) of the isolates had similarities of 100%, 99.8%, 99.3% and 99.5%, respectively, to those of R. monacensis. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was grouped into the cluster in the same way as R. monacensis in the trees of all genes examined. These results strongly suggest that the isolate is closely related to R. monacensis. As far as is known, this is the first report of isolation of R. monacensis from ticks in Korea.

  2. Spirosoma pulveris sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from a dust sample collected at Chungnam province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun Sun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Cha, Seho; Jheong, Weonhwa; Seo, Taegun; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj

    2015-11-01

    Strain JSH 5-14(T), a Gram-negative, non-motile, and curved rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from a dust sample collected at Nonsan, Chungnam province, South Korea, and was characterized to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JSH 5-14(T) revealed that it belongs to the genus Spirosoma, family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. The highest degree of sequence similarities of strain JSH 5-14(T) were found with Spirosoma liguale DSM 74(T) (97.8%) and Spirosoma endophyticum EX 36(T) (96.2%). The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (composed of C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c) and C16:1 ω5c. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine, and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic data, we propose the strain JSH 5-14(T) (=KCTC 42550(T) =JCM 30688(T) =KEMB 9004-165(T)) should be classified as a type strain of a novel species, for which the name Spirosoma pulveris sp. nov., is proposed. PMID:26502958

  3. An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-18

    Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg(-1) for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785.3 ± 13.7, 43.9 ± 1.0 and 427.0 ± 13.1, respectively. On the other hand, the average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg(-1) for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the control area were found to be 17.0.1 ± 0.4, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 496.8 ± 15.2, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters calculated from these activity concentrations were higher than recommended safe limits. In particular, calculated average values for the external hazard (Hex) and the internal hazard (Hin) from the mine tailings were found to be 2.4 and 4.5. Both these values were higher than unity, posing a significant health risk to the population in the area.

  4. Factors influencing weight control practices amongst the adolescent girls in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netshikweta, Lizzy M.; Tshitangano, Grace T.; Nemathaga, Hilda L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of overweight is increasing amongst adolescents in many countries around the world. Healthy and unhealthy weight control practices are common amongst overweight and non-overweight adolescents. Aim The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing weight control practices amongst adolescent girls. Setting The study was conducted at selected secondary schools of Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select adolescents who are practicing weight control. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 participants. Data were analysed according to Tesch’s open-coding method. Results This study revealed that adolescent girls are influenced by a variety of factors to control their weights. These included individual factors, such as body image dissatisfaction; family factors, caused by parental criticism about adolescent weight; and environmental factors, which contain peer group endorsement of dieting. Conclusion Adolescents are exposed to many unhealthy weight control practices, as a way of controlling excess weight. So it is of importance for healthcare providers to make them aware of healthy practices. PMID:27380855

  5. Analysis of farmland fragmentation in China Modernization Demonstration Zone since "Reform and Openness": a case study of South Jiangsu Province.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Xia, Nan; Jiang, Penghui; Zhong, Lishan; Pian, Yuzhe; Duan, Yuewei; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2015-01-01

    Farmland is a fundamental resource for human survival and development. However, farmland fragmentation has become a serious problem, causing ecological damage and low crop production efficiency in many parts of the world. Based on remote sensing and socioeconomic data, we used landscape pattern indices, Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA), and Markov chain models to analyze the temporal and spatial pattern changes in farmland in South Jiangsu Province (the first "Modernization Demonstration Zone" in China) during 1985-2010. Our results demonstrated that the total farmland area decreased by ca. 24% and the farmland pattern became fragmented during 1985-2008: core farmland decreased and islet farmland increased. Additionally, the farmland patch density (PD) increased and three other landscape indices (NLSI, MESH, and COHESION) showed significant decreases. Although the fragmentation rate slowed after 2008, the convergence rate to a stationary farmland distribution became faster, and transitions tended to be less deterministic after 2000. Economic and population growth and policy changes positively contributed to this phenomenon. Therefore, the primary task of farmland protection should be to preserve contiguous farmlands and reduce scattered patches in order to promote farmland connectivity.

  6. Toxic heavy metals in sediments, seawater, and molluscs in the eastern and western coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Jingping; Jiang, Zhijian; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and distribution were studied in sediments, seawater, and molluscs, and the possible heavy metal sources in the coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China were discussed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr in sediments in eastern coastal waters were generally higher than those in the western coastal waters. However, concentrations of most metals in seawater and molluscs in western waters were higher than in the eastern waters, which was tightly related to the local economics and urbanization development, especially, the different industrial structure in two regions. The main heavy metal sources were attributed to the industrial and agricultural effluent, domestic sewage, and even waste gas. Furthermore, heavy metal contamination assessment indicated that high contamination levels of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred in sediments in local areas, especially in the bays and harbors. The metal accumulation levels by molluscs ranked following the order of Cd > Cu > As > Zn > Pb > Cr, and the ecological risks introduced by heavy metals in different areas were in the order of Zhanjiang > Yangmao > Shantou > Shanhui.

  7. Indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels in the province of Bari, South Italy, and estimated health risk.

    PubMed

    Lovreglio, Piero; Carrus, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio; Drago, Ignazio; Persechino, Benedetta; Soleo, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    Indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels were assessed to characterize pollution in dwellings in the city and the Province of Bari, also taking into account seasonal variability, and to investigate health effects of aldehyde exposure on the general population. In 2007, passive environmental monitoring was performed, for 24 hours, in the kitchen of 59 dwellings, as well as outdoors for 27 of them. A questionnaire probing personal and home characteristics was administered to all 182 subjects habitually resident in the homes. During the period January-June 2008, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels were monitored monthly in 20 of the investigated dwellings inhabited only by non smokers. Indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher (16.0 +/- 8.0 and 10.7 +/- 8.8 microg m(-3)) than outdoor concentrations (4.4 +/- 1.7 and 3.4 +/- 2.0 microg m(-3)), showing a correlation between indoor levels of the two aldehydes (r = 0.41; p = 0.001). In dwellings inhabited only by non smokers, formaldehyde concentrations were higher in the presence of furniture bought new or restored less than one year before (p = 0.03). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels were significantly higher in winter months than in spring-summer months (F = 2.86, p = 0.02; F = 5.39, p < 0.001) and seemed to be influenced by the time that kitchen windows were kept open. As regards the effects on human health, a low prevalence of allergic disease and no association between any irritant or allergic complaints and indoor levels of the two aldehydes was observed. In conclusion, the results showed low indoor and outdoor concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, not generally posing a risk for human health.

  8. A Cross Sectional Analysis of Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamkuemah, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission. Asymptomatic STIs are common in MSM and remain undiagnosed and untreated where syndromic management is advocated. Untreated STIs could be contributing to high HIV rates. This study investigated symptomatic (SSTI) and asymptomatic STIs (ASTIs) in MSM in Cape Town. Methods MSM, 18 years and above, were enrolled into this study. Participants underwent clinical and microbiological screening for STIs. Urine, oro-pharyngeal and anal swab specimens were collected for STI analysis, and blood for HIV and syphilis screening. A psychosocial and sexual questionnaire was completed. STI specimens were analysed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. Results 200 MSM were recruited with a median age of 32 years (IQR 26–39.5). Their median number of sex partners within the last year was 5 (IQR 2–20). 155/200 (78%) reported only male sex partners while 45/200 (23%) reported sex with men and women. 77/200 (39%) reported transactional sex. At enrolment, 88/200 (44%) were HIV positive and 8/112 (7%) initially HIV-negative participants seroconverted during the study. Overall, 47/200 (24%) screened positive for either NG or CT. There were 32 MSM (16%) infected with NG and 7 (3.5%) of these men had NG infections at two anatomical sites (39 NG positive results in total). Likewise, there were 23 MSM (12%) infected with CT and all these men had infections at only one site. Eight of the 47 men (17%) were infected with both NG and CT. ASTI was more common than SSTI irrespective of anatomical site, 38 /200 (19%) versus 9/200 (5%) respectively (p<0.001). The anus was most commonly affected, followed by the oro-pharynx and then urethra. Asymptomatic infection was associated with transgender identity (OR 4.09 CI 1.60–5.62), ≥5 male sex partners in the last year (OR 2.50 CI 1.16–5.62) and transactional sex (OR 2.33 CI 1.13–4.79) but

  9. Discourse, Differentiation, and Agency: Muslim Community Schools in Postapartheid Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fataar, Aslam

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the establishment of schools set up by Muslim communities in Cape Town, South Africa, after 1994. Twelve schools have been set up across the city: four primary schools, three high schools, four schools that have grades 1-12, and one school that has grades 1-3 and 8-10. They are registered with the Western Cape Education…

  10. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Cape San Blas, FL. (a) A south-north line drawn from the Econfina River Light to the...

  11. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Cape San Blas, FL. (a) A south-north line drawn from the Econfina River Light to the...

  12. Creating and developing a non-profit community-outreach healthcare clinic in the developing world: lessons learnt in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Favara, D M

    2014-05-01

    Chesed Children's Clinic is a non-profit, non-governmental, volunteer-run primary care paediatric-outreach clinic servicing the severely under-resourced informal settlement of Mzamomhle within South Africa's impoverished Eastern Cape Province. Founded in May 2011 by a group of junior medical professionals and volunteers, the clinic has been successfully operating a weekend clinic on alternate Sundays since September 2011. This paper discusses 10 points of essential consideration for individuals and organisations intent on pursuing similar projects.

  13. Features, boundaries and connecting mechanisms of the Mauritanian Province exemplified by oceanic fish larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, H. Ch.; Zelck, C.

    1997-08-01

    The Mauritanian Province, which comprises the area from the NW-African shelf to about 20°W and from Cape Timiris to Cape Verde, is redefined on the basis of fish larvae distribution patterns, direct and indirect current measurements, CTD-O2 hydrography and SST-remote sensing. Its northern and western boundaries coincide with, the permanent, although not stationary, Cape-Verde-Frontal-Zone separating North- and South-Atlantic-Central-Water masses. Its southern boundary is characterized by tropical temperatures throughout the year. The oceanic Mauritanian Province is a myctophid dominated system that lacks genuine endemic species. Many deep-mesopelagic species of Myctophidae as well as other families are absent or rare in its centre, whilst some northern oceanic Myctophidae acquire a pseudoceanic character and prosper. On the other hand, tropical species of both oceanic and neritic origin co-occur alongside such cold-temperate Myctophidae. Distribution patterns of fish larvae were partly directly dependent on currents intruding into the province and partly indirectly on the impact of the circulation system on the local hydrography. Local hydrography could affect the survival capability of either larvae or adults. While an oxygen deficit southeast of the frontal zone is a limiting factor for subsurface-epipelagic and mesopelagic species, southwestward Ekman-drift and the related temperature deficit hampers the intrusion or survival of tropical fish larvae with neustonic or shallow vertical distribution. Southern, deep living or eurybathic species with lower temperature preferences are transported into or even beyond the province by northward currents. A transport model describing the input/output mechanisms of the province and defining its limiting features is presented and discussed in respect to recent literature.

  14. Reasons for the low bacteriological coverage of tuberculosis reported in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mngomezulu, N; Cameron, D; Olorunju, S; Luthuli, T; Dunbar, R; Naidoo, P

    2015-06-21

    Contexte : Hôpitaux publics et centres de santé primaire de la province de Mpumalanga en Afrique du Sud.Objectif : Déterminer si le défaut de respecter les directives de diagnostic de la tuberculose (TB) (c'est-à-dire soumettre des crachats à la microscopie de frottis) a contribué à la faible couverture bactériologique rapportée en 2008.Méthodes : Nous avons revu les dossiers cliniques des nouveaux cas de TB pulmonaire dans 30 de 118 structures sélectionnées au hasard qui ont atteint la couverture bacteriologique visée de 80% et 30 de 87 structures qui ne l'ont pas atteinte. Les données des cas suivis dans les hôpitaux et les dispensaires ont été résumées sur des formulaires, saisies en informatique et comparées aux données du registre électronique de la TB (ETR). Nous avons évalué l'âge, le sexe, l'infection au virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et le type de structure en tant que facteurs de confusion de l'enregistrement des frottis.Résultats : L'âge, le sexe et l'infection VIH n'ont pas influencé l'enregistrement des frottis. Dans les hôpitaux, 61,8% des cas de TB pulmonaire ont eu des résultats de frottis de crachats dans leurs dossiers cliniques comparés à 93,6% dans les dispensaires (P < 0,001). Sur les 711 cas (30,3%) qui n'avaient pas de résultats de frottis dans le ETR, 342 (48,1%) avaient des résultats de frottis dans leurs dossiers cliniques.Conclusion : La faible couverture bactériologique constatée est due à la fois à des pratiques cliniques médiocres (surtout dans les hôpitaux) et à une maintenance insuffisante des dossiers. Ces deux problèmes doivent être résolus afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients et la gestion du programme.

  15. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  16. Seismic stratigraphy or Cape Sorell Basin, Tasmania

    SciTech Connect

    Bellow, T.L.

    1990-05-01

    Because large new exploration areas have become scarce, the Cape Sorell basin has become an increasingly attractive frontier area. Cape Sorell basin, located along the western passive continental margin of Tasmania formed as a result of the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland 95{plus minus}5 Ma. An extensional fault system trending west-northwest with dip-slip movement down to the south-southwest forms the northern boundary and a second fault system trending north-northwest with oblique slip down to the south-southwest creates the basin. Second order extensional faults within the basin have created wrench-type flower structures, which are potential migration pathways for hydrocarbons. Nine distinct depositional sequences identified within the Cape Sorell basin record the evolution of this passive continental margin. Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene sequences were deposited as the rifting ceased and clastic progradation over the rift terrain began. Relative lowering of sea level occurred during the Paleocene, resulting in extensive channeling of the Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene sequences. A subsequent rise in relative sea level resulted in canyon-fill deposition during the early Paleocene to early Eocene. During the Eocene, sedimentation sufficiently increased to produce a downlapping sediment progradation characterized by deltaic depositional environment. Although interrupted several times by changes in relative sea level and shifting sediment sources, deltaic deposition continued until the late Oligocene. As the rate of clastic sedimentation slowed, carbonate shelf deposition began and has typified the basin since late the Oligocene.

  17. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-09-01

    Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus.

  18. Human parasitoses of the Malili area, South Sulawesi (Celebes) province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S W; Carney, W P; Van Peenen, P F; Russell, D; Saroso, J S

    1978-06-01

    A biomedical survey was conducted in 9 villages in the Malili area of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Blood specimens were examined for malaria and microfilariae; stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. Malaria parasitemias were rare; Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 10 and P. vivax in 11 of 985 blood smears. Malayan filariasis was endemic to all villages surveyed. The overall prevalence of detectable microfilaremias was 15%, varying from 34% in Kawata to 1% in Nuha. Microfilarial densities, expressed as MfD50 averaged 8.0 and varied from 1.1 in Timampu to 16.0 in Karabbe. Intestinal parasites were common. Although Schistosoma japonicum was not found, 97% of the examined had one or more intestinal parasites as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (74%), Trichuris trichiura (65%), hookworm (62%), Entamoeba coli (38%), Endolimax nana (10%), Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (4%), Entamoeba hartmanni (3%), Giardia lamblia (2%) Chilomastix mesnili (1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (1%). Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Hymenolepis nana eggs were detected once each and heterophyid-like eggs were detected twice. PMID:364674

  19. Modeling the Complexities of Water, Hygiene, and Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Jonathan E.; Smith, James A.; Learmonth, Gerard P.; Netshandama, Vhonani O.; Dillingham, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long studied the causes and prevention strategies of poor household water quality and early childhood diarrhea using intervention-control trials. Although the results of such trails can lead to useful information, they do not capture the complexity of this natural/engineered/social system. We report on the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to study such a system in Limpopo, South Africa. The study is based on four years of field data collection to accurately capture essential elements of the communities and their water contamination chain. An extensive analysis of those elements explored behaviors including water collection and treatment frequency as well as biofilm buildup in water storage containers, source water quality, and water container types. Results indicate that interventions must be optimally implemented in order to see significant reductions in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Household boiling frequency, source water quality, water container type and the biofilm layer contribution were deemed to have significant impacts on ECD. Furthermore, concurrently implemented highly effective interventions were shown to reduce diarrhea rates to very low levels even when other, less important practices were sub-optimal. This technique can be used by a variety of stakeholders when designing interventions to reduce ECD incidences in similar settings. PMID:23186073

  20. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-09-01

    Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus. PMID:25119364

  1. CAPE Outlook. Number 379

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for American Private Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Outlook is CAPE's monthly newsletter. Each issue is packed with information relating to private education: new legislation and regulations, the most recent research, court rulings, national trends, federal initiatives, private school news briefs, and much more. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Report Examines Charter School/Catholic…

  2. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ < 0.01). (2) Cd content in the rice produced in Y county ranges from 0.01 to 2.77 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.46 mg kg(-1). The rate of rice with Cd exceeding the allowable limit specified by the Chinese Grain Security Standards reaches 59.6%; that with Cd exceeding 1 mg kg(-1), called as "Cd rice," reaches 11.1%. (3) Cd content in the rice of Y county is positively significantly correlated with HCl-Cd (r = 0.177, ρ < 0.05) but not significantly with T-Cd in the soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  3. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain

    PubMed Central

    Madrona, Dalmiro Prados; Herrera, María Dolores Fernández; Jiménez, Dalmiro Prados; Giraldo, Sonsoles Gómez; Campos, Rita Robles

    2014-01-01

    Background Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. Materials and methods We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. Results With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. Discussion In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia. PMID

  4. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn’s Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chivese, Tawanda; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; Basson, Abigail Raffner

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits. Methods A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location) was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as ‘complicated’ or ‘uncomplicated’, using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0–5, 6–10, and 11–18 years. Results One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3) disease (RRR = 3.63; 95%CI, 1.32–9.98, p = 0.012) and ileal (L1) disease (RRR = 3.54; 95%CI, 1.06–11.83, p = 0.040) compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0–5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95%CI, 1.16–391.55, p = 0.040). No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as ‘complicated’ vs ‘uncomplicated’, was observed. Conclusion Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3) and ileal (L1) disease at time of diagnosis in

  5. Thermochronological Constraints on Detrital Sediments of the Late Permian Karoo Basin: Insights Into Uplift History of the Cape Fold Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Arosio, R.; Schmieder, M.; Jourdan, F.; Wilson, A.; Flint, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Karoo Basin and its equivalents cover most of southern Africa, with correlative basins found also in South America. The vast geographic expanse of these basins indicates a common history of deposition along the active Panthalassan margin of southern Gondwana. The early Paleozoic history of the Karoo Basin is marked by early glacio-marine to later shallow marine-deltaic sedimentation with a final shift to a continental setting by the late Permian. In South Africa, this transition to a fluvial environment is defined by the deposition of the Beaufort Group, a ca. 5 km thick sequence of meandering river channel sandstones and muddy overbank deposits. We have identified an 800 m thick sequence of the lowermost Beaufort Group where magnetostratigraphy and U-Pb dating of zircon in volcanic tuffs establish a depositional age of 264-268 Ma. Detrital zircon from sandstone samples were dated by U-Pb SHRIMP, revealing age populations typical of the cratonic/metamorphic provinces of the Kalahari craton (Kaapval and Namaqua-Natal provinces) as well as late Paleozoic magmatic zircons probably from southern South America. Populations of detrital muscovite dated using the 40Ar/39Ar step-heating technique are dominated by a tight cluster of ca. 272 Ma cooling ages, indicating rapid exhumation of the tectonically active Cape Fold belt and short lag times (4-8 Ma) for detritus deposited into the Karoo foreland basin, similar to rates observed for modern sediments of Himalayan-draining rivers. Ongoing work will reveal whether the Cape Belt is the source for the sediments of the Karoo foreland basin.

  6. 14. VIEW OF SOUTH SERVICE DECK AT GRADE LEVEL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF SOUTH SERVICE DECK AT GRADE LEVEL WITH COMPRESSED GAS TANK; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28417, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH ROOM SHOWING ALIGNMENT GUIDANCE EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH ROOM SHOWING ALIGNMENT GUIDANCE EQUIPMENT MOUNT; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28403, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. 11. Fog signal house, view northnorthwest, east and south sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Fog signal house, view north-northwest, east and south sides - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF ORBITER PAYLOAD DATA PANELS, SOUTH HALF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ORBITER PAYLOAD DATA PANELS, SOUTH HALF OF ROOM 10A - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in northwestern Guizhou Province, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jinchuan; Tang, Xuan; Yang, Chao; Tang, Shuai

    2016-07-01

    The northwestern Guizhou in the Yangtze Craton of south China has a tremendous potential of shale gas resource. In this paper, we present results from major and trace elements, total organic carbon, mineralogical composition analysis and petrophysical parameters to characterise shale weathering features. Further, the differences of black shale between underground and outcrops have also been presented to examine the changes of black shale after weathering. Our results show that the trace elements of shale have varying degrees of loss in the weathering leaching process, both in Niutitang shale and Longmaxi shale, the loss of B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba is obvious, but the element migration quantity in the former is greater than in the latter. Decomposition of minerals such as pyrite, feldspar and calcite result in the leaching of Na, Ca, Mg and Fe. The loss rate of total organic carbon (TOC) in black shales ranges from 18% to 70% with an average of 43%; moreover, the loss of organic carbon in samples with high TOC content is larger than in those samples with low TOC content. Results following the testing of porosity and permeability show that porosity increases significantly after weathering but permeability changes little. Furthermore, the increment of porosity is greater in the Niutitang shale (with more sulphide minerals) than in the Longmaxi shale, suggesting that the oxidation of sulphide minerals may have led to the formation of an acidic environment, causing the other minerals in the black shale to weather more quickly, thus resulting in increased porosity. The content of clay minerals in the core samples is slightly lesser than the outcrop samples, but the TOC content in the core samples is greater and has a larger specific surface area. This suggest that the TOC content played a decisive role on the specific surface area of shale. In addition, changes in the black shale caused by the weathering process mainly depend on the mineral composition and the TOC content

  11. Research on remote sensing assessment technology for porphyry copper in south of Arequipa province of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rihong; Li, Zhizhong; Cheng, Xiufa; Zhao, Yuling

    2014-05-01

    The study area is located in the middle section of Andean metallogenic zone. Excellent mineralization geological conditions make it the most principal Porphyry Copper Deposits (PCDs) distribution area in southern Peru and there are several super-large PCDs for hundreds of kilometers in every direction. The regional metallogenic regularity of this area is controlled by the NNW fault parallel to the trench on the west of the South American continent. Small porphyry rocks are very common in this area (circul